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Sample records for spontaneous object recognition

  1. Sleep deprivation impairs spontaneous object-place but not novel-object recognition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hiroko; Yamada, Kazuo; Pavlides, Constantine; Ichitani, Yukio

    2014-09-19

    Effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on one-trial recognition memory were investigated in rats using either a spontaneous novel-object or object-place recognition test. Rats were allowed to explore a field in which two identical objects were presented. After a delay period, they were placed again in the same field in which either: (1) one of the two objects was replaced by another object (novel-object recognition); or (2) one of the sample objects was moved to a different place (object-place recognition), and their exploration behavior to these objects was analyzed. Four hours SD immediately after the sample phase (early SD group) disrupted object-place recognition but not novel-object recognition, while SD 4-8h after the sample phase (delayed SD group) did not affect either paradigm. The results suggest that sleep selectively promotes the consolidation of hippocampal dependent memory, and that this effect is limited to within 4h after learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spontaneous object recognition: a promising approach to the comparative study of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eBlaser

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous recognition of a novel object is a popular measure of exploratory behavior, perception and recognition memory in rodent models. Because of its relative simplicity and speed of testing, the variety of stimuli that can be used, and its ecological validity across species, it is also an attractive task for comparative research. To date, variants of this test have been used with vertebrate and invertebrate species, but the methods have seldom been sufficiently standardized to allow cross-species comparison. Here, we review the methods necessary for the study of novel object recognition in mammalian and non-mammalian models, as well as the results of these experiments. Critical to the use of this test is an understanding of the organism’s initial response to a novel object, the modulation of exploration by context, and species differences in object perception and exploratory behaviors. We argue that with appropriate consideration of species differences in perception, object affordances, and natural exploratory behaviors, the spontaneous object recognition test can be a valid and versatile tool for translational research with non-mammalian models.

  3. The effect of the inter-phase delay interval in the spontaneous object recognition test for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Thygesen, Kristin Sjølie; Nielsen, Thomas Rune

    2007-01-01

    and the familiar object was interpreted as recognition of the familiar object. We scored the exploration times both manually and automatically, and compared the methods. A strong discrimination between novel and familiar objects after a 10-min inter-phase delay interval and no discrimination after 24h were found...

  4. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  5. ALGORITHM OF OBJECT RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Alexey Alexeevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The second important problem to be resolved to the algorithm and its software, that comprises an automatic design of a complex closed circuit television system, represents object recognition, by virtue of which an image is transmitted by the video camera. Since imaging of almost any object is dependent on many factors, including its orientation in respect of the camera, lighting conditions, parameters of the registering system, static and dynamic parameters of the object itself, it is quite difficult to formalize the image and represent it in the form of a certain mathematical model. Therefore, methods of computer-aided visualization depend substantially on the problems to be solved. They can be rarely generalized. The majority of these methods are non-linear; therefore, there is a need to increase the computing power and complexity of algorithms to be able to process the image. This paper covers the research of visual object recognition and implementation of the algorithm in the view of the software application that operates in the real-time mode

  6. Object Recognition by Contour Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir Peter Boots; Ir. Dick van Schenk Brill

    2002-01-01

    This article deals with automatic object recognition. The goal is that in a certain grey-level image, possibly containing many objects, a certain object can be recognized and localized, based upon its shape. The assumption is that this shape has no special characteristics on which a dedicated

  7. Selective Search for Object Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijlings, J.R.; van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    This paper addresses the problem of generating possible object locations for use in object recognition. We introduce selective search which combines the strength of both an exhaustive search and segmentation. Like segmentation, we use the image structure to guide our sampling process. Like

  8. The effects of age and divided attention on spontaneous recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin A; Jacoby, Larry L; Thomas, Ruthann C; Balota, David A

    2011-05-01

    Studies of recognition typically involve tests in which the participant's memory for a stimulus is directly questioned. There are occasions however, in which memory occurs more spontaneously (e.g., an acquaintance seeming familiar out of context). Spontaneous recognition was investigated in a novel paradigm involving study of pictures and words followed by recognition judgments on stimuli with an old or new word superimposed over an old or new picture. Participants were instructed to make their recognition decision on either the picture or word and to ignore the distracting stimulus. Spontaneous recognition was measured as the influence of old vs. new distracters on target recognition. Across two experiments, older adults and younger adults placed under divided-attention showed a greater tendency to spontaneously recognize old distracters as compared to full-attention younger adults. The occurrence of spontaneous recognition is discussed in relation to ability to constrain retrieval to goal-relevant information.

  9. Object recognition memory: neurobiological mechanisms of encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Tests of object recognition memory, or the judgment of the prior occurrence of an object, have made substantial contributions to our understanding of the nature and neurobiological underpinnings of mammalian memory. Only in recent years, however, have researchers begun to elucidate the specific brain areas and neural processes involved in object recognition memory. The present review considers some of this recent research, with an emphasis on studies addressing the neural bases of perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory processes. We first briefly discuss operational definitions of object recognition and the common behavioural tests used to measure it in non-human primates and rodents. We then consider research from the non-human primate and rat literature examining the anatomical basis of object recognition memory in the delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) and spontaneous object recognition (SOR) tasks, respectively. The results of these studies overwhelmingly favor the view that perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical region for object recognition memory. We then discuss the involvement of PRh in the different stages--encoding, consolidation, and retrieval--of object recognition memory. Specifically, recent work in rats has indicated that neural activity in PRh contributes to object memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes. Finally, we consider the pharmacological, cellular, and molecular factors that might play a part in PRh-mediated object recognition memory. Recent studies in rodents have begun to indicate the remarkable complexity of the neural substrates underlying this seemingly simple aspect of declarative memory.

  10. Object feature extraction and recognition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Min; Xiang Rujian; Wan Yongxing

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of objects, especially flying objects, are analyzed, which include characteristics of spectrum, image and motion. Feature extraction is also achieved. To improve the speed of object recognition, a feature database is used to simplify the data in the source database. The feature vs. object relationship maps are stored in the feature database. An object recognition model based on the feature database is presented, and the way to achieve object recognition is also explained

  11. Object Recognition and Segmentation of Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wåsjø, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Object recognition and segmentation of objects is a complex task. Our goal is to develop an algorithm that can recognize and segment wound objects in images. We attempt to solve the object recognition and segmentation problem by using a hypothesis optimization framework. This method optimizes the object segmentation by assigning objective function values to the object segmentation hypotheses. The optimization algorithm is a genetic algorithm. The objective function relies on textural and shap...

  12. Visual object recognition and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

  13. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  14. Recognition memory impairments caused by false recognition of novel objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Lok-Kin; Ryan, Jennifer D; Cowell, Rosemary A; Barense, Morgan D

    2013-11-01

    A fundamental assumption underlying most current theories of amnesia is that memory impairments arise because previously studied information either is lost rapidly or is made inaccessible (i.e., the old information appears to be new). Recent studies in rodents have challenged this view, suggesting instead that under conditions of high interference, recognition memory impairments following medial temporal lobe damage arise because novel information appears as though it has been previously seen. Here, we developed a new object recognition memory paradigm that distinguished whether object recognition memory impairments were driven by previously viewed objects being treated as if they were novel or by novel objects falsely recognized as though they were previously seen. In this indirect, eyetracking-based passive viewing task, older adults at risk for mild cognitive impairment showed false recognition to high-interference novel items (with a significant degree of feature overlap with previously studied items) but normal novelty responses to low-interference novel items (with a lower degree of feature overlap). The indirect nature of the task minimized the effects of response bias and other memory-based decision processes, suggesting that these factors cannot solely account for false recognition. These findings support the counterintuitive notion that recognition memory impairments in this memory-impaired population are not characterized by forgetting but rather are driven by the failure to differentiate perceptually similar objects, leading to the false recognition of novel objects as having been seen before. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Color descriptors for object category recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects. A common approach is to compute image descriptors first and then to apply machine learning to achieve category recognition from annotated examples. As a consequence, the choice of image descriptors is of great

  16. Object recognition by implicit invariants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Kautsky, J.; Šroubek, Filip

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 4673 (2007), s. 856-863 ISSN 0302-9743. [Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns. Vienna, 27.08.2007-29.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Invariants * implicit invariants * moments * orthogonal polynomials * nonlinear object deformation Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http://staff.utia.cas.cz/sroubekf/papers/CAIP_07.pdf

  17. Object recognition based on reflectance and geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Shree K.; Bolle, Ruud M.

    1993-06-01

    In the past, recognition systems have relied solely on geometric properties of objects. This paper discusses the simultaneous use of geometric as well as reflectance properties for object recognition. Neighboring points on a smoothly curved surface have similar surface orientations and illumination conditions. Hence, their brightness values can be used to compute the ratio of their reflectance coefficients. Based on this observation, we develop an algorithm that estimates a reflectance ratio for each region in an image with respect to its background. The algorithm is computationally efficient as it computes ratios for all image regions in just two raster scans. The region reflectance ratio represents a physical property of a region that is invariant to the illumination conditions. The reflectance ratio invariant is used to recognize three-dimensional objects from a single brightness image. Object models are automatically acquired and represented using a hash table. Recognition and pose estimation algorithms are presented that use the reflectance ratios of scene regions as well as their geometric properties to index the hash table. The result is a hypothesis for the existence of an object in the image. This hypothesis is verified using the ratios and locations of other regions in the scene. The proposed approach to recognition is very effective for objects with printed characters and pictures. We conclude with experimental results on the invariance of reflectance ratios and their application to object recognition.

  18. Real object recognition using moment invariants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Representations of objects using two-dimensional images that are taken from different angles of view are the main features leading us to our objective. After efficient feature extraction, the main focus of this study, the recognition performance of classifiers in conjunction with moment–based feature sets, is introduced.

  19. Real object recognition using moment invariants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    associative memory was used to create a system, recognizing objects regardless of changes in rotation or scale by Wechsler & Zimmerman (1998) 3-D object simulations were ..... Hu M 1962 Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. IRE Trans. Inf. Theor. IT-8: 179–187. Khotanzad A, Lu J-H 1990 Classification of ...

  20. Active object recognition using vocabulary trees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available presents an efficient feature-based active vision system for the recognition and verification of objects that are occluded, appear in cluttered scenes and may be visually similar to other objects present. This system is designed using a selector...

  1. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... object recognition. RACE assumes two operations: shape configuration and selection. Shape configuration refers to the binding of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts (operation 1). The output of the shape configuration operation...

  2. Neural pathways in tactile object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibert, E; Kraut, M; Kremen, S; Hart, J

    1999-04-22

    To define further the brain regions involved in tactile object recognition using functional MRI (fMRI) techniques. The neural substrates involved in tactile object recognition (TOR) have not been elucidated. Studies of nonhuman primates and humans suggest that basic motor and somatosensory mechanisms are involved at a peripheral level; however, the mechanisms of higher order object recognition have not been determined. The authors investigated 11 normal volunteers utilizing fMRI techniques in an attempt to determine the neural pathways involved in TOR. Each individual performed a behavioral paradigm with the activated condition involving identification of objects by touch, with identification of rough/smooth as the control. Data suggest that in a majority of individuals, TOR involves the calcarine and extrastriatal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus-polar region. TOR may utilize visual systems to access an internal object representation. The parietal cortices and inferior frontal regions may be involved in a concomitant lexical strategy of naming the object being examined. Frontal polar activation likely serves a role in visuospatial working memory or in recognizing unusual representations of objects. Overall, these findings suggest that TOR could involve a network of cortical regions subserving somatosensory, motor, visual, and, at times, lexical processing. The primary finding suggests that in this normal study population, the visual cortices may be involved in the topographic spatial processing of TOR.

  3. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...

  4. Leveraging Cognitive Context for Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    established, links have an associated strength value which affects how much activation is passed along the link from chunk j to chunk i. Link strengths ... strength is updated iteratively whenever the model thinks about chunks i context suggests that an apple is most likely to be seen next (since it primes...1998. 1, 4 [3] M. E. Auckland , K. R. Cave, and N. Donnelly. Non- target objects can influence perceptual processes dur- ing object recognition

  5. Selective attention meets spontaneous recognition memory: Evidence for effects at retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Katherine C; Miller, Jeremy K; Lloyd, Marianne E

    2017-03-01

    Previous research on the effects of Divided Attention on recognition memory have shown consistent impairments during encoding but more variable effects at retrieval. The present study explored whether effects of Selective Attention at retrieval and subsequent testing were parallel to those of Divided Attention. Participants studied a list of pictures and then had a recognition memory test that included both full attention and selective attention (the to be responded to object was overlaid atop a blue outlined object) trials. All participants then completed a second recognition memory test. The results of 2 experiments suggest that subsequent tests consistently show impacts of the status of the ignored stimulus, and that having an initial test changes performance on a later test. The results are discussed in relation to effect of attention on memory more generally as well as spontaneous recognition memory research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Utterance independent bimodal emotion recognition in spontaneous communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianhua; Pan, Shifeng; Yang, Minghao; Li, Ya; Mu, Kaihui; Che, Jianfeng

    2011-12-01

    Emotion expressions sometimes are mixed with the utterance expression in spontaneous face-to-face communication, which makes difficulties for emotion recognition. This article introduces the methods of reducing the utterance influences in visual parameters for the audio-visual-based emotion recognition. The audio and visual channels are first combined under a Multistream Hidden Markov Model (MHMM). Then, the utterance reduction is finished by finding the residual between the real visual parameters and the outputs of the utterance related visual parameters. This article introduces the Fused Hidden Markov Model Inversion method which is trained in the neutral expressed audio-visual corpus to solve the problem. To reduce the computing complexity the inversion model is further simplified to a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) mapping. Compared with traditional bimodal emotion recognition methods (e.g., SVM, CART, Boosting), the utterance reduction method can give better results of emotion recognition. The experiments also show the effectiveness of our emotion recognition system when it was used in a live environment.

  7. Object Recognition In HADOOP Using HIPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Agrawal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The amount of images and videos being shared by the user is exponentially increasing but applications that perform video analytics is severely lacking or work on limited set of data. It is also challenging to perform analytics with less time complexity. Object recognition is the primary step in video analytics. We implement a robust method to extract objects from the data which is in unstructured format and cannot be processed directly by relational databases. In this study we present our report with results after performance evaluation and compare them with results of MATLAB.

  8. Object recognition with hierarchical discriminant saliency networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhyoung eHan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of integrating attention and object recognition are investigated. While attention is frequently modeled as pre-processor for recognition, we investigate the hypothesis that attention is an intrinsic component of recognition and vice-versa. This hypothesis is tested with a recognitionmodel, the hierarchical discriminant saliency network (HDSN, whose layers are top-down saliency detectors, tuned for a visual class according to the principles of discriminant saliency. The HDSN has two possible implementations. In a biologically plausible implementation, all layers comply with the standard neurophysiological model of visual cortex, with sub-layers of simple and complex units that implement a combination of filtering, divisive normalization, pooling, and non-linearities. In a neuralnetwork implementation, all layers are convolutional and implement acombination of filtering, rectification, and pooling. The rectificationis performed with a parametric extension of the now popular rectified linearunits (ReLUs, whose parameters can be tuned for the detection of targetobject classes. This enables a number of functional enhancementsover neural network models that lack a connection to saliency, including optimal feature denoising mechanisms for recognition, modulation ofsaliency responses by the discriminant power of the underlying features,and the ability to detect both feature presence and absence.In either implementation, each layer has a precise statistical interpretation, and all parameters are tuned by statistical learning. Each saliency detection layer learns more discriminant saliency templates than its predecessors and higher layers have larger pooling fields. This enables the HDSN to simultaneously achieve high selectivity totarget object classes and invariance. The resulting performance demonstrates benefits for all the functional enhancements of the HDSN.

  9. Object and event recognition for stroke rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Ahmed; Cunningham, Andrew S.; Pridmore, Tony P.

    2003-06-01

    Stroke is a major cause of disability and health care expenditure around the world. Existing stroke rehabilitation methods can be effective but are costly and need to be improved. Even modest improvements in the effectiveness of rehabilitation techniques could produce large benefits in terms of quality of life. The work reported here is part of an ongoing effort to integrate virtual reality and machine vision technologies to produce innovative stroke rehabilitation methods. We describe a combined object recognition and event detection system that provides real time feedback to stroke patients performing everyday kitchen tasks necessary for independent living, e.g. making a cup of coffee. The image plane position of each object, including the patient"s hand, is monitored using histogram-based recognition methods. The relative positions of hand and objects are then reported to a task monitor that compares the patient"s actions against a model of the target task. A prototype system has been constructed and is currently undergoing technical and clinical evaluation.

  10. Multiscale Object Recognition and Feature Extraction Using Wavelet Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaggi, Seema; Karl, W. C; Krim, Hamid; Willsky, Alan S

    1995-01-01

    In this work we present a novel method of object recognition and feature generation based on multiscale object descriptions obtained using wavelet networks in combination with morphological filtering...

  11. Hippocampal histone acetylation regulates object recognition and the estradiol-induced enhancement of object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zaorui; Fan, Lu; Fortress, Ashley M; Boulware, Marissa I; Frick, Karyn M

    2012-02-15

    Histone acetylation has recently been implicated in learning and memory processes, yet necessity of histone acetylation for such processes has not been demonstrated using pharmacological inhibitors of histone acetyltransferases (HATs). As such, the present study tested whether garcinol, a potent HAT inhibitor in vitro, could impair hippocampal memory consolidation and block the memory-enhancing effects of the modulatory hormone 17β-estradiol E2. We first showed that bilateral infusion of garcinol (0.1, 1, or 10 μg/side) into the dorsal hippocampus (DH) immediately after training impaired object recognition memory consolidation in ovariectomized female mice. A behaviorally effective dose of garcinol (10 μg/side) also significantly decreased DH HAT activity. We next examined whether DH infusion of a behaviorally subeffective dose of garcinol (1 ng/side) could block the effects of DH E2 infusion on object recognition and epigenetic processes. Immediately after training, ovariectomized female mice received bilateral DH infusions of vehicle, E2 (5 μg/side), garcinol (1 ng/side), or E2 plus garcinol. Forty-eight hours later, garcinol blocked the memory-enhancing effects of E2. Garcinol also reversed the E2-induced increase in DH histone H3 acetylation, HAT activity, and levels of the de novo methyltransferase DNMT3B, as well as the E2-induced decrease in levels of the memory repressor protein histone deacetylase 2. Collectively, these findings suggest that histone acetylation is critical for object recognition memory consolidation and the beneficial effects of E2 on object recognition. Importantly, this work demonstrates that the role of histone acetylation in memory processes can be studied using a HAT inhibitor.

  12. Very deep recurrent convolutional neural network for object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahimi, Sourour; Ben Aoun, Najib; Ben Amar, Chokri

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, Computer vision has become a very active field. This field includes methods for processing, analyzing, and understanding images. The most challenging problems in computer vision are image classification and object recognition. This paper presents a new approach for object recognition task. This approach exploits the success of the Very Deep Convolutional Neural Network for object recognition. In fact, it improves the convolutional layers by adding recurrent connections. This proposed approach was evaluated on two object recognition benchmarks: Pascal VOC 2007 and CIFAR-10. The experimental results prove the efficiency of our method in comparison with the state of the art methods.

  13. Model attraction in medical image object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascini, Guido; Zingaretti, Primo

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents as new approach to image recognition based on a general attraction principle. A cognitive recognition is governed by a 'focus on attention' process that concentrates on the visual data subset of task- relevant type only. Our model-based approach combines it with another process, focus on attraction, which concentrates on the transformations of visual data having relevance for the matching. The recognition process is characterized by an intentional evolution of the visual data. This chain of image transformations is viewed as driven by an attraction field that attempts to reduce the distance between the image-point and the model-point in the feature space. The field sources are determined during a learning phase, by supplying the system with a training set. The paper describes a medical interpretation case in the feature space, concerning human skin lesions. The samples of the training set, supplied by the dermatologists, allow the system to learn models of lesions in terms of features such as hue factor, asymmetry factor, and asperity factor. The comparison of the visual data with the model derives the trend of image transformations, allowing a better definition of the given image and its classification. The algorithms are implemented in C language on a PC equipped with Matrox Image Series IM-1280 acquisition and processing boards. The work is now in progress.

  14. Object recognition and localization: the role of tactile sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Achint; Kirchner, Frank

    2014-02-18

    Tactile sensors, because of their intrinsic insensitivity to lighting conditions and water turbidity, provide promising opportunities for augmenting the capabilities of vision sensors in applications involving object recognition and localization. This paper presents two approaches for haptic object recognition and localization for ground and underwater environments. The first approach called Batch Ransac and Iterative Closest Point augmented Particle Filter (BRICPPF) is based on an innovative combination of particle filters, Iterative-Closest-Point algorithm, and a feature-based Random Sampling and Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm for database matching. It can handle a large database of 3D-objects of complex shapes and performs a complete six-degree-of-freedom localization of static objects. The algorithms are validated by experimentation in ground and underwater environments using real hardware. To our knowledge this is the first instance of haptic object recognition and localization in underwater environments. The second approach is biologically inspired, and provides a close integration between exploration and recognition. An edge following exploration strategy is developed that receives feedback from the current state of recognition. A recognition by parts approach is developed which uses the BRICPPF for object sub-part recognition. Object exploration is either directed to explore a part until it is successfully recognized, or is directed towards new parts to endorse the current recognition belief. This approach is validated by simulation experiments.

  15. Object Recognition and Localization: The Role of Tactile Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achint Aggarwal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tactile sensors, because of their intrinsic insensitivity to lighting conditions and water turbidity, provide promising opportunities for augmenting the capabilities of vision sensors in applications involving object recognition and localization. This paper presents two approaches for haptic object recognition and localization for ground and underwater environments. The first approach called Batch Ransac and Iterative Closest Point augmented Particle Filter (BRICPPF is based on an innovative combination of particle filters, Iterative-Closest-Point algorithm, and a feature-based Random Sampling and Consensus (RANSAC algorithm for database matching. It can handle a large database of 3D-objects of complex shapes and performs a complete six-degree-of-freedom localization of static objects. The algorithms are validated by experimentation in ground and underwater environments using real hardware. To our knowledge this is the first instance of haptic object recognition and localization in underwater environments. The second approach is biologically inspired, and provides a close integration between exploration and recognition. An edge following exploration strategy is developed that receives feedback from the current state of recognition. A recognition by parts approach is developed which uses the BRICPPF for object sub-part recognition. Object exploration is either directed to explore a part until it is successfully recognized, or is directed towards new parts to endorse the current recognition belief. This approach is validated by simulation experiments.

  16. Optical Recognition And Tracking Of Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1988-01-01

    Separate objects moving independently tracked simultaneously. System uses coherent optical techniques to obtain correlation between each object and reference image. Moving objects monitored by charge-coupled-device television camera, output fed to liquid-crystal television (LCTV) display. Acting as spatial light modulator, LCTV impresses images of moving objects on collimated laser beam. Beam spatially low-pass filtered to remove high-spatial-frequency television grid pattern.

  17. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  18. Movement recognition technology as a method of assessing spontaneous general movements in high risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMarcroft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of neurological and motor impairments such as cerebral palsy. The risks are highest in those born at the lowest gestations. Early identification of those most at risk is challenging meaning that a critical window of opportunity to improve outcomes through therapy-based interventions may be missed. Clinically, the assessment of spontaneous general movements is an important tool which can be used for the prediction of movement impairments in high risk infants.Movement recognition aims to capture and analyze relevant limb movements through computerized approaches focusing on continuous, objective, and quantitative assessment. Different methods of recording and analyzing infant movements have recently been explored in high risk infants. These range from camera-based solutions to body-worn miniaturized movement sensors used to record continuous time-series data that represent the dynamics of limb movements. Various machine learning methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the recorded movement data. This analysis has focused on the detection and classification of atypical spontaneous general movements. This paper aims to identify recent translational studies using movement recognition technology as a method of assessing movement in high risk infants. The application of this technology within pediatric practice represents a growing area of inter-disciplinary collaboration which may lead to a greater understanding of the development of the nervous system in infants at high risk of motor impairment.

  19. Reader error, object recognition, and visual search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundel, Harold L.

    2004-05-01

    Small abnormalities such as hairline fractures, lung nodules and breast tumors are missed by competent radiologists with sufficient frequency to make them a matter of concern to the medical community; not only because they lead to litigation but also because they delay patient care. It is very easy to attribute misses to incompetence or inattention. To do so may be placing an unjustified stigma on the radiologists involved and may allow other radiologists to continue a false optimism that it can never happen to them. This review presents some of the fundamentals of visual system function that are relevant to understanding the search for and the recognition of small targets embedded in complicated but meaningful backgrounds like chests and mammograms. It presents a model for visual search that postulates a pre-attentive global analysis of the retinal image followed by foveal checking fixations and eventually discovery scanning. The model will be used to differentiate errors of search, recognition and decision making. The implications for computer aided diagnosis and for functional workstation design are discussed.

  20. Possibility of object recognition using Altera's model based design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tickle, A J; Harvey, P K; Smith, J S; Wu, F

    2009-01-01

    Object recognition is an image processing task of finding a given object in a selected image or video sequence. Object recognition can be divided into two areas: one of these is decision-theoretic and deals with patterns described by quantitative descriptors, for example such as length, area, shape and texture. With this Graphical User Interface Circuitry (GUIC) methodology employed here being relatively new for object recognition systems, the aim of this work is to identify if the developed circuitry can detect certain shapes or strings within the target image. A much smaller reference image feeds the preset data for identification, tests are conducted for both binary and greyscale and the additional mathematical morphology to highlight the area within the target image with the object(s) are located is also presented. This then provides proof that basic recognition methods are valid and would allow the progression to developing decision-theoretical and learning based approaches using GUICs for use in multidisciplinary tasks.

  1. Object recognition - Convergence of vision, audition, and touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja

    of object information across audition and touch or across all thee senses. Further, even though object recognition within different senses is to some degree redundant, the different senses differ with respect to their intrinsic efficiency in extracting types of information (Lederman & Klatzky, 2009...... magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The following research questions were addressed: 1. Where in the human brain does object recognition converge across vision, audition, and touch? 2. How is audio-haptic object...... recognition implemented in the human brain? 3. Are there intrinsic asymmetries in the contributions of vision and touch to visuo-haptic object recognition? In all three studies, the same set of familiar, manipulable objects were used as stimuli as they are commonly captured by all three senses. Study 1...

  2. Involvement of hippocampal NMDA receptors in encoding and consolidation, but not retrieval, processes of spontaneous object location memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazuo; Arai, Misaki; Suenaga, Toshiko; Ichitani, Yukio

    2017-07-28

    The hippocampus is thought to be involved in object location recognition memory, yet the contribution of hippocampal NMDA receptors to the memory processes, such as encoding, retention and retrieval, is unknown. First, we confirmed that hippocampal infusion of a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, AP5 (2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, 20-40nmol), impaired performance of spontaneous object location recognition test but not that of novel object recognition test in Wistar rats. Next, the effects of hippocampal AP5 treatment on each process of object location recognition memory were examined with three different injection times using a 120min delay-interposed test: 15min before the sample phase (Time I), immediately after the sample phase (Time II), and 15min before the test phase (Time III). The blockade of hippocampal NMDA receptors before and immediately after the sample phase, but not before the test phase, markedly impaired performance of object location recognition test, suggesting that hippocampal NMDA receptors play an important role in encoding and consolidation/retention, but not retrieval, of spontaneous object location memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Automatic Recognition of Object Names in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, C.; Lesteven, S.; Derriere, S.; Oberto, A.

    2008-08-01

    SIMBAD is a database of astronomical objects that provides (among other things) their bibliographic references in a large number of journals. Currently, these references have to be entered manually by librarians who read each paper. To cope with the increasing number of papers, CDS develops a tool to assist the librarians in their work, taking advantage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects, which keeps track of object acronyms and of their origin. The program searches for object names directly in PDF documents by comparing the words with all the formats stored in the Dictionary of Nomenclature. It also searches for variable star names based on constellation names and for a large list of usual names such as Aldebaran or the Crab. Object names found in the documents often correspond to several astronomical objects. The system retrieves all possible matches, displays them with their object type given by SIMBAD, and lets the librarian make the final choice. The bibliographic reference can then be automatically added to the object identifiers in the database. Besides, the systematic usage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature, which is updated manually, permitted to automatically check it and to detect errors and inconsistencies. Last but not least, the program collects some additional information such as the position of the object names in the document (in the title, subtitle, abstract, table, figure caption...) and their number of occurrences. In the future, this will permit to calculate the 'weight' of an object in a reference and to provide SIMBAD users with an important new information, which will help them to find the most relevant papers in the object reference list.

  4. A method of object recognition for single pixel imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boxuan; Zhang, Wenwen

    2018-01-01

    Computational ghost imaging(CGI), utilizing a single-pixel detector, has been extensively used in many fields. However, in order to achieve a high-quality reconstructed image, a large number of iterations are needed, which limits the flexibility of using CGI in practical situations, especially in the field of object recognition. In this paper, we purpose a method utilizing the feature matching to identify the number objects. In the given system, approximately 90% of accuracy of recognition rates can be achieved, which provides a new idea for the application of single pixel imaging in the field of object recognition

  5. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  6. Crossmodal object recognition in rats with and without multimodal object pre-exposure: no effect of hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, James M; Jacklin, Derek L; Winters, Boyer D

    2012-10-01

    The neural mechanisms and brain circuitry involved in the formation, storage, and utilization of multisensory object representations are poorly understood. We have recently introduced a crossmodal object recognition (CMOR) task that enables the study of such questions in rats. Our previous research has indicated that the perirhinal and posterior parietal cortices functionally interact to mediate spontaneous (tactile-to-visual) CMOR performance in rats; however, it remains to be seen whether other brain regions, particularly those receiving polymodal sensory inputs, contribute to this cognitive function. In the current study, we assessed the potential contribution of one such polymodal region, the hippocampus (HPC), to crossmodal object recognition memory. Rats with bilateral excitotoxic HPC lesions were tested in two versions of crossmodal object recognition: (1) the original CMOR task, which requires rats to compare between a stored tactile object representation and visually-presented objects to discriminate the novel and familiar stimuli; and (2) a novel 'multimodal pre-exposure' version of the CMOR task (PE/CMOR), in which simultaneous exploration of the tactile and visual sensory features of an object 24 h prior to the sample phase enhances CMOR performance across longer retention delays. Hippocampus-lesioned rats performed normally on both crossmodal object recognition tasks, but were impaired on a radial arm maze test of spatial memory, demonstrating the functional effectiveness of the lesions. These results strongly suggest that the HPC, despite its polymodal anatomical connections, is not critically involved in tactile-to-visual crossmodal object recognition memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recognition of Planar Objects Using Multiresolution Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşın Ertüzün

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available By using affine-invariant shape descriptors, it is possible to recognize an unknown planar object from an image taken from an arbitrary view when standard view images of candidate objects exist in a database. In a previous study, an affine-invariant function calculated from the wavelet coefficients of the object boundary has been proposed. In this work, the invariant is constructed from the multiwavelet and (multiscaling function coefficients of the boundary. Multiwavelets are known to have superior performance compared to scalar wavelets in many areas of signal processing due to their simultaneous orthogonality, symmetry, and short support properties. Going from scalar wavelets to multiwavelets is challenging due to the increased dimensionality of multiwavelets. This increased dimensionality is exploited to construct invariants with better performance when the multiwavelet “detail” coefficients are available. However, with (multiscaling function coefficients, which are more stable in the presence of noise, scalar wavelets cannot be defeated.

  8. Recognition of Planar Objects Using Multiresolution Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güney Nazlı

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available By using affine-invariant shape descriptors, it is possible to recognize an unknown planar object from an image taken from an arbitrary view when standard view images of candidate objects exist in a database. In a previous study, an affine-invariant function calculated from the wavelet coefficients of the object boundary has been proposed. In this work, the invariant is constructed from the multiwavelet and (multiscaling function coefficients of the boundary. Multiwavelets are known to have superior performance compared to scalar wavelets in many areas of signal processing due to their simultaneous orthogonality, symmetry, and short support properties. Going from scalar wavelets to multiwavelets is challenging due to the increased dimensionality of multiwavelets. This increased dimensionality is exploited to construct invariants with better performance when the multiwavelet "detail" coefficients are available. However, with (multiscaling function coefficients, which are more stable in the presence of noise, scalar wavelets cannot be defeated.

  9. A Taxonomy of 3D Occluded Objects Recognition Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanizadeh, Shiva; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Saba, Tanzila; Al-ghamdi, Jarallah Saleh

    2016-03-01

    The overall performances of object recognition techniques under different condition (e.g., occlusion, viewpoint, and illumination) have been improved significantly in recent years. New applications and hardware are shifted towards digital photography, and digital media. This faces an increase in Internet usage requiring object recognition for certain applications; particularly occulded objects. However occlusion is still an issue unhandled, interlacing the relations between extracted feature points through image, research is going on to develop efficient techniques and easy to use algorithms that would help users to source images; this need to overcome problems and issues regarding occlusion. The aim of this research is to review recognition occluded objects algorithms and figure out their pros and cons to solve the occlusion problem features, which are extracted from occluded object to distinguish objects from other co-existing objects by determining the new techniques, which could differentiate the occluded fragment and sections inside an image.

  10. Multisensor Tracking and Recognition of Animate and Inanimate Objects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aggarwal, J

    1998-01-01

    We report on final results arising from this project, in which we proposed to establish a new paradigm for multisensor tracking and recognition of animate and inanimate objects, fusing a model-based...

  11. PROBABILISTIC APPROACH TO OBJECT DETECTION AND RECOGNITION FOR VIDEOSTREAM PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The represented research results are aimed to improve theoretical basics of computer vision and artificial intelligence of dynamical system. Proposed approach of object detection and recognition is based on probabilistic fundamentals to ensure the required level of correct object recognition. Methods: Presented approach is grounded at probabilistic methods, statistical methods of probability density estimation and computer-based simulation at verification stage of development. Results: Proposed approach for object detection and recognition for video stream data processing has shown several advantages in comparison with existing methods due to its simple realization and small time of data processing. Presented results of experimental verification look plausible for object detection and recognition in video stream. Discussion: The approach can be implemented in dynamical system within changeable environment such as remotely piloted aircraft systems and can be a part of artificial intelligence in navigation and control systems.

  12. Perceptual differentiation and category effects in normal object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Gade, A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present PET study was (i) to investigate the neural correlates of object recognition, i.e. the matching of visual forms to memory, and (ii) to test the hypothesis that this process is more difficult for natural objects than for artefacts. This was done by using object decision...... be the neural correlate of matching visual forms to memory, and the amount of activation in these regions may correspond to the degree of perceptual differentiation required for recognition to occur. With respect to behaviour, it took significantly longer to make object decisions on natural objects than...

  13. Sleep deprivation impairs object recognition in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palchykova, S; Winsky-Sommerer, R; Meerlo, P; Durr, R; Tobler, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Many studies in animals and humans suggest that sleep facilitates learning, memory consolidation, and retrieval. Moreover, sleep deprivation (SD) incurred after learning, impaired memory in humans, mice, rats, and hamsters. We investigated the importance of sleep and its timing in in object

  14. Object recognition techniques in real applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This thesis proposes and evaluates object description and retrieval techniques in different real applications. First, we addressed the classification of boar spermatozoa according to acrosome integrity, which is an important challenge in the veterinary field. We presented several methods based on

  15. Effect of genetic homogeneity on behavioural variability in an object recognition test in cloned Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Herskin, Mette S.; Ladewig, Jan

    2012-01-01

    effects of genetic homogeneity on variability of cloned minipigs compared with non-cloned controls regarding behavioural variables in a cognitive test, namely the spontaneous object recognition test. Significant differences in the variability between the cloned and control pigs were found in five out...... were subjected to a behavioural test of memory, the spontaneous object recognition test, from an early age. At ages 1 and 2 years no evidence of memory decline was found, yet the data showed striking behavioural variability among the cloned groups. The aim of the present study was to investigate...

  16. High speed optical object recognition processor with massive holographic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.; Zhou, H.; Reyes, G.

    2002-01-01

    Real-time object recognition using a compact grayscale optical correlator will be introduced. A holographic memory module for storing a large bank of optimum correlation filters, to accommodate the large data throughput rate needed for many real-world applications, has also been developed. System architecture of the optical processor and the holographic memory will be presented. Application examples of this object recognition technology will also be demonstrated.

  17. Perceptual differentiation and category effects in normal object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Gade, A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present PET study was (i) to investigate the neural correlates of object recognition, i.e. the matching of visual forms to memory, and (ii) to test the hypothesis that this process is more difficult for natural objects than for artefacts. This was done by using object decision...... tasks where subjects decided whether pictures represented real objects or non-objects. The object decision tasks differed in their difficulty (the degree of perceptual differentiation needed to perform them) and in the category of the real objects used (natural objects versus artefacts). A clear effect...... be the neural correlate of matching visual forms to memory, and the amount of activation in these regions may correspond to the degree of perceptual differentiation required for recognition to occur. With respect to behaviour, it took significantly longer to make object decisions on natural objects than...

  18. Visual Object Recognition and Tracking of Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, James; Chang, Chu-Yin; Tardella, Neil

    2011-01-01

    A method has been created to automatically build an algorithm off-line, using computer-aided design (CAD) models, and to apply this at runtime. The object type is discriminated, and the position and orientation are identified. This system can work with a single image and can provide improved performance using multiple images provided from videos. The spatial processing unit uses three stages: (1) segmentation; (2) initial type, pose, and geometry (ITPG) estimation; and (3) refined type, pose, and geometry (RTPG) calculation. The image segmentation module files all the tools in an image and isolates them from the background. For this, the system uses edge-detection and thresholding to find the pixels that are part of a tool. After the pixels are identified, nearby pixels are grouped into blobs. These blobs represent the potential tools in the image and are the product of the segmentation algorithm. The second module uses matched filtering (or template matching). This approach is used for condensing synthetic images using an image subspace that captures key information. Three degrees of orientation, three degrees of position, and any number of degrees of freedom in geometry change are included. To do this, a template-matching framework is applied. This framework uses an off-line system for calculating template images, measurement images, and the measurements of the template images. These results are used online to match segmented tools against the templates. The final module is the RTPG processor. Its role is to find the exact states of the tools given initial conditions provided by the ITPG module. The requirement that the initial conditions exist allows this module to make use of a local search (whereas the ITPG module had global scope). To perform the local search, 3D model matching is used, where a synthetic image of the object is created and compared to the sensed data. The availability of low-cost PC graphics hardware allows rapid creation of synthetic images

  19. Recognition of partly occluded objects by fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovrano, Valeria Anna; Bisazza, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    The ability to visually complete partly occluded objects (so-called "amodal completion") has been documented in mammals and birds. Here, we report the first evidence of such a perceptual ability in a fish species. Fish (Xenotoca eiseni) were trained to discriminate between a complete and an amputated disk. Thereafter, the fish performed test trials in which hexagonal polygons were either exactly juxtaposed or only placed close to the missing sectors of the disk in order to produce or not produce the impression (to a human observer) of an occlusion of the missing sectors of the disk by the polygon. In another experiment, fish were first trained to discriminate between hexagonal polygons that were either exactly juxtaposed or only placed close to the missing sectors of a disk, and then tested for choice between a complete and an amputated disk. In both experiments, fish behaved as if they were experiencing visual completion of the partly occluded stimuli. These findings suggest that the ability to visually complete partly occluded objects may be widespread among vertebrates, possibly inherited in mammals, birds and fish from early vertebrate ancestors.

  20. Object recognition - Convergence of vision, audition, and touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja

    to auditory object recognition which depends on prior associations between object and sound, vision and touch share the extraction of an object's shape. Thereby, the visual system processes features constituting an object's shape at one glance rather than sequentially as touch does. Given this difference......Recognizing objects is one of the most fundamental capabilities we use in every day interaction with our environment. As object information can be conveyed by different senses, real-life object perception is usually a multisensory experience. Thereby, we do not perceive an accumulation of features...... of object information across audition and touch or across all thee senses. Further, even though object recognition within different senses is to some degree redundant, the different senses differ with respect to their intrinsic efficiency in extracting types of information (Lederman & Klatzky, 2009...

  1. Looking as if you know: Systematic object inspection precedes object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Linus; Eriksson, Johan; Andersson, Linus

    2008-04-18

    Sometimes we seem to look at the very object we are searching for, without consciously seeing it. How do we select object relevant information before we become aware of the object? We addressed this question in two recognition experiments involving pictures of fragmented objects. In Experiment 1, participants preferred to look at the target object rather than a control region 25 fixations prior to explicit recognition. Furthermore, participants inspected the target as if they had identified it around 9 fixations prior to explicit recognition. In Experiment 2, we investigated the influence of semantic knowledge in guiding object inspection prior to explicit recognition. Consistently, more specific knowledge about target identity made participants scan the fragmented stimulus more efficiently. For instance, non-target regions were rejected faster when participants knew the target object's name. Both experiments showed that participants were looking at the objects as if they knew them before they became aware of their identity.

  2. The Dynamic Multisensory Engram: Neural Circuitry Underlying Crossmodal Object Recognition in Rats Changes with the Nature of Object Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Derek L; Cloke, Jacob M; Potvin, Alphonse; Garrett, Inara; Winters, Boyer D

    2016-01-27

    Rats, humans, and monkeys demonstrate robust crossmodal object recognition (CMOR), identifying objects across sensory modalities. We have shown that rats' performance of a spontaneous tactile-to-visual CMOR task requires functional integration of perirhinal (PRh) and posterior parietal (PPC) cortices, which seemingly provide visual and tactile object feature processing, respectively. However, research with primates has suggested that PRh is sufficient for multisensory object representation. We tested this hypothesis in rats using a modification of the CMOR task in which multimodal preexposure to the to-be-remembered objects significantly facilitates performance. In the original CMOR task, with no preexposure, reversible lesions of PRh or PPC produced patterns of impairment consistent with modality-specific contributions. Conversely, in the CMOR task with preexposure, PPC lesions had no effect, whereas PRh involvement was robust, proving necessary for phases of the task that did not require PRh activity when rats did not have preexposure; this pattern was supported by results from c-fos imaging. We suggest that multimodal preexposure alters the circuitry responsible for object recognition, in this case obviating the need for PPC contributions and expanding PRh involvement, consistent with the polymodal nature of PRh connections and results from primates indicating a key role for PRh in multisensory object representation. These findings have significant implications for our understanding of multisensory information processing, suggesting that the nature of an individual's past experience with an object strongly determines the brain circuitry involved in representing that object's multisensory features in memory. The ability to integrate information from multiple sensory modalities is crucial to the survival of organisms living in complex environments. Appropriate responses to behaviorally relevant objects are informed by integration of multisensory object features

  3. Robust Object Recognition under Partial Occlusions Using NMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Soukup

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF methods of a reduced image data representation attracted the attention of computer vision community. These methods are considered as a convenient part-based representation of image data for recognition tasks with occluded objects. A novel modification in NMF recognition tasks is proposed which utilizes the matrix sparseness control introduced by Hoyer. We have analyzed the influence of sparseness on recognition rates (RRs for various dimensions of subspaces generated for two image databases, ORL face database, and USPS handwritten digit database. We have studied the behavior of four types of distances between a projected unknown image object and feature vectors in NMF subspaces generated for training data. One of these metrics also is a novelty we proposed. In the recognition phase, partial occlusions in the test images have been modeled by putting two randomly large, randomly positioned black rectangles into each test image.

  4. Generalized Sparselet Models for Real-Time Multiclass Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Oh; Girshick, Ross; Zickler, Stefan; Geyer, Christopher; Felzenszwalb, Pedro; Darrell, Trevor

    2015-05-01

    The problem of real-time multiclass object recognition is of great practical importance in object recognition. In this paper, we describe a framework that simultaneously utilizes shared representation, reconstruction sparsity, and parallelism to enable real-time multiclass object detection with deformable part models at 5Hz on a laptop computer with almost no decrease in task performance. Our framework is trained in the standard structured output prediction formulation and is generically applicable for speeding up object recognition systems where the computational bottleneck is in multiclass, multi-convolutional inference. We experimentally demonstrate the efficiency and task performance of our method on PASCAL VOC, subset of ImageNet, Caltech101 and Caltech256 dataset.

  5. A General Polygon-based Deformable Model for Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Fisker; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    1999-01-01

    We propose a general scheme for object localization and recognition based on a deformable model. The model combines shape and image properties by warping a arbitrary prototype intensity template according to the deformation in shape. The shape deformations are constrained by a probabilistic...... distribution, which combined with a match of the warped intensity template and the image form the final criteria used for localization and recognition of a given object. The chosen representation gives the model an ability to model an almost arbitrary object. Beside the actual model a full general scheme...

  6. Learning optimized features for hierarchical models of invariant object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wersing, Heiko; Körner, Edgar

    2003-07-01

    There is an ongoing debate over the capabilities of hierarchical neural feedforward architectures for performing real-world invariant object recognition. Although a variety of hierarchical models exists, appropriate supervised and unsupervised learning methods are still an issue of intense research. We propose a feedforward model for recognition that shares components like weight sharing, pooling stages, and competitive nonlinearities with earlier approaches but focuses on new methods for learning optimal feature-detecting cells in intermediate stages of the hierarchical network. We show that principles of sparse coding, which were previously mostly applied to the initial feature detection stages, can also be employed to obtain optimized intermediate complex features. We suggest a new approach to optimize the learning of sparse features under the constraints of a weight-sharing or convolutional architecture that uses pooling operations to achieve gradual invariance in the feature hierarchy. The approach explicitly enforces symmetry constraints like translation invariance on the feature set. This leads to a dimension reduction in the search space of optimal features and allows determining more efficiently the basis representatives, which achieve a sparse decomposition of the input. We analyze the quality of the learned feature representation by investigating the recognition performance of the resulting hierarchical network on object and face databases. We show that a hierarchy with features learned on a single object data set can also be applied to face recognition without parameter changes and is competitive with other recent machine learning recognition approaches. To investigate the effect of the interplay between sparse coding and processing nonlinearities, we also consider alternative feedforward pooling nonlinearities such as presynaptic maximum selection and sum-of-squares integration. The comparison shows that a combination of strong competitive

  7. Recognition of partially occluded and deformed binary objects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Ondřej; Kamenický, Jan; Flusser, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2008), s. 360-369 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Image recognition * Partial occlusion * Affine transformation * Inflection point * Radial vector Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.559, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/ZOI/horacek- recognition of partially occluded and deformed binary object s.pdf

  8. Transformation-tolerant object recognition in rats revealed by visual priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazoli, Sina; Di Filippo, Alessandro; Zoccolan, Davide

    2012-01-04

    Successful use of rodents as models for studying object vision crucially depends on the ability of their visual system to construct representations of visual objects that tolerate (i.e., remain relatively unchanged with respect to) the tremendous changes in object appearance produced, for instance, by size and viewpoint variation. Whether this is the case is still controversial, despite some recent demonstration of transformation-tolerant object recognition in rats. In fact, it remains unknown to what extent such a tolerant recognition has a spontaneous, perceptual basis, or, alternatively, mainly reflects learning of arbitrary associative relations among trained object appearances. In this study, we addressed this question by training rats to categorize a continuum of morph objects resulting from blending two object prototypes. The resulting psychometric curve (reporting the proportion of responses to one prototype along the morph line) served as a reference when, in a second phase of the experiment, either prototype was briefly presented as a prime, immediately before a test morph object. The resulting shift of the psychometric curve showed that recognition became biased toward the identity of the prime. Critically, this bias was observed also when the primes were transformed along a variety of dimensions (i.e., size, position, viewpoint, and their combination) that the animals had never experienced before. These results indicate that rats spontaneously perceive different views/appearances of an object as similar (i.e., as instances of the same object) and argue for the existence of neuronal substrates underlying formation of transformation-tolerant object representations in rats.

  9. Spatiotemporal information during unsupervised learning enhances viewpoint invariant object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Moqian; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing objects is difficult because it requires both linking views of an object that can be different and distinguishing objects with similar appearance. Interestingly, people can learn to recognize objects across views in an unsupervised way, without feedback, just from the natural viewing statistics. However, there is intense debate regarding what information during unsupervised learning is used to link among object views. Specifically, researchers argue whether temporal proximity, motion, or spatiotemporal continuity among object views during unsupervised learning is beneficial. Here, we untangled the role of each of these factors in unsupervised learning of novel three-dimensional (3-D) objects. We found that after unsupervised training with 24 object views spanning a 180° view space, participants showed significant improvement in their ability to recognize 3-D objects across rotation. Surprisingly, there was no advantage to unsupervised learning with spatiotemporal continuity or motion information than training with temporal proximity. However, we discovered that when participants were trained with just a third of the views spanning the same view space, unsupervised learning via spatiotemporal continuity yielded significantly better recognition performance on novel views than learning via temporal proximity. These results suggest that while it is possible to obtain view-invariant recognition just from observing many views of an object presented in temporal proximity, spatiotemporal information enhances performance by producing representations with broader view tuning than learning via temporal association. Our findings have important implications for theories of object recognition and for the development of computational algorithms that learn from examples. PMID:26024454

  10. Sensor agnostic object recognition using a map seeking circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Timothy L.; Hart, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Automatic object recognition capabilities are traditionally tuned to exploit the specific sensing modality they were designed to. Their successes (and shortcomings) are tied to object segmentation from the background, they typically require highly skilled personnel to train them, and they become cumbersome with the introduction of new objects. In this paper we describe a sensor independent algorithm based on the biologically inspired technology of map seeking circuits (MSC) which overcomes many of these obstacles. In particular, the MSC concept offers transparency in object recognition from a common interface to all sensor types, analogous to a USB device. It also provides a common core framework that is independent of the sensor and expandable to support high dimensionality decision spaces. Ease in training is assured by using commercially available 3D models from the video game community. The search time remains linear no matter how many objects are introduced, ensuring rapid object recognition. Here, we report results of an MSC algorithm applied to object recognition and pose estimation from high range resolution radar (1D), electrooptical imagery (2D), and LIDAR point clouds (3D) separately. By abstracting the sensor phenomenology from the underlying a prior knowledge base, MSC shows promise as an easily adaptable tool for incorporating additional sensor inputs.

  11. Recognition of Plain Objects Using Local Region Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Al; Sakata, Katsutoshi; Das, Dipankar; Kuno, Yoshinori

    Conventional interest point based matching requires computationally expensive patch preprocessing and is not appropriate for recognition of plain objects with negligible detail. This paper presents a method for extracting distinctive interest regions from images that can be used to perform reliable matching between different views of plain objects or scene. We formulate the correspondence problem in a Naive Bayesian classification framework and a simple correlation based matching, which makes our system fast, simple, efficient, and robust. To facilitate the matching using a very small number of interest regions, we also propose a method to reduce the search area inside a test scene. Using this method, it is possible to robustly identify objects among clutter and occlusion while achieving near real-time performance. Our system performs remarkably well on plain objects where some state-of-the art methods fail. Since our system is particularly suitable for the recognition of plain object, we refer to it as Simple Plane Object Recognizer (SPOR).

  12. Utilization-based object recognition in confined spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Telagamsetti, Durga; Chan, Alex L.

    2017-05-01

    Recognizing substantially occluded objects in confined spaces is a very challenging problem for ground-based persistent surveillance systems. In this paper, we discuss the ontology inference of occluded object recognition in the context of in-vehicle group activities (IVGA) and describe an approach that we refer to as utilization-based object recognition method. We examine the performance of three types of classifiers tailored for the recognition of objects with partial visibility, namely, (1) Hausdorff Distance classifier, (2) Hamming Network classifier, and (3) Recurrent Neural Network classifier. In order to train these classifiers, we have generated multiple imagery datasets containing a mixture of common objects appearing inside a vehicle with full or partial visibility and occultation. To generate dynamic interactions between multiple people, we model the IVGA scenarios using a virtual simulation environment, in which a number of simulated actors perform a variety of IVGA tasks independently or jointly. This virtual simulation engine produces the much needed imagery datasets for the verification and validation of the efficiency and effectiveness of the selected object recognizers. Finally, we improve the performance of these object recognizers by incorporating human gestural information that differentiates various object utilization or handling methods through the analyses of dynamic human-object interactions (HOI), human-human interactions (HHI), and human-vehicle interactions (HVI) in the context of IVGA.

