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Sample records for spontaneous heating dry

  1. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  2. Primer on spontaneous heating and pyrophoricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This primer was prepared as an information resource for personnel responsible for operation of DOE nuclear facilities. It has sections on combustion principles, spontaneous heating/ignition of hydrocarbons and organics, pyrophoric gases and liquids, pyrophoric nonmetallic solids, pyrophoric metals (including Pu and U), and accident case studies. Although the information in this primer is not all-encompassing, it should provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to recognize most spontaneous combustion hazards and how to prevent ignition and widespread fires. This primer is provided as an information resource only, and is not intended to replace any fire protection or hazardous material training.

  3. Hot dry rock heat mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal energy utilizing fluids from natural sources is currently exploited on a commercial scale at sites around the world. A much greater geothermal resource exists, however, in the form of hot rock at depth which is essentially dry. This hot dry rock (HDR) resource is found almost everywhere, but the depth at which usefully high temperatures are reached varies from place to place. The technology to mine the thermal energy from HDR has been under development for a number of years. Using techniques adapted from the petroleum industry, water is pumped at high pressure down an injection well to a region of usefully hot rock. The pressure forces open natural joints to form a reservoir consisting of a small amount of water dispensed in a large volume of hot rock. This reservoir is tapped by second well located at some distance from the first, and the heated water is brought to the surface where its thermal energy is extracted. The same water is then recirculated to mine more heat. Economic studies have indicated that it may be possible to produce electricity at competitive prices today in regions where hot rock is found relatively close to the surface

  4. Evolution of heat in dry rotary swaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Marius; Liu, Yang; Schenck, Christian; Kuhfuss, Bernd; Ohlsen, Inken

    2017-10-01

    In dry metal forming processes, the heat dissipation is a critical issue. The cooling by the lubricant is missing. The different heat evolution affects the machine and the process and thus the final product. For the machine the thermal expansion is affected and needs to be considered. Also the tools can bear only a maximum heat load before they get damaged. Furthermore, the heat can influence the material properties like the flow stress if it exceeds a critical value. Furthermore, the process forces and the material flow are directly affected. In addition, heat modifies in combination with plastic strain the generated microstructure of the workpiece. If the heat is high enough even positive effects of cold forming like work hardening are drastically decreased. In summary, the heat evolution during lubricated and dry forming processes need to be investigated. The evolution of heat in rotary swaging was investigated with conventional tools and machine settings. This was realized by varying the feeding velocity for the lubricated forming of aluminum tubes (3.3206) and steel tubes (1.0308). Moreover, the steel tubes are also formed with conventional tools by dry rotary swaging. A temperature measurement was integrated inside the tubes during the rotary process. Thus, the heat evolution inside the tube during the process at two different positions was examined. Also the variation between inside the tubes and the surface of the tubes was investigated by measuring the temperature at the surface directly after the forming process. Comparisons between different measured heat evolutions represent the impact of lubrication, feed rate and material. Thus, the practicability and the challenge for dry forming processes are presented.

  5. Spontaneous ventilation cooling type after-heat removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Atsuko; Kinoshita, Izumi.

    1991-01-01

    In a spontaneous ventilation cooling type after-heat removing device of an FBR type reactor, heat collectors prepared by continuously stacking cylindrical materials each of a predetermined length substantially horizontally are disposed between an safety vessel and a concrete wall surrounding the vessel. Then, air taken from the outside is introduced through the heat collectors to the outer circumferential surfaces of the safety vessel passing and caused to uprise along them. When the temperature of the safety vessel is elevated upon after-heat removal, heat is conducted by radiation to the heat collector which is caused to flow the inside while undergoing multi-reflection and partially absorbed and partially passed. Heat permeability can be reduced by extending the length of the cylindrical material or increasing radiation rate of the heat collectors. Accordingly, most of the heat from the safety vessel can be absorbed by the heat collectors, to suppress the temperature elevation in the opposing concrete wall and simplify the structure. Since the surface of the heat collectors serves as a heat conductive surface and the collectors are composed of an assembly of the cylindrical materials, the area of heat conduction is great and the amount of heat-removal is also large. (N.H.)

  6. 7 CFR 305.25 - Dry heat treatment schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry heat treatment schedules. 305.25 Section 305.25... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.25 Dry heat treatment schedules. Treatment schedule Temperature ( °F) Time Directions T302-a-1-2 168 minimum At least 2 hours...

  7. Drying kinetics and characteristics of dried gambir leaves using solar heating and silica gel dessicant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, R.; Hidayati, J.; Sundari, R.; Wicaksono, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    A drying combination of solar heating and silica gel dessicant has been applied to dry gambir leaves. The solar energy is captured by a collector to heat the air and the hot air is used to dry gambir leaves in a drying chamber. An exhaust fan in drying chamber assists to draw water molecules from gambir leaves accelerated by silica gel dessicant. This study has investigated the drying kinetics and drying characteristics of gambir leaves drying. In drying operation the air velocity is tuned by a PWM (pulse width modulation) controller to adjust minimum and maximum level, which is based on the rotation speed of the exhaust fan. The results show that the air velocity influenced the drying kinetics and drying characteristics of gambir leaves using solar-dessicant drying at 40 cm distance between exhaust fan and silica gel dessicant.

  8. Heat pump assisted drying of agricultural produce-an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Krishna Kumar; Kar, Abhijit

    2012-04-01

    This review paper included the recent progress made in heat pump assisted drying, its principle, mechanism and efficiency, type and its application for drying of agricultural produce. Heat pump assisted drying provides a controllable drying environment (temperature and humidity) for better products quality at low energy consumption. It has remarkable future prospects and revolutionaries ability. The heat pump system consists of an expansion valve, two heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser), and a compressor, which are connected by using copper tubes. In this paper we also provided a review discussion on different type of heat pump assisted drying system ready for remarkable and commercial use in different type of food industries. Here we also have given some major advantage and disadvantage of heat pump assisted drying.

  9. Stability of unpackaged CIGS solar cells under illumination with damp heat, dry heat and dry cold followed by cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.; Amorim Soares, G. de; Beyeler, K.; Steijvers, H.; Barreau, N.

    2017-01-01

    Unpackaged CIGS solar cells were simultaneously exposed to illumination and either dry heat, damp heat or dry cold followed by thermal cycling. In-situ monitoring of their electrical parameters demonstrated a rapid decrease of the efficiency for the solar cells exposed to damp heat plus

  10. Dry-heat inactivation of "Mycobacterium canettii".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Garnotel, Eric; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-06-09

    "Mycobacterium canettii" is responsible for non-transmissible lymph node and pulmonary tuberculosis in persons exposed in the Horn of Africa. In the absence of direct human transmission, contaminated water and foodstuffs could be sources of contamination. We investigated the dry-heat inactivation of "M. canettii" alone and mixed into mock-infected foodstuffs by inoculating agar cylinders and milk with 10 4 colony-forming units of "M. canettii" CIPT140010059 and two "M. canettii" clinical strains with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv as a control. Exposed to 35 °C, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, "M canettii" CIPT140010059 and "M. canettii" 157 exhibited a survival rate of 108, 95 and 81%, which is significantly higher than that of "M. canettii" 173. However, all tested mycobacteria tolerated a 90-min exposure at 45 °C. In the foodstuff models set at 70 °C, no growing mycobacteria were visualized. This study supports the premise that "M. canettii" may survive up to 45 °C; and suggests that contaminated raw drinks and foodstuffs but not cooked ones may be sources of infection for populations.

  11. The effects of wet heat and dry heat on the gait and feet of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Je-Myung

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of changes in gait and feet after wet heat and dry heat exposure for 20 minutes. [Subjects] The participants of this study were 17 young adult males. The subjects were divided into a wet heat group of 9 subjects and dry heat group of 8 subjects. [Methods] Dry heat was applied for 20 min. To facilitate temperature adjustment of an electrical hot pack, to which a temperature controller was attached to the hot compress, the outer cover of the electrical pad was wrapped in a cotton towel and then rolled around the femur and the leg. As a hot compress, a constant-temperature water tank with double-boiling functionality was used for the hot pack unit. Its surface was covered with a towel twice or three times, as needed. We measured gait and feet. [Results] Left and right step time and the step width significantly increased in the wet heat group. Left foot flat to heel off significantly increased in the dry heat group. Right heel contact to foot flat significantly increased in the wet heat group. Left rearfoot pressure significantly increased in the dry heat group. [Conclusion] Wet heat affects physical functions like gait more than dry heat. However, there is no great difference between wet heat and dry heat with respect to the distribution of foot pressure.

  12. Process and apparatus for indirect-fired heating and drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Hamid Ali; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav

    2005-04-12

    A method for heating flat or curved surfaces comprising injecting fuel and oxidant along the length, width or longitudinal side of a combustion space formed between two flat or curved plates, transferring heat from the combustion products via convection and radiation to the surface being heated on to the material being dried/heated, and recirculating at least 20% of the combustion products to the root of the flame.

  13. The Effects of Wet Heat and Dry Heat on the Gait and Feet of Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Je-myung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of changes in gait and feet after wet heat and dry heat exposure for 20 minutes. [Subjects] The participants of this study were 17 young adult males. The subjects were divided into a wet heat group of 9 subjects and dry heat group of 8 subjects. [Methods] Dry heat was applied for 20 min. To facilitate temperature adjustment of an electrical hot pack, to which a temperature controller was attached to the hot compress, the outer cove...

  14. In vitro evaluation of heat and moisture exchangers designed for spontaneously breathing tracheostomized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusasco, Claudia; Corradi, Francesco; Vargas, Maria; Bona, Margherita; Bruno, Federica; Marsili, Maria; Simonassi, Francesca; Santori, Gregorio; Severgnini, Paolo; Kacmarek, Robert M; Pelosi, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) are commonly used in chronically tracheostomized spontaneously breathing patients, to condition inhaled air, maintain lower airway function, and minimize the viscosity of secretions. Supplemental oxygen (O2) can be added to most HMEs designed for spontaneously breathing tracheostomized patients. We tested the efficiency of 7 HMEs designed for spontaneously breathing tracheostomized patients, in a normothermic model, at different minute ventilations (VE) and supplemental O2 flows. HME efficiency was evaluated using an in vitro lung model at 2 VE (5 and 15 L/min) and 4 supplemental O2 flows (0, 3, 6, and 12 L/min). Wet and dry temperatures of the inspiratory flow were measured, and absolute humidity was calculated. In addition, HME efficiency at 0, 12, and 24 h use was evaluated, as well as resistance to flow at 0 and 24 h. The progressive increase in O2 flow from 0 to 12 L/min was associated with a reduction in temperature and absolute humidity. Under the same conditions, this effect was greater at lower VE. The HME with the best performance provided an absolute humidity of 26 mg H2O/L and a temperature of 27.8 °C. No significant changes in efficiency or resistance were detected during the 24 h evaluation. The efficiency of HMEs in terms of temperature and absolute humidity is significantly affected by O2 supplementation and V(E).

  15. Combined effects of chlorine dioxide, drying, and dry heat treatments in inactivating microorganisms on radish seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2011-02-01

    We determined the combined effectiveness of ClO(2) (200 and 500 μg/ml, 5 min), air drying [25 °C, 40% relative humidity (RH), 2 h], and mild dry heat (55 °C, 23% RH, up to 48 h) treatments in killing total aerobic bacteria (TAB), Escherichia coli O157:H7, and molds and yeasts (MY) on radish seeds. A 5.1-log reduction in the number of TAB was achieved on radish seeds treated with 200 or 500 μg/ml ClO(2) followed by air drying for 2 h and dry heat treatment for 48 h or 24 h, respectively. When radish seeds were treated with 200 and 500 μg/ml ClO(2), air dried, and heat treated for 12 h and 6 h, respectively, the initial population of E. coli O157:H7 (5.6 log CFU/g) on seeds was reduced to an undetectable level (heat treatment up to 48 h. Results show that treating radish seeds with 500 μg/ml ClO(2), followed by air dried at 25 °C for 2 h and heat treatment at 55 °C for 36 h achieved a >5-log CFU/g reduction of TAB and E. coli O157:H7. These observations will be useful when developing effective strategies and practices to enhance the microbiological safety of radish sprouts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heat and Mass Transfer Model in Freeze-Dried Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfat, Sayahdin; Purqon, Acep

    2017-07-01

    There are big problems in agriculture sector every year. One of the major problems is abundance of agricultural product during the peak of harvest season that is not matched by an increase in demand of agricultural product by consumers, this causes a wasted agricultural products. Alternative way was food preservation by freeze dried method. This method was already using heat transfer through conduction and convection to reduce water quality in the food. The main objective of this research was to design a model heat and mass transfer in freeze-dried medium. We had two steps in this research, the first step was design of medium as the heat injection site and the second was simulate heat and mass transfer of the product. During simulation process, we use physical property of some agriculture product. The result will show how temperature and moisture distribution every second. The method of research use finite element method (FEM) and will be illustrated in three dimensional.

  17. Investigation of drying kinetics of tomato slices dried by using a closed loop heat pump dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Salih; Doymaz, İbrahim; Tunçkal, Cüneyt; Erdoğan, Seçil

    2017-06-01

    In this study, tomato slices were dried at three different drying air temperatures (35, 40 and 45 °C) and at 1 m/s air velocities by using a closed loop heat pump dryer (HPD). To explain the drying characteristics of tomato slices, ten thin-layer drying models were applied. The drying of tomato slices at each temperature occurred in falling-rate period; no constant-rate period of drying was observed. The drying rate was significantly influenced by drying temperature. The effective moisture diffusivity varied between 8.28 × 10-11 and 1.41 × 10-10 m2/s, the activation energy was found to be 43.12 kJ/mol. Besides, at the end of drying process, the highest mean specific moisture extraction ratio and coefficient of performance of HPD system were obtained as 0.324 kg/kWh and 2.71, respectively, at the highest drying air temperature (45 °C).

  18. Development of drying equipment for heat sensitive material : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenau, G.J.; Sokhansanj, S. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper described a project in which two types of prototype heat pump dryer systems were designed, constructed and field tested in 2000 to 2002. Performance testing was accomplished through a computer based simulation model for predicting dryer performance. The paper describes the procedures followed and the results obtained. The dryer is used for high value specialty crops such as ginseng, herbs and echinacea which require low temperature drying. The heat pump dryer operates under a closed loop and can dry these crops at low temperatures, independent of ambient conditions. The first prototype was a small fixed bed cabinet dryer suitable for small growers. The other was a full scale prototype moving bed cross flow system suitable for large scale commercial drying of sensitive agricultural crops. The heat pump system is faster and more energy efficient than conventional dryers. The average moisture content of ginseng roots was reduced by 10 per cent in 5 days using 190 kWh of energy. The heat pump dryer is 22 per cent more efficient than a conventional dryer due to its recirculating system. Drying time is reduced by 65 per cent. A computerized simulation validated experimental results. 30 refs., 10 tabs., 29 figs.

