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Sample records for spontaneous object recognition

  1. Spontaneous object recognition: a promising approach to the comparative study of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eBlaser

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous recognition of a novel object is a popular measure of exploratory behavior, perception and recognition memory in rodent models. Because of its relative simplicity and speed of testing, the variety of stimuli that can be used, and its ecological validity across species, it is also an attractive task for comparative research. To date, variants of this test have been used with vertebrate and invertebrate species, but the methods have seldom been sufficiently standardized to allow cross-species comparison. Here, we review the methods necessary for the study of novel object recognition in mammalian and non-mammalian models, as well as the results of these experiments. Critical to the use of this test is an understanding of the organism’s initial response to a novel object, the modulation of exploration by context, and species differences in object perception and exploratory behaviors. We argue that with appropriate consideration of species differences in perception, object affordances, and natural exploratory behaviors, the spontaneous object recognition test can be a valid and versatile tool for translational research with non-mammalian models.

  2. Spontaneous Object Recognition Memory in Aged Rats: Complexity versus Similarity

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    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    Previous work on the effect of aging on spontaneous object recognition (SOR) memory tasks in rats has yielded controversial results. Although the results at long-retention intervals are consistent, conflicting results have been reported at shorter delays. We have assessed the potential relevance of the type of object used in the performance of…

  3. Involvement of hippocampal NMDA receptors in retrieval of spontaneous object recognition memory in rats.

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    Iwamura, Etsushi; Yamada, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2016-07-01

    The involvement of hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the retrieval process of spontaneous object recognition memory was investigated. The spontaneous object recognition test consisted of three phases. In the sample phase, rats were exposed to two identical objects several (2-5) times in the arena. After the sample phase, various lengths of delay intervals (24h-6 weeks) were inserted (delay phase). In the test phase in which both the familiar and the novel objects were placed in the arena, rats' novel object exploration behavior under the hippocampal treatment of NMDA receptor antagonist, AP5, or vehicle was observed. With 5 exposure sessions in the sample phase (experiment 1), AP5 treatment in the test phase significantly decreased discrimination ratio when the delay was 3 weeks but not when it was one week. On the other hand, with 2 exposure sessions in the sample phase (experiment 2) in which even vehicle-injected control animals could not discriminate the novel object from the familiar one with a 3 week delay, AP5 treatment significantly decreased discrimination ratio when the delay was one week, but not when it was 24h. Additional experiment (experiment 3) showed that the hippocampal treatment of an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist, NBQX, decreased discrimination ratio with all delay intervals tested (24h-3 weeks). Results suggest that hippocampal NMDA receptors play an important role in the retrieval of spontaneous object recognition memory especially when the memory trace weakens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Hippocampal NMDA receptors are involved in rats' spontaneous object recognition only under high memory load condition.

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    Sugita, Manami; Yamada, Kazuo; Iguchi, Natsumi; Ichitani, Yukio

    2015-10-22

    The possible involvement of hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in spontaneous object recognition was investigated in rats under different memory load conditions. We first estimated rats' object memory span using 3-5 objects in "Different Objects Task (DOT)" in order to confirm the highest memory load condition in object recognition memory. Rats were allowed to explore a field in which 3 (3-DOT), 4 (4-DOT), or 5 (5-DOT) different objects were presented. After a delay period, they were placed again in the same field in which one of the sample objects was replaced by another object, and their object exploration behavior was analyzed. Rats could differentiate the novel object from the familiar ones in 3-DOT and 4-DOT but not in 5-DOT, suggesting that rats' object memory span was about 4. Then, we examined the effects of hippocampal AP5 infusion on performance in both 2-DOT (2 different objects were used) and 4-DOT. The drug treatment before the sample phase impaired performance only in 4-DOT. These results suggest that hippocampal NMDA receptors play a critical role in spontaneous object recognition only when the memory load is high. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of age and divided attention on spontaneous recognition.

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    Anderson, Benjamin A; Jacoby, Larry L; Thomas, Ruthann C; Balota, David A

    2011-05-01

    Studies of recognition typically involve tests in which the participant's memory for a stimulus is directly questioned. There are occasions however, in which memory occurs more spontaneously (e.g., an acquaintance seeming familiar out of context). Spontaneous recognition was investigated in a novel paradigm involving study of pictures and words followed by recognition judgments on stimuli with an old or new word superimposed over an old or new picture. Participants were instructed to make their recognition decision on either the picture or word and to ignore the distracting stimulus. Spontaneous recognition was measured as the influence of old vs. new distracters on target recognition. Across two experiments, older adults and younger adults placed under divided-attention showed a greater tendency to spontaneously recognize old distracters as compared to full-attention younger adults. The occurrence of spontaneous recognition is discussed in relation to ability to constrain retrieval to goal-relevant information.

  6. Running Improves Pattern Separation during Novel Object Recognition.

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    Bolz, Leoni; Heigele, Stefanie; Bischofberger, Josef

    2015-10-09

    Running increases adult neurogenesis and improves pattern separation in various memory tasks including context fear conditioning or touch-screen based spatial learning. However, it is unknown whether pattern separation is improved in spontaneous behavior, not emotionally biased by positive or negative reinforcement. Here we investigated the effect of voluntary running on pattern separation during novel object recognition in mice using relatively similar or substantially different objects.We show that running increases hippocampal neurogenesis but does not affect object recognition memory with 1.5 h delay after sample phase. By contrast, at 24 h delay, running significantly improves recognition memory for similar objects, whereas highly different objects can be distinguished by both, running and sedentary mice. These data show that physical exercise improves pattern separation, independent of negative or positive reinforcement. In sedentary mice there is a pronounced temporal gradient for remembering object details. In running mice, however, increased neurogenesis improves hippocampal coding and temporally preserves distinction of novel objects from familiar ones.

  7. Associative recognition and the hippocampus: differential effects of hippocampal lesions on object-place, object-context and object-place-context memory.

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    Langston, Rosamund F; Wood, Emma R

    2010-10-01

    The hippocampus is thought to be required for the associative recognition of objects together with the spatial or temporal contexts in which they occur. However, recent data showing that rats with fornix lesions perform as well as controls in an object-place task, while being impaired on an object-place-context task (Eacott and Norman (2004) J Neurosci 24:1948-1953), suggest that not all forms of context-dependent associative recognition depend on the integrity of the hippocampus. To examine the role of the hippocampus in context-dependent recognition directly, the present study tested the effects of large, selective, bilateral hippocampus lesions in rats on performance of a series of spontaneous recognition memory tasks: object recognition, object-place recognition, object-context recognition and object-place-context recognition. Consistent with the effects of fornix lesions, animals with hippocampus lesions were impaired only on the object-place-context task. These data confirm that not all forms of context-dependent associative recognition are mediated by the hippocampus. Subsequent experiments suggested that the object-place task does not require an allocentric representation of space, which could account for the lack of impairment following hippocampus lesions. Importantly, as the object-place-context task has similar spatial requirements, the selective deficit in object-place-context recognition suggests that this task requires hippocampus-dependent neural processes distinct from those required for allocentric spatial memory, or for object memory, object-place memory or object-context memory. Two possibilities are that object, place, and context information converge only in the hippocampus, or that recognition of integrated object-place-context information requires a hippocampus-dependent mode of retrieval, such as recollection. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Object recognition memory: neurobiological mechanisms of encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

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    Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Tests of object recognition memory, or the judgment of the prior occurrence of an object, have made substantial contributions to our understanding of the nature and neurobiological underpinnings of mammalian memory. Only in recent years, however, have researchers begun to elucidate the specific brain areas and neural processes involved in object recognition memory. The present review considers some of this recent research, with an emphasis on studies addressing the neural bases of perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory processes. We first briefly discuss operational definitions of object recognition and the common behavioural tests used to measure it in non-human primates and rodents. We then consider research from the non-human primate and rat literature examining the anatomical basis of object recognition memory in the delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) and spontaneous object recognition (SOR) tasks, respectively. The results of these studies overwhelmingly favor the view that perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical region for object recognition memory. We then discuss the involvement of PRh in the different stages--encoding, consolidation, and retrieval--of object recognition memory. Specifically, recent work in rats has indicated that neural activity in PRh contributes to object memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes. Finally, we consider the pharmacological, cellular, and molecular factors that might play a part in PRh-mediated object recognition memory. Recent studies in rodents have begun to indicate the remarkable complexity of the neural substrates underlying this seemingly simple aspect of declarative memory.

  9. Transformation-tolerant object recognition in rats revealed by visual priming.

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    Tafazoli, Sina; Di Filippo, Alessandro; Zoccolan, Davide

    2012-01-04

    Successful use of rodents as models for studying object vision crucially depends on the ability of their visual system to construct representations of visual objects that tolerate (i.e., remain relatively unchanged with respect to) the tremendous changes in object appearance produced, for instance, by size and viewpoint variation. Whether this is the case is still controversial, despite some recent demonstration of transformation-tolerant object recognition in rats. In fact, it remains unknown to what extent such a tolerant recognition has a spontaneous, perceptual basis, or, alternatively, mainly reflects learning of arbitrary associative relations among trained object appearances. In this study, we addressed this question by training rats to categorize a continuum of morph objects resulting from blending two object prototypes. The resulting psychometric curve (reporting the proportion of responses to one prototype along the morph line) served as a reference when, in a second phase of the experiment, either prototype was briefly presented as a prime, immediately before a test morph object. The resulting shift of the psychometric curve showed that recognition became biased toward the identity of the prime. Critically, this bias was observed also when the primes were transformed along a variety of dimensions (i.e., size, position, viewpoint, and their combination) that the animals had never experienced before. These results indicate that rats spontaneously perceive different views/appearances of an object as similar (i.e., as instances of the same object) and argue for the existence of neuronal substrates underlying formation of transformation-tolerant object representations in rats.

  10. Selective attention meets spontaneous recognition memory: Evidence for effects at retrieval.

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    Moen, Katherine C; Miller, Jeremy K; Lloyd, Marianne E

    2017-03-01

    Previous research on the effects of Divided Attention on recognition memory have shown consistent impairments during encoding but more variable effects at retrieval. The present study explored whether effects of Selective Attention at retrieval and subsequent testing were parallel to those of Divided Attention. Participants studied a list of pictures and then had a recognition memory test that included both full attention and selective attention (the to be responded to object was overlaid atop a blue outlined object) trials. All participants then completed a second recognition memory test. The results of 2 experiments suggest that subsequent tests consistently show impacts of the status of the ignored stimulus, and that having an initial test changes performance on a later test. The results are discussed in relation to effect of attention on memory more generally as well as spontaneous recognition memory research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of nitric oxide in the object recognition memory.

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    Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2015-05-15

    The novel object recognition task (NORT) assesses recognition memory in animals. It is a non-rewarded paradigm that it is based on spontaneous exploratory behavior in rodents. This procedure is widely used for testing the effects of compounds on recognition memory. Recognition memory is a type of memory severely compromised in schizophrenic and Alzheimer's disease patients. Nitric oxide (NO) is sought to be an intra- and inter-cellular messenger in the central nervous system and its implication in learning and memory is well documented. Here I intended to critically review the role of NO-related compounds on different aspects of recognition memory. Current analysis shows that both NO donors and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors are involved in object recognition memory and suggests that NO might be a promising target for cognition impairments. However, the potential neurotoxicity of NO would add a note of caution in this context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Involvement of hippocampal NMDA receptors in encoding and consolidation, but not retrieval, processes of spontaneous object location memory in rats.

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    Yamada, Kazuo; Arai, Misaki; Suenaga, Toshiko; Ichitani, Yukio

    2017-07-28

    The hippocampus is thought to be involved in object location recognition memory, yet the contribution of hippocampal NMDA receptors to the memory processes, such as encoding, retention and retrieval, is unknown. First, we confirmed that hippocampal infusion of a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, AP5 (2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, 20-40nmol), impaired performance of spontaneous object location recognition test but not that of novel object recognition test in Wistar rats. Next, the effects of hippocampal AP5 treatment on each process of object location recognition memory were examined with three different injection times using a 120min delay-interposed test: 15min before the sample phase (Time I), immediately after the sample phase (Time II), and 15min before the test phase (Time III). The blockade of hippocampal NMDA receptors before and immediately after the sample phase, but not before the test phase, markedly impaired performance of object location recognition test, suggesting that hippocampal NMDA receptors play an important role in encoding and consolidation/retention, but not retrieval, of spontaneous object location memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enriched environment effects on remote object recognition memory.

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    Melani, Riccardo; Chelini, Gabriele; Cenni, Maria Cristina; Berardi, Nicoletta

    2017-06-03

    Since Ebbinghaus' classical work on oblivion and saving effects, we know that declarative memories may become at first spontaneously irretrievable and only subsequently completely extinguished. Recently, this time-dependent path toward memory-trace loss has been shown to correlate with different patterns of brain activation. Environmental enrichment (EE) enhances learning and memory and affects system memory consolidation. However, there is no evidence on whether and how EE could affect the time-dependent path toward oblivion. We used Object Recognition Test (ORT) to assess in adult mice put in EE for 40days (EE mice) or left in standard condition (SC mice) memory retrieval of the familiar objects 9 and 21days after learning with or without a brief retraining performed the day before. We found that SC mice show preferential exploration of new object at day 9 only with retraining, while EE mice do it even without. At day 21 SC mice do not show preferential exploration of novel object, irrespective of the retraining, while EE mice are still capable to benefit from retraining, even if they were not able to spontaneously recover the trace. Analysis of c-fos expression 20days after learning shows a different pattern of active brain areas in response to the retraining session in EE and SC mice, with SC mice recruiting the same brain network as naïve SC or EE mice following de novo learning. This suggests that EE promotes formation of longer lasting object recognition memory, allowing a longer time window during which saving is present. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Crossmodal object recognition in rats with and without multimodal object pre-exposure: no effect of hippocampal lesions.

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    Reid, James M; Jacklin, Derek L; Winters, Boyer D

    2012-10-01

    The neural mechanisms and brain circuitry involved in the formation, storage, and utilization of multisensory object representations are poorly understood. We have recently introduced a crossmodal object recognition (CMOR) task that enables the study of such questions in rats. Our previous research has indicated that the perirhinal and posterior parietal cortices functionally interact to mediate spontaneous (tactile-to-visual) CMOR performance in rats; however, it remains to be seen whether other brain regions, particularly those receiving polymodal sensory inputs, contribute to this cognitive function. In the current study, we assessed the potential contribution of one such polymodal region, the hippocampus (HPC), to crossmodal object recognition memory. Rats with bilateral excitotoxic HPC lesions were tested in two versions of crossmodal object recognition: (1) the original CMOR task, which requires rats to compare between a stored tactile object representation and visually-presented objects to discriminate the novel and familiar stimuli; and (2) a novel 'multimodal pre-exposure' version of the CMOR task (PE/CMOR), in which simultaneous exploration of the tactile and visual sensory features of an object 24 h prior to the sample phase enhances CMOR performance across longer retention delays. Hippocampus-lesioned rats performed normally on both crossmodal object recognition tasks, but were impaired on a radial arm maze test of spatial memory, demonstrating the functional effectiveness of the lesions. These results strongly suggest that the HPC, despite its polymodal anatomical connections, is not critically involved in tactile-to-visual crossmodal object recognition memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Paradigms in object recognition

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    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  16. Utterance independent bimodal emotion recognition in spontaneous communication

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    Tao, Jianhua; Pan, Shifeng; Yang, Minghao; Li, Ya; Mu, Kaihui; Che, Jianfeng

    2011-12-01

    Emotion expressions sometimes are mixed with the utterance expression in spontaneous face-to-face communication, which makes difficulties for emotion recognition. This article introduces the methods of reducing the utterance influences in visual parameters for the audio-visual-based emotion recognition. The audio and visual channels are first combined under a Multistream Hidden Markov Model (MHMM). Then, the utterance reduction is finished by finding the residual between the real visual parameters and the outputs of the utterance related visual parameters. This article introduces the Fused Hidden Markov Model Inversion method which is trained in the neutral expressed audio-visual corpus to solve the problem. To reduce the computing complexity the inversion model is further simplified to a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) mapping. Compared with traditional bimodal emotion recognition methods (e.g., SVM, CART, Boosting), the utterance reduction method can give better results of emotion recognition. The experiments also show the effectiveness of our emotion recognition system when it was used in a live environment.

  17. Cognitive object recognition system (CORS)

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    Raju, Chaitanya; Varadarajan, Karthik Mahesh; Krishnamurthi, Niyant; Xu, Shuli; Biederman, Irving; Kelley, Troy

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a framework, Cognitive Object Recognition System (CORS), inspired by current neurocomputational models and psychophysical research in which multiple recognition algorithms (shape based geometric primitives, 'geons,' and non-geometric feature-based algorithms) are integrated to provide a comprehensive solution to object recognition and landmarking. Objects are defined as a combination of geons, corresponding to their simple parts, and the relations among the parts. However, those objects that are not easily decomposable into geons, such as bushes and trees, are recognized by CORS using "feature-based" algorithms. The unique interaction between these algorithms is a novel approach that combines the effectiveness of both algorithms and takes us closer to a generalized approach to object recognition. CORS allows recognition of objects through a larger range of poses using geometric primitives and performs well under heavy occlusion - about 35% of object surface is sufficient. Furthermore, geon composition of an object allows image understanding and reasoning even with novel objects. With reliable landmarking capability, the system improves vision-based robot navigation in GPS-denied environments. Feasibility of the CORS system was demonstrated with real stereo images captured from a Pioneer robot. The system can currently identify doors, door handles, staircases, trashcans and other relevant landmarks in the indoor environment.

  18. A new selective developmental deficit: Impaired object recognition with normal face recognition.

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    Germine, Laura; Cashdollar, Nathan; Düzel, Emrah; Duchaine, Bradley

    2011-05-01

    Studies of developmental deficits in face recognition, or developmental prosopagnosia, have shown that individuals who have not suffered brain damage can show face recognition impairments coupled with normal object recognition (Duchaine and Nakayama, 2005; Duchaine et al., 2006; Nunn et al., 2001). However, no developmental cases with the opposite dissociation - normal face recognition with impaired object recognition - have been reported. The existence of a case of non-face developmental visual agnosia would indicate that the development of normal face recognition mechanisms does not rely on the development of normal object recognition mechanisms. To see whether a developmental variant of non-face visual object agnosia exists, we conducted a series of web-based object and face recognition tests to screen for individuals showing object recognition memory impairments but not face recognition impairments. Through this screening process, we identified AW, an otherwise normal 19-year-old female, who was then tested in the lab on face and object recognition tests. AW's performance was impaired in within-class visual recognition memory across six different visual categories (guns, horses, scenes, tools, doors, and cars). In contrast, she scored normally on seven tests of face recognition, tests of memory for two other object categories (houses and glasses), and tests of recall memory for visual shapes. Testing confirmed that her impairment was not related to a general deficit in lower-level perception, object perception, basic-level recognition, or memory. AW's results provide the first neuropsychological evidence that recognition memory for non-face visual object categories can be selectively impaired in individuals without brain damage or other memory impairment. These results indicate that the development of recognition memory for faces does not depend on intact object recognition memory and provide further evidence for category-specific dissociations in visual

  19. Object recognition memory in zebrafish.

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    May, Zacnicte; Morrill, Adam; Holcombe, Adam; Johnston, Travis; Gallup, Joshua; Fouad, Karim; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor James

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition, or novel-object preference (NOP) test is employed to assess recognition memory in a variety of organisms. The subject is exposed to two identical objects, then after a delay, it is placed back in the original environment containing one of the original objects and a novel object. If the subject spends more time exploring one object, this can be interpreted as memory retention. To date, this test has not been fully explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish possess recognition memory for simple 2- and 3-dimensional geometrical shapes, yet it is unknown if this translates to complex 3-dimensional objects. In this study we evaluated recognition memory in zebrafish using complex objects of different sizes. Contrary to rodents, zebrafish preferentially explored familiar over novel objects. Familiarity preference disappeared after delays of 5 mins. Leopard danios, another strain of D. rerio, also preferred the familiar object after a 1 min delay. Object preference could be re-established in zebra danios by administration of nicotine tartrate salt (50mg/L) prior to stimuli presentation, suggesting a memory-enhancing effect of nicotine. Additionally, exploration biases were present only when the objects were of intermediate size (2 × 5 cm). Our results demonstrate zebra and leopard danios have recognition memory, and that low nicotine doses can improve this memory type in zebra danios. However, exploration biases, from which memory is inferred, depend on object size. These findings suggest zebrafish ecology might influence object preference, as zebrafish neophobia could reflect natural anti-predatory behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Object feature extraction and recognition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Min; Xiang Rujian; Wan Yongxing

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of objects, especially flying objects, are analyzed, which include characteristics of spectrum, image and motion. Feature extraction is also achieved. To improve the speed of object recognition, a feature database is used to simplify the data in the source database. The feature vs. object relationship maps are stored in the feature database. An object recognition model based on the feature database is presented, and the way to achieve object recognition is also explained

  1. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  2. Development of novel tasks for studying view-invariant object recognition in rodents: Sensitivity to scopolamine.

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    Mitchnick, Krista A; Wideman, Cassidy E; Huff, Andrew E; Palmer, Daniel; McNaughton, Bruce L; Winters, Boyer D

    2018-05-15

    The capacity to recognize objects from different view-points or angles, referred to as view-invariance, is an essential process that humans engage in daily. Currently, the ability to investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of this phenomenon is limited, as few ethologically valid view-invariant object recognition tasks exist for rodents. Here, we report two complementary, novel view-invariant object recognition tasks in which rodents physically interact with three-dimensional objects. Prior to experimentation, rats and mice were given extensive experience with a set of 'pre-exposure' objects. In a variant of the spontaneous object recognition task, novelty preference for pre-exposed or new objects was assessed at various angles of rotation (45°, 90° or 180°); unlike control rodents, for whom the objects were novel, rats and mice tested with pre-exposed objects did not discriminate between rotated and un-rotated objects in the choice phase, indicating substantial view-invariant object recognition. Secondly, using automated operant touchscreen chambers, rats were tested on pre-exposed or novel objects in a pairwise discrimination task, where the rewarded stimulus (S+) was rotated (180°) once rats had reached acquisition criterion; rats tested with pre-exposed objects re-acquired the pairwise discrimination following S+ rotation more effectively than those tested with new objects. Systemic scopolamine impaired performance on both tasks, suggesting involvement of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors in view-invariant object processing. These tasks present novel means of studying the behavioral and neural bases of view-invariant object recognition in rodents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Infant visual attention and object recognition.

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    Reynolds, Greg D

    2015-05-15

    This paper explores the role visual attention plays in the recognition of objects in infancy. Research and theory on the development of infant attention and recognition memory are reviewed in three major sections. The first section reviews some of the major findings and theory emerging from a rich tradition of behavioral research utilizing preferential looking tasks to examine visual attention and recognition memory in infancy. The second section examines research utilizing neural measures of attention and object recognition in infancy as well as research on brain-behavior relations in the early development of attention and recognition memory. The third section addresses potential areas of the brain involved in infant object recognition and visual attention. An integrated synthesis of some of the existing models of the development of visual attention is presented which may account for the observed changes in behavioral and neural measures of visual attention and object recognition that occur across infancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neural-Network Object-Recognition Program

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    Spirkovska, L.; Reid, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    HONTIOR computer program implements third-order neural network exhibiting invariance under translation, change of scale, and in-plane rotation. Invariance incorporated directly into architecture of network. Only one view of each object needed to train network for two-dimensional-translation-invariant recognition of object. Also used for three-dimensional-transformation-invariant recognition by training network on only set of out-of-plane rotated views. Written in C language.

  5. Eye movements during object recognition in visual agnosia.

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    Charles Leek, E; Patterson, Candy; Paul, Matthew A; Rafal, Robert; Cristino, Filipe

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports the first ever detailed study about eye movement patterns during single object recognition in visual agnosia. Eye movements were recorded in a patient with an integrative agnosic deficit during two recognition tasks: common object naming and novel object recognition memory. The patient showed normal directional biases in saccades and fixation dwell times in both tasks and was as likely as controls to fixate within object bounding contour regardless of recognition accuracy. In contrast, following initial saccades of similar amplitude to controls, the patient showed a bias for short saccades. In object naming, but not in recognition memory, the similarity of the spatial distributions of patient and control fixations was modulated by recognition accuracy. The study provides new evidence about how eye movements can be used to elucidate the functional impairments underlying object recognition deficits. We argue that the results reflect a breakdown in normal functional processes involved in the integration of shape information across object structure during the visual perception of shape. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Specific acoustic models for spontaneous and dictated style in indonesian speech recognition

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    Vista, C. B.; Satriawan, C. H.; Lestari, D. P.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    The performance of an automatic speech recognition system is affected by differences in speech style between the data the model is originally trained upon and incoming speech to be recognized. In this paper, the usage of GMM-HMM acoustic models for specific speech styles is investigated. We develop two systems for the experiments; the first employs a speech style classifier to predict the speech style of incoming speech, either spontaneous or dictated, then decodes this speech using an acoustic model specifically trained for that speech style. The second system uses both acoustic models to recognise incoming speech and decides upon a final result by calculating a confidence score of decoding. Results show that training specific acoustic models for spontaneous and dictated speech styles confers a slight recognition advantage as compared to a baseline model trained on a mixture of spontaneous and dictated training data. In addition, the speech style classifier approach of the first system produced slightly more accurate results than the confidence scoring employed in the second system.

  7. Integration trumps selection in object recognition

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    Saarela, Toni P.; Landy, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Finding and recognizing objects is a fundamental task of vision. Objects can be defined by several “cues” (color, luminance, texture etc.), and humans can integrate sensory cues to improve detection and recognition [1–3]. Cortical mechanisms fuse information from multiple cues [4], and shape-selective neural mechanisms can display cue-invariance by responding to a given shape independent of the visual cue defining it [5–8]. Selective attention, in contrast, improves recognition by isolating a subset of the visual information [9]. Humans can select single features (red or vertical) within a perceptual dimension (color or orientation), giving faster and more accurate responses to items having the attended feature [10,11]. Attention elevates neural responses and sharpens neural tuning to the attended feature, as shown by studies in psychophysics and modeling [11,12], imaging [13–16], and single-cell and neural population recordings [17,18]. Besides single features, attention can select whole objects [19–21]. Objects are among the suggested “units” of attention because attention to a single feature of an object causes the selection of all of its features [19–21]. Here, we pit integration against attentional selection in object recognition. We find, first, that humans can integrate information near-optimally from several perceptual dimensions (color, texture, luminance) to improve recognition. They cannot, however, isolate a single dimension even when the other dimensions provide task-irrelevant, potentially conflicting information. For object recognition, it appears that there is mandatory integration of information from multiple dimensions of visual experience. The advantage afforded by this integration, however, comes at the expense of attentional selection. PMID:25802154

  8. Integration trumps selection in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Toni P; Landy, Michael S

    2015-03-30

    Finding and recognizing objects is a fundamental task of vision. Objects can be defined by several "cues" (color, luminance, texture, etc.), and humans can integrate sensory cues to improve detection and recognition [1-3]. Cortical mechanisms fuse information from multiple cues [4], and shape-selective neural mechanisms can display cue invariance by responding to a given shape independent of the visual cue defining it [5-8]. Selective attention, in contrast, improves recognition by isolating a subset of the visual information [9]. Humans can select single features (red or vertical) within a perceptual dimension (color or orientation), giving faster and more accurate responses to items having the attended feature [10, 11]. Attention elevates neural responses and sharpens neural tuning to the attended feature, as shown by studies in psychophysics and modeling [11, 12], imaging [13-16], and single-cell and neural population recordings [17, 18]. Besides single features, attention can select whole objects [19-21]. Objects are among the suggested "units" of attention because attention to a single feature of an object causes the selection of all of its features [19-21]. Here, we pit integration against attentional selection in object recognition. We find, first, that humans can integrate information near optimally from several perceptual dimensions (color, texture, luminance) to improve recognition. They cannot, however, isolate a single dimension even when the other dimensions provide task-irrelevant, potentially conflicting information. For object recognition, it appears that there is mandatory integration of information from multiple dimensions of visual experience. The advantage afforded by this integration, however, comes at the expense of attentional selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hippocampal histone acetylation regulates object recognition and the estradiol-induced enhancement of object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zaorui; Fan, Lu; Fortress, Ashley M; Boulware, Marissa I; Frick, Karyn M

    2012-02-15

    Histone acetylation has recently been implicated in learning and memory processes, yet necessity of histone acetylation for such processes has not been demonstrated using pharmacological inhibitors of histone acetyltransferases (HATs). As such, the present study tested whether garcinol, a potent HAT inhibitor in vitro, could impair hippocampal memory consolidation and block the memory-enhancing effects of the modulatory hormone 17β-estradiol E2. We first showed that bilateral infusion of garcinol (0.1, 1, or 10 μg/side) into the dorsal hippocampus (DH) immediately after training impaired object recognition memory consolidation in ovariectomized female mice. A behaviorally effective dose of garcinol (10 μg/side) also significantly decreased DH HAT activity. We next examined whether DH infusion of a behaviorally subeffective dose of garcinol (1 ng/side) could block the effects of DH E2 infusion on object recognition and epigenetic processes. Immediately after training, ovariectomized female mice received bilateral DH infusions of vehicle, E2 (5 μg/side), garcinol (1 ng/side), or E2 plus garcinol. Forty-eight hours later, garcinol blocked the memory-enhancing effects of E2. Garcinol also reversed the E2-induced increase in DH histone H3 acetylation, HAT activity, and levels of the de novo methyltransferase DNMT3B, as well as the E2-induced decrease in levels of the memory repressor protein histone deacetylase 2. Collectively, these findings suggest that histone acetylation is critical for object recognition memory consolidation and the beneficial effects of E2 on object recognition. Importantly, this work demonstrates that the role of histone acetylation in memory processes can be studied using a HAT inhibitor.

  10. Active exploration and keypoint clustering for object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, G.W.; Ypma, J; de Boer, B.

    2008-01-01

    Object recognition is a challenging problem for artificial systems. This is especially true for objects that are placed in cluttered and uncontrolled environments. To challenge this problem, we discuss an active approach to object recognition. Instead of passively observing objects, we use a robot

  11. General object recognition is specific: Evidence from novel and familiar objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J; Wilmer, Jeremy B; Gauthier, Isabel

    2017-09-01

    In tests of object recognition, individual differences typically correlate modestly but nontrivially across familiar categories (e.g. cars, faces, shoes, birds, mushrooms). In theory, these correlations could reflect either global, non-specific mechanisms, such as general intelligence (IQ), or more specific mechanisms. Here, we introduce two separate methods for effectively capturing category-general performance variation, one that uses novel objects and one that uses familiar objects. In each case, we show that category-general performance variance is unrelated to IQ, thereby implicating more specific mechanisms. The first approach examines three newly developed novel object memory tests (NOMTs). We predicted that NOMTs would exhibit more shared, category-general variance than familiar object memory tests (FOMTs) because novel objects, unlike familiar objects, lack category-specific environmental influences (e.g. exposure to car magazines or botany classes). This prediction held, and remarkably, virtually none of the substantial shared variance among NOMTs was explained by IQ. Also, while NOMTs correlated nontrivially with two FOMTs (faces, cars), these correlations were smaller than among NOMTs and no larger than between the face and car tests themselves, suggesting that the category-general variance captured by NOMTs is specific not only relative to IQ, but also, to some degree, relative to both face and car recognition. The second approach averaged performance across multiple FOMTs, which we predicted would increase category-general variance by averaging out category-specific factors. This prediction held, and as with NOMTs, virtually none of the shared variance among FOMTs was explained by IQ. Overall, these results support the existence of object recognition mechanisms that, though category-general, are specific relative to IQ and substantially separable from face and car recognition. They also add sensitive, well-normed NOMTs to the tools available to study

  12. The Role of Perceptual Load in Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Nilli; Lin, Zhicheng; Zokaei, Nahid; Thoma, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Predictions from perceptual load theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) regarding object recognition across the same or different viewpoints were tested. Results showed that high perceptual load reduces distracter recognition levels despite always presenting distracter objects from the same view. They also showed that the levels of distracter recognition were…

  13. Fast neuromimetic object recognition using FPGA outperforms GPU implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Garrick; Martin, Jacob G; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph

    2013-08-01

    Recognition of objects in still images has traditionally been regarded as a difficult computational problem. Although modern automated methods for visual object recognition have achieved steadily increasing recognition accuracy, even the most advanced computational vision approaches are unable to obtain performance equal to that of humans. This has led to the creation of many biologically inspired models of visual object recognition, among them the hierarchical model and X (HMAX) model. HMAX is traditionally known to achieve high accuracy in visual object recognition tasks at the expense of significant computational complexity. Increasing complexity, in turn, increases computation time, reducing the number of images that can be processed per unit time. In this paper we describe how the computationally intensive and biologically inspired HMAX model for visual object recognition can be modified for implementation on a commercial field-programmable aate Array, specifically the Xilinx Virtex 6 ML605 evaluation board with XC6VLX240T FPGA. We show that with minor modifications to the traditional HMAX model we can perform recognition on images of size 128 × 128 pixels at a rate of 190 images per second with a less than 1% loss in recognition accuracy in both binary and multiclass visual object recognition tasks.

  14. One-trial object recognition memory in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is disrupted by NMDA receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kurt Leroy; Basurto, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    The spontaneous response to novelty is the basis of one-trial object recognition tests for the study of object recognition memory (ORM) in rodents. We describe an object recognition task for the rabbit, based on its natural tendency to scent-mark ("chin") novel objects. The object recognition task comprised a 15min sample phase in which the rabbit was placed into an open field arena containing two similar objects, then removed for a 5-360min delay, and then returned to the same arena that contained one object similar to the original ones ("Familiar") and one that differed from the original ones ("Novel"), for a 15min test phase. Chin-marks directed at each of the objects were registered. Some animals received injections (sc) of saline, ketamine (1mg/kg), or MK-801 (37μg/kg), 5 or 20min before the sample phase. We found that chinning decreased across the sample phase, and that this response showed stimulus specificity, a defining characteristic of habituation: in the test phase, chinning directed at the Novel, but not Familiar, object was increased. Chinning directed preferentially at the novel object, which we interpret as novelty-induced sensitization and the behavioral correlate of ORM, was promoted by tactile/visual and spatial novelty. ORM deficits were induced by pre-treatment with MK-801 and, to a lesser extent, ketamine. Novel object discrimination was not observed after delays longer than 5min. These results suggest that short-term habituation and sensitization, not long-term memory, underlie novel object discrimination in this test paradigm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Object Recognition and Localization: The Role of Tactile Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achint Aggarwal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tactile sensors, because of their intrinsic insensitivity to lighting conditions and water turbidity, provide promising opportunities for augmenting the capabilities of vision sensors in applications involving object recognition and localization. This paper presents two approaches for haptic object recognition and localization for ground and underwater environments. The first approach called Batch Ransac and Iterative Closest Point augmented Particle Filter (BRICPPF is based on an innovative combination of particle filters, Iterative-Closest-Point algorithm, and a feature-based Random Sampling and Consensus (RANSAC algorithm for database matching. It can handle a large database of 3D-objects of complex shapes and performs a complete six-degree-of-freedom localization of static objects. The algorithms are validated by experimentation in ground and underwater environments using real hardware. To our knowledge this is the first instance of haptic object recognition and localization in underwater environments. The second approach is biologically inspired, and provides a close integration between exploration and recognition. An edge following exploration strategy is developed that receives feedback from the current state of recognition. A recognition by parts approach is developed which uses the BRICPPF for object sub-part recognition. Object exploration is either directed to explore a part until it is successfully recognized, or is directed towards new parts to endorse the current recognition belief. This approach is validated by simulation experiments.

  16. Color descriptors for object category recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects. A common approach is to compute image descriptors first and then to apply machine learning to achieve category recognition from annotated examples. As a consequence, the choice of image descriptors is of great

  17. Use of the recognition heuristic depends on the domain's recognition validity, not on the recognition validity of selected sets of objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Rüdiger F; Michalkiewicz, Martha; Erdfelder, Edgar; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2017-07-01

    According to the recognition-heuristic theory, decision makers solve paired comparisons in which one object is recognized and the other not by recognition alone, inferring that recognized objects have higher criterion values than unrecognized ones. However, success-and thus usefulness-of this heuristic depends on the validity of recognition as a cue, and adaptive decision making, in turn, requires that decision makers are sensitive to it. To this end, decision makers could base their evaluation of the recognition validity either on the selected set of objects (the set's recognition validity), or on the underlying domain from which the objects were drawn (the domain's recognition validity). In two experiments, we manipulated the recognition validity both in the selected set of objects and between domains from which the sets were drawn. The results clearly show that use of the recognition heuristic depends on the domain's recognition validity, not on the set's recognition validity. In other words, participants treat all sets as roughly representative of the underlying domain and adjust their decision strategy adaptively (only) with respect to the more general environment rather than the specific items they are faced with.

  18. Very deep recurrent convolutional neural network for object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahimi, Sourour; Ben Aoun, Najib; Ben Amar, Chokri

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, Computer vision has become a very active field. This field includes methods for processing, analyzing, and understanding images. The most challenging problems in computer vision are image classification and object recognition. This paper presents a new approach for object recognition task. This approach exploits the success of the Very Deep Convolutional Neural Network for object recognition. In fact, it improves the convolutional layers by adding recurrent connections. This proposed approach was evaluated on two object recognition benchmarks: Pascal VOC 2007 and CIFAR-10. The experimental results prove the efficiency of our method in comparison with the state of the art methods.

  19. Object recognition in images by human vision and computer vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Q.; Dijkstra, J.; Vries, de B.

    2010-01-01

    Object recognition plays a major role in human behaviour research in the built environment. Computer based object recognition techniques using images as input are challenging, but not an adequate representation of human vision. This paper reports on the differences in object shape recognition

  20. Representing Objects using Global 3D Relational Features for Recognition Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Wail

    2015-01-01

    representations. For representing objects, we derive global descriptors encoding shape using viewpoint-invariant features obtained from multiple sensors observing the scene. Objects are also described using color independently. This allows for combining color and shape when it is required for the task. For more...... robust color description, color calibration is performed. The framework was used in three recognition tasks: object instance recognition, object category recognition, and object spatial relationship recognition. For the object instance recognition task, we present a system that utilizes color and scale...

  1. Movement recognition technology as a method of assessing spontaneous general movements in high risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMarcroft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of neurological and motor impairments such as cerebral palsy. The risks are highest in those born at the lowest gestations. Early identification of those most at risk is challenging meaning that a critical window of opportunity to improve outcomes through therapy-based interventions may be missed. Clinically, the assessment of spontaneous general movements is an important tool which can be used for the prediction of movement impairments in high risk infants.Movement recognition aims to capture and analyze relevant limb movements through computerized approaches focusing on continuous, objective, and quantitative assessment. Different methods of recording and analyzing infant movements have recently been explored in high risk infants. These range from camera-based solutions to body-worn miniaturized movement sensors used to record continuous time-series data that represent the dynamics of limb movements. Various machine learning methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the recorded movement data. This analysis has focused on the detection and classification of atypical spontaneous general movements. This paper aims to identify recent translational studies using movement recognition technology as a method of assessing movement in high risk infants. The application of this technology within pediatric practice represents a growing area of inter-disciplinary collaboration which may lead to a greater understanding of the development of the nervous system in infants at high risk of motor impairment.

  2. Utilization-based object recognition in confined spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Telagamsetti, Durga; Chan, Alex L.

    2017-05-01

    Recognizing substantially occluded objects in confined spaces is a very challenging problem for ground-based persistent surveillance systems. In this paper, we discuss the ontology inference of occluded object recognition in the context of in-vehicle group activities (IVGA) and describe an approach that we refer to as utilization-based object recognition method. We examine the performance of three types of classifiers tailored for the recognition of objects with partial visibility, namely, (1) Hausdorff Distance classifier, (2) Hamming Network classifier, and (3) Recurrent Neural Network classifier. In order to train these classifiers, we have generated multiple imagery datasets containing a mixture of common objects appearing inside a vehicle with full or partial visibility and occultation. To generate dynamic interactions between multiple people, we model the IVGA scenarios using a virtual simulation environment, in which a number of simulated actors perform a variety of IVGA tasks independently or jointly. This virtual simulation engine produces the much needed imagery datasets for the verification and validation of the efficiency and effectiveness of the selected object recognizers. Finally, we improve the performance of these object recognizers by incorporating human gestural information that differentiates various object utilization or handling methods through the analyses of dynamic human-object interactions (HOI), human-human interactions (HHI), and human-vehicle interactions (HVI) in the context of IVGA.

  3. Object recognition with hierarchical discriminant saliency networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sunhyoung; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of integrating attention and object recognition are investigated. While attention is frequently modeled as a pre-processor for recognition, we investigate the hypothesis that attention is an intrinsic component of recognition and vice-versa. This hypothesis is tested with a recognition model, the hierarchical discriminant saliency network (HDSN), whose layers are top-down saliency detectors, tuned for a visual class according to the principles of discriminant saliency. As a model of neural computation, the HDSN has two possible implementations. In a biologically plausible implementation, all layers comply with the standard neurophysiological model of visual cortex, with sub-layers of simple and complex units that implement a combination of filtering, divisive normalization, pooling, and non-linearities. In a convolutional neural network implementation, all layers are convolutional and implement a combination of filtering, rectification, and pooling. The rectification is performed with a parametric extension of the now popular rectified linear units (ReLUs), whose parameters can be tuned for the detection of target object classes. This enables a number of functional enhancements over neural network models that lack a connection to saliency, including optimal feature denoising mechanisms for recognition, modulation of saliency responses by the discriminant power of the underlying features, and the ability to detect both feature presence and absence. In either implementation, each layer has a precise statistical interpretation, and all parameters are tuned by statistical learning. Each saliency detection layer learns more discriminant saliency templates than its predecessors and higher layers have larger pooling fields. This enables the HDSN to simultaneously achieve high selectivity to target object classes and invariance. The performance of the network in saliency and object recognition tasks is compared to those of models from the biological and

  4. Model-based recognition of 3-D objects by geometric hashing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severcan, M.; Uzunalioglu, H.

    1992-09-01

    A model-based object recognition system is developed for recognition of polyhedral objects. The system consists of feature extraction, modelling and matching stages. Linear features are used for object descriptions. Lines are obtained from edges using rotation transform. For modelling and recognition process, geometric hashing method is utilized. Each object is modelled using 2-D views taken from the viewpoints on the viewing sphere. A hidden line elimination algorithm is used to find these views from the wire frame model of the objects. The recognition experiments yielded satisfactory results. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  5. Experience moderates overlap between object and face recognition, suggesting a common ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Isabel; McGugin, Rankin W; Richler, Jennifer J; Herzmann, Grit; Speegle, Magen; Van Gulick, Ana E

    2014-07-03

    Some research finds that face recognition is largely independent from the recognition of other objects; a specialized and innate ability to recognize faces could therefore have little or nothing to do with our ability to recognize objects. We propose a new framework in which recognition performance for any category is the product of domain-general ability and category-specific experience. In Experiment 1, we show that the overlap between face and object recognition depends on experience with objects. In 256 subjects we measured face recognition, object recognition for eight categories, and self-reported experience with these categories. Experience predicted neither face recognition nor object recognition but moderated their relationship: Face recognition performance is increasingly similar to object recognition performance with increasing object experience. If a subject has a lot of experience with objects and is found to perform poorly, they also prove to have a low ability with faces. In a follow-up survey, we explored the dimensions of experience with objects that may have contributed to self-reported experience in Experiment 1. Different dimensions of experience appear to be more salient for different categories, with general self-reports of expertise reflecting judgments of verbal knowledge about a category more than judgments of visual performance. The complexity of experience and current limitations in its measurement support the importance of aggregating across multiple categories. Our findings imply that both face and object recognition are supported by a common, domain-general ability expressed through experience with a category and best measured when accounting for experience. © 2014 ARVO.

  6. Object Recognition Memory and the Rodent Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Nicola J.; Gaskin, Stephane; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    In rodents, the novel object recognition task (NOR) has become a benchmark task for assessing recognition memory. Yet, despite its widespread use, a consensus has not developed about which brain structures are important for task performance. We assessed both the anterograde and retrograde effects of hippocampal lesions on performance in the NOR…

  7. Sensor agnostic object recognition using a map seeking circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Timothy L.; Hart, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Automatic object recognition capabilities are traditionally tuned to exploit the specific sensing modality they were designed to. Their successes (and shortcomings) are tied to object segmentation from the background, they typically require highly skilled personnel to train them, and they become cumbersome with the introduction of new objects. In this paper we describe a sensor independent algorithm based on the biologically inspired technology of map seeking circuits (MSC) which overcomes many of these obstacles. In particular, the MSC concept offers transparency in object recognition from a common interface to all sensor types, analogous to a USB device. It also provides a common core framework that is independent of the sensor and expandable to support high dimensionality decision spaces. Ease in training is assured by using commercially available 3D models from the video game community. The search time remains linear no matter how many objects are introduced, ensuring rapid object recognition. Here, we report results of an MSC algorithm applied to object recognition and pose estimation from high range resolution radar (1D), electrooptical imagery (2D), and LIDAR point clouds (3D) separately. By abstracting the sensor phenomenology from the underlying a prior knowledge base, MSC shows promise as an easily adaptable tool for incorporating additional sensor inputs.

  8. Real object recognition using moment invariants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are taken from different angles of view are the main features leading us to our objective. ... Two-dimensional moments of a digitally sampled M × M image that has gray function f (x, y), (x, .... in this paper. Information about the original colours of the objects is not used. .... multi-dimensional changes and recognition. Table 1.

  9. Possibility of object recognition using Altera's model based design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tickle, A J; Harvey, P K; Smith, J S; Wu, F

    2009-01-01

    Object recognition is an image processing task of finding a given object in a selected image or video sequence. Object recognition can be divided into two areas: one of these is decision-theoretic and deals with patterns described by quantitative descriptors, for example such as length, area, shape and texture. With this Graphical User Interface Circuitry (GUIC) methodology employed here being relatively new for object recognition systems, the aim of this work is to identify if the developed circuitry can detect certain shapes or strings within the target image. A much smaller reference image feeds the preset data for identification, tests are conducted for both binary and greyscale and the additional mathematical morphology to highlight the area within the target image with the object(s) are located is also presented. This then provides proof that basic recognition methods are valid and would allow the progression to developing decision-theoretical and learning based approaches using GUICs for use in multidisciplinary tasks.

  10. Three-dimensional object recognition using similar triangles and decision trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly

    1993-01-01

    A system, TRIDEC, that is capable of distinguishing between a set of objects despite changes in the objects' positions in the input field, their size, or their rotational orientation in 3D space is described. TRIDEC combines very simple yet effective features with the classification capabilities of inductive decision tree methods. The feature vector is a list of all similar triangles defined by connecting all combinations of three pixels in a coarse coded 127 x 127 pixel input field. The classification is accomplished by building a decision tree using the information provided from a limited number of translated, scaled, and rotated samples. Simulation results are presented which show that TRIDEC achieves 94 percent recognition accuracy in the 2D invariant object recognition domain and 98 percent recognition accuracy in the 3D invariant object recognition domain after training on only a small sample of transformed views of the objects.

  11. An ERP Study on Self-Relevant Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Makoto; Nomura, Michio; Ohira, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    We performed an event-related potential study to investigate the self-relevance effect in object recognition. Three stimulus categories were prepared: SELF (participant's own objects), FAMILIAR (disposable and public objects, defined as objects with less-self-relevant familiarity), and UNFAMILIAR (others' objects). The participants' task was to…

  12. On the relation between face and object recognition in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether face recognition and object recognition constitute separate domains. Clarification of this issue can have important theoretical implications as face recognition is often used as a prime example of domain-specificity in mind and brain. An important source...... of input to this debate comes from studies of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia, suggesting that face recognition can be selectively impaired. We put the selectivity hypothesis to test by assessing the performance of 10 individuals with developmental prosopagnosia on demanding tests of visual...... object processing involving both regular and degraded drawings. None of the individuals exhibited a clear dissociation between face and object recognition, and as a group they were significantly more affected by degradation of objects than control participants. Importantly, we also find positive...

  13. Exploring objects for recognition in the real world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Gert; Ypma, Jelmer; de Boer, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Perception in natural systems is a highly active process. In this paper, we adopt the strategy of natural systems to explore objects for 3D object recognition using robots. The exploration of objects enables the system to learn objects from different viewpoints, which is essential for 3D object

  14. Object recognition - Convergence of vision, audition, and touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja

    of object information across audition and touch or across all thee senses. Further, even though object recognition within different senses is to some degree redundant, the different senses differ with respect to their intrinsic efficiency in extracting types of information (Lederman & Klatzky, 2009...... magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The following research questions were addressed: 1. Where in the human brain does object recognition converge across vision, audition, and touch? 2. How is audio-haptic object......-match-to-sample task was applied in which participants had to match a target object with a previously presented sample object within and across audition and touch in both directions (auditory─haptic and haptic─auditory). As a coherence in content is an important binding cue (Laurienti et al., 2004), semantic...

  15. Comparison of Object Recognition Behavior in Human and Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalingham, Rishi; Schmidt, Kailyn

    2015-01-01

    Although the rhesus monkey is used widely as an animal model of human visual processing, it is not known whether invariant visual object recognition behavior is quantitatively comparable across monkeys and humans. To address this question, we systematically compared the core object recognition behavior of two monkeys with that of human subjects. To test true object recognition behavior (rather than image matching), we generated several thousand naturalistic synthetic images of 24 basic-level objects with high variation in viewing parameters and image background. Monkeys were trained to perform binary object recognition tasks on a match-to-sample paradigm. Data from 605 human subjects performing the same tasks on Mechanical Turk were aggregated to characterize “pooled human” object recognition behavior, as well as 33 separate Mechanical Turk subjects to characterize individual human subject behavior. Our results show that monkeys learn each new object in a few days, after which they not only match mean human performance but show a pattern of object confusion that is highly correlated with pooled human confusion patterns and is statistically indistinguishable from individual human subjects. Importantly, this shared human and monkey pattern of 3D object confusion is not shared with low-level visual representations (pixels, V1+; models of the retina and primary visual cortex) but is shared with a state-of-the-art computer vision feature representation. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus monkeys and humans share a common neural shape representation that directly supports object perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To date, several mammalian species have shown promise as animal models for studying the neural mechanisms underlying high-level visual processing in humans. In light of this diversity, making tight comparisons between nonhuman and human primates is particularly critical in determining the best use of nonhuman primates to

  16. PROBABILISTIC APPROACH TO OBJECT DETECTION AND RECOGNITION FOR VIDEOSTREAM PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The represented research results are aimed to improve theoretical basics of computer vision and artificial intelligence of dynamical system. Proposed approach of object detection and recognition is based on probabilistic fundamentals to ensure the required level of correct object recognition. Methods: Presented approach is grounded at probabilistic methods, statistical methods of probability density estimation and computer-based simulation at verification stage of development. Results: Proposed approach for object detection and recognition for video stream data processing has shown several advantages in comparison with existing methods due to its simple realization and small time of data processing. Presented results of experimental verification look plausible for object detection and recognition in video stream. Discussion: The approach can be implemented in dynamical system within changeable environment such as remotely piloted aircraft systems and can be a part of artificial intelligence in navigation and control systems.

  17. Perceptual Plasticity for Auditory Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Shannon L. M.; Van Hedger, Stephen C.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2017-01-01

    In our auditory environment, we rarely experience the exact acoustic waveform twice. This is especially true for communicative signals that have meaning for listeners. In speech and music, the acoustic signal changes as a function of the talker (or instrument), speaking (or playing) rate, and room acoustics, to name a few factors. Yet, despite this acoustic variability, we are able to recognize a sentence or melody as the same across various kinds of acoustic inputs and determine meaning based on listening goals, expectations, context, and experience. The recognition process relates acoustic signals to prior experience despite variability in signal-relevant and signal-irrelevant acoustic properties, some of which could be considered as “noise” in service of a recognition goal. However, some acoustic variability, if systematic, is lawful and can be exploited by listeners to aid in recognition. Perceivable changes in systematic variability can herald a need for listeners to reorganize perception and reorient their attention to more immediately signal-relevant cues. This view is not incorporated currently in many extant theories of auditory perception, which traditionally reduce psychological or neural representations of perceptual objects and the processes that act on them to static entities. While this reduction is likely done for the sake of empirical tractability, such a reduction may seriously distort the perceptual process to be modeled. We argue that perceptual representations, as well as the processes underlying perception, are dynamically determined by an interaction between the uncertainty of the auditory signal and constraints of context. This suggests that the process of auditory recognition is highly context-dependent in that the identity of a given auditory object may be intrinsically tied to its preceding context. To argue for the flexible neural and psychological updating of sound-to-meaning mappings across speech and music, we draw upon examples

  18. Exploiting core knowledge for visual object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurgin, Mark W; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2017-03-01

    Humans recognize thousands of objects, and with relative tolerance to variable retinal inputs. The acquisition of this ability is not fully understood, and it remains an area in which artificial systems have yet to surpass people. We sought to investigate the memory process that supports object recognition. Specifically, we investigated the association of inputs that co-occur over short periods of time. We tested the hypothesis that human perception exploits expectations about object kinematics to limit the scope of association to inputs that are likely to have the same token as a source. In several experiments we exposed participants to images of objects, and we then tested recognition sensitivity. Using motion, we manipulated whether successive encounters with an image took place through kinematics that implied the same or a different token as the source of those encounters. Images were injected with noise, or shown at varying orientations, and we included 2 manipulations of motion kinematics. Across all experiments, memory performance was better for images that had been previously encountered with kinematics that implied a single token. A model-based analysis similarly showed greater memory strength when images were shown via kinematics that implied a single token. These results suggest that constraints from physics are built into the mechanisms that support memory about objects. Such constraints-often characterized as 'Core Knowledge'-are known to support perception and cognition broadly, even in young infants. But they have never been considered as a mechanism for memory with respect to recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions.

  20. It takes two-skilled recognition of objects engages lateral areas in both hemispheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merim Bilalić

    Full Text Available Our object recognition abilities, a direct product of our experience with objects, are fine-tuned to perfection. Left temporal and lateral areas along the dorsal, action related stream, as well as left infero-temporal areas along the ventral, object related stream are engaged in object recognition. Here we show that expertise modulates the activity of dorsal areas in the recognition of man-made objects with clearly specified functions. Expert chess players were faster than chess novices in identifying chess objects and their functional relations. Experts' advantage was domain-specific as there were no differences between groups in a control task featuring geometrical shapes. The pattern of eye movements supported the notion that experts' extensive knowledge about domain objects and their functions enabled superior recognition even when experts were not directly fixating the objects of interest. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI related exclusively the areas along the dorsal stream to chess specific object recognition. Besides the commonly involved left temporal and parietal lateral brain areas, we found that only in experts homologous areas on the right hemisphere were also engaged in chess specific object recognition. Based on these results, we discuss whether skilled object recognition does not only involve a more efficient version of the processes found in non-skilled recognition, but also qualitatively different cognitive processes which engage additional brain areas.

  1. Higher-Order Neural Networks Applied to 2D and 3D Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Reid, Max B.

    1994-01-01

    A Higher-Order Neural Network (HONN) can be designed to be invariant to geometric transformations such as scale, translation, and in-plane rotation. Invariances are built directly into the architecture of a HONN and do not need to be learned. Thus, for 2D object recognition, the network needs to be trained on just one view of each object class, not numerous scaled, translated, and rotated views. Because the 2D object recognition task is a component of the 3D object recognition task, built-in 2D invariance also decreases the size of the training set required for 3D object recognition. We present results for 2D object recognition both in simulation and within a robotic vision experiment and for 3D object recognition in simulation. We also compare our method to other approaches and show that HONNs have distinct advantages for position, scale, and rotation-invariant object recognition. The major drawback of HONNs is that the size of the input field is limited due to the memory required for the large number of interconnections in a fully connected network. We present partial connectivity strategies and a coarse-coding technique for overcoming this limitation and increasing the input field to that required by practical object recognition problems.