  13. Semantic versus perceptual influences of color in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J E; Proffitt, D R

    1996-03-01

    The influence of color as a surface feature versus its influence as stored knowledge in object recognition was assessed. Participants decided whether a briefly presented and masked picture matched a test name. For pictures and words referring to similarly shaped objects, semantic color similarity (SCS) was present when picture and word shared the same prototypical color (e.g., purple apple followed by cherry). Perceptual color similarity (PCS) was present when the surface color of the picture matched the prototypical color of the named object (e.g., purple apple followed by blueberry). Response interference was primarily due to SCS, despite the fact that participants based similarity ratings on PCS. When uncolored objects were used, SCS interference still occurred, implying that the influence of SCS did not depend on the presence of surface color. The results indicate that, relative to surface color, stored color knowledge was more influential in object recognition.

  14. Electrophysiological evidence for effects of color knowledge in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Aitao; Xu, Guiping; Jin, Hua; Mo, Lei; Zhang, Jijia; Zhang, John X

    2010-01-29

    Knowledge about the typical colors associated with familiar everyday objects (i.e., strawberries are red) is well-known to be represented in the conceptual semantic system. Evidence that such knowledge may also play a role in early perceptual processes for object recognition is scant. In the present ERP study, participants viewed a list of object pictures and detected infrequent stimulus repetitions. Results show that shortly after stimulus onset, ERP components indexing early perceptual processes, including N1, P2, and N2, differentiated between objects in their appropriate or congruent color from these objects in an inappropriate or incongruent color. Such congruence effect also occurred in N3 associated with semantic processing of pictures but not in N4 for domain-general semantic processing. Our results demonstrate a clear effect of color knowledge in early object recognition stages and support the following proposal-color as a surface property is stored in a multiple-memory system where pre-semantic perceptual and semantic conceptual representations interact during object recognition. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating Color Descriptors for Object and Scene Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Image category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects and scene types. So far, intensity-based descriptors have been widely used for feature extraction at salient points. To increase illumination invariance and discriminative power, color descriptors have been

  16. Categorization and category effects in normal object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Gade, Anders

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the neural correlates of the structural and semantic stages of visual object recognition and to see whether any effects of category could be found at these stages, we compared the rCBF associated with two categorization tasks (subjects decided whether pictures represented artefacts...

  17. Multi-sensor Object Recognition: The Case of Electronics Recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dop, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    In automated object recognition systems, measurements from a single source of information do not always suffice for the reconstruction of the underlying scene. Incompleteness, inaccuracy and unreliability of the information often leaves room for multiple interpretations of the world which are

  18. Color-blob-based COSFIRE filters for object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gecer, Baris; Azzopardi, George; Petkov, Nicolai

    Most object recognition methods rely on contour-defined features obtained by edge detection or region segmentation. They are not robust to diffuse region boundaries. Furthermore, such methods do not exploit region color information. We propose color-blob-based COSFIRE (Combination of Shifted Filter

  19. Nicotine Administration Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Novel Object Recognition Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L; McFadden, Lisa M; Nielsen, Shannon M; Smith, Misty D; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2015-07-11

    Previous studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine abuse leads to memory deficits and these are associated with relapse. Furthermore, extensive evidence indicates that nicotine prevents and/or improves memory deficits in different models of cognitive dysfunction and these nicotinic effects might be mediated by hippocampal or cortical nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The present study investigated whether nicotine attenuates methamphetamine-induced novel object recognition deficits in rats and explored potential underlying mechanisms. Adolescent or adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received either nicotine water (10-75 μg/mL) or tap water for several weeks. Methamphetamine (4 × 7.5mg/kg/injection) or saline was administered either before or after chronic nicotine exposure. Novel object recognition was evaluated 6 days after methamphetamine or saline. Serotonin transporter function and density and α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density were assessed on the following day. Chronic nicotine intake via drinking water beginning during either adolescence or adulthood attenuated the novel object recognition deficits caused by a high-dose methamphetamine administration. Similarly, nicotine attenuated methamphetamine-induced deficits in novel object recognition when administered after methamphetamine treatment. However, nicotine did not attenuate the serotonergic deficits caused by methamphetamine in adults. Conversely, nicotine attenuated methamphetamine-induced deficits in α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the hippocampal CA1 region. Furthermore, nicotine increased α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the hippocampal CA3, dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex in both saline- and methamphetamine-treated rats. Overall, these findings suggest that nicotine-induced increases in α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex might be one mechanism by which novel object recognition deficits are

  20. Motor cortical processing is causally involved in object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Motor activity during vicarious experience of actions is a widely reported and studied phenomenon, and motor system activity also accompanies observation of graspable objects in the absence of any actions. Such motor activity is thought to reflect simulation of the observed action, or preparation to interact with the object, respectively. Results Here, in an initial exploratory study, we ask whether motor activity during observation of object directed actions is involved in processes related to recognition of the object after initial exposure. Single pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied over the thumb representation of the motor cortex, or over the vertex, during observation of a model thumb typing on a cell-phone, and performance on a phone recognition task at the end of the trial was assessed. Disrupting motor processing over the thumb representation 100 ms after the onset of the typing video impaired the ability to recognize the phone in the recognition test, whereas there was no such effect for TMS applied over the vertex and no TMS trials. Furthermore, this effect only manifested for videos observed from the first person perspective. In an additional control condition, there was no evidence for any effects of TMS to the thumb representation or vertex when observing and recognizing non-action related shape stimuli. Conclusion Overall, these data provide evidence that motor cortical processing during observation of object-directed actions from a first person perspective is causally linked to the formation of enduring representations of objects-of-action. PMID:24330638

  1. Motor cortical processing is causally involved in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloe, Rebecca; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2013-12-14

    Motor activity during vicarious experience of actions is a widely reported and studied phenomenon, and motor system activity also accompanies observation of graspable objects in the absence of any actions. Such motor activity is thought to reflect simulation of the observed action, or preparation to interact with the object, respectively. Here, in an initial exploratory study, we ask whether motor activity during observation of object directed actions is involved in processes related to recognition of the object after initial exposure. Single pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied over the thumb representation of the motor cortex, or over the vertex, during observation of a model thumb typing on a cell-phone, and performance on a phone recognition task at the end of the trial was assessed. Disrupting motor processing over the thumb representation 100 ms after the onset of the typing video impaired the ability to recognize the phone in the recognition test, whereas there was no such effect for TMS applied over the vertex and no TMS trials. Furthermore, this effect only manifested for videos observed from the first person perspective. In an additional control condition, there was no evidence for any effects of TMS to the thumb representation or vertex when observing and recognizing non-action related shape stimuli. Overall, these data provide evidence that motor cortical processing during observation of object-directed actions from a first person perspective is causally linked to the formation of enduring representations of objects-of-action.

  2. Invariant visual object recognition and shape processing in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccolan, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Invariant visual object recognition is the ability to recognize visual objects despite the vastly different images that each object can project onto the retina during natural vision, depending on its position and size within the visual field, its orientation relative to the viewer, etc. Achieving invariant recognition represents such a formidable computational challenge that is often assumed to be a unique hallmark of primate vision. Historically, this has limited the invasive investigation of its neuronal underpinnings to monkey studies, in spite of the narrow range of experimental approaches that these animal models allow. Meanwhile, rodents have been largely neglected as models of object vision, because of the widespread belief that they are incapable of advanced visual processing. However, the powerful array of experimental tools that have been developed to dissect neuronal circuits in rodents has made these species very attractive to vision scientists too, promoting a new tide of studies that have started to systematically explore visual functions in rats and mice. Rats, in particular, have been the subjects of several behavioral studies, aimed at assessing how advanced object recognition and shape processing is in this species. Here, I review these recent investigations, as well as earlier studies of rat pattern vision, to provide an historical overview and a critical summary of the status of the knowledge about rat object vision. The picture emerging from this survey is very encouraging with regard to the possibility of using rats as complementary models to monkeys in the study of higher-level vision. PMID:25561421

  3. Evidence that the rat hippocampus has contrasting roles in object recognition memory and object recency memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albasser, Mathieu M; Amin, Eman; Lin, Tzu-Ching E; Iordanova, Mihaela D; Aggleton, John P

    2012-10-01

    Adult rats with extensive, bilateral neurotoxic lesions of the hippocampus showed normal forgetting curves for object recognition memory, yet were impaired on closely related tests of object recency memory. The present findings point to specific mechanisms for temporal order information (recency) that are dependent on the hippocampus and do not involve object recognition memory. The object recognition tests measured rats exploring simultaneously presented objects, one novel and the other familiar. Task difficulty was varied by altering the retention delays after presentation of the familiar object, so creating a forgetting curve. Hippocampal lesions had no apparent effect, despite using an apparatus (bow-tie maze) where it was possible to give lists of objects that might be expected to increase stimulus interference. In contrast, the same hippocampal lesions impaired the normal preference for an older (less recent) familiar object over a more recent, familiar object. A correlation was found between the loss of septal hippocampal tissue and this impairment in recency memory. The dissociation in the present study between recognition memory (spared) and recency memory (impaired) was unusually compelling, because it was possible to test the same objects for both forms of memory within the same session and within the same apparatus. The object recency deficit is of additional interest as it provides an example of a nonspatial memory deficit following hippocampal damage. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Priming for novel object associations: Neural differences from object item priming and equivalent forms of recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos Alexandre; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Mayes, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The neural substrates of associative and item priming and recognition were investigated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study over two separate sessions. In the priming session, participants decided which object of a pair was bigger during both study and test phases. In the recognition session, participants saw different object pairs and performed the same size-judgement task followed by an associative recognition memory task. Associative priming was accompanied by reduced activity in the right middle occipital gyrus as well as in bilateral hippocampus. Object item priming was accompanied by reduced activity in extensive priming-related areas in the bilateral occipitotemporofrontal cortex, as well as in the perirhinal cortex, but not in the hippocampus. Associative recognition was characterized by activity increases in regions linked to recollection, such as the hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior medial frontal gyrus and posterior parahippocampal cortex. Item object priming and recognition recruited broadly overlapping regions (e.g., bilateral middle occipital and prefrontal cortices, left fusiform gyrus), even though the BOLD response was in opposite directions. These regions along with the precuneus, where both item priming and recognition were accompanied by activation, have been found to respond to object familiarity. The minimal structural overlap between object associative priming and recollection-based associative recognition suggests that they depend on largely different stimulus-related information and that the different directions of the effects indicate distinct retrieval mechanisms. In contrast, item priming and familiarity-based recognition seemed mainly based on common memory information, although the extent of common processing between priming and familiarity remains unclear. Further implications of these findings are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Object Recognition using Feature- and Color-Based Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan; Duong, Vu; Stubberud, Allen

    2008-01-01

    An improved adaptive method of processing image data in an artificial neural network has been developed to enable automated, real-time recognition of possibly moving objects under changing (including suddenly changing) conditions of illumination and perspective. The method involves a combination of two prior object-recognition methods one based on adaptive detection of shape features and one based on adaptive color segmentation to enable recognition in situations in which either prior method by itself may be inadequate. The chosen prior feature-based method is known as adaptive principal-component analysis (APCA); the chosen prior color-based method is known as adaptive color segmentation (ACOSE). These methods are made to interact with each other in a closed-loop system to obtain an optimal solution of the object-recognition problem in a dynamic environment. One of the results of the interaction is to increase, beyond what would otherwise be possible, the accuracy of the determination of a region of interest (containing an object that one seeks to recognize) within an image. Another result is to provide a minimized adaptive step that can be used to update the results obtained by the two component methods when changes of color and apparent shape occur. The net effect is to enable the neural network to update its recognition output and improve its recognition capability via an adaptive learning sequence. In principle, the improved method could readily be implemented in integrated circuitry to make a compact, low-power, real-time object-recognition system. It has been proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of such a system by integrating a 256-by-256 active-pixel sensor with APCA, ACOSE, and neural processing circuitry on a single chip. It has been estimated that such a system on a chip would have a volume no larger than a few cubic centimeters, could operate at a rate as high as 1,000 frames per second, and would consume in the order of milliwatts of power.

  6. Comparison of Object Recognition Behavior in Human and Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalingham, Rishi; Schmidt, Kailyn; DiCarlo, James J

    2015-09-02

    Although the rhesus monkey is used widely as an animal model of human visual processing, it is not known whether invariant visual object recognition behavior is quantitatively comparable across monkeys and humans. To address this question, we systematically compared the core object recognition behavior of two monkeys with that of human subjects. To test true object recognition behavior (rather than image matching), we generated several thousand naturalistic synthetic images of 24 basic-level objects with high variation in viewing parameters and image background. Monkeys were trained to perform binary object recognition tasks on a match-to-sample paradigm. Data from 605 human subjects performing the same tasks on Mechanical Turk were aggregated to characterize "pooled human" object recognition behavior, as well as 33 separate Mechanical Turk subjects to characterize individual human subject behavior. Our results show that monkeys learn each new object in a few days, after which they not only match mean human performance but show a pattern of object confusion that is highly correlated with pooled human confusion patterns and is statistically indistinguishable from individual human subjects. Importantly, this shared human and monkey pattern of 3D object confusion is not shared with low-level visual representations (pixels, V1+; models of the retina and primary visual cortex) but is shared with a state-of-the-art computer vision feature representation. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus monkeys and humans share a common neural shape representation that directly supports object perception. To date, several mammalian species have shown promise as animal models for studying the neural mechanisms underlying high-level visual processing in humans. In light of this diversity, making tight comparisons between nonhuman and human primates is particularly critical in determining the best use of nonhuman primates to further the goal of the

  7. A Large-Scale 3D Object Recognition dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølund, Thomas; Glent Buch, Anders; Krüger, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    geometric groups; concave, convex, cylindrical and flat 3D object models. The object models have varying amount of local geometric features to challenge existing local shape feature descriptors in terms of descriptiveness and robustness. The dataset is validated in a benchmark which evaluates the matching...... performance of 7 different state-of-the-art local shape descriptors. Further, we validate the dataset in a 3D object recognition pipeline. Our benchmark shows as expected that local shape feature descriptors without any global point relation across the surface have a poor matching performance with flat...

  8. Evaluating color descriptors for object and scene recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Koen E A; Gevers, Theo; Snoek, Cees G M

    2010-09-01

    Image category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects and scene types. So far, intensity-based descriptors have been widely used for feature extraction at salient points. To increase illumination invariance and discriminative power, color descriptors have been proposed. Because many different descriptors exist, a structured overview is required of color invariant descriptors in the context of image category recognition. Therefore, this paper studies the invariance properties and the distinctiveness of color descriptors (software to compute the color descriptors from this paper is available from http://www.colordescriptors.com) in a structured way. The analytical invariance properties of color descriptors are explored, using a taxonomy based on invariance properties with respect to photometric transformations, and tested experimentally using a data set with known illumination conditions. In addition, the distinctiveness of color descriptors is assessed experimentally using two benchmarks, one from the image domain and one from the video domain. From the theoretical and experimental results, it can be derived that invariance to light intensity changes and light color changes affects category recognition. The results further reveal that, for light intensity shifts, the usefulness of invariance is category-specific. Overall, when choosing a single descriptor and no prior knowledge about the data set and object and scene categories is available, the OpponentSIFT is recommended. Furthermore, a combined set of color descriptors outperforms intensity-based SIFT and improves category recognition by 8 percent on the PASCAL VOC 2007 and by 7 percent on the Mediamill Challenge.

  9. An Approach to Object Recognition: Aligning Pictorial Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    PERFORMING 0RGANIZATION NAMIE ANDORS IS551. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREKA A WORK UNIT NUMBERS ( 545 Technology... ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A.I. Memo No. 931 December, 1986 AN APPROACH TO OBJECT RECOGNITION: ALIGNING PICTORIAL DESCRIPTIONS Shimon Ullman...within the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the A.I. Laboratory’s artificial intelligence

  10. Color-invariant shape moments for object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Celenk, Mehmet

    2001-05-01

    Geometric moments have been widely used in many shape recognition and object classification tasks. These monomials are usually computed from binary or gray-level images for the object shape recognition invariant to rotation, translation, and scaling. In this paper, we attempt to calculate the shape related moments from color images, and study their noise immunity and color invariance property for the application areas of face recognition and content based image retrieval. To this end, we describe a computationally efficient method of converting a vector-valued color image into a gray scale for robust moment computation. Geometric moments are calculated from the resultant scalar representation of a color image data, and proven to be robust shape descriptors for the face and flower images. The generated shape invariants appear to have better noise immunity than the Hu moments and exhibit characteristics invariant to hue changes in the object colors. As compared to the Zernike polynomials, the proposed feature set has higher discriminatory power although the Zernike polynomials present superior noise rejection capability. Robust performance, computational efficiency, high noise immunity, and hue invariance property of the new approach are particularly useful for fast image retrieval tasks requiring high query accuracy.

  11. Bidirectional log-polar mapping for invariant object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanian, Courosh; Rak, Steven J.

    1991-08-01

    The representation of visual information in human striate cortex is of significance to machine vision. Invariance to certain geometrical transformations in the field-of-view may be provided by the computational anatomy of the visual cortex. For example, there is evidence that the retino-cortical mapping is closely approximated by a log-polar transform. When combined with the foveation response, log-polar mapping can provide a basis for translation, rotation, and scale-invariant perception. There is also evidence that the visual system is sensitive to the spatial frequency content of its input. Although a Fourier transform is physiologically implausible, some authors have suggested its use for invariant object recognition because the magnitude of the Fourier transform is shift invariant. The Fourier transform magnitude operation followed by log-polar mapping can also provide a basis for translation, rotation, and scale-invariant perception. Both of these image-transform (feature mapping) algorithms give mathematical invariance to translation, rotation, and dilation. For an automatic recognition system, however, the feature mapping module has to be robust to discretization error, noise, and possible obscuration. Robustness considerations led to the development of the bi- directional log-polar mapping (BPM) algorithm. The BPM algorithm overcomes the pixel- dropout problems associated with conventional approaches to log-polar mapping. The authors evaluate several feature mapping models, both biologically and mathematically inspired, for their effect on recognition performance when embedded in a neural-network-based, object- recognition system. The modular recognition system, consisting of image restoration, detection, segmentation, feature extraction, invariant mapping, and classification, is being developed to classify objects in laser radar range imagery. Synthetic laser radar range images of four vehicles rotated in the field-of-view, scaled to various ranges, and

  12. Object Recognition and Object Segregation in Infancy: Historical Perspective, Theoretical Significance, "Kinds" of Knowledge, and Relation to Object Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul C.; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2001-01-01

    Reflects on Needham's findings on infants' object recognition and segregation. Examines the role for perceptual bias in explaining infant performance, places Needham's studies in historical perspective, and assesses their theoretical significance. Discusses the merits of positing different kinds of information sources for object segregation, and…

  13. Industrial robots with sensors and object recognition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    The previous development and the present status of industrial robots equipped with sensors and object recognition systems are described. This type of equipment allows flexible automation of many work stations in which industrial robots of the first generation, which are unable to react to changes in their respective environments automatically, apart from their being linked to other machines, could not be used because of the prevailing boundary conditions. A classification system facilitates an overview of the large number of technical solutions now available. The manifold possibilities of application of this equipment are demonstrated by a number of examples. As a result of the present state of development of the components required, and in view also of economic reasons, there is a trend towards special designs for a small number of specific purposes and towards stripped-down object recognition. systems with limited applications. A fitting description is offered of the term 'robot', which is now being used in various contexts, and an indication is made of the capabilities and components a machine to be called robot should have as a minimum. Finally, reference is made to some potential lines of development serving to reduce expediture and accelerate recognition processes. (orig.) [de

  14. Object recognition as a measure of memory in 1-2 years old transgenic minipigs carrying the APPsw mutation for Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Ladewig, Jan; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    impairment is the most striking and consistent feature. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of the APPsw transgene on memory of AD minipigs compared with non-transgenic controls at two ages (1–2 years) using the spontaneous object recognition test (SORT), which is based on behavioural...... discrimination of familiar and novel objects. No significant difference between AD minipigs and controls was found when comparing object recognition as a measure of memory. The minipigs did explore the novel object significantly more than the familiar, indicating the expected recognition of the familiar object....... Two different inter-phase intervals were used (IPI: 10–40 min). For both ages, object recognition was evident using 10 min IPI. When using 40 min IPI, object recognition was evident only at age 1 year. Comparing memory of a relatively small group of AD minipigs and controls at two rather young ages...

  15. Marked Object Recognition Multitouch Screen Printed Touchpad for Interactive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivago Serrado Nunes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The market for interactive platforms is rapidly growing, and touchscreens have been incorporated in an increasing number of devices. Thus, the area of smart objects and devices is strongly increasing by adding interactive touch and multimedia content, leading to new uses and capabilities. In this work, a flexible screen printed sensor matrix is fabricated based on silver ink in a polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. Diamond shaped capacitive electrodes coupled with conventional capacitive reading electronics enables fabrication of a highly functional capacitive touchpad, and also allows for the identification of marked objects. For the latter, the capacitive signatures are identified by intersecting points and distances between them. Thus, this work demonstrates the applicability of a low cost method using royalty-free geometries and technologies for the development of flexible multitouch touchpads for the implementation of interactive and object recognition applications.

  16. Object texture recognition by dynamic tactile sensing using active exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Børlum Petersen, Mikkel; Bilberg, Arne

    For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a method for determining object texture by active exploration with a robotic fingertip equipped...... with a dynamic tactile transducer based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film. Different test surfaces are actively explored and the signal from the sensor is used for feature extraction, which is subsequently used for classification. A comparison between the significance of different extracted...... features and performance of learning algorithms is done and the best method is further used to classify objects by their surface textures with recognition results higher than 90 percent....

  17. Marked Object Recognition Multitouch Screen Printed Touchpad for Interactive Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jivago Serrado; Castro, Nelson; Gonçalves, Sergio; Pereira, Nélson; Correia, Vitor; Lanceros-Mendez, Senentxu

    2017-12-01

    The market for interactive platforms is rapidly growing, and touchscreens have been incorporated in an increasing number of devices. Thus, the area of smart objects and devices is strongly increasing by adding interactive touch and multimedia content, leading to new uses and capabilities. In this work, a flexible screen printed sensor matrix is fabricated based on silver ink in a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Diamond shaped capacitive electrodes coupled with conventional capacitive reading electronics enables fabrication of a highly functional capacitive touchpad, and also allows for the identification of marked objects. For the latter, the capacitive signatures are identified by intersecting points and distances between them. Thus, this work demonstrates the applicability of a low cost method using royalty-free geometries and technologies for the development of flexible multitouch touchpads for the implementation of interactive and object recognition applications.

  18. Structured Kernel Dictionary Learning with Correlation Constraint for Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjue; Wang, Yinghua; Liu, Hongwei; Zhang, Hao

    2017-06-21

    In this paper, we propose a new discriminative non-linear dictionary learning approach, called correlation constrained structured kernel KSVD, for object recognition. The objective function for dictionary learning contains a reconstructive term and a discriminative term. In the reconstructive term, signals are implicitly non-linearly mapped into a space, where a structured kernel dictionary, each sub-dictionary of which lies in the span of the mapped signals from the corresponding class, is established. In the discriminative term, by analyzing the classification mechanism, the correlation constraint is proposed in kernel form, constraining the correlations between different discriminative codes, and restricting the coefficient vectors to be transformed into a feature space, where the features are highly correlated inner-class and nearly independent between-classes. The objective function is optimized by the proposed structured kernel KSVD. During the classification stage, the specific form of the discriminative feature is needless to be known, while the inner product of the discriminative feature with kernel matrix embedded is available, and is suitable for a linear SVM classifier. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms many state-of-the-art dictionary learning approaches for face, scene and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) vehicle target recognition.

  19. Objective recognition of cough sound as biomarker for aerial pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hirtum, A; Berckmans, D

    2004-02-01

    A relationship among air quality, respiratory health, and comfort in man and animal is widely shown. In general, a state of respiratory discomfort is prevailed by an increase in acoustic audible symptoms. The general concept of sound analysis as an objective contactless non-invasive biomarker for aerial pollution is studied on free-field cough sound of 12 Belgian Landrace piglets. A citric-acid-induced cough sound recognition algorithm with recognition rate of 95% is applied to cough sounds registered in the presence of distinct types of aerial pollutants: irritating gas (ammonia), respirable particles (dust), and temperature. The recognition performance for all aerial pollutants was >90% and maintained 94% on average. It is concluded that sound analysis allows an effective biomarker for all three types of aerial pollution. The generality of the biomarker is hypothesized to be due to the common mechanism involved in protective cough. As a consequence, it is suggested to use sound analysis as a biomarker for respiratory state in studies of exposure to air pollutants.

  20. Object detection and recognition in digital images theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Cyganek, Boguslaw

    2013-01-01

    Object detection, tracking and recognition in images are key problems in computer vision. This book provides the reader with a balanced treatment between the theory and practice of selected methods in these areas to make the book accessible to a range of researchers, engineers, developers and postgraduate students working in computer vision and related fields. Key features: Explains the main theoretical ideas behind each method (which are augmented with a rigorous mathematical derivation of the formulas), their implementation (in C++) and demonstrated working in real applications.

  1. Specific acoustic models for spontaneous and dictated style in indonesian speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vista, C. B.; Satriawan, C. H.; Lestari, D. P.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    The performance of an automatic speech recognition system is affected by differences in speech style between the data the model is originally trained upon and incoming speech to be recognized. In this paper, the usage of GMM-HMM acoustic models for specific speech styles is investigated. We develop two systems for the experiments; the first employs a speech style classifier to predict the speech style of incoming speech, either spontaneous or dictated, then decodes this speech using an acoustic model specifically trained for that speech style. The second system uses both acoustic models to recognise incoming speech and decides upon a final result by calculating a confidence score of decoding. Results show that training specific acoustic models for spontaneous and dictated speech styles confers a slight recognition advantage as compared to a baseline model trained on a mixture of spontaneous and dictated training data. In addition, the speech style classifier approach of the first system produced slightly more accurate results than the confidence scoring employed in the second system.

  2. Visual recognition and tracking of objects for robot sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    An overview is presented of a number of techniques used for recognition and motion tracking of articulated 3-D objects. With recent advances in robust methods for model-based vision and improved performance of computer systems, it will soon be possible to build low-cost, high-reliability systems for model-based motion tracking. Such systems can be expected to open up a wide range of applications in robotics by providing machines with real-time information about their environment. This paper describes a number of techniques for efficiently matching parameterized 3-D models to image features. The matching methods are robust with respect to missing and ambiguous features as well as measurement errors. Unlike most previous work on model-based motion tracking, this system provides for the integrated treatment of matching and measurement errors during motion tracking. The initial application is in a system for real-time motion tracking of articulated 3-D objects. With the future addition of an indexing component, these same techniques can also be used for general model-based recognition. The current real-time implementation is based on matching straight line segments, but some preliminary experiments on matching arbitrary curves are also described. (author)

  3. Efficient object recognition using boundary representation and wavelet neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong; Xia, Liang-Zheng

    2008-12-01

    Wavelet neural networks combine the functions of time-frequency localization from the wavelet transform and of self-studying from the neural network, which make them particularly suitable for the classification of complex patterns. In this paper, an efficient object recognition method using boundary representation and the wavelet neural network is proposed. The method employs a wavelet neural network (WNN) to characterize the singularities of the object curvature representation and to perform the object classification at the same time and in an automatic way. The local time-frequency attributes of the singularities on the object boundary are detected by making a preliminary wavelet analysis of the curvature representation. Then, the discriminative scale-translation features of the singularities are stored as the initial scale-translation parameters of the wavelet nodes in the WNN. These parameters are trained to their optimum status during the learning stage. With our approach, as opposed to matching features by convolving the signal with wavelet functions at a large number of scales, the computational burden is significantly reduced. Only a few convolutions are performed at the optimum scale-translation grids during the classification, which makes it suitable for real-time recognition tasks. Compared with the artificial-neural-network-based approaches preceded by wavelet filter banks with fixed scale-translation parameters, the support vector machine (SVM) using traditional Fourier descriptors and K-nearest-neighbor ( K-NN) classifier based on the state-of-the-art shape descriptors, our scheme demonstrates superior and stable discrimination performance under various noisy and affine conditions.

  4. Guppies Show Behavioural but Not Cognitive Sex Differences in a Novel Object Recognition Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Dadda, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition (NOR) test is a widely-used paradigm to study learning and memory in rodents. NOR performance is typically measured as the preference to interact with a novel object over a familiar object based on spontaneous exploratory behaviour. In rats and mice, females usually have greater NOR ability than males. The NOR test is now available for a large number of species, including fish, but sex differences have not been properly tested outside of rodents. We compared male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a NOR test to study whether sex differences exist also for fish. We focused on sex differences in both performance and behaviour of guppies during the test. In our experiment, adult guppies expressed a preference for the novel object as most rodents and other species do. When we looked at sex differences, we found the two sexes showed a similar preference for the novel object over the familiar object, suggesting that male and female guppies have similar NOR performances. Analysis of behaviour revealed that males were more inclined to swim in the proximity of the two objects than females. Further, males explored the novel object at the beginning of the experiment while females did so afterwards. These two behavioural differences are possibly due to sex differences in exploration. Even though NOR performance is not different between male and female guppies, the behavioural sex differences we found could affect the results of the experiments and should be carefully considered when assessing fish memory with the NOR test.

  5. Object Recognition Using 2D Sensors and Autonomous Vehicle Navigation Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gomes, Jader

    1997-01-01

    .... This technique is applied to recognition of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) objects. However, the concepts described here can be extended to recognition of other objects such as ships, missiles and aircraft...

  6. Unsupervised learning of probabilistic object models (POMs) for object classification, segmentation, and recognition using knowledge propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanhao; Zhu, Long Leo; Yuille, Alan; Zhang, Hongjiang

    2009-10-01

    We present a method to learn probabilistic object models (POMs) with minimal supervision, which exploit different visual cues and perform tasks such as classification, segmentation, and recognition. We formulate this as a structure induction and learning task and our strategy is to learn and combine elementary POMs that make use of complementary image cues. We describe a novel structure induction procedure, which uses knowledge propagation to enable POMs to provide information to other POMs and "teach them" (which greatly reduces the amount of supervision required for training and speeds up the inference). In particular, we learn a POM-IP defined on Interest Points using weak supervision [1], [2] and use this to train a POM-mask, defined on regional features, which yields a combined POM that performs segmentation/localization. This combined model can be used to train POM-edgelets, defined on edgelets, which gives a full POM with improved performance on classification. We give detailed experimental analysis on large data sets for classification and segmentation with comparison to other methods. Inference takes five seconds while learning takes approximately four hours. In addition, we show that the full POM is invariant to scale and rotation of the object (for learning and inference) and can learn hybrid objects classes (i.e., when there are several objects and the identity of the object in each image is unknown). Finally, we show that POMs can be used to match between different objects of the same category, and hence, enable objects recognition.

  7. Declining object recognition performance in semantic dementia: A case for stored visual object representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree, Jeremy J; Playfoot, David

    2015-01-01

    The role of the semantic system in recognizing objects is a matter of debate. Connectionist theories argue that it is impossible for a participant to determine that an object is familiar to them without recourse to a semantic hub; localist theories state that accessing a stored representation of the visual features of the object is sufficient for recognition. We examine this issue through the longitudinal study of two cases of semantic dementia, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive degradation of the semantic system. The cases in this paper do not conform to the "common" pattern of object recognition performance in semantic dementia described by Rogers, T. T., Lambon Ralph, M. A., Hodges, J. R., & Patterson, K. (2004). Natural selection: The impact of semantic impairment on lexical and object decision. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 21, 331-352., and show no systematic relationship between severity of semantic impairment and success in object decision. We argue that these data are inconsistent with the connectionist position but can be easily reconciled with localist theories that propose stored structural descriptions of objects outside of the semantic system.

  8. Visual object recognition for mobile tourist information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletta, Lucas; Fritz, Gerald; Seifert, Christin; Luley, Patrick; Almer, Alexander

    2005-03-01

    We describe a mobile vision system that is capable of automated object identification using images captured from a PDA or a camera phone. We present a solution for the enabling technology of outdoors vision based object recognition that will extend state-of-the-art location and context aware services towards object based awareness in urban environments. In the proposed application scenario, tourist pedestrians are equipped with GPS, W-LAN and a camera attached to a PDA or a camera phone. They are interested whether their field of view contains tourist sights that would point to more detailed information. Multimedia type data about related history, the architecture, or other related cultural context of historic or artistic relevance might be explored by a mobile user who is intending to learn within the urban environment. Learning from ambient cues is in this way achieved by pointing the device towards the urban sight, capturing an image, and consequently getting information about the object on site and within the focus of attention, i.e., the users current field of view.

  9. Object similarity affects the perceptual strategy underlying invariant visual object recognition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Federica B; Alemi, Alireza; Ansuini, Alessio; Zoccolan, Davide

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have explored the possible use of rats as models of high-level visual functions. One central question at the root of such an investigation is to understand whether rat object vision relies on the processing of visual shape features or, rather, on lower-order image properties (e.g., overall brightness). In a recent study, we have shown that rats are capable of extracting multiple features of an object that are diagnostic of its identity, at least when those features are, structure-wise, distinct enough to be parsed by the rat visual system. In the present study, we have assessed the impact of object structure on rat perceptual strategy. We trained rats to discriminate between two structurally similar objects, and compared their recognition strategies with those reported in our previous study. We found that, under conditions of lower stimulus discriminability, rat visual discrimination strategy becomes more view-dependent and subject-dependent. Rats were still able to recognize the target objects, in a way that was largely tolerant (i.e., invariant) to object transformation; however, the larger structural and pixel-wise similarity affected the way objects were processed. Compared to the findings of our previous study, the patterns of diagnostic features were: (i) smaller and more scattered; (ii) only partially preserved across object views; and (iii) only partially reproducible across rats. On the other hand, rats were still found to adopt a multi-featural processing strategy and to make use of part of the optimal discriminatory information afforded by the two objects. Our findings suggest that, as in humans, rat invariant recognition can flexibly rely on either view-invariant representations of distinctive object features or view-specific object representations, acquired through learning.

  10. Object similarity affects the perceptual strategy underlying invariant visual object recognition in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Bianca Rosselli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have explored the possible use of rats as models of high-level visual functions. One central question at the root of such an investigation is to understand whether rat object vision relies on the processing of visual shape features or, rather, on lower-order image properties (e.g., overall brightness. In a recent study, we have shown that rats are capable of extracting multiple features of an object that are diagnostic of its identity, at least when those features are, structure-wise, distinct enough to be parsed by the rat visual system. In the present study, we have assessed the impact of object structure on rat perceptual strategy. We trained rats to discriminate between two structurally similar objects, and compared their recognition strategies with those reported in our previous study. We found that, under conditions of lower stimulus discriminability, rat visual discrimination strategy becomes more view-dependent and subject-dependent. Rats were still able to recognize the target objects, in a way that was largely tolerant (i.e., invariant to object transformation; however, the larger structural and pixel-wise similarity affected the way objects were processed. Compared to the findings of our previous study, the patterns of diagnostic features were: i smaller and more scattered; ii only partially preserved across object views; and iii only partially reproducible across rats. On the other hand, rats were still found to adopt a multi-featural processing strategy and to make use of part of the optimal discriminatory information afforded by the two objects. Our findings suggest that, as in humans, rat invariant recognition can flexibly rely on either view-invariant representations of distinctive object features or view-specific object representations, acquired through learning.

  11. Joint Tensor Feature Analysis For Visual Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai Keung; Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Wen, Jiajun; Ho, Chu Po

    2015-11-01

    Tensor-based object recognition has been widely studied in the past several years. This paper focuses on the issue of joint feature selection from the tensor data and proposes a novel method called joint tensor feature analysis (JTFA) for tensor feature extraction and recognition. In order to obtain a set of jointly sparse projections for tensor feature extraction, we define the modified within-class tensor scatter value and the modified between-class tensor scatter value for regression. The k-mode optimization technique and the L(2,1)-norm jointly sparse regression are combined together to compute the optimal solutions. The convergent analysis, computational complexity analysis and the essence of the proposed method/model are also presented. It is interesting to show that the proposed method is very similar to singular value decomposition on the scatter matrix but with sparsity constraint on the right singular value matrix or eigen-decomposition on the scatter matrix with sparse manner. Experimental results on some tensor datasets indicate that JTFA outperforms some well-known tensor feature extraction and selection algorithms.

  12. Word and object recognition during reading acquisition: MEG evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarra, Sendy; Martin, Clara D; Lizarazu, Mikel; Lallier, Marie; Zarraga, Asier; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Studies on adults suggest that reading-induced brain changes might not be limited to linguistic processes. It is still unclear whether these results can be generalized to reading development. The present study shows to which extent neural responses to verbal and nonverbal stimuli are reorganized while children learn to read. MEG data of thirty Basque children (4-8y) were collected while they were presented with written words, spoken words and visual objects. The evoked fields elicited by the experimental stimuli were compared to their scrambled counterparts. Visual words elicited left posterior (200-300ms) and temporal activations (400-800ms). The size of these effects increased as reading performance improved, suggesting a reorganization of children's visual word responses. Spoken words elicited greater left temporal responses relative to scrambles (300-700ms). No evidence for the influence of reading expertise was observed. Brain responses to objects were greater than to scrambles in bilateral posterior regions (200-500ms). There was a greater left hemisphere involvement as reading errors decreased, suggesting a strengthened verbal decoding of visual configurations with reading acquisition. The present results reveal that learning to read not only influences written word processing, but also affects visual object recognition, suggesting a non-language specific impact of reading on children's neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Word and object recognition during reading acquisition: MEG evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendy Caffarra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on adults suggest that reading-induced brain changes might not be limited to linguistic processes. It is still unclear whether these results can be generalized to reading development. The present study shows to which extent neural responses to verbal and nonverbal stimuli are reorganized while children learn to read. MEG data of thirty Basque children (4–8y were collected while they were presented with written words, spoken words and visual objects. The evoked fields elicited by the experimental stimuli were compared to their scrambled counterparts. Visual words elicited left posterior (200–300 ms and temporal activations (400–800 ms. The size of these effects increased as reading performance improved, suggesting a reorganization of children’s visual word responses. Spoken words elicited greater left temporal responses relative to scrambles (300–700 ms. No evidence for the influence of reading expertise was observed. Brain responses to objects were greater than to scrambles in bilateral posterior regions (200–500 ms. There was a greater left hemisphere involvement as reading errors decreased, suggesting a strengthened verbal decoding of visual configurations with reading acquisition. The present results reveal that learning to read not only influences written word processing, but also affects visual object recognition, suggesting a non-language specific impact of reading on children’s neural mechanisms.

  14. 3-D Object Recognition from Point Cloud Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.; Walker, A. S.; Zhang, B.

    2011-09-01

    The market for real-time 3-D mapping includes not only traditional geospatial applications but also navigation of unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs). Massively parallel processes such as graphics processing unit (GPU) computing make real-time 3-D object recognition and mapping achievable. Geospatial technologies such as digital photogrammetry and GIS offer advanced capabilities to produce 2-D and 3-D static maps using UAV data. The goal is to develop real-time UAV navigation through increased automation. It is challenging for a computer to identify a 3-D object such as a car, a tree or a house, yet automatic 3-D object recognition is essential to increasing the productivity of geospatial data such as 3-D city site models. In the past three decades, researchers have used radiometric properties to identify objects in digital imagery with limited success, because these properties vary considerably from image to image. Consequently, our team has developed software that recognizes certain types of 3-D objects within 3-D point clouds. Although our software is developed for modeling, simulation and visualization, it has the potential to be valuable in robotics and UAV applications. The locations and shapes of 3-D objects such as buildings and trees are easily recognizable by a human from a brief glance at a representation of a point cloud such as terrain-shaded relief. The algorithms to extract these objects have been developed and require only the point cloud and minimal human inputs such as a set of limits on building size and a request to turn on a squaring option. The algorithms use both digital surface model (DSM) and digital elevation model (DEM), so software has also been developed to derive the latter from the former. The process continues through the following steps: identify and group 3-D object points into regions; separate buildings and houses from trees; trace region boundaries; regularize and simplify boundary polygons; construct complex roofs. Several case

  15. 3-D OBJECT RECOGNITION FROM POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Smith

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The market for real-time 3-D mapping includes not only traditional geospatial applications but also navigation of unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs. Massively parallel processes such as graphics processing unit (GPU computing make real-time 3-D object recognition and mapping achievable. Geospatial technologies such as digital photogrammetry and GIS offer advanced capabilities to produce 2-D and 3-D static maps using UAV data. The goal is to develop real-time UAV navigation through increased automation. It is challenging for a computer to identify a 3-D object such as a car, a tree or a house, yet automatic 3-D object recognition is essential to increasing the productivity of geospatial data such as 3-D city site models. In the past three decades, researchers have used radiometric properties to identify objects in digital imagery with limited success, because these properties vary considerably from image to image. Consequently, our team has developed software that recognizes certain types of 3-D objects within 3-D point clouds. Although our software is developed for modeling, simulation and visualization, it has the potential to be valuable in robotics and UAV applications. The locations and shapes of 3-D objects such as buildings and trees are easily recognizable by a human from a brief glance at a representation of a point cloud such as terrain-shaded relief. The algorithms to extract these objects have been developed and require only the point cloud and minimal human inputs such as a set of limits on building size and a request to turn on a squaring option. The algorithms use both digital surface model (DSM and digital elevation model (DEM, so software has also been developed to derive the latter from the former. The process continues through the following steps: identify and group 3-D object points into regions; separate buildings and houses from trees; trace region boundaries; regularize and simplify boundary polygons; construct complex

  16. Improving human object recognition performance using video enhancement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Lucy S.; Lewis, Colin; Oakley, John P.

    2004-12-01

    Atmospheric scattering causes significant degradation in the quality of video images, particularly when imaging over long distances. The principle problem is the reduction in contrast due to scattered light. It is known that when the scattering particles are not too large compared with the imaging wavelength (i.e. Mie scattering) then high spatial resolution information may be contained within a low-contrast image. Unfortunately this information is not easily perceived by a human observer, particularly when using a standard video monitor. A secondary problem is the difficulty of achieving a sharp focus since automatic focus techniques tend to fail in such conditions. Recently several commercial colour video processing systems have become available. These systems use various techniques to improve image quality in low contrast conditions whilst retaining colour content. These systems produce improvements in subjective image quality in some situations, particularly in conditions of haze and light fog. There is also some evidence that video enhancement leads to improved ATR performance when used as a pre-processing stage. Psychological literature indicates that low contrast levels generally lead to a reduction in the performance of human observers in carrying out simple visual tasks. The aim of this paper is to present the results of an empirical study on object recognition in adverse viewing conditions. The chosen visual task was vehicle number plate recognition at long ranges (500 m and beyond). Two different commercial video enhancement systems are evaluated using the same protocol. The results show an increase in effective range with some differences between the different enhancement systems.

  17. Hough forests for object detection, tracking, and action recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Juergen; Yao, Angela; Razavi, Nima; Van Gool, Luc; Lempitsky, Victor

    2011-11-01

    Abstract—The paper introduces Hough forests, which are random forests adapted to perform a generalized Hough transform in an efficient way. Compared to previous Hough-based systems such as implicit shape models, Hough forests improve the performance of the generalized Hough transform for object detection on a categorical level. At the same time, their flexibility permits extensions of the Hough transform to new domains such as object tracking and action recognition. Hough forests can be regarded as task-adapted codebooks of local appearance that allow fast supervised training and fast matching at test time. They achieve high detection accuracy since the entries of such codebooks are optimized to cast Hough votes with small variance and since their efficiency permits dense sampling of local image patches or video cuboids during detection. The efficacy of Hough forests for a set of computer vision tasks is validated through experiments on a large set of publicly available benchmark data sets and comparisons with the state-of-the-art.

  18. Deformation-specific and deformation-invariant visual object recognition: pose vs identity recognition of people and deforming objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan J Webb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When we see a human sitting down, standing up, or walking, we can recognise one of these poses independently of the individual, or we can recognise the individual person, independently of the pose. The same issues arise for deforming objects. For example, if we see a flag deformed by the wind, either blowing out or hanging languidly, we can usually recognise the flag, independently of its deformation; or we can recognise the deformation independently of the identity of the flag. We hypothesize that these types of recognition can be implemented by the primate visual system using temporo-spatial continuity as objects transform as a learning principle. In particular, we hypothesize that pose or deformation can be learned under conditions in which large numbers of different people are successively seen in the same pose, or objects in the same deformation. We also hypothesize that person-specific representations that are independent of pose, and object-specific representations that are independent of deformation and view, could be built, when individual people or objects are observed successively transforming from one pose or deformation and view to another. These hypotheses were tested in a simulation of the ventral visual system, VisNet, that uses temporal continuity, implemented in a synaptic learning rule with a short-term memory trace of previous neuronal activity, to learn invariant representations. It was found that depending on the statistics of the visual input, either pose-specific or deformation-specific representations could be built that were invariant with respect to individual and view; or that identity-specific representations could be built that were invariant with respect to pose or deformation and view. We propose that this is how pose-specific and pose-invariant, and deformation-specific and deformation-invariant, perceptual representations are built in the brain.

  19. Biological object recognition in μ-radiography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, A.; Dammer, J.; Weyda, F.; Sopko, V.; Benes, J.; Zeman, J.; Jandejsek, I.

    2015-03-01

    This study presents an applicability of real-time microradiography to biological objects, namely to horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) and following image processing focusing on image segmentation and object recognition. The microradiography of insects (such as horse chestnut leafminer) provides a non-invasive imaging that leaves the organisms alive. The imaging requires a high spatial resolution (micrometer scale) radiographic system. Our radiographic system consists of a micro-focus X-ray tube and two types of detectors. The first is a charge integrating detector (Hamamatsu flat panel), the second is a pixel semiconductor detector (Medipix2 detector). The latter allows detection of single quantum photon of ionizing radiation. We obtained numerous horse chestnuts leafminer pupae in several microradiography images easy recognizable in automatic mode using the image processing methods. We implemented an algorithm that is able to count a number of dead and alive pupae in images. The algorithm was based on two methods: 1) noise reduction using mathematical morphology filters, 2) Canny edge detection. The accuracy of the algorithm is higher for the Medipix2 (average recall for detection of alive pupae =0.99, average recall for detection of dead pupae =0.83), than for the flat panel (average recall for detection of alive pupae =0.99, average recall for detection of dead pupae =0.77). Therefore, we conclude that Medipix2 has lower noise and better displays contours (edges) of biological objects. Our method allows automatic selection and calculation of dead and alive chestnut leafminer pupae. It leads to faster monitoring of the population of one of the world's important insect pest.

  20. Biological object recognition in μ-radiography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, A.; Dammer, J.; Benes, J.; Zeman, J.; Weyda, F.; Sopko, V.; Jandejsek, I.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an applicability of real-time microradiography to biological objects, namely to horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) and following image processing focusing on image segmentation and object recognition. The microradiography of insects (such as horse chestnut leafminer) provides a non-invasive imaging that leaves the organisms alive. The imaging requires a high spatial resolution (micrometer scale) radiographic system. Our radiographic system consists of a micro-focus X-ray tube and two types of detectors. The first is a charge integrating detector (Hamamatsu flat panel), the second is a pixel semiconductor detector (Medipix2 detector). The latter allows detection of single quantum photon of ionizing radiation. We obtained numerous horse chestnuts leafminer pupae in several microradiography images easy recognizable in automatic mode using the image processing methods. We implemented an algorithm that is able to count a number of dead and alive pupae in images. The algorithm was based on two methods: 1) noise reduction using mathematical morphology filters, 2) Canny edge detection. The accuracy of the algorithm is higher for the Medipix2 (average recall for detection of alive pupae =0.99, average recall for detection of dead pupae =0.83), than for the flat panel (average recall for detection of alive pupae =0.99, average recall for detection of dead pupae =0.77). Therefore, we conclude that Medipix2 has lower noise and better displays contours (edges) of biological objects. Our method allows automatic selection and calculation of dead and alive chestnut leafminer pupae. It leads to faster monitoring of the population of one of the world's important insect pest

  1. [Influence of object material and inter-trial interval on novel object recognition test in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-jian; Huang, Zhu-yan; Ye, Yi-lu; Yu, Yue-ping; Zhang, Wei-ping; Wei, Er-qing; Zhang, Qi

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the efficacy of novel object recognition (NOR) test in assessment of learning and memory ability in ICR mice in different experimental conditions. One hundred and thirty male ICR mice were randomly divided into 10 groups: 4 groups for different inter-trial intervals (ITI: 10 min, 90 min, 4 h, 24 h), 4 groups for different object materials (wood-wood, plastic-plastic, plastic-wood, wood-plastic) and 2 groups for repeated test (measured once a day or every 3 days, totally three times in each group). The locomotor tracks in the open field were recorded. The amount of time spent exploring the novel and familiar objects, the discrimination ratio (DR) and the discrimination index (DI) were analyzed. Compared with familiar object, DR and DI of novel object were both increased at ITI of 10 min and 90 min (P<0.01). Exploring time, DR and DI were greatly influenced by different object materials. DR and DI remained stable by using identical object material. NOR test could be done repeatedly in the same batch of mice. NOR test can be used to assess the learning and memory ability in mice at shorter ITI and with identical material. It can be done repeatedly.

  2. Use of the recognition heuristic depends on the domain's recognition validity, not on the recognition validity of selected sets of objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Rüdiger F; Michalkiewicz, Martha; Erdfelder, Edgar; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2017-07-01

    According to the recognition-heuristic theory, decision makers solve paired comparisons in which one object is recognized and the other not by recognition alone, inferring that recognized objects have higher criterion values than unrecognized ones. However, success-and thus usefulness-of this heuristic depends on the validity of recognition as a cue, and adaptive decision making, in turn, requires that decision makers are sensitive to it. To this end, decision makers could base their evaluation of the recognition validity either on the selected set of objects (the set's recognition validity), or on the underlying domain from which the objects were drawn (the domain's recognition validity). In two experiments, we manipulated the recognition validity both in the selected set of objects and between domains from which the sets were drawn. The results clearly show that use of the recognition heuristic depends on the domain's recognition validity, not on the set's recognition validity. In other words, participants treat all sets as roughly representative of the underlying domain and adjust their decision strategy adaptively (only) with respect to the more general environment rather than the specific items they are faced with.

  3. Feature extractor and search engine for automatic object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Joao C.; Correia, Bento A. B.

    1998-10-01

    Automatic object recognition methodologies are being used increasingly in the automation of many industrial processes. However, the specific nature of each system usually implies an intensive development effort. Aiming to control and constrain such effort, this paper presents a processing architecture that promotes the reutilization of common system modules. The approach described covers the whole processing chain by connecting low-level pre-processing to the final classification stage, specially emphasizing the segmentation and feature extraction levels. The resulting core is a search engine based on the data structure of a graph. This structure is initially fed with raw edge information extracted from the original raster image representation. The edge segments used at this preliminary version of the graph are the result of a multistage process of edge following and edge linking. The use of image properties at high levels of abstraction allows the dimensions of the search space to be significantly reduced. Modularity and reutilization allows the refinement of an initial low-level representation of information into successive higher levels of description, until a final set of features that may directly feed a classifier is achieved. Parallel contours, constant curvature edge segments and closed contours of a given shape are a few examples of the features easily defined within this architecture and that can be extracted by the search engine implemented.

  4. Poka Yoke system based on image analysis and object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belu, N.; Ionescu, L. M.; Misztal, A.; Mazăre, A.

    2015-11-01

    Poka Yoke is a method of quality management which is related to prevent faults from arising during production processes. It deals with “fail-sating” or “mistake-proofing”. The Poka-yoke concept was generated and developed by Shigeo Shingo for the Toyota Production System. Poka Yoke is used in many fields, especially in monitoring production processes. In many cases, identifying faults in a production process involves a higher cost than necessary cost of disposal. Usually, poke yoke solutions are based on multiple sensors that identify some nonconformities. This means the presence of different equipment (mechanical, electronic) on production line. As a consequence, coupled with the fact that the method itself is an invasive, affecting the production process, would increase its price diagnostics. The bulky machines are the means by which a Poka Yoke system can be implemented become more sophisticated. In this paper we propose a solution for the Poka Yoke system based on image analysis and identification of faults. The solution consists of a module for image acquisition, mid-level processing and an object recognition module using associative memory (Hopfield network type). All are integrated into an embedded system with AD (Analog to Digital) converter and Zync 7000 (22 nm technology).