  19. Simulation of heat and mass transfer in spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijn, van der J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given of heat and mass transfer around droplets in spray dryers and the diffusional transport inside them. A calculational model is developed which includes variable diffusion coefficients in the drying liquid and swelling or shrinking of droplets. Calculations for droplets

  20. Determination of Sliced Pineapple Drying Characteristics in A Closed Loop Heat Pump Assisted Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Tunçkal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple (Ananascomosus slices were dried with the aid of a heat pump assisted dryer (HPD. During this process, air velocity was kept constant at 1m/s, while air temperatures were changed as 37°C, 40°C and 43°C. The drying air was also circulated by using an axial fan in a closed cycle and fresh air was not allowed into the system. The drying rate and drying time were significantly influenced by drying temperature. It was observed that drying temperatures had significant effects on the drying rate and drying time. During the conduct of the study, pineapple slices were dried at 37, 40 and 43°C for 465, 360 and 290 min, respectively. The specific moisture extraction ratio (SMER values were observed to change as drying temperatures were changed. The drying rate curves indicated that the whole drying process occurred in the falling rate period. Seven well-known thin-layer models (Lewis, Henderson &Pabis, Logarithmic, Page, Midilli & Kucuk, Weibull and Aghbashlo et al. were employed to make a prediction about drying kinetics through nonlinear regression analysis. The Midilli & Kucuk and Aghbashlo et al. models were consistent with the experimental data. Fick’s second law of diffusion was used to determine the moisture diffusivity coefficient ranging from 3.78×10–9 to 6.57×10-9  m2/s the each of the above mentioned temperatures. The dependence of effective diffusivity coefficient on temperature was defined by means a fan Arrhenius type equation. The activation energy of moisture diffusion was found to be 75.24kJ/mol.   Article History: Received: July 18th 2017; Received: October 27th 2017; Accepted: January 16th 2018; Available online How to Cite This Article: Tunçkal, C., Coşkun, S., Doymaz, I. and Ergun, E. (2018 Determination of Sliced Pineapple Drying Characteristics in A Closed Loop Heat Pump Assisted Drying System. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 7(1, 35-41. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.7.1.35-41

  1. An Internally Heated Shape Memory Polymer Dry Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Eisenhaure

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A conductive epoxy-based shape memory polymer (SMP is demonstrated using carbon black (CB as a dopant for the purpose of creating an SMP dry adhesive system which can internally generate the heat required for activation. The electrical and mechanical properties of the CB/SMP blends for varying dopant concentrations are characterized. A composite adhesive is created to minimize surface contact resistance to conductive tape acting as electrodes, while maintaining bulk resistivity required for heat generation due to current flow. The final adhesive can function on flat or curved surfaces. As a demonstration, a 25 mm wide by 45 mm long dry adhesive strip is shown to heat evenly from an applied voltage, and can easily hold a mass in excess of 6 kg when bonded to a spherical concave glass surface using light pressure at 75 °C.

  2. Stability of CIGS solar cells under illumination with damp heat and dry heat: A comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.; Beyeler, K.; Steijvers, H.; Barreau, N.

    2017-01-01

    Unencapsulated CIGS solar cells were simultaneously exposed to either dry or damp heat combined illumination. In-situ monitoring of their electrical parameters demonstrated a rapid decrease of the efficiency for the solar cells exposed to damp heat plus illumination. This decrease was mainly driven

  3. Forest response to heat waves at the dry timberline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakir, D.; Rotenberg, E.; Tatrinov, F.; Ogee, J.; Maseyk, K.

    2012-04-01

    Predictions of climate change consistently indicate continuous warming and drying for the entire Mediterranean basin and other regions during the next century. Investigating forest functioning at the current dry and hot "timberline" has therefore implications for predicting future forest distribution. In such investigations we should consider the forest adjustments to extreme conditions both at the long-term average climate basis, as at the time-scale of episodic extreme events, such as heat waves and droughts. Investigating both aspects in a 45-yr old semi-arid pine forest at the dry timberline (MuSICA) was used to test our understandings of underlying processes, and our ability to account for such differential responses.

  4. Drying grain residual annatto by sun combined with drying in dryer with heat accumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyego da Costa Santos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of extraction of the pigment bixin results in a large amount of residual grain annatto. Most of this material is discarded, but you can enjoy it by incorporating it into animal feed and human food. This study aimed to dry grain residual annatto using solar energy. The beans were divided into two batches, one with oil, reproducing conditions of the grains after extraction of bixin oil, and other oil-free. The drying was performed during the day in the concrete base covered with black polythene bag with samples in trays and exposed to the sun; overnight half of the samples was placed in a dryer to dry heat accumulator and the other half was in bench laboratory for control. The grains showed levels of initial and final moisture of about 18% wb and 5% wb, respectively. Use the dryer heat accumulator at night allowed the collection of samples with the moisture ratio below 0.1 in the evening of the first day of drying, while the control samples absorbed water during the night. All models studied showed good fit to experimental data, with values of determination coefficients above 0.95 and average values of the squared deviations of less than 0.1. The diffusivity coefficients were of the order of 10-9 m2 s-1 for all treatments, with the grain samples without oil showing the greatest value.

  5. A review on opportunities for the development of heat pump drying systems in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kivevele

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been discovered that heat pump drying is an efficient method of drying for drying industries. Heat pumps deliver more heat during the drying process than the work input to the compressor. Heat pump drying is a more advanced method than the traditional South African industrial and agricultural drying methods, such as direct/indirect sunlight, wood burning, fossil fuel burning, electrical heating and diesel engine heating. Heat pump dryers provide high energy efficiency with controllable temperature, air flow and air humidity and have significant energy-saving potential. In the last decade the market for heat pump systems for water heating and space cooling/heating has grown in South Africa, but the development of heat pumps for industrial and agricultural drying is very slow. As a result of high increases in fossil fuel prices and electricity in South Africa, as well as the problem of CO2 emissions, green energy, energy saving and energy efficiency are imperative. The development of heat pump drying systems in South Africa is an efficient way to solve energy problems in drying applications as this technology is still in its infancy. We review studies on heat pump drying and compare the methods therein with the most common methods of drying in South Africa.

  6. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  7. Exergoeconomic optimization of an ammonia-water hybrid heat pump for heat supply in a spray drying facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Spray drying facilities are among the most energy intensive industrial processes. Using a heat pump to recover waste heat and replace gas combustion has the potential to attain both economic and emissions savings. In the case examined a drying gas of ambient air is heated to 200 XC. The inlet flow...

  8. Germination, outgrowth and vegetative growth kinetics of dry heat-treated individual spores ofBacillusspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin; Chen, Zhan; Wang, Shiwei; Wu, Muying; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-Qing

    2018-01-12

    DNA damage kills dry-heated spores of Bacillus subtilis , but dry heat-treatment effects on spore germination and outgrowth have not been studied. This is important, since if dry heat-killed spores germinate and undergo outgrowth, toxic proteins could be synthesized. Here, Raman spectroscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy were used to study germination and outgrowth of individual dry heat-treated B. subtilis and Bacillus megaterium spores. Major findings in this work were as follows. 1) Spores dry heat-treated at 140°C for 20 min nearly all lost viability but retained their Ca 2+ -dipicolinic acid (CaDPA) depot. 2) In most cases, dry heat treatment increased the average times of and variability in all major events in B. subtilis spore germination with nutrient germinants or CaDPA, and one nutrient germination event with B. megaterium spores. 3) B. subtilis spore germination with dodecylamine, which activates spores' CaDPA release channel, was unaffected by dry heat treatment. 4) These results indicate that dry heat treatment likely damages spore proteins important in nutrient germinant recognition and cortex peptidoglycan hydrolysis, but not CaDPA release itself. 5) Analysis of single spores incubated on nutrient-rich agar showed that while dry heat-treated spores that are dead can complete germination, they cannot proceed into outgrowth thus not to vegetative growth. The results of this study provide new information on effects of dry heat on bacterial spores, and indicate that dry heat sterilization regimens should give spores that cannot outgrow and thus cannot synthesize potentially dangerous proteins. IMPORTANCE Much research has shown that high temperature dry heat is a promising means for the inactivation of spores on medical devices and spacecraft decontamination. Dry heat is known to kill Bacillus subtilis spores by DNA damage. However, knowledge about effects of dry heat treatment on spore germination and outgrowth is limited

  9. Effect of dry-heating with pectin on gelatinization properties of sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of dry-heating with pectin at different dry heating temperatures, heating times and pH on the gelatinization properties of sweet potato starch. Methods: The gelatinization properties of sweet potato starch - pectin blend were analyzed using a rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA), differential scanning ...

  10. Changes of spontaneous oscillatory activity to tonic heat pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Peng

    Full Text Available Transient painful stimuli could induce suppression of alpha oscillatory activities and enhancement of gamma oscillatory activities that also could be greatly modulated by attention. Here, we attempted to characterize changes in cortical activities during tonic heat pain perception and investigated the influence of directed/distracted attention on these responses. We collected 5-minute long continuous Electroencephalography (EEG data from 38 healthy volunteers during four conditions presented in a counterbalanced order: (A resting condition; (B innoxious-distracted condition; (C noxious-distracted condition; (D noxious-attended condition. The effects of tonic heat pain stimulation and selective attention on oscillatory activities were investigated by comparing the EEG power spectra among the four experimental conditions and assessing the relationship between spectral power difference and subjective pain intensity. The change of oscillatory activities in condition D was characterized by stable and persistent decrease of alpha oscillation power over contralateral-central electrodes and widespread increase of gamma oscillation power, which were even significantly correlated with subjective pain intensity. Since EEG responses in the alpha and gamma frequency band were affected by attention in different manners, they are likely related to different aspects of the multidimensional sensory experience of pain. The observed contralateral-central alpha suppression (conditions D vs. B and D vs. C may reflect primarily a top-down cognitive process such as attention, while the widespread gamma enhancement (conditions D vs. A may partly reflect tonic pain processing, representing the summary effects of bottom-up stimulus-related and top-down subject-driven cognitive processes.

  11. Decreased Spontaneous Electrical Activity and Acetylcholine at Myofascial Trigger Spots after Dry Needling Treatment: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Guang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study are to investigate the changes in spontaneous electrical activities (SEAs and in acetylcholine (ACh, acetylcholine receptor (AChR, and acetylcholine esterase (AChE levels after dry needling at myofascial trigger spots in model rats. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Thirty-six rats were assigned to three model groups, which underwent MTrSs modeling intervention. Twelve rats were assigned to the blank control (BC group. After model construction, the 36 model rats were randomly subdivided into three groups according to treatment: MTrSs model control (MC and two dry needling groups. One dry needling group received puncturing at MTrSs (DN-M, whereas the other underwent puncturing at non-MTrSs (DN-nM. Dry needling treatment will last for two weeks, once a week. SEAs and ACh, AChR, and AChE levels were measured after one-week rest of dry needling treatment. Results. The amplitudes and frequencies of endplate noise (EPN and endplate spike (EPS significantly decreased after dry needling treatment in the DN-M group. Moreover, ACh and AChR levels significantly decreased, whereas AChE significantly increased after dry needling treatment in the DN-M group. Conclusion. Dry needling at the exact MTrSs is more effective than dry needling at non-MTrSs.

  12. The effects of drying following heat shock exposure of the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shujun; Liu Chunjiang; Jiang Pingan; Cai Weimin; Wang Yan

    2009-01-01

    Desert mosses are components of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and their ecological functions make assessment and protection of these mosses a high-ranking management priority in desert regions. Drying is thought to be useful for desert mosses surviving heat shock. In this study, we investigated the role of drying by monitoring the responses of physiological characters and asexual reproduction in the typical desert moss Syntrichia caninervis. Heat significantly decreased chlorophyll content and weakened rapid recovery of photochemical activity, and increased carotenoid content and membrane permeability. Lethal temperatures significantly destroyed shoot regeneration potential. In comparison with heat alone, drying significantly increased protonema emergence time and depressed protonema emergence area. Drying combined with heat accelerated water loss, followed by a decrease of photosynthetic activity. Drying had different influences on membrane permeability at different temperatures. When moss leaves were subjected to a combined stress of drying and heat shock, photosynthesis was maintained mainly due to the effects of drying on physiological activity although the cellular morphological integrity was affected. Drying caused opposing effects on moss physiological and reproductive characteristics. On the one hand, drying caused a positive synergistic effect with heat shock when the temperature was below 40 deg. C. On the other hand, drying showed antagonism with heat shock when the moss was subjected to temperatures higher than 40 deg. C. These findings may help in understanding the survival mechanism of dessert mosses under heat shock stress which will be helpful for the artificial reconstruction of BSCs

  13. The effects of drying following heat shock exposure of the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Jun; Liu, Chun-Jiang; Jiang, Ping-An; Cai, Wei-Min; Wang, Yan

    2009-03-15

    Desert mosses are components of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and their ecological functions make assessment and protection of these mosses a high-ranking management priority in desert regions. Drying is thought to be useful for desert mosses surviving heat shock. In this study, we investigated the role of drying by monitoring the responses of physiological characters and asexual reproduction in the typical desert moss Syntrichia caninervis. Heat significantly decreased chlorophyll content and weakened rapid recovery of photochemical activity, and increased carotenoid content and membrane permeability. Lethal temperatures significantly destroyed shoot regeneration potential. In comparison with heat alone, drying significantly increased protonema emergence time and depressed protonema emergence area. Drying combined with heat accelerated water loss, followed by a decrease of photosynthetic activity. Drying had different influences on membrane permeability at different temperatures. When moss leaves were subjected to a combined stress of drying and heat shock, photosynthesis was maintained mainly due to the effects of drying on physiological activity although the cellular morphological integrity was affected. Drying caused opposing effects on moss physiological and reproductive characteristics. On the one hand, drying caused a positive synergistic effect with heat shock when the temperature was below 40 degrees C. On the other hand, drying showed antagonism with heat shock when the moss was subjected to temperatures higher than 40 degrees C. These findings may help in understanding the survival mechanism of dessert mosses under heat shock stress which will be helpful for the artificial reconstruction of BSCs.