  2. Perceptual differentiation and category effects in normal object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Gade, A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present PET study was (i) to investigate the neural correlates of object recognition, i.e. the matching of visual forms to memory, and (ii) to test the hypothesis that this process is more difficult for natural objects than for artefacts. This was done by using object decision...... tasks where subjects decided whether pictures represented real objects or non-objects. The object decision tasks differed in their difficulty (the degree of perceptual differentiation needed to perform them) and in the category of the real objects used (natural objects versus artefacts). A clear effect...... be the neural correlate of matching visual forms to memory, and the amount of activation in these regions may correspond to the degree of perceptual differentiation required for recognition to occur. With respect to behaviour, it took significantly longer to make object decisions on natural objects than...

  3. Combining heterogenous features for 3D hand-held object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiong; Wang, Shuang; Li, Xiangyang; Jiang, Shuqiang

    2014-10-01

    Object recognition has wide applications in the area of human-machine interaction and multimedia retrieval. However, due to the problem of visual polysemous and concept polymorphism, it is still a great challenge to obtain reliable recognition result for the 2D images. Recently, with the emergence and easy availability of RGB-D equipment such as Kinect, this challenge could be relieved because the depth channel could bring more information. A very special and important case of object recognition is hand-held object recognition, as hand is a straight and natural way for both human-human interaction and human-machine interaction. In this paper, we study the problem of 3D object recognition by combining heterogenous features with different modalities and extraction techniques. For hand-craft feature, although it reserves the low-level information such as shape and color, it has shown weakness in representing hiconvolutionalgh-level semantic information compared with the automatic learned feature, especially deep feature. Deep feature has shown its great advantages in large scale dataset recognition but is not always robust to rotation or scale variance compared with hand-craft feature. In this paper, we propose a method to combine hand-craft point cloud features and deep learned features in RGB and depth channle. First, hand-held object segmentation is implemented by using depth cues and human skeleton information. Second, we combine the extracted hetegerogenous 3D features in different stages using linear concatenation and multiple kernel learning (MKL). Then a training model is used to recognize 3D handheld objects. Experimental results validate the effectiveness and gerneralization ability of the proposed method.

  4. A Patient with Difficulty of Object Recognition: Semantic Amnesia for Manipulable Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yamadori

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a patient who had recognition difficulty for manipulable objects. MRI showed a lesion in the left occipito-parietotemporal area. Differential diagnosis of agnosia, aphasia and apraxia is discussed. We believe this “object meaning amnesia” constitutes a distinct subtype of semantic amnesia.

  5. Leveraging Cognitive Context for Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    established, links have an associated strength value which affects how much activation is passed along the link from chunk j to chunk i. Link strengths ... strength is updated iteratively whenever the model thinks about chunks i context suggests that an apple is most likely to be seen next (since it primes...1998. 1, 4 [3] M. E. Auckland , K. R. Cave, and N. Donnelly. Non- target objects can influence perceptual processes dur- ing object recognition

  6. An Innovative SIFT-Based Method for Rigid Video Object Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative SIFT-based method for rigid video object recognition (hereafter called RVO-SIFT. Just like what happens in the vision system of human being, this method makes the object recognition and feature updating process organically unify together, using both trajectory and feature matching, and thereby it can learn new features not only in the training stage but also in the recognition stage, which can improve greatly the completeness of the video object’s features automatically and, in turn, increases the ratio of correct recognition drastically. The experimental results on real video sequences demonstrate its surprising robustness and efficiency.

  7. What are the visual features underlying rapid object recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien M Crouzet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Research progress in machine vision has been very significant in recent years. Robust face detection and identification algorithms are already readily available to consumers, and modern computer vision algorithms for generic object recognition are now coping with the richness and complexity of natural visual scenes. Unlike early vision models of object recognition that emphasized the role of figure-ground segmentation and spatial information between parts, recent successful approaches are based on the computation of loose collections of image features without prior segmentation or any explicit encoding of spatial relations. While these models remain simplistic models of visual processing, they suggest that, in principle, bottom-up activation of a loose collection of image features could support the rapid recognition of natural object categories and provide an initial coarse visual representation before more complex visual routines and attentional mechanisms take place. Focusing on biologically-plausible computational models of (bottom-up pre-attentive visual recognition, we review some of the key visual features that have been described in the literature. We discuss the consistency of these feature-based representations with classical theories from visual psychology and test their ability to account for human performance on a rapid object categorization task.

  8. Differential effects of spaced vs. massed training in long-term object-identity and object-location recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Medina, Paola C; Sánchez-Carrasco, Livia; González-Ornelas, Nadia R; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Ramírez-Amaya, Víctor

    2013-08-01

    Here we tested whether the well-known superiority of spaced training over massed training is equally evident in both object identity and object location recognition memory. We trained animals with objects placed in a variable or in a fixed location to produce a location-independent object identity memory or a location-dependent object representation. The training consisted of 5 trials that occurred either on one day (Massed) or over the course of 5 consecutive days (Spaced). The memory test was done in independent groups of animals either 24h or 7 days after the last training trial. In each test the animals were exposed to either a novel object, when trained with the objects in variable locations, or to a familiar object in a novel location, when trained with objects in fixed locations. The difference in time spent exploring the changed versus the familiar objects was used as a measure of recognition memory. For the object-identity-trained animals, spaced training produced clear evidence of recognition memory after both 24h and 7 days, but massed-training animals showed it only after 24h. In contrast, for the object-location-trained animals, recognition memory was evident after both retention intervals and with both training procedures. When objects were placed in variable locations for the two types of training and the test was done with a brand-new location, only the spaced-training animals showed recognition at 24h, but surprisingly, after 7 days, animals trained using both procedures were able to recognize the change, suggesting a post-training consolidation process. We suggest that the two training procedures trigger different neural mechanisms that may differ in the two segregated streams that process object information and that may consolidate differently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Object and event recognition for stroke rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Ahmed; Cunningham, Andrew S.; Pridmore, Tony P.

    2003-06-01

    Stroke is a major cause of disability and health care expenditure around the world. Existing stroke rehabilitation methods can be effective but are costly and need to be improved. Even modest improvements in the effectiveness of rehabilitation techniques could produce large benefits in terms of quality of life. The work reported here is part of an ongoing effort to integrate virtual reality and machine vision technologies to produce innovative stroke rehabilitation methods. We describe a combined object recognition and event detection system that provides real time feedback to stroke patients performing everyday kitchen tasks necessary for independent living, e.g. making a cup of coffee. The image plane position of each object, including the patient"s hand, is monitored using histogram-based recognition methods. The relative positions of hand and objects are then reported to a task monitor that compares the patient"s actions against a model of the target task. A prototype system has been constructed and is currently undergoing technical and clinical evaluation.

  10. Single prolonged stress impairs social and object novelty recognition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Andrew L; Fitzpatrick, Chris J; Perrine, Shane A

    2013-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) results from exposure to a traumatic event and manifests as re-experiencing, arousal, avoidance, and negative cognition/mood symptoms. Avoidant symptoms, as well as the newly defined negative cognitions/mood, are a serious complication leading to diminished interest in once important or positive activities, such as social interaction; however, the basis of these symptoms remains poorly understood. PTSD patients also exhibit impaired object and social recognition, which may underlie the avoidance and symptoms of negative cognition, such as social estrangement or diminished interest in activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that single prolonged stress (SPS), models PTSD phenotypes, including impairments in learning and memory. Therefore, it was hypothesized that SPS would impair social and object recognition memory. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to SPS then tested in the social choice test (SCT) or novel object recognition test (NOR). These tests measure recognition of novelty over familiarity, a natural preference of rodents. Results show that SPS impaired preference for both social and object novelty. In addition, SPS impairment in social recognition may be caused by impaired behavioral flexibility, or an inability to shift behavior during the SCT. These results demonstrate that traumatic stress can impair social and object recognition memory, which may underlie certain avoidant symptoms or negative cognition in PTSD and be related to impaired behavioral flexibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrophysiological evidence for effects of color knowledge in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Aitao; Xu, Guiping; Jin, Hua; Mo, Lei; Zhang, Jijia; Zhang, John X

    2010-01-29

    Knowledge about the typical colors associated with familiar everyday objects (i.e., strawberries are red) is well-known to be represented in the conceptual semantic system. Evidence that such knowledge may also play a role in early perceptual processes for object recognition is scant. In the present ERP study, participants viewed a list of object pictures and detected infrequent stimulus repetitions. Results show that shortly after stimulus onset, ERP components indexing early perceptual processes, including N1, P2, and N2, differentiated between objects in their appropriate or congruent color from these objects in an inappropriate or incongruent color. Such congruence effect also occurred in N3 associated with semantic processing of pictures but not in N4 for domain-general semantic processing. Our results demonstrate a clear effect of color knowledge in early object recognition stages and support the following proposal-color as a surface property is stored in a multiple-memory system where pre-semantic perceptual and semantic conceptual representations interact during object recognition. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been...... demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...... binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  13. Experimental acquisition of long-range portraits of objects and their recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buryi, E V; Kosykh, A E

    1998-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of recognition of the perspectives of model objects on the basis of the shape of the envelope of a scattered laser pulse. Stable recognition of various perspectives of an object was found to be possible even for high ratios of the probe pulse duration to the time of its propagation along the object surface. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  14. Superior voice recognition in a patient with acquired prosopagnosia and object agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Adria E N; Démonet, Jean-François; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2010-11-01

    Anecdotally, it has been reported that individuals with acquired prosopagnosia compensate for their inability to recognize faces by using other person identity cues such as hair, gait or the voice. Are they therefore superior at the use of non-face cues, specifically voices, to person identity? Here, we empirically measure person and object identity recognition in a patient with acquired prosopagnosia and object agnosia. We quantify person identity (face and voice) and object identity (car and horn) recognition for visual, auditory, and bimodal (visual and auditory) stimuli. The patient is unable to recognize faces or cars, consistent with his prosopagnosia and object agnosia, respectively. He is perfectly able to recognize people's voices and car horns and bimodal stimuli. These data show a reverse shift in the typical weighting of visual over auditory information for audiovisual stimuli in a compromised visual recognition system. Moreover, the patient shows selectively superior voice recognition compared to the controls revealing that two different stimulus domains, persons and objects, may not be equally affected by sensory adaptation effects. This also implies that person and object identity recognition are processed in separate pathways. These data demonstrate that an individual with acquired prosopagnosia and object agnosia can compensate for the visual impairment and become quite skilled at using spared aspects of sensory processing. In the case of acquired prosopagnosia it is advantageous to develop a superior use of voices for person identity recognition in everyday life. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Medial prefrontal cortex role in recognition memory in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Juan Facundo; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Weisstaub, Noelia V

    2015-10-01

    The study of the neurobiology of recognition memory, defined by the integration of the different components of experiences that support recollection of past experiences have been a challenge for memory researches for many years. In the last twenty years, with the development of the spontaneous novel object recognition task and all its variants this has started to change. The features of recognition memory include a particular object or person ("what"), the context in which the experience took place, which can be the arena itself or the location within a particular arena ("where") and the particular time at which the event occurred ("when"). This definition instead of the historical anthropocentric one allows the study of this type of episodic memory in animal models. Some forms of recognition memory that require integration of different features recruit the medial prefrontal cortex. Focusing on findings from spontaneous recognition memory tasks performed by rodents, this review concentrates on the description of previous works that have examined the role that the medial prefrontal cortex has on the different steps of recognition memory. We conclude that this structure, independently of the task used, is required at different memory stages when the task cannot be solved by a single item strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sub-OBB based object recognition and localization algorithm using range images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Dinh-Cuong; Chen, Liang-Chia; Nguyen, Thanh-Hung

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to recognize and estimate pose of the 3D objects in cluttered range images. The key technical breakthrough of the developed approach can enable robust object recognition and localization under undesirable condition such as environmental illumination variation as well as optical occlusion to viewing the object partially. First, the acquired point clouds are segmented into individual object point clouds based on the developed 3D object segmentation for randomly stacked objects. Second, an efficient shape-matching algorithm called Sub-OBB based object recognition by using the proposed oriented bounding box (OBB) regional area-based descriptor is performed to reliably recognize the object. Then, the 3D position and orientation of the object can be roughly estimated by aligning the OBB of segmented object point cloud with OBB of matched point cloud in a database generated from CAD model and 3D virtual camera. To detect accurate pose of the object, the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm is used to match the object model with the segmented point clouds. From the feasibility test of several scenarios, the developed approach is verified to be feasible for object pose recognition and localization. (paper)

  17. The effect of Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves in unimodal and multimodal object recognition tasks in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanshahi, Amin; Shafeie, Seyed Ali; Fatemi, Iman; Hassanshahi, Elham; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Shabani, Mohammad; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Shamsizadeh, Ali

    2017-06-01

    Wireless internet (Wi-Fi) electromagnetic waves (2.45 GHz) have widespread usage almost everywhere, especially in our homes. Considering the recent reports about some hazardous effects of Wi-Fi signals on the nervous system, this study aimed to investigate the effect of 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation on multisensory integration in rats. This experimental study was done on 80 male Wistar rats that were allocated into exposure and sham groups. Wi-Fi exposure to 2.4 GHz microwaves [in Service Set Identifier mode (23.6 dBm and 3% for power and duty cycle, respectively)] was done for 30 days (12 h/day). Cross-modal visual-tactile object recognition (CMOR) task was performed by four variations of spontaneous object recognition (SOR) test including standard SOR, tactile SOR, visual SOR, and CMOR tests. A discrimination ratio was calculated to assess the preference of animal to the novel object. The expression levels of M1 and GAT1 mRNA in the hippocampus were assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results demonstrated that rats in Wi-Fi exposure groups could not discriminate significantly between the novel and familiar objects in any of the standard SOR, tactile SOR, visual SOR, and CMOR tests. The expression of M1 receptors increased following Wi-Fi exposure. In conclusion, results of this study showed that chronic exposure to Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves might impair both unimodal and cross-modal encoding of information.

  18. Object recognition with hierarchical discriminant saliency networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhyoung eHan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of integrating attention and object recognition are investigated. While attention is frequently modeled as pre-processor for recognition, we investigate the hypothesis that attention is an intrinsic component of recognition and vice-versa. This hypothesis is tested with a recognitionmodel, the hierarchical discriminant saliency network (HDSN, whose layers are top-down saliency detectors, tuned for a visual class according to the principles of discriminant saliency. The HDSN has two possible implementations. In a biologically plausible implementation, all layers comply with the standard neurophysiological model of visual cortex, with sub-layers of simple and complex units that implement a combination of filtering, divisive normalization, pooling, and non-linearities. In a neuralnetwork implementation, all layers are convolutional and implement acombination of filtering, rectification, and pooling. The rectificationis performed with a parametric extension of the now popular rectified linearunits (ReLUs, whose parameters can be tuned for the detection of targetobject classes. This enables a number of functional enhancementsover neural network models that lack a connection to saliency, including optimal feature denoising mechanisms for recognition, modulation ofsaliency responses by the discriminant power of the underlying features,and the ability to detect both feature presence and absence.In either implementation, each layer has a precise statistical interpretation, and all parameters are tuned by statistical learning. Each saliency detection layer learns more discriminant saliency templates than its predecessors and higher layers have larger pooling fields. This enables the HDSN to simultaneously achieve high selectivity totarget object classes and invariance. The resulting performance demonstrates benefits for all the functional enhancements of the HDSN.

  19. Neural circuitry for rat recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, E.C.; Brown, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the roles of different brain regions in recognition memory processes is reviewed. The review concentrates on findings from spontaneous recognition memory tasks performed by rats, including memory for single objects, locations, object–location associations and temporal order. Particular emphasis is given to the potential roles of different regions in the circuit of interacting structures involving the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex and medial dorsal thalamus in recognition memory for the association of objects and places. It is concluded that while all structures in this circuit play roles critical to such memory, these roles can potentially be differentiated and differences in the underlying synaptic and biochemical processes involved in each region are beginning to be uncovered. PMID:25315129

  20. On the relation between face and object recognition in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja; Starrfelt, Randi

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether face recognition and object recognition constitute separate cognitive domains. Clarification of this issue can have important theoretical consequences as face recognition is often used as a prime example of domain-specificity in mind and brain. An importan...

  1. Central administration of angiotensin IV rapidly enhances novel object recognition among mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jason J; Eans, Shainnel O; Mizrachi, Elisa; Reilley, Kate J; Ganno, Michelle L; McLaughlin, Jay P

    2013-07-01

    Angiotensin IV (Val(1)-Tyr(2)-Ile(3)-His(4)-Pro(5)-Phe(6)) has demonstrated potential cognitive-enhancing effects. The present investigation assessed and characterized: (1) dose-dependency of angiotensin IV's cognitive enhancement in a C57BL/6J mouse model of novel object recognition, (2) the time-course for these effects, (3) the identity of residues in the hexapeptide important to these effects and (4) the necessity of actions at angiotensin IV receptors for procognitive activity. Assessment of C57BL/6J mice in a novel object recognition task demonstrated that prior administration of angiotensin IV (0.1, 1.0, or 10.0, but not 0.01 nmol, i.c.v.) significantly enhanced novel object recognition in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were time dependent, with improved novel object recognition observed when angiotensin IV (0.1 nmol, i.c.v.) was administered 10 or 20, but not 30 min prior to the onset of the novel object recognition testing. An alanine scan of the angiotensin IV peptide revealed that replacement of the Val(1), Ile(3), His(4), or Phe(6) residues with Ala attenuated peptide-induced improvements in novel object recognition, whereas Tyr(2) or Pro(5) replacement did not significantly affect performance. Administration of the angiotensin IV receptor antagonist, divalinal-Ang IV (20 nmol, i.c.v.), reduced (but did not abolish) novel object recognition; however, this antagonist completely blocked the procognitive effects of angiotensin IV (0.1 nmol, i.c.v.) in this task. Rotorod testing demonstrated no locomotor effects with any angiotensin IV or divalinal-Ang IV dose tested. These data demonstrate that angiotensin IV produces a rapid enhancement of associative learning and memory performance in a mouse model that was dependent on the angiotensin IV receptor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation in object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane de C; Schmidt, Bianca E; Zinn, Carolina G; Peixoto, Patricia B; Pereira, Luiza D; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    For decades there has been a consensus that de novo protein synthesis is necessary for long-term memory. A second round of protein synthesis has been described for both extinction and reconsolidation following an unreinforced test session. Recently, it was shown that consolidation and reconsolidation depend not only on protein synthesis but also on protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), a major mechanism responsible for protein turnover. However, the involvement of UPS on consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory remains unknown. Here we investigate in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus the involvement of UPS-mediated protein degradation in consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory. Animals with infusion cannulae stereotaxically implanted in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus, were exposed to an object recognition task. The UPS inhibitor β-Lactacystin did not affect the consolidation and the reconsolidation of object recognition memory at doses known to affect other forms of memory (inhibitory avoidance, spatial learning in a water maze) while the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin impaired the consolidation and the reconsolidation of the object recognition memory. However, β-Lactacystin was able to reverse the impairment caused by anisomycin on the reconsolidation process in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Therefore, it is possible to postulate a direct link between protein degradation and protein synthesis during the reconsolidation of the object recognition memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Functional Architecture of Visual Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    different forms of agnosia can provide clues to the representations underlying normal object recognition (Farah, 1990). For example, the pair-wise...patterns of deficit and sparing occur. In a review of 99 published cases of agnosia , the observed patterns of co- occurrence implicated two underlying

  4. Neurocomputational bases of object and face recognition.

    OpenAIRE

    Biederman, I; Kalocsai, P

    1997-01-01

    A number of behavioural phenomena distinguish the recognition of faces and objects, even when members of a set of objects are highly similar. Because faces have the same parts in approximately the same relations, individuation of faces typically requires specification of the metric variation in a holistic and integral representation of the facial surface. The direct mapping of a hypercolumn-like pattern of activation onto a representation layer that preserves relative spatial filter values in...

  5. Random clustering ferns for multimodal object recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Villamizar Vergel, Michael Alejandro; Garrell Zulueta, Anais; Sanfeliu Cortés, Alberto; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    The final publication is available at link.springer.com We propose an efficient and robust method for the recognition of objects exhibiting multiple intra-class modes, where each one is associated with a particular object appearance. The proposed method, called random clustering ferns, combines synergically a single and real-time classifier, based on the boosted assembling of extremely randomized trees (ferns), with an unsupervised and probabilistic approach in order to recognize efficient...

  6. Motor cortical processing is causally involved in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloe, Rebecca; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2013-12-14

    Motor activity during vicarious experience of actions is a widely reported and studied phenomenon, and motor system activity also accompanies observation of graspable objects in the absence of any actions. Such motor activity is thought to reflect simulation of the observed action, or preparation to interact with the object, respectively. Here, in an initial exploratory study, we ask whether motor activity during observation of object directed actions is involved in processes related to recognition of the object after initial exposure. Single pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied over the thumb representation of the motor cortex, or over the vertex, during observation of a model thumb typing on a cell-phone, and performance on a phone recognition task at the end of the trial was assessed. Disrupting motor processing over the thumb representation 100 ms after the onset of the typing video impaired the ability to recognize the phone in the recognition test, whereas there was no such effect for TMS applied over the vertex and no TMS trials. Furthermore, this effect only manifested for videos observed from the first person perspective. In an additional control condition, there was no evidence for any effects of TMS to the thumb representation or vertex when observing and recognizing non-action related shape stimuli. Overall, these data provide evidence that motor cortical processing during observation of object-directed actions from a first person perspective is causally linked to the formation of enduring representations of objects-of-action.

  7. Object Recognition In HADOOP Using HIPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Agrawal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The amount of images and videos being shared by the user is exponentially increasing but applications that perform video analytics is severely lacking or work on limited set of data. It is also challenging to perform analytics with less time complexity. Object recognition is the primary step in video analytics. We implement a robust method to extract objects from the data which is in unstructured format and cannot be processed directly by relational databases. In this study we present our report with results after performance evaluation and compare them with results of MATLAB.

  8. Improving a Deep Learning based RGB-D Object Recognition Model by Ensemble Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakerberg, Andreas; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Heder, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Augmenting RGB images with depth information is a well-known method to significantly improve the recognition accuracy of object recognition models. Another method to im- prove the performance of visual recognition models is ensemble learning. However, this method has not been widely explored...... in combination with deep convolutional neural network based RGB-D object recognition models. Hence, in this paper, we form different ensembles of complementary deep convolutional neural network models, and show that this can be used to increase the recognition performance beyond existing limits. Experiments...

  9. Global precedence effects account for individual differences in both face and object recognition performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Starrfelt, Randi

    2018-01-01

    examine whether global precedence effects, measured by means of non-face stimuli in Navon's paradigm, can also account for individual differences in face recognition and, if so, whether the effect is of similar magnitude for faces and objects. We find evidence that global precedence effects facilitate...... both face and object recognition, and to a similar extent. Our results suggest that both face and object recognition are characterized by a coarse-to-fine temporal dynamic, where global shape information is derived prior to local shape information, and that the efficiency of face and object recognition...

  10. Implementation of CT and IHT Processors for Invariant Object Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan jr.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents PDL or ASIC implementation of key modules ofinvariant object recognition system based on the combination of theIncremental Hough transform (IHT, correlation and rapid transform(RT. The invariant object recognition system was represented partiallyin C++ language for general-purpose processor on personal computer andpartially described in VHDL code for implementation in PLD or ASIC.

  11. Probabilistic object and viewpoint models for active object recognition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ,θ′(f occ). V. EXPERIMENTS A. Dataset For our experiments, we use the active recognition dataset introduced by [12]. The training data consists of everyday objects such as cereal boxes, ornaments, spice bottle, etc. Images were captured every 20 degrees... are to be verified TABLE I CONFUSION MATRIX FOR BINARY A MODEL Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Cereal Battery Curry box Elephant Handbag MrMin Salad Bottle Spice Bottle Spray Can Spray Can 1 Cereal 0.9800 0...

  12. Post-Training Reversible Inactivation of the Hippocampus Enhances Novel Object Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Hawk, Joshua D.; Abel, Ted; Havekes, Robbert

    2010-01-01

    Research on the role of the hippocampus in object recognition memory has produced conflicting results. Previous studies have used permanent hippocampal lesions to assess the requirement for the hippocampus in the object recognition task. However, permanent hippocampal lesions may impact performance through effects on processes besides memory…

  13. Motor cortical processing is causally involved in object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Motor activity during vicarious experience of actions is a widely reported and studied phenomenon, and motor system activity also accompanies observation of graspable objects in the absence of any actions. Such motor activity is thought to reflect simulation of the observed action, or preparation to interact with the object, respectively. Results Here, in an initial exploratory study, we ask whether motor activity during observation of object directed actions is involved in processes related to recognition of the object after initial exposure. Single pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied over the thumb representation of the motor cortex, or over the vertex, during observation of a model thumb typing on a cell-phone, and performance on a phone recognition task at the end of the trial was assessed. Disrupting motor processing over the thumb representation 100 ms after the onset of the typing video impaired the ability to recognize the phone in the recognition test, whereas there was no such effect for TMS applied over the vertex and no TMS trials. Furthermore, this effect only manifested for videos observed from the first person perspective. In an additional control condition, there was no evidence for any effects of TMS to the thumb representation or vertex when observing and recognizing non-action related shape stimuli. Conclusion Overall, these data provide evidence that motor cortical processing during observation of object-directed actions from a first person perspective is causally linked to the formation of enduring representations of objects-of-action. PMID:24330638

  14. Figure-ground organization and object recognition processes: an interactive account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, S P; O'Reilly, R C

    1998-04-01

    Traditional bottom-up models of visual processing assume that figure-ground organization precedes object recognition. This assumption seems logically necessary: How can object recognition occur before a region is labeled as figure? However, some behavioral studies find that familiar regions are more likely to be labeled figure than less familiar regions, a problematic finding for bottom-up models. An interactive account is proposed in which figure-ground processes receive top-down input from object representations in a hierarchical system. A graded, interactive computational model is presented that accounts for behavioral results in which familiarity effects are found. The interactive model offers an alternative conception of visual processing to bottom-up models.

  15. Object Recognition System-on-Chip Using the Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzet Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this work is to propose the design of a system-on-chip (SoC platform dedicated to digital image and signal processing, which is tuned to implement efficiently multiply-and-accumulate (MAC vector/matrix operations. The second aim of this work is to implement a recent promising neural network method, namely, the support vector machine (SVM used for real-time object recognition, in order to build a vision machine. With such a reconfigurable and programmable SoC platform, it is possible to implement any SVM function dedicated to any object recognition problem. The final aim is to obtain an automatic reconfiguration of the SoC platform, based on the results of the learning phase on an objects' database, which makes it possible to recognize practically any object without manual programming. Recognition can be of any kind that is from image to signal data. Such a system is a general-purpose automatic classifier. Many applications can be considered as a classification problem, but are usually treated specifically in order to optimize the cost of the implemented solution. The cost of our approach is more important than a dedicated one, but in a near future, hundreds of millions of gates will be common and affordable compared to the design cost. What we are proposing here is a general-purpose classification neural network implemented on a reconfigurable SoC platform. The first version presented here is limited in size and thus in object recognition performances, but can be easily upgraded according to technology improvements.

  16. Efficient Spatio-Temporal Local Binary Patterns for Spontaneous Facial Micro-Expression Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yandan; See, John; Phan, Raphael C.-W.; Oh, Yee-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Micro-expression recognition is still in the preliminary stage, owing much to the numerous difficulties faced in the development of datasets. Since micro-expression is an important affective clue for clinical diagnosis and deceit analysis, much effort has gone into the creation of these datasets for research purposes. There are currently two publicly available spontaneous micro-expression datasets—SMIC and CASME II, both with baseline results released using the widely used dynamic texture descriptor LBP-TOP for feature extraction. Although LBP-TOP is popular and widely used, it is still not compact enough. In this paper, we draw further inspiration from the concept of LBP-TOP that considers three orthogonal planes by proposing two efficient approaches for feature extraction. The compact robust form described by the proposed LBP-Six Intersection Points (SIP) and a super-compact LBP-Three Mean Orthogonal Planes (MOP) not only preserves the essential patterns, but also reduces the redundancy that affects the discriminality of the encoded features. Through a comprehensive set of experiments, we demonstrate the strengths of our approaches in terms of recognition accuracy and efficiency. PMID:25993498

  17. Modeling guidance and recognition in categorical search: bridging human and computer object detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinsky, Gregory J; Peng, Yifan; Berg, Alexander C; Samaras, Dimitris

    2013-10-08

    Search is commonly described as a repeating cycle of guidance to target-like objects, followed by the recognition of these objects as targets or distractors. Are these indeed separate processes using different visual features? We addressed this question by comparing observer behavior to that of support vector machine (SVM) models trained on guidance and recognition tasks. Observers searched for a categorically defined teddy bear target in four-object arrays. Target-absent trials consisted of random category distractors rated in their visual similarity to teddy bears. Guidance, quantified as first-fixated objects during search, was strongest for targets, followed by target-similar, medium-similarity, and target-dissimilar distractors. False positive errors to first-fixated distractors also decreased with increasing dissimilarity to the target category. To model guidance, nine teddy bear detectors, using features ranging in biological plausibility, were trained on unblurred bears then tested on blurred versions of the same objects appearing in each search display. Guidance estimates were based on target probabilities obtained from these detectors. To model recognition, nine bear/nonbear classifiers, trained and tested on unblurred objects, were used to classify the object that would be fixated first (based on the detector estimates) as a teddy bear or a distractor. Patterns of categorical guidance and recognition accuracy were modeled almost perfectly by an HMAX model in combination with a color histogram feature. We conclude that guidance and recognition in the context of search are not separate processes mediated by different features, and that what the literature knows as guidance is really recognition performed on blurred objects viewed in the visual periphery.

  18. Advances in the behavioural testing and network imaging of rodent recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnavane, Lisa; Albasser, Mathieu M.; Aggleton, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Research into object recognition memory has been galvanised by the introduction of spontaneous preference tests for rodents. The standard task, however, contains a number of inherent shortcomings that reduce its power. Particular issues include the problem that individual trials are time consuming, so limiting the total number of trials in any condition. In addition, the spontaneous nature of the behaviour and the variability between test objects add unwanted noise. To combat these issues, the ‘bow-tie maze’ was introduced. Although still based on the spontaneous preference of novel over familiar stimuli, the ability to give multiple trials within a session without handling the rodents, as well as using the same objects as both novel and familiar samples on different trials, overcomes key limitations in the standard task. Giving multiple trials within a single session also creates new opportunities for functional imaging of object recognition memory. A series of studies are described that examine the expression of the immediate-early gene, c-fos. Object recognition memory is associated with increases in perirhinal cortex and area Te2 c-fos activity. When rats explore novel objects the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to the dentate gyrus and CA3, is engaged. In contrast, when familiar objects are explored the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to CA1, takes precedence. The switch to the perforant pathway (novel stimuli) from the temporoammonic pathway (familiar stimuli) may assist the enhanced associative learning promoted by novel stimuli. PMID:25106740

  19. Development of visuo-haptic transfer for object recognition in typical preschool and school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, Giulia; Cioni, Giovanni; Tinelli, Francesca

    2018-07-01

    Object recognition is a long and complex adaptive process and its full maturation requires combination of many different sensory experiences as well as cognitive abilities to manipulate previous experiences in order to develop new percepts and subsequently to learn from the environment. It is well recognized that the transfer of visual and haptic information facilitates object recognition in adults, but less is known about development of this ability. In this study, we explored the developmental course of object recognition capacity in children using unimodal visual information, unimodal haptic information, and visuo-haptic information transfer in children from 4 years to 10 years and 11 months of age. Participants were tested through a clinical protocol, involving visual exploration of black-and-white photographs of common objects, haptic exploration of real objects, and visuo-haptic transfer of these two types of information. Results show an age-dependent development of object recognition abilities for visual, haptic, and visuo-haptic modalities. A significant effect of time on development of unimodal and crossmodal recognition skills was found. Moreover, our data suggest that multisensory processes for common object recognition are active at 4 years of age. They facilitate recognition of common objects, and, although not fully mature, are significant in adaptive behavior from the first years of age. The study of typical development of visuo-haptic processes in childhood is a starting point for future studies regarding object recognition in impaired populations.

  20. Cultural differences in visual object recognition in 3-year-old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that culture penetrates fundamental processes of perception and cognition (e.g. Nisbett & Miyamoto, 2005). Here, we provide evidence that these influences begin early and influence how preschool children recognize common objects. The three tasks (n=128) examined the degree to which nonface object recognition by 3 year olds was based on individual diagnostic features versus more configural and holistic processing. Task 1 used a 6-alternative forced choice task in which children were asked to find a named category in arrays of masked objects in which only 3 diagnostic features were visible for each object. U.S. children outperformed age-matched Japanese children. Task 2 presented pictures of objects to children piece by piece. U.S. children recognized the objects given fewer pieces than Japanese children and likelihood of recognition increased for U.S., but not Japanese children when the piece added was rated by both U.S. and Japanese adults as highly defining. Task 3 used a standard measure of configural progressing, asking the degree to which recognition of matching pictures was disrupted by the rotation of one picture. Japanese children’s recognition was more disrupted by inversion than was that of U.S. children, indicating more configural processing by Japanese than U.S. children. The pattern suggests early cross-cultural differences in visual processing; findings that raise important questions about how visual experiences differ across cultures and about universal patterns of cognitive development. PMID:26985576

  1. Cultural differences in visual object recognition in 3-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B

    2016-07-01

    Recent research indicates that culture penetrates fundamental processes of perception and cognition. Here, we provide evidence that these influences begin early and influence how preschool children recognize common objects. The three tasks (N=128) examined the degree to which nonface object recognition by 3-year-olds was based on individual diagnostic features versus more configural and holistic processing. Task 1 used a 6-alternative forced choice task in which children were asked to find a named category in arrays of masked objects where only three diagnostic features were visible for each object. U.S. children outperformed age-matched Japanese children. Task 2 presented pictures of objects to children piece by piece. U.S. children recognized the objects given fewer pieces than Japanese children, and the likelihood of recognition increased for U.S. children, but not Japanese children, when the piece added was rated by both U.S. and Japanese adults as highly defining. Task 3 used a standard measure of configural progressing, asking the degree to which recognition of matching pictures was disrupted by the rotation of one picture. Japanese children's recognition was more disrupted by inversion than was that of U.S. children, indicating more configural processing by Japanese than U.S. children. The pattern suggests early cross-cultural differences in visual processing; findings that raise important questions about how visual experiences differ across cultures and about universal patterns of cognitive development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Guppies Show Behavioural but Not Cognitive Sex Differences in a Novel Object Recognition Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato

    Full Text Available The novel object recognition (NOR test is a widely-used paradigm to study learning and memory in rodents. NOR performance is typically measured as the preference to interact with a novel object over a familiar object based on spontaneous exploratory behaviour. In rats and mice, females usually have greater NOR ability than males. The NOR test is now available for a large number of species, including fish, but sex differences have not been properly tested outside of rodents. We compared male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata in a NOR test to study whether sex differences exist also for fish. We focused on sex differences in both performance and behaviour of guppies during the test. In our experiment, adult guppies expressed a preference for the novel object as most rodents and other species do. When we looked at sex differences, we found the two sexes showed a similar preference for the novel object over the familiar object, suggesting that male and female guppies have similar NOR performances. Analysis of behaviour revealed that males were more inclined to swim in the proximity of the two objects than females. Further, males explored the novel object at the beginning of the experiment while females did so afterwards. These two behavioural differences are possibly due to sex differences in exploration. Even though NOR performance is not different between male and female guppies, the behavioural sex differences we found could affect the results of the experiments and should be carefully considered when assessing fish memory with the NOR test.

  3. Object Recognition in Clutter: Cortical Responses Depend on the Type of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eHegdé

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies suggest that the visual system uses prior knowledge of visual objects to recognize them in visual clutter, and posit that the strategies for recognizing objects in clutter may differ depending on whether or not the object was learned in clutter to begin with. We tested this hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of human subjects. We trained subjects to recognize naturalistic, yet novel objects in strong or weak clutter. We then tested subjects’ recognition performance for both sets of objects in strong clutter. We found many brain regions that were differentially responsive to objects during object recognition depending on whether they were learned in strong or weak clutter. In particular, the responses of the left fusiform gyrus reliably reflected, on a trial-to-trial basis, subjects’ object recognition performance for objects learned in the presence of strong clutter. These results indicate that the visual system does not use a single, general-purpose mechanism to cope with clutter. Instead, there are two distinct spatial patterns of activation whose responses are attributable not to the visual context in which the objects were seen, but to the context in which the objects were learned.

  4. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... in visual long-term memory. In the thesis it is described how this simple model can account for a wide range of findings on category-specificity in both patients with brain damage and normal subjects. Finally, two hypotheses regarding the neural substrates of the model's components - and how activation...

  5. View-invariant object recognition ability develops after discrimination, not mere exposure, at several viewing angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Wakayo; Wang, Gang; Tanaka, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    One usually fails to recognize an unfamiliar object across changes in viewing angle when it has to be discriminated from similar distractor objects. Previous work has demonstrated that after long-term experience in discriminating among a set of objects seen from the same viewing angle, immediate recognition of the objects across 30-60 degrees changes in viewing angle becomes possible. The capability for view-invariant object recognition should develop during the within-viewing-angle discrimination, which includes two kinds of experience: seeing individual views and discriminating among the objects. The aim of the present study was to determine the relative contribution of each factor to the development of view-invariant object recognition capability. Monkeys were first extensively trained in a task that required view-invariant object recognition (Object task) with several sets of objects. The animals were then exposed to a new set of objects over 26 days in one of two preparatory tasks: one in which each object view was seen individually, and a second that required discrimination among the objects at each of four viewing angles. After the preparatory period, we measured the monkeys' ability to recognize the objects across changes in viewing angle, by introducing the object set to the Object task. Results indicated significant view-invariant recognition after the second but not first preparatory task. These results suggest that discrimination of objects from distractors at each of several viewing angles is required for the development of view-invariant recognition of the objects when the distractors are similar to the objects.

  6. Evaluating color descriptors for object and scene recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Koen E A; Gevers, Theo; Snoek, Cees G M

    2010-09-01

    Image category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects and scene types. So far, intensity-based descriptors have been widely used for feature extraction at salient points. To increase illumination invariance and discriminative power, color descriptors have been proposed. Because many different descriptors exist, a structured overview is required of color invariant descriptors in the context of image category recognition. Therefore, this paper studies the invariance properties and the distinctiveness of color descriptors (software to compute the color descriptors from this paper is available from http://www.colordescriptors.com) in a structured way. The analytical invariance properties of color descriptors are explored, using a taxonomy based on invariance properties with respect to photometric transformations, and tested experimentally using a data set with known illumination conditions. In addition, the distinctiveness of color descriptors is assessed experimentally using two benchmarks, one from the image domain and one from the video domain. From the theoretical and experimental results, it can be derived that invariance to light intensity changes and light color changes affects category recognition. The results further reveal that, for light intensity shifts, the usefulness of invariance is category-specific. Overall, when choosing a single descriptor and no prior knowledge about the data set and object and scene categories is available, the OpponentSIFT is recommended. Furthermore, a combined set of color descriptors outperforms intensity-based SIFT and improves category recognition by 8 percent on the PASCAL VOC 2007 and by 7 percent on the Mediamill Challenge.

  7. Industrial robots with sensors and object recognition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    The previous development and the present status of industrial robots equipped with sensors and object recognition systems are described. This type of equipment allows flexible automation of many work stations in which industrial robots of the first generation, which are unable to react to changes in their respective environments automatically, apart from their being linked to other machines, could not be used because of the prevailing boundary conditions. A classification system facilitates an overview of the large number of technical solutions now available. The manifold possibilities of application of this equipment are demonstrated by a number of examples. As a result of the present state of development of the components required, and in view also of economic reasons, there is a trend towards special designs for a small number of specific purposes and towards stripped-down object recognition. systems with limited applications. A fitting description is offered of the term 'robot', which is now being used in various contexts, and an indication is made of the capabilities and components a machine to be called robot should have as a minimum. Finally, reference is made to some potential lines of development serving to reduce expediture and accelerate recognition processes. (orig.) [de

  8. Evaluating Color Descriptors for Object and Scene Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Image category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects and scene types. So far, intensity-based descriptors have been widely used for feature extraction at salient points. To increase illumination invariance and discriminative power, color descriptors have been

  9. Linguistic approach to object recognition by grasping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marik, V

    1982-01-01

    A method for recognizing both the three-dimensional object shapes and their sizes by grasping them with an antropomorphic five-finger artificial hand is described. The hand is equipped with position sensing elements in the joints of the fingers and with a tactile transducer net on the palm surface. The linguistic method uses formal grammars and languages for the pattern description. The recognition is hierarchically arranged, every level being different from the others by a formal language which has been used. On every level the pattern description is generated and verified from the symmetrical and semantical points of view. The results of the implementation of the recognition of cones, pyramides, spheres, prisms and cylinders are presented and discussed. 8 references.

  10. A biologically inspired neural network model to transformation invariant object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Li, Yaqin; Siddiqui, Faraz

    2007-09-01

    Transformation invariant image recognition has been an active research area due to its widespread applications in a variety of fields such as military operations, robotics, medical practices, geographic scene analysis, and many others. The primary goal for this research is detection of objects in the presence of image transformations such as changes in resolution, rotation, translation, scale and occlusion. We investigate a biologically-inspired neural network (NN) model for such transformation-invariant object recognition. In a classical training-testing setup for NN, the performance is largely dependent on the range of transformation or orientation involved in training. However, an even more serious dilemma is that there may not be enough training data available for successful learning or even no training data at all. To alleviate this problem, a biologically inspired reinforcement learning (RL) approach is proposed. In this paper, the RL approach is explored for object recognition with different types of transformations such as changes in scale, size, resolution and rotation. The RL is implemented in an adaptive critic design (ACD) framework, which approximates the neuro-dynamic programming of an action network and a critic network, respectively. Two ACD algorithms such as Heuristic Dynamic Programming (HDP) and Dual Heuristic dynamic Programming (DHP) are investigated to obtain transformation invariant object recognition. The two learning algorithms are evaluated statistically using simulated transformations in images as well as with a large-scale UMIST face database with pose variations. In the face database authentication case, the 90° out-of-plane rotation of faces from 20 different subjects in the UMIST database is used. Our simulations show promising results for both designs for transformation-invariant object recognition and authentication of faces. Comparing the two algorithms, DHP outperforms HDP in learning capability, as DHP takes fewer steps to

  11. Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit impairs recency-dependent object recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, David J.; Hindley, Emma; Smeaton, Emily; Denny, Nick; Taylor, Amy; Barkus, Chris; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Bannerman, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit impairs short-term spatial recognition memory. It has been suggested that short-term recognition depends upon memory caused by the recent presentation of a stimulus that is independent of contextual–retrieval processes. The aim of the present set of experiments was to test whether the role of GluA1 extends to nonspatial recognition memory. Wild-type and GluA1 knockout mice were tested on the standard object recognition task and a context-independent recognition task that required recency-dependent memory. In a first set of experiments it was found that GluA1 deletion failed to impair performance on either of the object recognition or recency-dependent tasks. However, GluA1 knockout mice displayed increased levels of exploration of the objects in both the sample and test phases compared to controls. In contrast, when the time that GluA1 knockout mice spent exploring the objects was yoked to control mice during the sample phase, it was found that GluA1 deletion now impaired performance on both the object recognition and the recency-dependent tasks. GluA1 deletion failed to impair performance on a context-dependent recognition task regardless of whether object exposure in knockout mice was yoked to controls or not. These results demonstrate that GluA1 is necessary for nonspatial as well as spatial recognition memory and plays an important role in recency-dependent memory processes. PMID:21378100

  12. Object similarity affects the perceptual strategy underlying invariant visual object recognition in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Bianca Rosselli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have explored the possible use of rats as models of high-level visual functions. One central question at the root of such an investigation is to understand whether rat object vision relies on the processing of visual shape features or, rather, on lower-order image properties (e.g., overall brightness. In a recent study, we have shown that rats are capable of extracting multiple features of an object that are diagnostic of its identity, at least when those features are, structure-wise, distinct enough to be parsed by the rat visual system. In the present study, we have assessed the impact of object structure on rat perceptual strategy. We trained rats to discriminate between two structurally similar objects, and compared their recognition strategies with those reported in our previous study. We found that, under conditions of lower stimulus discriminability, rat visual discrimination strategy becomes more view-dependent and subject-dependent. Rats were still able to recognize the target objects, in a way that was largely tolerant (i.e., invariant to object transformation; however, the larger structural and pixel-wise similarity affected the way objects were processed. Compared to the findings of our previous study, the patterns of diagnostic features were: i smaller and more scattered; ii only partially preserved across object views; and iii only partially reproducible across rats. On the other hand, rats were still found to adopt a multi-featural processing strategy and to make use of part of the optimal discriminatory information afforded by the two objects. Our findings suggest that, as in humans, rat invariant recognition can flexibly rely on either view-invariant representations of distinctive object features or view-specific object representations, acquired through learning.

  13. Global precedence effects account for individual differences in both face and object recognition performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christian; Starrfelt, Randi

    2018-03-20

    There has been an increase in studies adopting an individual difference approach to examine visual cognition and in particular in studies trying to relate face recognition performance with measures of holistic processing (the face composite effect and the part-whole effect). In the present study we examine whether global precedence effects, measured by means of non-face stimuli in Navon's paradigm, can also account for individual differences in face recognition and, if so, whether the effect is of similar magnitude for faces and objects. We find evidence that global precedence effects facilitate both face and object recognition, and to a similar extent. Our results suggest that both face and object recognition are characterized by a coarse-to-fine temporal dynamic, where global shape information is derived prior to local shape information, and that the efficiency of face and object recognition is related to the magnitude of the global precedence effect.

  14. The interplay between perceptual organization and object recognition: Temporal dynamics and neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Torfs, Katrien

    2012-01-01

    The ease and efficiency with which we perceive objects in daily life masks the complexity of the processes involved. The main goal of my doctoral research was to enhance our understanding of the complex interplay between perceptual organization and object recognition. To this end, we investigated the dynamic interplay between different component processes of object recognition, and their temporal dynamics. In the first part of this thesis, I present three behavioral studies focusing on the ro...

  15. Recurrent processing during object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall C. O'Reilly

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available How does the brain learn to recognize objects visually, and perform this difficult feat robustly in the face of many sources of ambiguity and variability? We present a computational model based on the biology of the relevant visual pathways that learns to reliably recognize 100 different object categories in the face of of naturally-occurring variability in location, rotation, size, and lighting. The model exhibits robustness to highly ambiguous, partially occluded inputs. Both the unified, biologically plausible learning mechanism and the robustness to occlusion derive from the role that recurrent connectivity and recurrent processing mechanisms play in the model. Furthermore, this interaction of recurrent connectivity and learning predicts that high-level visual representations should be shaped by error signals from nearby, associated brain areas over the course of visual learning. Consistent with this prediction, we show how semantic knowledge about object categories changes the nature of their learned visual representations, as well as how this representational shift supports the mapping between perceptual and conceptual knowledge. Altogether, these findings support the potential importance of ongoing recurrent processing throughout the brain's visual system and suggest ways in which object recognition can be understood in terms of interactions within and between processes over time.

  16. A Large-Scale 3D Object Recognition dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølund, Thomas; Glent Buch, Anders; Krüger, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    geometric groups; concave, convex, cylindrical and flat 3D object models. The object models have varying amount of local geometric features to challenge existing local shape feature descriptors in terms of descriptiveness and robustness. The dataset is validated in a benchmark which evaluates the matching...... performance of 7 different state-of-the-art local shape descriptors. Further, we validate the dataset in a 3D object recognition pipeline. Our benchmark shows as expected that local shape feature descriptors without any global point relation across the surface have a poor matching performance with flat...

  17. Neural substrates of view-invariant object recognition developed without experiencing rotations of the objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Jun-Ya; Yamaguchi, Reona; Honda, Kazunari; Wang, Gang; Tanaka, Keiji

    2014-11-05

    One fails to recognize an unfamiliar object across changes in viewing angle when it must be discriminated from similar distractor objects. View-invariant recognition gradually develops as the viewer repeatedly sees the objects in rotation. It is assumed that different views of each object are associated with one another while their successive appearance is experienced in rotation. However, natural experience of objects also contains ample opportunities to discriminate among objects at each of the multiple viewing angles. Our previous behavioral experiments showed that after experiencing a new set of object stimuli during a task that required only discrimination at each of four viewing angles at 30° intervals, monkeys could recognize the objects across changes in viewing angle up to 60°. By recording activities of neurons from the inferotemporal cortex after various types of preparatory experience, we here found a possible neural substrate for the monkeys' performance. For object sets that the monkeys had experienced during the task that required only discrimination at each of four viewing angles, many inferotemporal neurons showed object selectivity covering multiple views. The degree of view generalization found for these object sets was similar to that found for stimulus sets with which the monkeys had been trained to conduct view-invariant recognition. These results suggest that the experience of discriminating new objects in each of several viewing angles develops the partially view-generalized object selectivity distributed over many neurons in the inferotemporal cortex, which in turn bases the monkeys' emergent capability to discriminate the objects across changes in viewing angle. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415047-13$15.00/0.

  18. Left posterior BA37 is involved in object recognition: a TMS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Meyer, Bernd-Ulrich; Frith, Uta

    2001-01-01

    Functional imaging studies have proposed a role for left BA37 in phonological retrieval, semantic processing, face processing and object recognition. The present study targeted the posterior aspect of BA37 to see whether a deficit, specific to one of the above types of processing could be induced...... to name pictures when TMS was given over lBA37 compared to vertex or rBA37. rTMS over lBA37 had no significant effect on word reading, nonword reading or colour naming. The picture naming deficit is suggested to result from a disruption to object recognition processes. This study corroborates the finding...... from a recent imaging study, that the most posterior part of left hemispheric BA37 has a necessary role in object recognition....

  19. Lateral septal vasopressin in rats : Role in social and object recognition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, H.G J; Koolhaas, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The capacity of male rats to remember familiar conspecifics is called social recognition. It is a form of short-term memory modulated by lateral septal (LS) vasopressin (VP). The specificity of this phenomenon was studied by examining whether recognition of previously investigated objects is also

  20. Advances in the behavioural testing and network imaging of rodent recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnavane, Lisa; Albasser, Mathieu M; Aggleton, John P

    2015-05-15

    Research into object recognition memory has been galvanised by the introduction of spontaneous preference tests for rodents. The standard task, however, contains a number of inherent shortcomings that reduce its power. Particular issues include the problem that individual trials are time consuming, so limiting the total number of trials in any condition. In addition, the spontaneous nature of the behaviour and the variability between test objects add unwanted noise. To combat these issues, the 'bow-tie maze' was introduced. Although still based on the spontaneous preference of novel over familiar stimuli, the ability to give multiple trials within a session without handling the rodents, as well as using the same objects as both novel and familiar samples on different trials, overcomes key limitations in the standard task. Giving multiple trials within a single session also creates new opportunities for functional imaging of object recognition memory. A series of studies are described that examine the expression of the immediate-early gene, c-fos. Object recognition memory is associated with increases in perirhinal cortex and area Te2 c-fos activity. When rats explore novel objects the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to the dentate gyrus and CA3, is engaged. In contrast, when familiar objects are explored the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to CA1, takes precedence. The switch to the perforant pathway (novel stimuli) from the temporoammonic pathway (familiar stimuli) may assist the enhanced associative learning promoted by novel stimuli. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Speckle-learning-based object recognition through scattering media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takamasa; Horisaki, Ryoichi; Tanida, Jun

    2015-12-28

    We experimentally demonstrated object recognition through scattering media based on direct machine learning of a number of speckle intensity images. In the experiments, speckle intensity images of amplitude or phase objects on a spatial light modulator between scattering plates were captured by a camera. We used the support vector machine for binary classification of the captured speckle intensity images of face and non-face data. The experimental results showed that speckles are sufficient for machine learning.

  2. Online Feature Transformation Learning for Cross-Domain Object Category Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Zhuang, Yan; Wang, Wei; Pedrycz, Witold

    2017-06-09

    In this paper, we introduce a new research problem termed online feature transformation learning in the context of multiclass object category recognition. The learning of a feature transformation is viewed as learning a global similarity metric function in an online manner. We first consider the problem of online learning a feature transformation matrix expressed in the original feature space and propose an online passive aggressive feature transformation algorithm. Then these original features are mapped to kernel space and an online single kernel feature transformation (OSKFT) algorithm is developed to learn a nonlinear feature transformation. Based on the OSKFT and the existing Hedge algorithm, a novel online multiple kernel feature transformation algorithm is also proposed, which can further improve the performance of online feature transformation learning in large-scale application. The classifier is trained with k nearest neighbor algorithm together with the learned similarity metric function. Finally, we experimentally examined the effect of setting different parameter values in the proposed algorithms and evaluate the model performance on several multiclass object recognition data sets. The experimental results demonstrate the validity and good performance of our methods on cross-domain and multiclass object recognition application.

  3. Critical object recognition in millimeter-wave images with robustness to rotation and scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzade, Hoda; Ghojogh, Benyamin; Faezi, Sina; Shabany, Mahdi

    2017-06-01

    Locating critical objects is crucial in various security applications and industries. For example, in security applications, such as in airports, these objects might be hidden or covered under shields or secret sheaths. Millimeter-wave images can be utilized to discover and recognize the critical objects out of the hidden cases without any health risk due to their non-ionizing features. However, millimeter-wave images usually have waves in and around the detected objects, making object recognition difficult. Thus, regular image processing and classification methods cannot be used for these images and additional pre-processings and classification methods should be introduced. This paper proposes a novel pre-processing method for canceling rotation and scale using principal component analysis. In addition, a two-layer classification method is introduced and utilized for recognition. Moreover, a large dataset of millimeter-wave images is collected and created for experiments. Experimental results show that a typical classification method such as support vector machines can recognize 45.5% of a type of critical objects at 34.2% false alarm rate (FAR), which is a drastically poor recognition. The same method within the proposed recognition framework achieves 92.9% recognition rate at 0.43% FAR, which indicates a highly significant improvement. The significant contribution of this work is to introduce a new method for analyzing millimeter-wave images based on machine vision and learning approaches, which is not yet widely noted in the field of millimeter-wave image analysis.

  4. Object recognition in images via a factor graph model

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Wang, Long; Wu, Zhaolin; Zhang, Haisu

    2018-04-01

    Object recognition in images suffered from huge search space and uncertain object profile. Recently, the Bag-of- Words methods are utilized to solve these problems, especially the 2-dimension CRF(Conditional Random Field) model. In this paper we suggest the method based on a general and flexible fact graph model, which can catch the long-range correlation in Bag-of-Words by constructing a network learning framework contrasted from lattice in CRF. Furthermore, we explore a parameter learning algorithm based on the gradient descent and Loopy Sum-Product algorithms for the factor graph model. Experimental results on Graz 02 dataset show that, the recognition performance of our method in precision and recall is better than a state-of-art method and the original CRF model, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Reliable Recognition of Partially Occluded Objects with Correlation Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Ruchay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of conventional correlation filters requires explicit knowledge of the appearance and shape of a target object, so the performance of correlation filters is significantly affected by changes in the appearance of the object in the input scene. In particular, the performance of correlation filters worsens when objects to be recognized are partially occluded by other objects, and the input scene contains a cluttered background and noise. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for the design of a system consisting of a set of adaptive correlation filters for recognition of partially occluded objects in noisy scenes. Since the input scene may contain different fragments of the target, false objects, and background to be rejected, the system is designed in such a manner to guarantee equally high correlation peaks corresponding to parts of the target in the scenes. The key points of the system are as follows: (i it consists of a bank of composite optimum filters, which yield the best performance for different parts of the target; (ii it includes a fragmentation of the target into a given number of parts in the training stage to provide equal intensity responses of the system for each part of the target. With the help of computer simulation, the performance of the proposed algorithm for recognition partially occluded objects is compared with that of common algorithms in terms of objective metrics.