  5. One-trial object recognition memory in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is disrupted by NMDA receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kurt Leroy; Basurto, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    The spontaneous response to novelty is the basis of one-trial object recognition tests for the study of object recognition memory (ORM) in rodents. We describe an object recognition task for the rabbit, based on its natural tendency to scent-mark ("chin") novel objects. The object recognition task comprised a 15min sample phase in which the rabbit was placed into an open field arena containing two similar objects, then removed for a 5-360min delay, and then returned to the same arena that contained one object similar to the original ones ("Familiar") and one that differed from the original ones ("Novel"), for a 15min test phase. Chin-marks directed at each of the objects were registered. Some animals received injections (sc) of saline, ketamine (1mg/kg), or MK-801 (37μg/kg), 5 or 20min before the sample phase. We found that chinning decreased across the sample phase, and that this response showed stimulus specificity, a defining characteristic of habituation: in the test phase, chinning directed at the Novel, but not Familiar, object was increased. Chinning directed preferentially at the novel object, which we interpret as novelty-induced sensitization and the behavioral correlate of ORM, was promoted by tactile/visual and spatial novelty. ORM deficits were induced by pre-treatment with MK-801 and, to a lesser extent, ketamine. Novel object discrimination was not observed after delays longer than 5min. These results suggest that short-term habituation and sensitization, not long-term memory, underlie novel object discrimination in this test paradigm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Guppies Show Behavioural but Not Cognitive Sex Differences in a Novel Object Recognition Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato

    Full Text Available The novel object recognition (NOR test is a widely-used paradigm to study learning and memory in rodents. NOR performance is typically measured as the preference to interact with a novel object over a familiar object based on spontaneous exploratory behaviour. In rats and mice, females usually have greater NOR ability than males. The NOR test is now available for a large number of species, including fish, but sex differences have not been properly tested outside of rodents. We compared male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata in a NOR test to study whether sex differences exist also for fish. We focused on sex differences in both performance and behaviour of guppies during the test. In our experiment, adult guppies expressed a preference for the novel object as most rodents and other species do. When we looked at sex differences, we found the two sexes showed a similar preference for the novel object over the familiar object, suggesting that male and female guppies have similar NOR performances. Analysis of behaviour revealed that males were more inclined to swim in the proximity of the two objects than females. Further, males explored the novel object at the beginning of the experiment while females did so afterwards. These two behavioural differences are possibly due to sex differences in exploration. Even though NOR performance is not different between male and female guppies, the behavioural sex differences we found could affect the results of the experiments and should be carefully considered when assessing fish memory with the NOR test.

  7. Model-based recognition of 3-D objects by geometric hashing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severcan, M.; Uzunalioglu, H.

    1992-09-01

    A model-based object recognition system is developed for recognition of polyhedral objects. The system consists of feature extraction, modelling and matching stages. Linear features are used for object descriptions. Lines are obtained from edges using rotation transform. For modelling and recognition process, geometric hashing method is utilized. Each object is modelled using 2-D views taken from the viewpoints on the viewing sphere. A hidden line elimination algorithm is used to find these views from the wire frame model of the objects. The recognition experiments yielded satisfactory results. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  8. Object recognition of real targets using modelled SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherdev, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work the problem of recognition is studied using SAR images. The algorithm of recognition is based on the computation of conjugation indices with vectors of class. The support subspaces for each class are constructed by exception of the most and the less correlated vectors in a class. In the study we examine the ability of a significant feature vector size reduce that leads to recognition time decrease. The images of targets form the feature vectors that are transformed using pre-trained convolutional neural network (CNN).

  9. Speaker-sensitive emotion recognition via ranking: Studies on acted and spontaneous speech☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Houwei; Verma, Ragini; Nenkova, Ani

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a ranking approach for emotion recognition which naturally incorporates information about the general expressivity of speakers. We demonstrate that our approach leads to substantial gains in accuracy compared to conventional approaches. We train ranking SVMs for individual emotions, treating the data from each speaker as a separate query, and combine the predictions from all rankers to perform multi-class prediction. The ranking method provides two natural benefits. It captures speaker specific information even in speaker-independent training/testing conditions. It also incorporates the intuition that each utterance can express a mix of possible emotion and that considering the degree to which each emotion is expressed can be productively exploited to identify the dominant emotion. We compare the performance of the rankers and their combination to standard SVM classification approaches on two publicly available datasets of acted emotional speech, Berlin and LDC, as well as on spontaneous emotional data from the FAU Aibo dataset. On acted data, ranking approaches exhibit significantly better performance compared to SVM classification both in distinguishing a specific emotion from all others and in multi-class prediction. On the spontaneous data, which contains mostly neutral utterances with a relatively small portion of less intense emotional utterances, ranking-based classifiers again achieve much higher precision in identifying emotional utterances than conventional SVM classifiers. In addition, we discuss the complementarity of conventional SVM and ranking-based classifiers. On all three datasets we find dramatically higher accuracy for the test items on whose prediction the two methods agree compared to the accuracy of individual methods. Furthermore on the spontaneous data the ranking and standard classification are complementary and we obtain marked improvement when we combine the two classifiers by late-stage fusion.

  10. Matching Algorithms and Feature Match Quality Measures for Model-Based Object Recognition with Applications to Automatic Target Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keller, Martin G

    1999-01-01

    In the fields of computational vision and image understanding, the object recognition problem can be formulated as a problem of matching a collection of model features to features extracted from an observed scene...

  11. Comparison of active SIFT-based 3D object recognition algorithms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Keaikitse, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Active object recognition aims to manipulate the sensor and its parameters, and interact with the environment and/or the object of interest in order to gather more information to complete the 3D object recognition task as quickly and accurately...

  12. It takes two-skilled recognition of objects engages lateral areas in both hemispheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merim Bilalić

    Full Text Available Our object recognition abilities, a direct product of our experience with objects, are fine-tuned to perfection. Left temporal and lateral areas along the dorsal, action related stream, as well as left infero-temporal areas along the ventral, object related stream are engaged in object recognition. Here we show that expertise modulates the activity of dorsal areas in the recognition of man-made objects with clearly specified functions. Expert chess players were faster than chess novices in identifying chess objects and their functional relations. Experts' advantage was domain-specific as there were no differences between groups in a control task featuring geometrical shapes. The pattern of eye movements supported the notion that experts' extensive knowledge about domain objects and their functions enabled superior recognition even when experts were not directly fixating the objects of interest. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI related exclusively the areas along the dorsal stream to chess specific object recognition. Besides the commonly involved left temporal and parietal lateral brain areas, we found that only in experts homologous areas on the right hemisphere were also engaged in chess specific object recognition. Based on these results, we discuss whether skilled object recognition does not only involve a more efficient version of the processes found in non-skilled recognition, but also qualitatively different cognitive processes which engage additional brain areas.

  13. It Takes Two–Skilled Recognition of Objects Engages Lateral Areas in Both Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalić, Merim; Kiesel, Andrea; Pohl, Carsten; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Our object recognition abilities, a direct product of our experience with objects, are fine-tuned to perfection. Left temporal and lateral areas along the dorsal, action related stream, as well as left infero-temporal areas along the ventral, object related stream are engaged in object recognition. Here we show that expertise modulates the activity of dorsal areas in the recognition of man-made objects with clearly specified functions. Expert chess players were faster than chess novices in identifying chess objects and their functional relations. Experts' advantage was domain-specific as there were no differences between groups in a control task featuring geometrical shapes. The pattern of eye movements supported the notion that experts' extensive knowledge about domain objects and their functions enabled superior recognition even when experts were not directly fixating the objects of interest. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) related exclusively the areas along the dorsal stream to chess specific object recognition. Besides the commonly involved left temporal and parietal lateral brain areas, we found that only in experts homologous areas on the right hemisphere were also engaged in chess specific object recognition. Based on these results, we discuss whether skilled object recognition does not only involve a more efficient version of the processes found in non-skilled recognition, but also qualitatively different cognitive processes which engage additional brain areas. PMID:21283683

  14. Research on recognition methods of aphid objects in complex backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Ji-Hong

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the recognition accuracy among the kinds of aphids in the complex backgrounds, the recognition method among kinds of aphids based on Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT) and Support Vector Machine (Libsvm) is proposed. Firstly the image is pretreated; secondly the aphid images' texture feature of three crops are extracted by DT-CWT in order to get the training parameters of training model; finally the training model could recognize aphids among the three kinds of crops. By contrasting to Gabor wavelet transform and the traditional extracting texture's methods based on Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), the experiment result shows that the method has a certain practicality and feasibility and provides basic for aphids' recognition between the identification among same kind aphid.

  15. Dual-Hierarchy Graph Method for Object Indexing and Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    INDEXING AND RECOGNITION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-12-C-0117 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62305E 6. AUTHOR(S) Isaac Weiss, Fan...hierarchies. We then adjust the position and orientation of the node by minimizing its total energy using a simple one-step Newton method. Next we adjust

  16. Captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus spontaneously using water flow to manipulate objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisato Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Several terrestrial animals and delphinids manipulate objects in a tactile manner, using parts of their bodies, such as their mouths or hands. In this paper, we report that bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus manipulate objects not by direct bodily contact, but by spontaneous water flow. Three of four dolphins at Suma Aqualife Park performed object manipulation with food. The typical sequence of object manipulation consisted of a three step procedure. First, the dolphins released the object from the sides of their mouths while assuming a head-down posture near the floor. They then manipulated the object around their mouths and caught it. Finally, they ceased to engage in their head-down posture and started to swim. When the dolphins moved the object, they used the water current in the pool or moved their head. These results showed that dolphins manipulate objects using movements that do not directly involve contact between a body part and the object. In the event the dolphins dropped the object on the floor, they lifted it by making water flow in one of three methods: opening and closing their mouths repeatedly, moving their heads lengthwise, or making circular head motions. This result suggests that bottlenose dolphins spontaneously change their environment to manipulate objects. The reason why aquatic animals like dolphins do object manipulation by changing their environment but terrestrial animals do not may be that the viscosity of the aquatic environment is much higher than it is in terrestrial environments. This is the first report thus far of any non-human mammal engaging in object manipulation using several methods to change their environment.

  17. Implementation of CT and IHT Processors for Invariant Object Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan jr.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents PDL or ASIC implementation of key modules ofinvariant object recognition system based on the combination of theIncremental Hough transform (IHT, correlation and rapid transform(RT. The invariant object recognition system was represented partiallyin C++ language for general-purpose processor on personal computer andpartially described in VHDL code for implementation in PLD or ASIC.

  18. Object recognition via MINACE filter trained on synthetic 3D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaulskiy, Dmitry V.; Konstantinov, Maxim V.; Starikov, Rostislav S.

    2015-09-01

    Paper presents study results of MINACE filter implementation to recognition problem of object subjected to out-of-plane rotation distortion and captured as raster image. Filter training conducted by images acquired from synthetic 3D object model. Dependence of recognition results from 3D model illumination type is shown.

  19. Object recognition using deep convolutional neural networks with complete transfer and partial frozen layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, M.C.; Bouma, H.; Fischer, N.M.; Schutte, K.

    2016-01-01

    Object recognition is important to understand the content of video and allow flexible querying in a large number of cameras, especially for security applications. Recent benchmarks show that deep convolutional neural networks are excellent approaches for object recognition. This paper describes an

  20. An optical processor for object recognition and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, J.; Udomkesmalee, S.

    1987-01-01

    The design and development of a miniaturized optical processor that performs real time image correlation are described. The optical correlator utilizes the Vander Lugt matched spatial filter technique. The correlation output, a focused beam of light, is imaged onto a CMOS photodetector array. In addition to performing target recognition, the device also tracks the target. The hardware, composed of optical and electro-optical components, occupies only 590 cu cm of volume. A complete correlator system would also include an input imaging lens. This optical processing system is compact, rugged, requires only 3.5 watts of operating power, and weighs less than 3 kg. It represents a major achievement in miniaturizing optical processors. When considered as a special-purpose processing unit, it is an attractive alternative to conventional digital image recognition processing. It is conceivable that the combined technology of both optical and ditital processing could result in a very advanced robot vision system.

  1. Improving a Deep Learning based RGB-D Object Recognition Model by Ensemble Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakerberg, Andreas; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Heder, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Augmenting RGB images with depth information is a well-known method to significantly improve the recognition accuracy of object recognition models. Another method to im- prove the performance of visual recognition models is ensemble learning. However, this method has not been widely explored...... in combination with deep convolutional neural network based RGB-D object recognition models. Hence, in this paper, we form different ensembles of complementary deep convolutional neural network models, and show that this can be used to increase the recognition performance beyond existing limits. Experiments...... on the Washington RGB-D Object Dataset show that our best performing ensemble improves the recognition performance with 0.7% compared to using the baseline model alone....

  2. Multisensory Interactions between Auditory and Haptic Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Menz, Mareike M; R�der, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    and haptic object features activate cortical regions that host unified conceptual object representations. The left fusiform gyrus (FG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) showed increased activation during crossmodal matching of semantically congruent but not incongruent object stimuli. In the FG...

  3. How Does Using Object Names Influence Visual Recognition Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Two recent lines of research suggest that explicitly naming objects at study influences subsequent memory for those objects at test. Lupyan (2008) suggested that naming "impairs" memory by a representational shift of stored representations of named objects toward the prototype (labeling effect). MacLeod, Gopie, Hourihan, Neary, and Ozubko (2010)…

  4. Three-dimensional object representation and invariant recognition using continuous distance transform neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Y H; Hwang, J N; Sheehan, F H

    1997-01-01

    3D object recognition under partial object viewing is a difficult pattern recognition task. In this paper, we introduce a neural-network solution that is robust to partial viewing of objects and noise corruption. This method directly utilizes the acquired 3D data and requires no feature extraction. The object is first parametrically represented by a continuous distance transform neural network (CDTNN) trained by the surface points of the exemplar object. The CDTNN maps any 3D coordinate into a value that corresponds to the distance between the point and the nearest surface point of the object. Therefore, a mismatch between the exemplar object and an unknown object can be easily computed. When encountered with deformed objects, this mismatch information can be backpropagated through the CDTNN to iteratively determine the deformation in terms of affine transform. Application to 3D heart contour delineation and invariant recognition of 3D rigid-body objects is presented.

  5. Global precedence effects account for individual differences in both face and object recognition performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Starrfelt, Randi

    2018-01-01

    There has been an increase in studies adopting an individual difference approach to examine visual cognition and in particular in studies trying to relate face recognition performance with measures of holistic processing (the face composite effect and the part-whole effect). In the present study we...... examine whether global precedence effects, measured by means of non-face stimuli in Navon’s paradigm, can also account for individual differences in face recognition and, if so, whether the effect is of similar magnitude for faces and objects. We find evidence that global precedence effects facilitate...... both face and object recognition, and to a similar extent. Our results suggest that both face and object recognition are characterized by a coarse-to-fine temporal dynamic, where global shape information is derived prior to local shape information, and that the efficiency of face and object recognition...

  6. On the relation between face and object recognition in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja; Starrfelt, Randi

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether face recognition and object recognition constitute separate cognitive domains. Clarification of this issue can have important theoretical consequences as face recognition is often used as a prime example of domain-specificity in mind and brain. An important...... source of input to this debate comes from studies of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia, suggesting that face recognition can be selectively impaired. We put the selectivity-hypothesis to test by assessing the performance of 10 subjects with developmental prosopagnosia on demanding tests...... of visual object processing involving both regular and degraded drawings. None of the individuals exhibited a dissociation between face and object recognition, and as a group they were significantly more affected by degradation of objects than control participants. Importantly, we also find positive...

  7. Object recognition and generalisation during habituation in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tjatjana; Chovaux, Elodie

    2011-01-01

    The ability of horses to habituate to frightening stimuli greatly increases safety in the horse–human relationship. A recent experiment suggested, however, that habituation to frightening visual stimuli is relatively stimulus-specific in horses and that shape and colour are important factors...... for object generalisation (Christensen et al., 2008). In a series of experiments, we aimed to further explore the ability of horses (n = 30, 1 and 2-year-old mares) to recognise and generalise between objects during habituation. TEST horses (n = 15) were habituated to a complex object, composed of five...... simple objects of varying shape and colour, whereas CONTROL horses (n = 15) were habituated to the test arena, but not to the complex object. In the first experiment, we investigated whether TEST horses subsequently reacted less to i) simple objects that were previously part of the complex object (i...

  8. A Neural Model Combining Attentional Orienting to Object Recognition: Preliminary Explorations on the Interplay Between Where and What

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miau, Florence

    2001-01-01

    ... ("where") pathway and an object recognition ("what") pathway. The fast visual attention front-end rapidly selects the few most conspicuous image locations, and the slower object recognition back-end identifies objects at the selected locations...

  9. Effect of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on novel object associative recognition memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Lu, Jun-Mei; Xing, Zhen-He; Zhao, Qian-Ru; Hu, Lin-Qi; Xue, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2017-03-17

    Mounting evidence suggests that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) can influence learning and memory in rodents. In this study, we examined the effects of single exposure to 1.8 GHz RF-EMR for 30 min on subsequent recognition memory in mice, using the novel object recognition task (NORT). RF-EMR exposure at an intensity of >2.2 W/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) power density induced a significant density-dependent increase in NORT index with no corresponding changes in spontaneous locomotor activity. RF-EMR exposure increased dendritic-spine density and length in hippocampal and prefrontal cortical neurons, as shown by Golgi staining. Whole-cell recordings in acute hippocampal and medial prefrontal cortical slices showed that RF-EMR exposure significantly altered the resting membrane potential and action potential frequency, and reduced the action potential half-width, threshold, and onset delay in pyramidal neurons. These results demonstrate that exposure to 1.8 GHz RF-EMR for 30 min can significantly increase recognition memory in mice, and can change dendritic-spine morphology and neuronal excitability in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. The SAR in this study (3.3 W/kg) was outside the range encountered in normal daily life, and its relevance as a potential therapeutic approach for disorders associated with recognition memory deficits remains to be clarified.

  10. Contextual System of Symbol Structural Recognition based on an Object-Process Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Delalandre, Mathieu

    2005-01-01

    We present in this paper a symbol recognition system for the graphic documents. This one is based on a contextual approach for symbol structural recognition exploiting an Object-Process Methodology. It uses a processing library composed of structural recognition processings and contextual evaluation processings. These processings allow our system to deal with the multi-representation of symbols. The different processings are controlled, in an automatic way, by an inference engine during the r...

  11. Normal and abnormal category-effects in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not, as some brain injured patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts while others show the opposite impairment. In an attempt to explain category-sp...

  12. Three-dimensional object recognition using similar triangles and decision trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly

    1993-01-01

    A system, TRIDEC, that is capable of distinguishing between a set of objects despite changes in the objects' positions in the input field, their size, or their rotational orientation in 3D space is described. TRIDEC combines very simple yet effective features with the classification capabilities of inductive decision tree methods. The feature vector is a list of all similar triangles defined by connecting all combinations of three pixels in a coarse coded 127 x 127 pixel input field. The classification is accomplished by building a decision tree using the information provided from a limited number of translated, scaled, and rotated samples. Simulation results are presented which show that TRIDEC achieves 94 percent recognition accuracy in the 2D invariant object recognition domain and 98 percent recognition accuracy in the 3D invariant object recognition domain after training on only a small sample of transformed views of the objects.

  13. Object recognition through turbulence with a modified plenoptic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chensheng; Ko, Jonathan; Davis, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric turbulence adds accumulated distortion to images obtained by cameras and surveillance systems. When the turbulence grows stronger or when the object is further away from the observer, increasing the recording device resolution helps little to improve the quality of the image. Many sophisticated methods to correct the distorted images have been invented, such as using a known feature on or near the target object to perform a deconvolution process, or use of adaptive optics. However, most of the methods depend heavily on the object's location, and optical ray propagation through the turbulence is not directly considered. Alternatively, selecting a lucky image over many frames provides a feasible solution, but at the cost of time. In our work, we propose an innovative approach to improving image quality through turbulence by making use of a modified plenoptic camera. This type of camera adds a micro-lens array to a traditional high-resolution camera to form a semi-camera array that records duplicate copies of the object as well as "superimposed" turbulence at slightly different angles. By performing several steps of image reconstruction, turbulence effects will be suppressed to reveal more details of the object independently (without finding references near the object). Meanwhile, the redundant information obtained by the plenoptic camera raises the possibility of performing lucky image algorithmic analysis with fewer frames, which is more efficient. In our work, the details of our modified plenoptic cameras and image processing algorithms will be introduced. The proposed method can be applied to coherently illuminated object as well as incoherently illuminated objects. Our result shows that the turbulence effect can be effectively suppressed by the plenoptic camera in the hardware layer and a reconstructed "lucky image" can help the viewer identify the object even when a "lucky image" by ordinary cameras is not achievable.

  14. Automated Mulitple Object Optical Tracking and Recognition System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OPTRA proposes to develop an optical tracking system that is capable of recognizing and tracking up to 50 different objects within an approximately 2 degree x 3...

  15. Object texture recognition by dynamic tactile sensing using active exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Børlum Petersen, Mikkel; Bilberg, Arne

    For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a method for determining object texture by active exploration with a robotic fingertip equipped with a d......For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a method for determining object texture by active exploration with a robotic fingertip equipped...... with a dynamic tactile transducer based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film. Different test surfaces are actively explored and the signal from the sensor is used for feature extraction, which is subsequently used for classification. A comparison between the significance of different extracted...

  16. Information Theoretic Investigation of Automatic Object Recognition and Image Fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cyganski, David

    1997-01-01

    ...) into the framework of signal detection/demodulation theory. Specific goals are to predict maximum achievable ATR/PE performance for a given object/scene scenario, and to quantify the tradeoff between performance and system complexity...

  17. Automated Mulitple Object Optical Tracking and Recognition System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OPTRA proposes to develop an optical tracking system that is capable of recognizing and tracking up to 50 different objects within an approximately 2 degree x 3...

  18. Mechanisms and neural basis of object and pattern recognition: a study with chess experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalić, Merim; Langner, Robert; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Comparing experts with novices offers unique insights into the functioning of cognition, based on the maximization of individual differences. Here we used this expertise approach to disentangle the mechanisms and neural basis behind two processes that contribute to everyday expertise: object and pattern recognition. We compared chess experts and novices performing chess-related and -unrelated (visual) search tasks. As expected, the superiority of experts was limited to the chess-specific task, as there were no differences in a control task that used the same chess stimuli but did not require chess-specific recognition. The analysis of eye movements showed that experts immediately and exclusively focused on the relevant aspects in the chess task, whereas novices also examined irrelevant aspects. With random chess positions, when pattern knowledge could not be used to guide perception, experts nevertheless maintained an advantage. Experts' superior domain-specific parafoveal vision, a consequence of their knowledge about individual domain-specific symbols, enabled improved object recognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging corroborated this differentiation between object and pattern recognition and showed that chess-specific object recognition was accompanied by bilateral activation of the occipitotemporal junction, whereas chess-specific pattern recognition was related to bilateral activations in the middle part of the collateral sulci. Using the expertise approach together with carefully chosen controls and multiple dependent measures, we identified object and pattern recognition as two essential cognitive processes in expert visual cognition, which may also help to explain the mechanisms of everyday perception.

  19. Multi-view space object recognition and pose estimation based on kernel regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haopeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of high-performance imaging sensors in space-based space surveillance systems makes it possible to recognize space objects and estimate their poses using vision-based methods. In this paper, we proposed a kernel regression-based method for joint multi-view space object recognition and pose estimation. We built a new simulated satellite image dataset named BUAA-SID 1.5 to test our method using different image representations. We evaluated our method for recognition-only tasks, pose estimation-only tasks, and joint recognition and pose estimation tasks. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-arts in space object recognition, and can recognize space objects and estimate their poses effectively and robustly against noise and lighting conditions.

  20. Categorization and category effects in normal object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Gade, A

    2000-01-01

    ). The object decision tasks were associated with activation of areas involved in structural processing (fusiform gyri, right inferior frontal gyrus). In contrast, the categorization tasks were associated with activation of the left inferior temporal gyrus, a structure believed to be involved in semantic...

  1. Object recognition with stereo vision and geometric hashing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, H.A.L.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand

    In this paper we demonstrate a method to recognize 3D objects and to estimate their pose. For that purpose we use a combination of stereo vision and geometric hashing. Stereo vision is used to generate a large number of 3D low level features, of which many are spurious because at that stage of the

  2. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform a...

  3. Automatic object recognition and change detection of urban trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Sande, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of tree objects is relevant in many current policy issues and relate to the quality of the public space, municipal urban green management, management fees for green areas or Kyoto protocol reporting and all have one thing in common: the need for an up to date tree database. This study,

  4. Image based measurement systems: object recognition and parameter estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Ferdinand

    1994-01-01

    What makes this book unique is that besides information on image processing of objects to yield knowledge, the author has devoted a lot of thought to the measurement factor of image processing. This is of direct practical use in numerous sectors from industrial quality and robotics to medicine and

  5. Image based measurement systems: object recognition and parameter estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Ferdinand

    What makes this book unique is that besides information on image processing of objects to yield knowledge, the author has devoted a lot of thought to the measurement factor of image processing. This is of direct practical use in numerous sectors from industrial quality and robotics to medicine and

  6. A multimodal dataset of spontaneous speech and movement production on object affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatakis, Argiro; Pastra, Katerina

    2016-01-19

    In the longstanding effort of defining object affordances, a number of resources have been developed on objects and associated knowledge. These resources, however, have limited potential for modeling and generalization mainly due to the restricted, stimulus-bound data collection methodologies adopted. To-date, therefore, there exists no resource that truly captures object affordances in a direct, multimodal, and naturalistic way. Here, we present the first such resource of 'thinking aloud', spontaneously-generated verbal and motoric data on object affordances. This resource was developed from the reports of 124 participants divided into three behavioural experiments with visuo-tactile stimulation, which were captured audiovisually from two camera-views (frontal/profile). This methodology allowed the acquisition of approximately 95 hours of video, audio, and text data covering: object-feature-action data (e.g., perceptual features, namings, functions), Exploratory Acts (haptic manipulation for feature acquisition/verification), gestures and demonstrations for object/feature/action description, and reasoning patterns (e.g., justifications, analogies) for attributing a given characterization. The wealth and content of the data make this corpus a one-of-a-kind resource for the study and modeling of object affordances.

  7. Dopamine D4 receptor stimulation contributes to novel object recognition: Relevance to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Masanori; Neugebauer, Nichole M; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2017-04-01

    Several atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have high affinity for the dopamine (DA) D 4 receptor, but the relevance to the efficacy for the treatment of cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of D 4 receptor stimulation or blockade on novel object recognition (NOR) in normal rats and on the sub-chronic phencyclidine (PCP)-induced novel object recognition deficit. The effect of the D 4 agonist, PD168077, and the D 4 antagonist, L-745,870, were studied alone, and in combination with clozapine and lurasidone. In normal rats, L-745,870 impaired novel object recognition, whereas PD168077 had no effect. PD168077 acutely reversed the sub-chronic phencyclidine-induced novel object recognition deficit. Co-administration of a sub-effective dose (SED) of PD168077 with a sub-effective dose of lurasidone also reversed this deficit, but a sub-effective dose of PD168077 with a sub-effective dose of clozapine, a more potent D 4 antagonist than lurasidone, did not reverse the sub-chronic phencyclidine-induced novel object recognition deficit. At a dose that did not induce a novel object recognition deficit, L-745,870 blocked the ability of clozapine, but not lurasidone, to reverse the novel object recognition deficit. D 4 receptor agonism has a beneficial effect on novel object recognition in sub-chronic PCP-treated rats and augments the cognitive enhancing efficacy of an atypical antipsychotic drug that lacks affinity for the D 4 receptor, lurasidone.

  8. Dissociating the Effects of Angular Disparity and Image Similarity in Mental Rotation and Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Olivia S.; Hayward, William G.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Performance is often impaired linearly with increasing angular disparity between two objects in tasks that measure mental rotation or object recognition. But increased angular disparity is often accompanied by changes in the similarity between views of an object, confounding the impact of the two factors in these tasks. We examined separately the…

  9. Observing human-object interactions: using spatial and functional compatibility for recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhinav; Kembhavi, Aniruddha; Davis, Larry S

    2009-10-01

    Interpretation of images and videos containing humans interacting with different objects is a daunting task. It involves understanding scene/event, analyzing human movements, recognizing manipulable objects, and observing the effect of the human movement on those objects. While each of these perceptual tasks can be conducted independently, recognition rate improves when interactions between them are considered. Motivated by psychological studies of human perception, we present a Bayesian approach which integrates various perceptual tasks involved in understanding human-object interactions. Previous approaches to object and action recognition rely on static shape/appearance feature matching and motion analysis, respectively. Our approach goes beyond these traditional approaches and applies spatial and functional constraints on each of the perceptual elements for coherent semantic interpretation. Such constraints allow us to recognize objects and actions when the appearances are not discriminative enough. We also demonstrate the use of such constraints in recognition of actions from static images without using any motion information.

  10. Back to Basic: Do Children with Autism Spontaneously Look at Screen Displaying a Face or an Object?

    OpenAIRE

    Guimard-Brunault, Marie; Hernandez, Nadia; Roché, Laetitia; Roux, Sylvie; Barthélémy, Catherine; Martineau, Joëlle; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    Eye-tracking studies on exploration of faces and objects in autism provided important knowledge but only in a constraint condition (chin rest, total time looking at screen not reported), without studying potential differences between subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and controls in spontaneous visual attention toward a screen presenting these stimuli. This study used eye tracking to compare spontaneous visual attention to a screen displaying a face or an object between children wi...

  11. A primitive-based 3D object recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Atam P.

    1988-01-01

    An intermediate-level knowledge-based system for decomposing segmented data into three-dimensional primitives was developed to create an approximate three-dimensional description of the real world scene from a single two-dimensional perspective view. A knowledge-based approach was also developed for high-level primitive-based matching of three-dimensional objects. Both the intermediate-level decomposition and the high-level interpretation are based on the structural and relational matching; moreover, they are implemented in a frame-based environment.

  12. Short-term plasticity of visuo-haptic object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Klinge, Corinna; Hölig, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    TMS induced increased activations during crossmodal congruent matching in the left FG for haptic S2 and the temporal pole for visual S2. In addition, we found stronger activations for incongruent than congruent matching in the right anterior parahippocampus and middle frontal gyrus for crossmodal matching......Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided ample evidence for the involvement of the lateral occipital cortex (LO), fusiform gyrus (FG), and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in visuo-haptic object integration. Here we applied 30 min of sham (non-effective) or real offline 1 Hz...

  13. How can selection of biologically inspired features improve the performance of a robust object recognition model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Ghodrati

    Full Text Available Humans can effectively and swiftly recognize objects in complex natural scenes. This outstanding ability has motivated many computational object recognition models. Most of these models try to emulate the behavior of this remarkable system. The human visual system hierarchically recognizes objects in several processing stages. Along these stages a set of features with increasing complexity is extracted by different parts of visual system. Elementary features like bars and edges are processed in earlier levels of visual pathway and as far as one goes upper in this pathway more complex features will be spotted. It is an important interrogation in the field of visual processing to see which features of an object are selected and represented by the visual cortex. To address this issue, we extended a hierarchical model, which is motivated by biology, for different object recognition tasks. In this model, a set of object parts, named patches, extracted in the intermediate stages. These object parts are used for training procedure in the model and have an important role in object recognition. These patches are selected indiscriminately from different positions of an image and this can lead to the extraction of non-discriminating patches which eventually may reduce the performance. In the proposed model we used an evolutionary algorithm approach to select a set of informative patches. Our reported results indicate that these patches are more informative than usual random patches. We demonstrate the strength of the proposed model on a range of object recognition tasks. The proposed model outperforms the original model in diverse object recognition tasks. It can be seen from the experiments that selected features are generally particular parts of target images. Our results suggest that selected features which are parts of target objects provide an efficient set for robust object recognition.

  14. Object Recognition System in Remote Controlled Weapon Station using SIFT and SURF Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midriem Mirdanies

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Object recognition system using computer vision that is implemented on Remote Controlled Weapon Station (RCWS is discussed. This system will make it easier to identify and shoot targeted object automatically. Algorithm was created to recognize real time multiple objects using two methods i.e. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF combined with K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC for verification. The algorithm is designed to improve object detection to be more robust and to minimize the processing time required. Objects are registered on the system consisting of the armored personnel carrier, tanks, bus, sedan, big foot, and police jeep. In addition, object selection can use mouse to shoot another object that has not been registered on the system. Kinect™ is used to capture RGB images and to find the coordinates x, y, and z of the object. The programming language used is C with visual studio IDE 2010 and opencv libraries. Object recognition program is divided into three parts: 1 reading image from kinect™ and simulation results, 2 object recognition process, and 3 transfer of the object data to the ballistic computer. Communication between programs is performed using shared memory. The detected object data is sent to the ballistic computer via Local Area Network (LAN using winsock for ballistic calculation, and then the motor control system moves the direction of the weapon model to the desired object. The experimental results show that the SIFT method is more suitable because more accurate and faster than SURF with the average processing time to detect one object is 430.2 ms, two object is 618.4 ms, three objects is 682.4 ms, and four objects is 756.2 ms. Object recognition program is able to recognize multi-objects and the data of the identified object can be processed by the ballistic computer in realtime.

  15. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotions in speech using acoustic and lexical features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, S.; Truong, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    We developed acoustic and lexical classifiers, based on a boosting algorithm, to assess the separability on arousal and valence dimensions in spontaneous emotional speech. The spontaneous emotional speech data was acquired by inviting subjects to play a first-person shooter video game. Our acoustic

  16. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W

    2002-01-01

    to the involvement of re-entrant activation from stored structural knowledge. Evidence in favor of this interpretation comes from the additional finding that activation of the anterior part of the left fusiform gyrus and a more anterior part of the right inferior temporal gyrus, areas previously associated......We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform...... and inferior temporal gyri were more activated by tasks with recognizable stimuli than by tasks with unrecognizable stimuli. We propose that the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri, compared with the inferior occipital gyri, are involved in higher level integration, due...

  17. Object recognition through a multi-mode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Ryosuke; Horisaki, Ryoichi; Tanida, Jun

    2017-04-01

    We present a method of recognizing an object through a multi-mode fiber. A number of speckle patterns transmitted through a multi-mode fiber are provided to a classifier based on machine learning. We experimentally demonstrated binary classification of face and non-face targets based on the method. The measurement process of the experimental setup was random and nonlinear because a multi-mode fiber is a typical strongly scattering medium and any reference light was not used in our setup. Comparisons between three supervised learning methods, support vector machine, adaptive boosting, and neural network, are also provided. All of those learning methods achieved high accuracy rates at about 90% for the classification. The approach presented here can realize a compact and smart optical sensor. It is practically useful for medical applications, such as endoscopy. Also our study indicated a promising utilization of artificial intelligence, which has rapidly progressed, for reducing optical and computational costs in optical sensing systems.

  18. Image processing strategies based on saliency segmentation for object recognition under simulated prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Su, Xiaofan; Wang, Jing; Kan, Han; Han, Tingting; Zeng, Yajie; Chai, Xinyu

    2018-01-01

    Current retinal prostheses can only generate low-resolution visual percepts constituted of limited phosphenes which are elicited by an electrode array and with uncontrollable color and restricted grayscale. Under this visual perception, prosthetic recipients can just complete some simple visual tasks, but more complex tasks like face identification/object recognition are extremely difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate and apply image processing strategies for optimizing the visual perception of the recipients. This study focuses on recognition of the object of interest employing simulated prosthetic vision. We used a saliency segmentation method based on a biologically plausible graph-based visual saliency model and a grabCut-based self-adaptive-iterative optimization framework to automatically extract foreground objects. Based on this, two image processing strategies, Addition of Separate Pixelization and Background Pixel Shrink, were further utilized to enhance the extracted foreground objects. i) The results showed by verification of psychophysical experiments that under simulated prosthetic vision, both strategies had marked advantages over Direct Pixelization in terms of recognition accuracy and efficiency. ii) We also found that recognition performance under two strategies was tied to the segmentation results and was affected positively by the paired-interrelated objects in the scene. The use of the saliency segmentation method and image processing strategies can automatically extract and enhance foreground objects, and significantly improve object recognition performance towards recipients implanted a high-density implant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Central administration of angiotensin IV rapidly enhances novel object recognition among mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jason J; Eans, Shainnel O; Mizrachi, Elisa; Reilley, Kate J; Ganno, Michelle L; McLaughlin, Jay P

    2013-07-01

    Angiotensin IV (Val(1)-Tyr(2)-Ile(3)-His(4)-Pro(5)-Phe(6)) has demonstrated potential cognitive-enhancing effects. The present investigation assessed and characterized: (1) dose-dependency of angiotensin IV's cognitive enhancement in a C57BL/6J mouse model of novel object recognition, (2) the time-course for these effects, (3) the identity of residues in the hexapeptide important to these effects and (4) the necessity of actions at angiotensin IV receptors for procognitive activity. Assessment of C57BL/6J mice in a novel object recognition task demonstrated that prior administration of angiotensin IV (0.1, 1.0, or 10.0, but not 0.01 nmol, i.c.v.) significantly enhanced novel object recognition in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were time dependent, with improved novel object recognition observed when angiotensin IV (0.1 nmol, i.c.v.) was administered 10 or 20, but not 30 min prior to the onset of the novel object recognition testing. An alanine scan of the angiotensin IV peptide revealed that replacement of the Val(1), Ile(3), His(4), or Phe(6) residues with Ala attenuated peptide-induced improvements in novel object recognition, whereas Tyr(2) or Pro(5) replacement did not significantly affect performance. Administration of the angiotensin IV receptor antagonist, divalinal-Ang IV (20 nmol, i.c.v.), reduced (but did not abolish) novel object recognition; however, this antagonist completely blocked the procognitive effects of angiotensin IV (0.1 nmol, i.c.v.) in this task. Rotorod testing demonstrated no locomotor effects with any angiotensin IV or divalinal-Ang IV dose tested. These data demonstrate that angiotensin IV produces a rapid enhancement of associative learning and memory performance in a mouse model that was dependent on the angiotensin IV receptor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Recognition of visual objects under forward masking. Effects of cathegorial similarity of test and masking stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, N Iu; Slavutskaia, A V; Kalinin, S A; Kulikov, M A; Mikhaĭlova, E S

    2013-01-01

    In 38 healthy subjects accuracy and response time were examined during recognition of two categories of images--animals andnonliving objects--under forward masking. We revealed new data that masking effects depended of categorical similarity of target and masking stimuli. The recognition accuracy was the lowest and the response time was the most slow, when the target and masking stimuli belongs to the same category, that was combined with high dispersion of response times. The revealed effects were more clear in the task of animal recognition in comparison with the recognition of nonliving objects. We supposed that the revealed effects connected with interference between cortical representations of the target and masking stimuli and discussed our results in context of cortical interference and negative priming.

  1. A character recognition scheme based on object oriented design for Tibetan buddhist texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yuan Liu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a plausible method to code and compile Buddhist texts from original Tibetan scripts into Romanized form. Using GUI (Graphical User Interface based on Object Oriented Design, a dictionary of Tibetan characters can be easily made for Buddhist literature researchers. It is hoped that a computer system capable of highly accurate character recognition will be actively used by all scholars engaged in Buddhist literature research. In the present study, an efficient automatic recognition method for Tibetan characters is established. The result of the experiments performed is that the recognition rate achieved is 99.4% for 28,954 characters.

  2. Grouping in object recognition: the role of a Gestalt law in letter identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelli, Denis G; Majaj, Najib J; Raizman, Noah; Christian, Christopher J; Kim, Edward; Palomares, Melanie C

    2009-02-01

    The Gestalt psychologists reported a set of laws describing how vision groups elements to recognize objects. The Gestalt laws "prescribe for us what we are to recognize 'as one thing'" (Kohler, 1920). Were they right? Does object recognition involve grouping? Tests of the laws of grouping have been favourable, but mostly assessed only detection, not identification, of the compound object. The grouping of elements seen in the detection experiments with lattices and "snakes in the grass" is compelling, but falls far short of the vivid everyday experience of recognizing a familiar, meaningful, named thing, which mediates the ordinary identification of an object. Thus, after nearly a century, there is hardly any evidence that grouping plays a role in ordinary object recognition. To assess grouping in object recognition, we made letters out of grating patches and measured threshold contrast for identifying these letters in visual noise as a function of perturbation of grating orientation, phase, and offset. We define a new measure, "wiggle", to characterize the degree to which these various perturbations violate the Gestalt law of good continuation. We find that efficiency for letter identification is inversely proportional to wiggle and is wholly determined by wiggle, independent of how the wiggle was produced. Thus the effects of three different kinds of shape perturbation on letter identifiability are predicted by a single measure of goodness of continuation. This shows that letter identification obeys the Gestalt law of good continuation and may be the first confirmation of the original Gestalt claim that object recognition involves grouping.

  3. Three-dimensional object recognition via integral imaging and scale invariant feature transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu

    2014-06-01

    We propose a three-dimensional (3D) object recognition approach via computational integral imaging and scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) that can be invariance to object changes in illumination, scale, rotation and affine. Usually, the matching between features extracted in reference object and that in computationally reconstructed image should be done for 3D object recognition. However, this process needs to alternately illustrate all of the depth images first which will affect the recognition efficiency. Considering that there are a set of elemental images with different viewpoint in integral imaging, we first recognize the object in 2D image by using five elemental images and then choose one elemental image with the most matching points from the five images. This selected image will include more information related to the reference object. Finally, we can use this selected elemental image and its neighboring elemental images which should also contain much reference object information to calculate the disparity with SIFT algorithm. Consequently, the depth of the 3D object can be achieved with stereo camera theory and the recognized 3D object can be reconstructed in computational integral imaging. This method sufficiently utilizes the different information provided by elemental images and the robust feature extraction SIFT algorithm to recognize 3D objects.

  4. Left posterior BA37 is involved in object recognition: a TMS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Meyer, Bernd-Ulrich; Frith, Uta

    2001-01-01

    Functional imaging studies have proposed a role for left BA37 in phonological retrieval, semantic processing, face processing and object recognition. The present study targeted the posterior aspect of BA37 to see whether a deficit, specific to one of the above types of processing could be induced...... to name pictures when TMS was given over lBA37 compared to vertex or rBA37. rTMS over lBA37 had no significant effect on word reading, nonword reading or colour naming. The picture naming deficit is suggested to result from a disruption to object recognition processes. This study corroborates the finding...... from a recent imaging study, that the most posterior part of left hemispheric BA37 has a necessary role in object recognition....

  5. Recognition conversion of circular graphic object for engineering drawings: the state of the art and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bin; Lei, Guangming; Wang, Yahong

    2010-08-01

    This strong interest to vectorization and recognition for engineering drawings is driven by a wide spectrum of promising applications in many areas such as 3D reconstruction, information interchange, content-based retrieval to engineering drawings, 2D understanding for engineering drawings and so on. This paper reviews development level and recognition methods of vectorization and recognition of circular-typed graphics object for engineering drawings, and provides a comprehensive survey of research history and the state of the art in recognition conversion of circular-typed graphics object for engineering drawings. The approach of conversion circular-typed graphics object are divided into fitting-based methods, vector-based methods, global-based methods and integrated-based methods. The advantage and disadvantage of all existing model of circular graphics object are analyzed and compared. Research difficulties and development tendency in future are clearly discussed for engineering drawings. At the end of this survey, some detailed discussions on research challenges and future directions of vectorization and recognition for engineering drawings are also provided.

  6. Cultural differences in visual object recognition in 3-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B

    2016-07-01

    Recent research indicates that culture penetrates fundamental processes of perception and cognition. Here, we provide evidence that these influences begin early and influence how preschool children recognize common objects. The three tasks (N=128) examined the degree to which nonface object recognition by 3-year-olds was based on individual diagnostic features versus more configural and holistic processing. Task 1 used a 6-alternative forced choice task in which children were asked to find a named category in arrays of masked objects where only three diagnostic features were visible for each object. U.S. children outperformed age-matched Japanese children. Task 2 presented pictures of objects to children piece by piece. U.S. children recognized the objects given fewer pieces than Japanese children, and the likelihood of recognition increased for U.S. children, but not Japanese children, when the piece added was rated by both U.S. and Japanese adults as highly defining. Task 3 used a standard measure of configural progressing, asking the degree to which recognition of matching pictures was disrupted by the rotation of one picture. Japanese children's recognition was more disrupted by inversion than was that of U.S. children, indicating more configural processing by Japanese than U.S. children. The pattern suggests early cross-cultural differences in visual processing; findings that raise important questions about how visual experiences differ across cultures and about universal patterns of cognitive development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Combining feature- and correspondence-based methods for visual object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Günter; Würtz, Rolf P

    2009-07-01

    We present an object recognition system built on a combination of feature- and correspondence-based pattern recognizers. The feature-based part, called preselection network, is a single-layer feedforward network weighted with the amount of information contributed by each feature to the decision at hand. For processing arbitrary objects, we employ small, regular graphs whose nodes are attributed with Gabor amplitudes, termed parquet graphs. The preselection network can quickly rule out most irrelevant matches and leaves only the ambiguous cases, so-called model candidates, to be verified by a rudimentary version of elastic graph matching, a standard correspondence-based technique for face and object recognition. According to the model, graphs are constructed that describe the object in the input image well. We report the results of experiments on standard databases for object recognition. The method achieved high recognition rates on identity and pose. Unlike many other models, it can also cope with varying background, multiple objects, and partial occlusion.

  8. Joint Segmentation and Recognition of Categorized Objects from Noisy Web Image Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Hua, Gang; Xue, Jianru; Gao, Zhanning; Zheng, Nanning

    2014-07-14

    The segmentation of categorized objects addresses the problem of joint segmentation of a single category of object across a collection of images, where categorized objects are referred to objects in the same category. Most existing methods of segmentation of categorized objects made the assumption that all images in the given image collection contain the target object. In other words, the given image collection is noise free. Therefore, they may not work well when there are some noisy images which are not in the same category, such as those image collections gathered by a text query from modern image search engines. To overcome this limitation, we propose a method for automatic segmentation and recognition of categorized objects from noisy Web image collections. This is achieved by cotraining an automatic object segmentation algorithm that operates directly on a collection of images, and an object category recognition algorithm that identifies which images contain the target object. The object segmentation algorithm is trained on a subset of images from the given image collection which are recognized to contain the target object with high confidence, while training the object category recognition model is guided by the intermediate segmentation results obtained from the object segmentation algorithm. This way, our co-training algorithm automatically identifies the set of true positives in the noisy Web image collection, and simultaneously extracts the target objects from all the identified images. Extensive experiments validated the efficacy of our proposed approach on four datasets: 1) the Weizmann horse dataset, 2) the MSRC object category dataset, 3) the iCoseg dataset, and 4) a new 30-categories dataset including 15,634 Web images with both hand-annotated category labels and ground truth segmentation labels. It is shown that our method compares favorably with the state-of-the-art, and has the ability to deal with noisy image collections.

  9. Auto-associative segmentation for real-time object recognition in realistic outdoor images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Leonardo W.; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser D.

    1998-04-01

    As digital signal processors (DSPs) become more advanced, many real-time recognition problems will be solved with completely integrated solutions. In this paper a methodology which is designed for today's DSP architectures and is capable of addressing applications in real-time color object recognition is presented. The methodology is integrated into a processing structure called raster scan video processing which requires a small amount of memory. The small amount of memory required enables the entire recognition system to be implemented on a single DSP. This auto-associative segmentation approach provides a means for desaturated color images to be segmented. The system is applied to the problem of stop sign recognition is realistically captured outdoor images.

  10. Augmented reality three-dimensional object visualization and recognition with axially distributed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Adam; Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-01-15

    An augmented reality (AR) smartglass display combines real-world scenes with digital information enabling the rapid growth of AR-based applications. We present an augmented reality-based approach for three-dimensional (3D) optical visualization and object recognition using axially distributed sensing (ADS). For object recognition, the 3D scene is reconstructed, and feature extraction is performed by calculating the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) of a sliding window. A support vector machine (SVM) is then used for classification. Once an object has been identified, the 3D reconstructed scene with the detected object is optically displayed in the smartglasses allowing the user to see the object, remove partial occlusions of the object, and provide critical information about the object such as 3D coordinates, which are not possible with conventional AR devices. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on combining axially distributed sensing with 3D object visualization and recognition for applications to augmented reality. The proposed approach can have benefits for many applications, including medical, military, transportation, and manufacturing.

  11. The effect of Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves in unimodal and multimodal object recognition tasks in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanshahi, Amin; Shafeie, Seyed Ali; Fatemi, Iman; Hassanshahi, Elham; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Shabani, Mohammad; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Shamsizadeh, Ali

    2017-06-01

    Wireless internet (Wi-Fi) electromagnetic waves (2.45 GHz) have widespread usage almost everywhere, especially in our homes. Considering the recent reports about some hazardous effects of Wi-Fi signals on the nervous system, this study aimed to investigate the effect of 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation on multisensory integration in rats. This experimental study was done on 80 male Wistar rats that were allocated into exposure and sham groups. Wi-Fi exposure to 2.4 GHz microwaves [in Service Set Identifier mode (23.6 dBm and 3% for power and duty cycle, respectively)] was done for 30 days (12 h/day). Cross-modal visual-tactile object recognition (CMOR) task was performed by four variations of spontaneous object recognition (SOR) test including standard SOR, tactile SOR, visual SOR, and CMOR tests. A discrimination ratio was calculated to assess the preference of animal to the novel object. The expression levels of M1 and GAT1 mRNA in the hippocampus were assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results demonstrated that rats in Wi-Fi exposure groups could not discriminate significantly between the novel and familiar objects in any of the standard SOR, tactile SOR, visual SOR, and CMOR tests. The expression of M1 receptors increased following Wi-Fi exposure. In conclusion, results of this study showed that chronic exposure to Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves might impair both unimodal and cross-modal encoding of information.