  14. Evaluation of Heat Flux Measurement as a New Process Analytical Technology Monitoring Tool in Freeze Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Ilona; Pauli, Victoria; Friess, Wolfgang; Freitag, Angelika; Hawe, Andrea; Winter, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the suitability of heat flux measurement as a new technique for monitoring product temperature and critical end points during freeze drying. The heat flux sensor is tightly mounted on the shelf and measures non-invasively (no contact with the product) the heat transferred from shelf to vial. Heat flux data were compared to comparative pressure measurement, thermocouple readings, and Karl Fischer titration as current state of the art monitoring techniques. The whole freeze drying process including freezing (both by ramp freezing and controlled nucleation) and primary and secondary drying was considered. We found that direct measurement of the transferred heat enables more insights into thermodynamics of the freezing process. Furthermore, a vial heat transfer coefficient can be calculated from heat flux data, which ultimately provides a non-invasive method to monitor product temperature throughout primary drying. The end point of primary drying determined by heat flux measurements was in accordance with the one defined by thermocouples. During secondary drying, heat flux measurements could not indicate the progress of drying as monitoring the residual moisture content. In conclusion, heat flux measurements are a promising new non-invasive tool for lyophilization process monitoring and development using energy transfer as a control parameter. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermoregulatory responses to acute heat loads in rats following spontaneous running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, N; Shido, O; Sakurada, S; Nagasaka, T

    1999-02-01

    Earlier studies showed that spontaneous exercise training in rodents shifted their core temperature and thermoeffector thresholds to high levels. The present study investigated heat loss and heat production responses to acute heat loads of exercise-trained rats. The exercise-trained rats were allowed to run in a running wheel freely for 6 months, while the sedentary controls were denied access to the wheel during the same period. Then, they were loosely restrained and put in a direct calorimeter. After thermal equilibrium had been attained, they were warmed for 30 min with an intraperitoneal electric heater (internal heating). At least 2 h later, the rats were externally warmed for 90 min by raising the ambient temperature from 24 to 38C (external warming). Hypothalamic temperature (Thy), evaporative and nonevaporative heat loss (R+C+K) and heat production were measured. Internal and external heating significantly increased Thy. During internal heating, the magnitude of the increase in Thy was significantly smaller and the amount of increase in (R+C+K) was significantly greater in the exercise-trained rats than in the controls. The slope showing the relationship between Thy and (R+C+K) in the trained rats was significantly steeper than that in the controls. During external warming, the magnitude of increase in Thy of the exercise-trained rats was significantly greater than that of the controls. The slope showing the relationship between Thy and (R+C+K) in the trained rats was not different from that in the controls. Changes in evaporative heat loss and heat production during the two types of heat load did not differ between the two groups. The results suggest that, in rats, exercise training with voluntary running improves heat tolerance through enhancing nonevaporative heat loss response. However, this may be the case only when the rats are subjected to a direct internal heat load.

  16. Mapping QTLs associated to germination stability following dry-heat treatment in rice seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yeob; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Gang-Seob

    2017-07-01

    Using 164 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Milyang 23 (indica/japonica) and Gihobyeo (japonica) in rice, dry-heat tolerance was evaluated for the seeds of parents and RILs, whose dormancy was naturally broken in six months after harvesting. Mapping QTLs associated to dry-heat tolerance was carried out through interval mapping using Qgene 3.0. Seed germination after dry-heat treatments (90 °C for 24 h) showed a significant difference between the two parents, when evaluated for percentage germination and mean germination time. Milyang 23 was highly tolerant to the dry-heat treatment, while Gihobyeo was sensitive. Three QTLs (qDHT 1, qDHT 5, and qDHT 7) conferring the dry-heat tolerance were mapped to chromosomes 1, 5 and 7, respectively. qDHT 1 on chromosome 1 was tightly linked at 4 cM from ME1-1. The phenotypic variation explained by the three QTLs was 27.18% of the total variance in the 164 RIL populations, and the parental additive effects of three QTLs affected the Milyang 23 allele increased dry-heat tolerance. The detection of new QTLs associated with dry-heat tolerance will provide important information for disease and insect control, using dry-heat treatment in organic or low input sustainable agriculture.

  17. CFD simulations of the effect of wind on the spontaneous heating of coal stockpiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taraba, B.; Michalec, Zdeněk; Michalcová, V.; Blejchař, T.; Bojko, M.; Kozubková, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 1 (2014), s. 107-112 ISSN 0016-2361 Grant - others:GA ČR GA105/08/1414; TA ČR(CZ) TA01020351; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0100 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : coal oxidation * spontaneous heating * CFD modelling * coal stockpile Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.520, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016236113010053#

  18. Effect of longwall face advance rate on spontaneous heating process in the gob area - CFD modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taraba, B.; Michalec, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 8 (2011), s. 2790-2797 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0630 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA105/08/1414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : coal oxidation * spontaneous heating * CFD modelling * Fluent Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 3.248, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016236111001724

  19. Heat Pump Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: Principles and Potentials for Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folasayo Fayose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat pump technology has been used for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning in domestic and industrial sectors in most developed countries of the world including South Africa. However, heat pump drying (HPD of fruits and vegetables has been largely unexploited in South Africa and by extension to the sub-Saharan African region. Although studies on heat pump drying started in South Africa several years ago, not much progress has been recorded to date. Many potential users view heat pump drying technology as fragile, slow, and high capital intensive when compared with conventional dryer. This paper tried to divulge the principles and potentials of heat pump drying technology and the conditions for its optimum use. Also, various methods of quantifying performances during heat pump drying as well as the quality of the dried products are highlighted. Necessary factors for maximizing the capacity and efficiency of a heat pump dryer were identified. Finally, the erroneous view that heat pump drying is not feasible economically in sub-Saharan Africa was clarified.

  20. Drying and heat transfer behavior of banana undergoing combined low-pressure superheated steam and far-infrared radiation drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimmol, Chatchai; Devahastin, Sakamon; Swasdisevi, Thanit; Soponronnarit, Somchart

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the use of a drying system combining the concept of already proven low-pressure superheated steam drying and far-infrared radiation (LPSSD-FIR) for banana. The effects of various operating parameters, i.e., drying medium temperature and pressure, on the drying kinetics and heat transfer behavior of banana as well as the energy consumption of the process were investigated and discussed. Comparison was also made with similar sets of data obtained from the system with combined far-infrared radiation and vacuum drying (VACUUM-FIR) and the system using only low-pressure superheated steam drying (LPSSD). The results showed that LPSSD-FIR and VACUUM-FIR took shorter drying time compared to LPSSD at all drying conditions. In terms of the specific energy consumption, it was observed that the specific energy consumption of the vacuum pump was much higher than that of the far-infrared radiator or electric heater. It was also found that the specific energy consumption of LPSSD-FIR and VACUUM-FIR were lower than that of LPSSD at all drying conditions. Based on the drying rates and the specific energy consumption of all tested processes, LPSSD-FIR at 90 deg. C and 7 kPa was suggested

  1. Staphylococcus aureus dry-surface biofilms are more resistant to heat treatment than traditional hydrated biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almatroudi, A; Tahir, S; Hu, H; Chowdhury, D; Gosbell, I B; Jensen, S O; Whiteley, G S; Deva, A K; Glasbey, T; Vickery, K

    2018-02-01

    The importance of biofilms to clinical practice is being increasingly realized. Biofilm tolerance to antibiotics is well described but limited work has been conducted on the efficacy of heat disinfection and sterilization against biofilms. To test the susceptibility of planktonic, hydrated biofilm and dry-surface biofilm forms of Staphylococcus aureus, to dry-heat and wet-heat treatments. S. aureus was grown as both hydrated biofilm and dry-surface biofilm in the CDC biofilm generator. Biofilm was subjected to a range of temperatures in a hot-air oven (dry heat), water bath or autoclave (wet heat). Dry-surface biofilms remained culture positive even when treated with the harshest dry-heat condition of 100°C for 60min. Following autoclaving samples were culture negative but 62-74% of bacteria in dry-surface biofilms remained alive as demonstrated by live/dead staining and confocal microscopy. Dry-surface biofilms subjected to autoclaving at 121°C for up to 30min recovered and released planktonic cells. Recovery did not occur following autoclaving for longer or at 134°C, at least during the time-period tested. Hydrated biofilm recovered following dry-heat treatment up to 100°C for 10min but failed to recover following autoclaving despite the presence of 43-60% live cells as demonstrated by live/dead staining. S. aureus dry-surface biofilms are less susceptible to killing by dry heat and steam autoclaving than hydrated biofilms, which are less susceptible to heat treatment than planktonic suspensions. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wood chip drying in connection with combined heat and power or solar energy in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinne Samuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 20% of the Finnish district heating (DH power plant fuels are wood-based and the share is increasing. The wood fuel demand probably exceeds the potential supply in the future. The wood fuel drying with waste heat is one profitable opportunity to gain more wood fuel. If the drying energy can be produced with lower primary energy use than combusting the fuel directly, the drying potentially improves the system efficiency. In this study, the drying feasibility in the connection of a combined heat and power (CHP system, possibly with solar collectors, is calculated. The wood fuel heating can be increased profitably by 6%, using the heat from CHP for drying only when the marginal cost of the heat is low enough, i.e. the electricity price is high enough and there is free capacity after the DH demand. Although the drying is profitable, a larger heat storage can also increase the annual result similarly. The best investment choice depends on the plant properties. Here the optimal system enables 20% DH production cost savings. Solar heat may be profitable, when the solar heat has a 2–3% share of the annual heat demand. However, the dryer or larger storage tank are more profitable investments.

  3. Produktivitas Benih Cabai Rawit Setelah Diperlakukan Dry Heat Treatment dan Penyimpanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I GUSTI NGURAH RAKA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Productivity of Pepper Seeds Which are Treated Dry Heat Treatment and Storage Pepper plants (Capsicum frutescens L. is one type of horticultural crops which is very high usage levels therefor, it is necessary to increase productivity dramatically. One effort to fulfil the need is preparing healthy seed with long shelf life . This study aims to determine the growth and yield of pepper plants whose seed was treated with dry heat treatment and storage. The experiment was conducted in Br . Marga Tengah, Kerta Village, Payangan District, Gianyar Regency, since May to October 2013. This study used a randomized block design (RBD with two factors and four replications. The first factor is treated seeds by dry heat treatment at two levels i.e. given dry heat treatment at 70OC for 72 hours (D1 and without dry heat treatment (D0. The second factor is the storage of seeds with three levels, namely: non-stored seeds (T0, seed stored 2 months (T2 and the seeds stored for 4 months (T4. The results showed that there was no interaction between treatment with dry heat treatment and seed storage treatment of all variables of growth and yield of pepper plants. Dry heat treatment resulted the better growth and yield compared to non dry heat treatment. An increase in the number of fruit harvest as much as 33,43% and increased the weight of the fruit harvest per hectare as much as 33,79% on dry heat treatment compared with no dry heat treatment. Treatment of seed storage until the shelf life of 4 months did not affect the growth and yield of pepper plants.

  4. Critical heat flux, post dry-out and their augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, G.P.; Mariani, A.

    1999-01-01

    The report shows the state of art review on the critical heat flux and the post-dryout heat transfer. The work, which is a merge of original researches carried out at the Institute of Thermal Fluid Dynamic of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and a thorough review of the recent literature, is divided in four chapters: critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling; critical heat flux in saturated flow boiling; post-dryout heat transfer; enhancement of critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer [it

  5. Pysical Properties of Soil with Addition of Sewage Dried with Heated Edible Oil

    OpenAIRE

    大坪, 政美; 中司, 敬; 中園, 修三; 中園, 英司; 徳留, 斉将

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigates the water holding capacity, density, permeability, and swelling properties of the soil samples mixed with the sewage that was dried with heated edible oil. For comparison similar experiments were conducted for the soil samples mixed with sun-dried sewage and sewage compost. The water holding capacity was higher for the soil samples with oil-dried and sun-dried sewage addition than for those with sewage-compost addition. For statically compacted soil samples, wit...

  6. Vapor hydrogen peroxide as alternative to dry heat microbial reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S.; Kern, R.; Koukol, R.; Barengoltz, J.; Cash, H.

    2008-09-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), in conjunction with the NASA Planetary Protection Officer, has selected vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VHP) sterilization process for continued development as a NASA approved sterilization technique for spacecraft subsystems and systems. The goal was to include this technique, with an appropriate specification, in NASA Procedural Requirements 8020.12 as a low-temperature complementary technique to the dry heat sterilization process. The VHP process is widely used by the medical industry to sterilize surgical instruments and biomedical devices, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material compatibility. The goal for this study was to determine the minimum VHP process conditions for planetary protection acceptable microbial reduction levels. Experiments were conducted by the STERIS Corporation, under contract to JPL, to evaluate the effectiveness of vapor hydrogen peroxide for the inactivation of the standard spore challenge, Geobacillus stearothermophilus. VHP process parameters were determined that provide significant reductions in spore viability while allowing survival of sufficient spores for statistically significant enumeration. In addition to the obvious process parameters of interest: hydrogen peroxide concentration, number of injection cycles, and exposure duration, the investigation also considered the possible effect on lethality of environmental parameters: temperature, absolute humidity, and material substrate. This study delineated a range of test sterilizer process conditions: VHP concentration, process duration, a process temperature range for which the worst case D-value may be imposed, a process humidity range for which the worst case D-value may be imposed, and the dependence on selected spacecraft material substrates. The derivation of D-values from the lethality data permitted conservative planetary protection recommendations.

  7. Effectiveness of sanitizers, dry heat, hot water, and gas catalytic infrared heat treatments to inactivate Salmonella on almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Latiful; Nei, Daisuke; Sotome, Itaru; Nishina, Ikuo; Isobe, Seiichi; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

    2009-10-01

    The majority of almond-related foodborne outbreaks have been associated with Salmonella. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective method to inactivate these organisms on raw almond prior to market distribution. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of sanitizers (strong or mild electrolyzed water, ozonated water, and distilled water), dry heat treatment, and hot water treatments followed by catalytic infrared (IR) heat treatment to inactivate Salmonella populations on raw almond. Raw almonds inoculated with four-strain cocktails of Salmonella were treated either by soaking in different chemical sanitizers or with dry heat and/or hot water for various periods of time followed by catalytic IR heat treatment for 70 seconds. The treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of the treatment in reducing populations of the pathogens. After inoculation and air-drying, 5.73 +/- 0.12 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g Salmonella were detected in nonselective medium. Sanitizer treatment alone did not show significant reduction in the Salmonella population, but in combination with IR drying it reduced the population to 3.0 log CFU/g. Dry heating at 60 degrees C for 4 days followed by IR drying for 70 seconds reduced the Salmonella population an additional 1.0 log CFU/g. Hot water treatments at 85 degrees C for 40 seconds followed by IR drying for 70 seconds reduced pathogens to an undetectable level by direct plating, but not by enrichment.

  8. Characteristics of Vacuum Freeze Drying with Utilization of Internal Cooling and Condenser Waste Heat for Sublimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alhamid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum freeze drying is an excellent drying method, but it is very energy-intensive because a relatively long drying time is required. This research investigates the utilization of condenser waste heat for sublimation as a way of accelerating the drying rate. In addition, it also investigates the effect of internal cooling combined with vacuum cooling in the pressure reduction process. Jelly fish tentacles were used as the specimen, with different configurations for condenser heat waste and internal cooling valve opening. The results show that heating with condenser heat waste can accelerate the drying rate up to 0.0035 kg/m2.s. In addition, pre-freezing by internal cooling prevents evaporation until the mass of the specimen is 0.47 g and promotes transition of the specimen into the solid phase.