  6. Captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus spontaneously using water flow to manipulate objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisato Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Several terrestrial animals and delphinids manipulate objects in a tactile manner, using parts of their bodies, such as their mouths or hands. In this paper, we report that bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus manipulate objects not by direct bodily contact, but by spontaneous water flow. Three of four dolphins at Suma Aqualife Park performed object manipulation with food. The typical sequence of object manipulation consisted of a three step procedure. First, the dolphins released the object from the sides of their mouths while assuming a head-down posture near the floor. They then manipulated the object around their mouths and caught it. Finally, they ceased to engage in their head-down posture and started to swim. When the dolphins moved the object, they used the water current in the pool or moved their head. These results showed that dolphins manipulate objects using movements that do not directly involve contact between a body part and the object. In the event the dolphins dropped the object on the floor, they lifted it by making water flow in one of three methods: opening and closing their mouths repeatedly, moving their heads lengthwise, or making circular head motions. This result suggests that bottlenose dolphins spontaneously change their environment to manipulate objects. The reason why aquatic animals like dolphins do object manipulation by changing their environment but terrestrial animals do not may be that the viscosity of the aquatic environment is much higher than it is in terrestrial environments. This is the first report thus far of any non-human mammal engaging in object manipulation using several methods to change their environment.

  7. Three-dimensional model-based object recognition and segmentation in cluttered scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Ajmal S; Bennamoun, Mohammed; Owens, Robyn

    2006-10-01

    Viewpoint independent recognition of free-form objects and their segmentation in the presence of clutter and occlusions is a challenging task. We present a novel 3D model-based algorithm which performs this task automatically and efficiently. A 3D model of an object is automatically constructed offline from its multiple unordered range images (views). These views are converted into multidimensional table representations (which we refer to as tensors). Correspondences are automatically established between these views by simultaneously matching the tensors of a view with those of the remaining views using a hash table-based voting scheme. This results in a graph of relative transformations used to register the views before they are integrated into a seamless 3D model. These models and their tensor representations constitute the model library. During online recognition, a tensor from the scene is simultaneously matched with those in the library by casting votes. Similarity measures are calculated for the model tensors which receive the most votes. The model with the highest similarity is transformed to the scene and, if it aligns accurately with an object in the scene, that object is declared as recognized and is segmented. This process is repeated until the scene is completely segmented. Experiments were performed on real and synthetic data comprised of 55 models and 610 scenes and an overall recognition rate of 95 percent was achieved. Comparison with the spin images revealed that our algorithm is superior in terms of recognition rate and efficiency.

  8. Neurophysiological indices of perceptual object priming in the absence of explicit recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jill D; Cutmore, Tim R H; O'Gorman, John; Finnigan, Simon; Shum, David

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify ERP correlates of perceptual object priming that are insensitive to factors affecting explicit, episodic memory. EEG was recorded from 21 participants while they performed a visual object recognition test on a combination of unstudied items and old items that were previously encountered during either a 'deep' or 'shallow' levels-of-processing (LOP) study task. The results demonstrated a midline P150 old/new effect which was sensitive only to objects' old/new status and not to the accuracy of recognition responses to old items, or to the LOP manipulation. Similar outcomes were observed for the subsequent P200 and N400 effects, the former of which had a parietal scalp maximum and the latter, a broadly distributed topography. In addition an LPC old/new effect typical of those reported in past ERP recognition studies was observed. These outcomes support the proposal that the P150 effect is reflective of perceptual object priming and moreover, provide novel evidence that this and the P200 effect are independent of explicit recognition memory process(es).

  9. Category-Specific Visual Recognition and Aging from the PACE Theory Perspective: Evidence for a Presemantic Deficit in Aging Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordaberry, Pierre; Gerlach, Christian; Lenoble, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Study Context: The objective of this study was to investigate the object recognition deficit in aging. Age-related declines were examined from the presemantic account of category effects (PACE) theory perspective (Gerlach, 2009, Cognition, 111, 281–301). This view assumes that the stru......Background/Study Context: The objective of this study was to investigate the object recognition deficit in aging. Age-related declines were examined from the presemantic account of category effects (PACE) theory perspective (Gerlach, 2009, Cognition, 111, 281–301). This view assumes...... that the structural similarity/dissimilarity inherent in living and nonliving objects, respectively, can account for a wide range of category-specific effects. Methods: In two experiments on object recognition, young (36 participants, 18–27 years) and older (36 participants, 53–69 years) adult participants...... in the selection stage of the PACE theory (visual long-term memory matching) could be responsible for these impairments. Indeed, the older group showed a deficit when this stage was most relevant. This article emphasize on the critical need for taking into account structural component of the stimuli and type...

  10. Modeling guidance and recognition in categorical search: Bridging human and computer object detection

    OpenAIRE

    Zelinsky, Gregory J.; Peng, Yifan; Berg, Alexander C.; Samaras, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    Search is commonly described as a repeating cycle of guidance to target-like objects, followed by the recognition of these objects as targets or distractors. Are these indeed separate processes using different visual features? We addressed this question by comparing observer behavior to that of support vector machine (SVM) models trained on guidance and recognition tasks. Observers searched for a categorically defined teddy bear target in four-object arrays. Target-absent trials consisted of ...

  11. Standard object recognition memory and "what" and "where" components: Improvement by post-training epinephrine in highly habituated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Berbel, Patricia; Costa-Miserachs, David; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Portell-Cortés, Isabel

    2010-02-11

    The present work examined whether post-training systemic epinephrine (EPI) is able to modulate short-term (3h) and long-term (24 h and 48 h) memory of standard object recognition, as well as long-term (24 h) memory of separate "what" (object identity) and "where" (object location) components of object recognition. Although object recognition training is associated to low arousal levels, all the animals received habituation to the training box in order to further reduce emotional arousal. Post-training EPI improved long-term (24 h and 48 h), but not short-term (3 h), memory in the standard object recognition task, as well as 24 h memory for both object identity and object location. These data indicate that post-training epinephrine: (1) facilitates long-term memory for standard object recognition; (2) exerts separate facilitatory effects on "what" (object identity) and "where" (object location) components of object recognition; and (3) is capable of improving memory for a low arousing task even in highly habituated rats.

  12. Detection of target phonemes in spontaneous and read speech

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, G.; Cutler, A.

    1988-01-01

    Although spontaneous speech occurs more frequently in most listeners’ experience than read speech, laboratory studies of human speech recognition typically use carefully controlled materials read from a script. The phonological and prosodic characteristics of spontaneous and read speech differ considerably, however, which suggests that laboratory results may not generalize to the recognition of spontaneous and read speech materials, and their response time to detect word-initial target phonem...

  13. Dopamine D4 receptor stimulation contributes to novel object recognition: Relevance to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Masanori; Neugebauer, Nichole M; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2017-04-01

    Several atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have high affinity for the dopamine (DA) D 4 receptor, but the relevance to the efficacy for the treatment of cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of D 4 receptor stimulation or blockade on novel object recognition (NOR) in normal rats and on the sub-chronic phencyclidine (PCP)-induced novel object recognition deficit. The effect of the D 4 agonist, PD168077, and the D 4 antagonist, L-745,870, were studied alone, and in combination with clozapine and lurasidone. In normal rats, L-745,870 impaired novel object recognition, whereas PD168077 had no effect. PD168077 acutely reversed the sub-chronic phencyclidine-induced novel object recognition deficit. Co-administration of a sub-effective dose (SED) of PD168077 with a sub-effective dose of lurasidone also reversed this deficit, but a sub-effective dose of PD168077 with a sub-effective dose of clozapine, a more potent D 4 antagonist than lurasidone, did not reverse the sub-chronic phencyclidine-induced novel object recognition deficit. At a dose that did not induce a novel object recognition deficit, L-745,870 blocked the ability of clozapine, but not lurasidone, to reverse the novel object recognition deficit. D 4 receptor agonism has a beneficial effect on novel object recognition in sub-chronic PCP-treated rats and augments the cognitive enhancing efficacy of an atypical antipsychotic drug that lacks affinity for the D 4 receptor, lurasidone.

  14. Object recognition using deep convolutional neural networks with complete transfer and partial frozen layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, M.C.; Bouma, H.; Fischer, N.M.; Schutte, K.

    2016-01-01

    Object recognition is important to understand the content of video and allow flexible querying in a large number of cameras, especially for security applications. Recent benchmarks show that deep convolutional neural networks are excellent approaches for object recognition. This paper describes an

  15. It's all connected: Pathways in visual object recognition and early noun learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda B

    2013-11-01

    A developmental pathway may be defined as the route, or chain of events, through which a new structure or function forms. For many human behaviors, including object name learning and visual object recognition, these pathways are often complex and multicausal and include unexpected dependencies. This article presents three principles of development that suggest the value of a developmental psychology that explicitly seeks to trace these pathways and uses empirical evidence on developmental dependencies among motor development, action on objects, visual object recognition, and object name learning in 12- to 24-month-old infants to make the case. The article concludes with a consideration of the theoretical implications of this approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Multi-sensor Object Recognition: The Case of Electronics Recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dop, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    In automated object recognition systems, measurements from a single source of information do not always suffice for the reconstruction of the underlying scene. Incompleteness, inaccuracy and unreliability of the information often leaves room for multiple interpretations of the world which are

  17. Communicative Signals Promote Object Recognition Memory and Modulate the Right Posterior STS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Ludlum, Ruth S; Velnoskey, Kayla R; Kanwal, Simren

    2016-01-01

    Detection of communicative signals is thought to facilitate knowledge acquisition early in life, but less is known about the role these signals play in adult learning or about the brain systems supporting sensitivity to communicative intent. The current study examined how ostensive gaze cues and communicative actions affect adult recognition memory and modulate neural activity as measured by fMRI. For both the behavioral and fMRI experiments, participants viewed a series of videos of an actress acting on one of two objects in front of her. Communicative context in the videos was manipulated in a 2 × 2 design in which the actress either had direct gaze (Gaze) or wore a visor (NoGaze) and either pointed at (Point) or reached for (Reach) one of the objects (target) in front of her. Participants then completed a recognition memory task with old (target and nontarget) objects and novel objects. Recognition memory for target objects in the Gaze conditions was greater than NoGaze, but no effects of gesture type were seen. Similarly, the fMRI video-viewing task revealed a significant effect of Gaze within right posterior STS (pSTS), but no significant effects of Gesture. Furthermore, pSTS sensitivity to Gaze conditions was related to greater memory for objects viewed in Gaze, as compared with NoGaze, conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the ostensive, communicative signal of direct gaze preceding an object-directed action enhances recognition memory for attended items and modulates the pSTS response to object-directed actions. Thus, establishment of a communicative context through ostensive signals remains an important component of learning and memory into adulthood, and the pSTS may play a role in facilitating this type of social learning.

  18. The subjective experience of object recognition: comparing metacognition for object detection and object categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J

    2014-05-01

    Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident. This subjective aspect of object recognition has been given little attention. We used metacognition (assessed with confidence ratings) to measure subjective experience during object detection and object categorization for degraded and masked objects, while objective performance was matched. Metacognition was equal for degraded and masked objects, but categorization led to higher metacognition than did detection. This effect turned out to be driven by a difference in metacognition for correct rejection trials, which seemed to be caused by an asymmetry of the distractor stimulus: It does not contain object-related information in the detection task, whereas it does contain such information in the categorization task. Strikingly, this asymmetry selectively impacted metacognitive ability when objective performance was matched. This finding reveals a fundamental difference in how humans reflect versus act on information: When matching the amount of information required to perform two tasks at some objective level of accuracy (acting), metacognitive ability (reflecting) is still better in tasks that rely on positive evidence (categorization) than in tasks that rely more strongly on an absence of evidence (detection).

  19. Effect of genetic homogeneity on behavioural variability in an object recognition test in cloned Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Herskin, Mette S.; Ladewig, Jan

    2012-01-01

    effects of genetic homogeneity on variability of cloned minipigs compared with non-cloned controls regarding behavioural variables in a cognitive test, namely the spontaneous object recognition test. Significant differences in the variability between the cloned and control pigs were found in five out...... was numerically greater for the control group compared to the cloned group, indicating that variation may be less in cloned animals, but not demonstrable with the small group size of the present study (n = 6 for each of the two groups tested). Overall, this study failed to show unambiguously that variability......The number of animals used in research should be limited as much as possible. Among cloned animals, genetic variation is minimal and to the extent that behaviour is genetically determined inter-individual variability is expected to be higher among naturally bred animals. However, the cloning...

  20. Object Recognition System in Remote Controlled Weapon Station using SIFT and SURF Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midriem Mirdanies

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Object recognition system using computer vision that is implemented on Remote Controlled Weapon Station (RCWS is discussed. This system will make it easier to identify and shoot targeted object automatically. Algorithm was created to recognize real time multiple objects using two methods i.e. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF combined with K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC for verification. The algorithm is designed to improve object detection to be more robust and to minimize the processing time required. Objects are registered on the system consisting of the armored personnel carrier, tanks, bus, sedan, big foot, and police jeep. In addition, object selection can use mouse to shoot another object that has not been registered on the system. Kinect™ is used to capture RGB images and to find the coordinates x, y, and z of the object. The programming language used is C with visual studio IDE 2010 and opencv libraries. Object recognition program is divided into three parts: 1 reading image from kinect™ and simulation results, 2 object recognition process, and 3 transfer of the object data to the ballistic computer. Communication between programs is performed using shared memory. The detected object data is sent to the ballistic computer via Local Area Network (LAN using winsock for ballistic calculation, and then the motor control system moves the direction of the weapon model to the desired object. The experimental results show that the SIFT method is more suitable because more accurate and faster than SURF with the average processing time to detect one object is 430.2 ms, two object is 618.4 ms, three objects is 682.4 ms, and four objects is 756.2 ms. Object recognition program is able to recognize multi-objects and the data of the identified object can be processed by the ballistic computer in realtime.

  1. Neuropeptide S interacts with the basolateral amygdala noradrenergic system in facilitating object recognition memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ren-Wen; Xu, Hong-Jiao; Zhang, Rui-San; Wang, Pei; Chang, Min; Peng, Ya-Li; Deng, Ke-Yu; Wang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The noradrenergic activity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) was reported to be involved in the regulation of object recognition memory. As the BLA expresses high density of receptors for Neuropeptide S (NPS), we investigated whether the BLA is involved in mediating NPS's effects on object recognition memory consolidation and whether such effects require noradrenergic activity. Intracerebroventricular infusion of NPS (1nmol) post training facilitated 24-h memory in a mouse novel object recognition task. The memory-enhancing effect of NPS could be blocked by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Furthermore, post-training intra-BLA infusions of NPS (0.5nmol/side) improved 24-h memory for objects, which was impaired by co-administration of propranolol (0.5μg/side). Taken together, these results indicate that NPS interacts with the BLA noradrenergic system in improving object recognition memory during consolidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dopamine D1 receptor activation leads to object recognition memory in a coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trevor J; Tresguerres, Martin; Kline, David I

    2017-07-01

    Object recognition memory is the ability to identify previously seen objects and is an adaptive mechanism that increases survival for many species throughout the animal kingdom. Previously believed to be possessed by only the highest order mammals, it is now becoming clear that fish are also capable of this type of memory formation. Similar to the mammalian hippocampus, the dorsolateral pallium regulates distinct memory processes and is modulated by neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Caribbean bicolour damselfish ( Stegastes partitus ) live in complex environments dominated by coral reef structures and thus likely possess many types of complex memory abilities including object recognition. This study used a novel object recognition test in which fish were first presented two identical objects, then after a retention interval of 10 min with no objects, the fish were presented with a novel object and one of the objects they had previously encountered in the first trial. We demonstrate that the dopamine D 1 -receptor agonist (SKF 38393) induces the formation of object recognition memories in these fish. Thus, our results suggest that dopamine-receptor mediated enhancement of spatial memory formation in fish represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in vertebrates. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Mirror self-recognition: a review and critique of attempts to promote and engineer self-recognition in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Gallup, Gordon G

    2015-10-01

    We review research on reactions to mirrors and self-recognition in nonhuman primates, focusing on methodological issues. Starting with the initial demonstration in chimpanzees in 1970 and subsequent attempts to extend this to other species, self-recognition in great apes is discussed with emphasis on spontaneous manifestations of mirror-guided self-exploration as well as spontaneous use of the mirror to investigate foreign marks on otherwise nonvisible body parts-the mark test. Attempts to show self-recognition in other primates are examined with particular reference to the lack of convincing examples of spontaneous mirror-guided self-exploration, and efforts to engineer positive mark test responses by modifying the test or using conditioning techniques. Despite intensive efforts to demonstrate self-recognition in other primates, we conclude that to date there is no compelling evidence that prosimians, monkeys, or lesser apes-gibbons and siamangs-are capable of mirror self-recognition.

  4. Speaker-sensitive emotion recognition via ranking: Studies on acted and spontaneous speech☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Houwei; Verma, Ragini; Nenkova, Ani

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a ranking approach for emotion recognition which naturally incorporates information about the general expressivity of speakers. We demonstrate that our approach leads to substantial gains in accuracy compared to conventional approaches. We train ranking SVMs for individual emotions, treating the data from each speaker as a separate query, and combine the predictions from all rankers to perform multi-class prediction. The ranking method provides two natural benefits. It captures speaker specific information even in speaker-independent training/testing conditions. It also incorporates the intuition that each utterance can express a mix of possible emotion and that considering the degree to which each emotion is expressed can be productively exploited to identify the dominant emotion. We compare the performance of the rankers and their combination to standard SVM classification approaches on two publicly available datasets of acted emotional speech, Berlin and LDC, as well as on spontaneous emotional data from the FAU Aibo dataset. On acted data, ranking approaches exhibit significantly better performance compared to SVM classification both in distinguishing a specific emotion from all others and in multi-class prediction. On the spontaneous data, which contains mostly neutral utterances with a relatively small portion of less intense emotional utterances, ranking-based classifiers again achieve much higher precision in identifying emotional utterances than conventional SVM classifiers. In addition, we discuss the complementarity of conventional SVM and ranking-based classifiers. On all three datasets we find dramatically higher accuracy for the test items on whose prediction the two methods agree compared to the accuracy of individual methods. Furthermore on the spontaneous data the ranking and standard classification are complementary and we obtain marked improvement when we combine the two classifiers by late-stage fusion.

  5. Contextual System of Symbol Structural Recognition based on an Object-Process Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Delalandre, Mathieu

    2005-01-01

    We present in this paper a symbol recognition system for the graphic documents. This one is based on a contextual approach for symbol structural recognition exploiting an Object-Process Methodology. It uses a processing library composed of structural recognition processings and contextual evaluation processings. These processings allow our system to deal with the multi-representation of symbols. The different processings are controlled, in an automatic way, by an inference engine during the r...

  6. A General Polygon-based Deformable Model for Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Fisker; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    1999-01-01

    We propose a general scheme for object localization and recognition based on a deformable model. The model combines shape and image properties by warping a arbitrary prototype intensity template according to the deformation in shape. The shape deformations are constrained by a probabilistic distr...

  7. An Approach to Object Recognition: Aligning Pictorial Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    PERFORMING 0RGANIZATION NAMIE ANDORS IS551. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREKA A WORK UNIT NUMBERS ( 545 Technology... ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A.I. Memo No. 931 December, 1986 AN APPROACH TO OBJECT RECOGNITION: ALIGNING PICTORIAL DESCRIPTIONS Shimon Ullman...within the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the A.I. Laboratory’s artificial intelligence

  8. Attentional Selection for Object Recognition - A Gentle Way

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walther, Dirk; Itti, Laurent; Riesenhuber, Maximilian; Poggio, Tomaso; Koch, Christof

    2002-01-01

    ...% at a high level is sufficient to recognize multiple objects. To determine the size and shape of the region to be modulated, a rough segmentation is performed, based on pre-attentive features already computed to guide attention. Testing with synthetic and natural stimuli demonstrates that our new approach to attentional selection for recognition yields encouraging results in addition to being biologically plausible.

  9. Dorsal stream involvement in recognition of objects with transient onset but not with ramped onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenco Tomas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the ventral visual stream is understood to be responsible for object recognition, it has been proposed that the dorsal stream may contribute to object recognition by rapidly activating parietal attention mechanisms, prior to ventral stream object processing. Methods To investigate the relative contribution of the dorsal visual stream to object recognition a group of tertiary students were divided into good and poor motion coherence groups and assessed on tasks classically assumed to rely on ventral stream processing. Participants were required to identify simple line drawings in two tasks, one where objects were presented abruptly for 50 ms followed by a white-noise mask, the other where contrast was linearly ramped on and off over 325 ms and replaced with a mask. Results Although both groups only differed in motion coherence performance (a dorsal stream measure, the good motion coherence group showed superior contrast sensitivity for object recognition on the abrupt, but not the ramped presentation tasks. Conclusions We propose that abrupt presentation of objects activated attention mechanisms fed by the dorsal stream, whereas the ramped presentation had reduced transience and thus did not activate dorsal attention mechanisms as well. The results suggest that rapid dorsal stream activation may be required to assist with ventral stream object processing.

  10. Computing with Connections in Visual Recognition of Origami Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Daniel

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes an initial foray in tackling artificial intelligence problems using a connectionist approach. The task chosen is visual recognition of Origami objects, and the questions answered are how to construct a connectionist network to represent and recognize projected Origami line drawings and the advantages such an approach would have. (30…

  11. Early age-dependent impairments of context-dependent extinction learning, object recognition, and object-place learning occur in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiescholleck, Valentina; Emma André, Marion Agnès; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2014-03-01

    The hippocampus is vulnerable to age-dependent memory decline. Multiple forms of memory depend on adequate hippocampal function. Extinction learning comprises active inhibition of no longer relevant learned information concurrent with suppression of a previously learned reaction. It is highly dependent on context, and evidence exists that it requires hippocampal activation. In this study, we addressed whether context-based extinction as well as hippocampus-dependent tasks, such as object recognition and object-place recognition, are equally affected by moderate aging. Young (7-8 week old) and older (7-8 month old) Wistar rats were used. For the extinction study, animals learned that a particular floor context indicated that they should turn into one specific arm (e.g., left) to receive a food reward. On the day after reaching the learning criterion of 80% correct choices, the floor context was changed, no reward was given and animals were expected to extinguish the learned response. Both, young and older rats managed this first extinction trial in the new context with older rats showing a faster extinction performance. One day later, animals were returned to the T-maze with the original floor context and renewal effects were assessed. In this case, only young but not older rats showed the expected renewal effect (lower extinction ratio as compared to the day before). To assess general memory abilities, animals were tested in the standard object recognition and object-place memory tasks. Evaluations were made at 5 min, 1 h and 7 day intervals. Object recognition memory was poor at short-term and intermediate time-points in older but not young rats. Object-place memory performance was unaffected at 5 min, but impaired at 1 h in older but not young rats. Both groups were impaired at 7 days. These findings support that not only aspects of general memory, but also context-dependent extinction learning, are affected by moderate aging. This may reflect less flexibility in

  12. Neural network application for thermal image recognition of low-resolution objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi-Chin; Wu, Bo-Wen

    2007-02-01

    In the ever-changing situation on a battle field, accurate recognition of a distant object is critical to a commander's decision-making and the general public's safety. Efficiently distinguishing between an enemy's armoured vehicles and ordinary civilian houses under all weather conditions has become an important research topic. This study presents a system for recognizing an armoured vehicle by distinguishing marks and contours. The characteristics of 12 different shapes and 12 characters are used to explore thermal image recognition under the circumstance of long distance and low resolution. Although the recognition capability of human eyes is superior to that of artificial intelligence under normal conditions, it tends to deteriorate substantially under long-distance and low-resolution scenarios. This study presents an effective method for choosing features and processing images. The artificial neural network technique is applied to further improve the probability of accurate recognition well beyond the limit of the recognition capability of human eyes.

  13. The Consolidation of Object and Context Recognition Memory Involve Different Regions of the Temporal Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas, Israela; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Salgado-Tonda, Paloma; Chavez-Hurtado, Julio; McGaugh, James L.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2008-01-01

    These experiments investigated the involvement of several temporal lobe regions in consolidation of recognition memory. Anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, was infused into the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, insular cortex, or basolateral amygdala of rats immediately after the sample phase of object or object-in-context recognition memory…

  14. Metric invariance in object recognition: a review and further evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, E E; Biederman, I; Hummel, J E

    1992-06-01

    Phenomenologically, human shape recognition appears to be invariant with changes of orientation in depth (up to parts occlusion), position in the visual field, and size. Recent versions of template theories (e.g., Ullman, 1989; Lowe, 1987) assume that these invariances are achieved through the application of transformations such as rotation, translation, and scaling of the image so that it can be matched metrically to a stored template. Presumably, such transformations would require time for their execution. We describe recent priming experiments in which the effects of a prior brief presentation of an image on its subsequent recognition are assessed. The results of these experiments indicate that the invariance is complete: The magnitude of visual priming (as distinct from name or basic level concept priming) is not affected by a change in position, size, orientation in depth, or the particular lines and vertices present in the image, as long as representations of the same components can be activated. An implemented seven layer neural network model (Hummel & Biederman, 1992) that captures these fundamental properties of human object recognition is described. Given a line drawing of an object, the model activates a viewpoint-invariant structural description of the object, specifying its parts and their interrelations. Visual priming is interpreted as a change in the connection weights for the activation of: a) cells, termed geon feature assemblies (GFAs), that conjoin the output of units that represent invariant, independent properties of a single geon and its relations (such as its type, aspect ratio, relations to other geons), or b) a change in the connection weights by which several GFAs activate a cell representing an object.

  15. Glucocorticoid effects on object recognition memory require training-associated emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Shoki; Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L

    2004-01-20

    Considerable evidence implicates glucocorticoid hormones in the regulation of memory consolidation and memory retrieval. The present experiments investigated whether the influence of these hormones on memory depends on the level of emotional arousal induced by the training experience. We investigated this issue in male Sprague-Dawley rats by examining the effects of immediate posttraining systemic injections of the glucocorticoid corticosterone on object recognition memory under two conditions that differed in their training-associated emotional arousal. In rats that were not previously habituated to the experimental context, corticosterone (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) administered immediately after a 3-min training trial enhanced 24-hr retention performance in an inverted-U shaped dose-response relationship. In contrast, corticosterone did not affect 24-hr retention of rats that received extensive prior habituation to the experimental context and, thus, had decreased novelty-induced emotional arousal during training. Additionally, immediate posttraining administration of corticosterone to nonhabituated rats, in doses that enhanced 24-hr retention, impaired object recognition performance at a 1-hr retention interval whereas corticosterone administered after training to well-habituated rats did not impair 1-hr retention. Thus, the present findings suggest that training-induced emotional arousal may be essential for glucocorticoid effects on object recognition memory.

  16. Priming Contour-Deleted Images: Evidence for Immediate Representations in Visual Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Irving; Cooper, Eric E.

    1991-01-01

    Speed and accuracy of identification of pictures of objects are facilitated by prior viewing. Contributions of image features, convex or concave components, and object models in a repetition priming task were explored in 2 studies involving 96 college students. Results provide evidence of intermediate representations in visual object recognition.…

  17. Recurrent Convolutional Neural Networks: A Better Model of Biological Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerer, Courtney J; McClure, Patrick; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    Feedforward neural networks provide the dominant model of how the brain performs visual object recognition. However, these networks lack the lateral and feedback connections, and the resulting recurrent neuronal dynamics, of the ventral visual pathway in the human and non-human primate brain. Here we investigate recurrent convolutional neural networks with bottom-up (B), lateral (L), and top-down (T) connections. Combining these types of connections yields four architectures (B, BT, BL, and BLT), which we systematically test and compare. We hypothesized that recurrent dynamics might improve recognition performance in the challenging scenario of partial occlusion. We introduce two novel occluded object recognition tasks to test the efficacy of the models, digit clutter (where multiple target digits occlude one another) and digit debris (where target digits are occluded by digit fragments). We find that recurrent neural networks outperform feedforward control models (approximately matched in parametric complexity) at recognizing objects, both in the absence of occlusion and in all occlusion conditions. Recurrent networks were also found to be more robust to the inclusion of additive Gaussian noise. Recurrent neural networks are better in two respects: (1) they are more neurobiologically realistic than their feedforward counterparts; (2) they are better in terms of their ability to recognize objects, especially under challenging conditions. This work shows that computer vision can benefit from using recurrent convolutional architectures and suggests that the ubiquitous recurrent connections in biological brains are essential for task performance.

  18. Bidirectional Modulation of Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jonathan W; Poeta, Devon L; Jacobson, Tara K; Zolnik, Timothy A; Neske, Garrett T; Connors, Barry W; Burwell, Rebecca D

    2015-09-30

    Perirhinal cortex (PER) has a well established role in the familiarity-based recognition of individual items and objects. For example, animals and humans with perirhinal damage are unable to distinguish familiar from novel objects in recognition memory tasks. In the normal brain, perirhinal neurons respond to novelty and familiarity by increasing or decreasing firing rates. Recent work also implicates oscillatory activity in the low-beta and low-gamma frequency bands in sensory detection, perception, and recognition. Using optogenetic methods in a spontaneous object exploration (SOR) task, we altered recognition memory performance in rats. In the SOR task, normal rats preferentially explore novel images over familiar ones. We modulated exploratory behavior in this task by optically stimulating channelrhodopsin-expressing perirhinal neurons at various frequencies while rats looked at novel or familiar 2D images. Stimulation at 30-40 Hz during looking caused rats to treat a familiar image as if it were novel by increasing time looking at the image. Stimulation at 30-40 Hz was not effective in increasing exploration of novel images. Stimulation at 10-15 Hz caused animals to treat a novel image as familiar by decreasing time looking at the image, but did not affect looking times for images that were already familiar. We conclude that optical stimulation of PER at different frequencies can alter visual recognition memory bidirectionally. Significance statement: Recognition of novelty and familiarity are important for learning, memory, and decision making. Perirhinal cortex (PER) has a well established role in the familiarity-based recognition of individual items and objects, but how novelty and familiarity are encoded and transmitted in the brain is not known. Perirhinal neurons respond to novelty and familiarity by changing firing rates, but recent work suggests that brain oscillations may also be important for recognition. In this study, we showed that stimulation of

  19. Back to Basic: Do Children with Autism Spontaneously Look at Screen Displaying a Face or an Object?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Guimard-Brunault

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking studies on exploration of faces and objects in autism provided important knowledge but only in a constraint condition (chin rest, total time looking at screen not reported, without studying potential differences between subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and controls in spontaneous visual attention toward a screen presenting these stimuli. This study used eye tracking to compare spontaneous visual attention to a screen displaying a face or an object between children with autism and controls in a nonconstraint condition and to investigate the relationship with clinical characteristics in autism group. Time exploring screen was measured during passive viewing of static images of faces or objects. Autistic behaviors were assessed by the CARS and the BSE-R in autism group. In autism group, time exploring face screen and time exploring object screen were lower than in controls and were not correlated with degree of distractibility. There was no interaction between group and type of image on time spent exploring screen. Only time exploring face screen was correlated with autism severity and gaze impairment. Results highlight particularities of spontaneous visual attention toward a screen displaying faces or objects in autism, which should be taken into account in future eye-tracking studies on face exploration.

  20. Distinct roles of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in spatial and object recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kana Okada; Kayo Nishizawa; Tomoko Kobayashi; Shogo Sakata; Kazuto Kobayashi

    2015-01-01

    Recognition memory requires processing of various types of information such as objects and locations. Impairment in recognition memory is a prominent feature of amnesia and a symptom of Alzheimer?s disease (AD). Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons contain two major groups, one localized in the medial septum (MS)/vertical diagonal band of Broca (vDB), and the other in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). The roles of these cell groups in recognition memory have been debated, and it remai...

  1. A rat in the sewer: How mental imagery interacts with object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpur, Harun; Hamburger, Kai

    2018-01-01

    The role of mental imagery has been puzzling researchers for more than two millennia. Both positive and negative effects of mental imagery on information processing have been discussed. The aim of this work was to examine how mental imagery affects object recognition and associative learning. Based on different perceptual and cognitive accounts we tested our imagery-induced interaction hypothesis in a series of two experiments. According to that, mental imagery could lead to (1) a superior performance in object recognition and associative learning if these objects are imagery-congruent (semantically) and to (2) an inferior performance if these objects are imagery-incongruent. In the first experiment, we used a static environment and tested associative learning. In the second experiment, subjects encoded object information in a dynamic environment by means of a virtual sewer system. Our results demonstrate that subjects who received a role adoption task (by means of guided mental imagery) performed better when imagery-congruent objects were used and worse when imagery-incongruent objects were used. We finally discuss our findings also with respect to alternative accounts and plead for a multi-methodological approach for future research in order to solve this issue.

  2. Structured Kernel Dictionary Learning with Correlation Constraint for Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjue; Wang, Yinghua; Liu, Hongwei; Zhang, Hao

    2017-06-21

    In this paper, we propose a new discriminative non-linear dictionary learning approach, called correlation constrained structured kernel KSVD, for object recognition. The objective function for dictionary learning contains a reconstructive term and a discriminative term. In the reconstructive term, signals are implicitly non-linearly mapped into a space, where a structured kernel dictionary, each sub-dictionary of which lies in the span of the mapped signals from the corresponding class, is established. In the discriminative term, by analyzing the classification mechanism, the correlation constraint is proposed in kernel form, constraining the correlations between different discriminative codes, and restricting the coefficient vectors to be transformed into a feature space, where the features are highly correlated inner-class and nearly independent between-classes. The objective function is optimized by the proposed structured kernel KSVD. During the classification stage, the specific form of the discriminative feature is needless to be known, while the inner product of the discriminative feature with kernel matrix embedded is available, and is suitable for a linear SVM classifier. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms many state-of-the-art dictionary learning approaches for face, scene and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) vehicle target recognition.

  3. A Neural Model Combining Attentional Orienting to Object Recognition: Preliminary Explorations on the Interplay Between Where and What

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miau, Florence

    2001-01-01

    ... ("where") pathway and an object recognition ("what") pathway. The fast visual attention front-end rapidly selects the few most conspicuous image locations, and the slower object recognition back-end identifies objects at the selected locations...

  4. Discriminative kernel feature extraction and learning for object recognition and detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor; Zhu, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    Feature extraction and learning is critical for object recognition and detection. By embedding context cue of image attributes into the kernel descriptors, we propose a set of novel kernel descriptors called context kernel descriptors (CKD). The motivation of CKD is to use the spatial consistency...... even in high-dimensional space. In addition, the latent connection between Rényi quadratic entropy and the mapping data in kernel feature space further facilitates us to capture the geometric structure as well as the information about the underlying labels of the CKD using CSQMI. Thus the resulting...... codebook and reduced CKD are discriminative. We report superior performance of our algorithm for object recognition on benchmark datasets like Caltech-101 and CIFAR-10, as well as for detection on a challenging chicken feet dataset....

  5. Crowded and Sparse Domains in Object Recognition: Consequences for Categorization and Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Tim M.; Laws, Keith R.; Foley, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    Some models of object recognition propose that items from structurally crowded categories (e.g., living things) permit faster access to superordinate semantic information than structurally dissimilar categories (e.g., nonliving things), but slower access to individual object information when naming items. We present four experiments that utilize…

  6. Visual recognition and tracking of objects for robot sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    An overview is presented of a number of techniques used for recognition and motion tracking of articulated 3-D objects. With recent advances in robust methods for model-based vision and improved performance of computer systems, it will soon be possible to build low-cost, high-reliability systems for model-based motion tracking. Such systems can be expected to open up a wide range of applications in robotics by providing machines with real-time information about their environment. This paper describes a number of techniques for efficiently matching parameterized 3-D models to image features. The matching methods are robust with respect to missing and ambiguous features as well as measurement errors. Unlike most previous work on model-based motion tracking, this system provides for the integrated treatment of matching and measurement errors during motion tracking. The initial application is in a system for real-time motion tracking of articulated 3-D objects. With the future addition of an indexing component, these same techniques can also be used for general model-based recognition. The current real-time implementation is based on matching straight line segments, but some preliminary experiments on matching arbitrary curves are also described. (author)

  7. Face Recognition Is Affected by Similarity in Spatial Frequency Range to a Greater Degree Than Within-Category Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Charles A.; Liu, Chang Hong; Troje, Nikolaus F.; McMullen, Patricia A.; Chaudhuri, Avi

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that face identification is more sensitive to variations in spatial frequency content than object recognition, but none have compared how sensitive the 2 processes are to variations in spatial frequency overlap (SFO). The authors tested face and object matching accuracy under varying SFO conditions. Their results…

  8. Enhancing Perception with Tactile Object Recognition in Adaptive Grippers for Human–Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Gandarias

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of tactile perception can help first response robotic teams in disaster scenarios, where visibility conditions are often reduced due to the presence of dust, mud, or smoke, distinguishing human limbs from other objects with similar shapes. Here, the integration of the tactile sensor in adaptive grippers is evaluated, measuring the performance of an object recognition task based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs using a flexible sensor mounted in adaptive grippers. A total of 15 classes with 50 tactile images each were trained, including human body parts and common environment objects, in semi-rigid and flexible adaptive grippers based on the fin ray effect. The classifier was compared against the rigid configuration and a support vector machine classifier (SVM. Finally, a two-level output network has been proposed to provide both object-type recognition and human/non-human classification. Sensors in adaptive grippers have a higher number of non-null tactels (up to 37% more, with a lower mean of pressure values (up to 72% less than when using a rigid sensor, with a softer grip, which is needed in physical human–robot interaction (pHRI. A semi-rigid implementation with 95.13% object recognition rate was chosen, even though the human/non-human classification had better results (98.78% with a rigid sensor.

  9. Enhancing Perception with Tactile Object Recognition in Adaptive Grippers for Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandarias, Juan M; Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M; García-Cerezo, Alfonso J

    2018-02-26

    The use of tactile perception can help first response robotic teams in disaster scenarios, where visibility conditions are often reduced due to the presence of dust, mud, or smoke, distinguishing human limbs from other objects with similar shapes. Here, the integration of the tactile sensor in adaptive grippers is evaluated, measuring the performance of an object recognition task based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) using a flexible sensor mounted in adaptive grippers. A total of 15 classes with 50 tactile images each were trained, including human body parts and common environment objects, in semi-rigid and flexible adaptive grippers based on the fin ray effect. The classifier was compared against the rigid configuration and a support vector machine classifier (SVM). Finally, a two-level output network has been proposed to provide both object-type recognition and human/non-human classification. Sensors in adaptive grippers have a higher number of non-null tactels (up to 37% more), with a lower mean of pressure values (up to 72% less) than when using a rigid sensor, with a softer grip, which is needed in physical human-robot interaction (pHRI). A semi-rigid implementation with 95.13% object recognition rate was chosen, even though the human/non-human classification had better results (98.78%) with a rigid sensor.

  10. Distinct roles of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in GABAA receptor blockade-induced enhancement of object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Younghwan; Park, Se Jin; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2014-03-13

    It is well known that the hippocampus plays a role in spatial and contextual memory, and that spatial information is tightly regulated by the hippocampus. However, it is still highly controversial whether the hippocampus plays a role in object recognition memory. In a pilot study, the administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, enhanced memory in the passive avoidance task, but not in the novel object recognition task. In the present study, we hypothesized that these different results are related to the characteristics of each task and the different roles of hippocampus and perirhinal cortex. A region-specific drug-treatment model was employed to clarify the role of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in object recognition memory. After a single habituation in the novel object recognition task, intra-perirhinal cortical injection of bicuculline increased and intra-hippocampal injection decreased the exploration time ratio to novel object. In addition, when animals were repeatedly habituated to the context, intra-perirhinal cortical administration of bicuculline still increased exploration time ratio to novel object, but the effect of intra-hippocampal administration disappeared. Concurrent increases of c-Fos expression and ERK phosphorylation were observed in the perirhinal cortex of the object with context-exposed group either after single or repeated habituation to the context, but no changes were noted in the hippocampus. Altogether, these results suggest that object recognition memory formation requires the perirhinal cortex but not the hippocampus, and that hippocampal activation interferes with object recognition memory by the information encoding of unfamiliar environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. New automated procedure to assess context recognition memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, David; Walter, Ondine; Bourgoin, Lucie; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib

    2014-11-01

    Recognition memory is an important aspect of human declarative memory and is one of the routine memory abilities altered in patients with amnestic syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. In rodents, recognition memory has been most widely assessed using the novel object preference paradigm, which exploits the spontaneous preference that animals display for novel objects. Here, we used nose-poke units instead of objects to design a simple automated method for assessing context recognition memory in mice. In the acquisition trial, mice are exposed for the first time to an operant chamber with one blinking nose-poke unit. In the choice session, a novel nonblinking nose-poke unit is inserted into an empty spatial location and the number of nose poking dedicated to each set of nose-poke unit is used as an index of recognition memory. We report that recognition performance varies as a function of the length of the acquisition period and the retention delay and is sensitive to conventional amnestic treatments. By manipulating the features of the operant chamber during a brief retrieval episode (3-min long), we further demonstrate that reconsolidation of the original contextual memory depends on the magnitude and the type of environmental changes introduced into the familiar spatial environment. These results show that the nose-poke recognition task provides a rapid and reliable way for assessing context recognition memory in mice and offers new possibilities for the deciphering of the brain mechanisms governing the reconsolidation process.

  12. Image object recognition based on the Zernike moment and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jianwei; Wang, Ling; Huang, Fukan; Zhou, Liangzhu

    1998-03-01

    This paper first give a comprehensive discussion about the concept of artificial neural network its research methods and the relations with information processing. On the basis of such a discussion, we expound the mathematical similarity of artificial neural network and information processing. Then, the paper presents a new method of image recognition based on invariant features and neural network by using image Zernike transform. The method not only has the invariant properties for rotation, shift and scale of image object, but also has good fault tolerance and robustness. Meanwhile, it is also compared with statistical classifier and invariant moments recognition method.

  13. Joint Tensor Feature Analysis For Visual Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai Keung; Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Wen, Jiajun; Ho, Chu Po

    2015-11-01

    Tensor-based object recognition has been widely studied in the past several years. This paper focuses on the issue of joint feature selection from the tensor data and proposes a novel method called joint tensor feature analysis (JTFA) for tensor feature extraction and recognition. In order to obtain a set of jointly sparse projections for tensor feature extraction, we define the modified within-class tensor scatter value and the modified between-class tensor scatter value for regression. The k-mode optimization technique and the L(2,1)-norm jointly sparse regression are combined together to compute the optimal solutions. The convergent analysis, computational complexity analysis and the essence of the proposed method/model are also presented. It is interesting to show that the proposed method is very similar to singular value decomposition on the scatter matrix but with sparsity constraint on the right singular value matrix or eigen-decomposition on the scatter matrix with sparse manner. Experimental results on some tensor datasets indicate that JTFA outperforms some well-known tensor feature extraction and selection algorithms.

  14. Where vision meets memory: prefrontal-posterior networks for visual object constancy during categorization and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendan, Haline E; Stern, Chantal E

    2008-07-01

    Objects seen from unusual relative to more canonical views require more time to categorize and recognize, and, according to object model verification theories, additionally recruit prefrontal processes for cognitive control that interact with parietal processes for mental rotation. To test this using functional magnetic resonance imaging, people categorized and recognized known objects from unusual and canonical views. Canonical views activated some components of a default network more on categorization than recognition. Activation to unusual views showed that both ventral and dorsal visual pathways, and prefrontal cortex, have key roles in visual object constancy. Unusual views activated object-sensitive and mental rotation (and not saccade) regions in ventrocaudal intraparietal, transverse occipital, and inferotemporal sulci, and ventral premotor cortex for verification processes of model testing on any task. A collateral-lingual sulci "place" area activated for mental rotation, working memory, and unusual views on correct recognition and categorization trials to accomplish detailed spatial matching. Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and object-sensitive lateral occipital sulcus activated for mental rotation and unusual views on categorization more than recognition, supporting verification processes of model prediction. This visual knowledge framework integrates vision and memory theories to explain how distinct prefrontal-posterior networks enable meaningful interactions with objects in diverse situations.

  15. Representations and Techniques for 3D Object Recognition and Scene Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Hoiem, Derek

    2011-01-01

    One of the grand challenges of artificial intelligence is to enable computers to interpret 3D scenes and objects from imagery. This book organizes and introduces major concepts in 3D scene and object representation and inference from still images, with a focus on recent efforts to fuse models of geometry and perspective with statistical machine learning. The book is organized into three sections: (1) Interpretation of Physical Space; (2) Recognition of 3D Objects; and (3) Integrated 3D Scene Interpretation. The first discusses representations of spatial layout and techniques to interpret physi

  16. Deformation-specific and deformation-invariant visual object recognition: pose vs identity recognition of people and deforming objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan J Webb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When we see a human sitting down, standing up, or walking, we can recognise one of these poses independently of the individual, or we can recognise the individual person, independently of the pose. The same issues arise for deforming objects. For example, if we see a flag deformed by the wind, either blowing out or hanging languidly, we can usually recognise the flag, independently of its deformation; or we can recognise the deformation independently of the identity of the flag. We hypothesize that these types of recognition can be implemented by the primate visual system using temporo-spatial continuity as objects transform as a learning principle. In particular, we hypothesize that pose or deformation can be learned under conditions in which large numbers of different people are successively seen in the same pose, or objects in the same deformation. We also hypothesize that person-specific representations that are independent of pose, and object-specific representations that are independent of deformation and view, could be built, when individual people or objects are observed successively transforming from one pose or deformation and view to another. These hypotheses were tested in a simulation of the ventral visual system, VisNet, that uses temporal continuity, implemented in a synaptic learning rule with a short-term memory trace of previous neuronal activity, to learn invariant representations. It was found that depending on the statistics of the visual input, either pose-specific or deformation-specific representations could be built that were invariant with respect to individual and view; or that identity-specific representations could be built that were invariant with respect to pose or deformation and view. We propose that this is how pose-specific and pose-invariant, and deformation-specific and deformation-invariant, perceptual representations are built in the brain.

  17. Detection of target phonemes in spontaneous and read speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, G; Cutler, A

    1988-01-01

    Although spontaneous speech occurs more frequently in most listeners' experience than read speech, laboratory studies of human speech recognition typically use carefully controlled materials read from a script. The phonological and prosodic characteristics of spontaneous and read speech differ considerably, however, which suggests that laboratory results may not generalise to the recognition of spontaneous speech. In the present study listeners were presented with both spontaneous and read speech materials, and their response time to detect word-initial target phonemes was measured. Responses were, overall, equally fast in each speech mode. However, analysis of effects previously reported in phoneme detection studies revealed significant differences between speech modes. In read speech but not in spontaneous speech, later targets were detected more rapidly than targets preceded by short words. In contrast, in spontaneous speech but not in read speech, targets were detected more rapidly in accented than in unaccented words and in strong than in weak syllables. An explanation for this pattern is offered in terms of characteristic prosodic differences between spontaneous and read speech. The results support claims from previous work that listeners pay great attention to prosodic information in the process of recognising speech.

  18. Are Face and Object Recognition Independent? A Neurocomputational Modeling Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Panqu; Gauthier, Isabel; Cottrell, Garrison

    2016-04-01

    Are face and object recognition abilities independent? Although it is commonly believed that they are, Gauthier et al. [Gauthier, I., McGugin, R. W., Richler, J. J., Herzmann, G., Speegle, M., & VanGulick, A. E. Experience moderates overlap between object and face recognition, suggesting a common ability. Journal of Vision, 14, 7, 2014] recently showed that these abilities become more correlated as experience with nonface categories increases. They argued that there is a single underlying visual ability, v, that is expressed in performance with both face and nonface categories as experience grows. Using the Cambridge Face Memory Test and the Vanderbilt Expertise Test, they showed that the shared variance between Cambridge Face Memory Test and Vanderbilt Expertise Test performance increases monotonically as experience increases. Here, we address why a shared resource across different visual domains does not lead to competition and to an inverse correlation in abilities? We explain this conundrum using our neurocomputational model of face and object processing ["The Model", TM, Cottrell, G. W., & Hsiao, J. H. Neurocomputational models of face processing. In A. J. Calder, G. Rhodes, M. Johnson, & J. Haxby (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of face perception. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2011]. We model the domain general ability v as the available computational resources (number of hidden units) in the mapping from input to label and experience as the frequency of individual exemplars in an object category appearing during network training. Our results show that, as in the behavioral data, the correlation between subordinate level face and object recognition accuracy increases as experience grows. We suggest that different domains do not compete for resources because the relevant features are shared between faces and objects. The essential power of experience is to generate a "spreading transform" for faces (separating them in representational space) that

  19. [Recognition of visual objects under forward masking. Effects of cathegorial similarity of test and masking stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, N Iu; Slavutskaia, A V; Kalinin, S A; Kulikov, M A; Mikhaĭlova, E S

    2013-01-01

    In 38 healthy subjects accuracy and response time were examined during recognition of two categories of images--animals andnonliving objects--under forward masking. We revealed new data that masking effects depended of categorical similarity of target and masking stimuli. The recognition accuracy was the lowest and the response time was the most slow, when the target and masking stimuli belongs to the same category, that was combined with high dispersion of response times. The revealed effects were more clear in the task of animal recognition in comparison with the recognition of nonliving objects. We supposed that the revealed effects connected with interference between cortical representations of the target and masking stimuli and discussed our results in context of cortical interference and negative priming.

  20. Higher-order neural network software for distortion invariant object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Max B.; Spirkovska, Lilly

    1991-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in pattern recognition for such applications as automatic target recognition and industrial robotic vision relies on digital image processing. We present a higher-order neural network model and software which performs the complete feature extraction-pattern classification paradigm required for automatic pattern recognition. Using a third-order neural network, we demonstrate complete, 100 percent accurate invariance to distortions of scale, position, and in-plate rotation. In a higher-order neural network, feature extraction is built into the network, and does not have to be learned. Only the relatively simple classification step must be learned. This is key to achieving very rapid training. The training set is much smaller than with standard neural network software because the higher-order network only has to be shown one view of each object to be learned, not every possible view. The software and graphical user interface run on any Sun workstation. Results of the use of the neural software in autonomous robotic vision systems are presented. Such a system could have extensive application in robotic manufacturing.

  1. Detection of target phonemes in spontaneous and read speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, G.; Cutler, A.

    1988-01-01

    Although spontaneous speech occurs more frequently in most listeners' experience than read speech, laboratory studies of human speech recognition typically use carefully controlled materials read from a script. The phonological and prosodic characteristics of spontaneous and read speech differ

  2. Dopamine D1 receptor stimulation modulates the formation and retrieval of novel object recognition memory: Role of the prelimbic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezze, Marie A; Marshall, Hayley J; Fone, Kevin C F; Cassaday, Helen J

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that dopamine D1 receptor antagonists impair novel object recognition memory but the effects of dopamine D1 receptor stimulation remain to be determined. This study investigated the effects of the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF81297 on acquisition and retrieval in the novel object recognition task in male Wistar rats. SKF81297 (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg s.c.) given 15 min before the sampling phase impaired novel object recognition evaluated 10 min or 24 h later. The same treatments also reduced novel object recognition memory tested 24 h after the sampling phase and when given 15 min before the choice session. These data indicate that D1 receptor stimulation modulates both the encoding and retrieval of object recognition memory. Microinfusion of SKF81297 (0.025 or 0.05 μg/side) into the prelimbic sub-region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in this case 10 min before the sampling phase also impaired novel object recognition memory, suggesting that the mPFC is one important site mediating the effects of D1 receptor stimulation on visual recognition memory. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Field of attention for instantaneous object recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Gao Yao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Instantaneous object discrimination and categorization are fundamental cognitive capacities performed with the guidance of visual attention. Visual attention enables selection of a salient object within a limited area of the visual field; we referred to as "field of attention" (FA. Though there is some evidence concerning the spatial extent of object recognition, the following questions still remain unknown: (a how large is the FA for rapid object categorization, (b how accuracy of attention is distributed over the FA, and (c how fast complex objects can be categorized when presented against backgrounds formed by natural scenes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To answer these questions, we used a visual perceptual task in which subjects were asked to focus their attention on a point while being required to categorize briefly flashed (20 ms photographs of natural scenes by indicating whether or not these contained an animal. By measuring the accuracy of categorization at different eccentricities from the fixation point, we were able to determine the spatial extent and the distribution of accuracy over the FA, as well as the speed of categorizing objects using stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA. Our results revealed that subjects are able to rapidly categorize complex natural images within about 0.1 s without eye movement, and showed that the FA for instantaneous image categorization covers a visual field extending 20° × 24°, and accuracy was highest (>90% at the center of FA and declined with increasing eccentricity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, human beings are able to categorize complex natural images at a glance over a large extent of the visual field without eye movement.

  4. Effects of Acute Administration of Urtica dioica on the Novel Object-Recognition Task in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Firouzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Urtica dioica (nettle has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for the treatment of certain urogenital problems, gastrointestinal disorders, and diabetes. Objectives Recent studies have implicated the effect of U. dioica on brain functions such as pain and memory. However, there is no direct evidence of the acute effects of this plant on cognition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of U. dioica aqueous extract on the novel object-recognition task (NOR in mice. Materials and Methods First, U. dioica aqueous extract was prepared, then adult male mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups. During the training session, the mice were placed in a box and given 5 minutes to explore two identical objects. The next day, they were again placed in the box and allowed to explore one familiar and one novel object. They received intraperitoneal injections of saline or U. dioica aqueous extract (100 mg/kg before or immediately after the training session or before the test session of the NOR task. Results The results showed that there was a preference for the novel object compared to the familiar one in each of the experimental groups. The object-recognition discrimination index in the group of mice that received U. dioica before training was significantly less than in the other experimental groups. There was no significant difference in the discrimination index between the other groups. U. dioica did not decrease the time spent exploring familiar and unfamiliar objects, or the total time spent exploring both objects. Conclusions Acute administration of U. dioica impairs the object-recognition task if it is used only before the training session. This may be due to its modulation on the acquisition processing of object-recognition. U. dioica has no significant effects on the consolidation or retrieval processing stages of the NOR task. These results emphasize the unfavorable effect on cognitive function of pre

  5. 3-D OBJECT RECOGNITION FROM POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Smith

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The market for real-time 3-D mapping includes not only traditional geospatial applications but also navigation of unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs. Massively parallel processes such as graphics processing unit (GPU computing make real-time 3-D object recognition and mapping achievable. Geospatial technologies such as digital photogrammetry and GIS offer advanced capabilities to produce 2-D and 3-D static maps using UAV data. The goal is to develop real-time UAV navigation through increased automation. It is challenging for a computer to identify a 3-D object such as a car, a tree or a house, yet automatic 3-D object recognition is essential to increasing the productivity of geospatial data such as 3-D city site models. In the past three decades, researchers have used radiometric properties to identify objects in digital imagery with limited success, because these properties vary considerably from image to image. Consequently, our team has developed software that recognizes certain types of 3-D objects within 3-D point clouds. Although our software is developed for modeling, simulation and visualization, it has the potential to be valuable in robotics and UAV applications. The locations and shapes of 3-D objects such as buildings and trees are easily recognizable by a human from a brief glance at a representation of a point cloud such as terrain-shaded relief. The algorithms to extract these objects have been developed and require only the point cloud and minimal human inputs such as a set of limits on building size and a request to turn on a squaring option. The algorithms use both digital surface model (DSM and digital elevation model (DEM, so software has also been developed to derive the latter from the former. The process continues through the following steps: identify and group 3-D object points into regions; separate buildings and houses from trees; trace region boundaries; regularize and simplify boundary polygons; construct complex

  6. 3-D Object Recognition from Point Cloud Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.; Walker, A. S.; Zhang, B.

    2011-09-01

    The market for real-time 3-D mapping includes not only traditional geospatial applications but also navigation of unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs). Massively parallel processes such as graphics processing unit (GPU) computing make real-time 3-D object recognition and mapping achievable. Geospatial technologies such as digital photogrammetry and GIS offer advanced capabilities to produce 2-D and 3-D static maps using UAV data. The goal is to develop real-time UAV navigation through increased automation. It is challenging for a computer to identify a 3-D object such as a car, a tree or a house, yet automatic 3-D object recognition is essential to increasing the productivity of geospatial data such as 3-D city site models. In the past three decades, researchers have used radiometric properties to identify objects in digital imagery with limited success, because these properties vary considerably from image to image. Consequently, our team has developed software that recognizes certain types of 3-D objects within 3-D point clouds. Although our software is developed for modeling, simulation and visualization, it has the potential to be valuable in robotics and UAV applications. The locations and shapes of 3-D objects such as buildings and trees are easily recognizable by a human from a brief glance at a representation of a point cloud such as terrain-shaded relief. The algorithms to extract these objects have been developed and require only the point cloud and minimal human inputs such as a set of limits on building size and a request to turn on a squaring option. The algorithms use both digital surface model (DSM) and digital elevation model (DEM), so software has also been developed to derive the latter from the former. The process continues through the following steps: identify and group 3-D object points into regions; separate buildings and houses from trees; trace region boundaries; regularize and simplify boundary polygons; construct complex roofs. Several case

  7. Short-term plasticity of visuo-haptic object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Klinge, Corinna; Hölig, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    , the same stimulation gave rise to relative increases in activation during S2 processing in the right LO, left FG, bilateral IPS, and other regions previously associated with object recognition. Critically, the modality of S2 determined which regions were recruited after rTMS. Relative to sham rTMS, real r......TMS induced increased activations during crossmodal congruent matching in the left FG for haptic S2 and the temporal pole for visual S2. In addition, we found stronger activations for incongruent than congruent matching in the right anterior parahippocampus and middle frontal gyrus for crossmodal matching......Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided ample evidence for the involvement of the lateral occipital cortex (LO), fusiform gyrus (FG), and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in visuo-haptic object integration. Here we applied 30 min of sham (non-effective) or real offline 1 Hz...