  12. Effects of Acute Administration of Urtica dioica on the Novel Object-Recognition Task in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Firouzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Urtica dioica (nettle has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for the treatment of certain urogenital problems, gastrointestinal disorders, and diabetes. Objectives Recent studies have implicated the effect of U. dioica on brain functions such as pain and memory. However, there is no direct evidence of the acute effects of this plant on cognition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of U. dioica aqueous extract on the novel object-recognition task (NOR in mice. Materials and Methods First, U. dioica aqueous extract was prepared, then adult male mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups. During the training session, the mice were placed in a box and given 5 minutes to explore two identical objects. The next day, they were again placed in the box and allowed to explore one familiar and one novel object. They received intraperitoneal injections of saline or U. dioica aqueous extract (100 mg/kg before or immediately after the training session or before the test session of the NOR task. Results The results showed that there was a preference for the novel object compared to the familiar one in each of the experimental groups. The object-recognition discrimination index in the group of mice that received U. dioica before training was significantly less than in the other experimental groups. There was no significant difference in the discrimination index between the other groups. U. dioica did not decrease the time spent exploring familiar and unfamiliar objects, or the total time spent exploring both objects. Conclusions Acute administration of U. dioica impairs the object-recognition task if it is used only before the training session. This may be due to its modulation on the acquisition processing of object-recognition. U. dioica has no significant effects on the consolidation or retrieval processing stages of the NOR task. These results emphasize the unfavorable effect on cognitive function of pre

  13. Dimensional Emotion Recognition from Spontaneous Head Gestures for Interaction with Sensitive Artificial Listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunes, Hatice; Pantic, Maja; Allbeck, Jan; Badler, Norman; Bickmore, Timothy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Safonova, Alla

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on dimensional prediction of emotions from spontaneous conversational head gestures. It maps the amount and direction of head motion, and occurrences of head nods and shakes into arousal, expectation, intensity, power and valence level of the observed subject as there has been

  14. Object recognition with video-theodolites and without targeting the object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahmen, H.; Seixas, A. de

    1999-01-01

    At the Department of Applied Geodesy and Engineering Geodesy (TU Vienna) an new kind of theodolite measurement system is under development, enabling measurements with an accuracy of 1:30.000 with and without targeting the object. The main goal is, to develop an intelligent multi-sensor system. Thus an operator is only needed to supervise the system. Results are gained on-sine and can be stored in a CAD system. If no artificial targets are used identification of points has to be performed by the Master-Theodolite. The method, used in our project, is based on interest operators. The Slave-Theodolite has to track the master by searching for homologous regions. The before described method can only be used, if there is some texture on the surface of the object. If that is not fulfilled, a 'grid-line-method' can be used, to get informations about the surface of the object. In the case of a cartesian co-ordinate system, for instance, the grid-lines can be chosen by the operator before the measurement process is started. The theodolite-measurement system is then able to detect the grid-lines and to find the positions where the grid-lines intersect the surface of the object. This system could be used for positioning the different components of a particle accelerator. (author)

  15. Effects of exposure to heavy particles and aging on object recognition memory in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Shannahan, Ryan; Hering, Kathleen

    Exposure to HZE particles produces changes in neurocognitive performance. These changes, including deficits in spatial learning and memory, object recognition memory and operant responding, are also observed in the aged organism. As such, it has been proposed that exposure to heavy particles produces "accelerated aging". Because aging is an ongoing process, it is possible that there would be an interaction between the effects of exposure and the effects of aging, such that doses of HZE particles that do not affect the performance of younger organisms will affect the performance of organisms as they age. The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that young rats that had been exposed to HZE particles would show a progressive deterioration in object recognition memory as a function of the age of testing. Rats were exposed to 12 C, 28 S or 48 Ti particles at the N.A.S.A. Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to UMBC for behavioral testing. HZE particle-induced changes in object recognition memory were tested using a standard procedure: rats were placed in an open field and allowed to interact with two identical objects for up to 30 sec; twenty-four hrs later the rats were again placed in the open field, this time containing one familiar and one novel object. Non-irradiated control animals spent significantly more time with the novel object than with the familiar object. In contrast, the rats that been exposed to heavy particles spent equal amounts of time with both the novel and familiar object. The lowest dose of HZE particles which produced a disruption of object recognition memory was determined three months and eleven months following exposure. The threshold dose needed to disrupt object recognition memory three months following irradiation varied as a function of the specific particle and energy. When tested eleven months following irradiation, doses of HZE particles that did

  16. Where vision meets memory: prefrontal-posterior networks for visual object constancy during categorization and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendan, Haline E; Stern, Chantal E

    2008-07-01

    Objects seen from unusual relative to more canonical views require more time to categorize and recognize, and, according to object model verification theories, additionally recruit prefrontal processes for cognitive control that interact with parietal processes for mental rotation. To test this using functional magnetic resonance imaging, people categorized and recognized known objects from unusual and canonical views. Canonical views activated some components of a default network more on categorization than recognition. Activation to unusual views showed that both ventral and dorsal visual pathways, and prefrontal cortex, have key roles in visual object constancy. Unusual views activated object-sensitive and mental rotation (and not saccade) regions in ventrocaudal intraparietal, transverse occipital, and inferotemporal sulci, and ventral premotor cortex for verification processes of model testing on any task. A collateral-lingual sulci "place" area activated for mental rotation, working memory, and unusual views on correct recognition and categorization trials to accomplish detailed spatial matching. Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and object-sensitive lateral occipital sulcus activated for mental rotation and unusual views on categorization more than recognition, supporting verification processes of model prediction. This visual knowledge framework integrates vision and memory theories to explain how distinct prefrontal-posterior networks enable meaningful interactions with objects in diverse situations.

  17. Single-pixel non-imaging object recognition by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huichao; Shi, Jianhong; Liu, Xialin; Niu, Zhouzhou; Zeng, Guihua

    2018-04-01

    Single-pixel imaging has emerged over recent years as a novel imaging technique, which has significant application prospects. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme that can achieve single-pixel non-imaging object recognition by acquiring the Fourier spectrum. In an experiment, a four-step phase-shifting sinusoid illumination light is used to irradiate the object image, the value of the light intensity is measured with a single-pixel detection unit, and the Fourier coefficients of the object image are obtained by a differential measurement. The Fourier coefficients are first cast into binary numbers to obtain the hash value. We propose a new method of perceptual hashing algorithm, which is combined with a discrete Fourier transform to calculate the hash value. The hash distance is obtained by calculating the difference of the hash value between the object image and the contrast images. By setting an appropriate threshold, the object image can be quickly and accurately recognized. The proposed scheme realizes single-pixel non-imaging perceptual hashing object recognition by using fewer measurements. Our result might open a new path for realizing object recognition with non-imaging.

  18. Left posterior BA37 is involved in object recognition: a TMS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Meyer, Bernd-Ulrich; Frith, Uta

    2001-01-01

    Functional imaging studies have proposed a role for left BA37 in phonological retrieval, semantic processing, face processing and object recognition. The present study targeted the posterior aspect of BA37 to see whether a deficit, specific to one of the above types of processing could be induced...

  19. Perirhinal Cortex Resolves Feature Ambiguity in Configural Object Recognition and Perceptual Oddity Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartko, Susan J.; Winters, Boyer D.; Cowell, Rosemary A.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    The perirhinal cortex (PRh) has a well-established role in object recognition memory. More recent studies suggest that PRh is also important for two-choice visual discrimination tasks. Specifically, it has been suggested that PRh contains conjunctive representations that help resolve feature ambiguity, which occurs when a task cannot easily be…

  20. Mechanisms and Neural Basis of Object and Pattern Recognition: A Study with Chess Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalic, Merim; Langner, Robert; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Comparing experts with novices offers unique insights into the functioning of cognition, based on the maximization of individual differences. Here we used this expertise approach to disentangle the mechanisms and neural basis behind two processes that contribute to everyday expertise: object and pattern recognition. We compared chess experts and…

  1. Aniracetam restores object recognition impaired by age, scopolamine, and nucleus basalis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, L; Casamenti, F; Pepeu, G

    1996-02-01

    Object recognition was investigated in adult and aging male rats in a two-trials, unrewarded, test that assessed a form of working-episodic memory. Exploration time in the first trial, in which two copies of the same object were presented, was recorded. In the second trial, in which one of the familiar objects and a new object were presented, the time spent exploring the two objects was separately recorded and a discrimination index was calculated. Adult rats explored the new object longer than the familiar object when the intertrial time ranged from 1 to 60 min. Rats older than 20 months of age did not discriminate between familiar and new objects. Object discrimination was lost in adult rats after scopolamine (0.2 mg/kg SC) administration and with lesions of the nucleus basalis, resulting in a 40% decrease in cortical ChAT activity. Both aniracetam (25, 50, 100 mg/kg os) and oxiracetam (50 mg/kg os) restored object recognition in aging rats, in rats treated with scopolamine, and with lesions of the nucleus basalis. In the rat, object discrimination appears to depend on the integrity of the cholinergic system, and nootropic drugs can correct its disruption.

  2. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants wer...

  3. Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala modulates the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Barsegyan, Areg; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2014-01-01

    Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) is well known to enhance the consolidation of long-term memory of highly emotionally arousing training experiences. The present study investigated whether such noradrenergic activation of the BLA also influences the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory, a low-arousing training task assessing episodic-like memory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to two identical objects in one context for either 3 ...

  4. Representing Objects using Global 3D Relational Features for Recognition Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Wail

    2015-01-01

    to initiate higher-level semantic interpretations of complex scenes. In the object category recognition task, we present a system that is capable of assigning multiple and nested categories for novel objects using a method developed for this purpose. Integrating this method with other multi-label learning...... approaches is also investigated. The system uses a scale-invariant shape representation and it is shown to outperform a state-of-the-art method particularly when a few samples are used for training. Both systems are benchmarked using a multi-view object dataset of 100 objects specially created...

  5. Multiple degree of freedom object recognition using optical relational graph decision nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David P.; Lee, Andrew J.

    1988-01-01

    Multiple-degree-of-freedom object recognition concerns objects with no stable rest position with all scale, rotation, and aspect distortions possible. It is assumed that the objects are in a fairly benign background, so that feature extractors are usable. In-plane distortion invariance is provided by use of a polar-log coordinate transform feature space, and out-of-plane distortion invariance is provided by linear discriminant function design. Relational graph decision nets are considered for multiple-degree-of-freedom pattern recognition. The design of Fisher (1936) linear discriminant functions and synthetic discriminant function for use at the nodes of binary and multidecision nets is discussed. Case studies are detailed for two-class and multiclass problems. Simulation results demonstrate the robustness of the processors to quantization of the filter coefficients and to noise.

  6. Enhancing Perception with Tactile Object Recognition in Adaptive Grippers for Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandarias, Juan M; Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M; García-Cerezo, Alfonso J

    2018-02-26

    The use of tactile perception can help first response robotic teams in disaster scenarios, where visibility conditions are often reduced due to the presence of dust, mud, or smoke, distinguishing human limbs from other objects with similar shapes. Here, the integration of the tactile sensor in adaptive grippers is evaluated, measuring the performance of an object recognition task based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) using a flexible sensor mounted in adaptive grippers. A total of 15 classes with 50 tactile images each were trained, including human body parts and common environment objects, in semi-rigid and flexible adaptive grippers based on the fin ray effect. The classifier was compared against the rigid configuration and a support vector machine classifier (SVM). Finally, a two-level output network has been proposed to provide both object-type recognition and human/non-human classification. Sensors in adaptive grippers have a higher number of non-null tactels (up to 37% more), with a lower mean of pressure values (up to 72% less) than when using a rigid sensor, with a softer grip, which is needed in physical human-robot interaction (pHRI). A semi-rigid implementation with 95.13% object recognition rate was chosen, even though the human/non-human classification had better results (98.78%) with a rigid sensor.

  7. Enhancing Perception with Tactile Object Recognition in Adaptive Grippers for Human–Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Gandarias

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of tactile perception can help first response robotic teams in disaster scenarios, where visibility conditions are often reduced due to the presence of dust, mud, or smoke, distinguishing human limbs from other objects with similar shapes. Here, the integration of the tactile sensor in adaptive grippers is evaluated, measuring the performance of an object recognition task based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs using a flexible sensor mounted in adaptive grippers. A total of 15 classes with 50 tactile images each were trained, including human body parts and common environment objects, in semi-rigid and flexible adaptive grippers based on the fin ray effect. The classifier was compared against the rigid configuration and a support vector machine classifier (SVM. Finally, a two-level output network has been proposed to provide both object-type recognition and human/non-human classification. Sensors in adaptive grippers have a higher number of non-null tactels (up to 37% more, with a lower mean of pressure values (up to 72% less than when using a rigid sensor, with a softer grip, which is needed in physical human–robot interaction (pHRI. A semi-rigid implementation with 95.13% object recognition rate was chosen, even though the human/non-human classification had better results (98.78% with a rigid sensor.

  8. Why does brain damage impair memory? A connectionist model of object recognition memory in perirhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Rosemary A; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2006-11-22

    Object recognition is the canonical test of declarative memory, the type of memory putatively impaired after damage to the temporal lobes. Studies of object recognition memory have helped elucidate the anatomical structures involved in declarative memory, indicating a critical role for perirhinal cortex. We offer a mechanistic account of the effects of perirhinal cortex damage on object recognition memory, based on the assumption that perirhinal cortex stores representations of the conjunctions of visual features possessed by complex objects. Such representations are proposed to play an important role in memory when it is difficult to solve a task using representations of only individual visual features of stimuli, thought to be stored in regions of the ventral visual stream caudal to perirhinal cortex. The account is instantiated in a connectionist model, in which development of object representations with visual experience provides a mechanism for judgment of previous occurrence. We present simulations addressing the following empirical findings: (1) that impairments after damage to perirhinal cortex (modeled by removing the "perirhinal cortex" layer of the network) are exacerbated by lengthening the delay between presentation of to-be-remembered items and test, (2) that such impairments are also exacerbated by lengthening the list of to-be-remembered items, and (3) that impairments are revealed only when stimuli are trial unique rather than repeatedly presented. This study shows that it may be possible to account for object recognition impairments after damage to perirhinal cortex within a hierarchical, representational framework, in which complex conjunctive representations in perirhinal cortex play a critical role.

  9. Temporal trajectories of novel object recognition performance in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozal, David; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Qiao, Zhuanghong; Almendros, Isaac; Farré, Ramon

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent hypoxia is one of the major perturbations of sleep-disordered breathing and has been causally implicated in neurocognitive deficits. However, the reversibility of such deficits is unclear.Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either intermittent hypoxia or room air for 3-240 days, and then half were randomly selected and allowed to recover in normoxic conditions for the same duration of the previous exposure. A novel object recognition (NOR) test was performed.NOR performance was stable over time in room air. Intermittent hypoxia induced significant reductions in recognition index that progressed over the first 45 days and stabilised thereafter. Normoxic recovery of recognition index was essentially complete and indistinguishable from room air in mice exposed to shorter intermittent hypoxia times (<90 days). However, significant residual deficits emerged after normoxic recovery following prolonged intermittent hypoxia exposures (p<0.01). In addition, gradual attenuation of the magnitude of recovery in recognition index occurred with increasingly longer intermittent hypoxia exposures (MANOVA p<0.0001).Intermittent hypoxia during the resting period reduces NOR performance in a time-dependent fashion. Reversal of NOR performance deficits is unlikely after prolonged intermittent hypoxia duration. These findings suggest that early recognition of sleep apnoea and effective treatment are critical for restoration of the adverse cognitive effects of the disease. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  10. Specific and Class Object Recognition for Service Robots through Autonomous and Interactive Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Al; Kuno, Yoshinori

    Service robots need to be able to recognize and identify objects located within complex backgrounds. Since no single method may work in every situation, several methods need to be combined and robots have to select the appropriate one automatically. In this paper we propose a scheme to classify situations depending on the characteristics of the object of interest and user demand. We classify situations into four groups and employ different techniques for each. We use Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), Kernel Principal Components Analysis (KPCA) in conjunction with Support Vector Machine (SVM) using intensity, color, and Gabor features for five object categories. We show that the use of appropriate features is important for the use of KPCA and SVM based techniques on different kinds of objects. Through experiments we show that by using our categorization scheme a service robot can select an appropriate feature and method, and considerably improve its recognition performance. Yet, recognition is not perfect. Thus, we propose to combine the autonomous method with an interactive method that allows the robot to recognize the user request for a specific object and class when the robot fails to recognize the object. We also propose an interactive way to update the object model that is used to recognize an object upon failure in conjunction with the user's feedback.

  11. Vision holds a greater share in visuo-haptic object recognition than touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Klinge, Corinna; Hölig, Cordula

    2013-01-01

    approach of multisensory integration would predict that haptics as the less efficient sense for object recognition gains more from integrating additional visual information than vice versa. To test for asymmetries between vision and touch in visuo-haptic interactions, we measured regional changes in brain...... processed the target object, being more pronounced for haptic than visual targets. This preferential response of visuo-haptic regions indicates a modality-specific asymmetry in crossmodal matching of visual and haptic object features, suggesting a functional primacy of vision over touch in visuo...

  12. Representations and Techniques for 3D Object Recognition and Scene Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Hoiem, Derek

    2011-01-01

    One of the grand challenges of artificial intelligence is to enable computers to interpret 3D scenes and objects from imagery. This book organizes and introduces major concepts in 3D scene and object representation and inference from still images, with a focus on recent efforts to fuse models of geometry and perspective with statistical machine learning. The book is organized into three sections: (1) Interpretation of Physical Space; (2) Recognition of 3D Objects; and (3) Integrated 3D Scene Interpretation. The first discusses representations of spatial layout and techniques to interpret physi

  13. Asymmetric Functional Connectivity of the Contra- and Ipsilateral Secondary Somatosensory Cortex during Tactile Object Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the somatosensory system, it is well known that the bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex (SII receives projections from the unilateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI, and the SII, in turn, sends feedback projections to SI. Most neuroimaging studies have clearly shown bilateral SII activation using only unilateral stimulation for both anatomical and functional connectivity across SII subregions. However, no study has unveiled differences in the functional connectivity of the contra- and ipsilateral SII network that relates to frontoparietal areas during tactile object recognition. Therefore, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and a delayed match-to-sample (DMS task to investigate the contributions of bilateral SII during tactile object recognition. In the fMRI experiment, 14 healthy subjects were presented with tactile angle stimuli on their right index finger and asked to encode three sample stimuli during the encoding phase and one test stimulus during the recognition phase. Then, the subjects indicated whether the angle of test stimulus was presented during the encoding phase. The results showed that contralateral (left SII activity was greater than ipsilateral (right SII activity during the encoding phase, but there was no difference during the recognition phase. A subsequent psycho-physiological interaction (PPI analysis revealed distinct connectivity from the contra- and ipsilateral SII to other regions. The left SII functionally connected to the left SI and right primary and premotor cortex, while the right SII functionally connected to the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC. Our findings suggest that in situations involving unilateral tactile object recognition, contra- and ipsilateral SII will induce an asymmetrical functional connectivity to other brain areas, which may occur by the hand contralateral effect of SII.

  14. Asymmetric Functional Connectivity of the Contra- and Ipsilateral Secondary Somatosensory Cortex during Tactile Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinghua; Yang, Jiajia; Ejima, Yoshimichi; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Wu, Jinglong

    2017-01-01

    In the somatosensory system, it is well known that the bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) receives projections from the unilateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI), and the SII, in turn, sends feedback projections to SI. Most neuroimaging studies have clearly shown bilateral SII activation using only unilateral stimulation for both anatomical and functional connectivity across SII subregions. However, no study has unveiled differences in the functional connectivity of the contra- and ipsilateral SII network that relates to frontoparietal areas during tactile object recognition. Therefore, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task to investigate the contributions of bilateral SII during tactile object recognition. In the fMRI experiment, 14 healthy subjects were presented with tactile angle stimuli on their right index finger and asked to encode three sample stimuli during the encoding phase and one test stimulus during the recognition phase. Then, the subjects indicated whether the angle of test stimulus was presented during the encoding phase. The results showed that contralateral (left) SII activity was greater than ipsilateral (right) SII activity during the encoding phase, but there was no difference during the recognition phase. A subsequent psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed distinct connectivity from the contra- and ipsilateral SII to other regions. The left SII functionally connected to the left SI and right primary and premotor cortex, while the right SII functionally connected to the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Our findings suggest that in situations involving unilateral tactile object recognition, contra- and ipsilateral SII will induce an asymmetrical functional connectivity to other brain areas, which may occur by the hand contralateral effect of SII.

  15. Object Location and Object Recognition Memory Impairments, Motivation Deficits and Depression in a Model of Gulf War Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi eHattiangady

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Memory and mood deficits are the enduring brain-related symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI. Both animal model and epidemiological investigations have indicated that these impairments in a majority of GW veterans are linked to exposures to chemicals such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB, an anti nerve gas drug, permethrin (PM, an insecticide and DEET (a mosquito repellant encountered during the Persian Gulf War-1. Our previous study in a rat model has shown that combined exposures to low doses of GWI-related (GWIR chemicals PB, PM and DEET with or without 5-minutes of restraint stress (a mild stress paradigm causes hippocampus-dependent spatial memory dysfunction in a water maze test and increased depressive-like behavior in a forced swim test. In this study, using a larger cohort of rats exposed to GWIR-chemicals and stress, we investigated whether the memory deficiency identified earlier in a water maze test is reproducible with an alternative and stress free hippocampus-dependent memory test such as the object location test. We also ascertained the possible co-existence of hippocampus-independent memory dysfunction using a novel object recognition test, and alterations in mood function with additional tests for motivation and depression. Our results provide new evidence that exposure to low doses of GWIR-chemicals and stress for four weeks causes deficits in hippocampus-dependent object location memory and perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition memory. An open field test performed prior to other behavioral analyses revealed that memory impairments were not associated with increased anxiety or deficits in general motor ability. However, behavioral tests for mood function such as a voluntary physical exercise paradigm and a novelty suppressed feeding test showed decreased motivation and depression. Thus, exposure to GWIR-chemicals and stress causes both hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent memory impairments as well as

  16. Review of holographic-based three-dimensional object recognition techniques [invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, T-C; Liu, J-P; Situ, W C

    2014-09-20

    With the advancement of computing and optical technologies, it is now possible to capture digital holograms of real-life object scenes. Theoretically, through the analysis of a hologram, the three-dimensional (3D) objects coded on the hologram can be identified. However, being different from an optical image, a hologram is composed of complicated fringes that cannot be analyzed easily with traditional computer vision methods. Over the years, numerous important research investigations have been attempted to provide viable solutions to this problem. The aim of this work is three-fold. First, we provide a quick walkthrough on the overall development of holographic-based 3D object recognition (H3DOR) in the past five decades, from film-based approaches to digital-based innovation. Second, we describe in more detail a number of selected H3DOR methods that are introduced at different timelines, starting from the late sixties and then from the seventies, where viable digital holographic-based 3D recognition methods began to emerge. Finally, we present our work on digital holographic, pose-invariant 3D object recognition that is based on a recently introduced virtual diffraction plane framework. As our method has not been reported elsewhere, we have included some experimental results to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  17. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old-new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults.

  18. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: A study with young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eBallesteros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1 and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2 tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/ artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classified them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old-new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults.

  19. Recurrent Convolutional Neural Networks: A Better Model of Biological Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerer, Courtney J; McClure, Patrick; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    Feedforward neural networks provide the dominant model of how the brain performs visual object recognition. However, these networks lack the lateral and feedback connections, and the resulting recurrent neuronal dynamics, of the ventral visual pathway in the human and non-human primate brain. Here we investigate recurrent convolutional neural networks with bottom-up (B), lateral (L), and top-down (T) connections. Combining these types of connections yields four architectures (B, BT, BL, and BLT), which we systematically test and compare. We hypothesized that recurrent dynamics might improve recognition performance in the challenging scenario of partial occlusion. We introduce two novel occluded object recognition tasks to test the efficacy of the models, digit clutter (where multiple target digits occlude one another) and digit debris (where target digits are occluded by digit fragments). We find that recurrent neural networks outperform feedforward control models (approximately matched in parametric complexity) at recognizing objects, both in the absence of occlusion and in all occlusion conditions. Recurrent networks were also found to be more robust to the inclusion of additive Gaussian noise. Recurrent neural networks are better in two respects: (1) they are more neurobiologically realistic than their feedforward counterparts; (2) they are better in terms of their ability to recognize objects, especially under challenging conditions. This work shows that computer vision can benefit from using recurrent convolutional architectures and suggests that the ubiquitous recurrent connections in biological brains are essential for task performance.

  20. Deep neural networks rival the representation of primate IT cortex for core visual object recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F Cadieu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The primate visual system achieves remarkable visual object recognition performance even in brief presentations, and under changes to object exemplar, geometric transformations, and background variation (a.k.a. core visual object recognition. This remarkable performance is mediated by the representation formed in inferior temporal (IT cortex. In parallel, recent advances in machine learning have led to ever higher performing models of object recognition using artificial deep neural networks (DNNs. It remains unclear, however, whether the representational performance of DNNs rivals that of the brain. To accurately produce such a comparison, a major difficulty has been a unifying metric that accounts for experimental limitations, such as the amount of noise, the number of neural recording sites, and the number of trials, and computational limitations, such as the complexity of the decoding classifier and the number of classifier training examples. In this work, we perform a direct comparison that corrects for these experimental limitations and computational considerations. As part of our methodology, we propose an extension of "kernel analysis" that measures the generalization accuracy as a function of representational complexity. Our evaluations show that, unlike previous bio-inspired models, the latest DNNs rival the representational performance of IT cortex on this visual object recognition task. Furthermore, we show that models that perform well on measures of representational performance also perform well on measures of representational similarity to IT, and on measures of predicting individual IT multi-unit responses. Whether these DNNs rely on computational mechanisms similar to the primate visual system is yet to be determined, but, unlike all previous bio-inspired models, that possibility cannot be ruled out merely on representational performance grounds.

  1. Object Recognition System-on-Chip Using the Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzet Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this work is to propose the design of a system-on-chip (SoC platform dedicated to digital image and signal processing, which is tuned to implement efficiently multiply-and-accumulate (MAC vector/matrix operations. The second aim of this work is to implement a recent promising neural network method, namely, the support vector machine (SVM used for real-time object recognition, in order to build a vision machine. With such a reconfigurable and programmable SoC platform, it is possible to implement any SVM function dedicated to any object recognition problem. The final aim is to obtain an automatic reconfiguration of the SoC platform, based on the results of the learning phase on an objects' database, which makes it possible to recognize practically any object without manual programming. Recognition can be of any kind that is from image to signal data. Such a system is a general-purpose automatic classifier. Many applications can be considered as a classification problem, but are usually treated specifically in order to optimize the cost of the implemented solution. The cost of our approach is more important than a dedicated one, but in a near future, hundreds of millions of gates will be common and affordable compared to the design cost. What we are proposing here is a general-purpose classification neural network implemented on a reconfigurable SoC platform. The first version presented here is limited in size and thus in object recognition performances, but can be easily upgraded according to technology improvements.

  2. A Speech Recognition-based Solution for the Automatic Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment from Spontaneous Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Laszlo; Hoffmann, Ildiko; Gosztolya, Gabor; Vincze, Veronika; Szatloczki, Greta; Banreti, Zoltan; Pakaski, Magdolna; Kalman, Janos

    2018-01-01

    Even today the reliable diagnosis of the prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a great challenge. Our research focuses on the earliest detectable indicators of cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Since the presence of language impairment has been reported even in the mild stage of AD, the aim of this study is to develop a sensitive neuropsychological screening method which is based on the analysis of spontaneous speech production during performing a memory task. In the future, this can form the basis of an Internet-based interactive screening software for the recognition of MCI. Participants were 38 healthy controls and 48 clinically diagnosed MCI patients. The provoked spontaneous speech by asking the patients to recall the content of 2 short black and white films (one direct, one delayed), and by answering one question. Acoustic parameters (hesitation ratio, speech tempo, length and number of silent and filled pauses, length of utterance) were extracted from the recorded speech signals, first manually (using the Praat software), and then automatically, with an automatic speech recognition (ASR) based tool. First, the extracted parameters were statistically analyzed. Then we applied machine learning algorithms to see whether the MCI and the control group can be discriminated automatically based on the acoustic features. The statistical analysis showed significant differences for most of the acoustic parameters (speech tempo, articulation rate, silent pause, hesitation ratio, length of utterance, pause-per-utterance ratio). The most significant differences between the two groups were found in the speech tempo in the delayed recall task, and in the number of pauses for the question-answering task. The fully automated version of the analysis process - that is, using the ASR-based features in combination with machine learning - was able to separate the two classes with an F1-score of 78.8%. The temporal analysis of spontaneous speech

  3. Effects of physical exercise on object recognition memory in adult rats of postnatal isoflurane exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan FANG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate effects of physical exercise (PE on object recognition memory in adult rats of postnatal isoflurane (Iso exposures. Methods One hundred and ten postnatal 7-day SD rats (P7 were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group (Naive, Naive+PE group (received physical exercise in P21: a treadmill exercise 30min each day, 5 times/week, for 6 weeks, Iso group (three times of 2-hour Iso exposure in P7, P9, and P11, and Iso+PE group (received PE in P21 after postnatal Iso exposures. In P67, behavioral testing was conducted including open field and object recognition task (ORT, recording the time (Discrimination Ratios, DR that rats spent on exploring each object, evaluating effects of PE on object recognition memory. Results There was no significant difference in influence of PE on open field testing in all of the groups (P>0.05. Compared with Naive, there was no group difference in DR (P>0.05 for all groups, but the DR of Iso male rats was significantly higher than that of Naive female rats in P67, with significant difference (P=0.034. Compared with non-PE groups, whether or not postnatal Iso exposures, the DR of PE male groups was significantly higher (compared with Naive and Iso group: P67, P=0.050, P=0.017; P95, P=0.037, P=0.019; in female rats, the DR for ISO+PE group was lower than that of Iso group in P67 (P=0.036, but the DR of Naive+PE group was higher than that of Naive group in P95 (P=0.004. Compared with male rats, the DR of non-PE female rats was significantly higher in P67 (vis. Naive and Iso group: P=0.022, P=0.011; but in P95, the DR of non- Iso female groups was significantly higher than that of male groups (vis. Naive and Naive+PE: P=0.008, P=0.017. Conclusions There is no obvious impact of postnatal Iso exposures on object recognition memory of adult rats. These results also indicate that postnatal PE could improve object recognition memory of non-spatial learning in adult rats. In addition, exercise

  4. Discriminative kernel feature extraction and learning for object recognition and detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor; Zhu, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    Feature extraction and learning is critical for object recognition and detection. By embedding context cue of image attributes into the kernel descriptors, we propose a set of novel kernel descriptors called context kernel descriptors (CKD). The motivation of CKD is to use the spatial consistency...... codebook and reduced CKD are discriminative. We report superior performance of our algorithm for object recognition on benchmark datasets like Caltech-101 and CIFAR-10, as well as for detection on a challenging chicken feet dataset....... of image attributes or features defined within a neighboring region to improve the robustness of descriptor matching in kernel space. For feature learning, we develop a novel codebook learning method, based on the Cauchy-Schwarz Quadratic Mutual Information (CSQMI) measure, to learn a compact...

  5. Back to Basic: Do Children with Autism Spontaneously Look at Screen Displaying a Face or an Object?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Guimard-Brunault

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking studies on exploration of faces and objects in autism provided important knowledge but only in a constraint condition (chin rest, total time looking at screen not reported, without studying potential differences between subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and controls in spontaneous visual attention toward a screen presenting these stimuli. This study used eye tracking to compare spontaneous visual attention to a screen displaying a face or an object between children with autism and controls in a nonconstraint condition and to investigate the relationship with clinical characteristics in autism group. Time exploring screen was measured during passive viewing of static images of faces or objects. Autistic behaviors were assessed by the CARS and the BSE-R in autism group. In autism group, time exploring face screen and time exploring object screen were lower than in controls and were not correlated with degree of distractibility. There was no interaction between group and type of image on time spent exploring screen. Only time exploring face screen was correlated with autism severity and gaze impairment. Results highlight particularities of spontaneous visual attention toward a screen displaying faces or objects in autism, which should be taken into account in future eye-tracking studies on face exploration.

  6. Object/Shape Recognition Technology: An Assessment of the Feasibility of Implementation at Defense Logistics Agency Disposition Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-25

    optical sorting and data mining that included sensors, laser, object/shape recognition technology on conveyor belt system and data analytics to...implement full automation with optical sorting and data mining that included sensors, laser, object/shape recognition technology on conveyor belt ...DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DEMIL Demilitarized CDD Centralized Demil Division DISA Defense Information System Agency DTID

  7. The novel object recognition memory: neurobiology, test procedure, and its modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, M; Biala, G

    2012-05-01

    Animal models of memory have been considered as the subject of many scientific publications at least since the beginning of the twentieth century. In humans, memory is often accessed through spoken or written language, while in animals, cognitive functions must be accessed through different kind of behaviors in many specific, experimental models of memory and learning. Among them, the novel object recognition test can be evaluated by the differences in the exploration time of novel and familiar objects. Its application is not limited to a field of research and enables that various issues can be studied, such as the memory and learning, the preference for novelty, the influence of different brain regions in the process of recognition, and even the study of different drugs and their effects. This paper describes the novel object recognition paradigms in animals, as a valuable measure of cognition. The purpose of this work was to review the neurobiology and methodological modifications of the test commonly used in behavioral pharmacology.

  8. Online Feature Transformation Learning for Cross-Domain Object Category Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Zhuang, Yan; Wang, Wei; Pedrycz, Witold

    2017-06-09

    In this paper, we introduce a new research problem termed online feature transformation learning in the context of multiclass object category recognition. The learning of a feature transformation is viewed as learning a global similarity metric function in an online manner. We first consider the problem of online learning a feature transformation matrix expressed in the original feature space and propose an online passive aggressive feature transformation algorithm. Then these original features are mapped to kernel space and an online single kernel feature transformation (OSKFT) algorithm is developed to learn a nonlinear feature transformation. Based on the OSKFT and the existing Hedge algorithm, a novel online multiple kernel feature transformation algorithm is also proposed, which can further improve the performance of online feature transformation learning in large-scale application. The classifier is trained with k nearest neighbor algorithm together with the learned similarity metric function. Finally, we experimentally examined the effect of setting different parameter values in the proposed algorithms and evaluate the model performance on several multiclass object recognition data sets. The experimental results demonstrate the validity and good performance of our methods on cross-domain and multiclass object recognition application.

  9. Effect of a Bluetooth-implemented hearing aid on speech recognition performance: subjective and objective measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Beom; Chung, Won-Ho; Choi, Jeesun; Hong, Sung Hwa; Cho, Yang-Sun; Park, Gyuseok; Lee, Sangmin

    2014-06-01

    The object was to evaluate speech perception improvement through Bluetooth-implemented hearing aids in hearing-impaired adults. Thirty subjects with bilateral symmetric moderate sensorineural hearing loss participated in this study. A Bluetooth-implemented hearing aid was fitted unilaterally in all study subjects. Objective speech recognition score and subjective satisfaction were measured with a Bluetooth-implemented hearing aid to replace the acoustic connection from either a cellular phone or a loudspeaker system. In each system, participants were assigned to 4 conditions: wireless speech signal transmission into hearing aid (wireless mode) in quiet or noisy environment and conventional speech signal transmission using external microphone of hearing aid (conventional mode) in quiet or noisy environment. Also, participants completed questionnaires to investigate subjective satisfaction. Both cellular phone and loudspeaker system situation, participants showed improvements in sentence and word recognition scores with wireless mode compared to conventional mode in both quiet and noise conditions (P Bluetooth-implemented hearing aids helped to improve subjective and objective speech recognition performances in quiet and noisy environments during the use of electronic audio devices.

  10. On hierarchical models for visual recognition and learning of objects, scenes, and activities

    CERN Document Server

    Spehr, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In many computer vision applications, objects have to be learned and recognized in images or image sequences. This book presents new probabilistic hierarchical models that allow an efficient representation of multiple objects of different categories, scales, rotations, and views. The idea is to exploit similarities between objects and object parts in order to share calculations and avoid redundant information. Furthermore inference approaches for fast and robust detection are presented. These new approaches combine the idea of compositional and similarity hierarchies and overcome limitations of previous methods. Besides classical object recognition the book shows the use for detection of human poses in a project for gait analysis. The use of activity detection is presented for the design of environments for ageing, to identify activities and behavior patterns in smart homes. In a presented project for parking spot detection using an intelligent vehicle, the proposed approaches are used to hierarchically model...

  11. Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala modulates the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areg eBarsegyan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA is well known to enhance the consolidation of long-term memory of highly emotionally arousing training experiences. The present study investigated whether such noradrenergic activation of the BLA also influences the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory, a low-arousing training task assessing episodic-like memory. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to two identical objects in one context for either 3 or 10 min, immediately followed by exposure to two other identical objects in a distinctly different context. Immediately after the training they received bilateral intra-BLA infusions of norepinephrine (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 μg or the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 μg. On the 24-h retention test, rats were placed back into one of the training contexts with one copy of each of the two training objects. Thus, although both objects were familiar, one of the objects had not previously been encountered in this particular test context. Hence, if the animal generated a long-term memory for the association between an object and its context, it would spend significantly more time exploring the object that was not previously experienced in this context. Saline-infused control rats exhibited poor 24-h retention when given 3 min of training and good retention when given 10 min of training. Norepinephrine administered after 3 min of object-in-context training induced a dose-dependent memory enhancement, whereas propranolol administered after 10 min of training produced memory impairment. These findings provide evidence that posttraining noradrenergic activation of the BLA also enhances the consolidation of memory of object-in-context recognition training, enabling accuracy of episodic-like memories.

  12. Image Processing Strategies Based on a Visual Saliency Model for Object Recognition Under Simulated Prosthetic Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Heng; Fu, Weizhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Liming; Lyu, Qing; Han, Tingting; Chai, Xinyu

    2016-01-01

    Retinal prostheses have the potential to restore partial vision. Object recognition in scenes of daily life is one of the essential tasks for implant wearers. Still limited by the low-resolution visual percepts provided by retinal prostheses, it is important to investigate and apply image processing methods to convey more useful visual information to the wearers. We proposed two image processing strategies based on Itti's visual saliency map, region of interest (ROI) extraction, and image segmentation. Itti's saliency model generated a saliency map from the original image, in which salient regions were grouped into ROI by the fuzzy c-means clustering. Then Grabcut generated a proto-object from the ROI labeled image which was recombined with background and enhanced in two ways--8-4 separated pixelization (8-4 SP) and background edge extraction (BEE). Results showed that both 8-4 SP and BEE had significantly higher recognition accuracy in comparison with direct pixelization (DP). Each saliency-based image processing strategy was subject to the performance of image segmentation. Under good and perfect segmentation conditions, BEE and 8-4 SP obtained noticeably higher recognition accuracy than DP, and under bad segmentation condition, only BEE boosted the performance. The application of saliency-based image processing strategies was verified to be beneficial to object recognition in daily scenes under simulated prosthetic vision. They are hoped to help the development of the image processing module for future retinal prostheses, and thus provide more benefit for the patients. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A knowledge-based object recognition system for applications in the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Atam P.

    1988-01-01

    A knowledge-based three-dimensional (3D) object recognition system is being developed. The system uses primitive-based hierarchical relational and structural matching for the recognition of 3D objects in the two-dimensional (2D) image for interpretation of the 3D scene. At present, the pre-processing, low-level preliminary segmentation, rule-based segmentation, and the feature extraction are completed. The data structure of the primitive viewing knowledge-base (PVKB) is also completed. Algorithms and programs based on attribute-trees matching for decomposing the segmented data into valid primitives were developed. The frame-based structural and relational descriptions of some objects were created and stored in a knowledge-base. This knowledge-base of the frame-based descriptions were developed on the MICROVAX-AI microcomputer in LISP environment. The simulated 3D scene of simple non-overlapping objects as well as real camera data of images of 3D objects of low-complexity have been successfully interpreted.

  14. Fine-Grained Object Recognition and Zero-Shot Learning in Remote Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbul, Gencer; Cinbis, Ramazan Gokberk; Aksoy, Selim

    2018-02-01

    Fine-grained object recognition that aims to identify the type of an object among a large number of subcategories is an emerging application with the increasing resolution that exposes new details in image data. Traditional fully supervised algorithms fail to handle this problem where there is low between-class variance and high within-class variance for the classes of interest with small sample sizes. We study an even more extreme scenario named zero-shot learning (ZSL) in which no training example exists for some of the classes. ZSL aims to build a recognition model for new unseen categories by relating them to seen classes that were previously learned. We establish this relation by learning a compatibility function between image features extracted via a convolutional neural network and auxiliary information that describes the semantics of the classes of interest by using training samples from the seen classes. Then, we show how knowledge transfer can be performed for the unseen classes by maximizing this function during inference. We introduce a new data set that contains 40 different types of street trees in 1-ft spatial resolution aerial data, and evaluate the performance of this model with manually annotated attributes, a natural language model, and a scientific taxonomy as auxiliary information. The experiments show that the proposed model achieves 14.3% recognition accuracy for the classes with no training examples, which is significantly better than a random guess accuracy of 6.3% for 16 test classes, and three other ZSL algorithms.

  15. Landmark recognition in Alzheimer's dementia: spared implicit memory for objects relevant for navigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy P C Kessels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In spatial navigation, landmark recognition is crucial. Specifically, memory for objects placed at decision points on a route is relevant. Previous fMRI research in healthy adults showed higher medial-temporal lobe (MTL activation for objects placed at decision points compared to non-decision points, even at an implicit level. Since there is evidence that implicit learning is intact in amnesic patients, the current study examined memory for objects relevant for navigation in patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 21 AD patients participated with MTL atrophy assessed on MRI (mean MMSE = 21.2, SD = 4.0, as well as 20 age- and education-matched non-demented controls. All participants watched a 5-min video showing a route through a virtual museum with 20 objects placed at intersections (decision points and 20 at simple turns (non-decision points. The instruction was to pay attention to the toys (half of the objects for which they were supposedly tested later. Subsequently, a recognition test followed with the 40 previously presented objects among 40 distracter items (both toys and non-toys. Results showed a better performance for the non-toy objects placed at decision points than non-decision points, both for AD patients and controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that AD patients with MTL damage have implicit memory for object information relevant for navigation. No decision point effect was found for the attended items. Possibly, focusing attention on the items occurred at the cost of the context information in AD, whereas the controls performed at an optimal level due to intact memory function.

  16. Landmark recognition in Alzheimer's dementia: spared implicit memory for objects relevant for navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Roy P C; van Doormaal, Amy; Janzen, Gabriele

    2011-04-04

    In spatial navigation, landmark recognition is crucial. Specifically, memory for objects placed at decision points on a route is relevant. Previous fMRI research in healthy adults showed higher medial-temporal lobe (MTL) activation for objects placed at decision points compared to non-decision points, even at an implicit level. Since there is evidence that implicit learning is intact in amnesic patients, the current study examined memory for objects relevant for navigation in patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD). 21 AD patients participated with MTL atrophy assessed on MRI (mean MMSE = 21.2, SD = 4.0), as well as 20 age- and education-matched non-demented controls. All participants watched a 5-min video showing a route through a virtual museum with 20 objects placed at intersections (decision points) and 20 at simple turns (non-decision points). The instruction was to pay attention to the toys (half of the objects) for which they were supposedly tested later. Subsequently, a recognition test followed with the 40 previously presented objects among 40 distracter items (both toys and non-toys). Results showed a better performance for the non-toy objects placed at decision points than non-decision points, both for AD patients and controls. Our findings indicate that AD patients with MTL damage have implicit memory for object information relevant for navigation. No decision point effect was found for the attended items. Possibly, focusing attention on the items occurred at the cost of the context information in AD, whereas the controls performed at an optimal level due to intact memory function.

  17. On the Relation between Face and Object Recognition in Developmental Prosopagnosia: No Dissociation but a Systematic Association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether face recognition and object recognition constitute separate domains. Clarification of this issue can have important theoretical implications as face recognition is often used as a prime example of domain-specificity in mind and brain. An important source...... of input to this debate comes from studies of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia, suggesting that face recognition can be selectively impaired. We put the selectivity hypothesis to test by assessing the performance of 10 individuals with developmental prosopagnosia on demanding tests of visual...... object processing involving both regular and degraded drawings. None of the individuals exhibited a clear dissociation between face and object recognition, and as a group they were significantly more affected by degradation of objects than control participants. Importantly, we also find positive...

  18. Vision: are models of object recognition catching up with the brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Tomaso; Ullman, Shimon

    2013-12-01

    Object recognition has been a central yet elusive goal of computational vision. For many years, computer performance seemed highly deficient and unable to emulate the basic capabilities of the human recognition system. Over the past decade or so, computer scientists and neuroscientists have developed algorithms and systems-and models of visual cortex-that have come much closer to human performance in visual identification and categorization. In this personal perspective, we discuss the ongoing struggle of visual models to catch up with the visual cortex, identify key reasons for the relatively rapid improvement of artificial systems and models, and identify open problems for computational vision in this domain. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Category-Specific Visual Recognition and Aging from the PACE Theory Perspective: Evidence for a Presemantic Deficit in Aging Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordaberry, Pierre; Gerlach, Christian; Lenoble, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Study Context: The objective of this study was to investigate the object recognition deficit in aging. Age-related declines were examined from the presemantic account of category effects (PACE) theory perspective (Gerlach, 2009, Cognition, 111, 281–301). This view assumes...... that the structural similarity/dissimilarity inherent in living and nonliving objects, respectively, can account for a wide range of category-specific effects. Methods: In two experiments on object recognition, young (36 participants, 18–27 years) and older (36 participants, 53–69 years) adult participants......’ performances were compared. Results: The young adults’ results corroborate the PACE theory expectations. The results of the older adults showed an impairment in recognition of structurally similar objects irrespective of semantic category. Conclusion: The two sets of results suggest that a deficit...

  20. Joint object and action recognition via fusion of partially observable surveillance imagery data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Chan, Alex L.

    2017-05-01

    Partially observable group activities (POGA) occurring in confined spaces are epitomized by their limited observability of the objects and actions involved. In many POGA scenarios, different objects are being used by human operators for the conduct of various operations. In this paper, we describe the ontology of such as POGA in the context of In-Vehicle Group Activity (IVGA) recognition. Initially, we describe the virtue of ontology modeling in the context of IVGA and show how such an ontology and a priori knowledge about the classes of in-vehicle activities can be fused for inference of human actions that consequentially leads to understanding of human activity inside the confined space of a vehicle. In this paper, we treat the problem of "action-object" as a duality problem. We postulate a correlation between observed human actions and the object that is being utilized within those actions, and conversely, if an object being handled is recognized, we may be able to expect a number of actions that are likely to be performed on that object. In this study, we use partially observable human postural sequences to recognition actions. Inspired by convolutional neural networks (CNNs) learning capability, we present an architecture design using a new CNN model to learn "action-object" perception from surveillance videos. In this study, we apply a sequential Deep Hidden Markov Model (DHMM) as a post-processor to CNN to decode realized observations into recognized actions and activities. To generate the needed imagery data set for the training and testing of these new methods, we use the IRIS virtual simulation software to generate high-fidelity and dynamic animated scenarios that depict in-vehicle group activities under different operational contexts. The results of our comparative investigation are discussed and presented in detail.

  1. Acute fasting inhibits central caspase-1 activity reducing anxiety-like behavior and increasing novel object and object location recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Albert E; Oelschlager, Maci L; Patel, Jay; Gainey, Stephen J; McCusker, Robert H; Freund, Gregory G

    2017-06-01

    Inflammation within the central nervous system (CNS) is frequently comorbid with anxiety. Importantly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine most commonly associated with anxiety is IL-1β. The bioavailability and activity of IL-1β are regulated by caspase-1-dependent proteolysis vis-a-vis the inflammasome. Thus, interventions regulating the activation or activity of caspase-1 should reduce anxiety especially in states that foster IL-1β maturation. Male C57BL/6j, C57BL/6j mice treated with the capase-1 inhibitor biotin-YVAD-cmk, caspase-1 knockout (KO) mice and IL-1R1 KO mice were fasted for 24h or allowed ad libitum access to food. Immediately after fasting, caspase-1 activity was measured in brain region homogenates while activated caspase-1 was localized in the brain by immunohistochemistry. Mouse anxiety-like behavior and cognition were tested using the elevated zero maze and novel object/object location tasks, respectively. A 24h fast in mice reduced the activity of caspase-1 in whole brain and in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus by 35%, 25%, 40%, 40%, and 40% respectively. A 24h fast also reduced anxiety-like behavior by 40% and increased novel object and object location recognition by 21% and 31%, respectively. IL-1β protein, however, was not reduced in the brain by fasting. ICV administration of YVAD decreased caspase-1 activity in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala by 55%, respectively leading to a 64% reduction in anxiety like behavior. Importantly, when caspase-1 KO or IL1-R1 KO mice are fasted, no fasting-dependent reduction in anxiety-like behavior was observed. Results indicate that fasting decrease anxiety-like behavior and improves memory by a mechanism tied to reducing caspase-1 activity throughout the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. SOFTWARE EFFORT ESTIMATION FRAMEWORK TO IMPROVE ORGANIZATION PRODUCTIVITY USING EMOTION RECOGNITION OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERS IN SPONTANEOUS SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V.A.N.S.S. Prabhakar Rao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Productivity is a very important part of any organisation in general and software industry in particular. Now a day’s Software Effort estimation is a challenging task. Both Effort and Productivity are inter-related to each other. This can be achieved from the employee’s of the organization. Every organisation requires emotionally stable employees in their firm for seamless and progressive working. Of course, in other industries this may be achieved without man power. But, software project development is labour intensive activity. Each line of code should be delivered from software engineer. Tools and techniques may helpful and act as aid or supplementary. Whatever be the reason software industry has been suffering with success rate. Software industry is facing lot of problems in delivering the project on time and within the estimated budget limit. If we want to estimate the required effort of the project it is significant to know the emotional state of the team member. The responsibility of ensuring emotional contentment falls on the human resource department and the department can deploy a series of systems to carry out its survey. This analysis can be done using a variety of tools, one such, is through study of emotion recognition. The data needed for this is readily available and collectable and can be an excellent source for the feedback systems. The challenge of recognition of emotion in speech is convoluted primarily due to the noisy recording condition, the variations in sentiment in sample space and exhibition of multiple emotions in a single sentence. The ambiguity in the labels of training set also increases the complexity of problem addressed. The existing models using probabilistic models have dominated the study but present a flaw in scalability due to statistical inefficiency. The problem of sentiment prediction in spontaneous speech can thus be addressed using a hybrid system comprising of a Convolution Neural Network and

  3. Real-time optical multiple object recognition and tracking system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Liu, Hua-Kuang (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    System for optically recognizing and tracking a plurality of objects within a field of vision. Laser (46) produces a coherent beam (48). Beam splitter (24) splits the beam into object (26) and reference (28) beams. Beam expanders (50) and collimators (52) transform the beams (26, 28) into coherent collimated light beams (26', 28'). A two-dimensional SLM (54), disposed in the object beam (26'), modulates the object beam with optical information as a function of signals from a first camera (16) which develops X and Y signals reflecting the contents of its field of vision. A hololens (38), positioned in the object beam (26') subsequent to the modulator (54), focuses the object beam at a plurality of focal points (42). A planar transparency-forming film (32), disposed with the focal points on an exposable surface, forms a multiple position interference filter (62) upon exposure of the surface and development processing of the film (32). A reflector (53) directing the reference beam (28') onto the film (32), exposes the surface, with images focused by the hololens (38), to form interference patterns on the surface. There is apparatus (16', 64) for sensing and indicating light passage through respective ones of the positions of the filter (62), whereby recognition of objects corresponding to respective ones of the positions of the filter (62) is affected. For tracking, apparatus (64) focuses light passing through the filter (62) onto a matrix of CCD's in a second camera (16') to form a two-dimensional display of the recognized objects.

  4. The physician's right to conscientious objection: an evolving recognition in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Tom

    2010-06-01

    Due to the growing number of medical treatments, physicians--who are also human beings with their own conscience and beliefs--are increasingly confronted with treatments that may conflict with their principles and convictions. Although several human rights documents recognize the freedom of conscience and belief, we could not locate the recognition of an explicit right to conscientious objection. Furthermore, a direct application of the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, as recognized by article 9 of the ECHR, does not include such a right due to the narrow interpretation of this right by the European Court of Human Rights. However, the Court seems to have taken steps away from this narrow interpretation in Pichon and Sajous v. France. Notwithstanding these steps, no general right to conscientious objection exists. Physicians therefore are dependent on a judgment if they refuse a certain treatment because of conscientious objections.

  5. Impulsivity and novel object recognition test of rat model for vascular cognitive impairment after antipsychotics treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny T Wirasto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI is a common condition in which no standard treatment has been approved. VCI is often accompanied by behavioral problems which require psychiatric interventions. The common therapeutic agent used for the acute management is antipsychotic injections. Current findings showed that atypical antipsychotic possess better safety profile for treating behavioral problems related to VCI compared to typical antipsychotic. In this study, we induced VCI in Sprague Dawley rats between 6-8 weeks old using bilateral carotid communist artery occlusion technique. The subjects were divided into 4 treatment groups: sham, olanzapine, haloperidol, and risperidone groups. Subjects received intramuscular injections of subsequent drugs for 3 days post VCI induction. Impulsive behavior and object recognition were examined using cliff jumping test and novel object recognition test. The analyses results showed that impulsive behavior was lower in the olanzapine and haloperidol groups compared to sham group, although it was not statistically significant (p = 0.651. The results also showed that there were no significant differences in the time spent exploring old and novel objects in all groups (p = 0.945;0.637 respectively. In conclusion, antipsychotic injection might not be effective to control impulsive behavior post VCI induction.

  6. Higher-order neural network software for distortion invariant object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Max B.; Spirkovska, Lilly

    1991-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in pattern recognition for such applications as automatic target recognition and industrial robotic vision relies on digital image processing. We present a higher-order neural network model and software which performs the complete feature extraction-pattern classification paradigm required for automatic pattern recognition. Using a third-order neural network, we demonstrate complete, 100 percent accurate invariance to distortions of scale, position, and in-plate rotation. In a higher-order neural network, feature extraction is built into the network, and does not have to be learned. Only the relatively simple classification step must be learned. This is key to achieving very rapid training. The training set is much smaller than with standard neural network software because the higher-order network only has to be shown one view of each object to be learned, not every possible view. The software and graphical user interface run on any Sun workstation. Results of the use of the neural software in autonomous robotic vision systems are presented. Such a system could have extensive application in robotic manufacturing.