  9. Physicochemical properties, in vitro digestibility and antioxidant activity of dry-heated egg white protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juntong; Chi, Yujie; Cheng, Yuan; Zhao, Ying

    2018-04-25

    Egg white powder is widely used as a food ingredient instead of fresh eggs. Dry heat treatment plays an essential role in the processing of egg white powder to obtain its excellent functionalities. In this study, the effect of dry heat treatment on egg white protein (EWP) was evaluated by determining its physicochemical properties and in vitro pepsin digestion. The results indicated that dry heat treatment reduced EWP thermal stability and tryptophan fluorescence and increased its surface hydrophobicity. SDS-PAGE revealed that abundant soluble aggregates formed during dry heating, and these aggregates could be digested by pepsin. The digestibility of dry-heated EWP was better than for untreated EWP, and the essential amino acid and low-molecular-weight peptide (Mw < 1 kDa) contents increased with increasing dry heating time. In vitro digests of EWP that were dry heat treated for 9-15 days exhibited excellent antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A note on self heating and spontaneous combustion of stored sunflower seed cake and cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nazir, S. M. A.; Babikir, I. H.; Shakak, M. A. S.; Sulieman, I. A.; Medani, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Sunflower seed cake and cotton seed warehouses combusted spontaneously and burnt in August and November 2009, respectively, in Khartoum North industrial area. The objective of this study was to determine some of the reasons for self-heating and spontaneous combustion. Representative sample from the two warehouses were collected. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, paecilomyces sp., Rhizopus oryzae, Absidia sp. were isolated at 37°C. Bacillus thuringiensis was isolated at 37°C and B. pantothenticus, B. circulans, B. licheniformis, B. sphaericus, B. badius, Escherichia coli and klebsiella sp. were isolated at 60°C. A decrease in soil, fiber and phosphorus and increase in free fatty acids and protein contents were detected.(Author)

  11. Effect of drying method on the adsorption isotherms and isosteric heat of passion fruit pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Marques Pedro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sorption behavior of dry products is generally affected by the drying method. The sorption isotherms are useful to determine and compare thermodynamic properties of passion fruit pulp powder processed by different drying methods. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of different drying methods on the sorption properties of passion fruit pulp powder. Passion fruit pulp powder was dehydrated using different dryers: vacuum, spray dryer, vibro-fluidized, and freeze dryer. The moisture equilibrium data of Passion Fruit Pulp (PFP powders with 55% of maltodextrin (MD were determined at 20, 30, 40 and 50 ºC. The behavior of the curves was type III, according to Brunauer's classification, and the GAB model was fitted to the experimental equilibrium data. The equilibrium moisture contents of the samples were little affected by temperature variation. The spray dryer provides a dry product with higher adsorption capacity than that of the other methods. The vibro-fluidized bed drying showed higher adsorption capacity than that of vacuum and freeze drying. The vacuum and freeze drying presented the same adsorption capacity. The isosteric heats of sorption were found to decrease with increasing moisture content. Considering the effect of drying methods, the highest isosteric heat of sorption was observed for powders produced by spray drying, whereas powders obtained by vacuum and freeze drying showed the lowest isosteric heats of sorption.

  12. Rates of mutant production in Bacillus subtilis by dry heat and gamma irradiation. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, R.T.; Conley, M.B.

    1975-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores were inactivated by dry heat, gamma irradiation, and combination of the two. The percentage of auxotrophic mutants among the survivors was determined as a function of treatment time over seven decimal reductions of the initial population. For dry heat inactivation the percentage of mutants increased to a maximum and then decreased. In general, similar results were obtained with gamma irradiation although there were more peaks and valleys in the percentage of mutants as a function of irradiation. For some combinations of dry heat and simultaneous irradiation the percentage of mutants obtained was greatly reduced. (U.S.)

  13. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars; Santos, A M B

    2002-01-01

    Many solutions to indoor climate problems known from developed countries may have prohibitive installation and running costs in developing countries. The purpose was to develop a low-cost solution to heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on solar powered drying of supply air. Dry supply...... air may facilitate personal cooling by increased evaporation of sweat. Heat acclimatized people with efficient sweating may in particular benefit from this cooling. A prototype solar powered supply system for dried-only air was made. Air from the system was mixed with room air, heated to six different...... is a low-cost alternative to traditional air conditioning in hot and humid regions....

  14. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. Methods A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. Results This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed 7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). Conclusions There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of

  15. Critical heat flux, post dry-out and their augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, G.P.; Mariani, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1999-07-01

    The report shows the state of art review on the critical heat flux and the post-dryout heat transfer. The work, which is a merge of original researches carried out at the Institute of Thermal Fluid Dynamic of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and a thorough review of the recent literature, is divided in four chapters: critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling; critical heat flux in saturated flow boiling; post-dryout heat transfer; enhancement of critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer. [Italian] Si passa in rassegna lo stato dell'arte sulla crisi termica e sullo scambio termico post-crisi, che compendia studi tradizionali condotti dall'ENEA. Il rapporto e' suddiviso in quattro parti: crisi termica in ebollizione sottoraffreddata; crisi termica in ebollizione satura; scambio termico dopo la crisi termica; incremento del flusso termico critico e dello scambio termico post-crisi.

  16. Spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering of ultraviolet light in nitrogen, dry and moist air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witschas, B.; Vieitez, M.O.; van Duijn, E.-J.; Reitebuch, O.; Van de Water, W.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric lidar techniques for the measurement of wind, temperature, and optical properties of aerosols rely on the exact knowledge of the spectral line shape of the scattered laser light on molecules. We report on spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering measurements in the ultraviolet at a

  17. Nanoscale Structural and Mechanical Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Spores Inactivated with Rapid Dry Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Daniel L.; Burggraf, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    Effective killing of Bacillus anthracis spores is of paramount importance to antibioterrorism, food safety, environmental protection, and the medical device industry. Thus, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of spore resistance and inactivation is highly desired for developing new strategies or improving the known methods for spore destruction. Previous studies have shown that spore inactivation mechanisms differ considerably depending upon the killing agents, such as heat (wet heat, dry heat), UV, ionizing radiation, and chemicals. It is believed that wet heat kills spores by inactivating critical enzymes, while dry heat kills spores by damaging their DNA. Many studies have focused on the biochemical aspects of spore inactivation by dry heat; few have investigated structural damages and changes in spore mechanical properties. In this study, we have inactivated Bacillus anthracis spores with rapid dry heating and performed nanoscale topographical and mechanical analysis of inactivated spores using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results revealed significant changes in spore morphology and nanomechanical properties after heat inactivation. In addition, we also found that these changes were different under different heating conditions that produced similar inactivation probabilities (high temperature for short exposure time versus low temperature for long exposure time). We attributed the differences to the differential thermal and mechanical stresses in the spore. The buildup of internal thermal and mechanical stresses may become prominent only in ultrafast, high-temperature heat inactivation when the experimental timescale is too short for heat-generated vapor to efficiently escape from the spore. Our results thus provide direct, visual evidences of the importance of thermal stresses and heat and mass transfer to spore inactivation by very rapid dry heating. PMID:24375142

  18. Produktivitas Benih Cabai Rawit Setelah Diperlakukan Dry Heat Treatment dan Penyimpanan

    OpenAIRE

    I GUSTI NGURAH RAKA; I DEWA NYOMAN NYANA; NI LUH MADE PRADNYAWATHI

    2015-01-01

    Productivity of Pepper Seeds Which are Treated Dry Heat Treatment and Storage Pepper plants (Capsicum frutescens L.) is one type of horticultural crops which is very high usage levels therefor, it is necessary to increase productivity dramatically. One effort to fulfil the need is preparing healthy seed with long shelf life . This study aims to determine the growth and yield of pepper plants whose seed was treated with dry heat treatment and storage. The experiment was conducted in Br . Marga...

  19. Functional Properties of Glutinous Rice Flour by Dry-Heat Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Yang; Liu, Chengzhen; Jiang, Suisui; Cao, Jinmiao; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-01-01

    Glutinous rice flour (GRF) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) were modified by dry-heat treatment and their rheological, thermal properties and freeze-thaw stability were evaluated. Compared with the native GRF and GRS, the water-holding ability of modified GRF and GRS were enhanced. Both the onset and peak temperatures of the modified samples increased while the endothermic enthalpy change decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, dry heating remarkably increased the apparent viscosities o...

  20. Simultaneous rough rice drying and rice bran stabilization using infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new rice drying method by using IR heating followed by tempering. Freshly harvested medium grain rice (M206) samples with different initial moisture contents (IMCs) were used in this study. The samples were dried for one- and two-passes by using a catalyt...

  1. Spontaneous jumping, bouncing and trampolining of hydrogel drops on a heated plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Jonathan T; Paven, Maxime; Wooh, Sanghyuk; Kajiya, Tadashi; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Vollmer, Doris

    2017-10-13

    The contact between liquid drops and hot solid surfaces is of practical importance for industrial processes, such as thermal spraying and spray cooling. The contact and bouncing of solid spheres is also an important event encountered in ball milling, powder processing, and everyday activities, such as ball sports. Using high speed video microscopy, we demonstrate that hydrogel drops, initially at rest on a surface, spontaneously jump upon rapid heating and continue to bounce with increasing amplitudes. Jumping is governed by the surface wettability, surface temperature, hydrogel elasticity, and adhesion. A combination of low-adhesion impact behavior and fast water vapor formation supports continuous bouncing and trampolining. Our results illustrate how the interplay between solid and liquid characteristics of hydrogels results in intriguing dynamics, as reflected by spontaneous jumping, bouncing, trampolining, and extremely short contact times.Drops of liquid on a hot surface can exhibit fascinating behaviour such as the Leidenfrost effect in which drops hover on a vapour layer. Here Pham et al. show that when hydrogel drops are placed on a rapidly heated plate they bounce to increasing heights even if they were initially at rest.

  2. Heat Release Rates for Shipboard Dry Goods Storage Space Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, John B; Pham, Hung; Williams, Frederick W

    2007-01-01

    .... Packaging materials included cardboard boxes, Kraft paper and polyethylene bubble wrap. Toilet paper, paper towels, and copy paper were used as representative flammable stock items. Heat release rate (HRR...

  3. Dielectric properties of dried vegetable powders and their temperature profile during radio frequency heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, Salmonella contamination was identified in low-moisture foods including dried vegetable powder. Radio Frequency (RF) dielectric heating is a potential alternative pasteurization method with short heating time. Dielectric properties of broccoli powder with 6.9, 9.1, 12.2, and 14.9%, w. b....

  4. Dry and moist heat sterilisation cannot inactivate pyrogenicity of Gram positive microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, Erik W; Christensen, Jens D

    2005-01-01

    In the monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 pyrogens induce interleukin-6 secretion dose dependently. The aim of this study is to examine the interleukin-6 inducing capacity of Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis endospores after moist and dry heat sterilisation. Moist heat...

  5. A Novel Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Heating for Cut Tobacco Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Tao Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel parabolic trough concentrating solar heating for cut tobacco drying system was established. The opening width effect of V type metal cavity absorber was investigated. A cut tobacco drying mathematical model calculated by fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical solution method was used to simulate the cut tobacco drying process. And finally the orthogonal test method was used to optimize the parameters of cut tobacco drying process. The result shows that the heating rate, acquisition factor, and collector system efficiency increase with increasing the opening width of the absorber. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data for cut tobacco drying process. The relative errors between simulated and experimental values are less than 8%, indicating that this mathematical model is accurate for the cut tobacco airflow drying process. The optimum preparation conditions are an inlet airflow velocity of 15 m/s, an initial cut tobacco moisture content of 26%, and an inlet airflow temperature of 200°C. The thermal efficiency of the dryer and the final cut tobacco moisture content are 66.32% and 14.15%, respectively. The result shows that this parabolic trough concentrating solar heating will be one of the heat recourse candidates for cut tobacco drying system.

  6. Simultaneous control of drying temperature and superheat for a closed-loop heat pump dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhao; Zhu, Zongsheng; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In a closed-loop heat pump drying system, the drying process is divided into two processes: heating and cooling. • A simultaneous control strategy is proposed to improve the precision of superheat and drying temperature. • Two distinct fuzzy controllers are employed to achieve more stable drying temperature. • The superheat controller is mainly composed of a PID controller and a conversion emergency controller. • The experimental data show that the simultaneous controller decreases the nonlinearities of superheat and drying temperature. - Abstract: Closed-loop heat pump drying system has its particular characteristics, and in this paper a simultaneous control strategy is proposed to improve the precision of superheat and drying temperature. The stability of drying temperature guarantees the quality of drying material. And on the premise, superheat should be accurate and stable to improve energy usage. Two fuzzy controllers employing different membership functions and control rules are used to achieve more stable drying temperature. The superheat controller is mainly composed of a PID controller and a conversion emergency controller which accelerates the response of electronic expansion valve. The experimental results show that the temperatures at the outlet of indoor and outdoor condensers give smaller fluctuations. The variations of superheat are investigated when the temperature of drying chamber changes from ambient temperature to 25/30 °C, from 25 to 30 °C and from 30 to 25 °C, respectively. All the experimental data confirm that the new controller is applicable to decrease the nonlinearities of superheat and drying temperature.

  7. Intensification of microalgae drying and oil extraction process by vapor recompression and heat integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    Reducing energy penalty caused by drying and oil extraction is the most critical challenge in microalgae biodiesel production. In this study, vapor recompression and heat integration are utilized to optimize the performance of wet microalgae drying and oil extraction. In the microalgae drying stage, the hot exhaust stream is recompressed and coupled with wet microalgae to recover the condensate heat. In the oil extraction stage, the exergy rate of recovered solvent is also elevated by compressor and then exchanged heat with feed and bottom stream in the distillation column. Energy and mass balance of the intensified process is investigated and compared with the conventional microalgae drying-extraction process. The simulation results indicated that the total energy consumption of the intensified process can be saved by 52.4% of the conventional route. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. OF PHYSIOLOGICAL REACTIONS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STRAIN IN HEALTHY MEN UNDER HEAT STRESS IN DRY AND STEAM HEAT SAUNAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Pilch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to follow up major physiological reactions, provoked by heat stress during dry and wet sauna baths. A physical strain index and subjective estimation of heat comfort of subjects who had not taken sauna baths before was also evaluated. Ten healthy males aged 25-28 underwent a dry sauna bath and then after a one-month break they underwent a steam sauna bath. Each time, they entered the sauna chamber 3 times for 15 minutes with five-minute breaks. During breaks they cooled their bodies with a cold shower and then rested in a sitting position. Before and after the baths, body mass and blood pressure were measured. Rectal temperature and heart rate were monitored during the baths. The physiological strain index (PSI and cumulative heat strain index (CHSI were calculated. Subjects assessed heat comfort by Bedford’s scale. Greater body mass losses were observed after the dry sauna bath compared to the wet sauna (-0.72 vs. -0.36 kg respectively. However, larger increases in rectal temperature and heart rate were observed during the wet sauna bath (38.8% and 21.2% respectively. Both types of sauna baths caused elevation of systolic blood pressure, but changes were greater after the dry one. Diastolic pressure was reduced similarly. Subjective feelings of heat comfort as well as PSI (4.83 ± 0.29 vs. 5.7 ± 0.28 and CHSI (76.3 ± 18.4 vs. 144.6 ± 21.7 were greater during the wet sauna bath. It can be concluded that due to high humidity and reduction of thermoregulation mechanisms, the wet sauna is more stressful for the organism than the dry sauna, where the temperature is higher with low humidity. Both observed indexes (PSI and CHSI could be appropriate for objective assessment of heat strain during passive heating of the organism.