  8. Fast and efficient indexing approach for object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawy, Alaa; Mashali, Samia A.; Rashwan, Mohsen; Fikri, Magdi

    1999-08-01

    This paper introduces a fast and efficient indexing approach for both 2D and 3D model-based object recognition in the presence of rotation, translation, and scale variations of objects. The indexing entries are computed after preprocessing the data by Haar wavelet decomposition. The scheme is based on a unified image feature detection approach based on Zernike moments. A set of low level features, e.g. high precision edges, gray level corners, are estimated by a set of orthogonal Zernike moments, calculated locally around every image point. A high dimensional, highly descriptive indexing entries are then calculated based on the correlation of these local features and employed for fast access to the model database to generate hypotheses. A list of the most candidate models is then presented by evaluating the hypotheses. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed indexing approach.

  9. The Role of Sensory-Motor Information in Object Recognition: Evidence from Category-Specific Visual Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, D.A.; Coslett, H.B.; Glosser, G.

    2005-01-01

    The role of sensory-motor representations in object recognition was investigated in experiments involving AD, a patient with mild visual agnosia who was impaired in the recognition of visually presented living as compared to non-living entities. AD named visually presented items for which sensory-motor information was available significantly more…

  10. Vision holds a greater share in visuo-haptic object recognition than touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Klinge, Corinna; Hölig, Cordula

    2013-01-01

    approach of multisensory integration would predict that haptics as the less efficient sense for object recognition gains more from integrating additional visual information than vice versa. To test for asymmetries between vision and touch in visuo-haptic interactions, we measured regional changes in brain...... processed the target object, being more pronounced for haptic than visual targets. This preferential response of visuo-haptic regions indicates a modality-specific asymmetry in crossmodal matching of visual and haptic object features, suggesting a functional primacy of vision over touch in visuo...

  11. Nicotine enhances the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shaowen; Pan, Si; You, Yong

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that nicotine is involved in learning and memory. However, there are only few studies that have evaluated the relationship between nicotine and memory reconsolidation. In this study, we investigated the effects of nicotine on the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats. Behavior procedure involved four training phases: habituation (Days 1 and 2), sample (Day 3), reactivation (Day 4) and test (Day 6). Rats were injected with saline or nicotine (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) immediately or 6h after reactivation. The discrimination index was used to assess memory performance and calculated as the difference in time exploring on the novel and familiar objects. Results showed that nicotine administration immediately but not 6 h after reactivation significantly enhanced memory performance of rats. Further results showed that the enhancing effect of nicotine on memory performance was dependent on memory reactivation, and was not attributed to the changes of the nonspecific responses (locomotor activity and anxiety level) 48 h after nicotine administration. The results suggest that post-reactivation nicotine administration enhances the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory. Our present finding extends previous research on the nicotinic effects on learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Specific and Class Object Recognition for Service Robots through Autonomous and Interactive Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Al; Kuno, Yoshinori

    Service robots need to be able to recognize and identify objects located within complex backgrounds. Since no single method may work in every situation, several methods need to be combined and robots have to select the appropriate one automatically. In this paper we propose a scheme to classify situations depending on the characteristics of the object of interest and user demand. We classify situations into four groups and employ different techniques for each. We use Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), Kernel Principal Components Analysis (KPCA) in conjunction with Support Vector Machine (SVM) using intensity, color, and Gabor features for five object categories. We show that the use of appropriate features is important for the use of KPCA and SVM based techniques on different kinds of objects. Through experiments we show that by using our categorization scheme a service robot can select an appropriate feature and method, and considerably improve its recognition performance. Yet, recognition is not perfect. Thus, we propose to combine the autonomous method with an interactive method that allows the robot to recognize the user request for a specific object and class when the robot fails to recognize the object. We also propose an interactive way to update the object model that is used to recognize an object upon failure in conjunction with the user's feedback.

  13. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation disrupts consolidation but not reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Tian, Shaowen; Ke, Jie

    2014-03-20

    There is increasing evidence that sleep plays a critical role in memory consolidation. However, there are comparatively few studies that have assessed the relationship between sleep and memory reconsolidation. In the present study, we explored the effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (RSD) on the consolidation (experiment 1) and reconsolidation (experiment 2) of novel object recognition memory in rats. In experiment 1 behavioral procedure involved two training phases: sample and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after sample (exposed to 2 objects) or 6h later. In experiment 2 behavioral procedure involved three training phases: sample, reactivation and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after reactivation (exposed to the same 2 sample objects to reactivate the memory trace) or 6h later. Results from experiment 1 showed that post-sample RSD from 0 to 6h but not 6 to 12h disrupted novel object recognition memory consolidation. However, we found that post-reactivation RSD whether from 0 to 6h or 6 to 12h had no effect on novel object recognition memory reconsolidation in experiment 2. The results indicated that RSD selectively disrupted consolidation of novel object recognition memory, suggesting a dissociation effect of RSD on consolidation and reconsolidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Why does brain damage impair memory? A connectionist model of object recognition memory in perirhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Rosemary A; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2006-11-22

    Object recognition is the canonical test of declarative memory, the type of memory putatively impaired after damage to the temporal lobes. Studies of object recognition memory have helped elucidate the anatomical structures involved in declarative memory, indicating a critical role for perirhinal cortex. We offer a mechanistic account of the effects of perirhinal cortex damage on object recognition memory, based on the assumption that perirhinal cortex stores representations of the conjunctions of visual features possessed by complex objects. Such representations are proposed to play an important role in memory when it is difficult to solve a task using representations of only individual visual features of stimuli, thought to be stored in regions of the ventral visual stream caudal to perirhinal cortex. The account is instantiated in a connectionist model, in which development of object representations with visual experience provides a mechanism for judgment of previous occurrence. We present simulations addressing the following empirical findings: (1) that impairments after damage to perirhinal cortex (modeled by removing the "perirhinal cortex" layer of the network) are exacerbated by lengthening the delay between presentation of to-be-remembered items and test, (2) that such impairments are also exacerbated by lengthening the list of to-be-remembered items, and (3) that impairments are revealed only when stimuli are trial unique rather than repeatedly presented. This study shows that it may be possible to account for object recognition impairments after damage to perirhinal cortex within a hierarchical, representational framework, in which complex conjunctive representations in perirhinal cortex play a critical role.

  15. Knowledge-based object recognition for different morphological classes of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Thorsten; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.; Megnet, Roland

    1995-01-01

    Micropropagation of plants is done by cutting juvenile plants and placing them into special container-boxes with nutrient-solution where the pieces can grow up and be cut again several times. To produce high amounts of biomass it is necessary to do plant micropropagation by a robotic syshoot. In this paper we describe parts of the vision syshoot that recognizes plants and their particular cutting points. Therefore, it is necessary to extract elements of the plants and relations between these elements (for example root, shoot, leaf). Different species vary in their morphological appearance, variation is also immanent in plants of the same species. Therefore, we introduce several morphological classes of plants from that we expect same recognition methods. As a result of our work we present rules which help users to create specific algorithms for object recognition of plant species.

  16. Face Memory and Object Recognition in Children with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome and in Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Carter, Alice; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Rahko, Jukka; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David; Moilanen, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) have reported to have impairments in face, recognition and face memory, but intact object recognition and object memory. Potential abnormalities, in these fields at the family level of high-functioning children with ASD remains understudied despite, the ever-mounting evidence that ASDs are genetic and…

  17. Deep neural networks rival the representation of primate IT cortex for core visual object recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F Cadieu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The primate visual system achieves remarkable visual object recognition performance even in brief presentations, and under changes to object exemplar, geometric transformations, and background variation (a.k.a. core visual object recognition. This remarkable performance is mediated by the representation formed in inferior temporal (IT cortex. In parallel, recent advances in machine learning have led to ever higher performing models of object recognition using artificial deep neural networks (DNNs. It remains unclear, however, whether the representational performance of DNNs rivals that of the brain. To accurately produce such a comparison, a major difficulty has been a unifying metric that accounts for experimental limitations, such as the amount of noise, the number of neural recording sites, and the number of trials, and computational limitations, such as the complexity of the decoding classifier and the number of classifier training examples. In this work, we perform a direct comparison that corrects for these experimental limitations and computational considerations. As part of our methodology, we propose an extension of "kernel analysis" that measures the generalization accuracy as a function of representational complexity. Our evaluations show that, unlike previous bio-inspired models, the latest DNNs rival the representational performance of IT cortex on this visual object recognition task. Furthermore, we show that models that perform well on measures of representational performance also perform well on measures of representational similarity to IT, and on measures of predicting individual IT multi-unit responses. Whether these DNNs rely on computational mechanisms similar to the primate visual system is yet to be determined, but, unlike all previous bio-inspired models, that possibility cannot be ruled out merely on representational performance grounds.

  18. Differential cortical c-Fos and Zif-268 expression after object and spatial memory processing in a standard or episodic-like object recognition task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio F Barbosa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory reflects the capacity to recollect what, where and when a specific event happened in an integrative manner. Animal studies have suggested that the medial temporal lobe and the medial pre-frontal cortex are important for episodic-like memory formation. The goal of present study was to evaluate whether there are different patterns of expression of the immediate early genes c-Fos and Zif-268 in these cortical areas after rats are exposed to object recognition tasks with different cognitive demands. Male rats were randomly assigned to five groups: home cage control (CTR-HC, empty open field (CTR-OF, open field with one object (CTR-OF + Obj, novel object recognition task (OR and episodic-like memory task (ELM and were killed one hour after the last behavioral procedure. Rats were able to discriminate the objects in the OR task. In the ELM task, rats showed spatial (but not temporal discrimination of the objects. We found an increase in the c-Fos expression in the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG and in the perirhinal cortex (PRh in the OR and ELM groups. The OR group also presented an increase of c-Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Additionally, the OR and ELM groups had increased expression of Zif-268 in the mPFC. Moreover, Zif-268 was increased in the dorsal CA1 and perirhinal cortex only in the ELM group. In conclusion, the pattern of activation was different in tasks with different cognitive demands. Accordingly, correlation tests suggest the engagement of different neural networks in the object recognition tasks used. Specifically, perirhinal-dentate gyrus co-activation was detected after the what-where memory retrieval, but not after the novel object recognition task. Both regions correlated with the respective behavioral outcome. These findings can be helpful in the understanding of the neural networks underlying memory tasks with different cognitive demands.

  19. Mice deficient for striatal Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) display impaired short-term but normal long-term object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Daniel; Creighton, Samantha; Prado, Vania F; Prado, Marco A M; Choleris, Elena; Winters, Boyer D

    2016-09-15

    Substantial evidence implicates Acetylcholine (ACh) in the acquisition of object memories. While most research has focused on the role of the cholinergic basal forebrain and its cortical targets, there are additional cholinergic networks that may contribute to object recognition. The striatum contains an independent cholinergic network comprised of interneurons. In the current study, we investigated the role of this cholinergic signalling in object recognition using mice deficient for Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) within interneurons of the striatum. We tested whether these striatal VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice would display normal short-term (5 or 15min retention delay) and long-term (3h retention delay) object recognition memory. In a home cage object recognition task, male and female VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice were impaired selectively with a 15min retention delay. When tested on an object location task, VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice displayed intact spatial memory. Finally, when object recognition was tested in a Y-shaped apparatus, designed to minimize the influence of spatial and contextual cues, only females displayed impaired recognition with a 5min retention delay, but when males were challenged with a 15min retention delay, they were also impaired; neither males nor females were impaired with the 3h delay. The pattern of results suggests that striatal cholinergic transmission plays a role in the short-term memory for object features, but not spatial location. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of Fixation and Visual Attention in Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    computers", Technical Report, Aritificial Intelligence Lab, M.I. T., AI-Memo-915, June 1986. [29] D.P. Huttenlocher and S.Ullman, "Object Recognition Using...attention", Technical Report, Aritificial Intelligence Lab, M.I. T., AI-memo-770, Jan 1984. [35] E.Krotkov, K. Henriksen and R. Kories, "Stereo...MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory [ PCTBTBimON STATEMENT X \\ Afipioved tor puciic reieo*«* \\ »?*•;.., jDi*tiibutK» U»lisut»d* 19951004

  1. Effects of physical exercise on object recognition memory in adult rats of postnatal isoflurane exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan FANG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate effects of physical exercise (PE on object recognition memory in adult rats of postnatal isoflurane (Iso exposures. Methods One hundred and ten postnatal 7-day SD rats (P7 were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group (Naive, Naive+PE group (received physical exercise in P21: a treadmill exercise 30min each day, 5 times/week, for 6 weeks, Iso group (three times of 2-hour Iso exposure in P7, P9, and P11, and Iso+PE group (received PE in P21 after postnatal Iso exposures. In P67, behavioral testing was conducted including open field and object recognition task (ORT, recording the time (Discrimination Ratios, DR that rats spent on exploring each object, evaluating effects of PE on object recognition memory. Results There was no significant difference in influence of PE on open field testing in all of the groups (P>0.05. Compared with Naive, there was no group difference in DR (P>0.05 for all groups, but the DR of Iso male rats was significantly higher than that of Naive female rats in P67, with significant difference (P=0.034. Compared with non-PE groups, whether or not postnatal Iso exposures, the DR of PE male groups was significantly higher (compared with Naive and Iso group: P67, P=0.050, P=0.017; P95, P=0.037, P=0.019; in female rats, the DR for ISO+PE group was lower than that of Iso group in P67 (P=0.036, but the DR of Naive+PE group was higher than that of Naive group in P95 (P=0.004. Compared with male rats, the DR of non-PE female rats was significantly higher in P67 (vis. Naive and Iso group: P=0.022, P=0.011; but in P95, the DR of non- Iso female groups was significantly higher than that of male groups (vis. Naive and Naive+PE: P=0.008, P=0.017. Conclusions There is no obvious impact of postnatal Iso exposures on object recognition memory of adult rats. These results also indicate that postnatal PE could improve object recognition memory of non-spatial learning in adult rats. In addition, exercise

  2. Object recognition as a measure of memory in 1–2 years old transgenic minipigs carrying the APPsw mutation for Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Ladewig, Jan; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a disabling, fatal disease, where animal models potentially can enable investigation of aetiology and treatment. The first litter of Göttingen minipigs carrying a mutation for human AD was born in 2007, showing transgene expression. In human AD patients, memory...... impairment is the most striking and consistent feature. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of the APPsw transgene on memory of AD minipigs compared with non-transgenic controls at two ages (1–2 years) using the spontaneous object recognition test (SORT), which is based on behavioural...... using the SORT, we were not able to show memory impairment in APPsw carrying minipigs. Being an age-dependent disease, the transgene is expected to cause AD-like symptoms in this porcine model, and the SORT should be repeated at older ages...

  3. Bayesian feature weighting for unsupervised learning, with application to object recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonetto , Peter; De Freitas , Nando; Gustafson , Paul; Thompson , Natalie

    2003-01-01

    International audience; We present a method for variable selection/weighting in an unsupervised learning context using Bayesian shrinkage. The basis for the model parameters and cluster assignments can be computed simultaneous using an efficient EM algorithm. Applying our Bayesian shrinkage model to a complex problem in object recognition (Duygulu, Barnard, de Freitas and Forsyth 2002), our experiments yied good results.

  4. Marked Object Recognition Multitouch Screen Printed Touchpad for Interactive Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jivago Serrado; Castro, Nelson; Gonçalves, Sergio; Pereira, Nélson; Correia, Vitor; Lanceros-Mendez, Senentxu

    2017-12-01

    The market for interactive platforms is rapidly growing, and touchscreens have been incorporated in an increasing number of devices. Thus, the area of smart objects and devices is strongly increasing by adding interactive touch and multimedia content, leading to new uses and capabilities. In this work, a flexible screen printed sensor matrix is fabricated based on silver ink in a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Diamond shaped capacitive electrodes coupled with conventional capacitive reading electronics enables fabrication of a highly functional capacitive touchpad, and also allows for the identification of marked objects. For the latter, the capacitive signatures are identified by intersecting points and distances between them. Thus, this work demonstrates the applicability of a low cost method using royalty-free geometries and technologies for the development of flexible multitouch touchpads for the implementation of interactive and object recognition applications.

  5. Marked Object Recognition Multitouch Screen Printed Touchpad for Interactive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivago Serrado Nunes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The market for interactive platforms is rapidly growing, and touchscreens have been incorporated in an increasing number of devices. Thus, the area of smart objects and devices is strongly increasing by adding interactive touch and multimedia content, leading to new uses and capabilities. In this work, a flexible screen printed sensor matrix is fabricated based on silver ink in a polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. Diamond shaped capacitive electrodes coupled with conventional capacitive reading electronics enables fabrication of a highly functional capacitive touchpad, and also allows for the identification of marked objects. For the latter, the capacitive signatures are identified by intersecting points and distances between them. Thus, this work demonstrates the applicability of a low cost method using royalty-free geometries and technologies for the development of flexible multitouch touchpads for the implementation of interactive and object recognition applications.

  6. Asymmetric Functional Connectivity of the Contra- and Ipsilateral Secondary Somatosensory Cortex during Tactile Object Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the somatosensory system, it is well known that the bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex (SII receives projections from the unilateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI, and the SII, in turn, sends feedback projections to SI. Most neuroimaging studies have clearly shown bilateral SII activation using only unilateral stimulation for both anatomical and functional connectivity across SII subregions. However, no study has unveiled differences in the functional connectivity of the contra- and ipsilateral SII network that relates to frontoparietal areas during tactile object recognition. Therefore, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and a delayed match-to-sample (DMS task to investigate the contributions of bilateral SII during tactile object recognition. In the fMRI experiment, 14 healthy subjects were presented with tactile angle stimuli on their right index finger and asked to encode three sample stimuli during the encoding phase and one test stimulus during the recognition phase. Then, the subjects indicated whether the angle of test stimulus was presented during the encoding phase. The results showed that contralateral (left SII activity was greater than ipsilateral (right SII activity during the encoding phase, but there was no difference during the recognition phase. A subsequent psycho-physiological interaction (PPI analysis revealed distinct connectivity from the contra- and ipsilateral SII to other regions. The left SII functionally connected to the left SI and right primary and premotor cortex, while the right SII functionally connected to the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC. Our findings suggest that in situations involving unilateral tactile object recognition, contra- and ipsilateral SII will induce an asymmetrical functional connectivity to other brain areas, which may occur by the hand contralateral effect of SII.

  7. The active blind spot camera: hard real-time recognition of moving objects from a moving camera

    OpenAIRE

    Van Beeck, Kristof; Goedemé, Toon; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    This PhD research focuses on visual object recognition under specific demanding conditions. The object to be recognized as well as the camera move, and the time available for the recognition task is extremely short. This generic problem is applied here on a specific problem: the active blind spot camera. Statistics show a large number of accidents with trucks are related to the so-called blind spot, the area around the vehicle in which vulnerable road users are hard to perceive by the truck d...

  8. Invariant object recognition based on the generalized discrete radon transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Glenn R.; Colonna, Flavia

    2004-04-01

    We introduce a method for classifying objects based on special cases of the generalized discrete Radon transform. We adjust the transform and the corresponding ridgelet transform by means of circular shifting and a singular value decomposition (SVD) to obtain a translation, rotation and scaling invariant set of feature vectors. We then use a back-propagation neural network to classify the input feature vectors. We conclude with experimental results and compare these with other invariant recognition methods.

  9. Dual Temporal Scale Convolutional Neural Network for Micro-Expression Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Peng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Facial micro-expression is a brief involuntary facial movement and can reveal the genuine emotion that people try to conceal. Traditional methods of spontaneous micro-expression recognition rely excessively on sophisticated hand-crafted feature design and the recognition rate is not high enough for its practical application. In this paper, we proposed a Dual Temporal Scale Convolutional Neural Network (DTSCNN for spontaneous micro-expressions recognition. The DTSCNN is a two-stream network. Different of stream of DTSCNN is used to adapt to different frame rate of micro-expression video clips. Each stream of DSTCNN consists of independent shallow network for avoiding the overfitting problem. Meanwhile, we fed the networks with optical-flow sequences to ensure that the shallow networks can further acquire higher-level features. Experimental results on spontaneous micro-expression databases (CASME I/II showed that our method can achieve a recognition rate almost 10% higher than what some state-of-the-art method can achieve.

  10. Dual Temporal Scale Convolutional Neural Network for Micro-Expression Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Min; Wang, Chongyang; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Fu, Xiaolan

    2017-01-01

    Facial micro-expression is a brief involuntary facial movement and can reveal the genuine emotion that people try to conceal. Traditional methods of spontaneous micro-expression recognition rely excessively on sophisticated hand-crafted feature design and the recognition rate is not high enough for its practical application. In this paper, we proposed a Dual Temporal Scale Convolutional Neural Network (DTSCNN) for spontaneous micro-expressions recognition. The DTSCNN is a two-stream network. Different of stream of DTSCNN is used to adapt to different frame rate of micro-expression video clips. Each stream of DSTCNN consists of independent shallow network for avoiding the overfitting problem. Meanwhile, we fed the networks with optical-flow sequences to ensure that the shallow networks can further acquire higher-level features. Experimental results on spontaneous micro-expression databases (CASME I/II) showed that our method can achieve a recognition rate almost 10% higher than what some state-of-the-art method can achieve.

  11. Dual Temporal Scale Convolutional Neural Network for Micro-Expression Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Min; Wang, Chongyang; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Fu, Xiaolan

    2017-01-01

    Facial micro-expression is a brief involuntary facial movement and can reveal the genuine emotion that people try to conceal. Traditional methods of spontaneous micro-expression recognition rely excessively on sophisticated hand-crafted feature design and the recognition rate is not high enough for its practical application. In this paper, we proposed a Dual Temporal Scale Convolutional Neural Network (DTSCNN) for spontaneous micro-expressions recognition. The DTSCNN is a two-stream network. Different of stream of DTSCNN is used to adapt to different frame rate of micro-expression video clips. Each stream of DSTCNN consists of independent shallow network for avoiding the overfitting problem. Meanwhile, we fed the networks with optical-flow sequences to ensure that the shallow networks can further acquire higher-level features. Experimental results on spontaneous micro-expression databases (CASME I/II) showed that our method can achieve a recognition rate almost 10% higher than what some state-of-the-art method can achieve. PMID:29081753

  12. Spontaneous intramural haematoma of the oesophagus: radiologic recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, W.; Cook, I.J. [St George Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Depts of Radiology and Gastroenterology

    1996-08-01

    Spontaneous intramural haematoma of the oesophagus (SIHO) is an uncommon disorder. It presents usually with acute chest pain followed by dysphagia. This condition may mimic spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus (Boerhaave Syndrome), dissection of the thoracic aorta or acute myocardial infarction. Hence early accurate confirmation of the diagnosis by radiology is vital for the appropriate acute management. The condition is frequently mistaken for acute myocardial infarction which may prompt inappropriate thrombolytic therapy. The appearances on contrast studies of oesophagus and on CT scanning are characteristic. Despite this, the diagnosis may easily be missed, if appropriate careful radiological technique is not used. This paper reports three consecutive cases of SIHO managed in one institution. These cases illustrate that early gastrografin contrast radiology followed by barium contrast radiology and if necessary by thoracic CT is diagnostic in all cases of this condition. 19 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  13. Spontaneous intramural haematoma of the oesophagus: radiologic recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.; Cook, I.J.

    1996-01-01

    Spontaneous intramural haematoma of the oesophagus (SIHO) is an uncommon disorder. It presents usually with acute chest pain followed by dysphagia. This condition may mimic spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus (Boerhaave Syndrome), dissection of the thoracic aorta or acute myocardial infarction. Hence early accurate confirmation of the diagnosis by radiology is vital for the appropriate acute management. The condition is frequently mistaken for acute myocardial infarction which may prompt inappropriate thrombolytic therapy. The appearances on contrast studies of oesophagus and on CT scanning are characteristic. Despite this, the diagnosis may easily be missed, if appropriate careful radiological technique is not used. This paper reports three consecutive cases of SIHO managed in one institution. These cases illustrate that early gastrografin contrast radiology followed by barium contrast radiology and if necessary by thoracic CT is diagnostic in all cases of this condition. 19 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  14. Glucocorticoid effects on object recognition memory require training-associated emotional arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Shoki; Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Considerable evidence implicates glucocorticoid hormones in the regulation of memory consolidation and memory retrieval. The present experiments investigated whether the influence of these hormones on memory depends on the level of emotional arousal induced by the training experience. We investigated this issue in male Sprague–Dawley rats by examining the effects of immediate posttraining systemic injections of the glucocorticoid corticosterone on object recognition memory under two condition...

  15. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Automated Object Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brian G.; Swadley, Casey L.

    2002-01-01

    Attempts at fully automated object recognition systems have met with varying levels of success over the years. However, none of the systems have achieved high enough accuracy rates to be run unattended. One of the reasons for this may be that they are designed from the computer's point of view and rely mainly on image-processing methods. A better solution to this problem may be to make use of modern advances in computational intelligence and distributed processing to try to mimic how the human brain is thought to recognize objects. As humans combine cognitive processes with detection techniques, such a system would combine traditional image-processing techniques with computer-based intelligence to determine the identity of various objects in a scene.

  16. Multispectral image analysis for object recognition and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, C. R.; Payeur, P.; Cretu, A.-M.

    2016-05-01

    Computer and machine vision applications are used in numerous fields to analyze static and dynamic imagery in order to assist or automate decision-making processes. Advancements in sensor technologies now make it possible to capture and visualize imagery at various wavelengths (or bands) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Multispectral imaging has countless applications in various fields including (but not limited to) security, defense, space, medical, manufacturing and archeology. The development of advanced algorithms to process and extract salient information from the imagery is a critical component of the overall system performance. The fundamental objective of this research project was to investigate the benefits of combining imagery from the visual and thermal bands of the electromagnetic spectrum to improve the recognition rates and accuracy of commonly found objects in an office setting. A multispectral dataset (visual and thermal) was captured and features from the visual and thermal images were extracted and used to train support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. The SVM's class prediction ability was evaluated separately on the visual, thermal and multispectral testing datasets.

  17. HONTIOR - HIGHER-ORDER NEURAL NETWORK FOR TRANSFORMATION INVARIANT OBJECT RECOGNITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, L.

    1994-01-01

    Neural networks have been applied in numerous fields, including transformation invariant object recognition, wherein an object is recognized despite changes in the object's position in the input field, size, or rotation. One of the more successful neural network methods used in invariant object recognition is the higher-order neural network (HONN) method. With a HONN, known relationships are exploited and the desired invariances are built directly into the architecture of the network, eliminating the need for the network to learn invariance to transformations. This results in a significant reduction in the training time required, since the network needs to be trained on only one view of each object, not on numerous transformed views. Moreover, one hundred percent accuracy is guaranteed for images characterized by the built-in distortions, providing noise is not introduced through pixelation. The program HONTIOR implements a third-order neural network having invariance to translation, scale, and in-plane rotation built directly into the architecture, Thus, for 2-D transformation invariance, the network needs only to be trained on just one view of each object. HONTIOR can also be used for 3-D transformation invariant object recognition by training the network only on a set of out-of-plane rotated views. Historically, the major drawback of HONNs has been that the size of the input field was limited to the memory required for the large number of interconnections in a fully connected network. HONTIOR solves this problem by coarse coding the input images (coding an image as a set of overlapping but offset coarser images). Using this scheme, large input fields (4096 x 4096 pixels) can easily be represented using very little virtual memory (30Mb). The HONTIOR distribution consists of three main programs. The first program contains the training and testing routines for a third-order neural network. The second program contains the same training and testing procedures as the

  18. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old-new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults.

  19. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: A study with young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eBallesteros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1 and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2 tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/ artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classified them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old-new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults.

  20. Intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus is required for object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Ogawa, Taisuke; Takada, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Fujii, Hiroaki; Ando, Masaki

    2014-11-01

    The role of perforant pathway-dentate granule cell synapses in cognitive behavior was examined focusing on synaptic Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired when extracellular Zn(2+) levels were decreased by injection of clioquinol and N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylendediamine. To pursue the effect of the loss and/or blockade of Zn(2+) signaling in dentate granule cells, ZnAF-2DA (100 pmol, 0.1 mM/1 µl), an intracellular Zn(2+) chelator, was locally injected into the dentate molecular layer of rats. ZnAF-2DA injection, which was estimated to chelate intracellular Zn(2+) signaling only in the dentate gyrus, affected object recognition memory 1 h after training without affecting intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in the dentate molecular layer. In vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was affected under the local perfusion of the recording region (the dentate granule cell layer) with 0.1 mM ZnAF-2DA, but not with 1-10 mM CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator, suggesting that the blockade of intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in dentate granule cells affects dentate gyrus LTP. The present study demonstrates that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus is required for object recognition memory, probably via dentate gyrus LTP expression. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Modified-hybrid optical neural network filter for multiple object recognition within cluttered scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypraios, Ioannis; Young, Rupert C. D.; Chatwin, Chris R.

    2009-08-01

    Motivated by the non-linear interpolation and generalization abilities of the hybrid optical neural network filter between the reference and non-reference images of the true-class object we designed the modifiedhybrid optical neural network filter. We applied an optical mask to the hybrid optical neural network's filter input. The mask was built with the constant weight connections of a randomly chosen image included in the training set. The resulted design of the modified-hybrid optical neural network filter is optimized for performing best in cluttered scenes of the true-class object. Due to the shift invariance properties inherited by its correlator unit the filter can accommodate multiple objects of the same class to be detected within an input cluttered image. Additionally, the architecture of the neural network unit of the general hybrid optical neural network filter allows the recognition of multiple objects of different classes within the input cluttered image by modifying the output layer of the unit. We test the modified-hybrid optical neural network filter for multiple objects of the same and of different classes' recognition within cluttered input images and video sequences of cluttered scenes. The filter is shown to exhibit with a single pass over the input data simultaneously out-of-plane rotation, shift invariance and good clutter tolerance. It is able to successfully detect and classify correctly the true-class objects within background clutter for which there has been no previous training.

  2. Chronic prenatal caffeine exposure impairs novel object recognition and radial arm maze behaviors in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soellner, Deborah E; Grandys, Theresa; Nuñez, Joseph L

    2009-12-14

    In this report, we demonstrate that chronic prenatal exposure to a moderate dose of caffeine disrupts novel object recognition and radial arm maze behaviors in adult male and female rats. Pregnant dams were administered either tap water or 75 mg/L caffeinated tap water throughout gestation. Oral self-administration in the drinking water led to an approximate maternal intake of 10mg/kg/day, equivalent to 2-3 cups of coffee/day in humans based on a metabolic body weight conversion. In adulthood, the offspring underwent testing on novel object recognition, radial arm maze, and Morris water maze tasks. Prenatal caffeine exposure was found to impair 24-h memory retention in the novel object recognition task and impair both working and reference memory in the radial arm maze. However, prenatal caffeine exposure did not alter Morris water maze performance in either a simple water maze procedure or in an advanced water maze procedure that included reversal and working memory paradigms. These findings demonstrate that chronic oral intake of caffeine throughout gestation can alter adult cognitive behaviors in rats.

  3. Spontaneous expression of mirror self-recognition in monkeys after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liangtang; Zhang, Shikun; Poo, Mu-Ming; Gong, Neng

    2017-03-21

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR) is generally considered to be an intrinsic cognitive ability found only in humans and a few species of great apes. Rhesus monkeys do not spontaneously show MSR, but they have the ability to use a mirror as an instrument to find hidden objects. The mechanism underlying the transition from simple mirror use to MSR remains unclear. Here we show that rhesus monkeys could show MSR after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images. We trained head-fixed monkeys on a chair in front of a mirror to touch with spatiotemporal precision a laser pointer light spot on an adjacent board that could only be seen in the mirror. After several weeks of training, when the same laser pointer light was projected to the monkey's face, a location not used in training, all three trained monkeys successfully touched the face area marked by the light spot in front of a mirror. All trained monkeys passed the standard face mark test for MSR both on the monkey chair and in their home cage. Importantly, distinct from untrained control monkeys, the trained monkeys showed typical mirror-induced self-directed behaviors in their home cage, such as using the mirror to explore normally unseen body parts. Thus, bodily self-consciousness may be a cognitive ability present in many more species than previously thought, and acquisition of precise visual-proprioceptive association for the images in the mirror is critical for revealing the MSR ability of the animal.

  4. Biased figure-ground assignment affects conscious object recognition in spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Driver, Jon; Mattingley, Jason B

    2010-09-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect is a disorder of attention and spatial representation, in which early visual processes such as figure-ground segmentation have been assumed to be largely intact. There is evidence, however, that the spatial attention bias underlying neglect can bias the segmentation of a figural region from its background. Relatively few studies have explicitly examined the effect of spatial neglect on processing the figures that result from such scene segmentation. Here, we show that a neglect patient's bias in figure-ground segmentation directly influences his conscious recognition of these figures. By varying the relative salience of figural and background regions in static, two-dimensional displays, we show that competition between elements in such displays can modulate a neglect patient's ability to recognise parsed figures in a scene. The findings provide insight into the interaction between scene segmentation, explicit object recognition, and attention.

  5. Humans and Deep Networks Largely Agree on Which Kinds of Variation Make Object Recognition Harder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed R; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad; Masquelier, Timothée

    2016-01-01

    View-invariant object recognition is a challenging problem that has attracted much attention among the psychology, neuroscience, and computer vision communities. Humans are notoriously good at it, even if some variations are presumably more difficult to handle than others (e.g., 3D rotations). Humans are thought to solve the problem through hierarchical processing along the ventral stream, which progressively extracts more and more invariant visual features. This feed-forward architecture has inspired a new generation of bio-inspired computer vision systems called deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), which are currently the best models for object recognition in natural images. Here, for the first time, we systematically compared human feed-forward vision and DCNNs at view-invariant object recognition task using the same set of images and controlling the kinds of transformation (position, scale, rotation in plane, and rotation in depth) as well as their magnitude, which we call "variation level." We used four object categories: car, ship, motorcycle, and animal. In total, 89 human subjects participated in 10 experiments in which they had to discriminate between two or four categories after rapid presentation with backward masking. We also tested two recent DCNNs (proposed respectively by Hinton's group and Zisserman's group) on the same tasks. We found that humans and DCNNs largely agreed on the relative difficulties of each kind of variation: rotation in depth is by far the hardest transformation to handle, followed by scale, then rotation in plane, and finally position (much easier). This suggests that DCNNs would be reasonable models of human feed-forward vision. In addition, our results show that the variation levels in rotation in depth and scale strongly modulate both humans' and DCNNs' recognition performances. We thus argue that these variations should be controlled in the image datasets used in vision research.

  6. Humans and deep networks largely agree on which kinds of variation make object recognition harder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Reza Kheradpisheh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available View-invariant object recognition is a challenging problem that has attracted much attention among the psychology, neuroscience, and computer vision communities. Humans are notoriously good at it, even if some variations are presumably more difficult to handle than others (e.g. 3D rotations. Humans are thought to solve the problem through hierarchical processing along the ventral stream, which progressively extracts more and more invariant visual features. This feed-forward architecture has inspired a new generation of bio-inspired computer vision systems called deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN, which are currently the best models for object recognition in natural images. Here, for the first time, we systematically compared human feed-forward vision and DCNNs at view-invariant object recognition task using the same set of images and controlling the kinds of transformation (position, scale, rotation in plane, and rotation in depth as well as their magnitude, which we call variation level. We used four object categories: car, ship, motorcycle, and animal. In total, 89 human subjects participated in 10 experiments in which they had to discriminate between two or four categories after rapid presentation with backward masking. We also tested two recent DCNNs (proposed respectively by Hinton's group and Zisserman's group on the same tasks. We found that humans and DCNNs largely agreed on the relative difficulties of each kind of variation: rotation in depth is by far the hardest transformation to handle, followed by scale, then rotation in plane, and finally position (much easier. This suggests that DCNNs would be reasonable models of human feed-forward vision. In addition, our results show that the variation levels in rotation in depth and scale strongly modulate both humans' and DCNNs' recognition performances. We thus argue that these variations should be controlled in the image datasets used in vision research.

  7. Object detection and recognition in digital images theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Cyganek, Boguslaw

    2013-01-01

    Object detection, tracking and recognition in images are key problems in computer vision. This book provides the reader with a balanced treatment between the theory and practice of selected methods in these areas to make the book accessible to a range of researchers, engineers, developers and postgraduate students working in computer vision and related fields. Key features: Explains the main theoretical ideas behind each method (which are augmented with a rigorous mathematical derivation of the formulas), their implementation (in C++) and demonstrated working in real applications.

  8. Short- and long-term effects of nicotine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate on novel object recognition in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faillace, M P; Pisera-Fuster, A; Medrano, M P; Bejarano, A C; Bernabeu, R O

    2017-03-01

    Zebrafish have a sophisticated color- and shape-sensitive visual system, so we examined color cue-based novel object recognition in zebrafish. We evaluated preference in the absence or presence of drugs that affect attention and memory retention in rodents: nicotine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) phenylbutyrate (PhB). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether nicotine and PhB affect innate preferences of zebrafish for familiar and novel objects after short- and long-retention intervals. We developed modified object recognition (OR) tasks using neutral novel and familiar objects in different colors. We also tested objects which differed with respect to the exploratory behavior they elicited from naïve zebrafish. Zebrafish showed an innate preference for exploring red or green objects rather than yellow or blue objects. Zebrafish were better at discriminating color changes than changes in object shape or size. Nicotine significantly enhanced or changed short-term innate novel object preference whereas PhB had similar effects when preference was assessed 24 h after training. Analysis of other zebrafish behaviors corroborated these results. Zebrafish were innately reluctant or prone to explore colored novel objects, so drug effects on innate preference for objects can be evaluated changing the color of objects with a simple geometry. Zebrafish exhibited recognition memory for novel objects with similar innate significance. Interestingly, nicotine and PhB significantly modified innate object preference.

  9. Depth Value Pre-Processing for Accurate Transfer Learning Based RGB-D Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakerberg, Andreas; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Rasmussen, Christoffer Bøgelund

    2017-01-01

    of an existing deeplearning based RGB-D object recognition model, namely the FusionNet proposed by Eitel et al. First, we showthat encoding the depth values as colorized surface normals is beneficial, when the model is initialized withweights learned from training on ImageNet data. Additionally, we show...

  10. Brain dynamics of upstream perceptual processes leading to visual object recognition: a high density ERP topographic mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Loeys, Tom; Delplanque, Sylvain; Pourtois, Gilles

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that visual object recognition is a proactive process through which perceptual evidence accumulates over time before a decision can be made about the object. However, the exact electrophysiological correlates and time-course of this complex process remain unclear. In addition, the potential influence of emotion on this process has not been investigated yet. We recorded high density EEG in healthy adult participants performing a novel perceptual recognition task. For each trial, an initial blurred visual scene was first shown, before the actual content of the stimulus was gradually revealed by progressively adding diagnostic high spatial frequency information. Participants were asked to stop this stimulus sequence as soon as they could correctly perform an animacy judgment task. Behavioral results showed that participants reliably gathered perceptual evidence before recognition. Furthermore, prolonged exploration times were observed for pleasant, relative to either neutral or unpleasant scenes. ERP results showed distinct effects starting at 280 ms post-stimulus onset in distant brain regions during stimulus processing, mainly characterized by: (i) a monotonic accumulation of evidence, involving regions of the posterior cingulate cortex/parahippocampal gyrus, and (ii) true categorical recognition effects in medial frontal regions, including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. These findings provide evidence for the early involvement, following stimulus onset, of non-overlapping brain networks during proactive processes eventually leading to visual object recognition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential Roles for "Nr4a1" and "Nr4a2" in Object Location vs. Object Recognition Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Susan E.; Barrett, Ruth M.; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Malvaez, Melissa; Hernandez, Nicole; Davatolhagh, M. Felicia; Matheos, Dina P.; Schiffman, Aaron; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    "Nr4a1" and "Nr4a2" are transcription factors and immediate early genes belonging to the nuclear receptor Nr4a family. In this study, we examine their role in long-term memory formation for object location and object recognition. Using siRNA to block expression of either "Nr4a1" or "Nr4a2", we found that "Nr4a2" is necessary for both long-term…

  12. Perirhinal Cortex Resolves Feature Ambiguity in Configural Object Recognition and Perceptual Oddity Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartko, Susan J.; Winters, Boyer D.; Cowell, Rosemary A.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    The perirhinal cortex (PRh) has a well-established role in object recognition memory. More recent studies suggest that PRh is also important for two-choice visual discrimination tasks. Specifically, it has been suggested that PRh contains conjunctive representations that help resolve feature ambiguity, which occurs when a task cannot easily be…

  13. Coarse-coded higher-order neural networks for PSRI object recognition. [position, scale, and rotation invariant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Reid, Max B.

    1993-01-01

    A higher-order neural network (HONN) can be designed to be invariant to changes in scale, translation, and inplane rotation. Invariances are built directly into the architecture of a HONN and do not need to be learned. Consequently, fewer training passes and a smaller training set are required to learn to distinguish between objects. The size of the input field is limited, however, because of the memory required for the large number of interconnections in a fully connected HONN. By coarse coding the input image, the input field size can be increased to allow the larger input scenes required for practical object recognition problems. We describe a coarse coding technique and present simulation results illustrating its usefulness and its limitations. Our simulations show that a third-order neural network can be trained to distinguish between two objects in a 4096 x 4096 pixel input field independent of transformations in translation, in-plane rotation, and scale in less than ten passes through the training set. Furthermore, we empirically determine the limits of the coarse coding technique in the object recognition domain.

  14. Short-term blueberry-enriched antioxidant diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective Previously, four months of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aged rats. Experiment 1 determined whether one and two-month BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the d...

  15. Dentate gyrus supports slope recognition memory, shades of grey-context pattern separation and recognition memory, and CA3 supports pattern completion for object memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Raymond P; Kirk, Ryan A; Yu, Zhenghui; Polansky, Caitlin; Musso, Nick D

    2016-03-01

    In order to examine the role of the dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG) in slope (vertical space) recognition and possible pattern separation, various slope (vertical space) degrees were used in a novel exploratory paradigm to measure novelty detection for changes in slope (vertical space) recognition memory and slope memory pattern separation in Experiment 1. The results of the experiment indicate that control rats displayed a slope recognition memory function with a pattern separation process for slope memory that is dependent upon the magnitude of change in slope between study and test phases. In contrast, the dDG lesioned rats displayed an impairment in slope recognition memory, though because there was no significant interaction between the two groups and slope memory, a reliable pattern separation impairment for slope could not be firmly established in the DG lesioned rats. In Experiment 2, in order to determine whether, the dDG plays a role in shades of grey spatial context recognition and possible pattern separation, shades of grey were used in a novel exploratory paradigm to measure novelty detection for changes in the shades of grey context environment. The results of the experiment indicate that control rats displayed a shades of grey-context pattern separation effect across levels of separation of context (shades of grey). In contrast, the DG lesioned rats displayed a significant interaction between the two groups and levels of shades of grey suggesting impairment in a pattern separation function for levels of shades of grey. In Experiment 3 in order to determine whether the dorsal CA3 (dCA3) plays a role in object pattern completion, a new task requiring less training and using a choice that was based on choosing the correct set of objects on a two-choice discrimination task was used. The results indicated that control rats displayed a pattern completion function based on the availability of one, two, three or four cues. In contrast, the dCA3 lesioned rats

  16. The medial prefrontal cortex-lateral entorhinal cortex circuit is essential for episodic-like memory and associative object-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Owen Y; Huston, Joseph P; Li, Jay-Shake; Wang, An-Li; de Souza Silva, Maria A

    2016-05-01

    The prefrontal cortex directly projects to the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), an important substrate for engaging item-associated information and relaying the information to the hippocampus. Here we ask to what extent the communication between the prefrontal cortex and LEC is critically involved in the processing of episodic-like memory. We applied a disconnection procedure to test whether the interaction between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and LEC is essential for the expression of recognition memory. It was found that male rats that received unilateral NMDA lesions of the mPFC and LEC in the same hemisphere, exhibited intact episodic-like (what-where-when) and object-recognition memories. When these lesions were placed in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection), episodic-like and associative memories for object identity, location and context were impaired. However, the disconnection did not impair the components of episodic memory, namely memory for novel object (what), object place (where) and temporal order (when), per se. Thus, the present findings suggest that the mPFC and LEC are a critical part of a neural circuit that underlies episodic-like and associative object-recognition memory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. New neural-networks-based 3D object recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolmaesumi, Purang; Jahed, M.

    1997-09-01

    Three-dimensional object recognition has always been one of the challenging fields in computer vision. In recent years, Ulman and Basri (1991) have proposed that this task can be done by using a database of 2-D views of the objects. The main problem in their proposed system is that the correspondent points should be known to interpolate the views. On the other hand, their system should have a supervisor to decide which class does the represented view belong to. In this paper, we propose a new momentum-Fourier descriptor that is invariant to scale, translation, and rotation. This descriptor provides the input feature vectors to our proposed system. By using the Dystal network, we show that the objects can be classified with over 95% precision. We have used this system to classify the objects like cube, cone, sphere, torus, and cylinder. Because of the nature of the Dystal network, this system reaches to its stable point by a single representation of the view to the system. This system can also classify the similar views to a single class (e.g., for the cube, the system generated 9 different classes for 50 different input views), which can be used to select an optimum database of training views. The system is also very flexible to the noise and deformed views.

  18. Recognition of Simple 3D Geometrical Objects under Partial Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchunova, Alexandra; Sommer, Gerald

    In this paper we present a novel procedure for contour-based recognition of partially occluded three-dimensional objects. In our approach we use images of real and rendered objects whose contours have been deformed by a restricted change of the viewpoint. The preparatory part consists of contour extraction, preprocessing, local structure analysis and feature extraction. The main part deals with an extended construction and functionality of the classifier ensemble Adaptive Occlusion Classifier (AOC). It relies on a hierarchical fragmenting algorithm to perform a local structure analysis which is essential when dealing with occlusions. In the experimental part of this paper we present classification results for five classes of simple geometrical figures: prism, cylinder, half cylinder, a cube, and a bridge. We compare classification results for three classical feature extractors: Fourier descriptors, pseudo Zernike and Zernike moments.

  19. The use of the Emotional-Object Recognition as an assay to assess learning and memory associated to an aversive stimulus in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Anna; Lavanco, Gianluca; Cavallaro, Angela; Plescia, Fulvio; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2016-12-01

    Emotionally salient experiences induce the formation of explicit memory traces, besides eliciting automatic or implicit emotional memory in rodents. This study aims at investigating the implementation of a novel task for studying the formation of limbic memory engrams as a result of the acquisition- and retrieval- of fear-conditioning - biased declarative memory traces, measured by animal discrimination of an "emotional-object". Moreover, by using this new method we investigated the potential interactions between stimulation of cannabinoid transmission and integration of emotional information and cognitive functioning. The Emotional-Object Recognition task is composed of 3 following sessions: habituation; cued fear-conditioned learning; emotional recognition. Rats are exposed to Context "B chamber" for habituation and cued fear-conditioning, and tested in Context "A chamber" for emotional-object recognition. Cued fear-conditioning induces a reduction in emotional-object exploration time during the Emotional-Object Recognition task in controls. The activation of cannabinoid signalling impairs limbic memory formation, with respect to vehicle. The Emotional-Object Recognition test overcomes several limitations of commonly employed methods that explore declarative-, spatial memory and fear-conditioning in a non-integrated manner. It allows the assessment of unbiased cognitive indicators of emotional learning and memory. The Emotional-Object Recognition task is a valuable tool for investigating whether, and at what extent, specific drugs or pathological conditions that interfere with the individual affective/emotional homeostasis, can modulate the formation of emotionally salient explicit memory traces, thus jeopardizing control and regulation of animal behavioural strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dissociation of Recognition and Recency Memory Judgments After Anterior Thalamic Nuclei Lesions in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Julie R.; Aggleton, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The anterior thalamic nuclei form part of a network for episodic memory in humans. The importance of these nuclei for recognition and recency judgments remains, however, unclear. Rats with anterior thalamic nuclei lesions and their controls were tested on object recognition, along with two types of recency judgment. The spontaneous discrimination of a novel object or a novel odor from a familiar counterpart (recognition memory) was not affected by anterior thalamic lesions when tested after retention delays of 1 and 60 min. To measure recency memory, rats were shown two familiar objects, one of which had been explored more recently. In one condition, rats were presented with two lists (List A, List B) of objects separated by a delay, thereby creating two distinct blocks of stimuli. After an additional delay, rats were presented with pairs of objects, one from List A and one from List B (between-block recency). No lesion-induced deficit was apparent for recency discriminations between objects from different lists, despite using three different levels of task difficulty. In contrast, rats with anterior thalamic lesions were significantly impaired when presented with a continuous list of objects and then tested on their ability to distinguish between those items early and late in the same list (within-block recency). The contrasting effects on recognition and recency support the notion that interlinked hippocampal–anterior thalamic interconnections support aspects of both spatial and nonspatial learning, although the role of the anterior thalamic nuclei may be restricted to a subclass of recency judgments (within-block). PMID:23731076

  1. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotions in speech using acoustic and lexical features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, S.; Truong, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    We developed acoustic and lexical classifiers, based on a boosting algorithm, to assess the separability on arousal and valence dimensions in spontaneous emotional speech. The spontaneous emotional speech data was acquired by inviting subjects to play a first-person shooter video game. Our acoustic

  2. Multimodal emotional state recognition using sequence-dependent deep hierarchical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pablo; Jirak, Doreen; Weber, Cornelius; Wermter, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Emotional state recognition has become an important topic for human-robot interaction in the past years. By determining emotion expressions, robots can identify important variables of human behavior and use these to communicate in a more human-like fashion and thereby extend the interaction possibilities. Human emotions are multimodal and spontaneous, which makes them hard to be recognized by robots. Each modality has its own restrictions and constraints which, together with the non-structured behavior of spontaneous expressions, create several difficulties for the approaches present in the literature, which are based on several explicit feature extraction techniques and manual modality fusion. Our model uses a hierarchical feature representation to deal with spontaneous emotions, and learns how to integrate multiple modalities for non-verbal emotion recognition, making it suitable to be used in an HRI scenario. Our experiments show that a significant improvement of recognition accuracy is achieved when we use hierarchical features and multimodal information, and our model improves the accuracy of state-of-the-art approaches from 82.5% reported in the literature to 91.3% for a benchmark dataset on spontaneous emotion expressions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Automated acoustic analysis in detection of spontaneous swallows in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabbakhsh, Marzieh; Rajaei, Ali; Derakhshan, Mahmoud; Sadri, Saeed; Taheri, Masoud; Adibi, Peyman

    2014-10-01

    Acoustic monitoring of swallow frequency has become important as the frequency of spontaneous swallowing can be an index for dysphagia and related complications. In addition, it can be employed as an objective quantification of ingestive behavior. Commonly, swallowing complications are manually detected using videofluoroscopy recordings, which require expensive equipment and exposure to radiation. In this study, a noninvasive automated technique is proposed that uses breath and swallowing recordings obtained via a microphone located over the laryngopharynx. Nonlinear diffusion filters were used in which a scale-space decomposition of recorded sound at different levels extract swallows from breath sounds and artifacts. This technique was compared to manual detection of swallows using acoustic signals on a sample of 34 subjects with Parkinson's disease. A speech language pathologist identified five subjects who showed aspiration during the videofluoroscopic swallowing study. The proposed automated method identified swallows with a sensitivity of 86.67 %, a specificity of 77.50 %, and an accuracy of 82.35 %. These results indicate the validity of automated acoustic recognition of swallowing as a fast and efficient approach to objectively estimate spontaneous swallow frequency.

  4. Automatic radar target recognition of objects falling on railway tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroué, A; Heddebaut, M; Elbahhar, F; Rivenq, A; Rouvaen, J-M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic radar target recognition procedure based on complex resonances using the signals provided by ultra-wideband radar. This procedure is dedicated to detection and identification of objects lying on railway tracks. For an efficient complex resonance extraction, a comparison between several pole extraction methods is illustrated. Therefore, preprocessing methods are presented aiming to remove most of the erroneous poles interfering with the discrimination scheme. Once physical poles are determined, a specific discrimination technique is introduced based on the Euclidean distances. Both simulation and experimental results are depicted showing an efficient discrimination of different targets including guided transport passengers

  5. Object location and object recognition memory impairments, motivation deficits and depression in a model of Gulf War illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Mishra, Vikas; Kodali, Maheedhar; Shuai, Bing; Rao, Xiolan; Shetty, Ashok K

    2014-01-01

    Memory and mood deficits are the enduring brain-related symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI). Both animal model and epidemiological investigations have indicated that these impairments in a majority of GW veterans are linked to exposures to chemicals such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB, an antinerve gas drug), permethrin (PM, an insecticide) and DEET (a mosquito repellant) encountered during the Persian Gulf War-1. Our previous study in a rat model has shown that combined exposures to low doses of GWI-related (GWIR) chemicals PB, PM, and DEET with or without 5-min of restraint stress (a mild stress paradigm) causes hippocampus-dependent spatial memory dysfunction in a water maze test (WMT) and increased depressive-like behavior in a forced swim test (FST). In this study, using a larger cohort of rats exposed to GWIR-chemicals and stress, we investigated whether the memory deficiency identified earlier in a WMT is reproducible with an alternative and stress free hippocampus-dependent memory test such as the object location test (OLT). We also ascertained the possible co-existence of hippocampus-independent memory dysfunction using a novel object recognition test (NORT), and alterations in mood function with additional tests for motivation and depression. Our results provide new evidence that exposure to low doses of GWIR-chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks causes deficits in hippocampus-dependent object location memory and perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition memory. An open field test performed prior to other behavioral analyses revealed that memory impairments were not associated with increased anxiety or deficits in general motor ability. However, behavioral tests for mood function such as a voluntary physical exercise paradigm and a novelty suppressed feeding test (NSFT) demonstrated decreased motivation levels and depression. Thus, exposure to GWIR-chemicals and stress causes both hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent memory

  6. Blockade of intracellular Zn2+ signaling in the basolateral amygdala affects object recognition memory via attenuation of dentate gyrus LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujise, Yuki; Kubota, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Miki; Tamano, Haruna; Takeda, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Hippocampus-dependent memory is modulated by the amygdala. However, it is unknown whether intracellular Zn 2+ signaling in the amygdala is involved in hippocampus-dependent memory. On the basis of the evidence that intracellular Zn 2+ signaling in dentate granule cells (DGC) is necessary for object recognition memory via LTP at medial perforant pathway (PP)-DGC synapses, the present study examined whether intracellular Zn 2+ signaling in the amygdala influences object recognition memory via modulation of LTP at medial PP-DGC synapses. When ZnAF-2DA (100 μM, 2 μl) was injected into the basolateral amygdala (BLA), intracellular ZnAF-2 locally chelated intracellular Zn 2+ in the amygdala. Recognition memory was affected when training of object recognition test was performed 20 min after ZnAF-2DA injection into the BLA. Twenty minutes after injection of ZnAF-2DA into the BLA, LTP induction at medial PP-DGC synapses was attenuated, while LTP induction at PP-BLA synapses was potentiated and LTP induction at BLA-DGC synapses was attenuated. These results suggest that intracellular Zn 2+ signaling in the BLA is involved in BLA-associated LTP and modulates LTP at medial PP-DGC synapses, followed by modulation of object recognition memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using Markov Chains and Multi-Objective Optimization for Energy-Efficient Context Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Janko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of the user’s context with wearable sensing systems is a common problem in ubiquitous computing. However, the typically small battery of such systems often makes continuous recognition impractical. The strain on the battery can be reduced if the sensor setting is adapted to each context. We propose a method that efficiently finds near-optimal sensor settings for each context. It uses Markov chains to simulate the behavior of the system in different configurations and the multi-objective genetic algorithm to find a set of good non-dominated configurations. The method was evaluated on three real-life datasets and found good trade-offs between the system’s energy expenditure and the system’s accuracy. One of the solutions, for example, consumed five-times less energy than the default one, while sacrificing only two percentage points of accuracy.