  7. Dopamine D1 receptor stimulation modulates the formation and retrieval of novel object recognition memory: Role of the prelimbic cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Pezze, Marie A.; Marshall, Hayley J.; Fone, Kevin C.F.; Cassaday, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that dopamine D1 receptor antagonists impair novel object recognition memory but the effects of dopamine D1 receptor stimulation remain to be determined. This study investigated the effects of the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF81297 on acquisition and retrieval in the novel object recognition task in male Wistar rats. SKF81297 (0.4 and 0.8?mg/kg s.c.) given 15?min before the sampling phase impaired novel object recognition evaluated 10?min or 24?h later...

  8. Dopamine D1 receptor stimulation modulates the formation and retrieval of novel object recognition memory: Role of the prelimbic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezze, Marie A; Marshall, Hayley J; Fone, Kevin C F; Cassaday, Helen J

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that dopamine D1 receptor antagonists impair novel object recognition memory but the effects of dopamine D1 receptor stimulation remain to be determined. This study investigated the effects of the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF81297 on acquisition and retrieval in the novel object recognition task in male Wistar rats. SKF81297 (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg s.c.) given 15 min before the sampling phase impaired novel object recognition evaluated 10 min or 24 h later. The same treatments also reduced novel object recognition memory tested 24 h after the sampling phase and when given 15 min before the choice session. These data indicate that D1 receptor stimulation modulates both the encoding and retrieval of object recognition memory. Microinfusion of SKF81297 (0.025 or 0.05 μg/side) into the prelimbic sub-region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in this case 10 min before the sampling phase also impaired novel object recognition memory, suggesting that the mPFC is one important site mediating the effects of D1 receptor stimulation on visual recognition memory. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modafinil improves methamphetamine-induced object recognition deficits and restores prefrontal cortex ERK signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Betina; Raineri, Mariana; Cadet, Jean Lud; García-Rill, Edgar; Urbano, Francisco J; Bisagno, Veronica

    2014-12-01

    Chronic use of methamphetamine (METH) leads to long-lasting cognitive dysfunction in humans and in animal models. Modafinil is a wake-promoting compound approved for the treatment of sleeping disorders. It is also prescribed off label to treat METH dependence. In the present study, we investigated whether modafinil could improve cognitive deficits induced by sub-chronic METH treatment in mice by measuring visual retention in a Novel Object Recognition (NOR) task. After sub-chronic METH treatment (1 mg/kg, once a day for 7 days), mice performed the NOR task, which consisted of habituation to the object recognition arena (5 min a day, 3 consecutive days), training session (2 equal objects, 10 min, day 4), and a retention session (1 novel object, 5 min, day 5). One hour before the training session, mice were given a single dose of modafinil (30 or 90 mg/kg). METH-treated mice showed impairments in visual memory retention, evidenced by equal preference of familiar and novel objects during the retention session. The lower dose of modafinil (30 mg/kg) had no effect on visual retention scores in METH-treated mice, while the higher dose (90 mg/kg) rescued visual memory retention to control values. We also measured extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of METH- and vehicle-treated mice that received modafinil 1 h before exposure to novel objects in the training session, compared to mice placed in the arena without objects. Elevated ERK phosphorylation was found in the mPFC of vehicle-treated mice, but not in METH-treated mice, exposed to objects. The lower dose of modafinil had no effect on ERK phosphorylation in METH-treated mice, while 90 mg/kg modafinil treatment restored the ERK phosphorylation induced by novelty in METH-treated mice to values comparable to controls. We found neither a novelty nor treatment effect on ERK phosphorylation in hippocampus or NAc of vehicle

  10. The influence of object and background color manipulations on the electrophysiological indices of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Zimmer, Hubert D; Groh-Bordin, Christian

    2007-12-14

    In a recognition memory experiment, the claim was tested that intrinsic object features contribute to familiarity, whereas extrinsic context features do not. We used the study-test manipulation of color to investigate the perceptual specificity of ERP old-new effects associated with familiarity and recollection. Color was either an intrinsic surface feature of the object or a feature of the surrounding context (a frame encasing the object); thus, the same feature was manipulated across intrinsic/extrinsic conditions. Subjects performed a threefold (same color/different color/new object) decision, making feature information task-relevant. Results suggest that the intrinsic manipulation of color affected the mid-frontal old-new effect associated with familiarity, while this effect was not influenced by extrinsic manipulation. This ERP pattern could not be explained by basic behavioral performance differences. It is concluded that familiarity can be perceptually specific with regard to intrinsic information belonging to the object. The putative electrophysiological signature of recollection - a late parietal old-new effect - was not present in the data, and reasons for this null effect are discussed.

  11. Recognition of 3-D symmetric objects from range images in automated assembly tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvertos, Nicolas; Dcunha, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    A new technique is presented for the three dimensional recognition of symmetric objects from range images. Beginning from the implicit representation of quadrics, a set of ten coefficients is determined for symmetric objects like spheres, cones, cylinders, ellipsoids, and parallelepipeds. Instead of using these ten coefficients trying to fit them to smooth surfaces (patches) based on the traditional way of determining curvatures, a new approach based on two dimensional geometry is used. For each symmetric object, a unique set of two dimensional curves is obtained from the various angles at which the object is intersected with a plane. Using the same ten coefficients obtained earlier and based on the discriminant method, each of these curves is classified as a parabola, circle, ellipse, or hyperbola. Each symmetric object is found to possess a unique set of these two dimensional curves whereby it can be differentiated from the others. It is shown that instead of using the three dimensional discriminant which involves evaluation of the rank of its matrix, it is sufficient to use the two dimensional discriminant which only requires three arithmetic operations.

  12. Comparison of objective methods to classify the pattern of respiratory sinus arrhythmia during mechanical ventilation and paced spontaneous breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, N C; Beda, A; Granja-Filho, P; Jandre, F C; Giannella-Neto, A; De Abreu, M G; Spieth, P M

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a fluctuation of heart period that occurs during a respiratory cycle. It has been suggested that inspiratory heart period acceleration and expiratory deceleration during spontaneous ventilation (henceforth named positive RSA) improve the efficiency of gas exchange compared to the absence or the inversion of such a pattern (negative RSA). During mechanical ventilation (MV), for which maximizing the efficiency of gas exchange is of critical importance, the pattern of RSA is still the object of debate. In order to gain a better insight into this matter, we compared five different methods of RSA classification using the data of five mechanically ventilated piglets. The comparison was repeated using the data of 15 volunteers undergoing a protocol of paced spontaneous breathing, which is expected to result in a positive RSA pattern. The results showed that the agreement between the employed methods is limited, suggesting that the lack of a consensus about the RSA pattern during MV is, at least in part, of methodological origin. However, independently of the method used, the pattern of RSA within the respiratory cycle was not consistent among the subjects and conditions of MV considered. Also, the outcomes showed that even during paced spontaneous breathing a negative RSA pattern might be present, when a low respiratory frequency is imposed

  13. Development of a lateral migration radiography image generation and object recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehlburg, Joseph Cornelis

    Compton Backscatter Imaging (CBI) has always been impeded by inefficient sensing of information carrying photons, and extensive structured noise due to object surface features and heterogeneity. In this research project, a new variant of CBI, which substantially resolves both impedimental is suggested, developed and rigorously tested by application to a difficult imaging problem. The new approach is termed Lateral Migration Radiography (LMR) which aptly describes the specific photon history process giving rise to resulting image contrast. The photons employed in this research are conventionally generated x rays. A pencil x-ray beam with a typical filtered-bremsstrahlung photon energy spectrum is perpendicularly incident upon, and systematically rastered over, the object to be imaged. Efficient sensing of information-carrying photons is achieved by employing large-area detectors with sensitive planes perpendicular to the incident beam. A geometric array of a group of such detectors along with varying degrees of detector collimation to discriminate singly-scattered from multiple-scattered, detected x rays is developed. The direct output of the detector-array components is algebraically combined to eliminate image cloaking by surface features and heterogeneity. Image contrast is generated by the variation of x-ray interaction probabilities in the internal details relative to the surrounding material. These major improvements to conventional CBI have allowed the detection of internals with clarity such that recognition of the internal features via the image details is possible in cases where ordinary CBI can not even detect the presence of the internal structure. The test application is the detection and recognition of all-plastic antitank landmines buried in soil at depths of up to three inches. In the military application of clearing 12 inch diameter mines from 14-foot-wide tank-lanes, the spatial resolution requirement of one inch and the speed of 3 to 5 mph over

  14. Novel object recognition ability in female mice following exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin, E-mail: tin.tin.win.shwe@nies.go.jp [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16‐2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305‐8506 (Japan); Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro [Center for Environmental Risk Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16‐2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305‐8506 (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    Recently, our laboratory reported that exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NRDE) for 3 months impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning ability and up-regulated the expressions of memory function-related genes in the hippocampus of female mice. However, whether NRDE affects the hippocampus-dependent non-spatial learning ability and the mechanism of NRDE-induced neurotoxicity was unknown. Female BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, middle-dose NRDE (M-NRDE, 47 μg/m{sup 3}), high-dose NRDE (H-NRDE, 129 μg/m{sup 3}), or filtered H-NRDE (F-DE) for 3 months. We then investigated the effect of NRDE exposure on non-spatial learning ability and the expression of genes related to glutamate neurotransmission using a novel object recognition test and a real-time RT-PCR analysis, respectively. We also examined microglia marker Iba1 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus using immunohistochemical analyses. Mice exposed to H-NRDE or F-DE could not discriminate between familiar and novel objects. The control and M-NRDE-exposed groups showed a significantly increased discrimination index, compared to the H-NRDE-exposed group. Although no significant changes in the expression levels of the NMDA receptor subunits were observed, the expression of glutamate transporter EAAT4 was decreased and that of glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65 was increased in the hippocampus of H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the expression levels in control mice. We also found that microglia activation was prominent in the hippocampal area of the H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the other groups. These results indicated that exposure to NRDE for 3 months impaired the novel object recognition ability. The present study suggests that genes related to glutamate metabolism may be involved in the NRDE-induced neurotoxicity observed in the present mouse model. -- Highlights: ► The effects of nanoparticle-induced neurotoxicity remain unclear. ► We investigated the effect of exposure to

  15. Simulated Prosthetic Vision: The Benefits of Computer-Based Object Recognition and Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macé, Marc J-M; Guivarch, Valérian; Denis, Grégoire; Jouffrais, Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Clinical trials with blind patients implanted with a visual neuroprosthesis showed that even the simplest tasks were difficult to perform with the limited vision restored with current implants. Simulated prosthetic vision (SPV) is a powerful tool to investigate the putative functions of the upcoming generations of visual neuroprostheses. Recent studies based on SPV showed that several generations of implants will be required before usable vision is restored. However, none of these studies relied on advanced image processing. High-level image processing could significantly reduce the amount of information required to perform visual tasks and help restore visuomotor behaviors, even with current low-resolution implants. In this study, we simulated a prosthetic vision device based on object localization in the scene. We evaluated the usability of this device for object recognition, localization, and reaching. We showed that a very low number of electrodes (e.g., nine) are sufficient to restore visually guided reaching movements with fair timing (10 s) and high accuracy. In addition, performance, both in terms of accuracy and speed, was comparable with 9 and 100 electrodes. Extraction of high level information (object recognition and localization) from video images could drastically enhance the usability of current visual neuroprosthesis. We suggest that this method-that is, localization of targets of interest in the scene-may restore various visuomotor behaviors. This method could prove functional on current low-resolution implants. The main limitation resides in the reliability of the vision algorithms, which are improving rapidly. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Short- and long-term effects of nicotine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate on novel object recognition in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faillace, M P; Pisera-Fuster, A; Medrano, M P; Bejarano, A C; Bernabeu, R O

    2017-03-01

    Zebrafish have a sophisticated color- and shape-sensitive visual system, so we examined color cue-based novel object recognition in zebrafish. We evaluated preference in the absence or presence of drugs that affect attention and memory retention in rodents: nicotine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) phenylbutyrate (PhB). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether nicotine and PhB affect innate preferences of zebrafish for familiar and novel objects after short- and long-retention intervals. We developed modified object recognition (OR) tasks using neutral novel and familiar objects in different colors. We also tested objects which differed with respect to the exploratory behavior they elicited from naïve zebrafish. Zebrafish showed an innate preference for exploring red or green objects rather than yellow or blue objects. Zebrafish were better at discriminating color changes than changes in object shape or size. Nicotine significantly enhanced or changed short-term innate novel object preference whereas PhB had similar effects when preference was assessed 24 h after training. Analysis of other zebrafish behaviors corroborated these results. Zebrafish were innately reluctant or prone to explore colored novel objects, so drug effects on innate preference for objects can be evaluated changing the color of objects with a simple geometry. Zebrafish exhibited recognition memory for novel objects with similar innate significance. Interestingly, nicotine and PhB significantly modified innate object preference.

  17. Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on object recognition memory in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Hinchman, Marie; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A.; Foster, Brian C.

    2009-04-01

    On long-duration missions to other planets astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation that are not experienced in low earth orbit. Previous research using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays has shown that exposure to heavy particles, such as 56Fe, disrupts spatial learning and memory measured using the Morris water maze. Maintaining rats on diets containing antioxidant phytochemicals for 2 weeks prior to irradiation ameliorated this deficit. The present experiments were designed to determine: (1) the generality of the particle-induced disruption of memory by examining the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles on object recognition memory; and (2) whether maintaining rats on these antioxidant diets for 2 weeks prior to irradiation would also ameliorate any potential deficit. The results showed that exposure to low doses of 56Fe particles does disrupt recognition memory and that maintaining rats on antioxidant diets containing blueberry and strawberry extract for only 2 weeks was effective in ameliorating the disruptive effects of irradiation. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms by which exposure to these particles may produce effects on neurocognitive performance.

  18. A neuromorphic architecture for object recognition and motion anticipation using burst-STDP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nere

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the possibilities offered by a minimal framework of artificial spiking neurons to be deployed in silico. Here we introduce a hierarchical network architecture of spiking neurons which learns to recognize moving objects in a visual environment and determine the correct motor output for each object. These tasks are learned through both supervised and unsupervised spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP. STDP is responsible for the strengthening (or weakening of synapses in relation to pre- and post-synaptic spike times and has been described as a Hebbian paradigm taking place both in vitro and in vivo. We utilize a variation of STDP learning, called burst-STDP, which is based on the notion that, since spikes are expensive in terms of energy consumption, then strong bursting activity carries more information than single (sparse spikes. Furthermore, this learning algorithm takes advantage of homeostatic renormalization, which has been hypothesized to promote memory consolidation during NREM sleep. Using this learning rule, we design a spiking neural network architecture capable of object recognition, motion detection, attention towards important objects, and motor control outputs. We demonstrate the abilities of our design in a simple environment with distractor objects, multiple objects moving concurrently, and in the presence of noise. Most importantly, we show how this neural network is capable of performing these tasks using a simple leaky-integrate-and-fire (LIF neuron model with binary synapses, making it fully compatible with state-of-the-art digital neuromorphic hardware designs. As such, the building blocks and learning rules presented in this paper appear promising for scalable fully neuromorphic systems to be implemented in hardware chips.

  19. A Neuromorphic Architecture for Object Recognition and Motion Anticipation Using Burst-STDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduzzi, David; Tononi, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    In this work we investigate the possibilities offered by a minimal framework of artificial spiking neurons to be deployed in silico. Here we introduce a hierarchical network architecture of spiking neurons which learns to recognize moving objects in a visual environment and determine the correct motor output for each object. These tasks are learned through both supervised and unsupervised spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP). STDP is responsible for the strengthening (or weakening) of synapses in relation to pre- and post-synaptic spike times and has been described as a Hebbian paradigm taking place both in vitro and in vivo. We utilize a variation of STDP learning, called burst-STDP, which is based on the notion that, since spikes are expensive in terms of energy consumption, then strong bursting activity carries more information than single (sparse) spikes. Furthermore, this learning algorithm takes advantage of homeostatic renormalization, which has been hypothesized to promote memory consolidation during NREM sleep. Using this learning rule, we design a spiking neural network architecture capable of object recognition, motion detection, attention towards important objects, and motor control outputs. We demonstrate the abilities of our design in a simple environment with distractor objects, multiple objects moving concurrently, and in the presence of noise. Most importantly, we show how this neural network is capable of performing these tasks using a simple leaky-integrate-and-fire (LIF) neuron model with binary synapses, making it fully compatible with state-of-the-art digital neuromorphic hardware designs. As such, the building blocks and learning rules presented in this paper appear promising for scalable fully neuromorphic systems to be implemented in hardware chips. PMID:22615855

  20. HONTIOR - HIGHER-ORDER NEURAL NETWORK FOR TRANSFORMATION INVARIANT OBJECT RECOGNITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, L.

    1994-01-01

    Neural networks have been applied in numerous fields, including transformation invariant object recognition, wherein an object is recognized despite changes in the object's position in the input field, size, or rotation. One of the more successful neural network methods used in invariant object recognition is the higher-order neural network (HONN) method. With a HONN, known relationships are exploited and the desired invariances are built directly into the architecture of the network, eliminating the need for the network to learn invariance to transformations. This results in a significant reduction in the training time required, since the network needs to be trained on only one view of each object, not on numerous transformed views. Moreover, one hundred percent accuracy is guaranteed for images characterized by the built-in distortions, providing noise is not introduced through pixelation. The program HONTIOR implements a third-order neural network having invariance to translation, scale, and in-plane rotation built directly into the architecture, Thus, for 2-D transformation invariance, the network needs only to be trained on just one view of each object. HONTIOR can also be used for 3-D transformation invariant object recognition by training the network only on a set of out-of-plane rotated views. Historically, the major drawback of HONNs has been that the size of the input field was limited to the memory required for the large number of interconnections in a fully connected network. HONTIOR solves this problem by coarse coding the input images (coding an image as a set of overlapping but offset coarser images). Using this scheme, large input fields (4096 x 4096 pixels) can easily be represented using very little virtual memory (30Mb). The HONTIOR distribution consists of three main programs. The first program contains the training and testing routines for a third-order neural network. The second program contains the same training and testing procedures as the

  1. Object and Facial Recognition in Augmented and Virtual Reality: Investigation into Software, Hardware and Potential Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Erin

    2017-01-01

    As augmented and virtual reality grows in popularity, and more researchers focus on its development, other fields of technology have grown in the hopes of integrating with the up-and-coming hardware currently on the market. Namely, there has been a focus on how to make an intuitive, hands-free human-computer interaction (HCI) utilizing AR and VR that allows users to control their technology with little to no physical interaction with hardware. Computer vision, which is utilized in devices such as the Microsoft Kinect, webcams and other similar hardware has shown potential in assisting with the development of a HCI system that requires next to no human interaction with computing hardware and software. Object and facial recognition are two subsets of computer vision, both of which can be applied to HCI systems in the fields of medicine, security, industrial development and other similar areas.

  2. Color Histograms Adapted to Query-Target Images for Object Recognition across Illumination Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack-Gérard Postaire

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Most object recognition schemes fail in case of illumination changes between the color image acquisitions. One of the most widely used solutions to cope with this problem is to compare the images by means of the intersection between invariant color histograms. The main originality of our approach is to cope with the problem of illumination changes by analyzing each pair of query and target images constructed during the retrieval, instead of considering each image of the database independently from each other. In this paper, we propose a new approach which determines color histograms adapted to each pair of images. These adapted color histograms are obtained so that their intersection is higher when the two images are similar than when they are different. The adapted color histograms processing is based on an original model of illumination changes based on rank measures of the pixels within the color component images.

  3. Humanin affects object recognition and gliosis in short-term cuprizone-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Minetaka; Nagahama, Masatoshi; Abe, Yoichiro; Niikura, Takako

    2017-12-01

    Humanin (HN) is a 24-residue peptide that manipulates cell survival under various stresses. A highly potent HN derivative, HNG, reduced amyloid burden and neuroinflammation and suppressed cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease model mice. Cuprizone (CPZ), a copper chelator, provokes demyelination in the central nervous system of mice. A shorter (one week) exposure to CPZ induces schizophrenia-like behavior and glial activation prior to demyelination. We tested the effect of HNG on these short-term responses to CZP in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of HNG for one week improved object recognition memory but not working memory in CPZ-treated mice. Quantitative PCR analyses showed that HNG significantly suppressed CPZ-induced activation of microglia, but did not alter the reduced level of a myelin-specific transcript. These results suggest that HN can suppress neuroinflammation and the associated cognitive deficit in a wider range of neurological disorders beyond Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Influence of Print Exposure on the Body-Object Interaction Effect in Visual Word Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eHansen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction (BOI effect in visual word recognition. High print exposure readers and low print exposure readers either made semantic categorizations (Is the word easily imageable?; Experiment 1 or phonological lexical decisions (Does the item sound like a real English word?; Experiment 2. The results from Experiment 1 showed that there was a larger facilitatory BOI effect for the low print exposure readers than for the high print exposure readers in semantic categorization, though an effect was observed for both print exposure groups. However, the results from Experiment 2 showed that a facilitatory BOI effect was observed only for the high print exposure readers in phonological lexical decision. The results of the present study suggest that print exposure does influence the BOI effect, and that this influence varies as a function of task demands.

  5. The influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction effect in visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Dana; Siakaluk, Paul D; Pexman, Penny M

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction (BOI) effect in visual word recognition. High print exposure readers and low print exposure readers either made semantic categorizations ("Is the word easily imageable?"; Experiment 1) or phonological lexical decisions ("Does the item sound like a real English word?"; Experiment 2). The results from Experiment 1 showed that there was a larger BOI effect for the low print exposure readers than for the high print exposure readers in semantic categorization, though an effect was observed for both print exposure groups. However, the results from Experiment 2 showed that the BOI effect was observed only for the high print exposure readers in phonological lexical decision. The results of the present study suggest that print exposure does influence the BOI effect, and that this influence varies as a function of task demands.

  6. Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I shall examine the cognitive, heuristic and theoretical functions of the concept of recognition. To evaluate both the explanatory power and the limitations of a sociological concept, the theory construction must be analysed and its actual productivity for sociological theory must...... be evaluated. In the first section, I will introduce the concept of recognition as a travelling concept playing a role both on the intellectual stage and in real life. In the second section, I will concentrate on the presentation of Honneth’s theory of recognition, emphasizing the construction of the concept...... and its explanatory power. Finally, I will discuss Honneth’s concept in relation to the critique that has been raised, addressing the debate between Honneth and Fraser. In a short conclusion, I will return to the question of the explanatory power of the concept of recognition....

  7. Eyeblink conditioning and novel object recognition in the rabbit: Behavioral paradigms for assaying psychiatric diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig eWeiss

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of data collected from behavioral paradigms has provided important information for understanding the etiology and progression of diseases that involve neural regions mediating abnormal behavior. The trace eyeblink conditioning (EBC paradigm is particularly suited to examine cerebro-cerebellar interactions since the paradigm requires the cerebellum, forebrain, and awareness of the stimulus contingencies. Impairments in acquiring EBC have been noted in several neuropsychiatric conditions including schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Although several species have been used to examine EBC, the rabbit is unique in its tolerance for restraint which facilitates imaging, its relatively large skull which facilitates chronic neuronal recordings, a genetic sequence for amyloid that is identical to humans which makes it a valuable model to study AD, and in contrast to rodents, it has a striatum that is differentiated into a caudate and a putamen which facilitates analysis of diseases involving the striatum. This review focuses on EBC during schizophrenia and AD since impairments in cerebro-cerebellar connections have been hypothesized to lead to a cognitive dysmetria. We also relate EBC to conditioned avoidance responses that are more often examined for effects of antipsychotic medications, and we propose that an analysis of novel object recognition (NOR may add to our understanding of how the underlying neural circuitry has changed during disease states. We propose that the EBC and NOR paradigms will help to determine which therapeutics are effective for treating the cognitive aspects of schizophrenia and AD, and that neuroimaging may reveal biomarkers of the diseases and help to evaluate potential therapeutics. The rabbit thus provides an important translational system for studying neural mechanisms mediating maladaptive behaviors that underlie some psychiatric

  8. Object recognition using deep convolutional neural networks with complete transfer and partial frozen layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruithof, Maarten C.; Bouma, Henri; Fischer, Noëlle M.; Schutte, Klamer

    2016-10-01

    Object recognition is important to understand the content of video and allow flexible querying in a large number of cameras, especially for security applications. Recent benchmarks show that deep convolutional neural networks are excellent approaches for object recognition. This paper describes an approach of domain transfer, where features learned from a large annotated dataset are transferred to a target domain where less annotated examples are available as is typical for the security and defense domain. Many of these networks trained on natural images appear to learn features similar to Gabor filters and color blobs in the first layer. These first-layer features appear to be generic for many datasets and tasks while the last layer is specific. In this paper, we study the effect of copying all layers and fine-tuning a variable number. We performed an experiment with a Caffe-based network on 1000 ImageNet classes that are randomly divided in two equal subgroups for the transfer from one to the other. We copy all layers and vary the number of layers that is fine-tuned and the size of the target dataset. We performed additional experiments with the Keras platform on CIFAR-10 dataset to validate general applicability. We show with both platforms and both datasets that the accuracy on the target dataset improves when more target data is used. When the target dataset is large, it is beneficial to freeze only a few layers. For a large target dataset, the network without transfer learning performs better than the transfer network, especially if many layers are frozen. When the target dataset is small, it is beneficial to transfer (and freeze) many layers. For a small target dataset, the transfer network boosts generalization and it performs much better than the network without transfer learning. Learning time can be reduced by freezing many layers in a network.

  9. Comparison of reconstruction methods for computed tomography with industrial robots using automatic object position recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Philipp; Herold, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Computed Tomography (CT) is one main imaging technique in the field of non-destructive testing. Newly, industrial robots are used to manipulate the object during the whole CT scan, instead of just placing the object onto a standard turntable as it was usual for industrial CT the times before. Using industrial robots for the object manipulation in CT systems provides an increase in spatial freedom and therefore more flexibility for various applications. For example complete CT trajectories concerning the Tuy-Smith Theorem are applied more easily than using conventional manipulators. These advantages are accompanied by a loss of precision in positioning, caused by mechanical limitations of the robotic systems. In this article we will present a comparison of established reconstruction methods for CT with industrial robots using a so-called Automatic Object Position Recognition (AOPR). AOPR is a new automatic method which improves the position-accuracy online by using a priori information about fix markers in space. The markers are used to reconstruct the position of the object during each image acquisition. These more precise positions lead to a higher quality of the reconstructed volume after the image reconstruction. We will study the image quality of several different reconstruction techniques. For example we will reconstruct real robot-CT datasets by filtered back-projection (FBP), simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) or Siemens's theoretically exact reconstruction (TXR). Each time, we will evaluate the datasets with and without AOPR and will present the dedicated image quality. Moreover we will measure the computation time of AOPR to proof that we still fulfill the real time conditions.

  10. Simple Learned Weighted Sums of Inferior Temporal Neuronal Firing Rates Accurately Predict Human Core Object Recognition Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ha; Solomon, Ethan A.; DiCarlo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    To go beyond qualitative models of the biological substrate of object recognition, we ask: can a single ventral stream neuronal linking hypothesis quantitatively account for core object recognition performance over a broad range of tasks? We measured human performance in 64 object recognition tests using thousands of challenging images that explore shape similarity and identity preserving object variation. We then used multielectrode arrays to measure neuronal population responses to those same images in visual areas V4 and inferior temporal (IT) cortex of monkeys and simulated V1 population responses. We tested leading candidate linking hypotheses and control hypotheses, each postulating how ventral stream neuronal responses underlie object recognition behavior. Specifically, for each hypothesis, we computed the predicted performance on the 64 tests and compared it with the measured pattern of human performance. All tested hypotheses based on low- and mid-level visually evoked activity (pixels, V1, and V4) were very poor predictors of the human behavioral pattern. However, simple learned weighted sums of distributed average IT firing rates exactly predicted the behavioral pattern. More elaborate linking hypotheses relying on IT trial-by-trial correlational structure, finer IT temporal codes, or ones that strictly respect the known spatial substructures of IT (“face patches”) did not improve predictive power. Although these results do not reject those more elaborate hypotheses, they suggest a simple, sufficient quantitative model: each object recognition task is learned from the spatially distributed mean firing rates (100 ms) of ∼60,000 IT neurons and is executed as a simple weighted sum of those firing rates. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We sought to go beyond qualitative models of visual object recognition and determine whether a single neuronal linking hypothesis can quantitatively account for core object recognition behavior. To achieve this, we designed a

  11. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari R

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A case with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was presented. Etiology, mechanism, and treatment were discussed on the review of literature. Spontaneous Pneumothorax is a clinical entity resulting from a sudden non traumatic rupture of the lung. Biach reported in 1880 that 78% of 916 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax had tuberculosis. Kjergaard emphasized 1932 the primary importance of subpleural bleb disease. Currently the clinical spectrum of spontaneous pneumothorax seems to have entered a third era with the recognition of the interstitial lung disease and AIDS as a significant etiology. Standard treatment is including: observation, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy. Chemical pleurodesis, bullectomy or wedge resection of lung with pleural abrasion and occasionally pleurectomy. Little information has been reported regarding the efficacy of such treatment in spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to non bleb disease

  12. Learning and memory are impaired in the object recognition task during metestrus/diestrus and after sleep deprivation.

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    Cordeira, Joshua; Kolluru, Sai Saroja; Rosenblatt, Heather; Kry, Jenny; Strecker, Robert E; McCarley, Robert W

    2018-02-26

    Females are an under-represented research model and the mechanisms through which sleep loss impairs cognition are not clear. Since levels of reproductive hormones and the estrous cycle are sensitive to sleep loss and necessary for learning and memory, we hypothesized that sleep deprivation impacts learning and memory in female mice by interfering with the estrous cycle. We used the object recognition task to assess learning and memory in female mice during separate phases of the estrous cycle and after sleep loss. Mice in metestrus/diestrus attended to sample objects less than mice in proestrus/estrus during object acquisition, the first phase of the object recognition task. Subsequently, during the recognition phase of the task, only mice in proestrus/estrus displayed a preference for the novel object. Sleep deprivation for 12h immediately before the object recognition task reduced time attending to sample objects and novel object preference for mice in proestrus/estrus, without changing length of the estrous cycle. These results show that sleep deprived mice in proestrus/estrus had learning deficits and memory impairments, like mice in metestrus/diestrus. Since sleep deprivation did not disrupt the estrous cycle, however, results did not support the hypothesis. Cognitive impairments due to acute sleep loss were not due to alterations to the estrous cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Object Recognition in Flight: How Do Bees Distinguish between 3D Shapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Annette; Stürzl, Wolfgang; Zanker, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) discriminate multiple object features such as colour, pattern and 2D shape, but it remains unknown whether and how bees recover three-dimensional shape. Here we show that bees can recognize objects by their three-dimensional form, whereby they employ an active strategy to uncover the depth profiles. We trained individual, free flying honeybees to collect sugar water from small three-dimensional objects made of styrofoam (sphere, cylinder, cuboids) or folded paper (convex, concave, planar) and found that bees can easily discriminate between these stimuli. We also tested possible strategies employed by the bees to uncover the depth profiles. For the card stimuli, we excluded overall shape and pictorial features (shading, texture gradients) as cues for discrimination. Lacking sufficient stereo vision, bees are known to use speed gradients in optic flow to detect edges; could the bees apply this strategy also to recover the fine details of a surface depth profile? Analysing the bees' flight tracks in front of the stimuli revealed specific combinations of flight maneuvers (lateral translations in combination with yaw rotations), which are particularly suitable to extract depth cues from motion parallax. We modelled the generated optic flow and found characteristic patterns of angular displacement corresponding to the depth profiles of our stimuli: optic flow patterns from pure translations successfully recovered depth relations from the magnitude of angular displacements, additional rotation provided robust depth information based on the direction of the displacements; thus, the bees flight maneuvers may reflect an optimized visuo-motor strategy to extract depth structure from motion signals. The robustness and simplicity of this strategy offers an efficient solution for 3D-object-recognition without stereo vision, and could be employed by other flying insects, or mobile robots.

  14. Object Recognition in Flight: How Do Bees Distinguish between 3D Shapes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Werner

    Full Text Available Honeybees (Apis mellifera discriminate multiple object features such as colour, pattern and 2D shape, but it remains unknown whether and how bees recover three-dimensional shape. Here we show that bees can recognize objects by their three-dimensional form, whereby they employ an active strategy to uncover the depth profiles. We trained individual, free flying honeybees to collect sugar water from small three-dimensional objects made of styrofoam (sphere, cylinder, cuboids or folded paper (convex, concave, planar and found that bees can easily discriminate between these stimuli. We also tested possible strategies employed by the bees to uncover the depth profiles. For the card stimuli, we excluded overall shape and pictorial features (shading, texture gradients as cues for discrimination. Lacking sufficient stereo vision, bees are known to use speed gradients in optic flow to detect edges; could the bees apply this strategy also to recover the fine details of a surface depth profile? Analysing the bees' flight tracks in front of the stimuli revealed specific combinations of flight maneuvers (lateral translations in combination with yaw rotations, which are particularly suitable to extract depth cues from motion parallax. We modelled the generated optic flow and found characteristic patterns of angular displacement corresponding to the depth profiles of our stimuli: optic flow patterns from pure translations successfully recovered depth relations from the magnitude of angular displacements, additional rotation provided robust depth information based on the direction of the displacements; thus, the bees flight maneuvers may reflect an optimized visuo-motor strategy to extract depth structure from motion signals. The robustness and simplicity of this strategy offers an efficient solution for 3D-object-recognition without stereo vision, and could be employed by other flying insects, or mobile robots.

  15. Constant Light Desynchronizes Olfactory versus Object and Visuospatial Recognition Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shu K E; Hasan, Sibah; Choi, Harry M C; Brown, Laurence A; Jagannath, Aarti; Hughes, Steven; Hankins, Mark W; Foster, Russell G; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Bannerman, David M; Peirson, Stuart N

    2017-03-29

    Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and behavior to the varying demands of the 24 h day. The master circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and it regulates circadian oscillators in tissues throughout the body to prevent internal desynchrony. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that, under standard 12 h:12 h light/dark (LD) cycles, object, visuospatial, and olfactory recognition performance in C57BL/6J mice is consistently better at midday relative to midnight. However, under repeated exposure to constant light ( r LL), recognition performance becomes desynchronized, with object and visuospatial performance better at subjective midday and olfactory performance better at subjective midnight. This desynchrony in behavioral performance is mirrored by changes in expression of the canonical clock genes Period1 and Period2 ( Per1 and Per2 ), as well as the immediate-early gene Fos in the SCN, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb. Under r LL, rhythmic Per1 and Fos expression is attenuated in the SCN. In contrast, hippocampal gene expression remains rhythmic, mirroring object and visuospatial performance. Strikingly, Per1 and Fos expression in the olfactory bulb is reversed, mirroring the inverted olfactory performance. Temporal desynchrony among these regions does not result in arrhythmicity because core body temperature and exploratory activity rhythms persist under r LL. Our data provide the first demonstration that abnormal lighting conditions can give rise to temporal desynchrony between autonomous circadian oscillators in different regions, with different consequences for performance across different sensory domains. Such a dispersed network of dissociable circadian oscillators may provide greater flexibility when faced with conflicting environmental signals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulates physiology and behavior across the 24 h day by

  16. The implementation of aerial object recognition algorithm based on contour descriptor in FPGA-based on-board vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayan, Pavel; Smirnov, Sergey; Strotov, Valery

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the aerial object recognition algorithm for on-board and stationary vision system. Suggested algorithm is intended to recognize the objects of a specific kind using the set of the reference objects defined by 3D models. The proposed algorithm based on the outer contour descriptor building. The algorithm consists of two stages: learning and recognition. Learning stage is devoted to the exploring of reference objects. Using 3D models we can build the database containing training images by rendering the 3D model from viewpoints evenly distributed on a sphere. Sphere points distribution is made by the geosphere principle. Gathered training image set is used for calculating descriptors, which will be used in the recognition stage of the algorithm. The recognition stage is focusing on estimating the similarity of the captured object and the reference objects by matching an observed image descriptor and the reference object descriptors. The experimental research was performed using a set of the models of the aircraft of the different types (airplanes, helicopters, UAVs). The proposed orientation estimation algorithm showed good accuracy in all case studies. The real-time performance of the algorithm in FPGA-based vision system was demonstrated.

  17. Distinct effects of estrogen receptor antagonism on object recognition and spatial memory consolidation in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaekyoon; Frick, Karyn M

    2017-11-01

    Exogenous treatment with the potent estrogen 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) or selective estrogen receptor α/β (ERα/β) agonists enhances the consolidation of hippocampal-dependent object recognition (OR) and object placement (OP) memories in ovariectomized rodents. Although such data suggest that individual ERs are sufficient for memory consolidation, the necessity of a given ER for memory consolidation can only be demonstrated by blocking receptor function, for example with an ER antagonist. However, the effects on memory of antagonizing ERα or ERβ function are not well understood. Moreover, ER antagonism in ovariectomized subjects also provides indirect information about the role of individual ERs in the memory-enhancing effects of local hippocampal E 2 synthesis. Therefore, this study used pharmacological inhibition of ERα and ERβ to elucidate the importance of each ER to memory consolidation. Specifically, we examined effects on OR and OP memory consolidation of immediate post-training dorsal hippocampal (DH) infusion of MPP and PHTPP, selective antagonists for ERα and ERβ, respectively. Each drug exhibited a distinct effect on OR and OP. DH infusion of MPP (0.28 or 2.78ng/hemisphere) impaired memory in OP, but not OR. However, DH infusion of PHTPP (0.21 or 2.12ng/hemisphere) impaired memory in both OR and OP. Neither drug affected the elapsed time to accumulate object exploration in either task, suggesting a specific effect on memory. These results indicate that activation of either classical ER within the dorsal hippocampus is important for hippocampal memory consolidation in ovariectomized mice, but suggest that specific ER involvement is memory- or task-specific. The findings also indirectly support a role for ERα and ERβ in mediating the memory-enhancing effects of hippocampally-synthesized E 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation disrupts consolidation but not reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Tian, Shaowen; Ke, Jie

    2014-03-20

    There is increasing evidence that sleep plays a critical role in memory consolidation. However, there are comparatively few studies that have assessed the relationship between sleep and memory reconsolidation. In the present study, we explored the effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (RSD) on the consolidation (experiment 1) and reconsolidation (experiment 2) of novel object recognition memory in rats. In experiment 1 behavioral procedure involved two training phases: sample and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after sample (exposed to 2 objects) or 6h later. In experiment 2 behavioral procedure involved three training phases: sample, reactivation and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after reactivation (exposed to the same 2 sample objects to reactivate the memory trace) or 6h later. Results from experiment 1 showed that post-sample RSD from 0 to 6h but not 6 to 12h disrupted novel object recognition memory consolidation. However, we found that post-reactivation RSD whether from 0 to 6h or 6 to 12h had no effect on novel object recognition memory reconsolidation in experiment 2. The results indicated that RSD selectively disrupted consolidation of novel object recognition memory, suggesting a dissociation effect of RSD on consolidation and reconsolidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-model convolutional extreme learning machine with kernel for RGB-D object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yunhua; Li, Huifang; Wen, Xinling

    2017-11-01

    With new depth sensing technology such as Kinect providing high quality synchronized RGB and depth images (RGB-D data), learning rich representations efficiently plays an important role in multi-modal recognition task, which is crucial to achieve high generalization performance. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose an effective multi-modal convolutional extreme learning machine with kernel (MMC-KELM) structure, which combines advantages both the power of CNN and fast training of ELM. In this model, CNN uses multiple alternate convolution layers and stochastic pooling layers to effectively abstract high level features from each modality (RGB and depth) separately without adjusting parameters. And then, the shared layer is developed by combining these features from each modality. Finally, the abstracted features are fed to the extreme learning machine with kernel (KELM), which leads to better generalization performance with faster learning speed. Experimental results on Washington RGB-D Object Dataset show that the proposed multiple modality fusion method achieves state-of-the-art performance with much less complexity.

  20. CANTAB object recognition and language tests to detect aging cognitive decline: an exploratory comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral Soares, Fernanda; de Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; de Macedo, Liliane Dias e Dias; Tomás, Alessandra Mendonça; Picanço-Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    Objective The recognition of the limits between normal and pathological aging is essential to start preventive actions. The aim of this paper is to compare the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and language tests to distinguish subtle differences in cognitive performances in two different age groups, namely young adults and elderly cognitively normal subjects. Method We selected 29 young adults (29.9±1.06 years) and 31 older adults (74.1±1.15 years) matched by educational level (years of schooling). All subjects underwent a general assessment and a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Mini Mental State Examination, visuospatial learning, and memory tasks from CANTAB and language tests. Cluster and discriminant analysis were applied to all neuropsychological test results to distinguish possible subgroups inside each age group. Results Significant differences in the performance of aged and young adults were detected in both language and visuospatial memory tests. Intragroup cluster and discriminant analysis revealed that CANTAB, as compared to language tests, was able to detect subtle but significant differences between the subjects. Conclusion Based on these findings, we concluded that, as compared to language tests, large-scale application of automated visuospatial tests to assess learning and memory might increase our ability to discern the limits between normal and pathological aging. PMID:25565785

  1. Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis integrity is required for the expression of object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaroni, Thiago L N; Raslan, Ana Cláudia S; Fontes, Walkiria R P; de Oliveira, Marilene L; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Moraes, Márcio F D; Dos Santos, Robson A; Pereira, Grace S

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that the brain has its own intrinsic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) is particularly interesting, because it appears to counterbalance most of the Ang II effects. Ang-(1-7) exerts its biological function through activation of the G-protein-coupled receptor Mas. Interestingly, hippocampus is one of the regions with higher expression of Mas. However, the role of Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in hippocampus-dependent memories is still poorly understood. Here we demonstrated that Mas ablation, as well as the blockade of Mas in the CA1-hippocampus, impaired object recognition memory (ORM). We also demonstrated that the blockade of Ang II receptors AT1, but not AT2, recovers ORM impairment of Mas-deficient mice. Considering that high concentrations of Ang-(1-7) may activate AT1 receptors, nonspecifically, we evaluate the levels of Ang-(1-7) and its main precursors Ang I and Ang II in the hippocampus of Mas-deficient mice. The Ang I and Ang II levels are unaltered in the whole hipocampus of MasKo. However, Ang-(1-7) concentration is increased in the whole hippocampus of MasKo mice, as well as in the CA1 area. Taken together, our findings suggest that the functionality of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis is essential for normal ORM processing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transgenic miR132 alters neuronal spine density and impairs novel object recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelin F Hansen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Inducible gene expression plays a central role in neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory, and dysfunction of the underlying molecular events can lead to severe neuronal disorders. In addition to coding transcripts (mRNAs, non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs appear to play a role in these processes. For instance, the CREB-regulated miRNA miR132 has been shown to affect neuronal structure in an activity-dependent manner, yet the details of its physiological effects and the behavioral consequences in vivo remain unclear. To examine these questions, we employed a transgenic mouse strain that expresses miR132 in forebrain neurons. Morphometric analysis of hippocampal neurons revealed that transgenic miR132 triggers a marked increase in dendritic spine density. Additionally, miR132 transgenic mice exhibited a decrease in the expression of MeCP2, a protein implicated in Rett Syndrome and other disorders of mental retardation. Consistent with these findings, miR132 transgenic mice displayed significant deficits in novel object recognition. Together, these data support a role for miR132 as a regulator of neuronal structure and function, and raise the possibility that dysregulation of miR132 could contribute to an array of cognitive disorders.

  3. Effect of tempol on the passive avoidance and novel object recognition task in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarpour, Zahra; Shahidi, Siamak; Saidijam, Massoud; Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Hassanzadeh, Taghi; Esmaeili, Rasoul

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has several effects, including cognitive impairment. Oxidative stress is associated with complications from diabetes. It seems that antioxidants can reduce some complications of the diabetes induced by oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of synthetic antioxidant, tempol on the passive avoidance (PA) memory and novel object recognition (NOR) tests in the diabetic rats. Forty male Wistar rats randomly divided into the control, diabetic, diabetic receiving tempol and healthy receiving tempol groups. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg, i.p.). Then, the rats received saline or tempol (30 mg/kg) orally by gavages for 60 days. After that, they were assessed using the PA memory and NOR tests. The results of NOR test showed that the discrimination index (DI) in the healthy receiving tempol group and diabetic control group was significantly lower than control group. Also the amount of this index in diabetic receiving tempol group was significantly higher than diabetic group. The results of PA test indicated that the number of trials to acquisition in the diabetic rats is significantly more than control and diabetic tempol treated groups. Also, the time spent in the dark compartment (TDC) in the control and diabetic receiving tempol groups was less than diabetic group. TDC in the healthy receiving tempol group was more than control group. It can be concluded that although use of tempol is restricted as a cognitive enhancer in non-diabetic subjects but long-term administration of synthetic antioxidant, tempol, is able to dramatically improve diabetes-induced learning and memory deficit in both PA and NOR tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Object recognition algorithm based on inexact graph matching and its application in a color vision system for recognition of electronic components on PCBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupnova, Natalia H.; Korsten, Maarten J.

    1997-04-01

    The paper describes a framework for fast objects recognition and its application in a system for recognition of certain electronic components on printed circuit boards (PCB) for recycling purposes. Objects in the DB and in the image are represented as attributed graph, where vertices are regions with attributes (color, shape) and edges are spatial relations between the regions (adjacent, surrounds). The task of finding model objects in the input data thus becomes a problem of inexact subgraph isomorphism finding. The suggested algorithm finds all the occurrences of all model graphs in the input graph in the presence of the low-level processing errors and model uncertainty. Using the ideas of inexact network algorithm (INA) we build a network from the model graphs, so that in cases when the models share identical substructures these substructures have to be matched only once. Because different models share the same substructures mostly in case when they belong to the same more general class, we incorporate the possibility of attribute refining in our model network. To further speed up the matching, we introduce the notion of a `key' vertex, so that recognition goes from easily recognizable substructures to more ambiguous ones. The algorithm was applied to real images of PCB's. The results show the effectiveness of INA and suggested modifications in this application.

  5. Estradiol-Induced Object Recognition Memory Consolidation Is Dependent on Activation of mTOR Signaling in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Fan, Lu; Orr, Patrick T.; Zhao, Zaorui; Frick, Karyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is an important regulator of protein synthesis and is essential for various forms of hippocampal memory. Here, we asked whether the enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation produced by dorsal hippocampal infusion of 17[Beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) is dependent on mTOR…

  6. Multi-scale lines and edges in V1 and beyond: brightness, object categorization and recognition, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, João; du Buf, J M Hans

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we present an improved model for line and edge detection in cortical area V1. This model is based on responses of simple and complex cells, and it is multi-scale with no free parameters. We illustrate the use of the multi-scale line/edge representation in different processes: visual reconstruction or brightness perception, automatic scale selection and object segregation. A two-level object categorization scenario is tested in which pre-categorization is based on coarse scales only and final categorization on coarse plus fine scales. We also present a multi-scale object and face recognition model. Processing schemes are discussed in the framework of a complete cortical architecture. The fact that brightness perception and object recognition may be based on the same symbolic image representation is an indication that the entire (visual) cortex is involved in consciousness.

  7. Hippocampal Activation of Rac1 Regulates the Forgetting of Object Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunlong; Du, Shuwen; Lv, Li; Lei, Bo; Shi, Wei; Tang, Yikai; Wang, Lianzhang; Zhong, Yi

    2016-09-12

    Forgetting is a universal feature for most types of memories. The best-defined and extensively characterized behaviors that depict forgetting are natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting [1, 2]. Molecular mechanisms underlying the active forgetting remain to be determined for memories in vertebrates. Recent progress has begun to unravel such mechanisms underlying the active forgetting [3-11] that is induced through the behavior-dependent activation of intracellular signaling pathways. In Drosophila, training-induced activation of the small G protein Rac1 mediates natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting of aversive conditioning memory [3]. In mice, the activation of photoactivable-Rac1 in recently potentiated spines in a motor learning task erases the motor memory [12]. These lines of evidence prompted us to investigate a role for Rac1 in time-based natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting in mice. The inhibition of Rac1 activity in hippocampal neurons through targeted expression of a dominant-negative Rac1 form extended object recognition memory from less than 72 hr to over 72 hr, whereas Rac1 activation accelerated memory decay within 24 hr. Interference-induced forgetting of this memory was correlated with Rac1 activation and was completely blocked by inhibition of Rac1 activity. Electrophysiological recordings of long-term potentiation provided independent evidence that further supported a role for Rac1 activation in forgetting. Thus, Rac1-dependent forgetting is evolutionarily conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dentate gyrus supports slope recognition memory, shades of grey-context pattern separation and recognition memory, and CA3 supports pattern completion for object memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Raymond P; Kirk, Ryan A; Yu, Zhenghui; Polansky, Caitlin; Musso, Nick D

    2016-03-01

    In order to examine the role of the dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG) in slope (vertical space) recognition and possible pattern separation, various slope (vertical space) degrees were used in a novel exploratory paradigm to measure novelty detection for changes in slope (vertical space) recognition memory and slope memory pattern separation in Experiment 1. The results of the experiment indicate that control rats displayed a slope recognition memory function with a pattern separation process for slope memory that is dependent upon the magnitude of change in slope between study and test phases. In contrast, the dDG lesioned rats displayed an impairment in slope recognition memory, though because there was no significant interaction between the two groups and slope memory, a reliable pattern separation impairment for slope could not be firmly established in the DG lesioned rats. In Experiment 2, in order to determine whether, the dDG plays a role in shades of grey spatial context recognition and possible pattern separation, shades of grey were used in a novel exploratory paradigm to measure novelty detection for changes in the shades of grey context environment. The results of the experiment indicate that control rats displayed a shades of grey-context pattern separation effect across levels of separation of context (shades of grey). In contrast, the DG lesioned rats displayed a significant interaction between the two groups and levels of shades of grey suggesting impairment in a pattern separation function for levels of shades of grey. In Experiment 3 in order to determine whether the dorsal CA3 (dCA3) plays a role in object pattern completion, a new task requiring less training and using a choice that was based on choosing the correct set of objects on a two-choice discrimination task was used. The results indicated that control rats displayed a pattern completion function based on the availability of one, two, three or four cues. In contrast, the dCA3 lesioned rats

  9. An objective auditory measure to assess speech recognition in adult cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, C; Lazzouni, L; Lepore, F; Ellemberg, D

    2014-04-01

    To verify if a mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm based on speech syllables can differentiate between good and poorer cochlear implant (CI) users on a speech recognition task. Twenty adults with a CI and 11 normal hearing adults participated in the study. Based on a speech recognition test, ten CI users were classified as good performers and ten as poor performers. We measured the MMN with /da/ as the standard stimulus and /ba/ and /ga/ as the deviants. Separate analyses were conducted on the amplitude and latency of the MMN. A MMN was evoked by both deviant stimuli in all normal hearing participants and in well performing CI users, with similar amplitudes for both groups. However, the amplitude of the MMN was significantly reduced for the poorer CI users compared to the normal hearing group and the good CI users. The latency was longer for both groups of cochlear implant users. A bivariate correlation showed a significant positive correlation between the speech recognition score and the amplitude of the MMN. The MMN can distinguish between CI users who have good versus poor speech recognition as assessed with conventional tasks. Our findings suggest that the MMN can be use to assess speech recognition proficiency in CI users who cannot be tested with regular speech recognition tasks, like infants and other non-verbal populations. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modular Adaptive System Based on a Multi-Stage Neural Structure for Recognition of 2D Objects of Discontinuous Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Topalova

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of a new system for invariant recognition of 2D objects with overlapping classes, that can not be effectively recognized with the traditional methods. The translation, scale and partial rotation invariant contour object description is transformed in a DCT spectrum space. The obtained frequency spectrums are decomposed into frequency bands in order to feed different BPG neural nets (NNs. The NNs are structured in three stages - filtering and full rotation invariance; partial recognition; general classification. The designed multi-stage BPG Neural Structure shows very good accuracy and flexibility when tested with 2D objects used in the discontinuous production. The reached speed and the opportunuty for an easy restructuring and reprogramming of the system makes it suitable for application in different applied systems for real time work.