  9. Comparison of physiological reactions and physiological strain in healthy men under heat stress in dry and steam heat saunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilch, W; Szygula, Z; Palka, T; Pilch, P; Cison, T; Wiecha, S; Tota, L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the paper was to follow up major physiological reactions, provoked by heat stress during dry and wet sauna baths. A physical strain index and subjective estimation of heat comfort of subjects who had not taken sauna baths before was also evaluated. Ten healthy males aged 25-28 underwent a dry sauna bath and then after a one-month break they underwent a steam sauna bath. Each time, they entered the sauna chamber 3 times for 15 minutes with five-minute breaks. During breaks they cooled their bodies with a cold shower and then rested in a sitting position. Before and after the baths, body mass and blood pressure were measured. Rectal temperature and heart rate were monitored during the baths. The physiological strain index (PSI) and cumulative heat strain index (CHSI) were calculated. Subjects assessed heat comfort by Bedford's scale. Greater body mass losses were observed after the dry sauna bath compared to the wet sauna (-0.72 vs. -0.36 kg respectively). However, larger increases in rectal temperature and heart rate were observed during the wet sauna bath (38.8% and 21.2% respectively). Both types of sauna baths caused elevation of systolic blood pressure, but changes were greater after the dry one. Diastolic pressure was reduced similarly. Subjective feelings of heat comfort as well as PSI (4.83 ± 0.29 vs. 5.7 ± 0.28) and CHSI (76.3 ± 18.4 vs. 144.6 ± 21.7) were greater during the wet sauna bath. It can be concluded that due to high humidity and reduction of thermoregulation mechanisms, the wet sauna is more stressful for the organism than the dry sauna, where the temperature is higher with low humidity. Both observed indexes (PSI and CHSI) could be appropriate for objective assessment of heat strain during passive heating of the organism.

  10. Drying of bio fuel utilizing waste heat; Torkning av biobraenslen med spillvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Inge; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-10-01

    Many industries today have large sources of low grade heat (waste heat), however this energy is mainly lost with effluents to air and water. The aim of this study has been to investigate the technical and economical aspects of utilizing this low grade heat to dry biofuel. The project has been mainly focused towards the forest industry since they have both large amounts of biofuel and waste heat available. Drying of biofuel could generate added revenue (or reduced purchase costs) and through that also create larger incentives for further energy saving modifications to the main process. Due to the higher moisture content together with the risk of frozen bark in the winter time, additional fuels (such as oil) to combust bark in the existing boiler. This is mainly the case when mechanical dewatering is not available. Drying of bark results in an added energy value, which makes it possible to combust the bark without additional fuel. The primary energy demand, in the form of electricity and optional additional heating at load peaks, is low when waste heat is used for the drying process. In this way it is possible to increase the biofuel potential, since the primary energy input to the drying process is essentially lower then the increased energy value of the fuel. Drying also decreases the biological degradation of the fuel. Taking all the above into consideration, waste heat drying could result in a 25 % increase of the biofuel potential in the forest industry in Sweden, without additional cutting of wood. A survey has been done to state which commercial technologies are available for biofuel drying with waste heat. An inquiry was sent out to a number of suppliers and included a few different cases. Relations for approximating investment cost as well as electric power demand were created based on the answers from the inquiry. These relations have then been used in the economical evaluations made for a number of cases representing both sawmills and pulp and paper mills

  11. Heat and mass transfer models to understand the drying mechanisms of a porous substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songok, Joel; Bousfield, Douglas W; Gane, Patrick A C; Toivakka, Martti

    2016-02-01

    While drying of paper and paper coatings is expensive, with significant energy requirements, the rate controlling mechanisms are not currently fully understood. Two two-dimensional models are used as a first approximation to predict the heat transfer during hot air drying and to evaluate the role of various parameters on the drying rates of porous coatings. The models help determine the structural limiting factors during the drying process, while applying for the first time the recently known values of coating thermal diffusivity. The results indicate that the thermal conductivity of the coating structure is not the controlling factor, but the drying rate is rather determined by the thermal transfer process at the structure surface. This underlines the need for ensuring an efficient thermal transfer from hot air to coating surface during drying, before considering further measures to increase the thermal conductivity of porous coatings.

  12. Modeling the effect of seal leakage on spontaneous heating in a longwall gob area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.C.; Yuan, L. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Office of Mine Safety and Health Research

    2010-07-01

    Three coal mines in the United States with a history of spontaneous combustion use a bleederless ventilation system as a control measure. In a bleederless system, one of the headgate entries is used as the tailgate entry of the succeeding panel and is isolated from the gob of the active panel by gob seals that are installed in the headgate entry as the face advances. An active longwall panel using a Y-type bleederless ventilation system was simulated in this study. As longwall mining progresses, some seals are known to leak. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed to study the effect of seal leakage on spontaneous heating of coal in the longwall gob area. The simulation results showed that under typical bleederless ventilation conditions, the maximum temperature in the gob increased with an increase in leakage rate. The maximum temperature occurred at the headgate side corner at the back end of the panel. When only 1 or 2 seals were leaking, the maximum temperature occurred around the seal. The results demonstrate that complex interactions between pressure differential and gob permeability at different locations in the gob cause ventilation pathways. The interactions depend greatly on gob permeability and seal leakage rates. 8 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  13. Unsteady heat exchange at the dry spent nuclear fuel storage

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana Alyokhina; Andrii Kostikov

    2017-01-01

    Unsteady thermal processes in storage containers with spent nuclear fuel were modeled. The daily fluctuations of outer ambient temperatures were taken into account. The modeling approach, which is based on the solving of conjugate and inverse heat transfer problems, was verified by comparison of measured and calculated temperatures in outer channels. The time delays in the reaching of maximal temperatures for each spent fuel assembly were calculated. Results of numerical investigations show t...

  14. Evaluation of heat stress in dry cleaner units:A case study in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Malakouti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nowadays, heat stress is one of the most harmful physical agents in workplaces. According to the consequences of heat stress and have no information about it in Qom dry cleaner units, Iran, this study have been designed to evaluate the heat stress among workers of dry cleaner units in Qom province of Iran, in Jul-Aug 2011. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 113 units of active dry cleaner units. WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index was selected for heat stress evaluation. In order to measure the requisite parameters, WBGT meter made of Casella Company had been used according to ISO 7243. Data had been analyzed according to Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs with SPSS V.16, using analysis of variance, independent T and LSD tests. Results: The average of WBGT index in Qom dry cleaner units of Iran were 28.98±1.64 °C. The average of WBGT index in 66.4% of units was up to 28°C. The average of relative humidity was 42.86%, the average of wet bulb temperature and globe temperature were 25.56°C and 36.72°C, respectively. The findings showed a significant correlation between the average of WBGT index and the standard recommendation level (p<0.0001. In dry cleaner units with less than 10 m2 area, heat stress was higher than other units  significantly (p<0.05. Conclusions: Heat stress in many dry cleaner units in Qom, Iran, was more than recommended OELs. Because of wet bulb and globe temperature in units were high value, the most important measures to heat controls, are technical engineering controls such as  radiation shield, insulation on boilers and modify the cooling systems.

  15. Effect of heterogenous and homogenous air gaps on dry heat loss through the garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Emel; Psikuta, Agnes; Bueno, Marie-Ange; Rossi, René M.

    2015-11-01

    In real life conditions, the trapped air between the human body and the garment has uneven shape and vary over the body parts as a consequence of the complex geometry of the human body. However, the existing clothing models assume uniform air layer between the human body and the garment or its full contact, which may cause large error in the output of simulations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a heterogeneous vertical air gap with different configuration of folds (size and frequency) on dry heat loss using a heated cylinder (Torso). It was found that the presence of folds in the garment led to an increased heat loss from the body in comparison to a homogeneous air gap of comparable size. Interestingly, the size of folds did not have an influence on the dry heat loss. Additionally, the effect of the contact area on dry heat loss became important when exceeding a threshold of about 42 %. The results from this study are useful for modelling of a realistic dry heat loss through the clothing and contribute to the improvement of design of protective and active sport garments.

  16. Use of latent heat storage to conserve energy during drying and its effect on drying kinetics of a food product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devahastin, Sakamon; Pitaksuriyarat, Saovakhon [Department of Food Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Pracha u-tid Road, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2006-10-15

    The present study aimed at investigating the feasibility of using a latent heat storage (LHS) with paraffin wax as a phase change material (PCM) to store excess solar energy and release it when the energy availability is inadequate or not available. First, attention was given on the heat transfer characteristics of the PCM during the charge and discharge periods of the LHS. The effects of inlet hot air temperature in the range of 70-90{sup o}C and inlet air velocities of 1 and 2ms{sup -1} on the charge time were determined, while during the discharge period only the effect of inlet ambient air velocity was considered. The effect of the use of LHS on the drying kinetics of sweet potato and the ability of the LHS to conserve energy during drying of sweet potato were also determined. It was found that the drying rate of sweet potato increased with a decrease of the inlet ambient air velocity. The amount of the energy extractable from the LHS was 1920 and 1386kJminkg{sup -1} and the energy savings was 40% and 34% when using an inlet ambient air velocity of 1 and 2ms{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  17. THERMAL POWER LOSS COMPENSATION IN THE PRODUCTION OF COOKED AND DRIED GRAINS WITH HEAT PUMPS USING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shevtsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using scientificand practical experience and analysis of recent innovative activity on modernization of food concentrates production, a new variant of the energy-efficient processing of cereal crops using superheated steam and direct involvement in the cooking and drying process waste energy using the vapor compression heat pump was suggested. A method for production of cereal concentrates, which is realized using microprocessor control of technological parameters. According to the information on the processes of cereals washing, cooking, drying and cooling microprocessor provides regime parameters control under the restrictions due to both yield of cooked and dried cereal of high quality and economic feasibility. At the same time the amount of moisture is continuously determined in the recirculation loop formed by the evaporation from the cereals in the drying process. To implement the proposed method of cooked and dried cereals production it is offered to use refrigerationand compressor unit operating in a heat pump mode. The refrigerant to be used is khladon 12V1 CF2ClBr with a boiling point in the evaporator of 4°C and the condensing temperature of 153.7 °C. The use of the heat pump in the heat supply system of cooked and dried cereals production instead of electric heaters will reduce power costs by 1.72 times. The proposed method for the production and control of technological parameters in the field of the product acceptable technological properties will provide high quality cooked and dried cereals; an increase in thermal efficiency by making full use of the waste heat of superheated steam; the reduction of specific energy consumption by 25-30 %; the creation of waste-free and environmentally friendly technologies for cereal production.

  18. Determination of drying kinetics and convective heat transfer coefficients of ginger slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Ebru Kavak; Toraman, Seda

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, the effects of some parametric values on convective heat transfer coefficients and the thin layer drying process of ginger slices were investigated. Drying was done in the laboratory by using cyclone type convective dryer. The drying air temperature was varied as 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and the air velocity is 0.8, 1.5 and 3 m/s. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to the twelve mathematical models and performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient ( R 2), reduced Chi-square ( χ 2) and root mean square error between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were calculated using an infinite series solution of Fick's diffusion equation. The average effective moisture diffusivity values and activation energy values varied from 2.807 × 10-10 to 6.977 × 10-10 m2/s and 19.313-22.722 kJ/mol over the drying air temperature and velocity range, respectively. Experimental data was used to evaluate the values of constants in Nusselt number expression by using linear regression analysis and consequently, convective heat transfer coefficients were determined in forced convection mode. Convective heat transfer coefficient of ginger slices showed changes in ranges 0.33-2.11 W/m2 °C.

  19. Effect of Tube Diameter on The Design of Heat Exchanger in Solar Drying system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husham Abdulmalek, Shaymaa; Khalaji Assadi, Morteza; Al-Kayiem, Hussain H.; Gitan, Ali Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    The drying of agriculture product consumes a huge fossil fuel rates that demand to find an alternative source of sustainable environmental friendly energy such as solar energy. This work presents the difference between using solar heat source and electrical heater in terms of design aspect. A circular-finned tube bank heat exchanger is considered against an electrical heater used as a heat generator to regenerate silica gel in solar assisted desiccant drying system. The impact of tube diameter on the heat transfer area was investigated for both the heat exchanger and the electrical heater. The fin performance was investigated by determining fin effectiveness and fin efficiency. A mathematical model was developed using MATLAB to describe the forced convection heat transfer between hot water supplied by evacuated solar collector with 70 °C and ambient air flow over heat exchanger finned tubes. The results revealed that the increasing of tube diameter augments the heat transfer area of both heat exchanger and electrical heater. The highest of fin efficiency was around 0.745 and the lowest was around 0.687 while the fin effectiveness was found to be around 0.998.

  20. Production of dry wood chips in connection with a district heating plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjölä Jukka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture and its variation in wood chips make the control of burning in small scale heating appliances difficult resulting in emissions and loss of efficiency. If the quality of wood chips would be better, i. e. dried and sieved fuel with more uniform size distribution would be avail able, the burning could be much cleaner and efficiency higher. In addition higher power out put could be obtained and the investment costs of the burning appliances would be lower. The production of sieved and dried wood chip with good quality could be accomplished in connection with a district heating plant. Then the plant would make profit, in addition to the district heat, from the dried wood chips sold to the neighboring buildings and enterprises sep a rated from the district heating net using wood chips in energy production. The peak power of a district heating plant is required only a short time during the coldest days of the winter. Then the excess capacity during the milder days can be used as heat source for drying of wood chips to be marketed. Then wood chips are sieved and the fuel with best quality is sold and the reject is used as fuel in the plant it self. In a larger district heating plant, quality of the fuel does not need to be so high In this paper the effect of moisture on the fuel chain and on the boiler is discussed. Energy and mass balance calculations as a tool of system design is described and the characteristics of proposed dry chips production method is discussed.

  1. Exergoeconomic analyses of a gas engine driven heat pump drier and food drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gungor, Aysegul; Erbay, Zafer; Hepbasli, Arif

    2011-01-01

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a pilot scale gas engine driven heat pump (GEHP) drying system is performed based on the experimental values using Exergy, Cost, Energy and Mass (EXCEM) analysis method in this study. The performance of the drying system components is discussed, while the important system components are determined to improve the system efficiency. The performance of the drying process is also analyzed for three different medicinal and aromatic plants from the exergoeconomic point of view. A comprehensive parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of varying dead (reference) state temperatures on exergoeconomic performance parameters for both drying system components and drying process. The correlations between the performance parameters and dead state temperatures are developed. The results have indicated that the dead state temperature affects the performance parameters, particularly the drying process parameters. Rising the dead state temperature leads to an increase in the exergy efficiencies of the drying process and a decrease in the ratio of the thermodynamic loss rate to the capital cost (R . ex ) values in a polynomial form. R . ex values of the drying process are obtained to be very higher compared to those of the drying system components.