  8. Using Markov Chains and Multi-Objective Optimization for Energy-Efficient Context Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janko, Vito; Luštrek, Mitja

    2017-12-29

    The recognition of the user's context with wearable sensing systems is a common problem in ubiquitous computing. However, the typically small battery of such systems often makes continuous recognition impractical. The strain on the battery can be reduced if the sensor setting is adapted to each context. We propose a method that efficiently finds near-optimal sensor settings for each context. It uses Markov chains to simulate the behavior of the system in different configurations and the multi-objective genetic algorithm to find a set of good non-dominated configurations. The method was evaluated on three real-life datasets and found good trade-offs between the system's energy expenditure and the system's accuracy. One of the solutions, for example, consumed five-times less energy than the default one, while sacrificing only two percentage points of accuracy.

  9. Chronic methylphenidate-effects over circadian cycle of young and adult rats submitted to open-field and object recognition tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Karin M; Souza, Renan P; Valvassori, Samira S; Réus, Gislaine Z; Inácio, Cecília G; Martins, Márcio R; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, João

    2009-11-01

    In this study age-, circadian rhythm- and methylphenidate administration- effect on open field habituation and object recognition were analyzed. Young and adult male Wistar rats were treated with saline or methylphenidate 2.0 mg/kg for 28 days. Experiments were performed during the light and the dark cycle. Locomotor activity was significantly altered by circadian cycle and methylphenidate treatment during the training session and by drug treatment during the testing session. Exploratory activity was significantly modulated by age during the training session and by age and drug treatment during the testing session. Object recognition memory was altered by cycle at the training session; by age 1.5 h later and by cycle and age 24 h after the training session. These results show that methylphenidate treatment was the major modulator factor on open-field test while cycle and age had an important effect on object recognition experiment.

  10. Object instance recognition using motion cues and instance specific appearance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Arne

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present an object instance retrieval approach. The baseline approach consists of a pool of image features which are computed on the bounding boxes of a query object track and compared to a database of tracks in order to find additional appearances of the same object instance. We improve over this simple baseline approach in multiple ways: 1) we include motion cues to achieve improved robustness to viewpoint and rotation changes, 2) we include operator feedback to iteratively re-rank the resulting retrieval lists and 3) we use operator feedback and location constraints to train classifiers and learn an instance specific appearance model. We use these classifiers to further improve the retrieval results. The approach is evaluated on two popular public datasets for two different applications. We evaluate person re-identification on the CAVIAR shopping mall surveillance dataset and vehicle instance recognition on the VIVID aerial dataset and achieve significant improvements over our baseline results.

  11. Mechanisms and Neural Basis of Object and Pattern Recognition: A Study with Chess Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalic, Merim; Langner, Robert; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Comparing experts with novices offers unique insights into the functioning of cognition, based on the maximization of individual differences. Here we used this expertise approach to disentangle the mechanisms and neural basis behind two processes that contribute to everyday expertise: object and pattern recognition. We compared chess experts and…

  12. Logarithmic r-θ mapping for hybrid optical neural network filter for multiple objects recognition within cluttered scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypraios, Ioannis; Young, Rupert C. D.; Chatwin, Chris R.; Birch, Phil M.

    2009-04-01

    θThe window unit in the design of the complex logarithmic r-θ mapping for hybrid optical neural network filter can allow multiple objects of the same class to be detected within the input image. Additionally, the architecture of the neural network unit of the complex logarithmic r-θ mapping for hybrid optical neural network filter becomes attractive for accommodating the recognition of multiple objects of different classes within the input image by modifying the output layer of the unit. We test the overall filter for multiple objects of the same and of different classes' recognition within cluttered input images and video sequences of cluttered scenes. Logarithmic r-θ mapping for hybrid optical neural network filter is shown to exhibit with a single pass over the input data simultaneously in-plane rotation, out-of-plane rotation, scale, log r-θ map translation and shift invariance, and good clutter tolerance by recognizing correctly the different objects within the cluttered scenes. We record in our results additional extracted information from the cluttered scenes about the objects' relative position, scale and in-plane rotation.

  13. On hierarchical models for visual recognition and learning of objects, scenes, and activities

    CERN Document Server

    Spehr, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In many computer vision applications, objects have to be learned and recognized in images or image sequences. This book presents new probabilistic hierarchical models that allow an efficient representation of multiple objects of different categories, scales, rotations, and views. The idea is to exploit similarities between objects and object parts in order to share calculations and avoid redundant information. Furthermore inference approaches for fast and robust detection are presented. These new approaches combine the idea of compositional and similarity hierarchies and overcome limitations of previous methods. Besides classical object recognition the book shows the use for detection of human poses in a project for gait analysis. The use of activity detection is presented for the design of environments for ageing, to identify activities and behavior patterns in smart homes. In a presented project for parking spot detection using an intelligent vehicle, the proposed approaches are used to hierarchically model...

  14. Novel object recognition ability in female mice following exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin, E-mail: tin.tin.win.shwe@nies.go.jp [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16‐2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305‐8506 (Japan); Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro [Center for Environmental Risk Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16‐2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305‐8506 (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    Recently, our laboratory reported that exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NRDE) for 3 months impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning ability and up-regulated the expressions of memory function-related genes in the hippocampus of female mice. However, whether NRDE affects the hippocampus-dependent non-spatial learning ability and the mechanism of NRDE-induced neurotoxicity was unknown. Female BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, middle-dose NRDE (M-NRDE, 47 μg/m{sup 3}), high-dose NRDE (H-NRDE, 129 μg/m{sup 3}), or filtered H-NRDE (F-DE) for 3 months. We then investigated the effect of NRDE exposure on non-spatial learning ability and the expression of genes related to glutamate neurotransmission using a novel object recognition test and a real-time RT-PCR analysis, respectively. We also examined microglia marker Iba1 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus using immunohistochemical analyses. Mice exposed to H-NRDE or F-DE could not discriminate between familiar and novel objects. The control and M-NRDE-exposed groups showed a significantly increased discrimination index, compared to the H-NRDE-exposed group. Although no significant changes in the expression levels of the NMDA receptor subunits were observed, the expression of glutamate transporter EAAT4 was decreased and that of glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65 was increased in the hippocampus of H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the expression levels in control mice. We also found that microglia activation was prominent in the hippocampal area of the H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the other groups. These results indicated that exposure to NRDE for 3 months impaired the novel object recognition ability. The present study suggests that genes related to glutamate metabolism may be involved in the NRDE-induced neurotoxicity observed in the present mouse model. -- Highlights: ► The effects of nanoparticle-induced neurotoxicity remain unclear. ► We investigated the effect of exposure to

  15. Novel object recognition ability in female mice following exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-01-01

    Recently, our laboratory reported that exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NRDE) for 3 months impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning ability and up-regulated the expressions of memory function-related genes in the hippocampus of female mice. However, whether NRDE affects the hippocampus-dependent non-spatial learning ability and the mechanism of NRDE-induced neurotoxicity was unknown. Female BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, middle-dose NRDE (M-NRDE, 47 μg/m 3 ), high-dose NRDE (H-NRDE, 129 μg/m 3 ), or filtered H-NRDE (F-DE) for 3 months. We then investigated the effect of NRDE exposure on non-spatial learning ability and the expression of genes related to glutamate neurotransmission using a novel object recognition test and a real-time RT-PCR analysis, respectively. We also examined microglia marker Iba1 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus using immunohistochemical analyses. Mice exposed to H-NRDE or F-DE could not discriminate between familiar and novel objects. The control and M-NRDE-exposed groups showed a significantly increased discrimination index, compared to the H-NRDE-exposed group. Although no significant changes in the expression levels of the NMDA receptor subunits were observed, the expression of glutamate transporter EAAT4 was decreased and that of glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65 was increased in the hippocampus of H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the expression levels in control mice. We also found that microglia activation was prominent in the hippocampal area of the H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the other groups. These results indicated that exposure to NRDE for 3 months impaired the novel object recognition ability. The present study suggests that genes related to glutamate metabolism may be involved in the NRDE-induced neurotoxicity observed in the present mouse model. -- Highlights: ► The effects of nanoparticle-induced neurotoxicity remain unclear. ► We investigated the effect of exposure to

  16. Infliximab ameliorates AD-associated object recognition memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Choi, Seong-Min; Jho, Jihoon; Park, Man-Seok; Kang, Jisu; Park, Se Jin; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Jo, Jihoon; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Byeong C

    2016-09-15

    Dysfunctions in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) are associated with visual recognition memory deficit, which is frequently detected in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent long-term depression (mAChR-LTD) of synaptic transmission is known as a key pathway in eliciting this type of memory, and Tg2576 mice expressing enhanced levels of Aβ oligomers are found to have impaired mAChR-LTD in this brain area at as early as 3 months of age. We found that the administration of Aβ oligomers in young normal mice also induced visual recognition memory impairment and perturbed mAChR-LTD in mouse PRh slices. In addition, when mice were treated with infliximab, a monoclonal antibody against TNF-α, visual recognition memory impaired by pre-administered Aβ oligomers dramatically improved and the detrimental Aβ effect on mAChR-LTD was annulled. Taken together, these findings suggest that Aβ-induced inflammation is mediated through TNF-α signaling cascades, disturbing synaptic transmission in the PRh, and leading to visual recognition memory deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Short-term blueberry-enriched diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, David H; Lee, David R; Goyarzu, Pilar; Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Ennis, Lalanya J; Beckett, Elizabeth; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A

    2011-03-01

    Previously, 4 mo of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aging rats. Experiment 1 determined whether 1- and 2-mo BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the diets. Experiment 2 determined whether a 1-mo BB diet could subsequently reverse existing object memory impairment in aging rats. In experiment 1, Fischer-344 rats were maintained on an appropriate control diet or on 1 or 2 mo of the BB diet before testing object memory at 19 mo postnatally. In experiment 2, rats were tested for object recognition memory at 19 mo and again at 20 mo after 1 mo of maintenance on a 2% BB or control diet. In experiment 1, the control group performed no better than chance, whereas the 1- and 2-mo BB diet groups performed similarly and significantly better than controls. The 2-mo BB-diet group, but not the 1-mo group, maintained its performance over a subsequent month on a standard laboratory diet. In experiment 2, the 19-mo-old rats performed near chance. At 20 mo of age, the rats subsequently maintained on the BB diet significantly increased their object memory scores, whereas the control diet group exhibited a non-significant decline. The change in object memory scores differed significantly between the two diet groups. These results suggest that a considerable degree of age-related object memory decline can be prevented and reversed by brief maintenance on BB diets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Category Specificity in Normal Episodic Learning: Applications to Object Recognition and Category-Specific Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes…

  19. Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala modulates the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Barsegyan, Areg; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2014-01-01

    Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) is well known to enhance the consolidation of long-term memory of highly emotionally arousing training experiences. The present study investigated whether such noradrenergic activation of the BLA also influences the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory, a low-arousing training task assessing episodic-like memory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to two identical objects in one context for either 3 ...

  20. Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala modulates the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areg eBarsegyan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA is well known to enhance the consolidation of long-term memory of highly emotionally arousing training experiences. The present study investigated whether such noradrenergic activation of the BLA also influences the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory, a low-arousing training task assessing episodic-like memory. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to two identical objects in one context for either 3 or 10 min, immediately followed by exposure to two other identical objects in a distinctly different context. Immediately after the training they received bilateral intra-BLA infusions of norepinephrine (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 μg or the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 μg. On the 24-h retention test, rats were placed back into one of the training contexts with one copy of each of the two training objects. Thus, although both objects were familiar, one of the objects had not previously been encountered in this particular test context. Hence, if the animal generated a long-term memory for the association between an object and its context, it would spend significantly more time exploring the object that was not previously experienced in this context. Saline-infused control rats exhibited poor 24-h retention when given 3 min of training and good retention when given 10 min of training. Norepinephrine administered after 3 min of object-in-context training induced a dose-dependent memory enhancement, whereas propranolol administered after 10 min of training produced memory impairment. These findings provide evidence that posttraining noradrenergic activation of the BLA also enhances the consolidation of memory of object-in-context recognition training, enabling accuracy of episodic-like memories.

  1. Divergent short- and long-term effects of acute stress in object recognition memory are mediated by endogenous opioid system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Acute stress induces short-term object recognition memory impairment and elicits endogenous opioid system activation. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate whether opiate system activation mediates the acute stress-induced object recognition memory changes. Adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task designed to test both short- and long-term memory. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 1 mg/kg naltrexone or 3 mg/kg naltrexone, four and a half hours before the sample trial. Five minutes after the injection, half the subjects were submitted to movement restraint during four hours while the other half remained in their home cages. Non-stressed subjects receiving saline (control) performed adequately during the short-term memory test, while stressed subjects receiving saline displayed impaired performance. Naltrexone prevented such deleterious effect, in spite of the fact that it had no intrinsic effect on short-term object recognition memory. Stressed subjects receiving saline and non-stressed subjects receiving naltrexone performed adequately during the long-term memory test; however, control subjects as well as stressed subjects receiving a high dose of naltrexone performed poorly. Control subjects' dissociated performance during both memory tests suggests that the short-term memory test induced a retroactive interference effect mediated through light opioid system activation; such effect was prevented either by low dose naltrexone administration or by strongly activating the opioid system through acute stress. Both short-term memory retrieval impairment and long-term memory improvement observed in stressed subjects may have been mediated through strong opioid system activation, since they were prevented by high dose naltrexone administration. Therefore, the activation of the opioid system plays a dual modulating role in object recognition memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Heterozygous Che-1 KO mice show deficiencies in object recognition memory persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalcman, Gisela; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Mattei, Elisabetta; Federman, Noel; Romano, Arturo

    2016-10-06

    Transcriptional regulation is a key process in the formation of long-term memories. Che-1 is a protein involved in the regulation of gene transcription that has recently been proved to bind the transcription factor NF-κB, which is known to be involved in many memory-related molecular events. This evidence prompted us to investigate the putative role of Che-1 in memory processes. For this study we newly generated a line of Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mice. Che-1 homozygous KO mouse is lethal during development, but Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mouse is normal in its general anatomical and physiological characteristics. We analyzed the behavioral characteristic and memory performance of Che-1(+/-) mice in two NF-κB dependent types of memory. We found that Che-1(+/-) mice show similar locomotor activity and thigmotactic behavior than wild type (WT) mice in an open field. In a similar way, no differences were found in anxiety-like behavior between Che-1(+/-) and WT mice in an elevated plus maze as well as in fear response in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and object exploration in a novel object recognition (NOR) task. No differences were found between WT and Che-1(+/-) mice performance in CFC training and when tested at 24h or 7days after training. Similar performance was found between groups in NOR task, both in training and 24h testing performance. However, we found that object recognition memory persistence at 7days was impaired in Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mice. This is the first evidence showing that Che-1 is involved in memory processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Noradrenergic Activation of the Basolateral Amygdala Enhances Object Recognition Memory and Induces Chromatin Remodeling in the Insular Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassiba eBeldjoud

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that arousal-induced memory enhancement requires noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA and modulatory influences on information storage processes in its many target regions. While this concept is well accepted, the molecular basis of such BLA effects on neural plasticity changes within other brain regions remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether noradrenergic activation of the BLA after object recognition training induces chromatin remodeling through histone post-translational modifications in the insular cortex (IC, a brain region that is importantly involved in object recognition memory. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were trained on an object recognition task, followed immediately by bilateral microinfusions of norepinephrine (1.0 µg or saline administered into the BLA. Saline-treated control rats exhibited poor 24-h retention, whereas norepinephrine treatment induced robust 24-h object recognition memory. Most importantly, this memory-enhancing dose of norepinephrine induced a global reduction in the acetylation levels of histone H3 at lysine 14, H2B and H4 in the IC 1 h later, whereas it had no effect on the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 or tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. Norepinephrine administered into the BLA of non-trained control rats did not induce any changes in the histone marks investigated in this study. These findings indicate that noradrenergic activation of the BLA induces training-specific effects on chromatin remodeling mechanisms, and presumably gene transcription, in its target regions, which may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress and emotional arousal effects on memory consolidation.

  4. Using Markov Chains and Multi-Objective Optimization for Energy-Efficient Context Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janko, Vito

    2017-01-01

    The recognition of the user’s context with wearable sensing systems is a common problem in ubiquitous computing. However, the typically small battery of such systems often makes continuous recognition impractical. The strain on the battery can be reduced if the sensor setting is adapted to each context. We propose a method that efficiently finds near-optimal sensor settings for each context. It uses Markov chains to simulate the behavior of the system in different configurations and the multi-objective genetic algorithm to find a set of good non-dominated configurations. The method was evaluated on three real-life datasets and found good trade-offs between the system’s energy expenditure and the system’s accuracy. One of the solutions, for example, consumed five-times less energy than the default one, while sacrificing only two percentage points of accuracy. PMID:29286301

  5. A Scientific Workflow Platform for Generic and Scalable Object Recognition on Medical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Manuel; Tuot, Christopher; Sintek, Michael

    In the research project THESEUS MEDICO we aim at a system combining medical image information with semantic background knowledge from ontologies to give clinicians fully cross-modal access to biomedical image repositories. Therefore joint efforts have to be made in more than one dimension: Object detection processes have to be specified in which an abstraction is performed starting from low-level image features across landmark detection utilizing abstract domain knowledge up to high-level object recognition. We propose a system based on a client-server extension of the scientific workflow platform Kepler that assists the collaboration of medical experts and computer scientists during development and parameter learning.

  6. Depression of home cage wheel running is an objective measure of spontaneous morphine withdrawal in rats with and without persistent pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Ram; Lee, Andrea T.; Morgan, Michael M.

    2017-01-01

    Opioid withdrawal in humans is often subtle and almost always spontaneous. In contrast, most preclinical studies precipitate withdrawal by administration of an opioid receptor antagonist such as naloxone. These animal studies rely on measurement of physiological symptoms (e.g., wet dog shakes) in the period immediately following naloxone administration. To more closely model the human condition, we tested the hypothesis that depression of home cage wheel running will provide an objective method to measure the magnitude and duration of spontaneous morphine withdrawal. Rats were allowed access to a running wheel in their home cage for 8 days prior to implantation of two 75 mg morphine or placebo pellets. The pellets were removed 3 or 5 days later to induce spontaneous withdrawal. In normal pain-free rats, removal of the morphine pellets depressed wheel running for 48 hours compared to rats that had placebo pellets removed. Morphine withdrawal-induced depression of wheel running was greatly enhanced in rats with persistent inflammatory pain induced by injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) into the hindpaw. Removal of the morphine pellets following 3 days of treatment depressed wheel running in these rats for over 6 days. These data demonstrate that home cage wheel running provides an objective and more clinically relevant method to assess spontaneous morphine withdrawal compared to precipitated withdrawal in laboratory rats. Moreover, the enhanced withdrawal in rats with persistent inflammatory pain suggests that pain patients may be especially susceptible to opioid withdrawal. PMID:28366799

  7. Improving human object recognition performance using video enhancement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Lucy S.; Lewis, Colin; Oakley, John P.

    2004-12-01

    Atmospheric scattering causes significant degradation in the quality of video images, particularly when imaging over long distances. The principle problem is the reduction in contrast due to scattered light. It is known that when the scattering particles are not too large compared with the imaging wavelength (i.e. Mie scattering) then high spatial resolution information may be contained within a low-contrast image. Unfortunately this information is not easily perceived by a human observer, particularly when using a standard video monitor. A secondary problem is the difficulty of achieving a sharp focus since automatic focus techniques tend to fail in such conditions. Recently several commercial colour video processing systems have become available. These systems use various techniques to improve image quality in low contrast conditions whilst retaining colour content. These systems produce improvements in subjective image quality in some situations, particularly in conditions of haze and light fog. There is also some evidence that video enhancement leads to improved ATR performance when used as a pre-processing stage. Psychological literature indicates that low contrast levels generally lead to a reduction in the performance of human observers in carrying out simple visual tasks. The aim of this paper is to present the results of an empirical study on object recognition in adverse viewing conditions. The chosen visual task was vehicle number plate recognition at long ranges (500 m and beyond). Two different commercial video enhancement systems are evaluated using the same protocol. The results show an increase in effective range with some differences between the different enhancement systems.

  8. Explicit and spontaneous retrieval of emotional scenes: Electrophysiological correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymar, Mathias; Bradley, Margaret M.; El-Hinnawi, Nasryn; Lang, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    When event-related potentials are measured during a recognition task, items that have previously been presented typically elicit a larger late (400–800 ms) positive potential than new items. Recent data, however, suggest that emotional, but not neutral, pictures show ERP evidence of spontaneous retrieval when presented in a free-viewing task (Ferrari, Bradley, Codispoti & Lang, 2012). In two experiments, we further investigated the brain dynamics of implicit and explicit retrieval. In Experiment 1, brain potentials were measured during a semantic categorization task, which did not explicitly probe episodic memory, but which, like a recognition task, required an active decision and a button press, and were compared to those elicited during recognition and free viewing. Explicit recognition prompted a late enhanced positivity for previously presented, compared to new, pictures regardless of hedonic content. In contrast, only emotional pictures showed an old-new difference when the task did not explicitly probe episodic memory, either when either making an active categorization decision regarding picture content, or when simply viewing pictures. In Experiment 2, however, neutral pictures did prompt a significant old-new ERP difference during subsequent free viewing when emotionally arousing pictures were not included in the encoding set. These data suggest that spontaneous retrieval is heightened for salient cues, perhaps reflecting heightened attention and elaborative processing at encoding. PMID:23795588

  9. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: A study with young and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Soledad eBallesteros; Julia eMayas

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old–new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants wer...

  10. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  11. Encoding conditions affect recognition of vocally expressed emotions across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Rebecca; Drolet, Matthis; Pirow, Ralph; Scheiner, Elisabeth; Fischer, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Although the expression of emotions in humans is considered to be largely universal, cultural effects contribute to both emotion expression and recognition. To disentangle the interplay between these factors, play-acted and authentic (non-instructed) vocal expressions of emotions were used, on the assumption that cultural effects may contribute differentially to the recognition of staged and spontaneous emotions. Speech tokens depicting four emotions (anger, sadness, joy, fear) were obtained from German radio archives and re-enacted by professional actors, and presented to 120 participants from Germany, Romania, and Indonesia. Participants in all three countries were poor at distinguishing between play-acted and spontaneous emotional utterances (58.73% correct on average with only marginal cultural differences). Nevertheless, authenticity influenced emotion recognition: across cultures, anger was recognized more accurately when play-acted (z = 15.06, p emotions, indicating a moderate in-group advantage. There was no difference between Romanian and Indonesian subjects in the overall emotion recognition. Differential cultural effects became particularly apparent in terms of differential biases in emotion attribution. While all participants labeled play-acted expressions as anger more frequently than expected, German participants exhibited a further bias toward choosing anger for spontaneous stimuli. In contrast to the German sample, Romanian and Indonesian participants were biased toward choosing sadness. These results support the view that emotion recognition rests on a complex interaction of human universals and cultural specificities. Whether and in which way the observed biases are linked to cultural differences in self-construal remains an issue for further investigation.

  12. Recognition of abstract objects via neural oscillators: interaction among topological organization, associative memory and gamma band synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Mauro; Magosso, Elisa; Cuppini, Cristiano

    2009-02-01

    Synchronization of neural activity in the gamma band is assumed to play a significant role not only in perceptual processing, but also in higher cognitive functions. Here, we propose a neural network of Wilson-Cowan oscillators to simulate recognition of abstract objects, each represented as a collection of four features. Features are ordered in topological maps of oscillators connected via excitatory lateral synapses, to implement a similarity principle. Experience on previous objects is stored in long-range synapses connecting the different topological maps, and trained via timing dependent Hebbian learning (previous knowledge principle). Finally, a downstream decision network detects the presence of a reliable object representation, when all features are oscillating in synchrony. Simulations performed giving various simultaneous objects to the network (from 1 to 4), with some missing and/or modified properties suggest that the network can reconstruct objects, and segment them from the other simultaneously present objects, even in case of deteriorated information, noise, and moderate correlation among the inputs (one common feature). The balance between sensitivity and specificity depends on the strength of the Hebbian learning. Achieving a correct reconstruction in all cases, however, requires ad hoc selection of the oscillation frequency. The model represents an attempt to investigate the interactions among topological maps, autoassociative memory, and gamma-band synchronization, for recognition of abstract objects.

  13. Memory consolidation and expression of object recognition are susceptible to retroactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, María Eugenia; Martinez, María Cecilia; Lopes da Cunha, Pamela; Ballarini, Fabricio; Viola, Haydee

    2017-02-01

    With the aim of analyzing if object recognition long-term memory (OR-LTM) formation is susceptible to retroactive interference (RI), we submitted rats to sequential sample sessions using the same arena but changing the identity of a pair of objects placed in it. Separate groups of animals were tested in the arena in order to evaluate the LTM for these objects. Our results suggest that OR-LTM formation was retroactively interfered within a critical time window by the exploration of a new, but not familiar, object. This RI acted on the consolidation of the object explored in the first sample session because its OR-STM measured 3h after training was not affected, whereas the OR-LTM measured at 24h was impaired. This sample session also impaired the expression of OR memory when it took place before the test. Moreover, local inactivation of the dorsal Hippocampus (Hp) or the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) previous to the exploration of the second pair of objects impaired their consolidation restoring the LTM for the objects explored in the first session. This data suggests that both brain regions are involved in the processing of OR-memory and also that if those regions are engaged in another process before finishing the first consolidation process its LTM will be impaired by RI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Real-time object recognition in multidimensional images based on joined extended structural tensor and higher-order tensor decomposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyganek, Boguslaw; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a system for real-time recognition of objects in multidimensional video signals is proposed. Object recognition is done by pattern projection into the tensor subspaces obtained from the factorization of the signal tensors representing the input signal. However, instead of taking only the intensity signal the novelty of this paper is first to build the Extended Structural Tensor representation from the intensity signal that conveys information on signal intensities, as well as on higher-order statistics of the input signals. This way the higher-order input pattern tensors are built from the training samples. Then, the tensor subspaces are built based on the Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition of the prototype pattern tensors. Finally, recognition relies on measurements of the distance of a test pattern projected into the tensor subspaces obtained from the training tensors. Due to high-dimensionality of the input data, tensor based methods require high memory and computational resources. However, recent achievements in the technology of the multi-core microprocessors and graphic cards allows real-time operation of the multidimensional methods as is shown and analyzed in this paper based on real examples of object detection in digital images.

  15. Modular Adaptive System Based on a Multi-Stage Neural Structure for Recognition of 2D Objects of Discontinuous Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Topalova

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of a new system for invariant recognition of 2D objects with overlapping classes, that can not be effectively recognized with the traditional methods. The translation, scale and partial rotation invariant contour object description is transformed in a DCT spectrum space. The obtained frequency spectrums are decomposed into frequency bands in order to feed different BPG neural nets (NNs. The NNs are structured in three stages - filtering and full rotation invariance; partial recognition; general classification. The designed multi-stage BPG Neural Structure shows very good accuracy and flexibility when tested with 2D objects used in the discontinuous production. The reached speed and the opportunuty for an easy restructuring and reprogramming of the system makes it suitable for application in different applied systems for real time work.

  16. Modular Adaptive System Based on a Multi-Stage Neural Structure for Recognition of 2D Objects of Discontinuous Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Topalova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of a new system for invariant recognition of 2D objects with overlapping classes, that can not be effectively recognized with the traditional methods. The translation, scale and partial rotation invariant contour object description is transformed in a DCT spectrum space. The obtained frequency spectrums are decomposed into frequency bands in order to feed different BPG neural nets (NNs. The NNs are structured in three stages - filtering and full rotation invariance; partial recognition; general classification. The designed multi-stage BPG Neural Structure shows very good accuracy and flexibility when tested with 2D objects used in the discontinuous production. The reached speed and the opportunuty for an easy restructuring and reprogramming of the system makes it suitable for application in different applied systems for real time work.

  17. Recognition memory is selectively impaired in adult rats exposed to binge-like doses of ethanol during early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIlvane, Nicole M; Pochiro, Joseph M; Hurwitz, Nicole R; Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to alcohol in utero can induce a variety of physical and mental impairments, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This study explores the persistent cognitive consequences of ethanol administration in rat pups over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, modeling human third trimester consumption. Between PD65-70, ethanol-exposed (5E) and control rats were evaluated in two variants of recognition memory, the spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) task, using 20 and 240 min sample-to-test delays, and the associative object-in-context (OIC) task, using a 20 min delay. No treatment group differences were observed in object exploration during the sample session for any task. In the 20 min NOR test session the 5E rats explored the novel object significantly less than controls, relative to the total time exploring both objects. Postnatal ethanol exposure is hypothesized to impede object memory consolidation in the perirhinal cortex of 5E rats, hindering their ability to discriminate between familiar and novel objects at short delays. The 5E rats performed as well or better than control rats in the 240 min NOR and the 20 min OIC tasks, indicating developmental ethanol exposure selectively impairs the retention and expression of recognition memories in young adult rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impairment of object recognition memory by maternal bisphenol A exposure is associated with inhibition of Akt and ERK/CREB/BDNF pathway in the male offspring hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Li, Zhihui; Han, Haijun; Luo, Guangying; Zhou, Bingrui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Jundong

    2016-02-03

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a commonly used endocrine-disrupting chemical used as a component of polycarbonates plastics that has potential adverse effects on human health. Exposure to BPA during development has been implicated in memory deficits, but the mechanism of action underlying the effect is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of maternal exposure to BPA on object recognition memory and the expressions of proteins important for memory, especially focusing on the ERK/CREB/BDNF pathway. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley female rats were orally treated with either vehicle or BPA (0.05, 0.5, 5 or 50 mg/kg BW/day) during days 9-20 of gestation. Male offspring were tested on postnatal day 21 with the object recognition task. Recognition memory was assessed using the object recognition index (index=the time spent exploring the novel object/(the time spent exploring the novel object+the time spent exploring the familiar object)). In the test session performed 90 min after the training session, BPA-exposed male offspring not only spent more time in exploring the familiar object at the highest dose than the control, but also displayed a significantly decreased the object recognition index at the doses of 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg BW/day. During the test session performed 24h after the training session, BPA-treated males did not change the time spent exploring the familiar object, but had a decreased object recognition index at 5 and 50 mg/kg BW/day, when compared to control group. These findings indicate that object recognition memory was susceptible to maternal BPA exposure. Western blot analysis of hippocampi from BPA-treated male offspring revealed a decrease in Akt, phospho-Akt, p44/42 MAPK and phospho-p44/42 MAPK protein levels, compared to controls. In addition, BPA significantly inhibited the levels of phosphorylation of CREB and BDNF in the hippocampus. Our results show that maternal BPA exposure may full impair object recognition memory, and that

  19. Geometric Edge Description and Classification in Point Cloud Data with Application to 3D Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Troels Bo; Buch, Anders Glent; Kraft, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    descriptor allows for both fast computation and fast processing by having a low dimension, while still producing highly reliable edge detections. Lastly, we use our features in a 3D object recognition application using a well-established benchmark. We show that our edge features allow for significant...

  20. Antidepressant drugs specifically inhibiting noradrenaline reuptake enhance recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltmann, Kristin; Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa; De Bundel, Dimitri; Lindskog, Maria; Schilström, Björn

    2015-12-01

    Patients suffering from major depression often experience memory deficits even after the remission of mood symptoms, and many antidepressant drugs do not affect, or impair, memory in animals and humans. However, some antidepressant drugs, after a single dose, enhance cognition in humans (Harmer et al., 2009). To compare different classes of antidepressant drugs for their potential as memory enhancers, we used a version of the novel object recognition task in which rats spontaneously forget objects 24 hr after their presentation. Antidepressant drugs were injected systemically 30 min before or directly after the training phase (Session 1 [S1]). Post-S1 injections were used to test for specific memory-consolidation effects. The noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors reboxetine and atomoxetine, as well as the serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor duloxetine, injected prior to S1 significantly enhanced recognition memory. In contrast, the serotonin reuptake inhibitors citalopram and paroxetine and the cyclic antidepressant drugs desipramine and mianserin did not enhance recognition memory. Post-S1 injection of either reboxetine or citalopram significantly enhanced recognition memory, indicating an effect on memory consolidation. The fact that citalopram had an effect only when injected after S1 suggests that it may counteract its own consolidation-enhancing effect by interfering with memory acquisition. However, pretreatment with citalopram did not attenuate reboxetine's memory-enhancing effect. The D1/5-receptor antagonist SCH23390 blunted reboxetine's memory-enhancing effect, indicating a role of dopaminergic transmission in reboxetine-induced recognition memory enhancement. Our results suggest that antidepressant drugs specifically inhibiting noradrenaline reuptake enhance cognition and may be beneficial in the treatment of cognitive symptoms of depression. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Qualification of spontaneous undirected locomotor behavior of fish for sublethal toxicity testing. Part 1. Variability of measurement parameters under general test conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, C.; Grillitsch, B.; Wytek, R.; Spieser, O.H.; Scholz, W.

    1999-12-01

    An automated, personal computer-based video-processing, object-recognition, and object-tracing system was used to record and analyze undirected spontaneous locomotor behavior of small groups of undisturbed zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) in laboratory tanks. The primary data provided by the monitoring system were the individually assigned, time-stamped coordinates of the fish in two-dimensional projection. Secondary parameters (position, velocity of movement in the horizontal and the vertical direction, and temporal intraindividual and interindividual association) were calculated. The computed parameters offered a multidimensional description of spontaneous undirected swimming behavior of the fish and proved to be largely independent of water temperature, length, weight, and sex ratio of the zebra fish within the standardized range, but varied significantly with the feeding regime, time of day, number of fish per tank, and batch. Statistical characteristics of the behavioral parameters confirmed them as being appropriate for parametric statistical analyses.

  2. Encoding conditions affect recognition of vocally expressed emotions across cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eJürgens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the expression of emotions in humans is considered to be largely universal, cultural effects contribute to both emotion expression and recognition. To disentangle the interplay between these factors, play-acted and authentic (non-instructed vocal expressions of emotions were used, on the assumption that cultural effects may contribute differentially to the recognition of staged and spontaneous emotions. Speech tokens depicting four emotions (anger, sadness, joy, fear were obtained from German radio archives and reenacted by professional actors, and presented to 120 participants from Germany, Romania, and Indonesia. Participants in all three countries were poor at distinguishing between play-acted and spontaneous emotional utterances (58.73% correct on average with only marginal cultural differences. Nevertheless, authenticity influenced emotion recognition: across cultures, anger was recognized more accurately when play-acted (z = 15.06, p < .001 and sadness when authentic (z = 6.63, p < .001, replicating previous findings from German populations. German subjects revealed a slight advantage in recognizing emotions, indicating a moderate in-group advantage. There was no difference between Romanian and Indonesian subjects in the overall emotion recognition. Differential cultural effects became particularly apparent in terms of differential biases in emotion attribution. While all participants labeled play-acted expressions as anger more frequently than expected, German participants exhibited a further bias towards choosing anger for spontaneous stimuli. In contrast to the German sample, Romanian and Indonesian participants were biased towards choosing sadness. These results support the view that emotion recognition rests on a complex interaction of human universals and cultural specificities. Whether and in which way the observed biases are linked to cultural differences in self-construal remains an issue for further investigation.

  3. Optical Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  4. Self-recognition in pigeons revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Emiko; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2014-11-01

    Recognition of a self-image in a mirror is investigated using the mark test during which a mark is placed onto a point on the body that is not directly visible, and the presence or absence of self-directed behaviors is evaluated for the mirror-observing subjects. Great apes, dolphins, possibly elephants, and magpies have all passed the mark test, that is, displayed self-directed behaviors, whereas monkeys, crows, and other animals have failed the test even though they were able to use a mirror to find a not-directly-visible object. Self-directed behavior and mirror use are prerequisites of a successful mark test, and the absence of these behaviors may lead to false negative results. Epstein, Lanza, and Skinner (1981) reported self-directed behavior of pigeons in front of a mirror after explicit training of self-directed pecking and of pecking an object with the aid of a mirror, but certain other researchers could not confirm the results. The aim of the present study was to conduct the mark test with two pigeons that had received extensive training of the prerequisite behaviors. Crucial points of the training were identical topography (pecking) and the same reinforcement (food) in the prerequisite behaviors as well as sufficient training of these behaviors. After training for the prerequisite behaviors, both pigeons spontaneously integrated the learned self-directed and mirror-use behavior and displayed self-directed behavior in a mark test. This indicates that pigeons display mirror self-recognition after training of suitable ontogenetic contingency. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. Visual object recognition and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

  6. Activity and function recognition for moving and static objects in urban environments from wide-area persistent surveillance inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Bobick, Aaron; Jones, Eric

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we describe results from experimental analysis of a model designed to recognize activities and functions of moving and static objects from low-resolution wide-area video inputs. Our model is based on representing the activities and functions using three variables: (i) time; (ii) space; and (iii) structures. The activity and function recognition is achieved by imposing lexical, syntactic, and semantic constraints on the lower-level event sequences. In the reported research, we have evaluated the utility and sensitivity of several algorithms derived from natural language processing and pattern recognition domains. We achieved high recognition accuracy for a wide range of activity and function types in the experiments using Electro-Optical (EO) imagery collected by Wide Area Airborne Surveillance (WAAS) platform.

  7. Impulsivity and novel object recognition test of rat model for vascular cognitive impairment after antipsychotics treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny T Wirasto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI is a common condition in which no standard treatment has been approved. VCI is often accompanied by behavioral problems which require psychiatric interventions. The common therapeutic agent used for the acute management is antipsychotic injections. Current findings showed that atypical antipsychotic possess better safety profile for treating behavioral problems related to VCI compared to typical antipsychotic. In this study, we induced VCI in Sprague Dawley rats between 6-8 weeks old using bilateral carotid communist artery occlusion technique. The subjects were divided into 4 treatment groups: sham, olanzapine, haloperidol, and risperidone groups. Subjects received intramuscular injections of subsequent drugs for 3 days post VCI induction. Impulsive behavior and object recognition were examined using cliff jumping test and novel object recognition test. The analyses results showed that impulsive behavior was lower in the olanzapine and haloperidol groups compared to sham group, although it was not statistically significant (p = 0.651. The results also showed that there were no significant differences in the time spent exploring old and novel objects in all groups (p = 0.945;0.637 respectively. In conclusion, antipsychotic injection might not be effective to control impulsive behavior post VCI induction.

  8. Excess influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells affects object recognition memory via attenuated LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Miki; Fujise, Yuki; Tsuchiya, Yuka; Tamano, Haruna; Takeda, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    The influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells is nonessential for dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) and the physiological significance of extracellular Zn(2+) dynamics is unknown in the dentate gyrus. Excess increase in extracellular Zn(2+) in the hippocampal CA1, which is induced with excitation of zincergic neurons, induces memory deficit via excess influx of Zn(2+) into CA1 pyramidal cells. In the present study, it was examined whether extracellular Zn(2+) induces object recognition memory deficit via excess influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells. KCl (100 mM, 2 µl) was locally injected into the dentate gyrus. The increase in intracellular Zn(2+) in dentate granule cells induced with high K(+) was blocked by co-injection of CaEDTA and CNQX, an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator and an AMPA receptor antagonist, respectively, suggesting that high K(+) increases the influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells via AMPA receptor activation. Dentate gyrus LTP induction was attenuated 1 h after KCl injection into the dentate gyrus and also attenuated when KCl was injected 5 min after the induction. Memory deficit was induced when training of object recognition test was performed 1 h after KCl injection into the dentate gyrus and also induced when KCl was injected 5 min after the training. High K(+)-induced impairments of LTP and memory were rescued by co-injection of CaEDTA. These results indicate that excess influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells via AMPA receptor activation affects object recognition memory via attenuated LTP induction. Even in the dentate gyrus where is scarcely innervated by zincergic neurons, it is likely that extracellular Zn(2+) homeostasis is strictly regulated for cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emerging technologies with potential for objectively evaluating speech recognition skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawool, Vishakha Waman

    2016-01-01

    Work-related exposure to noise and other ototoxins can cause damage to the cochlea, synapses between the inner hair cells, the auditory nerve fibers, and higher auditory pathways, leading to difficulties in recognizing speech. Procedures designed to determine speech recognition scores (SRS) in an objective manner can be helpful in disability compensation cases where the worker claims to have poor speech perception due to exposure to noise or ototoxins. Such measures can also be helpful in determining SRS in individuals who cannot provide reliable responses to speech stimuli, including patients with Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injuries, and infants with and without hearing loss. Cost-effective neural monitoring hardware and software is being rapidly refined due to the high demand for neurogaming (games involving the use of brain-computer interfaces), health, and other applications. More specifically, two related advances in neuro-technology include relative ease in recording neural activity and availability of sophisticated analysing techniques. These techniques are reviewed in the current article and their applications for developing objective SRS procedures are proposed. Issues related to neuroaudioethics (ethics related to collection of neural data evoked by auditory stimuli including speech) and neurosecurity (preservation of a person's neural mechanisms and free will) are also discussed.

  10. Genetic Mapping in Mice Reveals the Involvement of Pcdh9 in Long-Term Social and Object Recognition and Sensorimotor Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruining, Hilgo; Matsui, Asuka; Oguro-Ando, Asami; Kahn, René S; Van't Spijker, Heleen M; Akkermans, Guus; Stiedl, Oliver; van Engeland, Herman; Koopmans, Bastijn; van Lith, Hein A; Oppelaar, Hugo; Tieland, Liselotte; Nonkes, Lourens J; Yagi, Takeshi; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Burbach, J Peter H; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko; Kas, Martien J

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative genetic analysis of basic mouse behaviors is a powerful tool to identify novel genetic phenotypes contributing to neurobehavioral disorders. Here, we analyzed genetic contributions to single-trial, long-term social and nonsocial recognition and subsequently studied the functional impact of an identified candidate gene on behavioral development. Genetic mapping of single-trial social recognition was performed in chromosome substitution strains, a sophisticated tool for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) of complex traits. Follow-up occurred by generating and testing knockout (KO) mice of a selected QTL candidate gene. Functional characterization of these mice was performed through behavioral and neurological assessments across developmental stages and analyses of gene expression and brain morphology. Chromosome substitution strain 14 mapping studies revealed an overlapping QTL related to long-term social and object recognition harboring Pcdh9, a cell-adhesion gene previously associated with autism spectrum disorder. Specific long-term social and object recognition deficits were confirmed in homozygous (KO) Pcdh9-deficient mice, while heterozygous mice only showed long-term social recognition impairment. The recognition deficits in KO mice were not associated with alterations in perception, multi-trial discrimination learning, sociability, behavioral flexibility, or fear memory. Rather, KO mice showed additional impairments in sensorimotor development reflected by early touch-evoked biting, rotarod performance, and sensory gating deficits. This profile emerged with structural changes in deep layers of sensory cortices, where Pcdh9 is selectively expressed. This behavior-to-gene study implicates Pcdh9 in cognitive functions required for long-term social and nonsocial recognition. This role is supported by the involvement of Pcdh9 in sensory cortex development and sensorimotor phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published

  11. Reader error, object recognition, and visual search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundel, Harold L.

    2004-05-01

    Small abnormalities such as hairline fractures, lung nodules and breast tumors are missed by competent radiologists with sufficient frequency to make them a matter of concern to the medical community; not only because they lead to litigation but also because they delay patient care. It is very easy to attribute misses to incompetence or inattention. To do so may be placing an unjustified stigma on the radiologists involved and may allow other radiologists to continue a false optimism that it can never happen to them. This review presents some of the fundamentals of visual system function that are relevant to understanding the search for and the recognition of small targets embedded in complicated but meaningful backgrounds like chests and mammograms. It presents a model for visual search that postulates a pre-attentive global analysis of the retinal image followed by foveal checking fixations and eventually discovery scanning. The model will be used to differentiate errors of search, recognition and decision making. The implications for computer aided diagnosis and for functional workstation design are discussed.

  12. Now you see it, now you don’t: The context dependent nature of category-effects in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Toft, Kristian Olesen

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we test predictions regarding processing advantages/disadvantages for natural objects and artefacts in visual object recognition. Varying three important parameters*degree of perceptual differentiation, stimulus format, and stimulus exposure duration*we show how different......-effects are products of common operations which are differentially affected by the structural similarity among objects (with natural objects being more structurally similar than artefacts). The potentially most important aspect of the present study is the demonstration that category-effects are very context dependent...

  13. Conversion of short-term to long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shannon J; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Stinnett, Gwen S; Seasholtz, Audrey F; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2013-10-01

    It is well-known that stress can significantly impact learning; however, whether this effect facilitates or impairs the resultant memory depends on the characteristics of the stressor. Investigation of these dynamics can be confounded by the role of the stressor in motivating performance in a task. Positing a cohesive model of the effect of stress on learning and memory necessitates elucidating the consequences of stressful stimuli independently from task-specific functions. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating a task-independent stressor (elevated light level) on short-term and long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm. Short-term memory was elicited in both low light and high light conditions, but long-term memory specifically required high light conditions during the acquisition phase (familiarization trial) and was independent of the light level during retrieval (test trial). Additionally, long-term memory appeared to be independent of stress-mediated glucocorticoid release, as both low and high light produced similar levels of plasma corticosterone, which further did not correlate with subsequent memory performance. Finally, both short-term and long-term memory showed no savings between repeated experiments suggesting that this novel object recognition paradigm may be useful for longitudinal studies, particularly when investigating treatments to stabilize or enhance weak memories in neurodegenerative diseases or during age-related cognitive decline. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fast and flexible 3D object recognition solutions for machine vision applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberger, Ira; Kühnle, Jens; Verl, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    In automation and handling engineering, supplying work pieces between different stages along the production process chain is of special interest. Often the parts are stored unordered in bins or lattice boxes and hence have to be separated and ordered for feeding purposes. An alternative to complex and spacious mechanical systems such as bowl feeders or conveyor belts, which are typically adapted to the parts' geometry, is using a robot to grip the work pieces out of a bin or from a belt. Such applications are in need of reliable and precise computer-aided object detection and localization systems. For a restricted range of parts, there exists a variety of 2D image processing algorithms that solve the recognition problem. However, these methods are often not well suited for the localization of randomly stored parts. In this paper we present a fast and flexible 3D object recognizer that localizes objects by identifying primitive features within the objects. Since technical work pieces typically consist to a substantial degree of geometric primitives such as planes, cylinders and cones, such features usually carry enough information in order to determine the position of the entire object. Our algorithms use 3D best-fitting combined with an intelligent data pre-processing step. The capability and performance of this approach is shown by applying the algorithms to real data sets of different industrial test parts in a prototypical bin picking demonstration system.

  15. Comparison of objective methods to classify the pattern of respiratory sinus arrhythmia during mechanical ventilation and paced spontaneous breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, N C; Beda, A; Granja-Filho, P; Jandre, F C; Giannella-Neto, A; De Abreu, M G; Spieth, P M

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a fluctuation of heart period that occurs during a respiratory cycle. It has been suggested that inspiratory heart period acceleration and expiratory deceleration during spontaneous ventilation (henceforth named positive RSA) improve the efficiency of gas exchange compared to the absence or the inversion of such a pattern (negative RSA). During mechanical ventilation (MV), for which maximizing the efficiency of gas exchange is of critical importance, the pattern of RSA is still the object of debate. In order to gain a better insight into this matter, we compared five different methods of RSA classification using the data of five mechanically ventilated piglets. The comparison was repeated using the data of 15 volunteers undergoing a protocol of paced spontaneous breathing, which is expected to result in a positive RSA pattern. The results showed that the agreement between the employed methods is limited, suggesting that the lack of a consensus about the RSA pattern during MV is, at least in part, of methodological origin. However, independently of the method used, the pattern of RSA within the respiratory cycle was not consistent among the subjects and conditions of MV considered. Also, the outcomes showed that even during paced spontaneous breathing a negative RSA pattern might be present, when a low respiratory frequency is imposed

  16. Constant Light Desynchronizes Olfactory versus Object and Visuospatial Recognition Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shu K E; Hasan, Sibah; Choi, Harry M C; Brown, Laurence A; Jagannath, Aarti; Hughes, Steven; Hankins, Mark W; Foster, Russell G; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Bannerman, David M; Peirson, Stuart N

    2017-03-29

    Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and behavior to the varying demands of the 24 h day. The master circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and it regulates circadian oscillators in tissues throughout the body to prevent internal desynchrony. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that, under standard 12 h:12 h light/dark (LD) cycles, object, visuospatial, and olfactory recognition performance in C57BL/6J mice is consistently better at midday relative to midnight. However, under repeated exposure to constant light ( r LL), recognition performance becomes desynchronized, with object and visuospatial performance better at subjective midday and olfactory performance better at subjective midnight. This desynchrony in behavioral performance is mirrored by changes in expression of the canonical clock genes Period1 and Period2 ( Per1 and Per2 ), as well as the immediate-early gene Fos in the SCN, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb. Under r LL, rhythmic Per1 and Fos expression is attenuated in the SCN. In contrast, hippocampal gene expression remains rhythmic, mirroring object and visuospatial performance. Strikingly, Per1 and Fos expression in the olfactory bulb is reversed, mirroring the inverted olfactory performance. Temporal desynchrony among these regions does not result in arrhythmicity because core body temperature and exploratory activity rhythms persist under r LL. Our data provide the first demonstration that abnormal lighting conditions can give rise to temporal desynchrony between autonomous circadian oscillators in different regions, with different consequences for performance across different sensory domains. Such a dispersed network of dissociable circadian oscillators may provide greater flexibility when faced with conflicting environmental signals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulates physiology and behavior across the 24 h day by

  17. Constant Light Desynchronizes Olfactory versus Object and Visuospatial Recognition Memory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shu K.E.; Hasan, Sibah; Brown, Laurence A.; Jagannath, Aarti; Hankins, Mark W.; Foster, Russell G.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and behavior to the varying demands of the 24 h day. The master circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and it regulates circadian oscillators in tissues throughout the body to prevent internal desynchrony. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that, under standard 12 h:12 h light/dark (LD) cycles, object, visuospatial, and olfactory recognition performance in C57BL/6J mice is consistently better at midday relative to midnight. However, under repeated exposure to constant light (rLL), recognition performance becomes desynchronized, with object and visuospatial performance better at subjective midday and olfactory performance better at subjective midnight. This desynchrony in behavioral performance is mirrored by changes in expression of the canonical clock genes Period1 and Period2 (Per1 and Per2), as well as the immediate-early gene Fos in the SCN, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb. Under rLL, rhythmic Per1 and Fos expression is attenuated in the SCN. In contrast, hippocampal gene expression remains rhythmic, mirroring object and visuospatial performance. Strikingly, Per1 and Fos expression in the olfactory bulb is reversed, mirroring the inverted olfactory performance. Temporal desynchrony among these regions does not result in arrhythmicity because core body temperature and exploratory activity rhythms persist under rLL. Our data provide the first demonstration that abnormal lighting conditions can give rise to temporal desynchrony between autonomous circadian oscillators in different regions, with different consequences for performance across different sensory domains. Such a dispersed network of dissociable circadian oscillators may provide greater flexibility when faced with conflicting environmental signals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulates physiology and behavior across the 24 h day by

  18. A Temporally Distinct Role for Group I and Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in Object Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Malcolm Watson; Warburton, Elizabeth Clea; Barker, Gareth Robert Isaac; Bashir, Zafar Iqbal

    2006-01-01

    Recognition memory, involving the ability to discriminate between a novel and familiar object, depends on the integrity of the perirhinal cortex (PRH). Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the cortex, is essential for many types of memory processes. Of the subtypes of glutamate receptor, metabotropic receptors (mGluRs) have received…

  19. Mice lacking the synaptic adhesion molecule Neph2/Kirrel3 display moderate hyperactivity and defective novel object preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon eChoi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate diverse aspects of neuronal synapse development, including synapse specificity, formation, and maturation. Neph2, also known as Kirrel3, is an immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule implicated in intellectual disability, neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, and autism spectrum disorders. We here report mice lacking Neph2 (Neph2–/– mice display moderate hyperactivity in a familiar but not novel environment and novel object recognition deficit with normal performances in Morris water maze spatial learning and memory, contextual fear conditioning and extinction, and pattern separation tests. These mice show normal levels of anxiety-like behaviors, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. At the synapse level, Neph2–/– dentate gyrus granule cells exhibit unaltered dendritic spine density and spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission. These results suggest that Neph2 is important for normal locomotor activity and object recognition memory.

  20. Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on object recognition memory in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Hinchman, Marie; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A.; Foster, Brian C.

    2009-04-01

    On long-duration missions to other planets astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation that are not experienced in low earth orbit. Previous research using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays has shown that exposure to heavy particles, such as 56Fe, disrupts spatial learning and memory measured using the Morris water maze. Maintaining rats on diets containing antioxidant phytochemicals for 2 weeks prior to irradiation ameliorated this deficit. The present experiments were designed to determine: (1) the generality of the particle-induced disruption of memory by examining the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles on object recognition memory; and (2) whether maintaining rats on these antioxidant diets for 2 weeks prior to irradiation would also ameliorate any potential deficit. The results showed that exposure to low doses of 56Fe particles does disrupt recognition memory and that maintaining rats on antioxidant diets containing blueberry and strawberry extract for only 2 weeks was effective in ameliorating the disruptive effects of irradiation. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms by which exposure to these particles may produce effects on neurocognitive performance.

  1. A neuromorphic architecture for object recognition and motion anticipation using burst-STDP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nere

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the possibilities offered by a minimal framework of artificial spiking neurons to be deployed in silico. Here we introduce a hierarchical network architecture of spiking neurons which learns to recognize moving objects in a visual environment and determine the correct motor output for each object. These tasks are learned through both supervised and unsupervised spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP. STDP is responsible for the strengthening (or weakening of synapses in relation to pre- and post-synaptic spike times and has been described as a Hebbian paradigm taking place both in vitro and in vivo. We utilize a variation of STDP learning, called burst-STDP, which is based on the notion that, since spikes are expensive in terms of energy consumption, then strong bursting activity carries more information than single (sparse spikes. Furthermore, this learning algorithm takes advantage of homeostatic renormalization, which has been hypothesized to promote memory consolidation during NREM sleep. Using this learning rule, we design a spiking neural network architecture capable of object recognition, motion detection, attention towards important objects, and motor control outputs. We demonstrate the abilities of our design in a simple environment with distractor objects, multiple objects moving concurrently, and in the presence of noise. Most importantly, we show how this neural network is capable of performing these tasks using a simple leaky-integrate-and-fire (LIF neuron model with binary synapses, making it fully compatible with state-of-the-art digital neuromorphic hardware designs. As such, the building blocks and learning rules presented in this paper appear promising for scalable fully neuromorphic systems to be implemented in hardware chips.

  2. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  3. Role of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in the Retrieval of Novel Object Recognition Memory after a Long Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezze, Marie A.; Marshall, Hayley J.; Fone, Kevin C. F.; Cassaday, Helen J.

    2017-01-01

    Previous in vivo electrophysiological studies suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACgx) is an important substrate of novel object recognition (NOR) memory. However, intervention studies are needed to confirm this conclusion and permanent lesion studies cannot distinguish effects on encoding and retrieval. The interval between encoding and…

  4. The influence of object and background color manipulations on the electrophysiological indices of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Zimmer, Hubert D; Groh-Bordin, Christian

    2007-12-14

    In a recognition memory experiment, the claim was tested that intrinsic object features contribute to familiarity, whereas extrinsic context features do not. We used the study-test manipulation of color to investigate the perceptual specificity of ERP old-new effects associated with familiarity and recollection. Color was either an intrinsic surface feature of the object or a feature of the surrounding context (a frame encasing the object); thus, the same feature was manipulated across intrinsic/extrinsic conditions. Subjects performed a threefold (same color/different color/new object) decision, making feature information task-relevant. Results suggest that the intrinsic manipulation of color affected the mid-frontal old-new effect associated with familiarity, while this effect was not influenced by extrinsic manipulation. This ERP pattern could not be explained by basic behavioral performance differences. It is concluded that familiarity can be perceptually specific with regard to intrinsic information belonging to the object. The putative electrophysiological signature of recollection - a late parietal old-new effect - was not present in the data, and reasons for this null effect are discussed.