  11. Activity and function recognition for moving and static objects in urban environments from wide-area persistent surveillance inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Bobick, Aaron; Jones, Eric

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we describe results from experimental analysis of a model designed to recognize activities and functions of moving and static objects from low-resolution wide-area video inputs. Our model is based on representing the activities and functions using three variables: (i) time; (ii) space; and (iii) structures. The activity and function recognition is achieved by imposing lexical, syntactic, and semantic constraints on the lower-level event sequences. In the reported research, we have evaluated the utility and sensitivity of several algorithms derived from natural language processing and pattern recognition domains. We achieved high recognition accuracy for a wide range of activity and function types in the experiments using Electro-Optical (EO) imagery collected by Wide Area Airborne Surveillance (WAAS) platform.

  12. Fingerprints of Learned Object Recognition Seen in the fMRI Activation Patterns of Lateral Occipital Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Zvi N; Zohary, Ehud

    2015-09-01

    One feature of visual processing in the ventral stream is that cortical responses gradually depart from the physical aspects of the visual stimulus and become correlated with perceptual experience. Thus, unlike early retinotopic areas, the responses in the object-related lateral occipital complex (LOC) are typically immune to parameter changes (e.g., contrast, location, etc.) when these do not affect recognition. Here, we use a complementary approach to highlight changes in brain activity following a shift in the perceptual state (in the absence of any alteration in the physical image). Specifically, we focus on LOC and early visual cortex (EVC) and compare their functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to degraded object images, before and after fast perceptual learning that renders initially unrecognized objects identifiable. Using 3 complementary analyses, we find that, in LOC, unlike EVC, learned recognition is associated with a change in the multivoxel response pattern to degraded object images, such that the response becomes significantly more correlated with that evoked by the intact version of the same image. This provides further evidence that the coding in LOC reflects the recognition of visual objects. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. CANTAB object recognition and language tests to detect aging cognitive decline: an exploratory comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral Soares F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Cabral Soares,1 Thaís Cristina Galdino de Oliveira,1 Liliane Dias e Dias de Macedo,1 Alessandra Mendonça Tomás,1 Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço-Diniz,2 João Bento-Torres,1,3 Natáli Valim Oliver Bento-Torres,1,3 Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz1 1Universidade Federal do Pará, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Hospital Universitário João de Barros Barreto, Laboratório de Investigações em Neurodegeneração e Infecção Belém, Pará, Brazil; 2Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Núcleo Universitário de Oriximiná, Oriximiná, Pará, Brazil; 3Faculdade de Fisioterapia e Terapia Ocupacional, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará, BrazilObjective: The recognition of the limits between normal and pathological aging is essential to start preventive actions. The aim of this paper is to compare the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB and language tests to distinguish subtle differences in cognitive performances in two different age groups, namely young adults and elderly cognitively normal subjects.Method: We selected 29 young adults (29.9±1.06 years and 31 older adults (74.1±1.15 years matched by educational level (years of schooling. All subjects underwent a general assessment and a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Mini Mental State Examination, visuospatial learning, and memory tasks from CANTAB and language tests. Cluster and discriminant analysis were applied to all neuropsychological test results to distinguish possible subgroups inside each age group.Results: Significant differences in the performance of aged and young adults were detected in both language and visuospatial memory tests. Intragroup cluster and discriminant analysis revealed that CANTAB, as compared to language tests, was able to detect subtle but significant differences between the subjects.Conclusion: Based on these findings, we concluded that, as compared to language tests, large-scale application

  14. Meloxicam improves object recognition memory and modulates glial activation after splenectomy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamer, Angela R; Galoyan, Samuel M; Haile, Michael; Kline, Richard; Boutajangout, Allal; Li, Yong-Sheng; Bekker, Alex

    2012-07-01

    Surgery-induced neuroinflammation has been implicated in the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). To test the hypothesis that meloxicam, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, preserves postoperative cognitive function and inhibits surgery-induced neuroinflammation in a mouse model. A mouse model of splenectomy-induced inflammation. Sixty Swiss Webster male mice (6-8 week old) were randomised into six groups that underwent splenectomy. Animals in groups 1-4 were tested once on day 1, 5, 9 or 14 to determine the time course of delayed transient cognitive dysfunction associated with splenectomy. Animals in groups 5 and 6 were tested once on day 5 or 9 to determine the ability of the NSAID meloxicam to attenuate cognitive dysfunction. Animals in groups 1-4 received one dose 500 μl intraperitoneal physiological saline 24 h after splenectomy. Animals in groups 5 and 6 received one dose of intraperitoneal meloxicam (60 mg kg in 500 μl saline) 24 h after splenectomy. Short-term working memory as determined by Object Recognition Test (ORT) index on days 1, 5, 9 and 14 was the first main outcome. Tomato lectin staining histochemistry of glial cells was assessed on days 1, 5, 9 and 14 as a second main outcome. Compared with day 1 (group 1), the mean ORT indices at day 5 (group 2) and day 9 (group 3) were decreased by 27.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9 to 54.1%, P = 0.04] and 23.8% (95% CI, 4.3 to 51.9%, P = 0.09), respectively. At day 5 (group 5) and day 9 (group 6), the ORT indices in the meloxicam groups were reduced by 6.6% (95% CI: -11.4 to 24.5%) and 4.3% (95% CI: -25.3 to 34.0). Thus, the administration of meloxicam attenuated the decrease in ORT indices (P = 0.031). Histochemical staining with tomato lectin showed features of microglia activation at day 5 and 9, which was reduced by the administration of meloxicam. These findings suggest that COX-2-dependent mechanisms may play a role in the development of POCD. This effect may be

  15. Object class recognition based on compressive sensing with sparse features inspired by hierarchical model in visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pei; Xu, Zhiyong; Yu, Huapeng; Chang, Yongxin; Fu, Chengyu; Shao, Jianxin

    2012-11-01

    According to models of object recognition in cortex, the brain uses a hierarchical approach in which simple, low-level features having high position and scale specificity are pooled and combined into more complex, higher-level features having greater location invariance. At higher levels, spatial structure becomes implicitly encoded into the features themselves, which may overlap, while explicit spatial information is coded more coarsely. In this paper, the importance of sparsity and localized patch features in a hierarchical model inspired by visual cortex is investigated. As in the model of Serre, Wolf, and Poggio, we first apply Gabor filters at all positions and scales; feature complexity and position/scale invariance are then built up by alternating template matching and max pooling operations. In order to improve generalization performance, the sparsity is proposed and data dimension is reduced by means of compressive sensing theory and sparse representation algorithm. Similarly, within computational neuroscience, adding the sparsity on the number of feature inputs and feature selection is critical for learning biologically model from the statistics of natural images. Then, a redundancy dictionary of patch-based features that could distinguish object class from other categories is designed and then object recognition is implemented by the process of iterative optimization. The method is test on the UIUC car database. The success of this approach suggests a proof for the object class recognition in visual cortex.

  16. Sleep deprivation and daily torpor impair object recognition in Djungarian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palchykova, S; Crestani, F; Meerlo, P; Tobler, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to play a facilitating role in memory consolidation, whereas sleep deprivation leads to performance impairment both in humans and rodents. The effects of 4-h sleep deprivation on recognition memory were investigated in the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Because sleep

  17. Object Attention Patches for Text Detection and Recognition in Scene Images using SIFT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriman, Bowornrat; Schomaker, Lambertus; De Marsico, Maria; Figueiredo, Mário; Fred, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Natural urban scene images contain many problems for character recognition such as luminance noise, varying font styles or cluttered backgrounds. Detecting and recognizing text in a natural scene is a difficult problem. Several techniques have been proposed to overcome these problems. These are,

  18. An Unsupervised Approach to Activity Recognition and Segmentation based on Object-Use Fingerprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Chen, Shaxun; Tao, Xianping

    2010-01-01

    Human activity recognition is an important task which has many potential applications. In recent years, researchers from pervasive computing are interested in deploying on-body sensors to collect observations and applying machine learning techniques to model and recognize activities. Supervised m...

  19. Depth Value Pre-Processing for Accurate Transfer Learning Based RGB-D Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakerberg, Andreas; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    that the RGB stream of the FusionNetmodel can benefit from using deeper network architectures, namely the 16-layered VGGNet, in exchange forthe 8-layered CaffeNet. In combination, these changes improves the recognition performance with 2.2% incomparison to the original FusionNet, when evaluating...

  20. NMDA Receptor Antagonist Ketamine Distorts Object Recognition by Reducing Feedback to Early Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Anouk M; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; van der Velde, Bauke; Lirk, Philipp B; Vulink, Nienke C C; Hollmann, Markus W; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2016-05-01

    It is a well-established fact that top-down processes influence neural representations in lower-level visual areas. Electrophysiological recordings in monkeys as well as theoretical models suggest that these top-down processes depend on NMDA receptor functioning. However, this underlying neural mechanism has not been tested in humans. We used fMRI multivoxel pattern analysis to compare the neural representations of ambiguous Mooney images before and after they were recognized with their unambiguous grayscale version. Additionally, we administered ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, to interfere with this process. Our results demonstrate that after recognition, the pattern of brain activation elicited by a Mooney image is more similar to that of its easily recognizable grayscale version than to the pattern evoked by the identical Mooney image before recognition. Moreover, recognition of Mooney images decreased mean response; however, neural representations of separate images became more dissimilar. So from the neural perspective, unrecognizable Mooney images all "look the same", whereas recognized Mooneys look different. We observed these effects in posterior fusiform part of lateral occipital cortex and in early visual cortex. Ketamine distorted these effects of recognition, but in early visual cortex only. This suggests that top-down processes from higher- to lower-level visual areas might operate via an NMDA pathway. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Noradrenergic Activation of the Basolateral Amygdala Enhances Object Recognition Memory and Induces Chromatin Remodeling in the Insular Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassiba eBeldjoud

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that arousal-induced memory enhancement requires noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA and modulatory influences on information storage processes in its many target regions. While this concept is well accepted, the molecular basis of such BLA effects on neural plasticity changes within other brain regions remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether noradrenergic activation of the BLA after object recognition training induces chromatin remodeling through histone post-translational modifications in the insular cortex (IC, a brain region that is importantly involved in object recognition memory. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were trained on an object recognition task, followed immediately by bilateral microinfusions of norepinephrine (1.0 µg or saline administered into the BLA. Saline-treated control rats exhibited poor 24-h retention, whereas norepinephrine treatment induced robust 24-h object recognition memory. Most importantly, this memory-enhancing dose of norepinephrine induced a global reduction in the acetylation levels of histone H3 at lysine 14, H2B and H4 in the IC 1 h later, whereas it had no effect on the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 or tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. Norepinephrine administered into the BLA of non-trained control rats did not induce any changes in the histone marks investigated in this study. These findings indicate that noradrenergic activation of the BLA induces training-specific effects on chromatin remodeling mechanisms, and presumably gene transcription, in its target regions, which may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress and emotional arousal effects on memory consolidation.

  2. Now you see it, now you don’t: The context dependent nature of category-effects in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Toft, Kristian Olesen

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we test predictions regarding processing advantages/disadvantages for natural objects and artefacts in visual object recognition. Varying three important parameters*degree of perceptual differentiation, stimulus format, and stimulus exposure duration*we show how different...

  3. The development of object recognition memory in rhesus macaques with neonatal lesions of the perirhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Zeamer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of the perirhinal cortex on the development of recognition measured by the visual paired-comparison (VPC task, infant monkeys with neonatal perirhinal lesions and sham-operated controls were tested at 1.5, 6, 18, and 48 months of age on the VPC task with color stimuli and intermixed delays of 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s. Monkeys with neonatal perirhinal lesions showed an increase in novelty preference between 1.5 and 6 months of age similar to controls, although at these two ages, performance remained significantly poorer than that of control animals. With age, performance in animals with neonatal perirhinal lesions deteriorated as compared to that of controls. In contrast to the lack of novelty preference in monkeys with perirhinal lesions acquired in adulthood, novelty preference in the neonatally operated animals remained above chance at all delays and all ages. The data suggest that, although incidental recognition memory processes can be supported by the perirhinal cortex in early infancy, other temporal cortical areas may support these processes in the absence of a functional perirhinal cortex early in development. The neural substrates mediating incidental recognition memory processes appear to be more widespread in early infancy than in adulthood.

  4. Implications of Animal Object Memory Research for Human Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Boyer D.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Damage to structures in the human medial temporal lobe causes severe memory impairment. Animal object recognition tests gained prominence from attempts to model "global" human medial temporal lobe amnesia, such as that observed in patient HM. These tasks, such as delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition, for assessing…

  5. Chronic cannabidiol treatment improves social and object recognition in double transgenic APPswe/PS1∆E9 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, David; Low, Jac Kee; Logge, Warren; Garner, Brett; Karl, Tim

    2014-08-01

    Patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit a decline in cognitive abilities including an inability to recognise familiar faces. Hallmark pathological changes in AD include the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ), tau protein hyperphosphorylation as well as pronounced neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, neurotoxicity and oxidative damage. The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) exerts neuroprotective, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and promotes neurogenesis. CBD also reverses Aβ-induced spatial memory deficits in rodents. Thus we determined the therapeutic-like effects of chronic CBD treatment (20 mg/kg, daily intraperitoneal injections for 3 weeks) on the APPswe/PS1∆E9 (APPxPS1) transgenic mouse model for AD in a number of cognitive tests, including the social preference test, the novel object recognition task and the fear conditioning paradigm. We also analysed the impact of CBD on anxiety behaviours in the elevated plus maze. Vehicle-treated APPxPS1 mice demonstrated impairments in social recognition and novel object recognition compared to wild type-like mice. Chronic CBD treatment reversed these cognitive deficits in APPxPS1 mice without affecting anxiety-related behaviours. This is the first study to investigate the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition in an AD transgenic mouse model. Our findings suggest that CBD may have therapeutic potential for specific cognitive impairments associated with AD.

  6. Comparison Analysis of Recognition Algorithms of Forest-Cover Objects on Hyperspectral Air-Borne and Space-Borne Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozoderov, V. V.; Kondranin, T. V.; Dmitriev, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    The basic model for the recognition of natural and anthropogenic objects using their spectral and textural features is described in the problem of hyperspectral air-borne and space-borne imagery processing. The model is based on improvements of the Bayesian classifier that is a computational procedure of statistical decision making in machine-learning methods of pattern recognition. The principal component method is implemented to decompose the hyperspectral measurements on the basis of empirical orthogonal functions. Application examples are shown of various modifications of the Bayesian classifier and Support Vector Machine method. Examples are provided of comparing these classifiers and a metrical classifier that operates on finding the minimal Euclidean distance between different points and sets in the multidimensional feature space. A comparison is also carried out with the " K-weighted neighbors" method that is close to the nonparametric Bayesian classifier.

  7. Depression of home cage wheel running is an objective measure of spontaneous morphine withdrawal in rats with and without persistent pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Ram; Lee, Andrea T; Morgan, Michael M

    2017-05-01

    Opioid withdrawal in humans is often subtle and almost always spontaneous. In contrast, most preclinical studies precipitate withdrawal by administration of an opioid receptor antagonist such as naloxone. These animal studies rely on measurement of physiological symptoms (e.g., wet dog shakes) in the period immediately following naloxone administration. To more closely model the human condition, we tested the hypothesis that depression of home cage wheel running will provide an objective method to measure the magnitude and duration of spontaneous morphine withdrawal. Rats were allowed access to a running wheel in their home cage for 8days prior to implantation of two 75mg morphine or placebo pellets. The pellets were removed 3 or 5days later to induce spontaneous withdrawal. In normal pain-free rats, removal of the morphine pellets depressed wheel running for 48h compared to rats that had placebo pellets removed. Morphine withdrawal-induced depression of wheel running was greatly enhanced in rats with persistent inflammatory pain induced by injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) into the hindpaw. Removal of the morphine pellets following 3days of treatment depressed wheel running in these rats for over 6days. These data demonstrate that home cage wheel running provides an objective and more clinically relevant method to assess spontaneous morphine withdrawal compared to precipitated withdrawal in laboratory rats. Moreover, the enhanced withdrawal in rats with persistent inflammatory pain suggests that pain patients may be especially susceptible to opioid withdrawal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Unsupervised Object Modeling and Segmentation with Symmetry Detection for Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Yuan Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel unsupervised approach to detecting and segmenting objects as well as their constituent symmetric parts in an image. Traditional unsupervised image segmentation is limited by two obvious deficiencies: the object detection accuracy degrades with the misaligned boundaries between the segmented regions and the target, and pre-learned models are required to group regions into meaningful objects. To tackle these difficulties, the proposed approach aims at incorporating the pair-wise detection of symmetric patches to achieve the goal of segmenting images into symmetric parts. The skeletons of these symmetric parts then provide estimates of the bounding boxes to locate the target objects. Finally, for each detected object, the graphcut-based segmentation algorithm is applied to find its contour. The proposed approach has significant advantages: no a priori object models are used, and multiple objects are detected. To verify the effectiveness of the approach based on the cues that a face part contains an oval shape and skin colors, human objects are extracted from among the detected objects. The detected human objects and their parts are finally tracked across video frames to capture the object part movements for learning the human activity models from video clips. Experimental results show that the proposed method gives good performance on publicly available datasets.

  9. INTRODUCING AN AGENT-BASED OBJECT RECOGNITION OPERATOR FOR PROXIMITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Behzadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Object selection is a basic procedure in a Geographic Information System (GIS. Most current methods for doing so, select objects in two phases: create a simple distance-bounded geometric buffer; and intersect it with available features. This paper introduces a novel and intelligent selection operator based on the autonomy of the agent-based approach. The proposed operator recognizes objects around one object only in one step. In the proposed approach, each point object acts as an agent-automata object. It then senses its vicinity and identifies the surrounding objects. To assess the proposed model, the operator is designed, implemented, and evaluated in a case study. Finally, the results are evaluated and presented in details in the paper.

  10. Introducing AN Agent-Based Object Recognition Operator for Proximity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, S.; Ali. Alesheikh, A.

    2013-09-01

    Object selection is a basic procedure in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Most current methods for doing so, select objects in two phases: create a simple distance-bounded geometric buffer; and intersect it with available features. This paper introduces a novel and intelligent selection operator based on the autonomy of the agent-based approach. The proposed operator recognizes objects around one object only in one step. In the proposed approach, each point object acts as an agent-automata object. It then senses its vicinity and identifies the surrounding objects. To assess the proposed model, the operator is designed, implemented, and evaluated in a case study. Finally, the results are evaluated and presented in details in the paper.

  11. Tactile pattern recognition by graphic display: importance of 3-D information for haptic perception of familiar objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Saida, S; Shimura, H

    1993-01-01

    Haptic recognition of familiar objects by the early blind, the late blind, and the sighted was investigated with two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) stimuli produced by small tactor-pins. The 2-D stimulus was an outline of an object that was depicted by raising tactor-pins to 1.5 mm. The 3-D stimulus was a relief that was produced by raising the tactors up to 10 mm, corresponding to the height of the object. Mean recognition times for correct answers to the 3-D stimuli were faster than those for the 2-D stimuli, in all three subject groups. No statistically significant differences in percentage of correct responses between the 2-D and the 3-D stimuli were found for the late-blind and sighted groups, but the early-blind group demonstrated a significant difference. In addition, the haptic legibility for the quality of depiction of the object, without regard to whether or not the stimulus was understood, was measured. The haptic legibility of the 3-D stimuli was significantly higher than that of the 2-D stimuli for all the groups. These results suggest that 3-D presentation seems to promise a way to overcome the limitations of 2-D graphic display.

  12. A self-organized learning strategy for object recognition by an embedded line of attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Ming-Jung; Alex, Ann T.; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-04-01

    on this observation we developed a self- organizing line attractor, which is capable of generating new lines in the feature space to learn unrecognized patterns. Experiments performed on UMIST pose database and CMU face expression variant database for face recognition have shown that the proposed nonlinear line attractor is able to successfully identify the individuals and it provided better recognition rate when compared to the state of the art face recognition techniques. Experiments on FRGC version 2 database has also provided excellent recognition rate in images captured in complex lighting environments. Experiments performed on the Japanese female face expression database and Essex Grimace database using the self organizing line attractor have also shown successful expression invariant face recognition. These results show that the proposed model is able to create nonlinear manifolds in a multidimensional feature space to distinguish complex patterns.

  13. Short-term blueberry-enriched diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, David H; Lee, David R; Goyarzu, Pilar; Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Ennis, Lalanya J; Beckett, Elizabeth; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A

    2011-03-01

    Previously, 4 mo of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aging rats. Experiment 1 determined whether 1- and 2-mo BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the diets. Experiment 2 determined whether a 1-mo BB diet could subsequently reverse existing object memory impairment in aging rats. In experiment 1, Fischer-344 rats were maintained on an appropriate control diet or on 1 or 2 mo of the BB diet before testing object memory at 19 mo postnatally. In experiment 2, rats were tested for object recognition memory at 19 mo and again at 20 mo after 1 mo of maintenance on a 2% BB or control diet. In experiment 1, the control group performed no better than chance, whereas the 1- and 2-mo BB diet groups performed similarly and significantly better than controls. The 2-mo BB-diet group, but not the 1-mo group, maintained its performance over a subsequent month on a standard laboratory diet. In experiment 2, the 19-mo-old rats performed near chance. At 20 mo of age, the rats subsequently maintained on the BB diet significantly increased their object memory scores, whereas the control diet group exhibited a non-significant decline. The change in object memory scores differed significantly between the two diet groups. These results suggest that a considerable degree of age-related object memory decline can be prevented and reversed by brief maintenance on BB diets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Heightened Responses of the Parahippocampal and Retrosplenial Cortices during Contextualized Recognition of Congruent Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daina Crafa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Context sometimes helps make objects more recognizable. Previous studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI have examined regional neural activity when objects have strong or weak associations with their contexts. Such studies have demonstrated that activity in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC generally corresponds with strong associations between objects and their spatial contexts while retrosplenial cortex (RSC activity is linked with episodic memory. However these studies investigated objects viewed in associated contexts, but the direct influence of scene on the perception of visual objects has not been widely investigated. We hypothesized that the PHC and RSC may only be engaged for congruent contexts in which the object could typically be found but not for neutral contexts. While in an fMRI scanner, 15 participants rated the recognizability of 152 photographic images of objects, presented within congruent and incongruent contexts. Regions of interest were created to examine PHC and RSC activity using a hypothesis-driven approach. Exploratory analyses were also performed to identify other regional activity. In line with previous studies, PHC and RSC activity emerged when objects were viewed in congruent contexts. Activity in the RSC, inferior parietal lobe (IPL and fusiform gyrus also emerged. These findings indicate that different brain regions are employed when objects are meaningfully contextualized.

  15. Blueberry supplemented diet: effects on object recognition memory and nuclear factor-kappa B levels in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyarzu, Pilar; Malin, David H; Lau, Francis C; Taglialatela, Giulio; Moon, William D; Jennings, Ryan; Moy, Edward; Moy, Deborah; Lippold, Stephen; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A

    2004-04-01

    It has been reported that an antioxidant-rich, blueberry-supplemented rat diet may retard brain aging in the rat. The present study determined whether such supplementation could prevent impaired object recognition memory and elevated levels of the oxidative stress-responsive protein, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) in aged Fischer-344 rats. Twelve aged rats had been fed a 2% blueberry supplemented diet for 4 months prior to testing. Eleven aged rats and twelve young rats had been fed a control diet. The rats were tested for object recognition memory on the visual paired comparison task. With a 1-h delay between training and testing, aged control diet rats performed no better than chance. Young rats and aged blueberry diet rats performed similarly and significantly better than the aged control diet group. Levels of NF-kappaB in five brain regions of the above subjects were determined by western blotting assays. In four regions, aged control diet rats had significantly higher average NF-kappaB levels than young animals on the control diet. In four regions, aged blueberry diet rats had significantly lower levels of NF-kappaB than aged control diet rats. Normalized NF-kappaB levels (averaged across regions and in several individual regions) correlated negatively and significantly with the object memory scores.

  16. Unsupervised invariance learning of transformation sequences in a model of object recognition yields selectivity for non-accidental properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sarah M; Serre, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Non-accidental properties (NAPs) correspond to image properties that are invariant to changes in viewpoint (e.g., straight vs. curved contours) and are distinguished from metric properties (MPs) that can change continuously with in-depth object rotation (e.g., aspect ratio, degree of curvature, etc.). Behavioral and electrophysiological studies of shape processing have demonstrated greater sensitivity to differences in NAPs than in MPs. However, previous work has shown that such sensitivity is lacking in multiple-views models of object recognition such as Hmax. These models typically assume that object processing is based on populations of view-tuned neurons with distributed symmetrical bell-shaped tuning that are modulated at least as much by differences in MPs as in NAPs. Here, we test the hypothesis that unsupervised learning of invariances to object transformations may increase the sensitivity to differences in NAPs vs. MPs in Hmax. We collected a database of video sequences with objects slowly rotating in-depth in an attempt to mimic sequences viewed during object manipulation by young children during early developmental stages. We show that unsupervised learning yields shape-tuning in higher stages with greater sensitivity to differences in NAPs vs. MPs in agreement with monkey IT data. Together, these results suggest that greater NAP sensitivity may arise from experiencing different in-depth rotations of objects.

  17. Unsupervised invariance learning of transformation sequences in a model of object recognition yields selectivity for non-accidental properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSerre

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-accidental properties (NAPs correspond to image properties that are invariant to changes in viewpoint (e.g., straight vs. curved contours and are distinguished from metric properties (MPs that can change continuously with in-depth object rotation (e.g., aspect ratio, degree of curvature, etc. Behavioral and electrophysiological studies of shape processing have demonstrated greater sensitivity to differences in NAPs than in MPs. However, previous work has shown that such sensitivity is lacking in multiple-views models of object recognition such as textsc{Hmax}. These models typically assume that object processing is based on populations of view-tuned neurons with distributed symmetrical bell-shaped tuning that are modulated at least as much by differences in MPs as in NAPs.Here, we test the hypothesis that unsupervised learning of invariances to object transformations may increase the sensitivity to differences in NAPs vs. MPs in textsc{Hmax}. We collected a database of video sequences with objects slowly rotating in-depth in an attempt to mimic sequences viewed during object manipulation by young children during early developmental stages. We show that unsupervised learning yields shape-tuning in higher stages with greater sensitivity to differences in NAPs vs. MPs in agreement with monkey IT data. Together, these results suggest that greater NAP sensitivity may arise from experiencing different in-depth rotations of objects.

  18. Invariant visual object and face recognition: neural and computational bases, and a model, VisNet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund T eRolls

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological evidence for invariant representations of objects and faces in the primate inferior temporal visual cortex is described. Then a computational approach to how invariant representations are formed in the brain is described that builds on the neurophysiology. A feature hierarchy modelin which invariant representations can be built by self-organizing learning based on the temporal and spatialstatistics of the visual input produced by objects as they transform in the world is described. VisNet can use temporal continuity in an associativesynaptic learning rule with a short term memory trace, and/or it can use spatialcontinuity in Continuous Spatial Transformation learning which does not require a temporal trace. The model of visual processing in theventral cortical stream can build representations of objects that are invariant withrespect to translation, view, size, and also lighting. The modelhas been extended to provide an account of invariant representations in the dorsal visualsystem of the global motion produced by objects such as looming, rotation, and objectbased movement. The model has been extended to incorporate top-down feedback connectionsto model the control of attention by biased competition in for example spatial and objectsearch tasks. The model has also been extended to account for how the visual system canselect single objects in complex visual scenes, and how multiple objects can berepresented in a scene. The model has also been extended to provide, with an additional layer, for the development of representations of spatial scenes of the type found in the hippocampus.

  19. Spherical blurred shape model for 3-D object and pose recognition: quantitative analysis and HCI applications in smart environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Oscar; Reyes, Miguel; Escalera, Sergio; Gonzàlez, Jordi

    2014-12-01

    The use of depth maps is of increasing interest after the advent of cheap multisensor devices based on structured light, such as Kinect. In this context, there is a strong need of powerful 3-D shape descriptors able to generate rich object representations. Although several 3-D descriptors have been already proposed in the literature, the research of discriminative and computationally efficient descriptors is still an open issue. In this paper, we propose a novel point cloud descriptor called spherical blurred shape model (SBSM) that successfully encodes the structure density and local variabilities of an object based on shape voxel distances and a neighborhood propagation strategy. The proposed SBSM is proven to be rotation and scale invariant, robust to noise and occlusions, highly discriminative for multiple categories of complex objects like the human hand, and computationally efficient since the SBSM complexity is linear to the number of object voxels. Experimental evaluation in public depth multiclass object data, 3-D facial expressions data, and a novel hand poses data sets show significant performance improvements in relation to state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposal is also proved for object spotting in 3-D scenes and for real-time automatic hand pose recognition in human computer interaction scenarios.

  20. Does context or color improve object recognition in patients with low vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucart, Muriel; Despretz, Pascal; Hladiuk, Katrine; Desmettre, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Most studies on people with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have been focused on investigations of low-level processes with simple stimuli like gratings, letters, and in perception of isolated faces or objects. We investigated the ability of people with low vision to analyze more complex stimuli like photographs of natural scenes. Fifteen participants with AMD and low vision (acuity on the better eye colored or achromatic gray level scenes in one condition and with photographs of natural scenes versus isolated objects extracted from these scenes in another condition. The photographs were centrally displayed for 300 ms. In both conditions, observers were instructed to press a key when they saw a predefined target (a face or an animal). The target was present in half of the trials. Color facilitated performance in people with low vision, while equivalent performance was found for colored and achromatic pictures in normally sighted participants. Isolated objects were categorized more accurately than objects in scenes in people with low vision. No difference was found for normally sighted observers. The results suggest that spatial properties that facilitate image segmentation (e.g., color and reduced crowding) help object perception in people with low vision.

  1. DEEP-SEE: Joint Object Detection, Tracking and Recognition with Application to Visually Impaired Navigational Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Tapu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the so-called DEEP-SEE framework that jointly exploits computer vision algorithms and deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs to detect, track and recognize in real time objects encountered during navigation in the outdoor environment. A first feature concerns an object detection technique designed to localize both static and dynamic objects without any a priori knowledge about their position, type or shape. The methodological core of the proposed approach relies on a novel object tracking method based on two convolutional neural networks trained offline. The key principle consists of alternating between tracking using motion information and predicting the object location in time based on visual similarity. The validation of the tracking technique is performed on standard benchmark VOT datasets, and shows that the proposed approach returns state-of-the-art results while minimizing the computational complexity. Then, the DEEP-SEE framework is integrated into a novel assistive device, designed to improve cognition of VI people and to increase their safety when navigating in crowded urban scenes. The validation of our assistive device is performed on a video dataset with 30 elements acquired with the help of VI users. The proposed system shows high accuracy (>90% and robustness (>90% scores regardless on the scene dynamics.

  2. SigVox - A 3D feature matching algorithm for automatic street object recognition in mobile laser scanning point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhu; Lindenbergh, Roderik; Menenti, Massimo

    2017-06-01

    Urban road environments contain a variety of objects including different types of lamp poles and traffic signs. Its monitoring is traditionally conducted by visual inspection, which is time consuming and expensive. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems sample the road environment efficiently by acquiring large and accurate point clouds. This work proposes a methodology for urban road object recognition from MLS point clouds. The proposed method uses, for the first time, shape descriptors of complete objects to match repetitive objects in large point clouds. To do so, a novel 3D multi-scale shape descriptor is introduced, that is embedded in a workflow that efficiently and automatically identifies different types of lamp poles and traffic signs. The workflow starts by tiling the raw point clouds along the scanning trajectory and by identifying non-ground points. After voxelization of the non-ground points, connected voxels are clustered to form candidate objects. For automatic recognition of lamp poles and street signs, a 3D significant eigenvector based shape descriptor using voxels (SigVox) is introduced. The 3D SigVox descriptor is constructed by first subdividing the points with an octree into several levels. Next, significant eigenvectors of the points in each voxel are determined by principal component analysis (PCA) and mapped onto the appropriate triangle of a sphere approximating icosahedron. This step is repeated for different scales. By determining the similarity of 3D SigVox descriptors between candidate point clusters and training objects, street furniture is automatically identified. The feasibility and quality of the proposed method is verified on two point clouds obtained in opposite direction of a stretch of road of 4 km. 6 types of lamp pole and 4 types of road sign were selected as objects of interest. Ground truth validation showed that the overall accuracy of the ∼170 automatically recognized objects is approximately 95%. The results demonstrate

  3. Effect of perinatal asphyxia on tuberomammillary nucleus neuronal density and object recognition memory: A possible role for histamine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Balter, Gabriela; Cordova-Jadue, Héctor; Chiti-Morales, Alessandra; Lespay, Carolyne; Espina-Marchant, Pablo; Falcon, Romina; Grinspun, Noemi; Sanchez, Jessica; Bustamante, Diego; Morales, Paola; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Valdés, José L

    2016-10-15

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is associated with long-term neuronal damage and cognitive deficits in adulthood, such as learning and memory disabilities. After PA, specific brain regions are compromised, including neocortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and ascending neuromodulatory pathways, such as dopamine system, explaining some of the cognitive disabilities. We hypothesize that other neuromodulatory systems, such as histamine system from the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), which widely project to telencephalon, shown to be relevant for learning and memory, may be compromised by PA. We investigated here the effect of PA on (i) Density and neuronal activity of TMN neurons by double immunoreactivity for adenosine deaminase (ADA) and c-Fos, as marker for histaminergic neurons and neuronal activity respectively. (ii) Expression of the histamine-synthesizing enzyme, histidine decarboxylase (HDC) by western blot and (iii) thioperamide an H3 histamine receptor antagonist, on an object recognition memory task. Asphyxia-exposed rats showed a decrease of ADA density and c-Fos activity in TMN, and decrease of HDC expression in hypothalamus. Asphyxia-exposed rats also showed a low performance in object recognition memory compared to caesarean-delivered controls, which was reverted in a dose-dependent manner by the H3 antagonist thioperamide (5-10mg/kg, i.p.). The present results show that the histaminergic neuronal system of the TMN is involved in the long-term effects induced by PA, affecting learning and memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The protective effect of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin on object recognition memory in animal model of Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Hesperetin (Hst, aglycone form of hesperidin, is reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. On the other hand, the latest nanoparticle technology can help to improve the bioavailability of Hst, which is affected by the final particle size and stability. Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease, characterized by loss of the cognitive abilities, including memory, speech, emotions, and personality. Oxidative stress, a condition that occurs due to the imbalance in oxidant and antioxidant status, has been known to play a vital role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. This study was carried out in order to evaluate the protective effects of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin on memory disorder in the brains of Alzheimer’s animal models. Methods: Forty nine male rats were divided into 7 groups: control, vehicle, STZ group (rats were injected with STZ, treatment groups receiving 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin. Then 3 μgr/rat of (STZ was injected to the cerebroventricular of rats of all groups except the control and vehicle groups. The 4 treatment groups were gavaged by, respectively 10, 20 mg/Kg of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin for 30 days. After three weeks, recognition memory was examined by novel object recognition test. Results: The results showed that injection of STZ increased memory disorders (p≤0.001 and treatment of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin effectively decreased memory disorders (p

  5. Error-Driven Learning in Visual Categorization and Object Recognition: A Common-Elements Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Fabian A.; Wasserman, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    A wealth of empirical evidence has now accumulated concerning animals' categorizing photographs of real-world objects. Although these complex stimuli have the advantage of fostering rapid category learning, they are difficult to manipulate experimentally and to represent in formal models of behavior. We present a solution to the representation…

  6. Words Jump-Start Vision: A Label Advantage in Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutonnet, Bastien; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-06-24

    People use language to shape each other's behavior in highly flexible ways. Effects of language are often assumed to be "high-level" in that, whereas language clearly influences reasoning, decision making, and memory, it does not influence low-level visual processes. Here, we test the prediction that words are able to provide top-down guidance at the very earliest stages of visual processing by acting as powerful categorical cues. We investigated whether visual processing of images of familiar animals and artifacts was enhanced after hearing their name (e.g., "dog") compared with hearing an equally familiar and unambiguous nonverbal sound (e.g., a dog bark) in 14 English monolingual speakers. Because the relationship between words and their referents is categorical, we expected words to deploy more effective categorical templates, allowing for more rapid visual recognition. By recording EEGs, we were able to determine whether this label advantage stemmed from changes to early visual processing or later semantic decision processes. The results showed that hearing a word affected early visual processes and that this modulation was specific to the named category. An analysis of ERPs showed that the P1 was larger when people were cued by labels compared with equally informative nonverbal cues-an enhancement occurring within 100 ms of image onset, which also predicted behavioral responses occurring almost 500 ms later. Hearing labels modulated the P1 such that it distinguished between target and nontarget images, showing that words rapidly guide early visual processing. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359329-07$15.00/0.

  7. From brain synapses to systems for learning and memory: Object recognition, spatial navigation, timed conditioning, and movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2015-09-24

    This article provides an overview of neural models of synaptic learning and memory whose expression in adaptive behavior depends critically on the circuits and systems in which the synapses are embedded. It reviews Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, models that use excitatory matching and match-based learning to achieve fast category learning and whose learned memories are dynamically stabilized by top-down expectations, attentional focusing, and memory search. ART clarifies mechanistic relationships between consciousness, learning, expectation, attention, resonance, and synchrony. ART models are embedded in ARTSCAN architectures that unify processes of invariant object category learning, recognition, spatial and object attention, predictive remapping, and eye movement search, and that clarify how conscious object vision and recognition may fail during perceptual crowding and parietal neglect. The generality of learned categories depends upon a vigilance process that is regulated by acetylcholine via the nucleus basalis. Vigilance can get stuck at too high or too low values, thereby causing learning problems in autism and medial temporal amnesia. Similar synaptic learning laws support qualitatively different behaviors: Invariant object category learning in the inferotemporal cortex; learning of grid cells and place cells in the entorhinal and hippocampal cortices during spatial navigation; and learning of time cells in the entorhinal-hippocampal system during adaptively timed conditioning, including trace conditioning. Spatial and temporal processes through the medial and lateral entorhinal-hippocampal system seem to be carried out with homologous circuit designs. Variations of a shared laminar neocortical circuit design have modeled 3D vision, speech perception, and cognitive working memory and learning. A complementary kind of inhibitory matching and mismatch learning controls movement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory

  8. Visual Object Recognition with 3D-Aware Features in KITTI Urban Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebes, J. Javier; Bergasa, Luis M.; García-Garrido, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Driver assistance systems and autonomous robotics rely on the deployment of several sensors for environment perception. Compared to LiDAR systems, the inexpensive vision sensors can capture the 3D scene as perceived by a driver in terms of appearance and depth cues. Indeed, providing 3D image understanding capabilities to vehicles is an essential target in order to infer scene semantics in urban environments. One of the challenges that arises from the navigation task in naturalistic urban scenarios is the detection of road participants (e.g., cyclists, pedestrians and vehicles). In this regard, this paper tackles the detection and orientation estimation of cars, pedestrians and cyclists, employing the challenging and naturalistic KITTI images. This work proposes 3D-aware features computed from stereo color images in order to capture the appearance and depth peculiarities of the objects in road scenes. The successful part-based object detector, known as DPM, is extended to learn richer models from the 2.5D data (color and disparity), while also carrying out a detailed analysis of the training pipeline. A large set of experiments evaluate the proposals, and the best performing approach is ranked on the KITTI website. Indeed, this is the first work that reports results with stereo data for the KITTI object challenge, achieving increased detection ratios for the classes car and cyclist compared to a baseline DPM. PMID:25903553

  9. Visual Object Recognition with 3D-Aware Features in KITTI Urban Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebes, J Javier; Bergasa, Luis M; García-Garrido, Miguel Ángel

    2015-04-20

    Driver assistance systems and autonomous robotics rely on the deployment of several sensors for environment perception. Compared to LiDAR systems, the inexpensive vision sensors can capture the 3D scene as perceived by a driver in terms of appearance and depth cues. Indeed, providing 3D image understanding capabilities to vehicles is an essential target in order to infer scene semantics in urban environments. One of the challenges that arises from the navigation task in naturalistic urban scenarios is the detection of road participants (e.g., cyclists, pedestrians and vehicles). In this regard, this paper tackles the detection and orientation estimation of cars, pedestrians and cyclists, employing the challenging and naturalistic KITTI images. This work proposes 3D-aware features computed from stereo color images in order to capture the appearance and depth peculiarities of the objects in road scenes. The successful part-based object detector, known as DPM, is extended to learn richer models from the 2.5D data (color and disparity), while also carrying out a detailed analysis of the training pipeline. A large set of experiments evaluate the proposals, and the best performing approach is ranked on the KITTI website. Indeed, this is the first work that reports results with stereo data for the KITTI object challenge, achieving increased detection ratios for the classes car and cyclist compared to a baseline DPM.

  10. Visual Object Recognition with 3D-Aware Features in KITTI Urban Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Javier Yebes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Driver assistance systems and autonomous robotics rely on the deployment of several sensors for environment perception. Compared to LiDAR systems, the inexpensive vision sensors can capture the 3D scene as perceived by a driver in terms of appearance and depth cues. Indeed, providing 3D image understanding capabilities to vehicles is an essential target in order to infer scene semantics in urban environments. One of the challenges that arises from the navigation task in naturalistic urban scenarios is the detection of road participants (e.g., cyclists, pedestrians and vehicles. In this regard, this paper tackles the detection and orientation estimation of cars, pedestrians and cyclists, employing the challenging and naturalistic KITTI images. This work proposes 3D-aware features computed from stereo color images in order to capture the appearance and depth peculiarities of the objects in road scenes. The successful part-based object detector, known as DPM, is extended to learn richer models from the 2.5D data (color and disparity, while also carrying out a detailed analysis of the training pipeline. A large set of experiments evaluate the proposals, and the best performing approach is ranked on the KITTI website. Indeed, this is the first work that reports results with stereo data for the KITTI object challenge, achieving increased detection ratios for the classes car and cyclist compared to a baseline DPM.

  11. Posture recognition associated with lifting of heavy objects using Kinect and Adaboost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Sayli; Navaneethakrishna, M.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    2017-12-01

    Lifting of heavy objects is the common task in the industries. Recent statistics from the Bureau of Labour indicate, back injuries account for one of every five injuries in the workplace. Eighty per cent of these injuries occur to the lower back and are associated with manual materials handling tasks. According to the Industrial ergonomic safety manual, Squatting is the correct posture for lifting a heavy object. In this work, an attempt has been made to monitor posture of the workers during squat and stoop using 3D motion capture and machine learning techniques. For this, Microsoft Kinect V2 is used for capturing the depth data. Further, Dynamic Time Warping and Euclidian distance algorithms are used for extraction of features. Ada-boost algorithm is used for classification of stoop and squat. The results show that the 3D image data is large and complex to analyze. The application of nonlinear and linear metrics captures the variation in the lifting pattern. Additionally, the features extracted from this metric resulted in a classification accuracy of 85% and 81% respectively. This framework may be put-upon to alert the workers in the industrial ergonomic environments.

  12. Communication target object recognition for D2D connection with feature size limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Jiheon; Kim, Soochang; Kim, Young-hoon; Lee, Chulhee

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a new concept of device-to-device (D2D) communication, which is called "point-and-link communication" has attracted great attentions due to its intuitive and simple operation. This approach enables user to communicate with target devices without any pre-identification information such as SSIDs, MAC addresses by selecting the target image displayed on the user's own device. In this paper, we present an efficient object matching algorithm that can be applied to look(point)-and-link communications for mobile services. Due to the limited channel bandwidth and low computational power of mobile terminals, the matching algorithm should satisfy low-complexity, low-memory and realtime requirements. To meet these requirements, we propose fast and robust feature extraction by considering the descriptor size and processing time. The proposed algorithm utilizes a HSV color histogram, SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) features and object aspect ratios. To reduce the descriptor size under 300 bytes, a limited number of SIFT key points were chosen as feature points and histograms were binarized while maintaining required performance. Experimental results show the robustness and the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  13. CB1 receptor antagonism in the granular insular cortex or somatosensory area facilitates consolidation of object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Lesley D; Sticht, Martin A; Mitchnick, Krista A; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Parker, Linda A; Winters, Boyer D

    2014-08-22

    Cannabinoid agonists typically impair memory, whereas CB1 receptor antagonists enhance memory performance under specific conditions. The insular cortex has been implicated in object memory consolidation. Here we show that infusions of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 enhances long-term object recognition memory in rats in a dose-dependent manner (facilitation with 1.5, but not 0.75 or 3 μg/μL) when administered into the granular insular cortex; the SR141716 facilitation was seen with a memory delay of 72 h, but not when the delay was shorter (1 h), consistent with enhancement of memory consolidation. Moreover, a sub-group of rats with cannulas placed in the somatosensory area were also facilitated. These results highlight the robust potential of cannabinoid antagonists to facilitate object memory consolidation, as well as the capacity for insular and somatosensory cortices to contribute to object processing, perhaps through enhancement of tactile representation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. l-NAME differential effects on diazepam and flunitrazepam responses of rats in the object recognition test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzelska-Gorka, Jolanta; Talarek, Sylwia; Listos, Joanna; Kedzierska, Ewa; Fidecka, Sylwia

    2016-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to better understand possible interaction(s) between a non-selective nitric oxide inhibitor: N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and benzodiazepines (BZs) in recognition memory. The study was carried out on adult male albino Wistar rats. A novel object recognition (NOR) task was used to evaluate memory process. Combined administration of l-NAME (50mg/kg, ip) with a threshold dose of DZ (0.25mg/kg) induced amnesic effects in rats, participating in the NOR test. On the other hand, following a combined administration of l-NAME (100mg/kg, ip) with flunitrazepam (FNZ; 0.1mg/kg), it was found out that l-NAME inhibited the amnesic effects of FNZ on rats in the NOR test. The obtained results suggest that suppressed NO synthesis may lead to a facilitation of DZ-induced memory impairment but surprisingly may prevent amnesic effect after FNZ in rats, submitted to NOR task. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Combining soft decision algorithms and scale-sequential hypotheses pruning for object recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.P.; Manolakos, E.S. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a system that exploits the synergy of Hierarchical Mixture Density (HMD) estimation with multiresolution decomposition based hypothesis pruning to perform efficiently joint segmentation and labeling of partially occluded objects in images. First we present the overall structure of the HMD estimation algorithm in the form of a recurrent neural network which generates the posterior probabilities of the various hypotheses associated with the image. Then in order to reduce the large memory and computation requirement we propose a hypothesis pruning scheme making use of the orthonormal discrete wavelet transform for dimensionality reduction. We provide an intuitive justification for the validity of this scheme and present experimental results and performance analysis on real and synthetic images to verify our claims.

  16. Tet1 oxidase regulates neuronal gene transcription, active DNA hydroxymethylation, object location memory, and threat recognition memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic equilibrium between DNA methylation and demethylation of neuronal activity-regulated genes is crucial for memory processes. However, the mechanisms underlying this equilibrium remain elusive. Tet1 oxidase has been shown to play a key role in the active DNA demethylation in the central nervous system. In this study, we used Tet1 gene knockout (Tet1KO mice to examine the involvement of Tet1 in memory consolidation and storage in the adult brain. We found that Tet1 ablation leads to altered expression of numerous neuronal activity-regulated genes, compensatory upregulation of active demethylation pathway genes, and upregulation of various epigenetic modifiers. Moreover, Tet1KO mice showed an enhancement in the consolidation and storage of threat recognition (cued and contextual fear conditioning and object location memories. We conclude that Tet1 plays a critical role in regulating neuronal transcription and in maintaining the epigenetic state of the brain associated with memory consolidation and storage.

  17. Directed cortical information flow during human object recognition: analyzing induced EEG gamma-band responses in brain's source space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot G Supp

    Full Text Available The increase of induced gamma-band responses (iGBRs; oscillations >30 Hz elicited by familiar (meaningful objects is well established in electroencephalogram (EEG research. This frequency-specific change at distinct locations is thought to indicate the dynamic formation of local neuronal assemblies during the activation of cortical object representations. As analytically power increase is just a property of a single location, phase-synchrony was introduced to investigate the formation of large-scale networks between spatially distant brain sites. However, classical phase-synchrony reveals symmetric, pair-wise correlations and is not suited to uncover the directionality of interactions. Here, we investigated the neural mechanism of visual object processing by means of directional coupling analysis going beyond recording sites, but rather assessing the directionality of oscillatory interactions between brain areas directly. This study is the first to identify the directionality of oscillatory brain interactions in source space during human object recognition and suggests that familiar, but not unfamiliar, objects engage widespread reciprocal information flow. Directionality of cortical information-flow was calculated based upon an established Granger-Causality coupling-measure (partial-directed coherence; PDC using autoregressive modeling. To enable comparison with previous coupling studies lacking directional information, phase-locking analysis was applied, using wavelet-based signal decompositions. Both, autoregressive modeling and wavelet analysis, revealed an augmentation of iGBRs during the presentation of familiar objects relative to unfamiliar controls, which was localized to inferior-temporal, superior-parietal and frontal brain areas by means of distributed source reconstruction. The multivariate analysis of PDC evaluated each possible direction of brain interaction and revealed widespread reciprocal information-transfer during familiar

  18. The Effect of Luteinizing Hormone Reducing Agent on Anxiety and Novel Object Recognition Memory in Gonadectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfa-Fatollahkhani, Paria; Nahavandi, Arezo; Abtahi, Hossein; Anjidani, Shabnam; Borhani, Sahar; Jameie, Seyed Behnam; Shabani, Mohammad; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Shahbazi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Mood disorders such as anxiety and depression are common following menopause and andropause. Lack of sex steroid hormones is suggested as the primary cause of these disturbances. The level of luteinizing hormone (LH) would also rise 3-4 times than normal in these people. The potential effects of LH on mood and cognitive symptoms following menopause and andropause are still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of increased LH on novel object discrimination (NOD) memory and anxiety like behavior in gonadectomized rats. Four-month-old male and female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups (in each sex): control rats (Cont), gonadectomized without treatment (GnX), gonadectomized treated with triptorelin, a GnRH agonist which reduces LH release eventually, (GnX+Tr), gonadectomized treated with triptorelin plus sex steroid hormone, estradiol in female and testosterone in male rats (GnX+Tr+S/T). After 4 weeks treatment, anxiety score (elevated plus maze) and NOD were measured. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA, and P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Gonadectomy increased anxiety like behaviors (decrease of presence time in the open arms) in female rats (P=0.012), but not in male ones (P=0.662). Additionally, triptorelin alone reduced the increased anxiety score in gonadectomized female rats, compared to group treated with both triptorelin and estradiol. Furthermore, it was shown that gonadectomy and or treatment with triptorelin and sex steroids had no significant effect on novel object recognition memory in both female (P=0.472) and male rats (P=0.798). Findings of this study revealed that increased level of LH following menopause or andropause should be considered as a possible cause for increased anxiety. Also, this study showed that LH reducing agents would reduce anxiety like behavior in gonadectomized female rats. The effect of increased LH on cognitive functions such as novel object recognition memory was not

  19. The Effect of Luteinizing Hormone Reducing Agent on Anxiety and Novel Object Recognition Memory in Gonadectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paria Arfa-Fatollahkhani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mood disorders such as anxiety and depression are common following menopause and andropause. The lack of sex steroid hormones is suggested as the primary cause of these disturbances. The level of luteinizing hormone (LH would also rise 3-4 times than normal in these people. The potential effects of LH on mood and cognitive symptoms following menopause and andropause are not clear yet. This study aimed to investigate the effect of increased LH on novel object discrimination (NOD memory and anxiety like behavior in gonadectomized rats. Methods: Four-month-old male and female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups (in each sex: Control rats (Cont, gonadectomized without treatment (GnX, gonadectomized treated with triptorelin (a GnRH agonist which decreases LH release (GnX+Tr, gonadectomized treated with triptorelin plus sex steroid hormone, estradiol in female and testosterone in male rats (GnX+Tr+S/T. After 4 weeks treatment, anxiety score (elevated plus maze and NOD were measured. Data were analyzed using 1- way ANOVA, and P values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: Gonadectomy increased anxiety like behaviors (decrease of presence time in the open arms in female rats (P=0.012, but not in male ones (P = 0.662. Additionally, triptorelin alone reduced the increased anxiety score in gonadectomized female rats, compared to group treated with both triptorelin and estradiol. Furthermore, it was shown that gonadectomy and or treatment with triptorelin and sex steroids had no significant effect on the new object recognition memory in both female (P = 0.472 and male rats (P = 0.798. Conclusion: On the whole, this study revealed that increased level of LH following menopause or andropause should be considered as a possible cause for increased anxiety. Also, this study showed that LH reducing agents would reduce anxiety behavior in gonadectomized female rats. The effect of increased LH on cognitive functions such

  20. Event-related fast optical signal in a rapid object recognition task: improving detection by the independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Andrei V; Kainerstorfer, Jana; Borisov, Sergey V; Barbour, Randall L; VanMeter, John

    2008-10-21

    Noninvasive recording of fast optical signals presumably reflecting neuronal activity is a challenging task because of a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio. To improve detection of those signals in rapid object recognition tasks, we used the independent component analysis (ICA) to reduce "global interference" (heartbeat and contribution of superficial layers). We recorded optical signals from the left prefrontal cortex in 10 right-handed participants with a continuous-wave instrument (DYNOT, NIRx, Brooklyn, NY). Visual stimuli were pictures of urban, landscape and seashore scenes with various vehicles as targets (target-to-non-target ratio 1:6) presented at ISI=166 ms or 250 ms. Subjects mentally counted targets. Data were filtered at 2-30 Hz and artifactual components were identified visually (for heartbeat) and using the ICA weight matrix (for superficial layers). Optical signals were restored from the ICA components with artifactual components removed and then averaged over target and non-target epochs. After ICA processing, the event-related response was detected in 70%-100% of subjects. The refined signal showed a significant decrease from baseline within 200-300 ms after targets and a slight increase after non-targets. The temporal profile of the optical signal corresponded well to the profile of a "differential ERP response", the difference between targets and non-targets which peaks at 200 ms in similar object detection tasks. These results demonstrate that the detection of fast optical responses with continuous-wave instruments can be improved through the ICA method capable to remove noise, global interference and the activity of superficial layers. Fast optical signals may provide further information on brain processing during higher-order cognitive tasks such as rapid categorization of objects.