  2. Intrinsic tolerance of Bifidobacterium species to heat and oxygen and survival following spray drying and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, P J; Stanton, C; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the tolerance of various species of the genus Bifidobacterium to heat and oxygen and evaluated the survival of selected strains following spray drying and during storage. Nine Bifidobacterium species were considered to be relatively tolerant to both heat and oxygen and mostly segregated into two clusters within the 16S rDNA phylogenetic tree. Four species were tolerant to oxygen and 12 species were considered sensitive to oxygen and heat. Using a skimmed milk-based carrier good survival following spray drying and storage at 4 degrees C correlated with tolerance to heat and oxygen. Viability was inversely related to storage temperature and at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C, a significant decline was observed for all species. The inclusion of gum acacia had no significant affect on survival or viability. However, using a fluidized-bed spray dryer viability was greatly improved. A group of closely related species tolerant to heat and oxygen had high survival following spray drying and maintained viability during prolonged storage at 4 degrees C. Spray drying is a suitable method for the production of skimmed milk powder enriched with high numbers of viable bifidobacteria.

  3. Probing Conformational Change of Bovine Serum Albumin–Dextran Conjugates under Controlled Dry Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Shuqin; Li, Yunqi; Zhao, Qin; Li, Ji; Xia, Qiuyang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Huang, Qingrong (Rutgers); (Chinese Aca. Sci.); (Jiangnan)

    2015-04-29

    The time-dependent conformational change of bovine serum album (BSA) during Maillard reaction with dextran under controlled dry heating has been studied by small-angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and circular dichroism analysis. Through the research on the radii of gyration (Rg), intrinsic fluorescence, and secondary structure, conjugates with dextran coating were found to inhibit BSA aggregation and preserve the secondary structure of native BSA against long-time heat treatment during Maillard reaction. The results suggested that the hydrophilic dextran was conjugated to the compact protein surface and enclosed it and more dextran chains were attached to BSA with the increase of the heating time. The study presented here will be beneficial to the understanding of the conformational evolution of BSA molecules during the dry-heating Maillard reaction and to the control of the protein–polysaccharide conjugate structure.

  4. Dry heat and radiation combination effects on Aspergillus flavus Link. infecting cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.; Meier, H.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with the effect of heat and radiation combination treatments on the control of microbial spoilage of cocoa beans caused by toxigenic Aspergillus flavus Link. The heat and radiation sources were from dry air oven heat and 60 Co gammacell 220 irradiator, respectively. The radiation doses used were either 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 krad, with combined heat temperatures of 30, 60 or 90 0 C. At each temperature level three different exposure time intervals of either 15 min, 30 min or 60 min respectively, were used. Two reversible sequential heat/radiation combination effects were evaluated. The first sequence involved cocoa beans inoculated with A. flavus spores exposed first to dry heat at pre-determined temperature heat exposure time, followed by radiation treatment, then retention of samples in a constant humidity environmental chamber set at 80% for daily observation up to forty days post-treatment. The second sequence involved exposure of the inoculated beans first to radiation, then to heat before retention under fixed RH for observation. From their results, the authors arrive at four conclusions: first, that there is a critical radiation/heat combination range (200, 150 and 100 krad/90 0 C for 15 min) that significantly decontaminates (less than 5% mouldiness) A. flavus infected cocoa beans even under high relative humidity (80% RH) environment; second, that a temperature level of 90 0 C combined with 200, 150 or 100 krad maximizes such effect but the heat exposure time is a major factor; third, that low heat temperature ranges of 30 or 60 0 C, combined with low radiation dosages of 150 krad or below, enhance the rate of A. flavus spoilage effects of cocoa beans; and, lastly, that the sequence of exposure of the inoculated cocoa beans to heat/radiation combination influenced the spore germination; exposure to heat before radiation would sensitize the spores (200 krad/90 0 C) but results in an increased radioresistance. (author)

  5. Dry Heat and Radiation Combination Effects on Aspergillus Flavus Link. Infecting Cocoa Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.; Meier, H.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with the effect of heat and radiation combination treatments on the control of microbial spoilage of cocoa beans caused by toxigenic Aspergillus flavus Link. The heat and radiation sources were from dry air oven heat and 60 Co gammaceli 220 irradiator, respectively. The radiation doses used were either 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 krad, with combined heat temperatures of 30, 60 or 90°C. At each temperature level three different exposure time intervals of either 15 min, 30 min or 60 min respectively, were used. Two reversible sequential heat/radiation combination effects were evaluated.. The first sequence involved cocoa beans inoculated with A. flavus spores exposed first to dry heat at pre-determined temperature heat exposure time, followed by radiation treatment, then retention of samples in a constant humidity environmental chamber set at 80% for daily observation up to forty days post-treatment. The second sequence involved exposure of the inoculated beans first to radiation, then to heat before retention under fixed RH for observation. From their results, the authors arrive at four conclusions: first, that there is a critical radiation/heat combination range (200, 150 and 100 krad/90°C for 15 min) that significantly decontaminates (less than 5% mouldiness) A. flavus infected cocoa beans even under high relative humidity (80% RH) environment; second, that a temperature level of 90°C combined with 200, 150 or 100 krad maximizes such effect but the heat exposure time is a major factor; third, that low heat temperature ranges of 30 or 60°C, combined with low radiation dosages of 150 krad or below, enhance the rate of A. flavus spoilage effects of cocoa beans; and, lastly, that the sequence of exposure of the inoculated cocoa beans to heat/radiation combination influenced the spore germination; exposure to heat before radiation would sensitize the spores (200 krad/90°C) but results in an increased radioresistance. (author)

  6. Electrostatic process for a heat pump with spontaneous flow; Procede electrostatique de pompe a chaleur a ecoulement spontane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brochet, J.L.

    2001-07-01

    This document describes a new type of high-performance electrostatic gas heat pump. An electrical field is created at the surface of the hot plate (the 'electrostatic' plate) which polarizes and attracts the gas molecules. The thermodynamic principle and the technical aspects of this invention are described, together with some specific applications (thermoelectric converter with a unique heat source, plant for power and fresh water production from seawater). (J.S.)

  7. Self-heating of dried industrial wastewater sludge: lab-scale investigation of supporting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Zassa, M; Biasin, A; Zerlottin, M; Refosco, D; Canu, P

    2013-06-01

    We studied the reactivity of dried sludge produced by treatment of wastewater, mainly from tanneries. The solids transformations have been first characterized with thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) proving that exothermic transformation takes place at fairly low temperature, before the total organic combustion that occurs in air above 400°C. The onset of low temperature reactions depends on the heating rate and it can be below 100°C at very small heating rate. Then, we reproducibly determined the conditions to trigger dried sludge self-heating at the laboratory scale, on samples in the 0.2-0.3 kg size. Thermal insulation, some aeration and addition of water are key factors. Mastering the self-heating at this scale allows more detailed investigations as well as manipulation of conditions, to understand its nature, course and remediation. Here we report proves and discussions on the role of air, water, particle size, porosity and biological activity, as well as proving that also dried sludge from similar sources lead to self-heating. Tests demonstrate that air and water are simultaneously required for significant self-heating to occur. They act in diverging directions, both triggering the onset of the reactions and damping the temperature rise, by supporting heat loss. The higher the O2 concentration, the higher the solids heating rate. More added water prolongs the exothermic phase. Further additions of water can reactivate the material. Water emphasizes the exothermic processes, but it is not sufficient to start it in an air-free atmosphere. The initial solid moisture concentration (between 8% and 15%) affects the onset of self-heating as intuitive. The sludge particles size strongly determines the strength and extent of the heat release, indicating that surface reactions are taking place. In pelletized particles, limitations to water and air permeability mitigates the reaction course. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Physical Osmosis Methods on Quality of Tilapia Fillets Processed by Heat Pump Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Min

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the influence of different pretreatment methods on heat pump dried tilapia fillets, the effects of trehalose, ultrasound-assisted and freeze-thaw cycle assisted osmotic dehydration on the color, rehydration, texture and Ca2+-ATPase activity were investigated. Tilapia fillets (100 mm length × 50 mm width × 5 mm height were first osmoconcentrated in a trehalose solution combined with 4°C under atmospheric pressure for 1 h, different power of ultrasound and freeze-thawing respectively, then heat pump dried. The results showed that under the same drying method, the comprehensive score of ultrasound in 400 Watt was best, compared to freeze-thaw, the ultrasound pretreatment had a significant (p0.05 effect on the rehydration and texture. However, both of them significantly (p<0.05 affected the quality in comparison to that of osmosis at 4°C. It indicates that suitable ultrasonic pretreatment conditions improve the quality of dried products effectively and the conclusion of this research provides reference for heat pump dried similar products.

  9. [Benefit of microwaves in case of heat-sensitive agglomerate drying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelen, Akos; Hegedüs, Agota; Nagy, Tibor; Máthé, Zoltán; Hódi, Klára

    2003-01-01

    The microwave assisted vacuum drying of heat-sensitive materials is increasing in the pharmaceutical industry since the eighties. This paper deals with results of two experiment series obtained on a laboratory scale single pot dryer (Collette Ultima 251). Firstly water was heated up to the boiling point exclusively by predetermined microwave energy and then by various wall temperatures in order to determine the convection efficiency of the system. The experiments were carried out at fixed pressure level (80 mbar) and with optimum bowl load (15 kg). According to the demonstrated idea each single pot system efficiency can be specified at any type and quantity of load. With the help of the presented results the second experiments were designed to compare the microwave and convection efficiency of the single pot system during granule drying. A placebo granule was dried either by an exclusive convection or microwave method up to the determined LOD (< 0.5%). According to the tests extreme high wall temperature (85 degrees C) had to be used to achieve the same drying time--and efficiency--as with the usage of dielectric heating. Based on the results it can be stated that the shorter drying time under favourable conditions is the advantage of microwave radiation over the conventional technique.

  10. Modeling of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Wood in Finish Drying by the Energy of a Microwave Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinchik, N. N.; Adamovich, A. L.; Kizina, O. A.; Kharma, U. M.

    2015-01-01

    A physicomathematical model of heat and moisture transfer in drying materials in the region below the hygroscopicity limit, including also the heating by the energy of a microwave field, has been developed. The developed system of equations has been solved numerically for three cases of drying of a wooden plate: convective drying, drying by the microfield-field energy, and drying combining the above two methods, i.e., combined drying. Results of numerical calculations of the temperature, vapor-pressure, and moisture-content distributions in the cross section of the plate at different instants of time, and also of the change in the average moisture content and temperature in the process of drying, have been presented. The calculation results have been analyzed; conclusions on the differences and distinctive features of convective, microwave, and combined heating and drying have been drawn.

  11. Effect of dry-heating with pectin on gelatinization properties of sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lim et al [11] blended ceraceous corn and potato starches with ionic gums and then subjected the blend to dry-heat treatment (after adjusting the. pH). Their results showed that there was a cross- linking reaction between the starches and gum. (ascribed to an esterification reaction between carboxyl groups in the food gum ...

  12. A Comparison of Some Properties of Vat-Heated and Dry Skim Milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some properties, namely; viscosity, flavour, acidity, texture, aroma and palatability of cultured yoghurt made from milk previously heated to 90OC for 30 minutes in a Vat were studied and the results compared to those of yoghurt fortified by addition of dry skim milk powder. The results showed no significant difference (P ...

  13. Functional Properties of Glutinous Rice Flour by Dry-Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yang; Liu, Chengzhen; Jiang, Suisui; Cao, Jinmiao; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-01-01

    Glutinous rice flour (GRF) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) were modified by dry-heat treatment and their rheological, thermal properties and freeze-thaw stability were evaluated. Compared with the native GRF and GRS, the water-holding ability of modified GRF and GRS were enhanced. Both the onset and peak temperatures of the modified samples increased while the endothermic enthalpy change decreased significantly (p dry heating remarkably increased the apparent viscosities of both GRF and GRS. Importantly, compared with GRS samples, the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") values of modified GRF increased more greatly and the tanδ values decreased more remarkably, indicating that the dry-heat treatment showed more impact on the GRF and a higher viscoelasticity compared with GRS. Our results suggest the dry-heat treatment of GRF is a more effective method than that of GRS, which omits the complex and tedious process for purifying GRS, and thereby has more practical applications in the food industry.

  14. Effect of dry heat treatment with xanthan on waxy rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Huien; Shoemaker, Charles F; Xu, Zhiting; Zhu, Song; Zhong, Fang

    2013-02-15

    Waxy rice starch was impregnated with xanthan and heat-treated in a dry state. The effects on the pasting and rheological properties of the treated starch-xanthan mixture were evaluated. Swelling of the granule was restricted, and a continuous rise of the viscosity during pasting was provided for the treated sample. After pasting, the gel forming ability of the treated starch was strengthened, as both storage and loss modulus increased and tan δ decreased. The paste also owned the highest zero order Newtonian viscosity and yield stress. An increase in starch particle size of the dry heated starch-xanthan mixture suggested a cross linking of the starch granules by the xanthan polymers. An increase of crystallinity was observed for the starch after dry heat treatment, but with the addition of xanthan the amorphous region of the granule became more resistant to dry-heating. The melting enthalpy was found to be correlated with the crystallinity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Drying and heat decomposition of biomass during the production of biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubov, V. K.; Popova, E. I.

    2017-11-01

    The process of wood torrefaction provides an opportunity to combine properties of biofuel and steam coal. Different degrees of biofuel heat treating leads to varied outcomes and varied biochar heating value. Therefore, the torrefaction process requires optimal operation that ensures the highest heating value of biochar with the lowest energy loss. In this paper we present the experimental results of drying cycle and thermal decomposition of particles of spruce stem wood and hydrolytic lignin in argon under various temperature conditions and basic material humidity as well as changes in the morphological structure of the biomass and its grain size composition during the torrefaction.

  16. Development of heat pump and infrared-convective dryer and performance analysis for stale bread drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktaş, Mustafa; Şevik, Seyfi; Aktekeli, Burak

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of stale bread drying behaviors by developing the HPD and IRD. • New techniques for the HP and IR dryers are proposed and found to be efficient. • Evaluations on potential uses low temperature applications of the dryers were reported. • 35.6% of energy saving was provided by heat recovery device. • The overall system efficiency of HPD was calculated as 13–60%. - Abstract: This experimental study aims to develop a heat pump dryer (HPD) and an infrared dryer (IRD) also the comparative empirical analyses of these two methods and to analyze the drying kinetic of stale bread sliced 15 mm thickness and effectiveness on the drying kinetics of the stale bread of dryers. Dryers have been developed by using different techniques such as heat recovery unit, proportional control (PC) of drying air temperature, simultaneous control of the relative humidity–temperature–air flow rate, water cycle dehumidifier and closed-loop cycle to increase the drying efficiency of industrial drying applications. The highest coefficient of performance of the whole heat pump system (COP ws,HP ) was calculated as 3.7 and drying efficiencies of the IRD and HPD systems were calculated as 39% and 25%, respectively. When the HPD and IRD systems were compared in terms of drying time and energy consumption, it was observed that the IRD system did not only shortened the drying time up to 69%, but also decreased the energy consumption of the system by 43.2%. Based on the obtained results the effective moisture diffusivity (D e ) was calculated in the range from 8.3 × 10 −8 to 3.2 × 10 −7 m 2 /s and mass transfer coefficient (h m ) was varied from 1.17 × 10 −5 to 4.52 × 10 −5 m/s. It was concluded that both dryers have significant effect in reduction of water content; the relative humidity controlled HPD can be applied efficiently for dryers and the dried stale bread can be reused as bread crumb by food industry.