  5. Chronic cannabidiol treatment improves social and object recognition in double transgenic APPswe/PS1∆E9 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, David; Low, Jac Kee; Logge, Warren; Garner, Brett; Karl, Tim

    2014-08-01

    Patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit a decline in cognitive abilities including an inability to recognise familiar faces. Hallmark pathological changes in AD include the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ), tau protein hyperphosphorylation as well as pronounced neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, neurotoxicity and oxidative damage. The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) exerts neuroprotective, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and promotes neurogenesis. CBD also reverses Aβ-induced spatial memory deficits in rodents. Thus we determined the therapeutic-like effects of chronic CBD treatment (20 mg/kg, daily intraperitoneal injections for 3 weeks) on the APPswe/PS1∆E9 (APPxPS1) transgenic mouse model for AD in a number of cognitive tests, including the social preference test, the novel object recognition task and the fear conditioning paradigm. We also analysed the impact of CBD on anxiety behaviours in the elevated plus maze. Vehicle-treated APPxPS1 mice demonstrated impairments in social recognition and novel object recognition compared to wild type-like mice. Chronic CBD treatment reversed these cognitive deficits in APPxPS1 mice without affecting anxiety-related behaviours. This is the first study to investigate the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition in an AD transgenic mouse model. Our findings suggest that CBD may have therapeutic potential for specific cognitive impairments associated with AD.

  6. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  7. Risperidone reverses the spatial object recognition impairment and hippocampal BDNF-TrkB signalling system alterations induced by acute MK-801 treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangdong; Lin, Xiaodong; Li, Gongying; Jiang, Diego; Lib, Zhiruo; Jiang, Ronghuan; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a commonly-used atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, on alterations in spatial learning and in the hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) signalling system caused by acute dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) treatment. In experiment 1, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to acute treatment of either low-dose MK801 (0.1 mg/kg) or normal saline (vehicle) were tested for spatial object recognition and hippocampal expression levels of BDNF, TrkB and the phophorylation of TrkB (p-TrkB). We found that compared to the vehicle, MK-801 treatment impaired spatial object recognition of animals and downregulated the expression levels of p-TrkB. In experiment 2, MK-801- or vehicle-treated animals were further injected with risperidone (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle before behavioural testing and sacrifice. Of note, we found that risperidone successfully reversed the deleterious effects of MK-801 on spatial object recognition and upregulated the hippocampal BDNF-TrkB signalling system. Collectively, the findings suggest that cognitive deficits from acute N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade may be associated with the hypofunction of hippocampal BDNF-TrkB signalling system and that risperidone was able to reverse these alterations. PMID:28451387

  8. Remembering the object you fear: brain potentials during recognition of spiders in spider-fearful individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, Jaroslaw M; Weymar, Mathias; Hamm, Alfons O

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we investigated long-term memory for unpleasant, neutral and spider pictures in 15 spider-fearful and 15 non-fearful control individuals using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. During the initial (incidental) encoding, pictures were passively viewed in three separate blocks and were subsequently rated for valence and arousal. A recognition memory task was performed one week later in which old and new unpleasant, neutral and spider pictures were presented. Replicating previous results, we found enhanced memory performance and higher confidence ratings for unpleasant when compared to neutral materials in both animal fearful individuals and controls. When compared to controls high animal fearful individuals also showed a tendency towards better memory accuracy and significantly higher confidence during recognition of spider pictures, suggesting that memory of objects prompting specific fear is also facilitated in fearful individuals. In line, spider-fearful but not control participants responded with larger ERP positivity for correctly recognized old when compared to correctly rejected new spider pictures, thus showing the same effects in the neural signature of emotional memory for feared objects that were already discovered for other emotional materials. The increased fear memory for phobic materials observed in the present study in spider-fearful individuals might result in an enhanced fear response and reinforce negative beliefs aggravating anxiety symptomatology and hindering recovery.

  9. Caffeine improves adult mice performance in the object recognition task and increases BDNF and TrkB independent on phospho-CREB immunocontent in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcelo S; Botton, Paulo H; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Ardais, Ana Paula; Moreira, Julia D; Souza, Diogo O; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2008-09-01

    Caffeine is one of the most psychostimulants consumed all over the world that usually presents positive effects on cognition. In this study, effects of caffeine on mice performance in the object recognition task were tested in different intertrial intervals. In addition, it was analyzed the effects of caffeine on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, TrkB, immunocontent to try to establish a connection between the behavioral finding and BDNF, one of the neurotrophins strictly involved in memory and learning process. CF1 mice were treated during 4 consecutive days with saline (0.9g%, i.p.) or caffeine (10mg/kg, i.p., equivalent dose corresponding to 2-3 cups of coffee). Caffeine treatment was interrupted 24h before the object recognition task analysis. In the test session performed 15min after training session, caffeine-treated mice recognized more efficiently both the familiar and the novel object. In the test session performed 90min and 24h after training session, caffeine did not change the time spent in the familiar object but increased the object recognition index, when compared to control group. Western blotting analysis of hippocampus from caffeine-treated mice revealed an increase in BDNF and TrkB immunocontent, compared to their saline-matched controls. Phospho-CREB immunocontent did not change with caffeine treatment. Our results suggest that acute treatment with caffeine improves recognition memory, and this effect may be related to an increase of the BDNF and TrkB immunocontent in the hippocampus.

  10. The Effect of Inversion on 3- to 5-Year-Olds' Recognition of Face and Nonface Visual Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, Marta; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Turati, Chiara; Vescovo, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effect of stimulus inversion on 3- to 5-year-olds' recognition of faces and two nonface object categories matched with faces for a number of attributes: shoes (Experiment 1) and frontal images of cars (Experiments 2 and 3). The inversion effect was present for faces but not shoes at 3 years of age (Experiment 1). Analogous…

  11. SOFTWARE EFFORT ESTIMATION FRAMEWORK TO IMPROVE ORGANIZATION PRODUCTIVITY USING EMOTION RECOGNITION OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERS IN SPONTANEOUS SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V.A.N.S.S. Prabhakar Rao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Productivity is a very important part of any organisation in general and software industry in particular. Now a day’s Software Effort estimation is a challenging task. Both Effort and Productivity are inter-related to each other. This can be achieved from the employee’s of the organization. Every organisation requires emotionally stable employees in their firm for seamless and progressive working. Of course, in other industries this may be achieved without man power. But, software project development is labour intensive activity. Each line of code should be delivered from software engineer. Tools and techniques may helpful and act as aid or supplementary. Whatever be the reason software industry has been suffering with success rate. Software industry is facing lot of problems in delivering the project on time and within the estimated budget limit. If we want to estimate the required effort of the project it is significant to know the emotional state of the team member. The responsibility of ensuring emotional contentment falls on the human resource department and the department can deploy a series of systems to carry out its survey. This analysis can be done using a variety of tools, one such, is through study of emotion recognition. The data needed for this is readily available and collectable and can be an excellent source for the feedback systems. The challenge of recognition of emotion in speech is convoluted primarily due to the noisy recording condition, the variations in sentiment in sample space and exhibition of multiple emotions in a single sentence. The ambiguity in the labels of training set also increases the complexity of problem addressed. The existing models using probabilistic models have dominated the study but present a flaw in scalability due to statistical inefficiency. The problem of sentiment prediction in spontaneous speech can thus be addressed using a hybrid system comprising of a Convolution Neural Network and

  12. Estradiol-Induced Object Recognition Memory Consolidation Is Dependent on Activation of mTOR Signaling in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Fan, Lu; Orr, Patrick T.; Zhao, Zaorui; Frick, Karyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is an important regulator of protein synthesis and is essential for various forms of hippocampal memory. Here, we asked whether the enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation produced by dorsal hippocampal infusion of 17[Beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) is dependent on mTOR…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Cognitive Representation in Symbolic Play, Self-recognition, and Object Permanence during the Second Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Explores development of cognitive representation in 20 infants 12 to 24 months of age with regard to (l) their understanding of agency in symbolic play (agent use), (2) recognition of their own mirror image, and (3) object permanence. Results were generally consistent with developmental sequences predicted by Fischer's Skill Theory for agent use…

  14. Impaired insulin secretion in the spontaneous diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, K; Toyota, T; Kakizaki, M; Kudo, M; Takebe, K; Goto, Y

    1982-08-01

    Dynamics of insulin and glucagon secretion were investigated by using a new model of spontaneous diabetes rats produced by the repetition of selective breeding in our laboratories. The perfusion experiments of the pancreas showed that the early phase of insulin secretion to continuous stimulation with glucose was specifically impaired, although the response of the early phase to arginine was preserved. The glucose-induced insulin secretion in the nineth generation (F8) which had a more remarkably impaired glucose tolerance was more reduced than in the sixth generation (F5). No significant difference of glucagon secretion in response to arginine or norepinephrine was noted between the diabetes rats and control ones. The present data indicate that the defective insulin secretion is a primary derangement in a diabetic state of the spontaneous diabetes rat. This defect in the early phase of glucose-induced insulin secretion suggests the specific impairment of the recognition of glucose by the pancreatic beta-cells. The spontaneous diabetes rats are very useful as a model of disease for investigating pathophysiology of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  15. Automatic anatomy recognition via multiobject oriented active shape models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinjian; Udupa, Jayaram K; Alavi, Abass; Torigian, Drew A

    2010-12-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of developing an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system in clinical radiology and demonstrates its operation on clinical 2D images. The anatomy recognition method described here consists of two main components: (a) multiobject generalization of OASM and (b) object recognition strategies. The OASM algorithm is generalized to multiple objects by including a model for each object and assigning a cost structure specific to each object in the spirit of live wire. The delineation of multiobject boundaries is done in MOASM via a three level dynamic programming algorithm, wherein the first level is at pixel level which aims to find optimal oriented boundary segments between successive landmarks, the second level is at landmark level which aims to find optimal location for the landmarks, and the third level is at the object level which aims to find optimal arrangement of object boundaries over all objects. The object recognition strategy attempts to find that pose vector (consisting of translation, rotation, and scale component) for the multiobject model that yields the smallest total boundary cost for all objects. The delineation and recognition accuracies were evaluated separately utilizing routine clinical chest CT, abdominal CT, and foot MRI data sets. The delineation accuracy was evaluated in terms of true and false positive volume fractions (TPVF and FPVF). The recognition accuracy was assessed (1) in terms of the size of the space of the pose vectors for the model assembly that yielded high delineation accuracy, (2) as a function of the number of objects and objects' distribution and size in the model, (3) in terms of the interdependence between delineation and recognition, and (4) in terms of the closeness of the optimum recognition result to the global optimum. When multiple objects are included in the model, the delineation accuracy in terms of TPVF can be improved to 97%-98% with a low FPVF of 0.1%-0.2%. Typically, a

  16. Super-recognition in development: A case study of an adolescent with extraordinary face recognition skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Rachel J; Mole, Joseph; Bate, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Face recognition abilities vary widely. While face recognition deficits have been reported in children, it is unclear whether superior face recognition skills can be encountered during development. This paper presents O.B., a 14-year-old female with extraordinary face recognition skills: a "super-recognizer" (SR). O.B. demonstrated exceptional face-processing skills across multiple tasks, with a level of performance that is comparable to adult SRs. Her superior abilities appear to be specific to face identity: She showed an exaggerated face inversion effect and her superior abilities did not extend to object processing or non-identity aspects of face recognition. Finally, an eye-movement task demonstrated that O.B. spent more time than controls examining the nose - a pattern previously reported in adult SRs. O.B. is therefore particularly skilled at extracting and using identity-specific facial cues, indicating that face and object recognition are dissociable during development, and that super recognition can be detected in adolescence.

  17. Video-assisted thoracoscopy treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haitao; Ren Jian; Che Jiaming; Hang Junbiao; Qiu Weicheng; Chen Zhongyuan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To propose a treatment protocol by video thoracoscopy in spontaneous pneumothorax. Methods: One hundred and three patients underwent Video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax and hemothorax. Indications included recurrent pneumothorax, persistent air leakage following conservative therapy, complicated hemothorax and CT scan identified bullae formation. Results: No operative deaths occurred, conversion rate was 2.91%, recurrence rate was 0.97%, complication rate was 3.81% and mean postoperative hospital stay was 5.6 days. Conclusions: VATS treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax is better than open chest surgery and also superior than conservative therapy

  18. Self-Recognition in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; McKissick, Fawn Celeste

    1984-01-01

    Fifteen autistic children (four to six years old) were assessed for visual self-recognition ability, as well as for object permanence and gestural imitation. It was found that 13 of 15 autistic children showed evidence of self-recognition. Consistent relationships were suggested between self-cognition and object permanence but not between…

  19. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  20. Predictive Coding Strategies for Invariant Object Recognition and Volitional Motion Control in Neuromorphic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-02

    model for scene understanding was proposed based on deep convolutional neural networks to improve recognition accuracy. Facial expression recognition ...A deep-learning-based model for facial expression recognition was formulated. It could recognize emotional status of people regardless of...CVPRW), 2014 IEEE Conference on. IEEE, 2014. DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. 4 Facial Expression Recognition

  1. Automatic anatomy recognition on CT images with pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lidong; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Tong, Yubing; Odhner, Dewey; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-03-01

    Body-wide anatomy recognition on CT images with pathology becomes crucial for quantifying body-wide disease burden. This, however, is a challenging problem because various diseases result in various abnormalities of objects such as shape and intensity patterns. We previously developed an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system [1] whose applicability was demonstrated on near normal diagnostic CT images in different body regions on 35 organs. The aim of this paper is to investigate strategies for adapting the previous AAR system to diagnostic CT images of patients with various pathologies as a first step toward automated body-wide disease quantification. The AAR approach consists of three main steps - model building, object recognition, and object delineation. In this paper, within the broader AAR framework, we describe a new strategy for object recognition to handle abnormal images. In the model building stage an optimal threshold interval is learned from near-normal training images for each object. This threshold is optimally tuned to the pathological manifestation of the object in the test image. Recognition is performed following a hierarchical representation of the objects. Experimental results for the abdominal body region based on 50 near-normal images used for model building and 20 abnormal images used for object recognition show that object localization accuracy within 2 voxels for liver and spleen and 3 voxels for kidney can be achieved with the new strategy.

  2. A validated set of tool pictures with matched objects and non-objects for laterality research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ark; Brysbaert, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging research has established that knowledge related to tool use and tool recognition is lateralized to the left cerebral hemisphere. Recently, behavioural studies with the visual half-field technique have confirmed the lateralization. A limitation of this research was that different sets of stimuli had to be used for the comparison of tools to other objects and objects to non-objects. Therefore, we developed a new set of stimuli containing matched triplets of tools, other objects and non-objects. With the new stimulus set, we successfully replicated the findings of no visual field advantage for objects in an object recognition task combined with a significant right visual field advantage for tools in a tool recognition task. The set of stimuli is available as supplemental data to this article.

  3. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and its cosmological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of symmetry and of the spontaneous symmetry breaking are presented in popular form as applied to quantum physics. Though the presence of the spontaneous symmetry breaking is not proved directly for interactions of elementary particles, on considering the hypothesis of its presence as applied to the hot Universe theory a possibility of obtaining rather uncommon cosmological consequences is discussed. In particular, spontaneous symmetry breaking of vacuum and the rather hot Universe lead necessarily to the presence of the domain structure of the Universe with the surfase energy at the domain interface in the form of a real physical object

  4. Age, environment, object recognition and morphological diversity of GFAP-immunolabeled astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro; de Oliveira, Marcus Augusto; de Lima, Camila Mendes; Fôro, César Augusto Raiol; Sosthenes, Marcia Consentino Kronka; Bento-Torres, João; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando; Anthony, Daniel Clive; Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço

    2016-10-10

    Few studies have explored the glial response to a standard environment and how the response may be associated with age-related cognitive decline in learning and memory. Here we investigated aging and environmental influences on hippocampal-dependent tasks and on the morphology of an unbiased selected population of astrocytes from the molecular layer of dentate gyrus, which is the main target of perforant pathway. Six and twenty-month-old female, albino Swiss mice were housed, from weaning, in a standard or enriched environment, including running wheels for exercise and tested for object recognition and contextual memories. Young adult and aged subjects, independent of environment, were able to distinguish familiar from novel objects. All experimental groups, except aged mice from standard environment, distinguish stationary from displaced objects. Young adult but not aged mice, independent of environment, were able to distinguish older from recent objects. Only young mice from an enriched environment were able to distinguish novel from familiar contexts. Unbiased selected astrocytes from the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus were reconstructed in three-dimensions and classified using hierarchical cluster analysis of bimodal or multimodal morphological features. We found two morphological phenotypes of astrocytes and we designated type I the astrocytes that exhibited significantly higher values of morphological complexity as compared with type II. Complexity = [Sum of the terminal orders + Number of terminals] × [Total branch length/Number of primary branches]. On average, type I morphological complexity seems to be much more sensitive to age and environmental influences than that of type II. Indeed, aging and environmental impoverishment interact and reduce the morphological complexity of type I astrocytes at a point that they could not be distinguished anymore from type II. We suggest these two types of astrocytes may have different physiological roles

  5. Object Recognition in Flight: How Do Bees Distinguish between 3D Shapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Annette; Stürzl, Wolfgang; Zanker, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) discriminate multiple object features such as colour, pattern and 2D shape, but it remains unknown whether and how bees recover three-dimensional shape. Here we show that bees can recognize objects by their three-dimensional form, whereby they employ an active strategy to uncover the depth profiles. We trained individual, free flying honeybees to collect sugar water from small three-dimensional objects made of styrofoam (sphere, cylinder, cuboids) or folded paper (convex, concave, planar) and found that bees can easily discriminate between these stimuli. We also tested possible strategies employed by the bees to uncover the depth profiles. For the card stimuli, we excluded overall shape and pictorial features (shading, texture gradients) as cues for discrimination. Lacking sufficient stereo vision, bees are known to use speed gradients in optic flow to detect edges; could the bees apply this strategy also to recover the fine details of a surface depth profile? Analysing the bees' flight tracks in front of the stimuli revealed specific combinations of flight maneuvers (lateral translations in combination with yaw rotations), which are particularly suitable to extract depth cues from motion parallax. We modelled the generated optic flow and found characteristic patterns of angular displacement corresponding to the depth profiles of our stimuli: optic flow patterns from pure translations successfully recovered depth relations from the magnitude of angular displacements, additional rotation provided robust depth information based on the direction of the displacements; thus, the bees flight maneuvers may reflect an optimized visuo-motor strategy to extract depth structure from motion signals. The robustness and simplicity of this strategy offers an efficient solution for 3D-object-recognition without stereo vision, and could be employed by other flying insects, or mobile robots.

  6. When is the hippocampus involved in recognition memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Gareth R. I.; Warburton, Elizabeth C.

    2011-01-01

    The role of the hippocampus in recognition memory is controversial. Recognition memory judgments may be made using different types of information, including object familiarity, an object's spatial location, or when an object was encountered. Experiment 1 examined the role of the hippocampus in recognition memory tasks that required the animals to use these different types of mnemonic information. Rats with bilateral cytotoxic lesions in the hippocampus or perirhinal or prefrontal cortex were ...

  7. Dietary choline supplementation in adult rats improves performance on a test of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Hayarelis; Hall, Geoffrey; Gallo, Milagros; de Brugada, Isabel

    2018-04-22

    In two experiments adult rats (aged at least 6 months at the start of the procedure) received a diet enriched with added choline for a period of 10 weeks; control subjects were maintained on a standard diet during this time. All rats then underwent the spontaneous object recognition (SOR) procedure in which they were exposed to a pair of objects and then tested, after a retention interval, to a display with one object changed. Exploration of the changed object indicates retention and use of information acquired during the exposure phase. All subjects showed retention with a 24-h interval (Experiments 1 and 2) and when retested after a further 24 h (Experiment 1). But when tested for the first time after a 48-h interval (Experiment 2), control subjects showed no evidence of retention, exploring both objects equally, whereas those given the dietary supplement continued to show a preference for the changed object. This supports the conclusion that dietary choline supplementation can enhance performance on a task regarded as a test of declarative memory, and will do so even when the supplementations is given in adulthood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Episodic Short-Term Recognition Requires Encoding into Visual Working Memory: Evidence from Probe Recognition after Letter Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poth, Christian H; Schneider, Werner X

    2016-01-01

    Human vision is organized in discrete processing episodes (e.g., eye fixations or task-steps). Object information must be transmitted across episodes to enable episodic short-term recognition: recognizing whether a current object has been seen in a previous episode. We ask whether episodic short-term recognition presupposes that objects have been encoded into capacity-limited visual working memory (VWM), which retains visual information for report. Alternatively, it could rely on the activation of visual features or categories that occurs before encoding into VWM. We assessed the dependence of episodic short-term recognition on VWM by a new paradigm combining letter report and probe recognition. Participants viewed displays of 10 letters and reported as many as possible after a retention interval (whole report). Next, participants viewed a probe letter and indicated whether it had been one of the 10 letters (probe recognition). In Experiment 1, probe recognition was more accurate for letters that had been encoded into VWM (reported letters) compared with non-encoded letters (non-reported letters). Interestingly, those letters that participants reported in their whole report had been near to one another within the letter displays. This suggests that the encoding into VWM proceeded in a spatially clustered manner. In Experiment 2, participants reported only one of 10 letters (partial report) and probes either referred to this letter, to letters that had been near to it, or far from it. Probe recognition was more accurate for near than for far letters, although none of these letters had to be reported. These findings indicate that episodic short-term recognition is constrained to a small number of simultaneously presented objects that have been encoded into VWM.

  9. Episodic Short-Term Recognition Requires Encoding into Visual Working Memory: Evidence from Probe Recognition after Letter Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human vision is organized in discrete processing episodes (e.g. eye fixations or task-steps. Object information must be transmitted across episodes to enable episodic short-term recognition: recognizing whether a current object has been seen in a previous episode. We ask whether episodic short-term recognition presupposes that objects have been encoded into capacity-limited visual working memory (VWM, which retains visual information for report. Alternatively, it could rely on the activation of visual features or categories that occurs before encoding into VWM. We assessed the dependence of episodic short-term recognition on VWM by a new paradigm combining letter report and probe recognition. Participants viewed displays of ten letters and reported as many as possible after a retention interval (whole report. Next, participants viewed a probe letter and indicated whether it had been one of the ten letters (probe recognition. In Experiment 1, probe recognition was more accurate for letters that had been encoded into VWM (reported letters compared with non-encoded letters (non-reported letters. Interestingly, those letters that participants reported in their whole report had been near to one another within the letter displays. This suggests that the encoding into VWM proceeded in a spatially clustered manner. In Experiment 2 participants reported only one of ten letters (partial report and probes either referred to this letter, to letters that had been near to it, or far from it. Probe recognition was more accurate for near than for far letters, although none of these letters had to be reported. These findings indicate that episodic short-term recognition is constrained to a small number of simultaneously presented objects that have been encoded into VWM.

  10. Acute fasting inhibits central caspase-1 activity reducing anxiety-like behavior and increasing novel object and object location recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Albert E; Oelschlager, Maci L; Patel, Jay; Gainey, Stephen J; McCusker, Robert H; Freund, Gregory G

    2017-06-01

    Inflammation within the central nervous system (CNS) is frequently comorbid with anxiety. Importantly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine most commonly associated with anxiety is IL-1β. The bioavailability and activity of IL-1β are regulated by caspase-1-dependent proteolysis vis-a-vis the inflammasome. Thus, interventions regulating the activation or activity of caspase-1 should reduce anxiety especially in states that foster IL-1β maturation. Male C57BL/6j, C57BL/6j mice treated with the capase-1 inhibitor biotin-YVAD-cmk, caspase-1 knockout (KO) mice and IL-1R1 KO mice were fasted for 24h or allowed ad libitum access to food. Immediately after fasting, caspase-1 activity was measured in brain region homogenates while activated caspase-1 was localized in the brain by immunohistochemistry. Mouse anxiety-like behavior and cognition were tested using the elevated zero maze and novel object/object location tasks, respectively. A 24h fast in mice reduced the activity of caspase-1 in whole brain and in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus by 35%, 25%, 40%, 40%, and 40% respectively. A 24h fast also reduced anxiety-like behavior by 40% and increased novel object and object location recognition by 21% and 31%, respectively. IL-1β protein, however, was not reduced in the brain by fasting. ICV administration of YVAD decreased caspase-1 activity in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala by 55%, respectively leading to a 64% reduction in anxiety like behavior. Importantly, when caspase-1 KO or IL1-R1 KO mice are fasted, no fasting-dependent reduction in anxiety-like behavior was observed. Results indicate that fasting decrease anxiety-like behavior and improves memory by a mechanism tied to reducing caspase-1 activity throughout the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Poka Yoke system based on image analysis and object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belu, N.; Ionescu, L. M.; Misztal, A.; Mazăre, A.

    2015-11-01

    Poka Yoke is a method of quality management which is related to prevent faults from arising during production processes. It deals with “fail-sating” or “mistake-proofing”. The Poka-yoke concept was generated and developed by Shigeo Shingo for the Toyota Production System. Poka Yoke is used in many fields, especially in monitoring production processes. In many cases, identifying faults in a production process involves a higher cost than necessary cost of disposal. Usually, poke yoke solutions are based on multiple sensors that identify some nonconformities. This means the presence of different equipment (mechanical, electronic) on production line. As a consequence, coupled with the fact that the method itself is an invasive, affecting the production process, would increase its price diagnostics. The bulky machines are the means by which a Poka Yoke system can be implemented become more sophisticated. In this paper we propose a solution for the Poka Yoke system based on image analysis and identification of faults. The solution consists of a module for image acquisition, mid-level processing and an object recognition module using associative memory (Hopfield network type). All are integrated into an embedded system with AD (Analog to Digital) converter and Zync 7000 (22 nm technology).

  12. An Unsupervised Approach to Activity Recognition and Segmentation based on Object-Use Fingerprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Chen, Shaxun; Tao, Xianping

    2010-01-01

    Human activity recognition is an important task which has many potential applications. In recent years, researchers from pervasive computing are interested in deploying on-body sensors to collect observations and applying machine learning techniques to model and recognize activities. Supervised...... machine learning techniques typically require an appropriate training process in which training data need to be labeled manually. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised approach based on object-use fingerprints to recognize activities without human labeling. We show how to build our activity models...... a trace and detect the boundary of any two adjacent activities. We develop a wearable RFID system and conduct a real-world trace collection done by seven volunteers in a smart home over a period of 2 weeks. We conduct comprehensive experimental evaluations and comparison study. The results show that our...

  13. Investigations into the involvement of NMDA mechanisms in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, E Clea; Barker, Gareth R I; Brown, Malcom W

    2013-11-01

    This review will focus on evidence showing that NMDA receptor neurotransmission is critical for synaptic plasticity processes within brain regions known to be necessary for the formation of object recognition memories. The aim will be to provide evidence concerning NMDA mechanisms related to recognition memory processes and show that recognition memory for objects, places or associations between objects and places depends on NMDA neurotransmission within the perirhinal cortex, temporal association cortex medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Administration of the NMDA antagonist AP5, selectively into each of these brain regions has revealed that the extent of the involvement NMDA receptors appears dependent on the type of information required to solve the recognition memory task; thus NMDA receptors in the perirhinal cortex are crucial for the encoding of long-term recognition memory for objects, and object-in-place associations, but not for short-term recognition memory or for retrieval. In contrast the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex are required for both long-term and short-term recognition memory for places or associations between objects and places, or for recognition memory tasks that have a temporal component. Such studies have therefore confirmed that the multiple brain regions make distinct contributions to recognition memory but in addition that more than one synaptic plasticity process must be involved. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity'. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Short exposure to a diet rich in both fat and sugar or sugar alone impairs place, but not object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilharz, Jessica E; Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2014-03-01

    High energy diets have been shown to impair cognition however, the rapidity of these effects, and the dietary component/s responsible are currently unclear. We conducted two experiments in rats to examine the effects of short-term exposure to a diet rich in sugar and fat or rich in sugar on object (perirhinal-dependent) and place (hippocampal-dependent) recognition memory, and the role of inflammatory mediators in these responses. In Experiment 1, rats fed a cafeteria style diet containing chow supplemented with lard, cakes, biscuits, and a 10% sucrose solution performed worse on the place, but not the object recognition task, than chow fed control rats when tested after 5, 11, and 20 days. In Experiment 2, rats fed the cafeteria style diet either with or without sucrose and rats fed chow supplemented with sucrose also performed worse on the place, but not the object recognition task when tested after 5, 11, and 20 days. Rats fed the cafeteria diets consumed five times more energy than control rats and exhibited increased plasma leptin, insulin and triglyceride concentrations; these were not affected in the sucrose only rats. Rats exposed to sucrose exhibited both increased hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA) and oxidative stress, as indicated by an upregulation of NRF1 mRNA compared to control rats. In contrast, these markers were not significantly elevated in rats that received the cafeteria diet without added sucrose. Hippocampal BDNF and neuritin mRNA were similar across all groups. These results show that relatively short exposures to diets rich in both fat and sugar or rich in sugar, impair hippocampal-dependent place recognition memory prior to the emergence of weight differences, and suggest a role for oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in this impairment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Spontaneous hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellorhaoui, M; Schultze, W

    1977-01-15

    On the basis of a survey is attempted to describe mode of development, symptomatology, individual forms and the different possibilities of therapy of the spontaneous hypoglycaemias. A particularly broad range was devoted to the cerebral sequelae, since in these cases--according to our experience--on account of simulation of neurologico-psychiatric symptoms at the soonest wrong diagnoses are to be expected. Furthermore, it is attempted to classify the hypoglycemias according to their development, in which cases their incompleteness was evident from the very beginning. The individual forms of appearance are treated according their to significance. Out of the inducible hypoglycaemias a particular attention is devoted to the forms caused by insulin and oral antidiabetics, since these most frequently participate in the development. Finally the author inquires into diagnostic measures for recognition of special forms of hypoglycaemia. In this place the diagnostics of hyperinsulinism conditioned by adenomatosis or tumours of other kinds is of particular importance. Finally conservative and operative possibilities of the therapy of these tumours are discussed,whereby the only recently tested treatment with streptotocin is mentioned.

  16. From brain synapses to systems for learning and memory: Object recognition, spatial navigation, timed conditioning, and movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2015-09-24

    This article provides an overview of neural models of synaptic learning and memory whose expression in adaptive behavior depends critically on the circuits and systems in which the synapses are embedded. It reviews Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, models that use excitatory matching and match-based learning to achieve fast category learning and whose learned memories are dynamically stabilized by top-down expectations, attentional focusing, and memory search. ART clarifies mechanistic relationships between consciousness, learning, expectation, attention, resonance, and synchrony. ART models are embedded in ARTSCAN architectures that unify processes of invariant object category learning, recognition, spatial and object attention, predictive remapping, and eye movement search, and that clarify how conscious object vision and recognition may fail during perceptual crowding and parietal neglect. The generality of learned categories depends upon a vigilance process that is regulated by acetylcholine via the nucleus basalis. Vigilance can get stuck at too high or too low values, thereby causing learning problems in autism and medial temporal amnesia. Similar synaptic learning laws support qualitatively different behaviors: Invariant object category learning in the inferotemporal cortex; learning of grid cells and place cells in the entorhinal and hippocampal cortices during spatial navigation; and learning of time cells in the entorhinal-hippocampal system during adaptively timed conditioning, including trace conditioning. Spatial and temporal processes through the medial and lateral entorhinal-hippocampal system seem to be carried out with homologous circuit designs. Variations of a shared laminar neocortical circuit design have modeled 3D vision, speech perception, and cognitive working memory and learning. A complementary kind of inhibitory matching and mismatch learning controls movement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory

  17. Contemporary deep recurrent learning for recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, K. M.; Alam, M.; Vidyaratne, L.

    2017-05-01

    Large-scale feed-forward neural networks have seen intense application in many computer vision problems. However, these networks can get hefty and computationally intensive with increasing complexity of the task. Our work, for the first time in literature, introduces a Cellular Simultaneous Recurrent Network (CSRN) based hierarchical neural network for object detection. CSRN has shown to be more effective to solving complex tasks such as maze traversal and image processing when compared to generic feed forward networks. While deep neural networks (DNN) have exhibited excellent performance in object detection and recognition, such hierarchical structure has largely been absent in neural networks with recurrency. Further, our work introduces deep hierarchy in SRN for object recognition. The simultaneous recurrency results in an unfolding effect of the SRN through time, potentially enabling the design of an arbitrarily deep network. This paper shows experiments using face, facial expression and character recognition tasks using novel deep recurrent model and compares recognition performance with that of generic deep feed forward model. Finally, we demonstrate the flexibility of incorporating our proposed deep SRN based recognition framework in a humanoid robotic platform called NAO.

  18. 6DoF object pose measurement by a monocular manifold-based pattern recognition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouskouridas, Rigas; Charalampous, Konstantinos; Gasteratos, Antonios

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel solution to the compound problem of object recognition and 3D pose estimation is presented. An accurate measurement of the geometrical configuration of a recognized target, relative to a known coordinate system, is of fundamental importance and constitutes a prerequisite for several applications such as robot grasping or obstacle avoidance. The proposed method lays its foundations on the following assumptions: (a) the same object captured under varying viewpoints and perspectives represents data that could be projected onto a well-established and highly distinguishable subspace; (b) totally different objects observed under the same viewpoints and perspectives share identical 3D pose that can be sufficiently modeled to produce a generalized model. Toward this end, we propose an advanced architecture that allows both recognizing patterns and providing efficient solution for 6DoF pose estimation. We employ a manifold modeling architecture that is grounded on a part-based representation of an object, which in turn, is accomplished via an unsupervised clustering of the extracted visual cues. The main contributions of the proposed framework are: (a) the proposed part-based architecture requires minimum supervision, compared to other contemporary solutions, whilst extracting new features encapsulating both appearance and geometrical attributes of the objects; (b) contrary to related projects that extract high-dimensional data, thus, increasing the complexity of the system, the proposed manifold modeling approach makes use of low dimensionality input vectors; (c) the formulation of a novel input–output space mapping that outperforms the existing dimensionality reduction schemes. Experimental results justify our theoretical claims and demonstrate the superiority of our method comparing to other related contemporary projects. (paper)

  19. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  20. Chronic caffeine treatment during prepubertal period confers long-term cognitive benefits in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Vanessa A; Pamplona, Fabrício A; Pandolfo, Pablo; Prediger, Rui D S; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2010-12-20

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is frequently used as an experimental model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) since it displays behavioural and neurochemical features of ADHD. Increasing evidence suggests that caffeine might represent an important therapeutic tool for the treatment of ADHD and we recently demonstrated that the acute administration of caffeine improves several learning and memory impairments in adult SHR rats. Here we further evaluated the potential of caffeine in ADHD therapy. Female Wistar (WIS) and SHR rats were treated with caffeine (3mg/kg, i.p.) or methylphenidate (MPD, 2mg/kg, i.p.) for 14 consecutive days during the prepubertal period (post-natal days 25-38) and they were tested later in adulthood in the object-recognition task. WIS rats discriminated all the objects used, whereas SHR were not able to discriminate pairs of objects with subtle structural differences. Chronic treatment with caffeine or MPD improved the object-recognition deficits in SHR rats. Surprisingly, these treatments impaired the short-term object-recognition ability in adult WIS rats. The present drug effects are independent of changes in locomotor activity, arterial blood pressure and body weight in both rat strains. These findings suggest that chronic caffeine treatment during prepubertal period confers long-term cognitive benefits in discriminative learning impairments of SHR, suggesting caffeine as an alternative therapeutic strategy for the early management of ADHD symptoms. Nevertheless, our results also emphasize the importance of a correct diagnosis and the caution in the use of stimulant drugs such as caffeine and MPD during neurodevelopment since they can disrupt discriminative learning in non-ADHD phenotypes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The protective effect of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin on object recognition memory in animal model of Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Hesperetin (Hst, aglycone form of hesperidin, is reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. On the other hand, the latest nanoparticle technology can help to improve the bioavailability of Hst, which is affected by the final particle size and stability. Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease, characterized by loss of the cognitive abilities, including memory, speech, emotions, and personality. Oxidative stress, a condition that occurs due to the imbalance in oxidant and antioxidant status, has been known to play a vital role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. This study was carried out in order to evaluate the protective effects of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin on memory disorder in the brains of Alzheimer’s animal models. Methods: Forty nine male rats were divided into 7 groups: control, vehicle, STZ group (rats were injected with STZ, treatment groups receiving 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin. Then 3 μgr/rat of (STZ was injected to the cerebroventricular of rats of all groups except the control and vehicle groups. The 4 treatment groups were gavaged by, respectively 10, 20 mg/Kg of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin for 30 days. After three weeks, recognition memory was examined by novel object recognition test. Results: The results showed that injection of STZ increased memory disorders (p≤0.001 and treatment of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin effectively decreased memory disorders (p

  2. Recognition-induced forgetting of faces in visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugo, Kelsi F; Tamler, Kendall N; Woodman, Geoffrey F; Maxcey, Ashleigh M

    2017-10-01

    Despite more than a century of evidence that long-term memory for pictures and words are different, much of what we know about memory comes from studies using words. Recent research examining visual long-term memory has demonstrated that recognizing an object induces the forgetting of objects from the same category. This recognition-induced forgetting has been shown with a variety of everyday objects. However, unlike everyday objects, faces are objects of expertise. As a result, faces may be immune to recognition-induced forgetting. However, despite excellent memory for such stimuli, we found that faces were susceptible to recognition-induced forgetting. Our findings have implications for how models of human memory account for recognition-induced forgetting as well as represent objects of expertise and consequences for eyewitness testimony and the justice system.

  3. Automatic Recognition of Object Names in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, C.; Lesteven, S.; Derriere, S.; Oberto, A.

    2008-08-01

    SIMBAD is a database of astronomical objects that provides (among other things) their bibliographic references in a large number of journals. Currently, these references have to be entered manually by librarians who read each paper. To cope with the increasing number of papers, CDS develops a tool to assist the librarians in their work, taking advantage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects, which keeps track of object acronyms and of their origin. The program searches for object names directly in PDF documents by comparing the words with all the formats stored in the Dictionary of Nomenclature. It also searches for variable star names based on constellation names and for a large list of usual names such as Aldebaran or the Crab. Object names found in the documents often correspond to several astronomical objects. The system retrieves all possible matches, displays them with their object type given by SIMBAD, and lets the librarian make the final choice. The bibliographic reference can then be automatically added to the object identifiers in the database. Besides, the systematic usage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature, which is updated manually, permitted to automatically check it and to detect errors and inconsistencies. Last but not least, the program collects some additional information such as the position of the object names in the document (in the title, subtitle, abstract, table, figure caption...) and their number of occurrences. In the future, this will permit to calculate the 'weight' of an object in a reference and to provide SIMBAD users with an important new information, which will help them to find the most relevant papers in the object reference list.

  4. Foreign language learning, hyperlexia, and early word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R L; Artzer, M

    2000-01-01

    Children with hyperlexia read words spontaneously before the age of five, have impaired comprehension on both listening and reading tasks, and have word recognition skill above expectations based on cognitive and linguistic abilities. One student with hyperlexia and another student with higher word recognition than comprehension skills who started to read words at a very early age were followed over several years from the primary grades through high school when both were completing a second-year Spanish course. The purpose of the present study was to examine the foreign language (FL) word recognition, spelling, reading comprehension, writing, speaking, and listening skills of the two students and another high school student without hyperlexia. Results showed that the student without hyperlexia achieved higher scores than the hyperlexic student and the student with above average word recognition skills on most FL proficiency measures. The student with hyperlexia and the student with above average word recognition skills achieved higher scores on the Spanish proficiency tasks that required the exclusive use of phonological (pronunciation) and phonological/orthographic (word recognition, spelling) skills than on Spanish proficiency tasks that required the use of listening comprehension and speaking and writing skills. The findings provide support for the notion that word recognition and spelling in a FL may be modular processes and exist independently of general cognitive and linguistic skills. Results also suggest that students may have stronger FL learning skills in one language component than in other components of language, and that there may be a weak relationship between FL word recognition and oral proficiency in the FL.

  5. Objective Prediction of Hearing Aid Benefit Across Listener Groups Using Machine Learning: Speech Recognition Performance With Binaural Noise-Reduction Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc R; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger

    2018-01-01

    The simulation framework for auditory discrimination experiments (FADE) was adopted and validated to predict the individual speech-in-noise recognition performance of listeners with normal and impaired hearing with and without a given hearing-aid algorithm. FADE uses a simple automatic speech recognizer (ASR) to estimate the lowest achievable speech reception thresholds (SRTs) from simulated speech recognition experiments in an objective way, independent from any empirical reference data. Empirical data from the literature were used to evaluate the model in terms of predicted SRTs and benefits in SRT with the German matrix sentence recognition test when using eight single- and multichannel binaural noise-reduction algorithms. To allow individual predictions of SRTs in binaural conditions, the model was extended with a simple better ear approach and individualized by taking audiograms into account. In a realistic binaural cafeteria condition, FADE explained about 90% of the variance of the empirical SRTs for a group of normal-hearing listeners and predicted the corresponding benefits with a root-mean-square prediction error of 0.6 dB. This highlights the potential of the approach for the objective assessment of benefits in SRT without prior knowledge about the empirical data. The predictions for the group of listeners with impaired hearing explained 75% of the empirical variance, while the individual predictions explained less than 25%. Possibly, additional individual factors should be considered for more accurate predictions with impaired hearing. A competing talker condition clearly showed one limitation of current ASR technology, as the empirical performance with SRTs lower than -20 dB could not be predicted.

  6. Caffeine prevents disruption of memory consolidation in the inhibitory avoidance and novel object recognition tasks by scopolamine in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Paulo Henrique; Costa, Marcelo S; Ardais, Ana Paula; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Souza, Diogo O; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2010-12-25

    Caffeine is a psychostimulant with positive effects on cognition. Recent studies have suggested the participation of the cholinergic system in the effects of caffeine on wakefulness. However, there are few studies assessing the contribution of cholinergic system in the cognitive enhancer properties of caffeine. In the present study, the effects of a dose and schedule of administration of caffeine that improved memory recognition were investigated on scopolamine-induced impairment of memory in adult mice. Inhibitory avoidance and novel object recognition tasks were used to assess learning and memory. Caffeine (10mg/kg, i.p.) was administered during 4 consecutive days, and the treatment was interrupted 24h before scopolamine administration (2mg/kg, i.p.). Scopolamine was administered prior to or immediately after training. Short-term and long-term memory was evaluated in both tasks. In the novel object recognition task, pre treatment with caffeine prevented the disruption of short- and long-term memory by scopolamine. In the inhibitory avoidance task, caffeine prevented short- but not long-term memory disruption by pre training administration of scopolamine. Caffeine prevented short- and long-term memory disruption by post training administration of scopolamine. Both treatments did not affect locomotor activity of the animals. These findings suggest that acute treatment with caffeine followed by its withdrawal may be effective against cholinergic-induced disruption of memory assessed in an aversive and non-aversive task. Finally, our results revealed that the cholinergic system is involved in the positive effects of caffeine on cognitive functions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Image-based automatic recognition of larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ru; Yu, Guiying; Fan, Weijun; Guo, Tiantai

    2010-08-01

    As the main objects, imagoes have been researched in quarantine pest recognition in these days. However, pests in their larval stage are latent, and the larvae spread abroad much easily with the circulation of agricultural and forest products. It is presented in this paper that, as the new research objects, larvae are recognized by means of machine vision, image processing and pattern recognition. More visional information is reserved and the recognition rate is improved as color image segmentation is applied to images of larvae. Along with the characteristics of affine invariance, perspective invariance and brightness invariance, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is adopted for the feature extraction. The neural network algorithm is utilized for pattern recognition, and the automatic identification of larvae images is successfully achieved with satisfactory results.

  8. Ultrafast table-top dynamic radiography of spontaneous or stimulated events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilowitz, Laura; Henson, Bryan

    2018-01-16

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for performing radiography. For example, certain embodiments concern X-ray radiography of spontaneous events. Particular embodiments of the disclosed technology provide continuous high-speed x-ray imaging of spontaneous dynamic events, such as explosions, reaction-front propagation, and even material failure. Further, in certain embodiments, x-ray activation and data collection activation are triggered by the object itself that is under observation (e.g., triggered by a change of state detected by one or more sensors monitoring the object itself).

  9. STDP-based spiking deep convolutional neural networks for object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed Reza; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad; Thorpe, Simon J; Masquelier, Timothée

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) can be used in spiking neural networks (SNN) to extract visual features of low or intermediate complexity in an unsupervised manner. These studies, however, used relatively shallow architectures, and only one layer was trainable. Another line of research has demonstrated - using rate-based neural networks trained with back-propagation - that having many layers increases the recognition robustness, an approach known as deep learning. We thus designed a deep SNN, comprising several convolutional (trainable with STDP) and pooling layers. We used a temporal coding scheme where the most strongly activated neurons fire first, and less activated neurons fire later or not at all. The network was exposed to natural images. Thanks to STDP, neurons progressively learned features corresponding to prototypical patterns that were both salient and frequent. Only a few tens of examples per category were required and no label was needed. After learning, the complexity of the extracted features increased along the hierarchy, from edge detectors in the first layer to object prototypes in the last layer. Coding was very sparse, with only a few thousands spikes per image, and in some cases the object category could be reasonably well inferred from the activity of a single higher-order neuron. More generally, the activity of a few hundreds of such neurons contained robust category information, as demonstrated using a classifier on Caltech 101, ETH-80, and MNIST databases. We also demonstrate the superiority of STDP over other unsupervised techniques such as random crops (HMAX) or auto-encoders. Taken together, our results suggest that the combination of STDP with latency coding may be a key to understanding the way that the primate visual system learns, its remarkable processing speed and its low energy consumption. These mechanisms are also interesting for artificial vision systems, particularly for hardware

  10. Hierarchical Context Modeling for Video Event Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Ji, Qiang

    2016-10-11

    Current video event recognition research remains largely target-centered. For real-world surveillance videos, targetcentered event recognition faces great challenges due to large intra-class target variation, limited image resolution, and poor detection and tracking results. To mitigate these challenges, we introduced a context-augmented video event recognition approach. Specifically, we explicitly capture different types of contexts from three levels including image level, semantic level, and prior level. At the image level, we introduce two types of contextual features including the appearance context features and interaction context features to capture the appearance of context objects and their interactions with the target objects. At the semantic level, we propose a deep model based on deep Boltzmann machine to learn event object representations and their interactions. At the prior level, we utilize two types of prior-level contexts including scene priming and dynamic cueing. Finally, we introduce a hierarchical context model that systematically integrates the contextual information at different levels. Through the hierarchical context model, contexts at different levels jointly contribute to the event recognition. We evaluate the hierarchical context model for event recognition on benchmark surveillance video datasets. Results show that incorporating contexts in each level can improve event recognition performance, and jointly integrating three levels of contexts through our hierarchical model achieves the best performance.

  11. One-single physical exercise session after object recognition learning promotes memory persistence through hippocampal noradrenergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Neves, Ben-Hur Souto das; Roehrs, Rafael; Izquierdo, Iván; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela

    2017-06-30

    Previously we showed the involvement of the hippocampal noradrenergic system in the consolidation and persistence of object recognition (OR) memory. Here we show that one-single physical exercise session performed immediately after learning promotes OR memory persistence and increases norepinephrine levels in the hippocampus. Additionally, effects of exercise on memory are avoided by an intra-hippocampal beta-adrenergic antagonist infusion. Taken together, these results suggest that exercise effects on memory can be related to noradrenergic mechanisms and acute physical exercise can be a non-pharmacological intervention to assist memory consolidation and persistence, with few or no side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Object recognition with video-theodolites and without targeting the object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahmen, H.; Seixas, A. de

    1999-01-01

    At the Department of Applied Geodesy and Engineering Geodesy (TU Vienna) an new kind of theodolite measurement system is under development, enabling measurements with an accuracy of 1:30.000 with and without targeting the object. The main goal is, to develop an intelligent multi-sensor system. Thus an operator is only needed to supervise the system. Results are gained on-sine and can be stored in a CAD system. If no artificial targets are used identification of points has to be performed by the Master-Theodolite. The method, used in our project, is based on interest operators. The Slave-Theodolite has to track the master by searching for homologous regions. The before described method can only be used, if there is some texture on the surface of the object. If that is not fulfilled, a 'grid-line-method' can be used, to get informations about the surface of the object. In the case of a cartesian co-ordinate system, for instance, the grid-lines can be chosen by the operator before the measurement process is started. The theodolite-measurement system is then able to detect the grid-lines and to find the positions where the grid-lines intersect the surface of the object. This system could be used for positioning the different components of a particle accelerator. (author)

  13. Object recognition with video-theodolites and without targeting the object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahmen, H.; Seixas, A. de [University of Technology Vienna, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Vienna (Austria)

    1999-07-01

    At the Department of Applied Geodesy and Engineering Geodesy (TU Vienna) an new kind of theodolite measurement system is under development, enabling measurements with an accuracy of 1:30.000 with and without targeting the object. The main goal is, to develop an intelligent multi-sensor system. Thus an operator is only needed to supervise the system. Results are gained on-sine and can be stored in a CAD system. If no artificial targets are used identification of points has to be performed by the Master-Theodolite. The method, used in our project, is based on interest operators. The Slave-Theodolite has to track the master by searching for homologous regions. The before described method can only be used, if there is some texture on the surface of the object. If that is not fulfilled, a 'grid-line-method' can be used, to get informations about the surface of the object. In the case of a cartesian co-ordinate system, for instance, the grid-lines can be chosen by the operator before the measurement process is started. The theodolite-measurement system is then able to detect the grid-lines and to find the positions where the grid-lines intersect the surface of the object. This system could be used for positioning the different components of a particle accelerator. (author)

  14. 5,7-DHT lesion of the dorsal raphe nuclei impairs object recognition but not affective behavior and corticosterone response to stressor in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieben, Cindy K J; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Blokland, Arjan

    2006-04-03

    Previous studies with acute tryptophan depletion, leading to transient central 5-HT reductions, showed no effects on affective behavior but impaired object memory. In the present study, the behavioral effects of a 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) lesion in the dorsal raphe were evaluated in animal models of anxiety (open field test), depression (forced swimming test), behavioral inhibition (discrete fixed interval test) and cognition (object recognition task). The corticosterone response to a stress condition was examined at several intervals after 5,7-DHT treatment. The substantial reduction in neuronal 5-HT markers in the dorsal raphe did not affect anxiety-related, depressive-like or impulsive behavior. Compared to the SHAM group, the lesioned rats showed a lower response latency to obtain a reward, indicating a quick and accurate reaction to a stimulus. No differences were found in the progressive ratio test for food motivation. A marked impairment in object recognition was found. The 5,7-DHT treatment did not affect the corticosterone response to a stressful situation. Overall, these results corroborate studies with acute tryptophan depletion suggesting a role of 5-HT in object memory, but not affective behavior.

  15. [Atypical etiology of rhinorrhea: spontaneous bilateral temporal encephalocele].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente Muñoz, Asís; Lisbona Alquézar, María Pilar; González Martínez, Luis; Sevil Navarro, Jorge; Llorente Arenas, Eva María

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous herniation of brain parenchyma through a dural and osseous defect in the temporal bone is a rare entity and a bilateral form is even more infrequent. It usually presents as an intermittent but persistent otorrhea. Manifestation as nose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is very uncommon. Our objective is presenting this unusual case report of a spontaneous bilateral encephalocele with a bilateral tegmen tympani defect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of second trimester miscarriages and spontaneous deliveries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundtoft, Iben Blaabjerg; Sneider, Kirstine; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the diagnosis of second trimester miscarriages/deliveries (16+0 weeks to 27+6 weeks of gestation) recorded as miscarriages in the Danish National Patient Registry or spontaneous deliveries in the Danish Medical Birth Registry, and asses the validity of risk factors, pregnancy...... information and calculated positive predictive values of the registry diagnoses stratified by type of registry, as well as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and kappa coefficients of risk factors, pregnancy complications, and cerclage. RESULTS: Miscarriage/spontaneous delivery in the second......-based information on pregnancy complications need to be improved. We recommend that all pregnancies ending spontaneously beyond the first trimester are included in the national birth registry and described by appropriate variables....

  17. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  18. Modulation of recognition memory performance by light requires both melanopsin and classical photoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shu K. E.; Hasan, Sibah; Hughes, Steven; Hankins, Mark W.; Foster, Russell G.; Bannerman, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute light exposure exerts various effects on physiology and behaviour. Although the effects of light on brain network activity in humans are well demonstrated, the effects of light on cognitive performance are inconclusive, with the size, as well as direction, of the effect depending on the nature of the task. Similarly, in nocturnal rodents, bright light can either facilitate or disrupt performance depending on the type of task employed. Crucially, it is unclear whether the effects of light on behavioural performance are mediated via the classical image-forming rods and cones or the melanopsin-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Here, we investigate the modulatory effects of light on memory performance in mice using the spontaneous object recognition task. Importantly, we examine which photoreceptors are required to mediate the effects of light on memory performance. By using a cross-over design, we show that object recognition memory is disrupted when the test phase is conducted under a bright light (350 lux), regardless of the light level in the sample phase (10 or 350 lux), demonstrating that exposure to a bright light at the time of test, rather than at the time of encoding, impairs performance. Strikingly, the modulatory effect of light on memory performance is completely abolished in both melanopsin-deficient and rodless–coneless mice. Our findings provide direct evidence that melanopsin-driven and rod/cone-driven photoresponses are integrated in order to mediate the effect of light on memory performance. PMID:28003454

  19. Spontaneous esophageal rupture - Boerhaave's syndrome: Clinical symptoms and radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaa, J.; Deininger, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    Spontaneous transmural rupture of the esophagus (Boerhaave's syndrome) is a life-threatening emergency. Prompt diagnosis is essential to a better prognosis, successful operative outcome and patient survival. The chest roentgenogram and the contrast esophagograms to follow are the most helpful diagnostic tests. The clinical manifestations are variable and may be misleading and thus delay accurate recognition. In our case report the major clinical features and radiological signs of Boerhaave's syndrome are described. The pathogenesis, characteristic clinical symptoms and the signs and radiological evaluation are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  20. Objective Prediction of Hearing Aid Benefit Across Listener Groups Using Machine Learning: Speech Recognition Performance With Binaural Noise-Reduction Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc R.; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger

    2018-01-01

    The simulation framework for auditory discrimination experiments (FADE) was adopted and validated to predict the individual speech-in-noise recognition performance of listeners with normal and impaired hearing with and without a given hearing-aid algorithm. FADE uses a simple automatic speech recognizer (ASR) to estimate the lowest achievable speech reception thresholds (SRTs) from simulated speech recognition experiments in an objective way, independent from any empirical reference data. Empirical data from the literature were used to evaluate the model in terms of predicted SRTs and benefits in SRT with the German matrix sentence recognition test when using eight single- and multichannel binaural noise-reduction algorithms. To allow individual predictions of SRTs in binaural conditions, the model was extended with a simple better ear approach and individualized by taking audiograms into account. In a realistic binaural cafeteria condition, FADE explained about 90% of the variance of the empirical SRTs for a group of normal-hearing listeners and predicted the corresponding benefits with a root-mean-square prediction error of 0.6 dB. This highlights the potential of the approach for the objective assessment of benefits in SRT without prior knowledge about the empirical data. The predictions for the group of listeners with impaired hearing explained 75% of the empirical variance, while the individual predictions explained less than 25%. Possibly, additional individual factors should be considered for more accurate predictions with impaired hearing. A competing talker condition clearly showed one limitation of current ASR technology, as the empirical performance with SRTs lower than −20 dB could not be predicted. PMID:29692200

  1. Under what conditions is recognition spared relative to recall after selective hippocampal damage in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdstock, J S; Mayes, A R; Roberts, N; Cezayirli, E; Isaac, C L; O'Reilly, R C; Norman, K A

    2002-01-01

    The claim that recognition memory is spared relative to recall after focal hippocampal damage has been disputed in the literature. We examined this claim by investigating object and object-location recall and recognition memory in a patient, YR, who has adult-onset selective hippocampal damage. Our aim was to identify the conditions under which recognition was spared relative to recall in this patient. She showed unimpaired forced-choice object recognition but clearly impaired recall, even when her control subjects found the object recognition task to be numerically harder than the object recall task. However, on two other recognition tests, YR's performance was not relatively spared. First, she was clearly impaired at an equivalently difficult yes/no object recognition task, but only when targets and foils were very similar. Second, YR was clearly impaired at forced-choice recognition of object-location associations. This impairment was also unrelated to difficulty because this task was no more difficult than the forced-choice object recognition task for control subjects. The clear impairment of yes/no, but not of forced-choice, object recognition after focal hippocampal damage, when targets and foils are very similar, is predicted by the neural network-based Complementary Learning Systems model of recognition. This model postulates that recognition is mediated by hippocampally dependent recollection and cortically dependent familiarity; thus hippocampal damage should not impair item familiarity. The model postulates that familiarity is ineffective when very similar targets and foils are shown one at a time and subjects have to identify which items are old (yes/no recognition). In contrast, familiarity is effective in discriminating which of similar targets and foils, seen together, is old (forced-choice recognition). Independent evidence from the remember/know procedure also indicates that YR's familiarity is normal. The Complementary Learning Systems model can

  2. Insular Cortex Is Involved in Consolidation of Object Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico; Okuda, Shoki; Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the insular cortex (IC), also termed gustatory cortex, is critically involved in conditioned taste aversion and taste recognition memory. Although most studies of the involvement of the IC in memory have investigated taste, there is some evidence that the IC is involved in memory that is not based on taste. In…

  3. Active object recognition using vocabulary trees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . Using this quantity, a feature’s uniqueness may be cal- culated. This is done in the following way. The feature’s Figure 3. Viewpoint weightings for a spice bottle object in the database. path through the vocabulary tree is determined by evaluat- ing... on the background will not negatively effect the weighting since all images were captured using the same background and their uniqueness weighting will be extremely low. Figure 3 is an example polar plot of viewpoint weightings for a spice bottle object...