  1. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  2. Implantation of Neuronal Stem Cells Enhances Object Recognition without Increasing Neurogenesis after Lateral Fluid Percussion Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B. Ngwenya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI are debilitating and contribute to the morbidity and loss of productivity of over 10 million people worldwide. Cell transplantation has been linked to enhanced cognitive function after experimental traumatic brain injury, yet the mechanism of recovery is poorly understood. Since the hippocampus is a critical structure for learning and memory, supports adult neurogenesis, and is particularly vulnerable after TBI, we hypothesized that stem cell transplantation after TBI enhances cognitive recovery by modulation of endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis. We performed lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI in adult mice and transplanted embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (NPC. Our data confirm an injury-induced cognitive deficit in novel object recognition, a hippocampal-dependent learning task, which is reversed one week after NPC transplantation. While LFPI alone promotes hippocampal neurogenesis, as revealed by doublecortin immunolabeling of immature neurons, subsequent NPC transplantation prevents increased neurogenesis and is not associated with morphological maturation of endogenous injury-induced immature neurons. Thus, NPC transplantation enhances cognitive recovery early after LFPI without a concomitant increase in neuron numbers or maturation.

  3. [Recognition of the spatially transformed objects in men and women: an analysis of the behavior and evoked potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavutskaia, A V; Gerasimenko, N Iu; Mikhaĭlova, E S

    2012-01-01

    In 16 men and 15 women analyzed the accuracy, reaction time and visual evoked potentials during the recognition of familiar objects at different levels of spatial transformation. We used the three levels of transformation: in a fixed position relative to each other details were carried out (1) the displacement of all the details in the radial direction and (2 and 3) a similar shift in conjunction with the rotation of all the details of the figure by +/- 0-45 and +/- 45-90 degrees. The task performance was not dependent on gender: the transformation of the image led to a deterioration of identification with the most identification impairment in the case of maximal details' rotation. Changes in evoked potentials (ERP) are different for men and women. Only in men early (100 ms after stimulus) response of the parietal cortex associated with the level of figure transformation: the more rotation evoked the higher the response. In women figure transformation evoked the ERP changes in the time window of negativity N170, they are associated with figure ungrouping but not with details rotation, and are localized in other visual areas--occipital and temporal. The data obtained are discussed in light of theory of gender specificity of the visual representations of space.

  4. The Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonist E159 Reverses Memory Deficits Induced by Dizocilpine in Passive Avoidance and Novel Object Recognition Paradigm in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Alachkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs in memory is well known, and the potential of H3R antagonists in therapeutic management of neuropsychiatric diseases, e.g., Alzheimer disease (AD is well established. Therefore, the effects of histamine H3 receptor (H3R antagonist E159 (2.5–10 mg/kg, i.p. in adult male rats on dizocilpine (DIZ-induced memory deficits were studied in passive avoidance paradigm (PAP and in novel object recognition (NOR using pitolisant (PIT and donepezil (DOZ as standard drugs. Upon acute systemic pretreatment of E159 at three different doses, namely 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p., 2.5 and 5 but not 10 mg/kg of E159 counteracted the DIZ (0.1 mg-induced memory deficits, and this E159 (2.5 mg-elicited memory-improving effects in DIZ-induced amnesic model were moderately abrogated after acute systemic administration of scopolamine (SCO, H2R antagonist zolantidine (ZOL, but not with H1R antagonist pyrilamine to the animals. Moreover, the observed memory-enhancing effects of E159 (2.5 mg/kg, i.p. were strongly abrogated when animals were administered with a combination of SCO and ZOL. Furthermore, the E159 (2.5 mg-provided significant memory-improving effect of in DIZ-induced short-term memory (STM impairment in NOR was comparable to the DOZ-provided memory-enhancing effect, and was abolished when animals were injected with the CNS-penetrant histamine H3R agonist R-(α-methylhistamine (RAMH. However, E159 at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg failed to exhibit procognitive effect on DIZ-induced long-term memory (LTM in NOR. Furthermore, the results observed revealed that E159 (2.5 mg/kg did not alter anxiety levels and locomotor activity of animals naive to elevated-plus maze (EPM, demonstrating that improved performances with E159 (2.5 mg/kg in PAP or NOR are unrelated to changes in emotional responding or in spontaneous locomotor activity. These results provide evidence for the potential of drugs targeting H3Rs for the treatment of

  5. Divergent short- and long-term effects of acute stress in object recognition memory are mediated by endogenous opioid system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Acute stress induces short-term object recognition memory impairment and elicits endogenous opioid system activation. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate whether opiate system activation mediates the acute stress-induced object recognition memory changes. Adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task designed to test both short- and long-term memory. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 1 mg/kg naltrexone or 3 mg/kg naltrexone, four and a half hours before the sample trial. Five minutes after the injection, half the subjects were submitted to movement restraint during four hours while the other half remained in their home cages. Non-stressed subjects receiving saline (control) performed adequately during the short-term memory test, while stressed subjects receiving saline displayed impaired performance. Naltrexone prevented such deleterious effect, in spite of the fact that it had no intrinsic effect on short-term object recognition memory. Stressed subjects receiving saline and non-stressed subjects receiving naltrexone performed adequately during the long-term memory test; however, control subjects as well as stressed subjects receiving a high dose of naltrexone performed poorly. Control subjects' dissociated performance during both memory tests suggests that the short-term memory test induced a retroactive interference effect mediated through light opioid system activation; such effect was prevented either by low dose naltrexone administration or by strongly activating the opioid system through acute stress. Both short-term memory retrieval impairment and long-term memory improvement observed in stressed subjects may have been mediated through strong opioid system activation, since they were prevented by high dose naltrexone administration. Therefore, the activation of the opioid system plays a dual modulating role in object recognition memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. 24-GOPS 4.5- mm² digital cellular neural network for rapid visual attention in an object-recognition SoC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjin; Kim, Minsu; Kim, Kwanho; Kim, Joo-Young; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the Visual Attention Engine (VAE), which is a digital cellular neural network (CNN) that executes the VA algorithm to speed up object-recognition. The proposed time-multiplexed processing element (TMPE) CNN topology achieves high performance and small area by integrating 4800 (80 × 60) cells and 120 PEs. Pipelined operation of the PEs and single-cycle global shift capability of the cells result in a high PE utilization ratio of 93%. The cells are implemented by 6T static random access memory-based register files and dynamic shift registers to enable a small area of 4.5 mm(2). The bus connections between PEs and cells are optimized to minimize power consumption. The VAE is integrated within an object-recognition system-on-chip (SoC) fabricated in the 0.13- μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process. It achieves 24 GOPS peak performance and 22 GOPS sustained performance at 200 MHz enabling one CNN iteration on an 80 × 60 pixel image to be completed in just 4.3 μs. With VA enabled using the VAE, the workload of the object-recognition SoC is significantly reduced, resulting in 83% higher frame rate while consuming 45% less energy per frame without degradation of recognition accuracy.

  7. The medial prefrontal cortex-lateral entorhinal cortex circuit is essential for episodic-like memory and associative object-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Owen Y; Huston, Joseph P; Li, Jay-Shake; Wang, An-Li; de Souza Silva, Maria A

    2016-05-01

    The prefrontal cortex directly projects to the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), an important substrate for engaging item-associated information and relaying the information to the hippocampus. Here we ask to what extent the communication between the prefrontal cortex and LEC is critically involved in the processing of episodic-like memory. We applied a disconnection procedure to test whether the interaction between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and LEC is essential for the expression of recognition memory. It was found that male rats that received unilateral NMDA lesions of the mPFC and LEC in the same hemisphere, exhibited intact episodic-like (what-where-when) and object-recognition memories. When these lesions were placed in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection), episodic-like and associative memories for object identity, location and context were impaired. However, the disconnection did not impair the components of episodic memory, namely memory for novel object (what), object place (where) and temporal order (when), per se. Thus, the present findings suggest that the mPFC and LEC are a critical part of a neural circuit that underlies episodic-like and associative object-recognition memory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cyclic GMP-mediated memory enhancement in the object recognition test by inhibitors of phosphodiesterase-2 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueptow, Lindsay M; Zhan, Chang-Guo; O'Donnell, James M

    2016-02-01

    Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase-2 (PDE2) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Using the object recognition test (ORT), this study assessed the effects of two PDE2 inhibitors, Bay 60-7550 and ND7001, on learning and memory, and examined underlying mechanisms. To assess the role of PDE2 inhibition on phases of memory, Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) was administered: 30 min prior to training; 0, 1, or 3 h after training; or 30 min prior to recall testing. To assess cyclic nucleotide involvement in PDE2 inhibitor-enhanced memory consolidation, either the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 20 mg/kg; intraperitoneal (IP)), soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[-1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 20 mg/kg; IP), protein kinase G inhibitor KT5823 (2.5 μg; intracerebroventricular (ICV)), or protein kinase A inhibitor H89 (1 μg; ICV) was administered 30 min prior to the PDE2 inhibitor Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) or ND7001 (3 mg/kg). Changes in the phosphorylation of 3'5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) at Ser-133 and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) at Ser-239 were determined to confirm activation of cAMP and 3'5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling. Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) enhanced memory of mice in the ORT when given 30 min prior to training, immediately after training, or 30 min prior to recall. Inhibitors of the cGMP pathway blocked the memory-enhancing effects of both Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) and ND7001 (3 mg/kg) on early consolidation processes. Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) enhanced phosphorylation of CREB and VASP, both targets of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). These results confirm a potential of PDE2, or components of its signaling pathway, as a therapeutic target for drug discovery focused on restoring memory function.

  9. Estradiol-induced increase in novel object recognition requires hippocampal NR2B-containing NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Lindsey C; Smith, Caroline C; Flannigan, Alaina E; McMahon, Lori L

    2013-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2), at high circulating levels, enhances learning and memory in many women, making it a clinical treatment for hormone-related cognitive decline in aging. However, the mechanisms stimulated by E2, which are responsible for its cognitive enhancing effects, remain incompletely defined. Using an ovariectomized rat model, we previously reported that increasing plasma E2 enhances the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, which is caused by a selective increase in current mediated by NR2B-containing NMDARs, leading to an increase in the NMDAR/AMPAR ratio. Whether the increase in NR2B current is causally related to the ability of E2 to enhance hippocampal dependent learning and memory has yet to be tested. Here, we find that E2 enhances performance in the novel object recognition (NOR) task with the same time course we previously showed E2 enhances the LTP magnitude, temporally linking the increase in LTP to enhanced learning and memory. Furthermore, using the selective NR2B subunit antagonist Ro25-6981, we find that the E2-enhanced NOR, like the enhanced LTP, requires hippocampal NR2B-containing NMDARs, specifically in area CA1. Finally, using whole-cell recordings and the phosphatase inhibitor orthovanadate, we investigated whether the E2-induced increase in NMDAR current is caused by an increase in the density of synaptic NMDARs and/or an increase in NMDAR subunit phosphorylation. We find that both mechanisms are responsible for the enhanced NMDAR current in E2-treated rats. Our results show that the E2-enhanced NOR requires a functional increase in NR2B-containing NMDARs, a requirement shared with the E2-enhanced LTP magnitude at CA3-CA1 synapses, supporting the hypothesis that the increase in LTP likely contributes to the enhanced learning and memory following an increase in plasma E2 levels. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Acute and long-term effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on object recognition and anxiety-like activity are age- and strain-dependent in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten, C R; Zhang, Y; Boehm, S L

    2017-12-01

    Use of exogenous cannabinoids disrupts the fine-tuned endocannabinoid receptor system, possibly leading to alterations in cognition, memory, and emotional processes that endure long after cannabinoid use has stopped. Long-term adolescent use may uniquely disrupt these behaviors when compared to adult use. The current study explored the acute and long-term behavioral effects of six 10mg/kg Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) injections across the adolescent or early adult period in male inbred C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mice. The acute and prolonged effects of THC on object memory using the novel object recognition task, unconditioned anxiety in the elevated plus maze and open field, and sedative effects in the open field were examined. Acute THC treatment resulted in anxiogenic activity in both strains, but only caused sedation in B6 mice. Repeated THC treatment resulted in a protracted effect on object recognition, but not unconditioned anxiety, assessed 4weeks later. In both strains, an adolescent history of THC treatment disrupted later object recognition. Interestingly, in B6 mice an adult history of THC exposure appeared to rescue a deficit in object recognition observed in vehicle-treated adults. Repeated THC administration also produced a protracted effected on CB1R protein expression. Animals treated with THC in adolescence maintained increased levels of CB1R protein expression compared to their adult THC-treated counterparts at five weeks following the last injection. These results indicate that THC use may have long-lasting effects with adolescence being a unique period of susceptibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Object-Place Recognition Learning Triggers Rapid Induction of Plasticity-Related Immediate Early Genes and Synaptic Proteins in the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Soulé

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term recognition memory requires protein synthesis, but little is known about the coordinate regulation of specific genes. Here, we examined expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (Arc, Zif268, and Narp in the dentate gyrus following long-term object-place recognition learning in rats. RT-PCR analysis from dentate gyrus tissue collected shortly after training did not reveal learning-specific changes in Arc mRNA expression. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were therefore used to assess possible sparse effects on gene expression. Learning about objects increased the density of granule cells expressing Arc, and to a lesser extent Narp, specifically in the dorsal blade of the dentate gyrus, while Zif268 expression was elevated across both blades. Thus, object-place recognition triggers rapid, blade-specific upregulation of plasticity-associated immediate early genes. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of dentate gyrus homogenates demonstrated concomitant upregulation of three postsynaptic density proteins (Arc, PSD-95, and α-CaMKII with key roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory.

  12. A method for the evaluation of image quality according to the recognition effectiveness of objects in the optical remote sensing image using machine learning algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Zheng, Xinqi; Hu, Xuan; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objective and effective image quality assessment (IQA) is directly related to the application of optical remote sensing images (ORSI). In this study, a new IQA method of standardizing the target object recognition rate (ORR) is presented to reflect quality. First, several quality degradation treatments with high-resolution ORSIs are implemented to model the ORSIs obtained in different imaging conditions; then, a machine learning algorithm is adopted for recognition experiments on a chosen target object to obtain ORRs; finally, a comparison with commonly used IQA indicators was performed to reveal their applicability and limitations. The results showed that the ORR of the original ORSI was calculated to be up to 81.95%, whereas the ORR ratios of the quality-degraded images to the original images were 65.52%, 64.58%, 71.21%, and 73.11%. The results show that these data can more accurately reflect the advantages and disadvantages of different images in object identification and information extraction when compared with conventional digital image assessment indexes. By recognizing the difference in image quality from the application effect perspective, using a machine learning algorithm to extract regional gray scale features of typical objects in the image for analysis, and quantitatively assessing quality of ORSI according to the difference, this method provides a new approach for objective ORSI assessment.

  13. Ro 04-6790-induced cognitive enhancement: no effect in trace conditioning and novel object recognition procedures in adult male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thur, K E; Nelson, A J D; Cassaday, H J

    2014-12-01

    The evidence for cognitively enhancing effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) receptor antagonists such as Ro 04-6790 is inconsistent and seems to depend on the behavioral test variant in use. Trace conditioning holds promise as a behavioral assay for hippocampus-dependent working memory function. Accordingly, Experiment 1 assessed the effect of Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10mg/kg i.p.) on associating a noise conditioned stimulus paired with foot shock (unconditioned stimulus) at a 3 or 30s trace interval in adult male Wistar rats. Contextual conditioning was measured as suppression to the contextual cues provided by the experimental chambers and as suppression to a temporally extended light background stimulus which provided an experimental context. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10mg/kg i.p.) on recognition memory as tested by the exploration of novel relative to familiar objects in an open arena. In Experiment 1, Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10mg/kg) was without effect on trace and contextual conditioning. In Experiment 2, there was no indication of the expected improvement under Ro 04-6790 at the same doses previously found to enhance recognition memory as measured in tests of novel object exploration. Thus, there was no evidence that treatment with the 5-HT6 receptor antagonist Ro 04-6790 acted as a cognitive enhancer in either trace conditioning or object recognition procedures. We cannot exclude the possibility that the experimental procedures used in the present study would have been sensitive to the cognitive enhancing effects of Ro 04-6790 in a different dose range, behavioral test variant, or in a different strain of rat. Nonetheless the drug treatment was not ineffective in that object exploration was reduced under 10mg/kg Ro 04-6790. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A method of recognition of maritime objects based on FLIR (forward looking infra-red) sensor images using dynamic time warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietkiewicz, Tadeusz

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a method of recognition of maritime objects based on their images made by infrared sensors (FLIR - forward looking infra-red) using the time series comparison DTW method (DTW - Dynamic Time Warping). The DTW method allows to find the smallest distance between two time series when the run of time one of the series has been deformed (stretched or compressed). In the presented classifier of maritime objects images the DTW method is used to compare the combined horizontal and vertical brightness histograms for a recognized object and pattern objects. The DTW method allows to compare the histograms of objects whose FLIR images were taken at different angles. To determine the silhouette of a maritime object the Otsu segmentation algorithm is used in this paper. The paper describes the Otsu threshold method, the method of comparing time series DTW and the method of constructing combined histograms of maritime objects silhouettes. The final part of the paper presents the results of research on the developed method of maritime objects classification using a set of FLIR images registered in the Baltic Sea.

  15. Real-time optical multiple-object recognition and tracking demonstration: A friendly challenge to the digital field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1980-01-01

    Researchers demonstrated the first optical multiple object tracking system. The system is capable of simultaneous tracking of multiple objects, each with independent movements in real-time, limited only to the TV frame rate (30 msec). In order to perform a similar tracking operation, a large computer system and very complex software would be needed. Although researchers have demonstrated the tracking of only 3 objects, the system capacity can easily be expanded by 2 orders of magnitude.

  16. A space variant maximum average correlation height (MACH) filter for object recognition in real time thermal images for security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardezi, Akber; Alkandri, Ahmed; Birch, Philip; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris

    2010-10-01

    We propose a space variant Maximum Average Correlation Height (MACH) filter which can be locally modified depending upon its position in the input frame. This can be used to detect targets in an environment from varying ranges and in unpredictable weather conditions using thermal images. It enables adaptation of the filter dependant on background heat signature variances and also enables the normalization of the filter energy levels. The kernel can be normalized to remove a non-uniform brightness distribution if this occurs in different regions of the image. The main constraint in this implementation is the dependence on computational ability of the system. This can be minimized with the recent advances in optical correlators using scanning holographic memory, as proposed by Birch et al. [1] In this paper we describe the discrimination abilities of the MACH filter against background heat signature variances and tolerance to changes in scale and calculate the improvement in detection capabilities with the introduction of a nonlinearity. We propose a security detection system which exhibits a joint process where human and an automated pattern recognition system contribute to the overall solution for the detection of pre-defined targets.

  17. Comparative effect of Camellia sinensis teas on object recognition test deficit and metabolic changes induced by cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Melina Bucco; Ramalho, Juliana Bernera; Izaguirry, Aryele Pinto; Pavin, Natasha Frasson; Spiazzi, Cristiano Chiapinotto; Schimidt, Helen Lidiane; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela Billig; Santos, Francielli Weber

    2017-12-27

    Consumption of high-fat and high-sugar diets in Western countries has increased significantly causing major global health problems including metabolic syndrome and obesity. In addition, studies have suggested that obesity can lead to learning and memory deficits. In this context, the use of natural compounds with low costs, minor side effects and increased antioxidant activity, such as teas, could reduce the damages induced by obesity. We investigated the effect of white, green, red, and black teas (Camellia sinensis) and their possible neuroprotective mechanisms in an experimental obesity model induced by a cafeteria diet (CD). Female Swiss mice (20-30 g) were used; they received a normal diet or a hypercaloric diet (CD) during 8 weeks. Concomitantly, some mice received orally white, green, red, or black teas (1% dose) or water. The mice subjected to CD showed weight gain, body fat accumulation, increased glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides, associated to recognition memory deficits and increased reactive species (RS) levels and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the hippocampus. All teas significantly reduced AChE activity and partially reduced fat accumulation. Green and red teas reduced memory deficit. White, green, and black teas reduced RS levels, while only green and black tea reduced plasma triglyceride levels. According to the results obtained it is possible to conclude that green tea was better than other teas in reducing effects of the CD model, being able to protect a greater number of parameters.

  18. Hippocampal Anatomy Supports the Use of Context in Object Recognition: A Computational Model (Open Access, Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-04

    such as a salt shaker, a glass, and a sink are expected in a kitchen. Even if these objects are encountered in an office , they suggest a kitchen-like...function to the area (e.g., it is a kitchenette—not a work cubicle ). In other words, the objects evoke the context in which they have been...is relatively weak, mismatches have little effect on the anterior stream— if we see someone from the office at the mall, we do not have any trouble

  19. Caffeine and modafinil given during 48 h sleep deprivation modulate object recognition memory and synaptic proteins in the hippocampus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, M; Sahu, S; Kumari, P; Kauser, H; Ray, K; Panjwani, U

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of caffeine/modafinil on sleep deprivation (SD) induced alterations in recognition memory and synaptic proteins. The data revealed a beneficial effect of caffeine/modafinil against deficit in the familiar object retrieval performance and object exploration ratio after 48 h SD. Caffeine treatment prevented the SD induced down-regulation of synaptophysin and synapsin I proteins with no change in PSD-95 protein in hippocampus. However, modafinil administration improved the down-regulation of synaptophysin, synapsin I and PSD-95 proteins in hippocampus. Hence, caffeine/modafinil can serve as counter measures in amelioration of SD induced consequences at behavioural and protein levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dissociable effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors on object recognition memory: acquisition versus consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prickaerts, L.; Sik, A.; Staay, van der F.J.; Vente, de J.; Blokland, A.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale Phosphodiesterase enzyme type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have cognition-enhancing properties. However, it is not known whether these drug classes affect the same memory processes. Objective We investigated the memory-enhancing effects of the PDE5

  1. Effects of chronic prenatal MK-801 treatment on object recognition, cognitive flexibility, and drug-induced locomotor activity in juvenile and adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, S; Welch, L; Martone, P; Shalev, U

    2017-06-15

    Patients with schizophrenia display impaired cognitive functioning and increased sensitivity to psychomimetic drugs. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia posits that disruption of the developing brain predisposes neural networks to lasting structural and functional abnormalities resulting in the emergence of such symptoms in adulthood. Given the critical role of the glutamatergic system in early brain development, we investigated whether chronic prenatal exposure to the glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, induces schizophrenia-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in juvenile and adult rats. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were administered saline or MK-801 (0.1mg/kg; s.c.) at gestation day 7-19. Object recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were assessed in the male offspring using a novel object preference task and a maze-based set-shifting procedure, respectively. Locomotor-activating effects of acute amphetamine and MK-801 were also assessed. Adult, but not juvenile, prenatally MK-801-treated rats failed to show novel object preference after a 90min delay, suggesting that object recognition memory may have been impaired. In addition, the set-shifting task revealed impaired acquisition of a new rule in adult prenatally MK-801-treated rats compared to controls. This deficit appeared to be driven by regression to the previously learned behaviour. There were no significant differences in drug-induced locomotor activity in juvenile offspring or in adult offspring following acute amphetamine challenges. Unexpectedly, MK-801-induced locomotor activity in adult prenatally MK-801-treated rats was lower compared to controls. Glutamate transmission dysfunction during early development may modify behavioural parameters in adulthood, though these parameters do not appear to model deficits observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Theory of Object Recognition: Computations and Circuits in the Feedforward Path of the Ventral Stream in Primate Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    dynamic receptive field structure in macaque cortical area V4d. Journal of Vision , 4(8):184a. K. Fukushima. (1980). Neocognitron: A self-organizing...natural scenes and objects. Journal of Vision , 3:75–85. R. van Rullen and C. Koch. (2003b). Visual selective behavior can be triggered by a feed...and top-down attention. Journal of Vision , 5(8):1041–1041. ISSN 1534-7362. URL http: //journalofvision.org/5/8/1041/. M. Weber, M. Welling, and P

  3. The effect of combined treatment with escitalopram and risperidone on the MK-801-induced changes in the object recognition test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogóż, Zofia; Kamińska, Katarzyna

    2016-02-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs have some efficacy in alleviating the negative and some cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia but those effects are small and mechanisms of this action are still unknown. A few clinical reports have suggested that the antidepressant drugs, especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are able to augment the activity of atypical antipsychotic drugs, thus effectively improving treatment of the negative and some cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of escitalopram (SSRI) and risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic drug), given separately or jointly, on the effect of MK-801 (a NMDA receptor antagonist) given before to the first introductory session, in the object recognition memory test. The mice were tested for the ability to discriminate between an old, familiar and a novel object. Escitalopram and risperidone were given 30min before MK-801, and MK-801 was administered 30min before the first introductory session. Memory retention was evaluated 90min after the introductory session. The obtained results showed that MK-801 (0.2mg/kg) decreased memory retention when given before the introductory session. Risperidone at a higher dose (0.1mg/kg) reversed that effect. Co-treatment with an ineffective dose of risperidone (0.01mg/kg) and escitalopram (5 or 10mg/kg) abolished the deficit of object recognition memory induced by MK-801. The obtained results suggest that escitalopram may enhance the antipsychotic-like effect of risperidone in the animal tests used for evaluation of some cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitigation of Effects of Occlusion on Object Recognition with Deep Neural Networks through Low-Level Image Completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Chandler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavily occluded objects are more difficult for classification algorithms to identify correctly than unoccluded objects. This effect is rare and thus hard to measure with datasets like ImageNet and PASCAL VOC, however, owing to biases in human-generated image pose selection. We introduce a dataset that emphasizes occlusion and additions to a standard convolutional neural network aimed at increasing invariance to occlusion. An unmodified convolutional neural network trained and tested on the new dataset rapidly degrades to chance-level accuracy as occlusion increases. Training with occluded data slows this decline but still yields poor performance with high occlusion. Integrating novel preprocessing stages to segment the input and inpaint occlusions is an effective mitigation. A convolutional network so modified is nearly as effective with more than 81% of pixels occluded as it is with no occlusion. Such a network is also more accurate on unoccluded images than an otherwise identical network that has been trained with only unoccluded images. These results depend on successful segmentation. The occlusions in our dataset are deliberately easy to segment from the figure and background. Achieving similar results on a more challenging dataset would require finding a method to split figure, background, and occluding pixels in the input.

  5. Biometric correspondence between reface computerized facial approximations and CT-derived ground truth skin surface models objectively examined using an automated facial recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Connie L; Monson, Keith L

    2018-05-01

    This study employed an automated facial recognition system as a means of objectively evaluating biometric correspondence between a ReFace facial approximation and the computed tomography (CT) derived ground truth skin surface of the same individual. High rates of biometric correspondence were observed, irrespective of rank class (R k ) or demographic cohort examined. Overall, 48% of the test subjects' ReFace approximation probes (n=96) were matched to his or her corresponding ground truth skin surface image at R 1 , a rank indicating a high degree of biometric correspondence and a potential positive identification. Identification rates improved with each successively broader rank class (R 10 =85%, R 25 =96%, and R 50 =99%), with 100% identification by R 57 . A sharp increase (39% mean increase) in identification rates was observed between R 1 and R 10 across most rank classes and demographic cohorts. In contrast, significantly lower (pidentification rates were observed between R 10 and R 25 (8% mean increase) and R 25 and R 50 (3% mean increase). No significant (p>0.05) performance differences were observed across demographic cohorts or CT scan protocols. Performance measures observed in this research suggest that ReFace approximations are biometrically similar to the actual faces of the approximated individuals and, therefore, may have potential operational utility in contexts in which computerized approximations are utilized as probes in automated facial recognition systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Automatic rib segmentation and labeling in computed tomography scans using a general framework for detection, recognition and segmentation of objects in volumetric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Joes; van Ginneken, Bram; Viergever, Max A

    2007-02-01

    A system for automatic segmentation and labeling of the complete rib cage in chest CT scans is presented. The method uses a general framework for automatic detection, recognition and segmentation of objects in three-dimensional medical images. The framework consists of five stages: (1) detection of relevant image structures, (2) construction of image primitives, (3) classification of the primitives, (4) grouping and recognition of classified primitives and (5) full segmentation based on the obtained groups. For this application, first 1D ridges are extracted in 3D data. Then, primitives in the form of line elements are constructed from the ridge voxels. Next a classifier is trained to classify the primitives in foreground (ribs) and background. In the grouping stage centerlines are formed from the foreground primitives and rib numbers are assigned to the centerlines. In the final segmentation stage, the centerlines act as initialization for a seeded region growing algorithm. The method is tested on 20 CT-scans. Of the primitives, 97.5% is classified correctly (sensitivity is 96.8%, specificity is 97.8%). After grouping, 98.4% of the ribs are recognized. The final segmentation is qualitatively evaluated and is very accurate for over 80% of all ribs, with slight errors otherwise.

  7. The Facial Expression Action Stimulus Test. A test battery for the assessment of face memory, face and object perception, configuration processing and facial expression recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice eDe Gelder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to assess face perception skills. In this study, we describe a novel task battery FEAST (Facial Expression Action Stimulus Test developed to test recognition of identity and expressions of human faces as well as stimulus control categories. The FEAST consists of a neutral and emotional face memory task, a face and object identity matching task, a face and house part-to-whole matching task, and a human and animal facial expression matching task. The identity and part-to-whole matching tasks contain both upright and inverted conditions. The results provide reference data of a healthy sample of controls in two age groups for future users of the FEAST.

  8. Effects of diesel engine exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols on novel object recognition ability and maternal behavior in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Fujitani, Yuji; Kyi-Tha-Thu, Chaw; Furuyama, Akiko; Michikawa, Takehiro; Tsukahara, Shinji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Hirano, Seishiro

    2014-10-30

    Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated with increasing exposure to air pollution. Ambient particulate matter consists of primary particles emitted directly from diesel engine vehicles and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) are formed by oxidative reaction of the ultrafine particle components of diesel exhaust (DE) in the atmosphere. However, little is known about the relationship between exposure to SOA and central nervous system functions. Recently, we have reported that an acute single intranasal instillation of SOA may induce inflammatory response in lung, but not in brain of adult mice. To clarify the whole body exposure effects of SOA on central nervous system functions, we first created inhalation chambers for diesel exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols (DE-SOAs) produced by oxidation of diesel exhaust particles caused by adding ozone. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air (control), DE and DE-SOA in inhalation chambers for one or three months (5 h/day, 5 days/week) and were examined for memory function using a novel object recognition test and for memory function-related gene expressions in the hippocampus by real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, female mice exposed to DE-SOA for one month were mated and maternal behaviors and the related gene expressions in the hypothalamus examined. Novel object recognition ability and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression in the hippocampus were affected in male mice exposed to DE-SOA. Furthermore, a tendency to decrease maternal performance and significantly decreased expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and oxytocin receptor were found in DE-SOA exposed dams compared with the control. This is the first study of this type and our results suggest that the constituents of DE-SOA may be associated with memory function and maternal performance based on the impaired gene expressions in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, respectively.

  9. Effects of Diesel Engine Exhaust Origin Secondary Organic Aerosols on Novel Object Recognition Ability and Maternal Behavior in BALB/C Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin-Tin Win-Shwe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated with increasing exposure to air pollution. Ambient particulate matter consists of primary particles emitted directly from diesel engine vehicles and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs are formed by oxidative reaction of the ultrafine particle components of diesel exhaust (DE in the atmosphere. However, little is known about the relationship between exposure to SOA and central nervous system functions. Recently, we have reported that an acute single intranasal instillation of SOA may induce inflammatory response in lung, but not in brain of adult mice. To clarify the whole body exposure effects of SOA on central nervous system functions, we first created inhalation chambers for diesel exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols (DE-SOAs produced by oxidation of diesel exhaust particles caused by adding ozone. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air (control, DE and DE-SOA in inhalation chambers for one or three months (5 h/day, 5 days/week and were examined for memory function using a novel object recognition test and for memory function-related gene expressions in the hippocampus by real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, female mice exposed to DE-SOA for one month were mated and maternal behaviors and the related gene expressions in the hypothalamus examined. Novel object recognition ability and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampus were affected in male mice exposed to DE-SOA. Furthermore, a tendency to decrease maternal performance and significantly decreased expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER-a, and oxytocin receptor were found in DE-SOA exposed dams compared with the control. This is the first study of this type and our results suggest that the constituents of DE-SOA may be associated with memory function and maternal performance based on the impaired gene expressions in the hippocampus and hypothalamus

  10. Impaired spatial learning strategies and novel object recognition in mice haploinsufficient for the dual specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase-1A (Dyrk1A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glòria Arqué

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathogenic aneuploidies involve the concept of dosage-sensitive genes leading to over- and underexpression phenotypes. Monosomy 21 in human leads to mental retardation and skeletal, immune and respiratory function disturbances. Most of the human condition corresponds to partial monosomies suggesting that critical haploinsufficient genes may be responsible for the phenotypes. The DYRK1A gene is localized on the human chromosome 21q22.2 region, and has been proposed to participate in monosomy 21 phenotypes. It encodes a dual-specificity kinase involved in neuronal development and in adult brain physiology, but its possible role as critical haploinsufficient gene in cognitive function has not been explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used mice heterozygous for a Dyrk1A targeted mutation (Dyrk1A+/- to investigate the implication of this gene in the cognitive phenotypes of monosomy 21. Performance of Dyrk1A+/- mice was assayed 1/ in a navigational task using the standard hippocampally related version of the Morris water maze, 2/ in a swimming test designed to reveal potential kinesthetic and stress-related behavioral differences between control and heterozygous mice under two levels of aversiveness (25 degrees C and 17 degrees C and 3/ in a long-term novel object recognition task, sensitive to hippocampal damage. Dyrk1A+/- mice showed impairment in the development of spatial learning strategies in a hippocampally-dependent memory task, they were impaired in their novel object recognition ability and were more sensitive to aversive conditions in the swimming test than euploid control animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present results are clear examples where removal of a single gene has a profound effect on phenotype and indicate that haploinsufficiency of DYRK1A might contribute to an impairment of cognitive functions and stress coping behavior in human monosomy 21.

  11. Medial prefrontal cortex role in recognition memory in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Juan Facundo; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Weisstaub, Noelia V

    2015-10-01

    The study of the neurobiology of recognition memory, defined by the integration of the different components of experiences that support recollection of past experiences have been a challenge for memory researches for many years. In the last twenty years, with the development of the spontaneous novel object recognition task and all its variants this has started to change. The features of recognition memory include a particular object or person ("what"), the context in which the experience took place, which can be the arena itself or the location within a particular arena ("where") and the particular time at which the event occurred ("when"). This definition instead of the historical anthropocentric one allows the study of this type of episodic memory in animal models. Some forms of recognition memory that require integration of different features recruit the medial prefrontal cortex. Focusing on findings from spontaneous recognition memory tasks performed by rodents, this review concentrates on the description of previous works that have examined the role that the medial prefrontal cortex has on the different steps of recognition memory. We conclude that this structure, independently of the task used, is required at different memory stages when the task cannot be solved by a single item strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. La maladie de Grisel : Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Hermens, RAEC

    Objective: "La maladie de Grisel" (Grisel's syndrome) is a spontaneously occurring atlantoaxial subluxation with torticollis. We present a case of atlantoaxial subluxation occurring in a 20-year period of pharyngoplasty surgery. The occurrence of a "spontaneous" atlantoaxial subluxation after oral

  13. VolHOG: a volumetric object recognition approach based on bivariate histograms of oriented gradients for vertebra detection in cervical spine MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenzer, Stefan; Freitag, Stefan; von Sachsen, Sandra; Steinke, Hanno; Groll, Mathias; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Leimert, Mario

    2014-08-01

    The automatic recognition of vertebrae in volumetric images is an important step toward automatic spinal diagnosis and therapy support systems. There are many applications such as the detection of pathologies and segmentation which would benefit from automatic initialization by the detection of vertebrae. One possible application is the initialization of local vertebral segmentation methods, eliminating the need for manual initialization by a human operator. Automating the initialization process would optimize the clinical workflow. However, automatic vertebra recognition in magnetic resonance (MR) images is a challenging task due to noise in images, pathological deformations of the spine, and image contrast variations. This work presents a fully automatic algorithm for 3D cervical vertebra detection in MR images. We propose a machine learning method for cervical vertebra detection based on new features combined with a linear support vector machine for classification. An algorithm for bivariate gradient orientation histogram generation from three-dimensional raster image data is introduced which allows us to describe three-dimensional objects using the authors' proposed bivariate histograms. A detailed performance evaluation on 21 T2-weighted MR images of the cervical vertebral region is given. A single model for cervical vertebrae C3-C7 is generated and evaluated. The results show that the generic model performs equally well for each of the cervical vertebrae C3-C7. The algorithm's performance is also evaluated on images containing various levels of artificial noise. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm achieves good results despite the presence of severe image noise. The proposed detection method delivers accurate locations of cervical vertebrae in MR images which can be used in diagnosis and therapy. In order to achieve absolute comparability with the results of future work, the authors are following an open data approach by making the image dataset

  14. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  15. Differential effects of swimming training on neuronal calcium sensor-1 expression in rat hippocampus/cortex and in object recognition memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond, Luciana Estefani; Mourão, Flávio Afonso Gonçalves; Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; Abreu, Renata Viana; Reis, Helton José; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Massensini, André Ricardo

    2012-07-01

    Physical activity has been proposed as a behavioral intervention that improves learning and memory; nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying these health benefits are still not well understood. Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 (NCS-1) is a member of a superfamily of proteins that respond to local Ca(2+) changes shown to have an important role in learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of swimming training on NCS-1 levels in the rat brain after accessing cognitive performance. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary (SG) or exercised groups (EG). The EG was subject to forced swimming activity, 30 min/day, 5 days/week, during 8 weeks. Progressive load trials were performed in the first and last week in order to access the efficiency of the training. After the 8 week training protocol, memory performance was evaluated by the novel object preference and object location tasks. NCS-1 levels were measured in the cortex and hippocampus using immunoblotting. The EG performed statistically better for the spatial short-term memory (0.73 ± 0.01) when compared to the SG (0.63 ± 0.02; P0.05). In addition, chronic exercise promoted a significant increase in hippocampal NCS-1 levels (1.8 ± 0.1) when compared to SG (1.17 ± 0.08; P0.05). Results suggest that physical exercise would modulate the state of the neural network regarding its potential for plastic changes: physical exercise could be modulating NCS-1 in an activity dependent manner, for specific neural substrates, thus enhancing the cellular/neuronal capability for plastic changes in these areas; which, in turn, would differentially effect ORM task performance for object recognition and displacement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  17. Effects of Zaprinast and Rolipram on Olfactory and Visual Memory in the Social Transmission of Food Preference and Novel Object Recognition Tests in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuzan Akar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibitors in central nervous system has been investigated and shown to stimulate neuronal functions and increase neurogenesis in Alzheimer patients. The aim of this study is to investigate effect of PDE5 inhibitor zaprinast and PDE4 inhibitor rolipram on visual memory in novel object recognition (NOR test, on olfactory memory in social transmission of food preference (STFP test, and also on locomotion and anxiety in open field test in naive mice. Male Balb-c mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p. with zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg, rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg, or physiological saline. Zaprinast (10 mg/kg significantly increased cued/non-cued food eaten compared to control group, while rolipram had a partial effect on retention trial of STFP test. Zaprinast (10 mg/kg and rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg significantly increased ratio index (RI compared to control group in retention trial of NOR test. There was no significant effect of zaprinast and rolipram on total distance moved, speed, and center zone duration in open field test. Results of this study revealed that both zaprinast and rolipram enhanced visual memory in NOR test, however zaprinast exerted a significant memory-enhancing effect compared to rolipram in STFP test in mice.

  18. Blonanserin reverses the phencyclidine (PCP)-induced impairment in novel object recognition (NOR) in rats: role of indirect 5-HT(1A) partial agonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, M; Meltzer, H Y

    2013-06-15

    Blonanserin is an atypical antipsychotic drug (APD) which, compared to other atypical APDs, is a relatively selective serotonin (5-HT)2A and dopamine D2 antagonist. Comparing blonanserin with more broadly acting atypical APDs could be useful to test the contributions of actions at other monoamine receptors, e.g. 5-HT1A receptors, to the reversal of PCP-induced novel object recognition (NOR) deficit. In this study, we tested the effect of blonanserin alone, and in combination with 5-HT1A agents, on NOR deficit induced by subchronic treatment with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP; 2 mg/kg), b.i.d., for 7 days. Blonanserin, 1mg/kg, but not 0.3mg/kg, improved the PCP-induced NOR deficit. However, at 1mg/kg, object exploration was diminished. Co-administration of sub-effective doses of blonanserin (0.3 mg/kg) and the 5-HT1A partial agonist, tandospirone (0.2 mg/kg), significantly reversed the NOR deficit without diminishing activity during the acquisition or retention periods. The combination of WAY100635 (0.6 mg/kg), a 5-HT1A antagonist, and blonanserin (1 mg/kg), also diminished object exploration which prevented assessment of the effect of this combination on NOR. WAY100635 (0.6 mg/kg) blocked the ameliorating effect of risperidone (0.1 mg/kg), another atypical APD with low affinity for 5-HT1A receptors, but did not impair exploration. These results suggest that blonansein and risperidone, atypical APDs which lack a direct action on 5-HT1A receptors require 5-HT1A receptor stimulation to reverse the subchronic PCP-induced NOR deficit and provide a support for clinical trial of blonanserin in combination with tandospirone to ameliorate cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and to have fewer side effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 and its halogenated derivatives JWH-018-Cl and JWH-018-Br impair Novel Object Recognition in mice: Behavioral, electrophysiological and neurochemical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, M; Ossato, A; Canazza, I; Trapella, C; Borelli, A C; Beggiato, S; Rimondo, C; Serpelloni, G; Ferraro, L; Marti, M

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that an impairment of learning and memory function is one of the major physiological effects caused by natural or synthetic cannabinoid consumption in rodents, nonhuman primates and in humans. JWH-018 and its halogenated derivatives (JWH-018-Cl and JWH-018-Br) are synthetic CB1/CB2 cannabinoid agonists, illegally marketed as "Spice" and "herbal blend" for their Cannabis-like psychoactive effects. In the present study the effects of acute exposure to JWH-018, JWH-018-Cl, JWH-018-Br (JWH-018-R compounds) and Δ(9)-THC (for comparison) on Novel Object Recognition test (NOR) has been investigated in mice. Moreover, to better characterize the effects of JWH-018-R compounds on memory function, in vitro electrophysiological and neurochemical studies in hippocampal preparations have been performed. JWH-018, JWH-018-Cl and JWH-018-Br dose-dependently impaired both short- and long-memory retention in mice (respectively 2 and 24 h after training session). Their effects resulted more potent respect to that evoked by Δ(9)-THC. Moreover, in vitro studies showed as JWH-018-R compounds negatively affected electrically evoked synaptic transmission, LTP and aminoacid (glutamate and GABA) release in hippocampal slices. Behavioral, electrophysiological and neurochemical effects were fully prevented by CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 pretreatment, suggesting a CB1 receptor involvement. These data support the hypothesis that synthetic JWH-018-R compounds, as Δ(9)-THC, impair cognitive function in mice by interfering with hippocampal synaptic transmission and memory mechanisms. This data outline the danger that the use and/or abuse of these synthetic cannabinoids may represent for the cognitive process in human consumer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of 7-NI and ODQ on memory in the passive avoidance, novel object recognition, and social transmission of food preference tests in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Furuzan; Mutlu, Oguz; Komsuoglu Celikyurt, Ipek; Bektas, Emine; Tanyeri, Pelin; Ulak, Guner; Erden, Faruk

    2014-03-19

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an intercellular messenger that plays a critical role in learning and memory processes. Effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitors on cognitive function remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of an NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), and a GC inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), on different aspects of memory in passive avoidance (PA), novel object recognition (NOR), and social transmission of food preference (STFP) tests. Male Balb-c mice were treated intraperitoneally with 7-NI (15 mg/kg), ODQ (3,10 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) + 7-NI (15 mg/kg), or physiological saline. ODQ (10 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) significantly decreased second-day latency in PA test. 7-NI (15 mg/kg) and ODQ (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased the ratio index in the NOR test. 7-NI and ODQ (10 mg/kg) decreased cued/non-cued food eaten in STFP test. Amount of time spent in center zone significantly increased in ODQ (10 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) groups in open field test, but there was no effect on total distance moved and speed of animals. ODQ (10 mg/kg) significantly increased number of entries into new compartments in exploratory activity apparatus, while 7-NI had no effect. Administration of L-arginine (100 mg/kg) before 7-NI reversed 7-NI-induced effects, supporting the role of NO in cognition. Our results confirm that inhibition of NO/cGMP/GS pathway might disturb emotional, visual, and olfactory memory in mice. Also, 7-NI and ODQ had anxiolytic effects in open field test, and ODQ also enhanced exploratory activity.

  1. What and Where in auditory sensory processing: A high-density electrical mapping study of distinct neural processes underlying sound object recognition and sound localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M Leavitt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Functionally distinct dorsal and ventral auditory pathways for sound localization (where and sound object recognition (what have been described in non-human primates. A handful of studies have explored differential processing within these streams in humans, with highly inconsistent findings. Stimuli employed have included simple tones, noise bursts and speech sounds, with simulated left-right spatial manipulations, and in some cases participants were not required to actively discriminate the stimuli. Our contention is that these paradigms were not well suited to dissociating processing within the two streams. Our aim here was to determine how early in processing we could find evidence for dissociable pathways using better titrated what and where task conditions. The use of more compelling tasks should allow us to amplify differential processing within the dorsal and ventral pathways. We employed high-density electrical mapping using a relatively large and environmentally realistic stimulus set (seven animal calls delivered from seven free-field spatial locations; with stimulus configuration identical across the where and what tasks. Topographic analysis revealed distinct dorsal and ventral auditory processing networks during the where and what tasks with the earliest point of divergence seen during the N1 component of the auditory evoked response, beginning at approximately 100 ms. While this difference occurred during the N1 timeframe, it was not a simple modulation of N1 amplitude as it displayed a wholly different topographic distribution to that of the N1. Global dissimilarity measures using topographic modulation analysis confirmed that this difference between tasks was driven by a shift in the underlying generator configuration. Minimum norm source reconstruction revealed distinct activations that corresponded well with activity within putative dorsal and ventral auditory structures.

  2. Positive modulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors reverses subcronic PCP-induced deficits in the novel object recognition task in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Damgaard; Larsen, Dorrit Bjerg; Hansen, Suzanne Lisbet

    2010-01-01

    deficit in female Lister hooded rats in teh novel object recognition (NOR) task. Here we show that positive modulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) mediated glutamate transmission alleviates cognitive deficits induced by sub-chronic PCP treatment. Female Lister hooded rats were treated sub......Cognitive deficits are a major clinical unmet need in schizophrenia. The psychotomimetic drug phencyclicline (PCP) is widely applied in rodents to mimic symptoms of schizophrenia, including cognitive deficits. Precious studies have shown that sub-chronic PCP induces an enduring episodic memory......-cbronic PCP treatment induced a significant decrease in the discrimination index (DI) and both ampakines CX546 and CX516 were able to reverse this diruption of object memory in rats in the novel object recognition task. These data suggest that positive AMPAR modulation may represent a mechanism for treatment...

  3. Spontaneous healing of spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almafragi, Amar; Convens, Carl; Heuvel, Paul Van Den

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. It should be suspected in every healthy young woman without cardiac risk factors, especially during the peripartum or postpartum periods. It is important to check for a history of drug abuse, collagen vascular disease or blunt trauma of the chest. Coronary angiography is essential for diagnosis and early management. We wonder whether thrombolysis might aggravate coronary dissection. All types of treatment (medical therapy, percutaneous intervention or surgery) improve the prognosis without affecting survival times if used appropriately according to the clinical stability and the angiographic features of the involved coronary arteries. Prompt recognition and targeted treatment improve outcomes. We report a case of SCAD in a young female free of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, who presented six hours after thrombolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a dissection of the left anterior descending and immediate branch. She had successful coronary artery bypass grafting, with complete healing of left anterior descending dissection.

  4. Genetic mapping in mice reveals the involvement of Pcdh9 in long-term social and object recognition and sensorimotor development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruining, Hilgo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304811440; Matsui, Asuka; Oguro-Ando, Asami; Kahn, René S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073778532; Van'T Spijker, Heleen M.; Akkermans, Guus; Stiedl, Oliver; Van Engeland, Herman|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06840459X; Koopmans, Bastijn; Van Lith, Hein A.; Oppelaar, Hugo; Tieland, Liselotte; Nonkes, Lourens J.; Yagi, Takeshi; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Burbach, J. Peter H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068420404; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko; Kas, Martien J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185967019

    2015-01-01

    Background Quantitative genetic analysis of basic mouse behaviors is a powerful tool to identify novel genetic phenotypes contributing to neurobehavioral disorders. Here, we analyzed genetic contributions to single-trial, long-term social and nonsocial recognition and subsequently studied the

  5. Restoration of Dopamine Release Deficits during Object Recognition Memory Acquisition Attenuates Cognitive Impairment in a Triple Transgenic Mice Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Castro-Cruz, Monica; McGaugh, James L.; Martinez-Coria, Hilda; LaFerla, Frank M.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Previous findings indicate that the acquisition and consolidation of recognition memory involves dopaminergic activity. Although dopamine deregulation has been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, the dysfunction of this neurotransmitter has not been investigated in animal models of AD. The aim of this study was to assess, by in vivo…

  6. Pattern recognition in speech and language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Wu

    2003-01-01

    Minimum Classification Error (MSE) Approach in Pattern Recognition, Wu ChouMinimum Bayes-Risk Methods in Automatic Speech Recognition, Vaibhava Goel and William ByrneA Decision Theoretic Formulation for Adaptive and Robust Automatic Speech Recognition, Qiang HuoSpeech Pattern Recognition Using Neural Networks, Shigeru KatagiriLarge Vocabulary Speech Recognition Based on Statistical Methods, Jean-Luc GauvainToward Spontaneous Speech Recognition and Understanding, Sadaoki FuruiSpeaker Authentication, Qi Li and Biing-Hwang JuangHMMs for Language Processing Problems, Ri

  7. Recognition difference and improvement direction of the radiological technologists and patient against medical service in department radiology - Inchon area in the object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Sung Min; Kim, Sung Chul

    2006-01-01

    Satisfaction of the patient against the medical service in department of radiology and it evaluated the different recognition of radiological technologist and patient, and investigates it's improvement direction. It sent the reply the above the which is a usual result in question result of the most that, the receipt process it was complicated in the portion which is insufficient. 'The receipt process is complication', 'waiting time is long' and ' don't radiation protection for patient and guardian'. Also these a facts was recognizing patients and radiological technologist all. And the effort of the radiological technologist is necessary with the method which reduces a recognition difference. The periodical medical service satisfaction investigates and must endeavor in reform measure preparation

  8. Effect of Block of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors on Overall Motor Activity but not on Spatial Cognition in the Object-Position Recognition Task

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levčík, David; Stuchlík, Aleš; Klement, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 5 (2013), s. 561-567 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : recognition * prazosin * rat * learning Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  9. Regionally Selective Requirement for D[subscript 1]/D[subscript 5] Dopaminergic Neurotransmission in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Object-in-Place Associative Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalli, Giorgia; Bashir, Zafar I.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2015-01-01

    Object-in-place (OiP) memory is critical for remembering the location in which an object was last encountered and depends conjointly on the medial prefrontal cortex, perirhinal cortex, and hippocampus. Here we examined the role of dopamine D[subscript 1]/D[subscript 5] receptor neurotransmission within these brain regions for OiP memory. Bilateral…

  10. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  11. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  12. Spontaneous Trait Inferences on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levordashka, Ana; Utz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    The present research investigates whether spontaneous trait inferences occur under conditions characteristic of social media and networking sites: nonextreme, ostensibly self-generated content, simultaneous presentation of multiple cues, and self-paced browsing. We used an established measure of trait inferences (false recognition paradigm) and a direct assessment of impressions. Without being asked to do so, participants spontaneously formed impressions of people whose status updates they saw. Our results suggest that trait inferences occurred from nonextreme self-generated content, which is commonly found in social media updates (Experiment 1) and when nine status updates from different people were presented in parallel (Experiment 2). Although inferences did occur during free browsing, the results suggest that participants did not necessarily associate the traits with the corresponding status update authors (Experiment 3). Overall, the findings suggest that spontaneous trait inferences occur on social media. We discuss implications for online communication and research on spontaneous trait inferences.