  17. Thermal resistance of naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores. [Viking spacecraft dry heat decontamination simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleo, J. R.; Bergstrom, S. L.; Peeler, J. T.; Oxborrow, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Simulation of a heat process used in the terminal dry-heat decontamination of the Viking spacecraft is reported. Naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores were collected on Teflon ribbons in selected spacecraft assembly areas and subsequently subjected to dry heat. Thermal inactivation experiments were conducted at 105, 111.7, 120, 125, 130, and 135 C with a moisture level of 1.2 mg of water per liter. Heat survivors were recovered at temperatures of 135 C when a 30-h heating cycle was employed. Survivors were recovered from all cycles studied and randomly selected for identification. The naturally occurring spore population was reduced an average of 2.2 to 4.4 log cycles from 105 to 135 C. Heating cycles of 5 and 15 h at temperature were compared with the standard 30-h cycle at 111.7, 120, and 125 C. No significant differences in inactivation (alpha = 0.05) were observed between 111.7 and 120 C. The 30-h cycle differs from the 5- and 15-h cycles at 125 C. Thus, the heating cycle can be reduced if a small fraction (about 0.001 to 0.0001) of very resistant spores can be tolerated.

  18. Experimental determination of the key heat transfer mechanisms in pharmaceutical freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Arnab; Nail, Steven L; Alexeenko, Alina

    2013-05-01

    The study is aimed at quantifying the relative contribution of key heat transfer modes in lyophilization. Measurements of vial heat transfer rates in a laboratory-scale freeze-dryer were performed using pure water, which was partially sublimed under various conditions. The separation distance between the shelf and the vial was systematically varied, and sublimation rates were determined gravimetrically. The heat transfer rates were observed to be independent of separation distance between the vial and the shelf and linearly dependent on pressure in the free molecular flow limit, realized at low pressures (120 mTorr), heat transfer rates were independent of pressure and inversely proportional to separation distance. Previous heat transfer studies in conventional freeze-drying cycles have attributed a dominant portion of the total heat transfer to radiation, the rest to conduction, whereas convection has been found to be insignificant. Although the measurements reported here confirm the significance of the radiative and gas conduction components, the convective component has been found to be comparable to the gas conduction contribution at pressures greater than 100 mTorr. The current investigation supports the conclusion that the convective component of the heat transfer cannot be ignored in typical laboratory-scale freeze-drying conditions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Validating the Heat Stress Indices for Using In Heavy Work Activities in Hot and Dry Climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Roohalah; Golbabaei, Farideh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Beheshti, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Sayed Mohammad; Taheri, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Necessity of evaluating heat stress in the workplace, require validation of indices and selection optimal index. The present study aimed to assess the precision and validity of some heat stress indices and select the optimum index for using in heavy work activities in hot and dry climates. It carried out on 184 workers from 40 brick kilns workshops in the city of Qom, central Iran (as representative hot and dry climates). After reviewing the working process and evaluation the activity of workers and the type of work, environmental and physiological parameters according to standards recommended by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) including ISO 7243 and ISO 9886 were measured and indices were calculated. Workers engaged in indoor kiln experienced the highest values of natural wet temperature, dry temperature, globe temperature and relative humidity among studied sections (Pstress index (HSI) indices had the highest correlation with other physiological parameters among the other heat stress indices. Relationship between WBGT index and carotid artery temperature (r=0.49), skin temperature (r=0.319), and oral temperature (r=0.203) was statistically significant (P=0.006). Since WBGT index, as the most applicable index for evaluating heat stress in workplaces is approved by ISO, and due to the positive features of WBGT such as ease of measurement and calculation, and with respect to some limitation in application of HSI; WBGT can be introduced as the most valid empirical index of heat stress in the brick workshops.

  20. Use of geothermal heat for crop drying and related agricultural applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, T.J.; Wright, T.C.; Fein, E.; Munson, T.R.; Richmond, R.C.

    1978-03-01

    Observations led to the selection of the alfalfa dehydration industry for in-depth analysis of the application of moderate-temperature geothermal heat. Six geothermal heat exchanger/dryer configurations were examined. A low-temperature conveyor dryer using geothermal water to supply all required heat was chosen for site-specific analysis, the retrofitting of a large alfalfa dehydration plant within the Heber KGRA in the Imperial Valley, California. Even in the most favorable scenario--sharing a geothermal pipeline with the neighboring fertilizer plant--geothermal retrofitting would increase the price of the alfalfa ''dehy'' about 40 percent. The geothermal brine is estimated to cost $2.58/million Btu's compared with a 1977 natural gas cost of $1.15. Capital cost for heat exchangers and the new dryers is estimated at $3.3 million. The Heber plant appeared to offer the only good opportunity for geothermal retrofitting of an existing alfalfa dehydration plant. Construction of new plants at geothermal resource sites cannot be justified due to the uncertain state of the ''dehy'' industry. Use of geothermal heat for drying other crops may be much more promising. The potato dehydration industry, which is concentrated in the geothermal-rich Snake River Valley of Idaho, appears to offer good potential for geothermal retrofitting; about 4.7 x 10{sup 12}Btu's are used annually by plants within 50 miles of resources. Drying together at the geothermal wellhead several crops that have interlocking processing seasons and drying-temperature requirements may be quite attractive. The best ''multicrop drying center'' site identified was at Power Ranch Wells, Arizona; 34 other sites were defined. Agricultural processing applications other than drying were investigated briefly.

  1. Heat and Mass Transfer in the Drying of a Cylindrical Body in an Oscillating Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudobashta, S. P.; Zueva, G. A.; Kartashov, É. M.

    2018-01-01

    A problem on the heating of a cylindrical body of infinite length in an oscillating electromagnetic field in the process of its drying has been formulated and solved analytically with account of the intermittence of irradiation of the body defined by the Heaviside unit function, the exponential-law absorption of electromagnetic energy by it, and the convective heat and mass exchange between the surface of the body and the environment having constant parameters. The intensity of evaporation of moisture from the surface of the body was determined on the basis of analytical solution of the problem on the mass transfer (moisture diffusion) in it on the assumption that the phase transformations of the body proceed near its surface. Solutions of the problem on the heating of the cylindrical body have been obtained for the cases of nonuniform and uniform distributions of its local temperature, the temperature of the body averaged over its volume, and the temperature gradient near the surface of the body. The "serviceability" of these solutions was verified on the basis of numerical simulation, with them, of the drying of a seed shaped as a cylinder under the action of an oscillating infrared radiation. As a result of the numerical simulation performed, a technological regime of drying of seeds at minimum and maximum temperatures of their heating by on oscillating infrared radiation for a definite period of time in a cycle, providing not only the drying of the seeds but also substantial improvement of their sowing properties (the sprouting energy and the germination power), has been found. It is shown that the oscillating infrared heating of seeds can be used for their drying in pseudofluidized and vibrofluidized beds.

  2. Performance of Heat Pump Dryer for Kaffir Lime Leaves and Quality of Dried Products under Different Temperatures and Media

    OpenAIRE

    N. Poomsa-ad; K. Deejing; L. Wiset

    2011-01-01

    This research is to study the performance of heat pump dryer for drying of kaffir lime leaves under different media and to compare the color values and essential oil content of final products after drying. In the experiments, kaffir lime leaves were dried in the closed-loop system at drying temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 oC. The drying media used in this study were hot air, CO2 and N2 gases. The velocity of drying media in the drying chamber was 0.4 m/s with bypass ratio o...

  3. Effects of Moist Heat and Dry Heat on the Nutritional Value of Velvet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    constitute lOand 20 perc~nt of the experimental diets andfed to laying hens. The results revealed an over- ... was ci better method of heat treatment than roasting, for velvet bfans fed to the laying hens. Keywords: Heat .... 'Vegetable oil was added to make up the required amount of energy in the diets. bProvide per kg diet: Vit ...

  4. Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer Model for Convective Drying of Building Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ashwani; Chandramohan, V. P.

    2018-04-01

    A mathematical model of simultaneous heat and moisture transfer is developed for convective drying of building material. A rectangular brick is considered for sample object. Finite-difference method with semi-implicit scheme is used for solving the transient governing heat and mass transfer equation. Convective boundary condition is used, as the product is exposed in hot air. The heat and mass transfer equations are coupled through diffusion coefficient which is assumed as the function of temperature of the product. Set of algebraic equations are generated through space and time discretization. The discretized algebraic equations are solved by Gauss-Siedel method via iteration. Grid and time independent studies are performed for finding the optimum number of nodal points and time steps respectively. A MATLAB computer code is developed to solve the heat and mass transfer equations simultaneously. Transient heat and mass transfer simulations are performed to find the temperature and moisture distribution inside the brick.

  5. Effect of nutritional immunomodulation and heat stress during the dry period on subsequent performance of cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, Thiago F; Laporta, Jimena; Corra, Fabiana N; Torres, Yazielis M; Kirk, David J; McLean, Derek J; Chapman, J D; Dahl, Geoffrey E

    2017-08-01

    Heat stress in dairy cows during the dry period impairs milk yield in the next lactation. Feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corp., Teaneck, NJ) to lactating cows during heat stress may increase dry matter intake (DMI) and lowers respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT), but the effects in dry cows are not known. We hypothesized that OG supplementation before, during, and after the dry period (approximately 160 d total) would overcome the effects of heat stress and improve cow performance in the next lactation. Cows were randomly assigned to OG or control (placebo) treatments for the last 60 d in milk (DIM), based on mature-equivalent milk yield in the previous lactation. Cows were dried off 45 d before expected calving and randomly assigned to heat stress (HT) or cooling (CL) treatments. Thus, cows received dietary supplementation during late lactation before they were exposed to either CL or HT. After dry-off, treatment groups included heat stress with placebo (HT, only shade, 56 g/d of placebo, n = 17), HT with OG supplementation (HTOG, 56 g/d of OG, n = 19), cooling with placebo (CL, shade, fans, and soakers, 56 g/d of placebo, n = 16), and CL with OG supplementation (CLOG, 56 g/d of OG, n = 11). After parturition, all cows were kept under the same CL system and management, and all cows continued to receive OG or control treatment until 60 DIM. Cooling cows during the dry period reduced afternoon RT (CL vs. HT; 38.9 ± 0.05 vs. 39.3 ± 0.05°C) and RR (CL vs. HT; 45 ± 1.6 vs. 77 ± 1.6 breaths/min). Respiration rate was also decreased by OG supplementation under HT conditions (HTOG vs. HT; 69.7 ± 1.6 vs. 77.2 ± 1.6 breaths/min). An interaction was observed between OG supplementation and HT; HTOG cows tended to have lower morning RT compared with HT cows. During the dry period, OG reduced DMI relative to control cows. Birth weight was greater in calves from CL cows (CL vs. HT; 40.6 ± 1.09 vs. 38.7 ± 1.09 kg). No differences were detected

  6. Effect of heat stress during the dry period on mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S; Bubolz, J W; do Amaral, B C; Thompson, I M; Hayen, M J; Johnson, S E; Dahl, G E

    2011-12-01

    Heat stress during the dry period negatively affects hepatic metabolism and cellular immune function during the transition period, and milk production in the subsequent lactation. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in the depressed mammary gland function remain unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of heat stress during the dry period on various indices of mammary gland development of multiparous cows. Cows were dried off approximately 46 d before expected calving and randomly assigned to 2 treatments, heat stress (HT, n=15) or cooling (CL, n=14), based on mature equivalent milk production. Cows in the CL treatment were provided with sprinklers and fans that came on when ambient temperatures reached 21.1°C, whereas HT cows were housed in the same barn without fans and sprinklers. After parturition, all cows were housed in a freestall barn with cooling. Rectal temperatures were measured twice daily (0730 and 1430 h) and respiration rates recorded at 1500 h on a Monday-Wednesday-Friday schedule from dry off to calving. Milk yield and composition were recorded daily up to 280 d in milk. Daily dry matter intake was measured from dry off to 42 d relative to calving. Mammary biopsies were collected at dry off, -20, 2, and 20 d relative to calving from a subset of cows (HT, n=7; CL, n=7). Labeling with Ki67 antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling were used to evaluate mammary cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. The average temperature-humidity index during the dry period was 76.6 and not different between treatments. Heat-stressed cows had higher rectal temperatures in the morning (38.8 vs. 38.6°C) and afternoon (39.4 vs. 39.0°C), greater respiration rates (78.4 vs. 45.6 breath/min), and decreased dry matter intake (8.9 vs. 10.6 kg/d) when dry compared with CL cows. Relative to HT cows, CL cows had greater milk production (28.9 vs. 33.9 kg/d), lower milk protein

  7. The Effect of Body Weight on Heat Strain Indices in Hot and Dry Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Being overweight is a characteristic that may influence a person’s heat exchange. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of body weight on heat strain indices in hot and dry climatic conditions. Materials and Methods This study was completed with a sample of 30 participants with normal weights, as well as 25 participants who were overweight. The participants were physically inactive for a period of 120 minutes in a climatic chamber with hot and dry conditions (22 - 32°C and with 40% relative humidity (RH.The physiological strain index (PSI and heat strain score index (HSSI questionnaires were used. Simultaneous measurements were completed during heat exposure for periods of five minutes. The resting periods acted as the initial measurements for 15 minutes. Results In both groups, oral temperature, heart rate, and thermal perceptual responses increased during heat exposure. The means and standard deviations of heart rate and oral temperature were gathered when participants were in hot and dry climatic conditions and were not physically active. The heart rates and oral temperatures were 79.21 ± 5.93 bpm and 36.70 ± 0.45°C, respectively, for those with normal weights. For overweight individuals, the measurements for heart rate and oral temperature reached 82.21 ± 8.9 bpm and 37.84 ± 0.37°C, respectively. Conclusions The results showed that, compared to participants with normal weights, physiological and thermal perceptual responses were higher in overweight participants. Therefore, overweight individuals should avoid hot/dry weather conditions to decrease the amount of heat strain.