  4. Micro Expression Recognition Using the Eulerian Video Magnification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Zarezadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new approach for facial micro expressions recognition. For this purpose the Eulerian Video Magnification (EVM method is used to retrieve the subtle motions of the face. The results of this method are obtained as in the magnified images sequence. In this study the numerical tests are performed on two databases: Spontaneous Micro expression (SMIC and Category and Sourcing Managers Executive (CASME. We evaluate our proposed method in two phases using the eigenface method. In phase 1 we recognize the type of a micro expression, for example emotional versus unemotional in SMIC database. Phase 2 classifies the recognized micro expression as negative versus positive in SMIC database and happiness versus disgust in CASME database. The results show that the eigenface method by the EVM method for the retrieval of subtle motions of the face increases the performance of micro expression recognition. Moreover, the proposed approach is more accurate and promising than the previous works in micro expressions recognition.

  5. Object Recognition via Information-Theoretic Measures/Metrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Repperger, Daniel W; Pinkus, Alan R; Skipper, Julie A; Schrider, Christian D

    2006-01-01

    .... In aerial military images, objects with different orientation can be reasonably approximated by a single identification signature consisting of the average histogram of the object under rotations...

  6. Visual object recognition for automatic micropropagation of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Thorsten; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.

    1994-11-01

    Micropropagation of plants is done by cutting juvenile plants and placing them into special container-boxes with nutrient-solution where the pieces can grow up and be cut again several times. To produce high amounts of biomass it is necessary to do plant micropropagation by a robotic system. In this paper we describe parts of the vision system that recognizes plants and their particular cutting points. Therefore, it is necessary to extract elements of the plants and relations between these elements (for example root, stem, leaf). Different species vary in their morphological appearance, variation is also immanent in plants of the same species. Therefore, we introduce several morphological classes of plants from that we expect same recognition methods.

  7. Modeling recall memory for emotional objects in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrøm, Martin

    2011-07-01

    To examine whether emotional memory (EM) of objects with self-reference in Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be modeled with binomial logistic regression in a free recall and an object recognition test to predict EM enhancement. Twenty patients with AD and twenty healthy controls were studied. Six objects (three presented as gifts) were shown to each participant. Ten minutes later, a free recall and a recognition test were applied. The recognition test had target-objects mixed with six similar distracter objects. Participants were asked to name any object in the recall test and identify each object in the recognition test as known or unknown. The total of gift objects recalled in AD patients (41.6%) was larger than neutral objects (13.3%) and a significant EM recall effect for gifts was found (Wilcoxon: p recall and recognition but showed no EM enhancement due to a ceiling effect. A logistic regression showed that likelihood of emotional recall memory can be modeled as a function of MMSE score (p Recall memory was enhanced in AD patients for emotional objects indicating that EM in mild to moderate AD although impaired can be provoked with strong emotional load. The logistic regression model suggests that EM declines with the progression of AD rather than disrupts and may be a useful tool for evaluating magnitude of emotional load.

  8. Exploring Power with Object Theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryöppy, Merja; Ylirisku, Salu; Knutz, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores Object Theatre as an approach to address power in design. We understand power as a relational activity that emerges and is upheld through particular ways of relating (Elias, 1991; Stacey, 2007). The spontaneity in participant actions through Object Theatre exercises renders pr...

  9. Assessment of motor function, sensory motor gating and recognition memory in a novel BACHD transgenic rat model for huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abada, Yah-Se K; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Schreiber, Rudy; Ellenbroek, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is frequently first diagnosed by the appearance of motor symptoms; the diagnosis is subsequently confirmed by the presence of expanded CAG repeats (> 35) in the HUNTINGTIN (HTT) gene. A BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full length mutated HTT with 97 CAG-CAA repeats has been established recently. Behavioral phenotyping of BACHD rats will help to determine the validity of this model and its potential use in preclinical drug discovery studies. The present study seeks to characterize the progressive emergence of motor, sensorimotor and cognitive deficits in BACHD rats. Wild type and transgenic rats were tested from 1 till 12 months of age. Motor tests were selected to measure spontaneous locomotor activity (open field) and gait coordination. Sensorimotor gating was assessed in acoustic startle response paradigms and recognition memory was evaluated in an object recognition test. Transgenic rats showed hyperactivity at 1 month and hypoactivity starting at 4 months of age. Motor coordination imbalance in a Rotarod test was present at 2 months and gait abnormalities were seen in a Catwalk test at 12 months. Subtle sensorimotor changes were observed, whereas object recognition was unimpaired in BACHD rats up to 12 months of age. The current BACHD rat model recapitulates certain symptoms from HD patients, especially the marked motor deficits. A subtle neuropsychological phenotype was found and further studies are needed to fully address the sensorimotor phenotype and the potential use of BACHD rats for drug discovery purposes.

  10. Spontaneous mutation by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, P.J.; Quah, S.-K.; Borstel, R.C. von

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that strains of yeast carrying mutations in many of the steps in pathways repairing radiation-induced damage to DNA have enhanced spontaneous mutation rates. Most strains isolated because they have enhanced spontaneous mutation carry mutations in DNA repair systems. This suggests that much spontaneous mutation arises by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions. (author)

  11. Behavioral model of visual perception and recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Ilya A.; Golovan, Alexander V.; Gusakova, Valentina I.

    1993-09-01

    In the processes of visual perception and recognition human eyes actively select essential information by way of successive fixations at the most informative points of the image. A behavioral program defining a scanpath of the image is formed at the stage of learning (object memorizing) and consists of sequential motor actions, which are shifts of attention from one to another point of fixation, and sensory signals expected to arrive in response to each shift of attention. In the modern view of the problem, invariant object recognition is provided by the following: (1) separated processing of `what' (object features) and `where' (spatial features) information at high levels of the visual system; (2) mechanisms of visual attention using `where' information; (3) representation of `what' information in an object-based frame of reference (OFR). However, most recent models of vision based on OFR have demonstrated the ability of invariant recognition of only simple objects like letters or binary objects without background, i.e. objects to which a frame of reference is easily attached. In contrast, we use not OFR, but a feature-based frame of reference (FFR), connected with the basic feature (edge) at the fixation point. This has provided for our model, the ability for invariant representation of complex objects in gray-level images, but demands realization of behavioral aspects of vision described above. The developed model contains a neural network subsystem of low-level vision which extracts a set of primary features (edges) in each fixation, and high- level subsystem consisting of `what' (Sensory Memory) and `where' (Motor Memory) modules. The resolution of primary features extraction decreases with distances from the point of fixation. FFR provides both the invariant representation of object features in Sensor Memory and shifts of attention in Motor Memory. Object recognition consists in successive recall (from Motor Memory) and execution of shifts of attention and

  12. A method for the evaluation of image quality according to the recognition effectiveness of objects in the optical remote sensing image using machine learning algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yuan

    Full Text Available Objective and effective image quality assessment (IQA is directly related to the application of optical remote sensing images (ORSI. In this study, a new IQA method of standardizing the target object recognition rate (ORR is presented to reflect quality. First, several quality degradation treatments with high-resolution ORSIs are implemented to model the ORSIs obtained in different imaging conditions; then, a machine learning algorithm is adopted for recognition experiments on a chosen target object to obtain ORRs; finally, a comparison with commonly used IQA indicators was performed to reveal their applicability and limitations. The results showed that the ORR of the original ORSI was calculated to be up to 81.95%, whereas the ORR ratios of the quality-degraded images to the original images were 65.52%, 64.58%, 71.21%, and 73.11%. The results show that these data can more accurately reflect the advantages and disadvantages of different images in object identification and information extraction when compared with conventional digital image assessment indexes. By recognizing the difference in image quality from the application effect perspective, using a machine learning algorithm to extract regional gray scale features of typical objects in the image for analysis, and quantitatively assessing quality of ORSI according to the difference, this method provides a new approach for objective ORSI assessment.

  13. A method for the evaluation of image quality according to the recognition effectiveness of objects in the optical remote sensing image using machine learning algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Zheng, Xinqi; Hu, Xuan; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objective and effective image quality assessment (IQA) is directly related to the application of optical remote sensing images (ORSI). In this study, a new IQA method of standardizing the target object recognition rate (ORR) is presented to reflect quality. First, several quality degradation treatments with high-resolution ORSIs are implemented to model the ORSIs obtained in different imaging conditions; then, a machine learning algorithm is adopted for recognition experiments on a chosen target object to obtain ORRs; finally, a comparison with commonly used IQA indicators was performed to reveal their applicability and limitations. The results showed that the ORR of the original ORSI was calculated to be up to 81.95%, whereas the ORR ratios of the quality-degraded images to the original images were 65.52%, 64.58%, 71.21%, and 73.11%. The results show that these data can more accurately reflect the advantages and disadvantages of different images in object identification and information extraction when compared with conventional digital image assessment indexes. By recognizing the difference in image quality from the application effect perspective, using a machine learning algorithm to extract regional gray scale features of typical objects in the image for analysis, and quantitatively assessing quality of ORSI according to the difference, this method provides a new approach for objective ORSI assessment.

  14. Maternal Factors Associated With Early Spontaneous Singleton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the maternal factors predisposing to preterm deliveries should affect the anticipatory care of mothers at risk of delivering preterm babies and improve perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the maternal socio-biological characteristics associated with the delivery of early spontaneous ...

  15. Effect of Acting Experience on Emotion Expression and Recognition in Voice: Non-Actors Provide Better Stimuli than Expected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Rebecca; Grass, Annika; Drolet, Matthis; Fischer, Julia

    Both in the performative arts and in emotion research, professional actors are assumed to be capable of delivering emotions comparable to spontaneous emotional expressions. This study examines the effects of acting training on vocal emotion depiction and recognition. We predicted that professional actors express emotions in a more realistic fashion than non-professional actors. However, professional acting training may lead to a particular speech pattern; this might account for vocal expressions by actors that are less comparable to authentic samples than the ones by non-professional actors. We compared 80 emotional speech tokens from radio interviews with 80 re-enactments by professional and inexperienced actors, respectively. We analyzed recognition accuracies for emotion and authenticity ratings and compared the acoustic structure of the speech tokens. Both play-acted conditions yielded similar recognition accuracies and possessed more variable pitch contours than the spontaneous recordings. However, professional actors exhibited signs of different articulation patterns compared to non-trained speakers. Our results indicate that for emotion research, emotional expressions by professional actors are not better suited than those from non-actors.

  16. Simultaneous tracking and activity recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina Elena; Fleet, David J.; Hamilton, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    be used to improve the prediction step of the tracking, while, at the same time, tracking information can be used for online activity recognition. Experimental results in two different settings show that our approach 1) decreases the error rate and improves the identity maintenance of the positional......Many tracking problems involve several distinct objects interacting with each other. We develop a framework that takes into account interactions between objects allowing the recognition of complex activities. In contrast to classic approaches that consider distinct phases of tracking and activity...... tracking and 2) identifies the correct activity with higher accuracy than standard approaches....

  17. Object recognition by implicit invariants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Kautsky, J.; Šroubek, Filip

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 4673 (2007), s. 856-863 ISSN 0302-9743. [Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns. Vienna, 27.08.2007-29.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Invariants * implicit invariants * moments * orthogonal polynomials * nonlinear object deformation Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http:// staff .utia.cas.cz/sroubekf/papers/CAIP_07.pdf

  18. HWDA: A coherence recognition and resolution algorithm for hybrid web data aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuhang; Wang, Jian; Wang, Tong

    2017-09-01

    Aiming at the object confliction recognition and resolution problem for hybrid distributed data stream aggregation, a distributed data stream object coherence solution technology is proposed. Firstly, the framework was defined for the object coherence conflict recognition and resolution, named HWDA. Secondly, an object coherence recognition technology was proposed based on formal language description logic and hierarchical dependency relationship between logic rules. Thirdly, a conflict traversal recognition algorithm was proposed based on the defined dependency graph. Next, the conflict resolution technology was prompted based on resolution pattern matching including the definition of the three types of conflict, conflict resolution matching pattern and arbitration resolution method. At last, the experiment use two kinds of web test data sets to validate the effect of application utilizing the conflict recognition and resolution technology of HWDA.

  19. The "general recognition and acceptance" standard of objectivity for good faith in prescribing: legal and medical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brushwood, David B

    2007-01-01

    The United States Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit has ruled that a jury considering charges of drug trafficking against a pain management physician should be instructed that the defendant's good faith is a defense to the charges. The court rejected a subjective standard of good faith, and instead ruled that the good faith of the defendant must be evaluated from an objective perspective. This objective standard requires that the jury determine whether the defendant was practicing in accordance with the standard generally recognized and accepted in the United States. General recognition and acceptance are determined on a case-by-case basis, within the context of a defendant's practice. Simply because a physician's practice is out of the norm for many physicians does not mean it can't be generally recognized and accepted within the standard of medical practice. Expert witness testimony of pain management physicians will assist juries in the application of this standard for good faith in prescribing.

  20. Sleep deprivation and daily torpor impair object recognition in Djungarian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palchykova, S; Crestani, F; Meerlo, P; Tobler, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to play a facilitating role in memory consolidation, whereas sleep deprivation leads to performance impairment both in humans and rodents. The effects of 4-h sleep deprivation on recognition memory were investigated in the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Because sleep

  1. Factors Analysis of Spontaneous Abortion after Thawed-vitrified Blastocysts Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong YANG; Zheng-yi SUN; Cheng-yan DENG; Qi YU; Fang-fang HE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors resulting in spontaneous abortion after transferring frozen-thawing blastocysts. Methods A total of 108 cases transferring vitrified blastocysts were divided into two groups: abortion group (n =20) and ongoing group (n=88). Cytogenetic analysis of apoblemas was performed in 12 cases of the abortion.Results The overall spontaneous abortion rate was 18.50%(20/108) and the early spontaneous rate was 16.67%(18/108). ,4 significant difference in maternal age was observed (abortion group: 33.3±4.0 years, ongoing group: 31.0±3.6 years, P=0.02). No difference in other parameters was found. Cytogenetic analysis of apoblemas was obtained for 12 cases, and 2 specimens were contaminated. Seven of ten patients had abnormal karyotypes. Conclusion The underlying cause of spontaneous abortion after transferring frozen thawing blastocysts appears to be abnormal karyotypes.Advancing maternal age seems to increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.

  2. Object recognition and generalisation during habituation in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tjatjana; Chovaux, Elodie

    2011-01-01

    The ability of horses to habituate to frightening stimuli greatly increases safety in the horse–human relationship. A recent experiment suggested, however, that habituation to frightening visual stimuli is relatively stimulus-specific in horses and that shape and colour are important factors...... for object generalisation (Christensen et al., 2008). In a series of experiments, we aimed to further explore the ability of horses (n = 30, 1 and 2-year-old mares) to recognise and generalise between objects during habituation. TEST horses (n = 15) were habituated to a complex object, composed of five...... simple objects of varying shape and colour, whereas CONTROL horses (n = 15) were habituated to the test arena, but not to the complex object. In the first experiment, we investigated whether TEST horses subsequently reacted less to i) simple objects that were previously part of the complex object (i...

  3. The influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction effect in visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Dana; Siakaluk, Paul D; Pexman, Penny M

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction (BOI) effect in visual word recognition. High print exposure readers and low print exposure readers either made semantic categorizations ("Is the word easily imageable?"; Experiment 1) or phonological lexical decisions ("Does the item sound like a real English word?"; Experiment 2). The results from Experiment 1 showed that there was a larger BOI effect for the low print exposure readers than for the high print exposure readers in semantic categorization, though an effect was observed for both print exposure groups. However, the results from Experiment 2 showed that the BOI effect was observed only for the high print exposure readers in phonological lexical decision. The results of the present study suggest that print exposure does influence the BOI effect, and that this influence varies as a function of task demands.

  4. Spherical blurred shape model for 3-D object and pose recognition: quantitative analysis and HCI applications in smart environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Oscar; Reyes, Miguel; Escalera, Sergio; Gonzàlez, Jordi

    2014-12-01

    The use of depth maps is of increasing interest after the advent of cheap multisensor devices based on structured light, such as Kinect. In this context, there is a strong need of powerful 3-D shape descriptors able to generate rich object representations. Although several 3-D descriptors have been already proposed in the literature, the research of discriminative and computationally efficient descriptors is still an open issue. In this paper, we propose a novel point cloud descriptor called spherical blurred shape model (SBSM) that successfully encodes the structure density and local variabilities of an object based on shape voxel distances and a neighborhood propagation strategy. The proposed SBSM is proven to be rotation and scale invariant, robust to noise and occlusions, highly discriminative for multiple categories of complex objects like the human hand, and computationally efficient since the SBSM complexity is linear to the number of object voxels. Experimental evaluation in public depth multiclass object data, 3-D facial expressions data, and a novel hand poses data sets show significant performance improvements in relation to state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposal is also proved for object spotting in 3-D scenes and for real-time automatic hand pose recognition in human computer interaction scenarios.

  5. Institutional Choice and Recognition in Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh

    Abstract This thesis concerns the role of local institutions in fostering development including natural resource management, and how this role is shaped by relations with higher scale institutions such as development agencies and national governments. Specifically, it examines the choice of local...... objective of this thesis was to contribute to understanding processes and outcomes of institutional choice and recognition. It employed mixed methods but primarily semi structured interviews in multiple sites across Nepal. In responding to specific objectives, namely to better understand: i) the rationales...... behind choices of local institutional counterparts, ii) the belonging and citizenship available with local institutions, iii) the dynamics and mutuality of recognition between higher and lower scale institutions, and iv) the social outcomes of choice and recognition, this thesis shows that the way choice...

  6. Automatic anatomy recognition in whole-body PET/CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huiqian [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China and Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Udupa, Jayaram K., E-mail: jay@mail.med.upenn.edu; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A. [Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Zhao, Liming [Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 and Research Center of Intelligent System and Robotics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become a standard method of imaging patients with various disease conditions, especially cancer. Body-wide accurate quantification of disease burden in PET/CT images is important for characterizing lesions, staging disease, prognosticating patient outcome, planning treatment, and evaluating disease response to therapeutic interventions. However, body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT is a critical first step for accurately and automatically quantifying disease body-wide, body-region-wise, and organwise. This latter process, however, has remained a challenge due to the lower quality of the anatomic information portrayed in the CT component of this imaging modality and the paucity of anatomic details in the PET component. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the adaptation of a recently developed automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodology [Udupa et al., “Body-wide hierarchical fuzzy modeling, recognition, and delineation of anatomy in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 18, 752–771 (2014)] to PET/CT images. Their goal was to test what level of object localization accuracy can be achieved on PET/CT compared to that achieved on diagnostic CT images. Methods: The authors advance the AAR approach in this work in three fronts: (i) from body-region-wise treatment in the work of Udupa et al. to whole body; (ii) from the use of image intensity in optimal object recognition in the work of Udupa et al. to intensity plus object-specific texture properties, and (iii) from the intramodality model-building-recognition strategy to the intermodality approach. The whole-body approach allows consideration of relationships among objects in different body regions, which was previously not possible. Consideration of object texture allows generalizing the previous optimal threshold-based fuzzy model recognition method from intensity images to any derived fuzzy membership image, and in the process

  7. Automatic anatomy recognition in whole-body PET/CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huiqian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.; Zhao, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become a standard method of imaging patients with various disease conditions, especially cancer. Body-wide accurate quantification of disease burden in PET/CT images is important for characterizing lesions, staging disease, prognosticating patient outcome, planning treatment, and evaluating disease response to therapeutic interventions. However, body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT is a critical first step for accurately and automatically quantifying disease body-wide, body-region-wise, and organwise. This latter process, however, has remained a challenge due to the lower quality of the anatomic information portrayed in the CT component of this imaging modality and the paucity of anatomic details in the PET component. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the adaptation of a recently developed automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodology [Udupa et al., “Body-wide hierarchical fuzzy modeling, recognition, and delineation of anatomy in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 18, 752–771 (2014)] to PET/CT images. Their goal was to test what level of object localization accuracy can be achieved on PET/CT compared to that achieved on diagnostic CT images. Methods: The authors advance the AAR approach in this work in three fronts: (i) from body-region-wise treatment in the work of Udupa et al. to whole body; (ii) from the use of image intensity in optimal object recognition in the work of Udupa et al. to intensity plus object-specific texture properties, and (iii) from the intramodality model-building-recognition strategy to the intermodality approach. The whole-body approach allows consideration of relationships among objects in different body regions, which was previously not possible. Consideration of object texture allows generalizing the previous optimal threshold-based fuzzy model recognition method from intensity images to any derived fuzzy membership image, and in the process

  8. [Clinical spectrum of patients with spontaneous retroperitoneal hematomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Amada; Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Leyre; Salmón-González, Zaida; Riancho, José Antonio; Valero, Carmen

    2015-10-05

    Spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma (SRH) is a potentially fatal clinical entity requiring immediate recognition and intervention. The clinical records of 18-year-old and older patients admitted to the University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla from 2003 to 2013 were reviewed. "Spontaneous" was defined as unrelated to trauma, invasive procedures or bleeding due to aortic aneurysm rupture. Thirty-four patients with SRH (44% were on anticoagulant drugs). One-third of cases had chronic renal insufficiency. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom both in anticoagulated and non-anticoagulated patients (80% in anticoagulated and 89% in non-anticoagulated patients). About one half of the patients developed shock. A CT scan was the most commonly performed diagnostic test, followed by abdominal ultrasound. Most cases were managed conservatively (80%). More than half of the patients (66%) restarted anticoagulation therapy after the acute event with a mean delay of 19 days (range 2-90 days). None of them suffered a new bleeding episode. Restarting the anticoagulation treatment after hematoma resolution seems to be a safe practice. There is an increasing frequency of SRH in non-anticoagulated patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Acoustic signature recognition technique for Human-Object Interactions (HOI) in persistent surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkilani, Amjad; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2013-05-01

    Handling, manipulation, and placement of objects, hereon called Human-Object Interaction (HOI), in the environment generate sounds. Such sounds are readily identifiable by the human hearing. However, in the presence of background environment noises, recognition of minute HOI sounds is challenging, though vital for improvement of multi-modality sensor data fusion in Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS). Identification of HOI sound signatures can be used as precursors to detection of pertinent threats that otherwise other sensor modalities may miss to detect. In this paper, we present a robust method for detection and classification of HOI events via clustering of extracted features from training of HOI acoustic sound waves. In this approach, salient sound events are preliminary identified and segmented from background via a sound energy tracking method. Upon this segmentation, frequency spectral pattern of each sound event is modeled and its features are extracted to form a feature vector for training. To reduce dimensionality of training feature space, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique is employed to expedite fast classification of test feature vectors, a kd-tree and Random Forest classifiers are trained for rapid classification of training sound waves. Each classifiers employs different similarity distance matching technique for classification. Performance evaluations of classifiers are compared for classification of a batch of training HOI acoustic signatures. Furthermore, to facilitate semantic annotation of acoustic sound events, a scheme based on Transducer Mockup Language (TML) is proposed. The results demonstrate the proposed approach is both reliable and effective, and can be extended to future PSS applications.

  10. Feedforward Object-Vision Models Only Tolerate Small Image Variations Compared to Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud eGhodrati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Invariant object recognition is a remarkable ability of primates' visual system that its underlying mechanism has constantly been under intense investigations. Computational modelling is a valuable tool toward understanding the processes involved in invariant object recognition. Although recent computational models have shown outstanding performances on challenging image databases, they fail to perform well when images with more complex variations of the same object are applied to them. Studies have shown that making sparse representation of objects by extracting more informative visual features through a feedforward sweep can lead to higher recognition performances. Here, however, we show that when the complexity of image variations is high, even this approach results in poor performance compared to humans. To assess the performance of models and humans in invariant object recognition tasks, we built a parametrically controlled image database consisting of several object categories varied in different dimensions and levels, rendered from 3D planes. Comparing the performance of several object recognition models with human observers shows that only in low-level image variations the models perform similar to humans in categorization tasks. Furthermore, the results of our behavioral experiments demonstrate that, even under difficult experimental conditions (i.e. briefly presented masked stimuli with complex image variations, human observers performed outstandingly well, suggesting that the models are still far from resembling humans in invariant object recognition. Taken together, we suggest that learning sparse informative visual features, although desirable, is not a complete solution for future progresses in object-vision modelling. We show that this approach is not of significant help in solving the computational crux of object recognition (that is invariant object recognition when the identity-preserving image variations become more complex.

  11. Robust Pedestrian Tracking and Recognition from FLIR Video: A Unified Approach via Sparse Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sparse coding is an emerging method that has been successfully applied to both robust object tracking and recognition in the vision literature. In this paper, we propose to explore a sparse coding-based approach toward joint object tracking-and-recognition and explore its potential in the analysis of forward-looking infrared (FLIR video to support nighttime machine vision systems. A key technical contribution of this work is to unify existing sparse coding-based approaches toward tracking and recognition under the same framework, so that they can benefit from each other in a closed-loop. On the one hand, tracking the same object through temporal frames allows us to achieve improved recognition performance through dynamical updating of template/dictionary and combining multiple recognition results; on the other hand, the recognition of individual objects facilitates the tracking of multiple objects (i.e., walking pedestrians, especially in the presence of occlusion within a crowded environment. We report experimental results on both the CASIAPedestrian Database and our own collected FLIR video database to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed joint tracking-and-recognition approach.

  12. The roles of perceptual and conceptual information in face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Linoy; Yovel, Galit

    2016-11-01

    The representation of familiar objects is comprised of perceptual information about their visual properties as well as the conceptual knowledge that we have about them. What is the relative contribution of perceptual and conceptual information to object recognition? Here, we examined this question by designing a face familiarization protocol during which participants were either exposed to rich perceptual information (viewing each face in different angles and illuminations) or with conceptual information (associating each face with a different name). Both conditions were compared with single-view faces presented with no labels. Recognition was tested on new images of the same identities to assess whether learning generated a view-invariant representation. Results showed better recognition of novel images of the learned identities following association of a face with a name label, but no enhancement following exposure to multiple face views. Whereas these findings may be consistent with the role of category learning in object recognition, face recognition was better for labeled faces only when faces were associated with person-related labels (name, occupation), but not with person-unrelated labels (object names or symbols). These findings suggest that association of meaningful conceptual information with an image shifts its representation from an image-based percept to a view-invariant concept. They further indicate that the role of conceptual information should be considered to account for the superior recognition that we have for familiar faces and objects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. VBAC In Women Undergoing IOL With Dinoprostone Versus Spontaneous Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, João; Vilhena, Cristina; Tomás, Cláudia; Antunes, Isabel Lobo; Metello, José; Natário, Isabel; Puga, Marco; Casal, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Sem PDF OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of vaginal birth in women attempting vaginal birth after caesarean delivery (VBAC) through labour induction with dinoprostone versus a trial of spontaneous labour. METHODS: A 10-year retrospective cohort study in a tertiary care hospital of women with one prior caesarean delivery. Women who attempted VBAC with labour induction with dinoprostone were compared with women undergoing spontaneous labour. Logistic regression analyses were performed to asses...

  14. Fetal megacystis : prediction of spontaneous resolution and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanella, F.; Duin, L.; Adama van Scheltema, P. N.; Cohen-Overbeek, T. E.; Pajkrt, E.; Bekker, M.; Willekes, C.; Bax, C. J.; Bilardo, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the natural history of fetal megacystis from diagnosis in utero to postnatal outcome, and to identify prognostic indicators of spontaneous resolution and postnatal outcome after resolution. Methods: This was a national retrospective cohort study. Fetal megacystis was

  15. Fetal megacystis : prediction of spontaneous resolution and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanella, F; Duin, L; Adama van Scheltema, P N; Cohen-Overbeek, T E; Pajkrt, E; Bekker, M; Willekes, C; Bax, C J; Bilardo, C M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the natural history of fetal megacystis from diagnosis in utero to postnatal outcome, and to identify prognostic indicators of spontaneous resolution and postnatal outcome after resolution. Methods This was a national retrospective cohort study. Fetal megacystis was defined

  16. Multisensory Interactions between Auditory and Haptic Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Menz, Mareike M; R�der, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    and haptic object features activate cortical regions that host unified conceptual object representations. The left fusiform gyrus (FG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) showed increased activation during crossmodal matching of semantically congruent but not incongruent object stimuli. In the FG...

  17. PKMzeta maintains 1-day- and 6-day-old long-term object location but not object identity memory in dorsal hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Oliver; Migues, Paola V; Hastings, Margaret; Wong, Jacinda; Nader, Karim

    2010-06-01

    Continuous activity of the atypical protein kinase C isoform M zeta (PKMzeta) is necessary for maintaining long-term memory acquired in aversively or appetitively motivated associative learning tasks, such as active avoidance, aversive taste conditioning, auditory and contextual fear conditioning, radial arm maze, and watermaze. Whether unreinforced, nonassociative memory will also require PKMzeta for long-term maintenance is not known. Using recognition memory for object location and object identity, we found that inactivating PKMzeta in dorsal hippocampus abolishes 1-day and 6-day-old long-term recognition memory for object location, while recognition memory for object identity was not affected by this treatment. Memory for object location persisted for no more than 35 days after training. These results suggest that the dorsal hippocampus mediates long-term memory for where, but not what things have been encountered, and that PKMzeta maintains this type of spatial knowledge as long as the memory exists.

  18. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  19. Semantic and visual determinants of face recognition in a prosopagnosic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, M J; Bub, D N; Arguin, M

    1998-05-01

    Prosopagnosia is the neuropathological inability to recognize familiar people by their faces. It can occur in isolation or can coincide with recognition deficits for other nonface objects. Often, patients whose prosopagnosia is accompanied by object recognition difficulties have more trouble identifying certain categories of objects relative to others. In previous research, we demonstrated that objects that shared multiple visual features and were semantically close posed severe recognition difficulties for a patient with temporal lobe damage. We now demonstrate that this patient's face recognition is constrained by these same parameters. The prosopagnosic patient ELM had difficulties pairing faces to names when the faces shared visual features and the names were semantically related (e.g., Tonya Harding, Nancy Kerrigan, and Josee Chouinard -three ice skaters). He made tenfold fewer errors when the exact same faces were associated with semantically unrelated people (e.g., singer Celine Dion, actress Betty Grable, and First Lady Hillary Clinton). We conclude that prosopagnosia and co-occurring category-specific recognition problems both stem from difficulties disambiguating the stored representations of objects that share multiple visual features and refer to semantically close identities or concepts.

  20. Human Activity Recognition in a Car with Embedded Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Burbano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection and prediction of drowsiness is key for the implementation of intelligent vehicles aimed to prevent highway crashes. There are several approaches for such solution. In thispaper the computer vision approach will be analysed, where embedded devices (e.g.videocameras are used along with machine learning and pattern recognition techniques for implementing suitable solutions for detecting driver fatigue. Most of the research in computer vision systems focused on the analysis of blinks, this is a notable solution when it is combined with additional patterns like yawing or head motion for the recognition of drowsiness. The first step in this approach is the face recognition, where AdaBoost algorithm shows accurate results for the feature extraction, whereas regarding the detection of drowsiness the data-driven classifiers such as Support Vector Machine (SVM yields remarkable results. One underlying component for implementing a computer vision technology for detection of drowsiness is a database of spontaneous images from the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, where the classifier can be trained accordingly. This paper introduces a straightforward prototype for detection of drowsiness, where the Viola-Jones method is used for face recognition and cascade classifier is used for the detection of a contiguous sequence of eyes closed, which a reconsidered as drowsiness.

  1. Robust recognition via information theoretic learning

    CERN Document Server

    He, Ran; Yuan, Xiaotong; Wang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief represents a comprehensive review of information theoretic methods for robust recognition. A variety of information theoretic methods have been proffered in the past decade, in a large variety of computer vision applications; this work brings them together, attempts to impart the theory, optimization and usage of information entropy.The?authors?resort to a new information theoretic concept, correntropy, as a robust measure and apply it to solve robust face recognition and object recognition problems. For computational efficiency,?the brief?introduces the additive and multip

  2. Constraints in distortion-invariant target recognition system simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Razzaque, Md A.

    2000-11-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) is a mature but active research area. In an earlier paper, we proposed a novel ATR approach for recognition of targets varying in fine details, rotation, and translation using a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) Neural Network (NN). The proposed approach performed segmentation of multiple objects and the identification of the objects using LVQNN. In this current paper, we extend the previous approach for recognition of targets varying in rotation, translation, scale, and combination of all three distortions. We obtain the analytical results of the system level design to show that the approach performs well with some constraints. The first constraint determines the size of the input images and input filters. The second constraint shows the limits on amount of rotation, translation, and scale of input objects. We present the simulation verification of the constraints using DARPA's Moving and Stationary Target Recognition (MSTAR) images with different depression and pose angles. The simulation results using MSTAR images verify the analytical constraints of the system level design.

  3. The Influence of Print Exposure on the Body-Object Interaction Effect in Visual Word Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eHansen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction (BOI effect in visual word recognition. High print exposure readers and low print exposure readers either made semantic categorizations (Is the word easily imageable?; Experiment 1 or phonological lexical decisions (Does the item sound like a real English word?; Experiment 2. The results from Experiment 1 showed that there was a larger facilitatory BOI effect for the low print exposure readers than for the high print exposure readers in semantic categorization, though an effect was observed for both print exposure groups. However, the results from Experiment 2 showed that a facilitatory BOI effect was observed only for the high print exposure readers in phonological lexical decision. The results of the present study suggest that print exposure does influence the BOI effect, and that this influence varies as a function of task demands.

  4. Object recognition and concept learning with Confucius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B; Sammut, C

    1982-01-01

    A learning program produces, as its output, a Boolean function which describes a concept. The function returns true if and only if the argument is an object which satisfies the logical expression in the body of the function. The learning program's input is a set of objects which are instances of the concept to be learnt. The paper describes an algorithm devised to learn concept descriptions in this form. 15 references.

  5. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  6. Emotional valence of stimuli modulates false recognition: Using a modified version of the simplified conjoint recognition paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xianmin; Xiao, Hongrui; Wang, Dahua

    2016-11-01

    False recognition results from the interplay of multiple cognitive processes, including verbatim memory, gist memory, phantom recollection, and response bias. In the current study, we modified the simplified Conjoint Recognition (CR) paradigm to investigate the way in which the valence of emotional stimuli affects the cognitive process and behavioral outcome of false recognition. In Study 1, we examined the applicability of the modification to the simplified CR paradigm and model. Twenty-six undergraduate students (13 females, aged 21.00±2.30years) learned and recognized both the large and small categories of photo objects. The applicability of the paradigm and model was confirmed by a fair goodness-of-fit of the model to the observational data and by their competence in detecting the memory differences between the large- and small-category conditions. In Study 2, we recruited another sample of 29 undergraduate students (14 females, aged 22.60±2.74years) to learn and recognize the categories of photo objects that were emotionally provocative. The results showed that negative valence increased false recognition, particularly the rate of false "remember" responses, by facilitating phantom recollection; positive valence did not influence false recognition significantly though enhanced gist processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, A.; Fitzek, F.; Rasshofer, R. H.

    2012-09-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insights into the object classification process. The impact of raw radar data properties can be directly observed in every layer of the classification system by avoiding machine learning and tracking. This gives information on the limiting factors of raw radar data in terms of classification decision making. To accomplish the very challenging distinction between pedestrians and static objects, five significant and stable object features from the spatial distribution and Doppler information are found. Experimental results with data from a 77 GHz automotive radar sensor show that over 95% of pedestrians can be classified correctly under optimal conditions, which is compareable to modern machine learning systems. The impact of the pedestrian's direction of movement, occlusion, antenna beam elevation angle, linear vehicle movement, and other factors are investigated and discussed. The results show that under real life conditions, radar only based pedestrian recognition is limited due to insufficient Doppler frequency and spatial resolution as well as antenna side lobe effects.

  8. Real-world objects are more memorable than photographs of objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C Snow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in psychology typically use two-dimensional (2D images of objects as proxies for real-world three-dimensional (3D stimuli. There are, however, a number of important differences between real objects and images that could influence cognition and behavior. Although human memory has been studied extensively, only a handful of studies have used real objects in the context of memory and virtually none have directly compared memory for real objects versus their 2D counterparts. Here we examined whether or not episodic memory is influenced by the format in which objects are displayed. We conducted two experiments asking participants to freely recall, and to recognize, a set of 44 common household objects. Critically, the exemplars were displayed to observers in one of three viewing conditions: real-world objects, colored photographs, or black and white line drawings. Stimuli were closely matched across conditions for size, orientation, and illumination. Surprisingly, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for real objects compared to colored photographs or line drawings (for which memory performance was equivalent. We replicated this pattern in a second experiment comparing memory for real objects versus color photos, when the stimuli were matched for viewing angle across conditions. Again, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for the real objects than matched color photos of the same items. Taken together, our data suggest that real objects are more memorable than pictorial stimuli. Our results highlight the importance of studying real-world object cognition and raise the potential for applied use in developing effective strategies for education, marketing, and further research on object-related cognition.

  9. Prevalence of face recognition deficits in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Rachel J; Murray, Ebony; Boyce, Tian; Bate, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 2-2.5% of the adult population is believed to show severe difficulties with face recognition, in the absence of any neurological injury-a condition known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP). However, to date no research has attempted to estimate the prevalence of face recognition deficits in children, possibly because there are very few child-friendly, well-validated tests of face recognition. In the current study, we examined face and object recognition in a group of primary school children (aged 5-11 years), to establish whether our tests were suitable for children and to provide an estimate of face recognition difficulties in children. In Experiment 1 (n = 184), children completed a pre-existing test of child face memory, the Cambridge Face Memory Test-Kids (CFMT-K), and a bicycle test with the same format. In Experiment 2 (n = 413), children completed three-alternative forced-choice matching tasks with faces and bicycles. All tests showed good psychometric properties. The face and bicycle tests were well matched for difficulty and showed a similar developmental trajectory. Neither the memory nor the matching tests were suitable to detect impairments in the youngest groups of children, but both tests appear suitable to screen for face recognition problems in middle childhood. In the current sample, 1.2-5.2% of children showed difficulties with face recognition; 1.2-4% showed face-specific difficulties-that is, poor face recognition with typical object recognition abilities. This is somewhat higher than previous adult estimates: It is possible that face matching tests overestimate the prevalence of face recognition difficulties in children; alternatively, some children may "outgrow" face recognition difficulties.

  10. Language modeling for automatic speech recognition of inflective languages an applications-oriented approach using lexical data

    CERN Document Server

    Donaj, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    This book covers language modeling and automatic speech recognition for inflective languages (e.g. Slavic languages), which represent roughly half of the languages spoken in Europe. These languages do not perform as well as English in speech recognition systems and it is therefore harder to develop an application with sufficient quality for the end user. The authors describe the most important language features for the development of a speech recognition system. This is then presented through the analysis of errors in the system and the development of language models and their inclusion in speech recognition systems, which specifically address the errors that are relevant for targeted applications. The error analysis is done with regard to morphological characteristics of the word in the recognized sentences. The book is oriented towards speech recognition with large vocabularies and continuous and even spontaneous speech. Today such applications work with a rather small number of languages compared to the nu...

  11. Three dimensional pattern recognition using feature-based indexing and rule-based search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Kyu

    In flexible automated manufacturing, robots can perform routine operations as well as recover from atypical events, provided that process-relevant information is available to the robot controller. Real time vision is among the most versatile sensing tools, yet the reliability of machine-based scene interpretation can be questionable. The effort described here is focused on the development of machine-based vision methods to support autonomous nuclear fuel manufacturing operations in hot cells. This thesis presents a method to efficiently recognize 3D objects from 2D images based on feature-based indexing. Object recognition is the identification of correspondences between parts of a current scene and stored views of known objects, using chains of segments or indexing vectors. To create indexed object models, characteristic model image features are extracted during preprocessing. Feature vectors representing model object contours are acquired from several points of view around each object and stored. Recognition is the process of matching stored views with features or patterns detected in a test scene. Two sets of algorithms were developed, one for preprocessing and indexed database creation, and one for pattern searching and matching during recognition. At recognition time, those indexing vectors with the highest match probability are retrieved from the model image database, using a nearest neighbor search algorithm. The nearest neighbor search predicts the best possible match candidates. Extended searches are guided by a search strategy that employs knowledge-base (KB) selection criteria. The knowledge-based system simplifies the recognition process and minimizes the number of iterations and memory usage. Novel contributions include the use of a feature-based indexing data structure together with a knowledge base. Both components improve the efficiency of the recognition process by improved structuring of the database of object features and reducing data base size

  12. Operative treatment of spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas : a study of the factors determining postoperative outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; van Alphen, H A

    OBJECTIVE: We clarify the factors affecting postoperative outcomes in patients who have suffered spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas. METHODS: We review 330 cases of spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas from the international literature and three unpublished cases of our own. Attention was

  13. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Computed Tomographic Characteristics and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimara de la Caridad Vergara Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: strokes are the third leading cause of death among adults and 10-15 % of them are due to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Objective: to characterize spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage through computed tomography scan and its outcome. Methods: a case series study was conducted comprising patients diagnosed with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage admitted to the Arnaldo Milián Castro Provincial University Hospital in Villa Clara from January 2009 to January 2010. Tomographic variables of interest were derived from evaluation of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas. Results: fifty-nine cases of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage were studied, 23 were located in lobar regions, 4 had severe midline shift, and 2 showed volume greater than 80 ml. Eight out of eleven with extension into the ventricular system had an unfavorable outcome. Among those with thalamic hemorrhage, patients with diameter larger than 4cm and extension into the ventricular system died. Patients with putaminal hemorrhage larger than 4 cm and posterior fossa hematoma with hydrocephalus had a poor outcome, as well as most individuals (55 with other mass effects. Most lobar hematomas (14 out of 23 had a satisfactory outcome, unlike cerebellar and brainstem hematomas. Conclusions: tomographic variables that had a negative impact on the outcome were: volume greater than 80 ml, severe midline shift, diameter larger than 4 cm, extension into the ventricular system, hydrocephalus, other signs of mass effect and brainstem location.

  15. Role of medial prefrontal cortex serotonin 2A receptors in the control of retrieval of recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekinschtein, Pedro; Renner, Maria Constanza; Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Weisstaub, Noelia

    2013-10-02

    Often, retrieval cues are not uniquely related to one specific memory, which could lead to memory interference. Controlling interference is particularly important during episodic memory retrieval or when remembering specific events in a spatiotemporal context. Despite a clear involvement of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in episodic memory in human studies, information regarding the mechanisms and neurotransmitter systems in PFC involved in memory is scarce. Although the serotoninergic system has been linked to PFC functionality and modulation, its role in memory processing is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the serotoninergic system in PFC, in particular the 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) could have a role in the control of memory retrieval. In this work we used different versions of the object recognition task in rats to study the role of the serotoninergic modulation in the medial PFC (mPFC) in memory retrieval. We found that blockade of 5-HT2AR in mPFC affects retrieval of an object in context memory in a spontaneous novelty preference task, while sparing single-item recognition memory. We also determined that 5-HT2ARs in mPFC are required for hippocampal-mPFC interaction during retrieval of this type of memory, suggesting that the mPFC controls the expression of memory traces stored in the hippocampus biasing retrieval to the most relevant one.

  16. Formal Implementation of a Performance Evaluation Model for the Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Nyuo Shin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to usability features, practical applications, and its lack of intrusiveness, face recognition technology, based on information, derived from individuals' facial features, has been attracting considerable attention recently. Reported recognition rates of commercialized face recognition systems cannot be admitted as official recognition rates, as they are based on assumptions that are beneficial to the specific system and face database. Therefore, performance evaluation methods and tools are necessary to objectively measure the accuracy and performance of any face recognition system. In this paper, we propose and formalize a performance evaluation model for the biometric recognition system, implementing an evaluation tool for face recognition systems based on the proposed model. Furthermore, we performed evaluations objectively by providing guidelines for the design and implementation of a performance evaluation system, formalizing the performance test process.

  17. To Classify Spontaneous Motion Intention of Step Size by Using Cerebral Hemoglobin Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Kai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the effect of walking-assistive devices, there is a need for it to develop devices controlled by spontaneous intention of patients. In recent study, we identified spontaneous motion intention of walking step based on cerebral hemoglobin information. Twenty healthy subjects performed walking tasks in three levels of step size (small, normal and large. According to distribution features of signals’ power spectral-density, six frequency bands (0-0.18Hz with an interval of 0.03Hz for each band width divided by applying wavelet packets decomposition were mainly analyzed. Feature vectors were extracted from the difference between oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb and deoxygenated hemoglobin (dexoyHb in different measuring channels in the six frequency bands. Support vector machine (SVM method was utilized to classify the three levels of step sizes. Mean recognition accuracy achieved up to 83.3%. The result indicated that it is possible to identify spontaneous walking by using cerebral hemoglobin information. This is helpful for enhancing the intelligence of walking-assistive devices and motivating the active control of patients, which further is profitable for enhancing self-confidence of patients.

  18. The hierarchical brain network for face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Zonglei; Fang, Huizhen; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified multiple cortical regions that are involved in face processing in the human brain. However, few studies have characterized the face-processing network as a functioning whole. In this study, we used fMRI to identify face-selective regions in the entire brain and then explore the hierarchical structure of the face-processing network by analyzing functional connectivity among these regions. We identified twenty-five regions mainly in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex that showed a reliable response selective to faces (versus objects) across participants and across scan sessions. Furthermore, these regions were clustered into three relatively independent sub-networks in a face-recognition task on the basis of the strength of functional connectivity among them. The functionality of the sub-networks likely corresponds to the recognition of individual identity, retrieval of semantic knowledge and representation of emotional information. Interestingly, when the task was switched to object recognition from face recognition, the functional connectivity between the inferior occipital gyrus and the rest of the face-selective regions were significantly reduced, suggesting that this region may serve as an entry node in the face-processing network. In sum, our study provides empirical evidence for cognitive and neural models of face recognition and helps elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying face recognition at the network level.

  19. Supervised linear dimensionality reduction with robust margins for object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornaika, F.; Assoum, A.

    2013-01-01

    Linear Dimensionality Reduction (LDR) techniques have been increasingly important in computer vision and pattern recognition since they permit a relatively simple mapping of data onto a lower dimensional subspace, leading to simple and computationally efficient classification strategies. Recently, many linear discriminant methods have been developed in order to reduce the dimensionality of visual data and to enhance the discrimination between different groups or classes. Many existing linear embedding techniques relied on the use of local margins in order to get a good discrimination performance. However, dealing with outliers and within-class diversity has not been addressed by margin-based embedding method. In this paper, we explored the use of different margin-based linear embedding methods. More precisely, we propose to use the concepts of Median miss and Median hit for building robust margin-based criteria. Based on such margins, we seek the projection directions (linear embedding) such that the sum of local margins is maximized. Our proposed approach has been applied to the problem of appearance-based face recognition. Experiments performed on four public face databases show that the proposed approach can give better generalization performance than the classic Average Neighborhood Margin Maximization (ANMM). Moreover, thanks to the use of robust margins, the proposed method down-grades gracefully when label outliers contaminate the training data set. In particular, we show that the concept of Median hit was crucial in order to get robust performance in the presence of outliers.

  20. Recognition and Synthesis of Human Movements by Parametric HMMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    The representation of human movements for recognition and synthesis is important in many application fields such as: surveillance, human-computer interaction, motion capture, and humanoid robots. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are a common statistical framework in this context, since...... on the recognition and synthesis of human arm movements. Furthermore, we will show in various experiments the use of PHMMs for the control of a humanoid robot by synthesizing movements for relocating objects at arbitrary positions. In vision-based interaction experiments, PHMM are used for the recognition...... of pointing movements, where the recognized parameterization conveys to a robot the important information which object to relocate and where to put it. Finally, we evaluate the accuracy of recognition and synthesis for pointing and grasping arm movements and discuss that the precision of the synthesis...

  1. Innate recognition of water bodies in echolocating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Stefan; Siemers, Björn M

    2010-11-02

    In the course of their lives, most animals must find different specific habitat and microhabitat types for survival and reproduction. Yet, in vertebrates, little is known about the sensory cues that mediate habitat recognition. In free flying bats the echolocation of insect-sized point targets is well understood, whereas how they recognize and classify spatially extended echo targets is currently unknown. In this study, we show how echolocating bats recognize ponds or other water bodies that are crucial for foraging, drinking and orientation. With wild bats of 15 different species (seven genera from three phylogenetically distant, large bat families), we found that bats perceived any extended, echo-acoustically smooth surface to be water, even in the presence of conflicting information from other sensory modalities. In addition, naive juvenile bats that had never before encountered a water body showed spontaneous drinking responses from smooth plates. This provides the first evidence for innate recognition of a habitat cue in a mammal.

  2. Spontaneous decoherence of coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, ZhiRui; Zhang, ZhenWei; Xu, DaZhi; Zhao, Nan; Sun, ChangPu

    2018-04-01

    We study the spontaneous decoherence of coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring container, where the nearest-neighbor harmonic potentials are taken into consideration. Without any external symmetry-breaking field or surrounding environment, the quantum superposition state prepared in the relative degrees of freedom gradually loses its quantum coherence spontaneously. This spontaneous decoherence is interpreted by the gauge couplings between the center-of-mass and the relative degrees of freedoms, which actually originate from the symmetries of the ring geometry and the corresponding nontrivial boundary conditions. In particular, such spontaneous decoherence does not occur at all at the thermodynamic limit because the nontrivial boundary conditions become the trivial Born-von Karman boundary conditions when the perimeter of the ring container tends to infinity. Our investigation shows that a thermal macroscopic object with certain symmetries has a chance for its quantum properties to degrade even without applying an external symmetry-breaking field or surrounding environment.

  3. Spontaneous hemorrhage simulating rapid growth of a benign subperiosteal plexiform neurofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blitman, Netta M.; Levsky, Jeffrey M.; Thornhill, Beverly A.; Villanueva-Siles, Esperanza

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous subperiosteal hemorrhage is a rare complication of von Recklinghausen's disease. There are few reports describing the MR imaging characteristics of this entity. Our case is unique among these as an underlying plexiform neurofibroma was visualized by MR imaging. We present a 12-year-old child with neurofibromatosis 1 who presented with a rapidly enlarging mass of the fibula. Surgery and pathology revealed subperiosteal hemorrhage into a benign, plexiform neurofibroma. The MR imaging features, pathogenesis and clinical implications of this entity are discussed. Recognition of this disease process and differentiating it from malignant transformation can prevent unnecessary surgery. (orig.)

  4. Antiplatelet Agents and the Prevention of Spontaneous Preterm Birth A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Elvira O. G.; Askie, Lisa A.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous preterm birth is an important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. An increasing body of evidence suggests that uteroplacental ischemia plays an important role in the etiology of spontaneous preterm birth. We aimed to study whether antiplatelet agents reduce the risk of

  5. Spontaneous haemoperitoneum in pregnancy and endometriosis: a case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, M. van; Malik, R.F.; Waesberghe, J. van; Maas, J.W.; Rumpt-van de Geest, D.A. van; Coppus, S.F.P.J.; Berger, J.P.; Rijn, B.B. van; Janssen, P.F.; Boer, M.A. de; Vries, J.I.P. de; Jansen, F.W.; Brosens, I.A.; Lambalk, C.B.; Mijatovic, V.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report pregnancy outcomes of SHiP (spontaneous haemoperitoneum in pregnancy) and the association with endometriosis. DESIGN: Retrospective case note review. SETTING: Dutch referral hospitals for endometriosis. SAMPLE: Eleven women presenting with 15 events of SHiP. METHODS: In

  6. Spontaneous haemoperitoneum in pregnancy and endometriosis : a case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, McI; Malik, R F; van Waesberghe, Jhtm; Maas, J W; van Rumpt-van de Geest, D A; Coppus, S F; Berger, J P; van Rijn, B B; Janssen, P F; de Boer, M. A; de Vries, Jip; Jansen, F. W.; Brosens, I A; Lambalk, C B; Mijatovic, V

    OBJECTIVE: To report pregnancy outcomes of SHiP (spontaneous haemoperitoneum in pregnancy) and the association with endometriosis. DESIGN: Retrospective case note review. SETTING: Dutch referral hospitals for endometriosis. SAMPLE: Eleven women presenting with 15 events of SHiP. METHODS: In

  7. Parametric Primitives for Hand Gesture Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Imitation learning is considered to be an effective way of teaching humanoid robots and action recognition is the key step to imitation learning. In this paper  an online algorithm to recognize parametric actions with object context is presented. Objects are key instruments in understanding...

  8. A biphasic and brain-region selective down-regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations supports object recognition in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïte Hotte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to further understand the relationship between cAMP concentration and mnesic performance. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Rats were injected with milrinone (PDE3 inhibitor, 0.3 mg/kg, i.p., rolipram (PDE4 inhibitor, 0.3 mg/kg, i.p. and/or the selective 5-HT4R agonist RS 67333 (1 mg/kg, i.p. before testing in the object recognition paradigm. Cyclic AMP concentrations were measured in brain structures linked to episodic-like memory (i.e. hippocampus, prefrontal and perirhinal cortices before or after either the sample or the testing phase. Except in the hippocampus of rolipram treated-rats, all treatment increased cAMP levels in each brain sub-region studied before the sample phase. After the sample phase, cAMP levels were significantly increased in hippocampus (1.8 fold, prefrontal (1.3 fold and perirhinal (1.3 fold cortices from controls rat while decreased in prefrontal cortex (∼0.83 to 0.62 fold from drug-treated rats (except for milrinone+RS 67333 treatment. After the testing phase, cAMP concentrations were still increased in both the hippocampus (2.76 fold and the perirhinal cortex (2.1 fold from controls animals. Minor increase were reported in hippocampus and perirhinal cortex from both rolipram (respectively, 1.44 fold and 1.70 fold and milrinone (respectively 1.46 fold and 1.56 fold-treated rat. Following the paradigm, cAMP levels were significantly lower in the hippocampus, prefrontal and perirhinal cortices from drug-treated rat when compared to controls animals, however, only drug-treated rats spent longer time exploring the novel object during the testing phase (inter-phase interval of 4 h. CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly suggest that a "pre-sample" early increase in cAMP levels followed by a specific lowering of cAMP concentrations in each brain sub-region linked to the object recognition paradigm support learning efficacy after a middle-term delay.