  13. 3D Geological Object Recognition in High-Resolution Seismic Data : A Case Study from a Palaeocene Fluvio-Estuarine Reservoir in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera Rabelo, I.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop methods for extracting and quantifying sedimentary bodies in 3D high-resolution seismic data. A case study was used with an exceptionally high-resolution seismic and a large number of wells: the Palaeocene Tambaredjo field in Suriname. A large-scale

  14. 3D Geological Object Recognition in High-Resolution Seismic Data: A Case Study from a Palaeocene Fluvio-Estuarine Reservoir in Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Rabelo, I.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop methods for extracting and quantifying sedimentary bodies in 3D high-resolution seismic data. A case study was used with an exceptionally high-resolution seismic and a large number of wells: the Palaeocene Tambaredjo field in Suriname. A large-scale interactive 3D visualization system was used to permit interactive exploration of seismic volumes and to make appropriate choices of the processing methods to be used. The different output volumes provided...

  15. Spontaneous pneumothorax in weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnejon, T; Sarac, S; Cropp, A J

    1995-06-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is infrequently caused by strenuous exertion. To our knowledge there has only been one case of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting reported in the medical literature. We describe three consecutive cases of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting. We postulate that spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients may be secondary to improper breathing techniques. It is important that physicians and weight trainers be aware of the association between weight lifting and spontaneous pneumothorax and assure that proper instruction is given to athletes who work with weights.

  16. Audio-visual gender recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  17. Advances in the behavioural testing and network imaging of rodent recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnavane, Lisa; Albasser, Mathieu M; Aggleton, John P

    2015-05-15

    Research into object recognition memory has been galvanised by the introduction of spontaneous preference tests for rodents. The standard task, however, contains a number of inherent shortcomings that reduce its power. Particular issues include the problem that individual trials are time consuming, so limiting the total number of trials in any condition. In addition, the spontaneous nature of the behaviour and the variability between test objects add unwanted noise. To combat these issues, the 'bow-tie maze' was introduced. Although still based on the spontaneous preference of novel over familiar stimuli, the ability to give multiple trials within a session without handling the rodents, as well as using the same objects as both novel and familiar samples on different trials, overcomes key limitations in the standard task. Giving multiple trials within a single session also creates new opportunities for functional imaging of object recognition memory. A series of studies are described that examine the expression of the immediate-early gene, c-fos. Object recognition memory is associated with increases in perirhinal cortex and area Te2 c-fos activity. When rats explore novel objects the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to the dentate gyrus and CA3, is engaged. In contrast, when familiar objects are explored the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to CA1, takes precedence. The switch to the perforant pathway (novel stimuli) from the temporoammonic pathway (familiar stimuli) may assist the enhanced associative learning promoted by novel stimuli. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Advances in the behavioural testing and network imaging of rodent recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnavane, Lisa; Albasser, Mathieu M.; Aggleton, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Research into object recognition memory has been galvanised by the introduction of spontaneous preference tests for rodents. The standard task, however, contains a number of inherent shortcomings that reduce its power. Particular issues include the problem that individual trials are time consuming, so limiting the total number of trials in any condition. In addition, the spontaneous nature of the behaviour and the variability between test objects add unwanted noise. To combat these issues, the ‘bow-tie maze’ was introduced. Although still based on the spontaneous preference of novel over familiar stimuli, the ability to give multiple trials within a session without handling the rodents, as well as using the same objects as both novel and familiar samples on different trials, overcomes key limitations in the standard task. Giving multiple trials within a single session also creates new opportunities for functional imaging of object recognition memory. A series of studies are described that examine the expression of the immediate-early gene, c-fos. Object recognition memory is associated with increases in perirhinal cortex and area Te2 c-fos activity. When rats explore novel objects the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to the dentate gyrus and CA3, is engaged. In contrast, when familiar objects are explored the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to CA1, takes precedence. The switch to the perforant pathway (novel stimuli) from the temporoammonic pathway (familiar stimuli) may assist the enhanced associative learning promoted by novel stimuli. PMID:25106740

  19. Inhibition of the prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 prevents status epilepticus-induced deficits in the novel object recognition task in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Asheebo; Ganesh, Thota; Manji, Zahra; O’neill, Theon; Dingledine, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Survivors of exposure to an organophosphorus nerve agent may develop a number of complications including long-term cognitive deficits (Miyaki et al., 2005; Nishiwaki et al., 2001). We recently demonstrated that inhibition of the prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP2, attenuates neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration caused by status epilepticus (SE) induced by the soman analog, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), which manifest within hours to days of the initial insult. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DFP exposure leads to a loss of cognitive function in rats that is blocked by early, transient EP2 inhibition. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered vehicle or the competitive EP2 antagonist, TG6-10-1, (ip) at various times relative to DFP-induced SE. DFP administration resulted in prolonged seizure activity as demonstrated by cortical electroencephalography (EEG). A single intraperitoneal injection of TG6-10-1 or vehicle 1 h prior to DFP did not alter the development of seizures, the latency to SE or the duration of SE. Rats administered six injections of TG6-10-1 starting 90 min after the onset of DFP-induced SE could discriminate between a novel and familiar object 6–12 weeks after SE, unlike vehicle treated rats which showed no preference for the novel object. By contrast, behavioral changes in the light-dark box and open field assays were not affected by TG6-10-1. Delayed mortality after DFP was also unaffected by TG6-10-1. Thus, selective inhibition of the EP2 receptor may prevent SE-induced memory impairment in rats caused by exposure to a high dose of DFP. PMID:27477533

  20. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  1. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  2. Words from spontaneous conversational speech can be recognized with human-like accuracy by an error-driven learning algorithm that discriminates between meanings straight from smart acoustic features, bypassing the phoneme as recognition unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Arnold

    Full Text Available Sound units play a pivotal role in cognitive models of auditory comprehension. The general consensus is that during perception listeners break down speech into auditory words and subsequently phones. Indeed, cognitive speech recognition is typically taken to be computationally intractable without phones. Here we present a computational model trained on 20 hours of conversational speech that recognizes word meanings within the range of human performance (model 25%, native speakers 20-44%, without making use of phone or word form representations. Our model also generates successfully predictions about the speed and accuracy of human auditory comprehension. At the heart of the model is a 'wide' yet sparse two-layer artificial neural network with some hundred thousand input units representing summaries of changes in acoustic frequency bands, and proxies for lexical meanings as output units. We believe that our model holds promise for resolving longstanding theoretical problems surrounding the notion of the phone in linguistic theory.

  3. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rupture of a gravid uterus is a surgical emergency. Predisposing factors include a scarred uterus. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient ...

  4. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  5. Correlations of recognition memory performance with expression and methylation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo C Muñoz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Object recognition memory allows discrimination between novel and familiar objects. This kind of memory consists of two components: recollection, which depends on the hippocampus, and familiarity, which depends on the perirhinal cortex (Pcx. The importance of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF for recognition memory has already been recognized. Recent evidence suggests that DNA methylation regulates the expression of BDNF and memory. Behavioral and molecular approaches were used to understand the potential contribution of DNA methylation to recognition memory. To that end, rats were tested for their ability to distinguish novel from familiar objects by using a spontaneous object recognition task. Furthermore, the level of DNA methylation was estimated after trials with a methyl-sensitive PCR. We found a signifcant correlation between performance on the novel object task and the expression of BDNF, negatively in hippocampal slices and positively in perirhinal cortical slices. By contrast, methylation of DNA in CpG island 1 in the promoter of exon 1 in BDNF only correlated in hippocampal slices, but not in the Pxc cortical slices from trained animals. These results suggest that DNA methylation may be involved in the regulation of the BDNF gene during recognition memory, at least in the hippocampus.

  6. Methods of Teaching Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article introduces the history and development of speech recognition, addresses its role in the business curriculum, outlines related national and state standards, describes instructional strategies, and discusses the assessment of student achievement in speech recognition classes. Methods: Research methods included a synthesis of…

  7. Open Object Recognition for Humanoid Robots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzpatrick, Paul

    2003-01-01

    .... At the MIT Humanoid Robotics Group, investigators are developing methods that permit their robots to deduce the structure of novel activities, adopt the vocabulary appropriate for communication...

  8. Real object recognition using moment invariants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    contour-based shape descriptors and region-based shape descriptors (Kim & Sung 2000). Regular moment invariants are one of the most popular and widely used contour-based shape descriptors is a set of derived by Hu (1962). These geometrical moment invariants have been then extended to larger sets by Wong & Siu ...

  9. Probabilistic object and viewpoint models for active object recognition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available across views to be integrated in a principled manner, and permitting a principled approach to data acquisition. Existing approaches however mostly rely on probabilistic models which make simplifying assumptions such as that features may be treated...

  10. Translational aspects of the novel object recognition task in rats abstinent following sub-chronic treatment with phencyclidine (PCP: effects of modafinil and relevance to cognitive deficits in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Redrobe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Phencyclidine (PCP induces a behavioural syndrome in rodents that bears remarkable similarities to some of the core symptoms observed in schizophrenic patients, among those cognitive deficits. The successful alleviation of cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia (CIAS has become a major focus of research efforts as they remain largely untreated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selected antipsychotic and cognition enhancing drugs, namely haloperidol, risperidone, donepezil, and modafinil in an animal model widely used in preclinical schizophrenia research. To this end, the novel object recognition (NOR task was applied to rats abstinent following sub-chronic treatment with PCP. Rats were administered either PCP (5 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle twice a day for 7 days, followed by a 7-day washout period, before testing in NOR. Upon testing, vehicle-treated rats successfully discriminated between novel and familiar objects, an effect abolished in rats that had previously been exposed to PCP-treatment. Acute treatment with modafinil (64 mg/kg, p.o. ameliorated the PCP-induced deficit in novel object exploration, whereas haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., risperidone (0.2 mg/kg, i.p. and donepezil (3 mg/kg, p.o. were without significant effect. Given the negligible efficacy of haloperidol and risperidone, and the contradictory data with donepezil to treat CIAS in the clinic, together with the promising preliminary pro-cognitive effects of modafinil in certain subsets of schizophrenic patients, the sub-chronic PCP-NOR abstinence paradigm may represent an attractive option for the identification of potential novel treatments for CIAS.

  11. Mirror self-recognition: a review and critique of attempts to promote and engineer self-recognition in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Gallup, Gordon G

    2015-10-01

    We review research on reactions to mirrors and self-recognition in nonhuman primates, focusing on methodological issues. Starting with the initial demonstration in chimpanzees in 1970 and subsequent attempts to extend this to other species, self-recognition in great apes is discussed with emphasis on spontaneous manifestations of mirror-guided self-exploration as well as spontaneous use of the mirror to investigate foreign marks on otherwise nonvisible body parts-the mark test. Attempts to show self-recognition in other primates are examined with particular reference to the lack of convincing examples of spontaneous mirror-guided self-exploration, and efforts to engineer positive mark test responses by modifying the test or using conditioning techniques. Despite intensive efforts to demonstrate self-recognition in other primates, we conclude that to date there is no compelling evidence that prosimians, monkeys, or lesser apes-gibbons and siamangs-are capable of mirror self-recognition.

  12. Spontaneous Strategies in Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Husted, Emil Krastrup

    and a site ontology, we show how physical sites and objects become constitutive of the inside of virtual worlds through innovation processes. This argument is in line with ANT’s perspective on strategy, where sites and objects are considered a strategically relevant resource in the innovation process...... of materiality in relation to the organization and structuring of virtual worlds. We examine various innovation processes in five Danish entrepreneurial companies where actors continuously struggle to stabilize virtual worlds as platforms for professional communication. With inspiration from actor-network theory....... Empirically, the analysis is founded on descriptive accounts from the five entrepreneurs. By highlighting the spontaneous strategies described by actors, we show how sites and objects are actively used as an element in their strategy, and also how the sites and objects end up facilitating new ways of thinking...

  13. Efficient visual object and word recognition relies on high spatial frequency coding in the left posterior fusiform gyrus: evidence from a case-series of patients with ventral occipito-temporal cortex damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Daniel J; Woollams, Anna M; Kim, Esther; Beeson, Pelagie M; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2013-11-01

    Recent visual neuroscience investigations suggest that ventral occipito-temporal cortex is retinotopically organized, with high acuity foveal input projecting primarily to the posterior fusiform gyrus (pFG), making this region crucial for coding high spatial frequency information. Because high spatial frequencies are critical for fine-grained visual discrimination, we hypothesized that damage to the left pFG should have an adverse effect not only on efficient reading, as observed in pure alexia, but also on the processing of complex non-orthographic visual stimuli. Consistent with this hypothesis, we obtained evidence that a large case series (n = 20) of patients with lesions centered on left pFG: 1) Exhibited reduced sensitivity to high spatial frequencies; 2) demonstrated prolonged response latencies both in reading (pure alexia) and object naming; and 3) were especially sensitive to visual complexity and similarity when discriminating between novel visual patterns. These results suggest that the patients' dual reading and non-orthographic recognition impairments have a common underlying mechanism and reflect the loss of high spatial frequency visual information normally coded in the left pFG.

  14. Prevalence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in liver cirrhosis with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis and ascites requiring prompt recognition and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, and characteristics of SBP among in-patients with cirrhosis and ascites seen at our facility. Methods: ...

  15. Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Jørgensen, Kasper Winther

    2005-01-01

    Speaker recognition is basically divided into speaker identification and speaker verification. Verification is the task of automatically determining if a person really is the person he or she claims to be. This technology can be used as a biometric feature for verifying the identity of a person...

  16. Operative treatment of spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas : a study of the factors determining postoperative outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; van Alphen, H A

    OBJECTIVE: We clarify the factors affecting postoperative outcomes in patients who have suffered spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas. METHODS: We review 330 cases of spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas from the international literature and three unpublished cases of our own. Attention was

  17. Self-recognition in pigeons revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Emiko; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2014-11-01

    Recognition of a self-image in a mirror is investigated using the mark test during which a mark is placed onto a point on the body that is not directly visible, and the presence or absence of self-directed behaviors is evaluated for the mirror-observing subjects. Great apes, dolphins, possibly elephants, and magpies have all passed the mark test, that is, displayed self-directed behaviors, whereas monkeys, crows, and other animals have failed the test even though they were able to use a mirror to find a not-directly-visible object. Self-directed behavior and mirror use are prerequisites of a successful mark test, and the absence of these behaviors may lead to false negative results. Epstein, Lanza, and Skinner (1981) reported self-directed behavior of pigeons in front of a mirror after explicit training of self-directed pecking and of pecking an object with the aid of a mirror, but certain other researchers could not confirm the results. The aim of the present study was to conduct the mark test with two pigeons that had received extensive training of the prerequisite behaviors. Crucial points of the training were identical topography (pecking) and the same reinforcement (food) in the prerequisite behaviors as well as sufficient training of these behaviors. After training for the prerequisite behaviors, both pigeons spontaneously integrated the learned self-directed and mirror-use behavior and displayed self-directed behavior in a mark test. This indicates that pigeons display mirror self-recognition after training of suitable ontogenetic contingency. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Tracking in Object Action Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker; Herzog, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    -dependent or as, e.g., in the case of a pointing direction convey important information. One common way to achieve recognition is by using 3D human body tracking followed by action recognition based on the captured tracking data. For the kind of scenarios considered here we would like to argue that 3D body...... tracking and action recognition should be seen as an intertwined problem that is primed by the objects on which the actions are applied. In this paper, we are looking at human body tracking and action recognition from a object-driven perspective. Instead of the space of human body poses we consider...... the space of the object affordances, i.e., the space of possible actions that are applied on a given object. This way, 3D body tracking reduces to action tracking in the object (and context) primed parameter space of the object affordances. This reduces the high-dimensional joint-space to a low...

  19. Spontaneous Acute Mesenteroaxial Gastric Volvulus Diagnosed by Computed Tomography Scan in a Young Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Gaby; Afifi, Ibrahim; Ellabib, Mohamed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Acute spontaneous gastric volvulus Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparotomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Acute gastric volvulus is a surgical emergency that requires early recognition and treatment. Acute idiopathic mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus is a rare sub-type and there are few cases reported in children and there are even fewer reports in adults. Case Report: We report a rare case of a 23-year-old man who presented with a 1-day history of vomiting, epigastric pain, distention, and constipation. The diagnosis for mesenteroaxial type gastric volvulus was confirmed by abdominal radiography and computed tomography. The patient was successfully treated by laparotomy with resection of the ischemic stomach wall and anastomosis. Acute spontaneous mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus is rare in adults and early diagnosis is challenging due to non-specific symptoms. A missed or delayed diagnosis may result in serious complications due to gastric obstruction. Conclusions: A patient presenting with severe epigastric pain and clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction should be considered as a surgical emergency to rule out gastric volvulus. High index of suspicion, early diagnosis and prompt surgical management are important for favorable outcome in patients with acute spontaneous gastric volvulus. PMID:27112797

  20. Maternal Factors Associated With Early Spontaneous Singleton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the maternal factors predisposing to preterm deliveries should affect the anticipatory care of mothers at risk of delivering preterm babies and improve perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the maternal socio-biological characteristics associated with the delivery of early spontaneous ...

  1. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  2. Spontaneous Appendicocutaneous Fistula I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M T0k0de* MB, BS and. Dr 0. A. AWOj0bi+ FMCS (Nig). ABSTRACT. Ruptured appendicitis is not a common cause of spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula. A case of ruptured retrocaecal appendicitis presenting as an enterocutaneous fistula in a Nigerian woman is presented. The literature on this disorder is also reviewed.

  3. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Edna; Caly, Wanda Regina

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs in 30% of patients with ascites due to cirrhosis leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. The pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is related to altered host defenses observed in end-stage liver disease, overgrowth of microorganisms, and bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes. Clinical manifestations vary from severe to slight or absent, demanding analysis of the ascitic fluid. The diagnosis is confirmed by a number of neutrophils over 250/mm3 associated or not to bacterial growth in culture of an ascites sample. Enterobacteriae prevail and Escherichia coli has been the most frequent bacterium reported. Mortality rates decreased markedly in the last two decades due to early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment. Third generation intravenous cephalosporins are effective in 70% to 95% of the cases. Recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is common and can be prevented by the continuous use of oral norfloxacin. The development of bacterial resistance demands the search for new options in the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; probiotics are a promising new approach, but deserve further evaluation. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients with cirrhosis and ascites shortly after an acute episode of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  4. Spontaneous Grammar Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoo, Hong Sing; Lewis, Marilyn

    1998-01-01

    Describes one New Zealand university language teacher's reflection on her own grammar explanations to university-level students of Bahasa Indonesian. Examines form-focused instruction through the teacher's spontaneous answers to students' questions about the form of the language they are studying. The teacher's experiences show that it takes time…

  5. EDITORIAL SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) frequent]y occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. It is defined as an infection of previously sterile ascitic fluid without any demonstrable intrabdominal source of infection. It is now internationally agreed that a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid of over 250 ...

  6. Spontaneous dimensional reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, Steven

    2012-10-01

    Over the past few years, evidence has begun to accumulate suggesting that spacetime may undergo a "spontaneous dimensional reduction" to two dimensions near the Planck scale. I review some of this evidence, and discuss the (still very speculative) proposal that the underlying mechanism may be related to short-distance focusing of light rays by quantum fluctuations.

  7. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  8. Fetal megacystis : prediction of spontaneous resolution and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanella, F.; Duin, L.; Adama van Scheltema, P. N.; Cohen-Overbeek, T. E.; Pajkrt, E.; Bekker, M.; Willekes, C.; Bax, C. J.; Bilardo, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the natural history of fetal megacystis from diagnosis in utero to postnatal outcome, and to identify prognostic indicators of spontaneous resolution and postnatal outcome after resolution. Methods: This was a national retrospective cohort study. Fetal megacystis was

  9. Immunoglobulin G antisperm antibodies and prediction of spontaneous pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leushuis, Esther; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Steures, Pieternel; Repping, Sjoerd; Schöls, Willem; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Hompes, Peter G. A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictive capacity of immunoglobulin G ASA (direct MAR test) for spontaneous ongoing pregnancy in subfertile couples. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Nine fertility centers in The Netherlands. Patient(s): Consecutive ovulatory subfertile couples.

  10. Recognition tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, Stuart; He Jin; Zhang Peiming; Chang Shuai; Huang Shuo; Sankey, Otto; Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode ('tethered molecule-pair' configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the 'free-analyte' configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules. (topical review)

  11. Recognition tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, Stuart; He Jin; Zhang Peiming; Chang Shuai; Huang Shuo [Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Sankey, Otto [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 1862 53, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-02

    Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode ('tethered molecule-pair' configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the 'free-analyte' configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules. (topical review)

  12. Indirect recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian; Rachman, Noer Fauzi

    2018-01-01

    Government institutions and local people in Indonesia have entrenched, resurrected, and reinvented space through their different territorial and property claims. From colonial times, onward, government institutions have dissolved local political orders and territorialized and reordered spatial...... categories are struggled over, and groups of actors seek to legitimate their presence, their activities, and their resource use by occupation, mapping, and construction of "public" infrastructure. In the case of conservation in the Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, we find that rather than one overarching...... important legal and political work. After the authoritarian New Order regime, in particular, claims to citizenship worked as indirect property claims, and indirect recognition of such claims are important because they serve as pragmatic proxies for formal property rights. Two case studies examine how people...

  13. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  14. Automated acoustic analysis in detection of spontaneous swallows in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabbakhsh, Marzieh; Rajaei, Ali; Derakhshan, Mahmoud; Sadri, Saeed; Taheri, Masoud; Adibi, Peyman

    2014-10-01

    Acoustic monitoring of swallow frequency has become important as the frequency of spontaneous swallowing can be an index for dysphagia and related complications. In addition, it can be employed as an objective quantification of ingestive behavior. Commonly, swallowing complications are manually detected using videofluoroscopy recordings, which require expensive equipment and exposure to radiation. In this study, a noninvasive automated technique is proposed that uses breath and swallowing recordings obtained via a microphone located over the laryngopharynx. Nonlinear diffusion filters were used in which a scale-space decomposition of recorded sound at different levels extract swallows from breath sounds and artifacts. This technique was compared to manual detection of swallows using acoustic signals on a sample of 34 subjects with Parkinson's disease. A speech language pathologist identified five subjects who showed aspiration during the videofluoroscopic swallowing study. The proposed automated method identified swallows with a sensitivity of 86.67 %, a specificity of 77.50 %, and an accuracy of 82.35 %. These results indicate the validity of automated acoustic recognition of swallowing as a fast and efficient approach to objectively estimate spontaneous swallow frequency.

  15. Simultaneous tracking and activity recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina Elena; Fleet, David J.; Hamilton, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    Many tracking problems involve several distinct objects interacting with each other. We develop a framework that takes into account interactions between objects allowing the recognition of complex activities. In contrast to classic approaches that consider distinct phases of tracking and activity...... recognition, our framework performs these two tasks simultaneously. In particular, we adopt a Bayesian standpoint where the system maintains a joint distribution of the positions, the interactions and the possible activities. This turns out to be advantegeous, as information about the ongoing activities can...

  16. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  17. Spontaneous Thigh Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan, Sameer K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A young man presented with a painful and swollen thigh, without any history of trauma, illness, coagulopathic medication or recent exertional exercise. Preliminary imaging delineated a haematoma in the anterior thigh, without any fractures or muscle trauma. Emergent fasciotomies were performed. No pathology could be identified intra-operatively, or on follow-up imaging. A review of thigh compartment syndromes described in literature is presented in a table. Emergency physicians and traumatologists should be cognisant of spontaneous atraumatic presentations of thigh compartment syndrome, to ensure prompt referral and definitive management of this limb-threatening condition. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:134-138].

  18. Mice lacking the synaptic adhesion molecule Neph2/Kirrel3 display moderate hyperactivity and defective novel object preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon eChoi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate diverse aspects of neuronal synapse development, including synapse specificity, formation, and maturation. Neph2, also known as Kirrel3, is an immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule implicated in intellectual disability, neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, and autism spectrum disorders. We here report mice lacking Neph2 (Neph2–/– mice display moderate hyperactivity in a familiar but not novel environment and novel object recognition deficit with normal performances in Morris water maze spatial learning and memory, contextual fear conditioning and extinction, and pattern separation tests. These mice show normal levels of anxiety-like behaviors, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. At the synapse level, Neph2–/– dentate gyrus granule cells exhibit unaltered dendritic spine density and spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission. These results suggest that Neph2 is important for normal locomotor activity and object recognition memory.

  19. Experiments on Detection of Voiced Hesitations in Russian Spontaneous Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilisa Verkhodanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and popularity of voice-user interfaces made spontaneous speech processing an important research field. One of the main focus areas in this field is automatic speech recognition (ASR that enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers. However, ASR systems often work less efficiently for spontaneous than for read speech, since the former differs from any other type of speech in many ways. And the presence of speech disfluencies is its prominent characteristic. These phenomena are an important feature in human-human communication and at the same time they are a challenging obstacle for the speech processing tasks. In this paper we address an issue of voiced hesitations (filled pauses and sound lengthenings detection in Russian spontaneous speech by utilizing different machine learning techniques, from grid search and gradient descent in rule-based approaches to such data-driven ones as ELM and SVM based on the automatically extracted acoustic features. Experimental results on the mixed and quality diverse corpus of spontaneous Russian speech indicate the efficiency of the techniques for the task in question, with SVM outperforming other methods.

  20. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  1. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    CERN Document Server

    Li Zheng Dong; He Wu Liang; Pei Chun Lan; Peng Wen; SongChen; Zheng Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  2. Non Audio-Video gesture recognition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciunescu, Razvan; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2016-01-01

    recognition from the face and hand gesture recognition. Gesture recognition enables humans to communicate with the machine and interact naturally without any mechanical devices. This paper investigates the possibility to use non-audio/video sensors in order to design a low-cost gesture recognition device...... that can be connected to any computer on the market. The paper proposes an equation that relates the distance and voltage for a Sharp GP2Y0A21 and GP2D120 sensors in the situation that a hand is used as the reflective object. In the end, the presented system is compared with other audio/video system...

  3. [Atypical etiology of rhinorrhea: spontaneous bilateral temporal encephalocele].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente Muñoz, Asís; Lisbona Alquézar, María Pilar; González Martínez, Luis; Sevil Navarro, Jorge; Llorente Arenas, Eva María

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous herniation of brain parenchyma through a dural and osseous defect in the temporal bone is a rare entity and a bilateral form is even more infrequent. It usually presents as an intermittent but persistent otorrhea. Manifestation as nose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is very uncommon. Our objective is presenting this unusual case report of a spontaneous bilateral encephalocele with a bilateral tegmen tympani defect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  5. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  6. Spontaneous sensorimotor coupling with multipart music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Brian K; Martens, Peter A; Janata, Petr

    2014-08-01

    Music often evokes spontaneous movements in listeners that are synchronized with the music, a phenomenon that has been characterized as being in "the groove." However, the musical factors that contribute to listeners' initiation of stimulus-coupled action remain unclear. Evidence suggests that newly appearing objects in auditory scenes orient listeners' attention, and that in multipart music, newly appearing instrument or voice parts can engage listeners' attention and elicit arousal. We posit that attentional engagement with music can influence listeners' spontaneous stimulus-coupled movement. Here, 2 experiments-involving participants with and without musical training-tested the effect of staggering instrument entrances across time and varying the number of concurrent instrument parts within novel multipart music on listeners' engagement with the music, as assessed by spontaneous sensorimotor behavior and self-reports. Experiment 1 assessed listeners' moment-to-moment ratings of perceived groove, and Experiment 2 examined their spontaneous tapping and head movements. We found that, for both musically trained and untrained participants, music with more instruments led to higher ratings of perceived groove, and that music with staggered instrument entrances elicited both increased sensorimotor coupling and increased reports of perceived groove. Although untrained participants were more likely to rate music as higher in groove, trained participants showed greater propensity for tapping along, and they did so more accurately. The quality of synchronization of head movements with the music, however, did not differ as a function of training. Our results shed new light on the relationship between complex musical scenes, attention, and spontaneous sensorimotor behavior.

  7. Discriminative learning for speech recognition

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiadong

    2008-01-01

    In this book, we introduce the background and mainstream methods of probabilistic modeling and discriminative parameter optimization for speech recognition. The specific models treated in depth include the widely used exponential-family distributions and the hidden Markov model. A detailed study is presented on unifying the common objective functions for discriminative learning in speech recognition, namely maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum classification error, and minimum phone/word error. The unification is presented, with rigorous mathematical analysis, in a common rational-functio

  8. Exploring Power with Object Theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryöppy, Merja; Ylirisku, Salu; Knutz, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores Object Theatre as an approach to address power in design. We understand power as a relational activity that emerges and is upheld through particular ways of relating (Elias, 1991; Stacey, 2007). The spontaneity in participant actions through Object Theatre exercises renders...... processes of relating tangible and negotiable. In this study Object Theatre was applied in exploration of a new walking aid for elderly people. We argue that the shift in perspective that Object Theatre allows designers to achieve can be effectively harnessed to explore issues arising from power relating...... amongst people – and between people and objects....

  9. Picture recognition of food by macaques (Macaca silenus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Peter G; Kurdziel, Laura B; Wright, Risa M; Bohrman, Jennifer A

    2012-05-01

    Pictorial representations of three-dimensional objects are often used to investigate animal cognitive abilities; however, investigators rarely evaluate whether the animals conceptualize the two-dimensional image as the object it is intended to represent. We tested for picture recognition in lion-tailed macaques by presenting five monkeys with digitized images of familiar foods on a touch screen. Monkeys viewed images of two different foods and learned that they would receive a piece of the one they touched first. After demonstrating that they would reliably select images of their preferred foods on one set of foods, animals were transferred to images of a second set of familiar foods. We assumed that if the monkeys recognized the images, they would spontaneously select images of their preferred foods on the second set of foods. Three monkeys selected images of their preferred foods significantly more often than chance on their first transfer session. In an additional test of the monkeys' picture recognition abilities, animals were presented with pairs of food images containing a medium-preference food paired with either a high-preference food or a low-preference food. The same three monkeys selected the medium-preference foods significantly more often when they were paired with low-preference foods and significantly less often when those same foods were paired with high-preference foods. Our novel design provided convincing evidence that macaques recognized the content of two-dimensional images on a touch screen. Results also suggested that the animals understood the connection between the two-dimensional images and the three-dimensional objects they represented.

  10. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  11. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS

    2018-04-01

    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  12. Spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1981-12-01

    There has been recently a revival of interest in supersymmetric gauge theories, stimulated by the hope that supersymmetry might help in clarifying some of the questions which remain unanswered in the so called Grand Unified Theories and in particular the gauge hierarchy problem. In a Grand Unified Theory one has two widely different mass scales: the unification mass M approx. = 10/sup 15/GeV at which the unification group (e.g. SU(5)) breaks down to SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and the mass ..mu.. approx. = 100 GeV at which SU(2) x U(1) is broken down to the U(1) of electromagnetism. There is at present no theoretical understanding of the extreme smallness of the ratio ..mu../M of these two numbers. This is the gauge hierarchy problem. This lecture attempts to review the various mechanisms for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in gauge theories. Most of the discussions are concerned with the tree approximation, but what is presently known about radiative correction is also reviewed.

  13. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  14. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  15. Assessment of motor function, sensory motor gating and recognition memory in a novel BACHD transgenic rat model for huntington disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yah-Se K Abada

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Huntington disease (HD is frequently first diagnosed by the appearance of motor symptoms; the diagnosis is subsequently confirmed by the presence of expanded CAG repeats (> 35 in the HUNTINGTIN (HTT gene. A BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full length mutated HTT with 97 CAG-CAA repeats has been established recently. Behavioral phenotyping of BACHD rats will help to determine the validity of this model and its potential use in preclinical drug discovery studies. OBJECTIVES: The present study seeks to characterize the progressive emergence of motor, sensorimotor and cognitive deficits in BACHD rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wild type and transgenic rats were tested from 1 till 12 months of age. Motor tests were selected to measure spontaneous locomotor activity (open field and gait coordination. Sensorimotor gating was assessed in acoustic startle response paradigms and recognition memory was evaluated in an object recognition test. RESULTS: Transgenic rats showed hyperactivity at 1 month and hypoactivity starting at 4 months of age. Motor coordination imbalance in a Rotarod test was present at 2 months and gait abnormalities were seen in a Catwalk test at 12 months. Subtle sensorimotor changes were observed, whereas object recognition was unimpaired in BACHD rats up to 12 months of age. CONCLUSION: The current BACHD rat model recapitulates certain symptoms from HD patients, especially the marked motor deficits. A subtle neuropsychological phenotype was found and further studies are needed to fully address the sensorimotor phenotype and the potential use of BACHD rats for drug discovery purposes.

  16. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol......, and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had...

  17. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    given birth twice or more previously had increased odds ratio (OR), 1.78 (1.27-2.49), whereas women who were students had decreased OR, 0.55 (0.34-0.91) for having spontaneous abortions. Regarding lifestyle factors, the adjusted ORs among women who consumed 5 units or more alcohol per week or 375 mg......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  18. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    , and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  19. Spontaneous decoherence of coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, ZhiRui; Zhang, ZhenWei; Xu, DaZhi; Zhao, Nan; Sun, ChangPu

    2018-04-01

    We study the spontaneous decoherence of coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring container, where the nearest-neighbor harmonic potentials are taken into consideration. Without any external symmetry-breaking field or surrounding environment, the quantum superposition state prepared in the relative degrees of freedom gradually loses its quantum coherence spontaneously. This spontaneous decoherence is interpreted by the gauge couplings between the center-of-mass and the relative degrees of freedoms, which actually originate from the symmetries of the ring geometry and the corresponding nontrivial boundary conditions. In particular, such spontaneous decoherence does not occur at all at the thermodynamic limit because the nontrivial boundary conditions become the trivial Born-von Karman boundary conditions when the perimeter of the ring container tends to infinity. Our investigation shows that a thermal macroscopic object with certain symmetries has a chance for its quantum properties to degrade even without applying an external symmetry-breaking field or surrounding environment.

  20. Bilateral spontaneous carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, Bradley Scott; Traves, Laura; Crimmins, Denis

    2005-06-01

    Bilateral internal carotid artery dissections have been reported, but spontaneous bilateral dissections are rare. Internal carotid artery dissection can present with a spectrum of symptoms ranging from headache to completed stroke. Two cases of spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection are presented, one with headache and minimal symptoms and the other with a stroke syndrome. No cause could be found in either case, making the dissections completely spontaneous. Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) should be considered in young patients with unexplained head and neck pain with or without focal neurological symptoms and signs. The increasing availability of imaging would sustain the higher index of suspicion.

  1. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...

  2. Graphical symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. , Santosh; Wendling , Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The chapter focuses on one of the key issues in document image processing i.e., graphical symbol recognition. Graphical symbol recognition is a sub-field of a larger research domain: pattern recognition. The chapter covers several approaches (i.e., statistical, structural and syntactic) and specially designed symbol recognition techniques inspired by real-world industrial problems. It, in general, contains research problems, state-of-the-art methods that convey basic s...

  3. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  4. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  5. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  6. Weed Recognition Framework for Robotic Precision Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kounalakis, Tsampikos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios; Nalpantidis, Lazaros

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel framework which applies known image features combined with advanced linear image representations for weed recognition. Our proposed weed recognition framework, is based on state-of-the-the art object/image categorization methods exploiting enhanced performance...... using advanced encoding and machine learning algorithms. The resulting system can be applied in a variety of environments, plantation or weed types. This results in a novel and generic weed control approach, that in our knowledge is unique among weed recognition methods and systems. For the experimental...... evaluation of our system, we introduce a challenging image dataset for weed recognition. We experimentally show that the proposed system achieves significant performance improvements in weed recognition in comparison with other known methods....

  7. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  8. Arousal and Valence prediction in spontaneous emotional speech: felt versus perceived emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, K.P.; Leeuwen, D.A. van; Neerincx, M.A.; Jong, F.M.G. de

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe emotion recognition experiments carried out for spontaneous affective speech with the aim to compare the added value of annotation of felt emotion versus annotation of perceived emotion. Using speech material available in the TNO-GAMING corpus (a corpus containing

  9. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  10. Image-based automatic recognition of larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ru; Yu, Guiying; Fan, Weijun; Guo, Tiantai

    2010-08-01

    As the main objects, imagoes have been researched in quarantine pest recognition in these days. However, pests in their larval stage are latent, and the larvae spread abroad much easily with the circulation of agricultural and forest products. It is presented in this paper that, as the new research objects, larvae are recognized by means of machine vision, image processing and pattern recognition. More visional information is reserved and the recognition rate is improved as color image segmentation is applied to images of larvae. Along with the characteristics of affine invariance, perspective invariance and brightness invariance, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is adopted for the feature extraction. The neural network algorithm is utilized for pattern recognition, and the automatic identification of larvae images is successfully achieved with satisfactory results.

  11. Performance Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    mathematics program. Ir this study he measured mathenatics skills, mathematics application, ard student attitudes. Ne used the Stanford Achievement...34most vague" (5). Means and variances were computed for each Item on the questionnaire, Correlations were then ccinputed between and among the...between subjects’ ratings of objectives with direct objects and objectives containing "x" and "y." This is reflected in tests computed separately for

  12. Physiological arousal in processing recognition information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hochman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic (RH; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 suggests that, when applicable, probabilistic inferences are based on a noncompensatory examination of whether an object is recognized or not. The overall findings on the processes that underlie this fast and frugal heuristic are somewhat mixed, and many studies have expressed the need for considering a more compensatory integration of recognition information. Regardless of the mechanism involved, it is clear that recognition has a strong influence on choices, and this finding might be explained by the fact that recognition cues arouse affect and thus receive more attention than cognitive cues. To test this assumption, we investigated whether recognition results in a direct affective signal by measuring physiological arousal (i.e., peripheral arterial tone in the established city-size task. We found that recognition of cities does not directly result in increased physiological arousal. Moreover, the results show that physiological arousal increased with increasing inconsistency between recognition information and additional cue information. These findings support predictions derived by a compensatory Parallel Constraint Satisfaction model rather than predictions of noncompensatory models. Additional results concerning confidence ratings, response times, and choice proportions further demonstrated that recognition information and other cognitive cues are integrated in a compensatory manner.

  13. Observation time and spontaneous resolution of primary phimosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Toledo de Arruda Lourenção

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate spontaneous resolution rate of a series of patients with physiologic phimosis in relation to observation time and presence of symptoms. Methods: retrospective and longitudinal follow-up study of patients with physiologic phimosis, that did not apply topic treatment. These patients were invited for a new visit for reevaluation, or recent data were obtained by chart analysis. Spontaneous resolution rate was determined and statistically compared to age, presence of symptoms at first medical visit and time until reevaluation. Results: seventy one patients were included. Medium time of observation from first visit to reevaluation was 37.4 months. There was spontaneous resolution of phimosis in 32 (45% patients. Children with spontaneous resolution were younger at initial diagnosis and were observed during a longer period of time. Most asymptomatic patients at first visit presented spontaneous resolution. However, it was not possible to stablish a significant relationship between presence of symptoms and evolution of physiologic phimosis. Conclusions: time of observation was the main determinant of spontaneous resolution of patients with physiologic phimosis, reinforcing the current more conservative approach regarding circumcision of those patients.

  14. Robust recognition via information theoretic learning

    CERN Document Server

    He, Ran; Yuan, Xiaotong; Wang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief represents a comprehensive review of information theoretic methods for robust recognition. A variety of information theoretic methods have been proffered in the past decade, in a large variety of computer vision applications; this work brings them together, attempts to impart the theory, optimization and usage of information entropy.The?authors?resort to a new information theoretic concept, correntropy, as a robust measure and apply it to solve robust face recognition and object recognition problems. For computational efficiency,?the brief?introduces the additive and multip

  15. The struggle for recognition online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Holmgaard

    to a consciousness of my identity[...] Individuals can only become conscious of themselves in the object-position."(Honneth 2006) Hence people gain access to themselves in a mediated public space, become conscious of themselves in the object-position and gain personal recognition in mediated spaces. Through mediated...... social interaction people acknowledge themselves and become private individuals in society, or as understood through the words of John Dewey:"the private grows out of the public; personal understanding emerges from shared communication."(Dewey 1954)...

  16. Hierarchical fuzzy optical syntactic pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    1999-07-01

    In previous work, my students and I have shown that optical fuzzy syntactic pattern recognition was far more robust than prior optical pattern recognition methods. Here, I add methods which allow context to influence the decision as to what object is present. The letter is in the context of a word which is in the context of a sentence which... . General optical systems for this are described.

  17. Parametric Primitives for Hand Gesture Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Imitation learning is considered to be an effective way of teaching humanoid robots and action recognition is the key step to imitation learning. In this paper  an online algorithm to recognize parametric actions with object context is presented. Objects are key instruments in understanding...

  18. Multiple degree of freedom optical pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D.

    1987-01-01

    Three general optical approaches to multiple degree of freedom object pattern recognition (where no stable object rest position exists) are advanced. These techniques include: feature extraction, correlation, and artificial intelligence. The details of the various processors are advanced together with initial results.

  19. Spontaneous pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis RNA clearance. A cross-sectional study followed by a cohort study of untreated STI clinic patients in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Martijn S.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim; Morré, Servaas A.; van Dam, Alje P.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) might contribute to ongoing chlamydia transmission, yet data on spontaneous clearance duration are rare. We examined the prevalence, spontaneous clearance, chlamydial DNA concentration and genotypes of pharyngeal chlamydia among clinic patients

  20. Assessment of motor function, sensory motor gating and recognition memory in a novel BACHD transgenic rat model for huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abada, Yah-Se K; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Schreiber, Rudy; Ellenbroek, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is frequently first diagnosed by the appearance of motor symptoms; the diagnosis is subsequently confirmed by the presence of expanded CAG repeats (> 35) in the HUNTINGTIN (HTT) gene. A BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full length mutated HTT with 97 CAG-CAA repeats has been established recently. Behavioral phenotyping of BACHD rats will help to determine the validity of this model and its potential use in preclinical drug discovery studies. The present study seeks to characterize the progressive emergence of motor, sensorimotor and cognitive deficits in BACHD rats. Wild type and transgenic rats were tested from 1 till 12 months of age. Motor tests were selected to measure spontaneous locomotor activity (open field) and gait coordination. Sensorimotor gating was assessed in acoustic startle response paradigms and recognition memory was evaluated in an object recognition test. Transgenic rats showed hyperactivity at 1 month and hypoactivity starting at 4 months of age. Motor coordination imbalance in a Rotarod test was present at 2 months and gait abnormalities were seen in a Catwalk test at 12 months. Subtle sensorimotor changes were observed, whereas object recognition was unimpaired in BACHD rats up to 12 months of age. The current BACHD rat model recapitulates certain symptoms from HD patients, especially the marked motor deficits. A subtle neuropsychological phenotype was found and further studies are needed to fully address the sensorimotor phenotype and the potential use of BACHD rats for drug discovery purposes.

  1. Objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  2. Agile Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Senta; Harris, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the art-historical canon, however it is construed, has little relevance to the selection of objects for museum-based teaching. Their contention is that all objects are fundamentally agile and capable of interrogation from any number of disciplinary standpoints, and that the canon of museum education,…

  3. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  4. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2015-02-10

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  5. Spontaneous esophageal rupture - Boerhaave's syndrome: Clinical symptoms and radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaa, J.; Deininger, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    Spontaneous transmural rupture of the esophagus (Boerhaave's syndrome) is a life-threatening emergency. Prompt diagnosis is essential to a better prognosis, successful operative outcome and patient survival. The chest roentgenogram and the contrast esophagograms to follow are the most helpful diagnostic tests. The clinical manifestations are variable and may be misleading and thus delay accurate recognition. In our case report the major clinical features and radiological signs of Boerhaave's syndrome are described. The pathogenesis, characteristic clinical symptoms and the signs and radiological evaluation are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  6. Automatic anatomy recognition via multiobject oriented active shape models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinjian; Udupa, Jayaram K; Alavi, Abass; Torigian, Drew A

    2010-12-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of developing an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system in clinical radiology and demonstrates its operation on clinical 2D images. The anatomy recognition method described here consists of two main components: (a) multiobject generalization of OASM and (b) object recognition strategies. The OASM algorithm is generalized to multiple objects by including a model for each object and assigning a cost structure specific to each object in the spirit of live wire. The delineation of multiobject boundaries is done in MOASM via a three level dynamic programming algorithm, wherein the first level is at pixel level which aims to find optimal oriented boundary segments between successive landmarks, the second level is at landmark level which aims to find optimal location for the landmarks, and the third level is at the object level which aims to find optimal arrangement of object boundaries over all objects. The object recognition strategy attempts to find that pose vector (consisting of translation, rotation, and scale component) for the multiobject model that yields the smallest total boundary cost for all objects. The delineation and recognition accuracies were evaluated separately utilizing routine clinical chest CT, abdominal CT, and foot MRI data sets. The delineation accuracy was evaluated in terms of true and false positive volume fractions (TPVF and FPVF). The recognition accuracy was assessed (1) in terms of the size of the space of the pose vectors for the model assembly that yielded high delineation accuracy, (2) as a function of the number of objects and objects' distribution and size in the model, (3) in terms of the interdependence between delineation and recognition, and (4) in terms of the closeness of the optimum recognition result to the global optimum. When multiple objects are included in the model, the delineation accuracy in terms of TPVF can be improved to 97%-98% with a low FPVF of 0.1%-0.2%. Typically, a

  7. Support subspaces method for synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Fursov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a new object recognition approach that gives high quality using synthetic aperture radar images. The approach includes image preprocessing, clustering and recognition stages. At the image preprocessing stage, we compute the mass centre of object images for better image matching. A conjugation index of a recognition vector is used as a distance function at clustering and recognition stages. We suggest a construction of the so-called support subspaces, which provide high recognition quality with a significant dimension reduction. The results of the experiments demonstrate that the proposed method provides higher recognition quality (97.8% than such methods as support vector machine (95.9%, deep learning based on multilayer auto-encoder (96.6% and adaptive boosting (96.1%. The proposed method is stable for objects processed from different angles.

  8. Multimodal eye recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  9. Spontaneous haemoperitoneum in pregnancy and endometriosis: a case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, M. van; Malik, R.F.; Waesberghe, J. van; Maas, J.W.; Rumpt-van de Geest, D.A. van; Coppus, S.F.P.J.; Berger, J.P.; Rijn, B.B. van; Janssen, P.F.; Boer, M.A. de; Vries, J.I.P. de; Jansen, F.W.; Brosens, I.A.; Lambalk, C.B.; Mijatovic, V.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report pregnancy outcomes of SHiP (spontaneous haemoperitoneum in pregnancy) and the association with endometriosis. DESIGN: Retrospective case note review. SETTING: Dutch referral hospitals for endometriosis. SAMPLE: Eleven women presenting with 15 events of SHiP. METHODS: In

  10. Spontaneous haemoperitoneum in pregnancy and endometriosis : a case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, McI; Malik, R F; van Waesberghe, Jhtm; Maas, J W; van Rumpt-van de Geest, D A; Coppus, S F; Berger, J P; van Rijn, B B; Janssen, P F; de Boer, M. A; de Vries, Jip; Jansen, F. W.; Brosens, I A; Lambalk, C B; Mijatovic, V

    OBJECTIVE: To report pregnancy outcomes of SHiP (spontaneous haemoperitoneum in pregnancy) and the association with endometriosis. DESIGN: Retrospective case note review. SETTING: Dutch referral hospitals for endometriosis. SAMPLE: Eleven women presenting with 15 events of SHiP. METHODS: In

  11. Spontaneous Pre-Labour Rupture of Membranes at Term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pre-labour rupture of membranes (SPROM) at term is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. It is an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, particularly because it is associated with a latency period from membrane rupture to delivery. OBJECTIVE: To compare the ...

  12. Spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, M.J.; Saez, J.; Perez-Paya, F.J.; Fernandez, F.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the role of CT in the etiologic diagnosis of spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. The CT findings are described in 13 patients presenting subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. Those patients in whom the bleeding was not spontaneous were excluded. Surgical confirmation was obtained in nine cases. In 11 of the 13 cases (84.6%), involving five adenocarcinomas, five angiomyolipoma, two complicated cysts and one case of panarterities nodosa, CT disclosed the underlying pathology. In two cases (15.4%), it only revealed the extension of the hematoma, but gave no clue to its origin. CT is the technique of choice when spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage is suspected since, in most cases, it reveals the underlying pathology. (Author)

  13. Antiplatelet Agents and the Prevention of Spontaneous Preterm Birth A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Elvira O. G.; Askie, Lisa A.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous preterm birth is an important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. An increasing body of evidence suggests that uteroplacental ischemia plays an important role in the etiology of spontaneous preterm birth. We aimed to study whether antiplatelet agents reduce the risk of

  14. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  15. Trusted Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  16. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  17. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Stefan; Kruse, Karsten [Department of Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Street 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  18. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  19. Invariant Face recognition Using Infrared Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, face recognition has become a rapidly growing research topic due to the increasing demands in many applications of our daily life such as airport surveillance, personal identification in law enforcement, surveillance systems, information safety, securing financial transactions, and computer security. The objective of this thesis is to develop a face recognition system capable of recognizing persons with a high recognition capability, low processing time, and under different illumination conditions, and different facial expressions. The thesis presents a study for the performance of the face recognition system using two techniques; the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and the Zernike Moments (ZM). The performance of the recognition system is evaluated according to several aspects including the recognition rate, and the processing time. Face recognition systems that use visual images are sensitive to variations in the lighting conditions and facial expressions. The performance of these systems may be degraded under poor illumination conditions or for subjects of various skin colors. Several solutions have been proposed to overcome these limitations. One of these solutions is to work in the Infrared (IR) spectrum. IR images have been suggested as an alternative source of information for detection and recognition of faces, when there is little or no control over lighting conditions. This arises from the fact that these images are formed due to thermal emissions from skin, which is an intrinsic property because these emissions depend on the distribution of blood vessels under the skin. On the other hand IR face recognition systems still have limitations with temperature variations and recognition of persons wearing eye glasses. In this thesis we will fuse IR images with visible images to enhance the performance of face recognition systems. Images are fused using the wavelet transform. Simulation results show that the fusion of visible and

  20. 48 CFR 31.101 - Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Objectives. 31.101 Section... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Applicability 31.101 Objectives. In recognition of... overall objective is to provide that, to the extent practicable, all organizations of similar types doing...