  9. Conceptual fluency at test shifts recognition response bias in Alzheimer's disease: implications for increased false recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Carl A; Marchant, Natalie L; Koutstaal, Wilma; Schacter, Daniel L; Budson, Andrew E

    2007-09-20

    The presence or absence of conceptual information in pictorial stimuli may explain the mixed findings of previous studies of false recognition in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To test this hypothesis, 48 patients with AD were compared to 48 healthy older adults on a recognition task first described by Koutstaal et al. [Koutstaal, W., Reddy, C., Jackson, E. M., Prince, S., Cendan, D. L., & Schacter D. L. (2003). False recognition of abstract versus common objects in older and younger adults: Testing the semantic categorization account. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 499-510]. Participants studied and were tested on their memory for categorized ambiguous pictures of common objects. The presence of conceptual information at study and/or test was manipulated by providing or withholding disambiguating semantic labels. Analyses focused on testing two competing theories. The semantic encoding hypothesis, which posits that the inter-item perceptual details are not encoded by AD patients when conceptual information is present in the stimuli, was not supported by the findings. In contrast, the conceptual fluency hypothesis was supported. Enhanced conceptual fluency at test dramatically shifted AD patients to a more liberal response bias, raising their false recognition. These results suggest that patients with AD rely on the fluency of test items in making recognition memory decisions. We speculate that AD patients' over reliance upon fluency may be attributable to (1) dysfunction of the hippocampus, disrupting recollection, and/or (2) dysfunction of prefrontal cortex, disrupting post-retrieval processes.

  10. Spontaneous Pre-Labour Rupture of Membranes at Term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pre-labour rupture of membranes (SPROM) at term is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. It is an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, particularly because it is associated with a latency period from membrane rupture to delivery. OBJECTIVE: To compare the ...

  11. Partially Supervised Approach in Signal Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina COCIANU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the potential of principal directions based approaches in signal classification and recognition. In probabilistic models, the classes are represented in terms of multivariate density functions, and an object coming from a certain class is modeled as a random vector whose repartition has the density function corresponding to this class. In cases when there is no statistical information concerning the set of density functions corresponding to the classes involved in the recognition process, usually estimates based on the information extracted from available data are used instead. In the proposed methodology, the characteristics of a class are given by a set of eigen vectors of the sample covariance matrix. The overall dissimilarity of an object X with a given class C is computed as the disturbance of the structure of C, when X is allotted to C. A series of tests concerning the behavior of the proposed recognition algorithm are reported in the final section of the paper.

  12. Using Prosopagnosia to Test and Modify Visual Recognition Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander M

    2018-02-01

    Biederman's contemporary theory of basic visual object recognition (Recognition-by-Components) is based on structural descriptions of objects and presumes 36 visual primitives (geons) people can discriminate, but there has been no empirical test of the actual use of these 36 geons to visually distinguish objects. In this study, we tested for the actual use of these geons in basic visual discrimination by comparing object discrimination performance patterns (when distinguishing varied stimuli) of an acquired prosopagnosia patient (LB) and healthy control participants. LB's prosopagnosia left her heavily reliant on structural descriptions or categorical object differences in visual discrimination tasks versus the control participants' additional ability to use face recognition or coordinate systems (Coordinate Relations Hypothesis). Thus, when LB performed comparably to control participants with a given stimulus, her restricted reliance on basic or categorical discriminations meant that the stimuli must be distinguishable on the basis of a geon feature. By varying stimuli in eight separate experiments and presenting all 36 geons, we discerned that LB coded only 12 (vs. 36) distinct visual primitives (geons), apparently reflective of human visual systems generally.

  13. Face to face: blocking facial mimicry can selectively impair recognition of emotional expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Lindsay M; Winkielman, Piotr; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2007-01-01

    People spontaneously mimic a variety of behaviors, including emotional facial expressions. Embodied cognition theories suggest that mimicry reflects internal simulation of perceived emotion in order to facilitate its understanding. If so, blocking facial mimicry should impair recognition of expressions, especially of emotions that are simulated using facial musculature. The current research tested this hypothesis using four expressions (happy, disgust, fear, and sad) and two mimicry-interfering manipulations (1) biting on a pen and (2) chewing gum, as well as two control conditions. Experiment 1 used electromyography over cheek, mouth, and nose regions. The bite manipulation consistently activated assessed muscles, whereas the chew manipulation activated muscles only intermittently. Further, expressing happiness generated most facial action. Experiment 2 found that the bite manipulation interfered most with recognition of happiness. These findings suggest that facial mimicry differentially contributes to recognition of specific facial expressions, thus allowing for more refined predictions from embodied cognition theories.

  14. Caffeine and modafinil given during 48 h sleep deprivation modulate object recognition memory and synaptic proteins in the hippocampus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, M; Sahu, S; Kumari, P; Kauser, H; Ray, K; Panjwani, U

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of caffeine/modafinil on sleep deprivation (SD) induced alterations in recognition memory and synaptic proteins. The data revealed a beneficial effect of caffeine/modafinil against deficit in the familiar object retrieval performance and object exploration ratio after 48 h SD. Caffeine treatment prevented the SD induced down-regulation of synaptophysin and synapsin I proteins with no change in PSD-95 protein in hippocampus. However, modafinil administration improved the down-regulation of synaptophysin, synapsin I and PSD-95 proteins in hippocampus. Hence, caffeine/modafinil can serve as counter measures in amelioration of SD induced consequences at behavioural and protein levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Outcome of primary spontaneous pneumothorax: Could drug abuse have an effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeel, Hend M.; Radwan, Rania A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The progressively rising issue of drug abuse in Egypt among young adults could affect the outcome of a well known problem encountered in such age group as primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). Objective: To assess the impact of an oral drug abuse on the outcome of primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 65 male patients, mean age 25.85 ± 5.08, admitted to the inpatient chest department, Sohag University hospital with...

  16. Cannabis increased the risk of primary spontaneous pneumothorax in tobacco smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedevang Olesen, Winnie; Katballe, Niels; Sindby, Jesper Eske

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous smaller case series suggested that cannabis smoking may cause spontaneous pneumothorax, but this finding remains controversial. We investigated the possible association between smoking tobacco and cannabis and the risk of having a primary spontaneous pneumothorax in a large...... tobacco and cannabis were obtained from questionnaires presented on admittance. We compared our findings with those of a population-based control group matched by age, sex and geographical area. Calculated odds ratios were compared using the Fisher’s exact test for small frequencies and the χ2 test.......61–14.14, P cannabis and tobacco in men increased the risk of spontaneous pneumothorax significantly (odds ratio = 8.74, 95% confidence interval: 4.30–19.51, P 

  17. Surgical treatment versus conventional chest tube drainage in primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Winnie Hedevang; Katballe, Niels; Sindby, Jesper Eske

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Primary spontaneous pneumothorax frequently recurs after chest tube management. Evidence is lacking whether patients may benefit from surgery following their first episode. METHODS: We performed a multicentre, randomized trial and enrolled young, otherwise healthy patients admitted...... with their first episode of primary spontaneous pneumothorax and treated using conventional chest tube drainage. Patients underwent high-resolution computed tomography on fully expanded lungs, and using web-based randomization, we assigned patients to continued conservative chest tube treatment or chest tube...... treatment to prevent recurrence in patients with their first presentation of primary spontaneous pneumothorax and should be the standard of care when high-resolution computed tomography demonstrates bullae ≥2 cm. Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT 02866305....

  18. Effects of chronic prenatal MK-801 treatment on object recognition, cognitive flexibility, and drug-induced locomotor activity in juvenile and adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, S; Welch, L; Martone, P; Shalev, U

    2017-06-15

    Patients with schizophrenia display impaired cognitive functioning and increased sensitivity to psychomimetic drugs. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia posits that disruption of the developing brain predisposes neural networks to lasting structural and functional abnormalities resulting in the emergence of such symptoms in adulthood. Given the critical role of the glutamatergic system in early brain development, we investigated whether chronic prenatal exposure to the glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, induces schizophrenia-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in juvenile and adult rats. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were administered saline or MK-801 (0.1mg/kg; s.c.) at gestation day 7-19. Object recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were assessed in the male offspring using a novel object preference task and a maze-based set-shifting procedure, respectively. Locomotor-activating effects of acute amphetamine and MK-801 were also assessed. Adult, but not juvenile, prenatally MK-801-treated rats failed to show novel object preference after a 90min delay, suggesting that object recognition memory may have been impaired. In addition, the set-shifting task revealed impaired acquisition of a new rule in adult prenatally MK-801-treated rats compared to controls. This deficit appeared to be driven by regression to the previously learned behaviour. There were no significant differences in drug-induced locomotor activity in juvenile offspring or in adult offspring following acute amphetamine challenges. Unexpectedly, MK-801-induced locomotor activity in adult prenatally MK-801-treated rats was lower compared to controls. Glutamate transmission dysfunction during early development may modify behavioural parameters in adulthood, though these parameters do not appear to model deficits observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Finding Objects for Assisting Blind People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chucai; Flores, Roberto W; Chincha, Ricardo; Tian, Yingli

    2013-07-01

    Computer vision technology has been widely used for blind assistance, such as navigation and wayfinding. However, few camera-based systems are developed for helping blind or visually-impaired people to find daily necessities. In this paper, we propose a prototype system of blind-assistant object finding by camera-based network and matching-based recognition. We collect a dataset of daily necessities and apply Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature descriptors to perform object recognition. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our prototype system.

  20. Clinical features of spontaneous hypothyroidism in one physician?s practice in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Wright-Pascoe, Rosemarie A

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical characteristics of patients with spontaneous hypothyroidism, the frequency of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, and the thyroid autoantibody most often associated with this condition in a referral population in Jamaica. Methods A retrospective study of all cases referred to the author?s endocrinology practice from 1995 to 2005 with a diagnosis of spontaneous hypothyroidism was undertaken. The clinical history, examination findings, biochemical test results, th...

  1. Discriminative learning for speech recognition

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiadong

    2008-01-01

    In this book, we introduce the background and mainstream methods of probabilistic modeling and discriminative parameter optimization for speech recognition. The specific models treated in depth include the widely used exponential-family distributions and the hidden Markov model. A detailed study is presented on unifying the common objective functions for discriminative learning in speech recognition, namely maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum classification error, and minimum phone/word error. The unification is presented, with rigorous mathematical analysis, in a common rational-functio

  2. Computational intelligence in multi-feature visual pattern recognition hand posture and face recognition using biologically inspired approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Pisharady, Pramod Kumar; Poh, Loh Ai

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of computational intelligence algorithms that addresses issues in visual pattern recognition such as high computational complexity, abundance of pattern features, sensitivity to size and shape variations and poor performance against complex backgrounds. The book has 3 parts. Part 1 describes various research issues in the field with a survey of the related literature. Part 2 presents computational intelligence based algorithms for feature selection and classification. The algorithms are discriminative and fast. The main application area considered is hand posture recognition. The book also discusses utility of these algorithms in other visual as well as non-visual pattern recognition tasks including face recognition, general object recognition and cancer / tumor classification. Part 3 presents biologically inspired algorithms for feature extraction. The visual cortex model based features discussed have invariance with respect to appearance and size of the hand, and provide good...

  3. BNU-LSVED: a multimodal spontaneous expression database in educational environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Wei, Qinglan; He, Jun; Yu, Lejun; Zhu, Xiaoming

    2016-09-01

    In the field of pedagogy or educational psychology, emotions are treated as very important factors, which are closely associated with cognitive processes. Hence, it is meaningful for teachers to analyze students' emotions in classrooms, thus adjusting their teaching activities and improving students ' individual development. To provide a benchmark for different expression recognition algorithms, a large collection of training and test data in classroom environment has become an acute problem that needs to be resolved. In this paper, we present a multimodal spontaneous database in real learning environment. To collect the data, students watched seven kinds of teaching videos and were simultaneously filmed by a camera. Trained coders made one of the five learning expression labels for each image sequence extracted from the captured videos. This subset consists of 554 multimodal spontaneous expression image sequences (22,160 frames) recorded in real classrooms. There are four main advantages in this database. 1) Due to recorded in the real classroom environment, viewer's distance from the camera and the lighting of the database varies considerably between image sequences. 2) All the data presented are natural spontaneous responses to teaching videos. 3) The multimodal database also contains nonverbal behavior including eye movement, head posture and gestures to infer a student ' s affective state during the courses. 4) In the video sequences, there are different kinds of temporal activation patterns. In addition, we have demonstrated the labels for the image sequences are in high reliability through Cronbach's alpha method.

  4. Spontaneous Hypoglycemia After Islet Autotransplantation for Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu Kuei; Faiman, Charles; Johnston, Philip C; Walsh, R Matthew; Stevens, Tyler; Bottino, Rita; Hatipoglu, Betul A

    2016-10-01

    Spontaneous hypoglycemia has been reported in patients after total pancreatectomy (TP) and islet autotransplantation (IAT) with maintained insulin independence. Details surrounding these events have not been well described. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of spontaneous hypoglycemia in patients undergoing TP-IAT and/or to ascertain predictive or protective factors of its development. This was an observational cohort study in 40 patients who underwent TP-IAT from August 2008 to May 2014, with a median follow-up of 34 months. The study was conducted at a single institution (Cleveland Clinic). Patients included recipients of TP-IAT. The intervention included small, frequent meals in those patients who developed spontaneous hypoglycemia. Incidence of spontaneous hypoglycemia development, characteristics of the patients developing hypoglycemia, and their response to small, frequent meals were measured. Six of 12 patients, who maintained insulin independence, developed spontaneous hypoglycemia. The episodes could be fasting, postprandial, and/or exercise associated, with the frequency ranging from two to three times daily to once every 1-2 weeks. All patients experienced at least one episode that required external assistance, glucagon administration, and/or emergent medical attention. Patients who developed hypoglycemia had a lower median age and tended to have a lower median islet equivalent/kg body weight but a higher median total islet equivalent, body mass index, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance score. All patients who received small, frequent meal intervention had improvement in severity and/or frequency of the hypoglycemic episodes. Spontaneous hypoglycemia is prevalent after TP-IAT. Although the underlying pathophysiology responsible for these hypoglycemia events remains to be elucidated, small, frequent meal intervention is helpful in ameliorating this condition.

  5. Object and Facial Recognition in Augmented and Virtual Reality: Investigation into Software, Hardware and Potential Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Erin

    2017-01-01

    As augmented and virtual reality grows in popularity, and more researchers focus on its development, other fields of technology have grown in the hopes of integrating with the up-and-coming hardware currently on the market. Namely, there has been a focus on how to make an intuitive, hands-free human-computer interaction (HCI) utilizing AR and VR that allows users to control their technology with little to no physical interaction with hardware. Computer vision, which is utilized in devices such as the Microsoft Kinect, webcams and other similar hardware has shown potential in assisting with the development of a HCI system that requires next to no human interaction with computing hardware and software. Object and facial recognition are two subsets of computer vision, both of which can be applied to HCI systems in the fields of medicine, security, industrial development and other similar areas.

  6. Hierarchical Neural Representation of Dreamed Objects Revealed by Brain Decoding with Deep Neural Network Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2017-01-01

    Dreaming is generally thought to be generated by spontaneous brain activity during sleep with patterns common to waking experience. This view is supported by a recent study demonstrating that dreamed objects can be predicted from brain activity during sleep using statistical decoders trained with stimulus-induced brain activity. However, it remains unclear whether and how visual image features associated with dreamed objects are represented in the brain. In this study, we used a deep neural network (DNN) model for object recognition as a proxy for hierarchical visual feature representation, and DNN features for dreamed objects were analyzed with brain decoding of fMRI data collected during dreaming. The decoders were first trained with stimulus-induced brain activity labeled with the feature values of the stimulus image from multiple DNN layers. The decoders were then used to decode DNN features from the dream fMRI data, and the decoded features were compared with the averaged features of each object category calculated from a large-scale image database. We found that the feature values decoded from the dream fMRI data positively correlated with those associated with dreamed object categories at mid- to high-level DNN layers. Using the decoded features, the dreamed object category could be identified at above-chance levels by matching them to the averaged features for candidate categories. The results suggest that dreaming recruits hierarchical visual feature representations associated with objects, which may support phenomenal aspects of dream experience.

  7. Physiological arousal in processing recognition information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hochman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic (RH; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 suggests that, when applicable, probabilistic inferences are based on a noncompensatory examination of whether an object is recognized or not. The overall findings on the processes that underlie this fast and frugal heuristic are somewhat mixed, and many studies have expressed the need for considering a more compensatory integration of recognition information. Regardless of the mechanism involved, it is clear that recognition has a strong influence on choices, and this finding might be explained by the fact that recognition cues arouse affect and thus receive more attention than cognitive cues. To test this assumption, we investigated whether recognition results in a direct affective signal by measuring physiological arousal (i.e., peripheral arterial tone in the established city-size task. We found that recognition of cities does not directly result in increased physiological arousal. Moreover, the results show that physiological arousal increased with increasing inconsistency between recognition information and additional cue information. These findings support predictions derived by a compensatory Parallel Constraint Satisfaction model rather than predictions of noncompensatory models. Additional results concerning confidence ratings, response times, and choice proportions further demonstrated that recognition information and other cognitive cues are integrated in a compensatory manner.

  8. Exemplar-based Parametric Hidden Markov Models for Recognition and Synthesis of Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker; Grest, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A common problem in movement recognition is the recognition of movements of a particular type. E.g. pointing movements are of a particular type but differ in terms of the pointing direction. Arm movements with the goal of reaching out and grasping an object are of a particular type but differ...... are carried out through locally linear interpolation of the exemplar movements. Experiments are performed with pointing and grasping movements. Synthesis is done based on the object position as parameterization. In case of the recognition, the coordinates of the grasped or pointed at object are recovered. Our...

  9. Target recognition based on convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Xin; Xi, Fubiao; Dong, Jian

    2017-11-01

    One of the important part of object target recognition is the feature extraction, which can be classified into feature extraction and automatic feature extraction. The traditional neural network is one of the automatic feature extraction methods, while it causes high possibility of over-fitting due to the global connection. The deep learning algorithm used in this paper is a hierarchical automatic feature extraction method, trained with the layer-by-layer convolutional neural network (CNN), which can extract the features from lower layers to higher layers. The features are more discriminative and it is beneficial to the object target recognition.

  10. Creating Objects and Object Categories for Studying Perception and Perceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauffen, Karin; Bart, Eugene; Brady, Mark; Kersten, Daniel; Hegdé, Jay

    2012-01-01

    In order to quantitatively study object perception, be it perception by biological systems or by machines, one needs to create objects and object categories with precisely definable, preferably naturalistic, properties1. Furthermore, for studies on perceptual learning, it is useful to create novel objects and object categories (or object classes) with such properties2. Many innovative and useful methods currently exist for creating novel objects and object categories3-6 (also see refs. 7,8). However, generally speaking, the existing methods have three broad types of shortcomings. First, shape variations are generally imposed by the experimenter5,9,10, and may therefore be different from the variability in natural categories, and optimized for a particular recognition algorithm. It would be desirable to have the variations arise independently of the externally imposed constraints. Second, the existing methods have difficulty capturing the shape complexity of natural objects11-13. If the goal is to study natural object perception, it is desirable for objects and object categories to be naturalistic, so as to avoid possible confounds and special cases. Third, it is generally hard to quantitatively measure the available information in the stimuli created by conventional methods. It would be desirable to create objects and object categories where the available information can be precisely measured and, where necessary, systematically manipulated (or 'tuned'). This allows one to formulate the underlying object recognition tasks in quantitative terms. Here we describe a set of algorithms, or methods, that meet all three of the above criteria. Virtual morphogenesis (VM) creates novel, naturalistic virtual 3-D objects called 'digital embryos' by simulating the biological process of embryogenesis14. Virtual phylogenesis (VP) creates novel, naturalistic object categories by simulating the evolutionary process of natural selection9,12,13. Objects and object categories created

  11. A reciprocal model of face recognition and autistic traits: evidence from an individual differences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Drew W R; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Scherf, K Suzanne; Sherf, Suzanne K; Tanaka, James W

    2014-01-01

    Although not a core symptom of the disorder, individuals with autism often exhibit selective impairments in their face processing abilities. Importantly, the reciprocal connection between autistic traits and face perception has rarely been examined within the typically developing population. In this study, university participants from the social sciences, physical sciences, and humanities completed a battery of measures that assessed face, object and emotion recognition abilities, general perceptual-cognitive style, and sub-clinical autistic traits (the Autism Quotient (AQ)). We employed separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses to evaluate which factors could predict face recognition scores and AQ scores. Gender, object recognition performance, and AQ scores predicted face recognition behaviour. Specifically, males, individuals with more autistic traits, and those with lower object recognition scores performed more poorly on the face recognition test. Conversely, university major, gender and face recognition performance reliably predicted AQ scores. Science majors, males, and individuals with poor face recognition skills showed more autistic-like traits. These results suggest that the broader autism phenotype is associated with lower face recognition abilities, even among typically developing individuals.

  12. Categorization and category effects in normal object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Gade, Anders

    2000-01-01

    and that the categorization of artefacts, as opposed to the categorization of natural objects, is based, in part, on action knowledge mediated by the left premotor cortex. However, because artefacts and natural objects often caused activation in the same regions within tasks, processing of these categories is not totally...

  13. Robust representation and recognition of facial emotions using extreme sparse learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeilangari, Seyedehsamaneh; Yau, Wei-Yun; Nandakumar, Karthik; Li, Jun; Teoh, Eam Khwang

    2015-07-01

    Recognition of natural emotions from human faces is an interesting topic with a wide range of potential applications, such as human-computer interaction, automated tutoring systems, image and video retrieval, smart environments, and driver warning systems. Traditionally, facial emotion recognition systems have been evaluated on laboratory controlled data, which is not representative of the environment faced in real-world applications. To robustly recognize the facial emotions in real-world natural situations, this paper proposes an approach called extreme sparse learning, which has the ability to jointly learn a dictionary (set of basis) and a nonlinear classification model. The proposed approach combines the discriminative power of extreme learning machine with the reconstruction property of sparse representation to enable accurate classification when presented with noisy signals and imperfect data recorded in natural settings. In addition, this paper presents a new local spatio-temporal descriptor that is distinctive and pose-invariant. The proposed framework is able to achieve the state-of-the-art recognition accuracy on both acted and spontaneous facial emotion databases.

  14. Directed cortical information flow during human object recognition: analyzing induced EEG gamma-band responses in brain's source space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot G Supp

    Full Text Available The increase of induced gamma-band responses (iGBRs; oscillations >30 Hz elicited by familiar (meaningful objects is well established in electroencephalogram (EEG research. This frequency-specific change at distinct locations is thought to indicate the dynamic formation of local neuronal assemblies during the activation of cortical object representations. As analytically power increase is just a property of a single location, phase-synchrony was introduced to investigate the formation of large-scale networks between spatially distant brain sites. However, classical phase-synchrony reveals symmetric, pair-wise correlations and is not suited to uncover the directionality of interactions. Here, we investigated the neural mechanism of visual object processing by means of directional coupling analysis going beyond recording sites, but rather assessing the directionality of oscillatory interactions between brain areas directly. This study is the first to identify the directionality of oscillatory brain interactions in source space during human object recognition and suggests that familiar, but not unfamiliar, objects engage widespread reciprocal information flow. Directionality of cortical information-flow was calculated based upon an established Granger-Causality coupling-measure (partial-directed coherence; PDC using autoregressive modeling. To enable comparison with previous coupling studies lacking directional information, phase-locking analysis was applied, using wavelet-based signal decompositions. Both, autoregressive modeling and wavelet analysis, revealed an augmentation of iGBRs during the presentation of familiar objects relative to unfamiliar controls, which was localized to inferior-temporal, superior-parietal and frontal brain areas by means of distributed source reconstruction. The multivariate analysis of PDC evaluated each possible direction of brain interaction and revealed widespread reciprocal information-transfer during familiar

  15. Deficits in long-term recognition memory reveal dissociated subtypes in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Stollhoff

    Full Text Available The study investigates long-term recognition memory in congenital prosopagnosia (CP, a lifelong impairment in face identification that is present from birth. Previous investigations of processing deficits in CP have mostly relied on short-term recognition tests to estimate the scope and severity of individual deficits. We firstly report on a controlled test of long-term (one year recognition memory for faces and objects conducted with a large group of participants with CP. Long-term recognition memory is significantly impaired in eight CP participants (CPs. In all but one case, this deficit was selective to faces and didn't extend to intra-class recognition of object stimuli. In a test of famous face recognition, long-term recognition deficits were less pronounced, even after accounting for differences in media consumption between controls and CPs. Secondly, we combined test results on long-term and short-term recognition of faces and objects, and found a large heterogeneity in severity and scope of individual deficits. Analysis of the observed heterogeneity revealed a dissociation of CP into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. Thirdly, we found that among CPs self-assessment of real-life difficulties, based on a standardized questionnaire, and experimentally assessed face recognition deficits are strongly correlated. Our results demonstrate that controlled tests of long-term recognition memory are needed to fully assess face recognition deficits in CP. Based on controlled and comprehensive experimental testing, CP can be dissociated into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. The CP subtypes identified align with those found in prosopagnosia caused by cortical lesions; they can be interpreted with respect to a hierarchical neural system for face perception.

  16. Deficits in long-term recognition memory reveal dissociated subtypes in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollhoff, Rainer; Jost, Jürgen; Elze, Tobias; Kennerknecht, Ingo

    2011-01-25

    The study investigates long-term recognition memory in congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a lifelong impairment in face identification that is present from birth. Previous investigations of processing deficits in CP have mostly relied on short-term recognition tests to estimate the scope and severity of individual deficits. We firstly report on a controlled test of long-term (one year) recognition memory for faces and objects conducted with a large group of participants with CP. Long-term recognition memory is significantly impaired in eight CP participants (CPs). In all but one case, this deficit was selective to faces and didn't extend to intra-class recognition of object stimuli. In a test of famous face recognition, long-term recognition deficits were less pronounced, even after accounting for differences in media consumption between controls and CPs. Secondly, we combined test results on long-term and short-term recognition of faces and objects, and found a large heterogeneity in severity and scope of individual deficits. Analysis of the observed heterogeneity revealed a dissociation of CP into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. Thirdly, we found that among CPs self-assessment of real-life difficulties, based on a standardized questionnaire, and experimentally assessed face recognition deficits are strongly correlated. Our results demonstrate that controlled tests of long-term recognition memory are needed to fully assess face recognition deficits in CP. Based on controlled and comprehensive experimental testing, CP can be dissociated into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. The CP subtypes identified align with those found in prosopagnosia caused by cortical lesions; they can be interpreted with respect to a hierarchical neural system for face perception.

  17. A Spontaneous Ad Hoc Network to Share WWW Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloret Jaime

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a secure spontaneous ad-hoc network, based on direct peer-to-peer interaction, to grant a quick, easy, and secure access to the users to surf the Web. The paper shows the description of our proposal, the procedure of the nodes involved in the system, the security algorithms implemented, and the designed messages. We have taken into account the security and its performance. Although some people have defined and described the main features of spontaneous ad-hoc networks, nobody has published any design and simulation until today. Spontaneous networking will enable a more natural form of wireless computing when people physically meet in the real world. We also validate the success of our proposal through several simulations and comparisons with a regular architecture, taking into account the optimization of the resources of the devices. Finally, we compare our proposal with other caching techniques published in the related literature. The proposal has been developed with the main objective of improving the communication and integration between different study centers of low-resource communities. That is, it lets communicate spontaneous networks, which are working collaboratively and which have been created on different physical places.

  18. Coding of visual object features and feature conjunctions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic, Jasna; Gruber, Thomas; Müller, Matthias M

    2008-01-01

    Object recognition is achieved through neural mechanisms reliant on the activity of distributed coordinated neural assemblies. In the initial steps of this process, an object's features are thought to be coded very rapidly in distinct neural assemblies. These features play different functional roles in the recognition process--while colour facilitates recognition, additional contours and edges delay it. Here, we selectively varied the amount and role of object features in an entry-level categorization paradigm and related them to the electrical activity of the human brain. We found that early synchronizations (approx. 100 ms) increased quantitatively when more image features had to be coded, without reflecting their qualitative contribution to the recognition process. Later activity (approx. 200-400 ms) was modulated by the representational role of object features. These findings demonstrate that although early synchronizations may be sufficient for relatively crude discrimination of objects in visual scenes, they cannot support entry-level categorization. This was subserved by later processes of object model selection, which utilized the representational value of object features such as colour or edges to select the appropriate model and achieve identification.

  19. Functional imaging of human crossmodal identification and object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amedi, A; von Kriegstein, K; van Atteveldt, N M; Beauchamp, M S; Naumer, M J

    2005-01-01

    The perception of objects is a cognitive function of prime importance. In everyday life, object perception benefits from the coordinated interplay of vision, audition, and touch. The different sensory modalities provide both complementary and redundant information about objects, which may improve

  20. Evidences of the role of the rodent hippocampus in the non-spatial recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jee Hyun; Park, Hye Jin; Kim, Byeong C; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2016-01-15

    The hippocampus is a key region responsible for processing spatial information. However, the role of the hippocampus in non-spatial recognition memory is still controversial. In the present study, we performed hippocampal lesioning to address this controversy. The hippocampi of mice were disrupted with bilateral cytotoxic lesions, and standard object recognition (non-spatial) and object location recognition (spatial) were tested. In the habituation period, mice with hippocampal lesions needed a significantly longer time to fully habituate to the test box. Interestingly, after 4 days of habituation (insufficient habituation), the recognition index was similar in the sham and hippocampal lesion groups. However, exploration time was significantly shorter in mice with hippocampal lesions compared with that in control mice. Interestingly, if mice were subjected to a 10-days-long period of habituation (full habituation), the recognition index was significantly lower in mice with hippocampal lesions compared with that in control mice; however, total exploration time was similar in both groups. Furthermore, the object recognition test after full habituation occluded hippocampal long-term potentiation, a cellular model of memory. These results indicate that sufficient habituation is required to observe the effects of hippocampal lesions on object recognition memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Teaching Object Permanence: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "Object permanence," also known as "object concept" in the field of visual impairment, is one of the most important early developmental milestones. The achievement of object permanence is associated with the onset of representational thought and language. Object permanence is important to orientation, including the recognition of landmarks.…

  2. Semantic memory in object use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta

    2009-10-01

    We studied five patients with semantic memory disorders, four with semantic dementia and one with herpes simplex virus encephalitis, to investigate the involvement of semantic conceptual knowledge in object use. Comparisons between patients who had semantic deficits of different severity, as well as the follow-up, showed that the ability to use objects was largely preserved when the deficit was mild but progressively decayed as the deficit became more severe. Naming was generally more impaired than object use. Production tasks (pantomime execution and actual object use) and comprehension tasks (pantomime recognition and action recognition) as well as functional knowledge about objects were impaired when the semantic deficit was severe. Semantic and unrelated errors were produced during object use, but actions were always fluent and patients performed normally on a novel tools task in which the semantic demand was minimal. Patients with severe semantic deficits scored borderline on ideational apraxia tasks. Our data indicate that functional semantic knowledge is crucial for using objects in a conventional way and suggest that non-semantic factors, mainly non-declarative components of memory, might compensate to some extent for semantic disorders and guarantee some residual ability to use very common objects independently of semantic knowledge.

  3. Thoracoscopic modified pleural tent for spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Riken; Matsuwaki, Rie; Tachibana, Keisei; Karita, Shin; Nakazato, Yoko; Tanaka, Ryota; Nagashima, Yasushi; Takei, Hidefumi; Kondo, Haruhiko

    2016-08-01

    We developed a modified pleural tent (m-tent) procedure and used it in our hospital in almost 30 consecutive patients with spontaneous pneumothorax. The objective of this study was to clarify the feasibility and effectiveness of a thoracoscopic m-tent for the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax. From July 2013 to November 2014, 107 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax were treated in our institution. Eighty-nine of these patients were analysed retrospectively. The inclusion criteria for thoracoscopic m-tent for spontaneous pneumothorax were multiple and widespread bullae, postoperative relapse and secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. The surgical procedures were usually performed through three ports. After bullectomy, an m-tent is made to strip the parietal pleura off the chest wall from about the level of the fourth or fifth rib to the apex, and two or three ligations are then applied to fix the pleural tent and lung parenchyma. Patients in whom an m-tent was not indicated underwent bullectomy plus coverage using absorbable materials. Twenty-seven patients underwent bullectomy plus m-tent (m-tent group) and 62 underwent bullectomy plus coverage over a staple line using an absorbable material such as a polyglycolic acid sheet or nitrocellulose sheet (coverage group). No severe postoperative complications were observed in either group. The m-tent and coverage groups showed significant differences in operation time (129 vs 86 min, mean), haemorrhage (12.8 vs 7.2 ml), postoperative hospital stay (3.7 vs 2.9 days) and postoperative painkiller intake (8.6 vs 6.8 days). Recurrence was observed in 1 (3.7%) and 2 patients (3.2%), respectively. The thoracoscopic m-tent procedure requires a longer operation, a longer hospital stay and greater painkiller intake. However, these differences are acceptable, and an m-tent should be considered as an option for pleural reinforcement in spontaneous pneumothorax, especially in patients who are complicated with severe pulmonary

  4. Spontaneous acute spinal subdural hematoma: spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis--case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Michael; Agosti, Reto

    2010-11-01

    Spontaneous idiopathic acute spinal subdural hematomas are highly exceptional. Neurological symptoms are usually severe, and rapid diagnosis with MRI is mandatory. Surgical evacuation has frequently been used therapeutically; however, spontaneous recovery in mild cases has also been reported. We present a case of spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis after spontaneous acute SSDH, and review the English-speaking literature.

  5. Primitive Based Action Representation and recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan

    The presented work is aimed at designing a system that will model and recognize actions and its interaction with objects. Such a system is aimed at facilitating robot task learning. Activity modeling and recognition is very important for its potential applications in surveillance, human-machine i......The presented work is aimed at designing a system that will model and recognize actions and its interaction with objects. Such a system is aimed at facilitating robot task learning. Activity modeling and recognition is very important for its potential applications in surveillance, human......-machine interface, entertainment, biomechanics etc. Recent developments in neuroscience suggest that all actions are a compositions of smaller units called primitives. Current works based on primitives for action recognition uses a supervised framework for specifying the primitives. We propose a method to extract...... primitives automatically. These primitives are to be used to generate actions based on certain rules for combining. These rules are expressed as a stochastic context free grammar. A model merging approach is adopted to learn a Hidden Markov Model to t the observed data sequences. The states of the HMM...

  6. How Does Using Object Names Influence Visual Recognition Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Two recent lines of research suggest that explicitly naming objects at study influences subsequent memory for those objects at test. Lupyan (2008) suggested that naming "impairs" memory by a representational shift of stored representations of named objects toward the prototype (labeling effect). MacLeod, Gopie, Hourihan, Neary, and Ozubko (2010)…

  7. Classical methods for interpreting objective function minimization as intelligent inference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golden, R.M. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Most recognition algorithms and neural networks can be formally viewed as seeking a minimum value of an appropriate objective function during either classification or learning phases. The goal of this paper is to argue that in order to show a recognition algorithm is making intelligent inferences, it is not sufficient to show that the recognition algorithm is computing (or trying to compute) the global minimum of some objective function. One must explicitly define a {open_quotes}relational system{close_quotes} for the recognition algorithm or neural network which identifies the: (i) sample space, (ii) the relevant sigmafield of events generated by the sample space, and (iii) the {open_quotes}relation{close_quotes} for that relational system. Only when such a {open_quotes}relational system{close_quotes} is properly defined, is it possible to formally establish the sense in which computing the global minimum of an objective function is an intelligent, inference.

  8. Aggregating Local Descriptors for Epigraphs Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Giuseppe; Falchi, Fabrizio; Rabitti, Fausto; Vadicamo, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the task of recognizing epigraphs in images such as photos taken using mobile devices. Given a set of 17,155 photos related to 14,560 epigraphs, we used a k-NearestNeighbor approach in order to perform the recognition. The contribution of this work is in evaluating state-of-the-art visual object recognition techniques in this specific context. The experimental results conducted show that Vector of Locally Aggregated Descriptors obtained aggregating SIFT descriptors ...

  9. What pharmacological interventions indicate concerning the role of the perirhinal cortex in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M W; Barker, G R I; Aggleton, J P; Warburton, E C

    2012-11-01

    Findings of pharmacological studies that have investigated the involvement of specific regions of the brain in recognition memory are reviewed. The particular emphasis of the review concerns what such studies indicate concerning the role of the perirhinal cortex in recognition memory. Most of the studies involve rats and most have investigated recognition memory for objects. Pharmacological studies provide a large body of evidence supporting the essential role of the perirhinal cortex in the acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of object recognition memory. Such studies provide increasingly detailed evidence concerning both the neurotransmitter systems and the underlying intracellular mechanisms involved in recognition memory processes. They have provided evidence in support of synaptic weakening as a major synaptic plastic process within perirhinal cortex underlying object recognition memory. They have also supplied confirmatory evidence that that there is more than one synaptic plastic process involved. The demonstrated necessity to long-term recognition memory of intracellular signalling mechanisms related to synaptic modification within perirhinal cortex establishes a central role for the region in the information storage underlying such memory. Perirhinal cortex is thereby established as an information storage site rather than solely a processing station. Pharmacological studies have also supplied new evidence concerning the detailed roles of other regions, including the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex in different types of recognition memory tasks that include a spatial or temporal component. In so doing, they have also further defined the contribution of perirhinal cortex to such tasks. To date it appears that the contribution of perirhinal cortex to associative and temporal order memory reflects that in simple object recognition memory, namely that perirhinal cortex provides information concerning objects and their prior occurrence (novelty

  10. Object Attention Patches for Text Detection and Recognition in Scene Images using SIFT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriman, Bowornrat; Schomaker, Lambertus; De Marsico, Maria; Figueiredo, Mário; Fred, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Natural urban scene images contain many problems for character recognition such as luminance noise, varying font styles or cluttered backgrounds. Detecting and recognizing text in a natural scene is a difficult problem. Several techniques have been proposed to overcome these problems. These are,

  11. Dielectric and ferroelectric sensing based on molecular recognition in Cu(1,10-phenlothroline)2SeO4.(diol) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Heng-Yun; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Zhou, Qionghua; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jinlan; You, Yu-Meng; Wang, Jin-Yun; Chen, Zhong-Ning; Li, Peng-Fei; Fu, Da-Wei; Huang, Songping D.; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2017-02-01

    The process of molecular recognition is the assembly of two or more molecules through weak interactions. Information in the process of molecular recognition can be transmitted to us via physical signals, which may find applications in sensing and switching. The conventional signals are mainly limited to light signal. Here, we describe the recognition of diols with Cu(1,10-phenlothroline)2SeO4 and the transduction of discrete recognition events into dielectric and/or ferroelectric signals. We observe that systems of Cu(1,10-phenlothroline)2SeO4.(diol) exhibit significant dielectric and/or ferroelectric dependence on different diol molecules. The compounds including ethane-1,2-diol or propane-1,2-diol just show small temperature-dependent dielectric anomalies and no reversible polarization, while the compound including ethane-1,3-diol shows giant temperature-dependent dielectric anomalies as well as ferroelectric reversible spontaneous polarization. This finding shows that dielectricity and/or ferroelectricity has the potential to be used for signalling molecular recognition.

  12. Use of Authentic-Speech Technique for Teaching Sound Recognition to EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sersen, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to test an authentic-speech technique for improving the sound-recognition skills of EFL (English as a foreign language) students at Roi-Et Rajabhat University. The secondary objective was to determine the correlation, if any, between students' self-evaluation of sound-recognition progress and the actual…

  13. Texture recognition of medical images with the ICM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinser, Jason M.; Wang Guisong

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Cortical Model (ICM) is based upon several models of the mammalian visual cortex and produces pulse images over several iterations. These pulse images tend to isolate segments, edges, and textures that are inherent in the input image. To create a texture recognition engine the pulse spectrum of individual pixels are collected and used to develop a recognition library. Recognition is performed by comparing pulse spectra of unclassified regions of images with the known regions. Because signatures are smaller than images, signature-based computation is quite efficient and parasites can be recognized quickly. The precision of this method depends on the representative of signatures and classification. Our experiment results support the theoretical findings and show perspectives of practical applications of ICM-based method. The advantage of ICM method is using signatures to represent objects. ICM can extract the internal features of objects and represent them with signatures. Signature classification is critical for the precision of recognition

  14. Optical-electronic shape recognition system based on synergetic associative memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Bao, Jie; Chen, Dingguo; Yang, Youqing; Yang, Xuedong

    2001-04-01

    This paper presents a novel optical-electronic shape recognition system based on synergetic associative memory. Our shape recognition system is composed of two parts: the first one is feature extraction system; the second is synergetic pattern recognition system. Hough transform is proposed for feature extraction of unrecognized object, with the effects of reducing dimensions and filtering for object distortion and noise, synergetic neural network is proposed for realizing associative memory in order to eliminate spurious states. Then we adopt an approach of optical- electronic realization to our system that can satisfy the demands of real time, high speed and parallelism. In order to realize fast algorithm, we replace the dynamic evolution circuit with adjudge circuit according to the relationship between attention parameters and order parameters, then implement the recognition of some simple images and its validity is proved.

  15. Hippocampal Activation of Rac1 Regulates the Forgetting of Object Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunlong; Du, Shuwen; Lv, Li; Lei, Bo; Shi, Wei; Tang, Yikai; Wang, Lianzhang; Zhong, Yi

    2016-09-12

    Forgetting is a universal feature for most types of memories. The best-defined and extensively characterized behaviors that depict forgetting are natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting [1, 2]. Molecular mechanisms underlying the active forgetting remain to be determined for memories in vertebrates. Recent progress has begun to unravel such mechanisms underlying the active forgetting [3-11] that is induced through the behavior-dependent activation of intracellular signaling pathways. In Drosophila, training-induced activation of the small G protein Rac1 mediates natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting of aversive conditioning memory [3]. In mice, the activation of photoactivable-Rac1 in recently potentiated spines in a motor learning task erases the motor memory [12]. These lines of evidence prompted us to investigate a role for Rac1 in time-based natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting in mice. The inhibition of Rac1 activity in hippocampal neurons through targeted expression of a dominant-negative Rac1 form extended object recognition memory from less than 72 hr to over 72 hr, whereas Rac1 activation accelerated memory decay within 24 hr. Interference-induced forgetting of this memory was correlated with Rac1 activation and was completely blocked by inhibition of Rac1 activity. Electrophysiological recordings of long-term potentiation provided independent evidence that further supported a role for Rac1 activation in forgetting. Thus, Rac1-dependent forgetting is evolutionarily conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidental memory of younger and older adults for objects encountered in a real world context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Qin

    Full Text Available Effects of context on the perception of, and incidental memory for, real-world objects have predominantly been investigated in younger individuals, under conditions involving a single static viewpoint. We examined the effects of prior object context and object familiarity on both older and younger adults' incidental memory for real objects encountered while they traversed a conference room. Recognition memory for context-typical and context-atypical objects was compared with a third group of unfamiliar objects that were not readily named and that had no strongly associated context. Both older and younger adults demonstrated a typicality effect, showing significantly lower 2-alternative-forced-choice recognition of context-typical than context-atypical objects; for these objects, the recognition of older adults either significantly exceeded, or numerically surpassed, that of younger adults. Testing-awareness elevated recognition but did not interact with age or with object type. Older adults showed significantly higher recognition for context-atypical objects than for unfamiliar objects that had no prior strongly associated context. The observation of a typicality effect in both age groups is consistent with preserved semantic schemata processing in aging. The incidental recognition advantage of older over younger adults for the context-typical and context-atypical objects may reflect aging-related differences in goal-related processing, with older adults under comparatively more novel circumstances being more likely to direct their attention to the external environment, or age-related differences in top-down effortful distraction regulation, with older individuals' attention more readily captured by salient objects in the environment. Older adults' reduced recognition of unfamiliar objects compared to context-atypical objects may reflect possible age differences in contextually driven expectancy violations. The latter finding underscores the

  17. Sleep deprivation impairs object recognition in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palchykova, S; Winsky-Sommerer, R; Meerlo, P; Durr, R; Tobler, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Many studies in animals and humans suggest that sleep facilitates learning, memory consolidation, and retrieval. Moreover, sleep deprivation (SD) incurred after learning, impaired memory in humans, mice, rats, and hamsters. We investigated the importance of sleep and its timing in in object

  18. New technique for real-time distortion-invariant multiobject recognition and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rutong; Li, Xiaoshun; Hong, En; Wang, Zuyi; Wei, Hongan

    2001-04-01

    A real-time hybrid distortion-invariant OPR system was established to make 3D multiobject distortion-invariant automatic pattern recognition. Wavelet transform technique was used to make digital preprocessing of the input scene, to depress the noisy background and enhance the recognized object. A three-layer backpropagation artificial neural network was used in correlation signal post-processing to perform multiobject distortion-invariant recognition and classification. The C-80 and NOA real-time processing ability and the multithread programming technology were used to perform high speed parallel multitask processing and speed up the post processing rate to ROIs. The reference filter library was constructed for the distortion version of 3D object model images based on the distortion parameter tolerance measuring as rotation, azimuth and scale. The real-time optical correlation recognition testing of this OPR system demonstrates that using the preprocessing, post- processing, the nonlinear algorithm os optimum filtering, RFL construction technique and the multithread programming technology, a high possibility of recognition and recognition rate ere obtained for the real-time multiobject distortion-invariant OPR system. The recognition reliability and rate was improved greatly. These techniques are very useful to automatic target recognition.

  19. Two speed factors of visual recognition independently correlated with fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Ryosuke; Namba, Yuri; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates a moderate but significant relationship between processing speed in visuo-cognitive tasks and general intelligence. On the other hand, findings from neuroscience proposed that the primate visual system consists of two major pathways, the ventral pathway for objects recognition and the dorsal pathway for spatial processing and attentive analysis. Previous studies seeking for visuo-cognitive factors of human intelligence indicated a significant correlation between fluid intelligence and the inspection time (IT), an index for a speed of object recognition performed in the ventral pathway. We thus presently examined a possibility that neural processing speed in the dorsal pathway also represented a factor of intelligence. Specifically, we used the mental rotation (MR) task, a popular psychometric measure for mental speed of spatial processing in the dorsal pathway. We found that the speed of MR was significantly correlated with intelligence scores, while it had no correlation with one's IT (recognition speed of visual objects). Our results support the new possibility that intelligence could be explained by two types of mental speed, one related to object recognition (IT) and another for manipulation of mental images (MR).

  20. Face recognition increases during saccade preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Rizak, Joshua D; Ma, Yuan-ye; Yang, Shang-chuan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xin-tian

    2014-01-01

    Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.

  1. Lateral and medial ventral occipitotemporal regions interact during the recognition of images revealed from noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eNordhjem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest different functional roles for the medial and the lateral ventral sections in object recognition. Texture and surface information is processed in medial regions, while shape information is processed in lateral sections. This begs the question whether and how these functionally specialized sections interact with each other and with early visual cortex to facilitate object recognition. In the current research, we set out to answer this question. In an fMRI study, thirteen subjects viewed and recognized images of objects and animals that were gradually revealed from noise while their brains were being scanned. We applied dynamic causal modeling (DCM – a method to characterize network interactions – to determine the modulatory effect of object recognition on a network comprising the primary visual cortex (V1, the lingual gyrus (LG in medial ventral cortex and the lateral occipital cortex (LO. We found that object recognition modulated the bilateral connectivity between LG and LO. Moreover, the feed-forward connectivity from V1 to LG and LO was modulated, while there was no evidence for feedback from these regions to V1 during object recognition. In particular, the interaction between medial and lateral areas supports a framework in which visual recognition of objects is achieved by networked regions that integrate information on image statistics, scene content and shape – rather than by a single categorically specialized region – within the ventral visual cortex.

  2. Visual memory in unilateral spatial neglect: immediate recall versus delayed recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreh, Elior; Malkinson, Tal Seidel; Zohary, Ehud; Soroker, Nachum

    2014-09-01

    Patients with unilateral spatial neglect (USN) often show impaired performance in spatial working memory tasks, apart from the difficulty retrieving "left-sided" spatial data from long-term memory, shown in the "piazza effect" by Bisiach and colleagues. This study's aim was to compare the effect of the spatial position of a visual object on immediate and delayed memory performance in USN patients. Specifically, immediate verbal recall performance, tested using a simultaneous presentation of four visual objects in four quadrants, was compared with memory in a later-provided recognition task, in which objects were individually shown at the screen center. Unlike healthy controls, USN patients showed a left-side disadvantage and a vertical bias in the immediate free recall task (69% vs. 42% recall for right- and left-sided objects, respectively). In the recognition task, the patients correctly recognized half of "old" items, and their correct rejection rate was 95.5%. Importantly, when the analysis focused on previously recalled items (in the immediate task), no statistically significant difference was found in the delayed recognition of objects according to their original quadrant of presentation. Furthermore, USN patients were able to recollect the correct original location of the recognized objects in 60% of the cases, well beyond chance level. This suggests that the memory trace formed in these cases was not only semantic but also contained a visuospatial tag. Finally, successful recognition of objects missed in recall trials points to formation of memory traces for neglected contralesional objects, which may become accessible to retrieval processes in explicit memory.

  3. Invariant Face recognition Using Infrared Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, face recognition has become a rapidly growing research topic due to the increasing demands in many applications of our daily life such as airport surveillance, personal identification in law enforcement, surveillance systems, information safety, securing financial transactions, and computer security. The objective of this thesis is to develop a face recognition system capable of recognizing persons with a high recognition capability, low processing time, and under different illumination conditions, and different facial expressions. The thesis presents a study for the performance of the face recognition system using two techniques; the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and the Zernike Moments (ZM). The performance of the recognition system is evaluated according to several aspects including the recognition rate, and the processing time. Face recognition systems that use visual images are sensitive to variations in the lighting conditions and facial expressions. The performance of these systems may be degraded under poor illumination conditions or for subjects of various skin colors. Several solutions have been proposed to overcome these limitations. One of these solutions is to work in the Infrared (IR) spectrum. IR images have been suggested as an alternative source of information for detection and recognition of faces, when there is little or no control over lighting conditions. This arises from the fact that these images are formed due to thermal emissions from skin, which is an intrinsic property because these emissions depend on the distribution of blood vessels under the skin. On the other hand IR face recognition systems still have limitations with temperature variations and recognition of persons wearing eye glasses. In this thesis we will fuse IR images with visible images to enhance the performance of face recognition systems. Images are fused using the wavelet transform. Simulation results show that the fusion of visible and

  4. Optical Pattern Recognition for Missile Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-15

    directed to novel pattern recognition algo- rithms (that allow pattern recognition and object classification in the face of various geometrical and...I wats EF5 = 50) p.j/t’ni 2 (for btith image pat tern recognitio itas a preproicessing oiperatiton. Ini devices). TIhe rt’ad light intensity (0.33t mW...electrodes on its large faces . This Priz light modulator and the motivation for its devel- SLM is known as the Prom (Pockels real-time optical opment. In Sec

  5. The progesterone-induced enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation involves activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways in the dorsal hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Patrick T.; Rubin, Amanda J.; Fan, Lu; Kent, Brianne A.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Although much recent work has elucidated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the modulation of memory by 17β-estradiol, little is known about the signaling events through which progesterone (P) regulates memory. We recently demonstrated that immediate post-training infusion of P into the dorsal hippocampus enhances object recognition memory consolidation in young ovariectomized female mice (Orr et al., 2009). The goal of the present study was to identify the biochemical alterations that might underlie this mnemonic enhancement. We hypothesized that the P-induced enhancement of object recognition would be dependent on activation of the ERK and mTOR pathways. In young ovariectomized mice, we found that bilateral dorsal hippocampal infusion of P significantly increased levels of phospho-p42 ERK and the mTOR substrate S6K in the dorsal hippocampus 5 minutes after infusion. Phospho-p42 ERK levels were downregulated 15 minutes after infusion and returned to baseline 30 minutes after infusion, suggesting a biphasic effect of P on ERK activation. Dorsal hippocampal ERK and mTOR activation were necessary for P to facilitate memory consolidation, as suggested by the fact that inhibitors of both pathways infused into the dorsal hippocampus immediately after training blocked the P-induced enhancement of object recognition. Collectively, these data provide the first demonstration that the ability of P to enhance memory consolidation depends on the rapid activation of cell signaling and protein synthesis pathways in the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:22265866

  6. miRNAs may regulate GABAergic transmission associated genes in aged rats with anesthetics-induced recognition and working memory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ligang; Ma, Duo; Zhang, Chengshen; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Isoflurane and sevoflurane are widely used anesthetics in surgery and administration of these anesthetics could lead to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). However, the mechanisms remain unclear. Aged Wistar rats were exposed to isoflurane and sevoflurane for 2 or 4h. Recognition memory and spatial working memory were measured using Novel object recognition (NOR) and Y-maze test, respectively. Apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL staining. miRNA expression was measured by Real-time PCR while protein expression was measured by Western blot. Dual-Luciferase reporter assay was used to establish the direct relationship between miRNAs and Gabra5 and gephyrin gene expression. Exposure to isoflurane and sevoflurane for 2 or 4h significantly decreased the NOR index in the NOR test and spontaneous alternations in arm entries in the Y-maze test in aged rats. TUNEL staining showed that isoflurane and sevoflurane administration significantly induced apoptosis in the mPFC and hippocampus. The protein level of α5 GABA A receptor (α5GABA A R), gephyrin, and dystrophin were significantly increased, whereas the expression of miR-30a, miR-31, miR-190a, and miR-190b was significantly decreased in the hippocampus and mPFC in aged rats exposed to isoflurane and sevoflurane compared to control rats. The protein levels of α5GABA A R, gephyrin, and dystrophin protein in the hippocampus and the mPFC significantly correlated with NOR index and spontaneous alternations. Dual-Luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-30a and miR-190a/b mimics significantly inhibited Gabra5 and gephyrin gene expression, respectively. There might be a miRNAs-GABAergic transmission pathway which may be involved in the pathophysiological alteration in anesthetics-induced POCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Transgenic miR132 alters neuronal spine density and impairs novel object recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelin F Hansen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Inducible gene expression plays a central role in neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory, and dysfunction of the underlying molecular events can lead to severe neuronal disorders. In addition to coding transcripts (mRNAs, non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs appear to play a role in these processes. For instance, the CREB-regulated miRNA miR132 has been shown to affect neuronal structure in an activity-dependent manner, yet the details of its physiological effects and the behavioral consequences in vivo remain unclear. To examine these questions, we employed a transgenic mouse strain that expresses miR132 in forebrain neurons. Morphometric analysis of hippocampal neurons revealed that transgenic miR132 triggers a marked increase in dendritic spine density. Additionally, miR132 transgenic mice exhibited a decrease in the expression of MeCP2, a protein implicated in Rett Syndrome and other disorders of mental retardation. Consistent with these findings, miR132 transgenic mice displayed significant deficits in novel object recognition. Together, these data support a role for miR132 as a regulator of neuronal structure and function, and raise the possibility that dysregulation of miR132 could contribute to an array of cognitive disorders.

  8. Warmth of familiarity and chill of error: affective consequences of recognition decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The present research aimed to assess the effect of recognition decision on subsequent affective evaluations of recognised and non-recognised objects. Consistent with the proposed account of post-decisional preferences, results showed that the effect of recognition on preferences depends upon objective familiarity. If stimuli are recognised, liking ratings are positively associated with exposure frequency; if stimuli are not recognised, this link is either absent (Experiment 1) or negative (Experiments 2 and 3). This interaction between familiarity and recognition exists even when recognition accuracy is at chance level and the "mere exposure" effect is absent. Finally, data obtained from repeated measurements of preferences and using manipulations of task order confirm that recognition decisions have a causal influence on preferences. The findings suggest that affective evaluation can provide fine-grained access to the efficacy of cognitive processing even in simple cognitive tasks.