  8. Determination of adequate moisture content for efficient dry-heat viral inactivation in lyophilized factor VIII by loss on drying and by near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M; Torres, J; Franks, L; Masecar, B; Hotta, J

    1998-06-01

    A requirement for a minimal threshold level of moisture in order for efficient virus inactivation to occur during dry heat treatment of freeze-dried coagulation factor concentrates is described. Techniques used to determine moisture content during heating were Loss on Drying and Karl Fischer. The Loss on Drying was suspected to have occasional errors as a result of sample preparation being influenced by interference from atmospheric moisture. Therefore, a non-invasive, non-destructive method for determination of residual moisture content using near infrared spectrometry (NIR) was developed for freeze-dried antihaemophilic factor (AHF). Calibration equations were determined against Loss on Drying and Karl Fischer assay methods and these equations evaluated for the predictive efficiency. Both Loss on Drying and NIR were used to evaluate the effect of moisture content on the efficiency of virus inactivation by dry heat at 80 degrees C. A minimum level of moisture of greater than 0.7%, as determined by Loss on Drying, was necessary for a virus reduction in the magnitude of 4 log10 for hepatitis A virus, porcine parvovirus and pseudorabies virus. Copyright 1998 The International Association of Biological Standardization

  9. Heat and mass transfer coefficients and modeling of infrared drying of banana slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Baptestini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, having a large part of its production performed in tropical countries. This product possesses a wide range of vitamins and minerals, being an important component of the alimentation worldwide. However, the shelf life of bananas is short, thus requiring procedures to prevent the quality loss and increase the shelf life. One of these procedures widely used is drying. This work aimed to study the infrared drying process of banana slices (cv. Prata and determine the heat and mass transfer coefficients of this process. In addition, effective diffusion coefficient and relationship between ripening stages of banana and drying were obtained. Banana slices at four different ripening stages were dried using a dryer with infrared heating source with four different temperatures (65, 75, 85, and 95 ºC. Midilli model was the one that best represented infrared drying of banana slices. Heat and mass transfer coefficients varied, respectively, between 46.84 and 70.54 W m-2 K-1 and 0.040 to 0.0632 m s-1 for temperature range, at the different ripening stages. Effective diffusion coefficient ranged from 1.96 to 3.59 × 10-15 m² s-1. Activation energy encountered were 16.392, 29.531, 23.194, and 25.206 kJ mol-1 for 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 7th ripening stages, respectively. Ripening stages did not affect the infrared drying of bananas.

  10. Heat and mass transfer through a thick bed of cocoa beans during drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganhou, J.

    This article relates to the establishment of macroscopic equations of thick and fixed hygroscopical porous medium allowing an analysis of couply phenomena of heat and mass transfers in drying operation. The drying is done through forced convection by imposing a circulation of hot air across the layer. The authors then make their study particular to the case of thick layer of cocoa beans grown in the region of Yaounde in cameroon. A study realized on a prototype constructed and tested in the laboratory enables the validation of the proposed model.

  11. Dry and moist heating-induced changes in protein molecular structure, protein subfraction, and nutrient profiles in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi; Yu, P

    2011-12-01

    Heat processing has been used to improve protein utilization and availability of animal nutrition. However, to date, few studies exist on heat-induced protein molecular structure changes on a molecular basis. The aims of this study were to use molecular spectroscopy as a novel approach to determine heat-induced protein molecular structure changes affected by moist and dry heating and quantify protein molecular structures and nutritive value in the rumen and intestine in dairy cattle. In this study, soybean was used as a model for feed protein and was autoclaved at 120°C for 1h (moist heating) and dry heated at 120°C for 1h. The parameters assessed in this study included protein structure α-helix and β-sheet and their ratio, protein subfractions associated with protein degradation behaviors, intestinal protein availability, and energy values. The results show that heat treatments changed the protein molecular structure. Both dry and moist heating increased the amide I-to-amide II ratio. However, for the protein α-helix-to-β-sheet ratio, moist heating decreased but dry heating increased the ratio. Compared with dry heating, moist heating dramatically changed the chemical and nutrient profiles of soybean seed. It greatly decreased soluble crude protein, nonprotein nitrogen, and increased neutral detergent insoluble protein. Both dry and moist heating treatments did not alter digestible nutrients and energy values. Heating tended to decrease the nonprotein nitrogen fraction (soluble and rapidly degradable protein fraction) and true protein 1 fraction (fast-degradable protein fraction). Conversely, the true protein 3 fraction (slowly degradable fraction) significantly increased. The in situ rumen study showed that moist heating decreased protein rumen degradability and increased intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein. Compared with the raw soybeans, dry heating did not affect rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility. In conclusion, compared

  12. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds by sequential treatments with chlorine dioxide, drying, and dry heat without loss of seed viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2011-09-01

    We developed and validated a treatment to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without decreasing seed viability. Treatments with aqueous ClO(2) followed by drying and dry-heat treatments were evaluated for efficacy to inactivate the pathogen. Conditions to dry radish seeds after treatment with water (control) or ClO(2) were established. When treated seeds with high water activity (a(w)) (>0.99) were stored at 45°C and 23% relative humidity (RH), the a(w) decreased to dry-heat treatment (≥60°C) was essential to preserve seed viability. The germination rate of radish seeds which had been immersed in water for 5 min, dried at 45°C and 23% RH for 24 h, and heated at 70°C for 48 h or at 80°C for 24 h was not significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared to that of untreated radish seeds. Sequential treatments with ClO(2) (500 μg/ml, 5 min), drying (45°C, 23% RH, 24 h), and dry heating (70°C, 23% RH, 48 h) eliminated E. coli O157:H7 (5.9 log CFU/g) on radish seeds and, consequently, sprouts produced from them without decreasing the germination rate. These sequential treatments are recommended for application to radish seeds intended for sprout production.

  13. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Radish Seeds by Sequential Treatments with Chlorine Dioxide, Drying, and Dry Heat without Loss of Seed Viability ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R.; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    We developed and validated a treatment to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without decreasing seed viability. Treatments with aqueous ClO2 followed by drying and dry-heat treatments were evaluated for efficacy to inactivate the pathogen. Conditions to dry radish seeds after treatment with water (control) or ClO2 were established. When treated seeds with high water activity (aw) (>0.99) were stored at 45°C and 23% relative humidity (RH), the aw decreased to dry-heat treatment (≥60°C) was essential to preserve seed viability. The germination rate of radish seeds which had been immersed in water for 5 min, dried at 45°C and 23% RH for 24 h, and heated at 70°C for 48 h or at 80°C for 24 h was not significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared to that of untreated radish seeds. Sequential treatments with ClO2 (500 μg/ml, 5 min), drying (45°C, 23% RH, 24 h), and dry heating (70°C, 23% RH, 48 h) eliminated E. coli O157:H7 (5.9 log CFU/g) on radish seeds and, consequently, sprouts produced from them without decreasing the germination rate. These sequential treatments are recommended for application to radish seeds intended for sprout production. PMID:21803896

  14. Response and sensitivity of lipid related molecular structure to wet and dry heating in Canola tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Samadi; Yu, Peiqiang

    2012-05-01

    Heat treatments are used to manipulate nutrient utilization, availability and functional properties. The objective of this study was to characterize any molecular level changes of the functional groups associated with lipid structure in canola (Brassica) seed, as affected during the wet and dry heat treatment processes using molecular spectroscopy. The parameters included lipid CH3 asymmetric (ca. 2970-2946 cm-1), CH2 asymmetric (ca. 2945-2880 cm-1), CH3 symmetric (ca. 2881-2864 cm-1) and CH2 symmetric (ca. 2864-2770 cm-1) functional groups, lipid carbonyl Cdbnd O ester group (ca. 1774-1711 cm-1), lipid unsaturation group (CH attached to C-C) (ca. 3007 cm-1) as well as their ratios. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CLA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were conducted to identify molecular spectral differences. Raw canola seeds were used for the control or autoclaved at 120 °C for 1 h (HT-1: wet heating) or dry roasted at 120 °C for 1 h (HT-2: dry heating). Molecular spectral analysis of lipid functional group ratios were not significantly changed (P > 0.05) in the CH2 asymmetric to CH3 asymmetric stretching band peak intensity ratios for canola seed. Both wet (HT-1) and dry heating method (HT-2) had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on lipid carbonyl Cdbnd O ester group and lipid unsaturation group (CH attached to Cdbnd C). Multivariate molecular spectral analyses, CLA and PCA, were unable to make distinctions between the different treatment original spectra at the CH3 and CH2 asymmetric and symmetric region (ca. 2992-2770 cm-1), unsaturated lipids band region (ca. 3025-2993 cm-1) and lipid carbonyl Cdbnd O ester band region (ca. 1774-1711 cm-1). The results indicated that both dry and wet heating of given intense had no impact to the molecular spectrum in lipid related functional groups of canola seed, and was not strong enough to elicit heat-induced changes in lipid conformation.

  15. Heat treated twin wire arc spray AISI 420 coatings under dry and wet abrasive wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; González, M. A.; Monjardín, H. R.; Jimenez, O.; Flores, M.; Ibarra, J.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of applying two different heat treatments such as: deep cryogenic and tempering on dry/wet abrasive wear resistance of twin wire arc spray martensitic AISI 420 coatings was evaluated by using a modified rubber wheel type test apparatus. A load dependency was observed on the abrasive wear rate behavior of both; dry and wet tests. Three body (rolling) and two body (sliding) wear mechanisms were identified in dry conditions, prevailing rolling at lower and higher loads. However, at higher loads, more presence of grooving and pits formation was observed. Coatings tempered at 205 °C/1 h displayed better wear resistance than cryogenic treated ones. A change in wear mechanism between dry and wet conditions was observed; two body wear mechanism predominated respect to three body. In both; dry and wet conditions the microstructure (several inter-splat oxides) as well as strain and residual stress promotes brittle material removal which was more evident in cryogenic and as-sprayed samples during dry test and at higher loads in wet conditions.

  16. Heat and mass transfer parameters in the drying of cocoyam slice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macmanus C. Ndukwu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates some heat and mass transfer parameters (HMTPs of three varieties of cocoyam slice and their vitamin B retention level in convective drying. The varieties include Colocasia esculenta (COE and xanthosoma sagittiffolium (white flesh – NX01, red flesh – NX02. The objective is to generate HMTPs for process model development, applied in dryer design. The oven and sun drying procedures were employed where temperatures were maintained between 50 and 70 °C (oven drying and sun drying, the readings were observed at every one hour. The results obtained show that the mass transfer coefficient for the three varieties lies between 1.01044×10−6 and 3.44876×10−6 m/s while the heat transfer coefficient ranged from 1.17973 to 3.58284 W/m2 K. The specific energy consumption for drying was estimated at 14.15, 25.16 and 35.07 kWh/kg for NX02, NX01, and COE respectively, at drying temperature (DT of 60 °C. However, at DT range between 50 and 70 °C the moisture extraction rate was varied from 0.047 to 0.185 kg/kWh, for NX02, 0.070–0.258 kg/kWh for NX01 and 0.099–1.42 kg/kWh for COE, with vitamin B retention level ranging from 70.13% to 100% at all DTs for the varieties.

  17. Safety verification of radiation shielding and heat transfer for a model for dry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Haiyan; Tang, Xiaobin; Wang, Peng; Chen, Feida; Chai, Hao; Chen, Da

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New type of dry spent fuel storage was designed. • MC method and FEM were used to verify the reliability of new storage. • Radiation shield and heat transfer both meet IAEA standards: 2 mSv/h, 0.1 mSv/h and 190 °C, 85 °C. • Provided possibilities for future implementation of this type of dry storage. - Abstract: The goal of this research is to develop a type of dry spent fuel storage called CHN-24 container, which could contain an equivalent load of 45 GWD/MTU of spent fuel after 10 years cooling. Basically, radiation shielding performance and safe removal of decay heat, which play important roles in the safety performance, were checked and validated using the Monte Carlo method and finite element analysis to establish the radiation dose rate calculation model and three-dimensional heat transfer model for the CHN-24 container. The dose rates at the surface of the container and at a distance of 1 m from the surface were 0.42 mSv/h and 0.06 mSv/h, respectively. These conform to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) radioactive material transportation safety standards 2 mSv/h and 0.1 mSv/h. The results shows that the CHN-24 container maintains its structural and material integrity under the condition of normal thermal steady-state heat transfer as well as in case of extreme fire as evinced by transient-state analysis. The temperature inside and on the surface of the container were 150.91 °C and 80 °C under normal storage conditions, which indicated that the design also conform to IAEA heat transfer safety standards of 190 °C and 85 °C

  18. Dry-heat treatment process for enhancing viral safety of an antihemophilic factor VIII concentrate prepared from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Seop; Choi, Yong Woon; Kang, Yong; Sung, Hark Mo; Shin, Jeong Sup

    2008-05-01

    Viral safety is a prerequisite for manufacturing clinical antihemophilic factor VIII concentrates from human plasma. With particular regard to the hepatitis A virus (HAV), a terminal dry-heat treatment (100 degrees for 30 min) process, following lyophilization, was developed to improve the virus safety of a solvent/detergent-treated antihemophilic factor VIII concentrate. The loss of factor VIII activity during dry-heat treatment was of about 5%. No substantial changes were observed in the physical and biochemical characteristics of the dry-heat-treated factor VIII compared with those of the factor VIII before dry-heat treatment. The dry-heat-treated factor VIII was stable for up to 24 months at 4oC. The dry-heat treatment after lyophilization was an effective process for inactivating viruses. The HAV, murine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were completely inactivated to below detectable levels within 10 min of the dry-heat treatment. Bovine herpes virus (BHV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were potentially sensitive to the treatment. However porcine parvovirus (PPV) was slightly resistant to the treatment. The log reduction factors achieved during lyophilization and dry-heat treatment were > or =5.55 for HAV, > or =5.87 for EMCV, > or =5.15 for HIV, 6.13 for BHV, 4.46 for BVDV, and 1.90 for PPV. These results indicate that dry-heat treatment improves the virus safety of factor VIII concentrates, without destroying the activity. Moreover, the treatment represents an effective measure for the inactivation of non-lipid-enveloped viruses, in particular HAV, which is resistant to solvent/detergent treatment.

  19. Produksi Benih Cabai Rawit (Capsicum frutescens L.) Bebas TMV(Tobacco mosaic virus) Melalui Dry Heat Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    I KETUT SIADI; I GUSTI NGURAH RAKA; I GUSTI NGURAH WISNU PURWADI

    2013-01-01

    The study was done in Denpasar, Bali under greenhouse condition as well as in the field. The objective of the research is to know the effectiveness of dry heat treatment to inactivate TMV which was contaminated chili pepper seeds, and to improves the seeds quality. The seeds which were dry heated under 40ºC for 24 hours and hereinafter 70ºC for 72 hours showed to have no different viability with those of non treated seeds. These indicated that dry heat treatment does not affect to germination...

  20. Small, acid-soluble proteins bound to DNA protect Bacillus subtilis spores from killing by dry heat.

    OpenAIRE

    Setlow, B; Setlow, P

    1995-01-01

    Dry Bacillus subtilis spores lacking their two major DNA-binding proteins (small, acid-soluble proteins [SASP] alpha and beta) were much more sensitive to dry heat than were wild-type spores. Survivors of dry heat treatment of both wild-type and mutant spores exhibited a high frequency of mutations, and the DNA from the heated spores had increased numbers of single-strand breaks. These data indicate that SASP alpha and beta provide significant protection to spore DNA against the damaging effe...

  1. Effects of physical parameters on the heat and mass transfer characteristics in freeze-drying processes of fruits and vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yuming; Liu, Lijuan; Liang, Li [Shanxi Agricultural Univ. (China). Coll. of Engineering and Technology], E-mail: guoyuming99@sina.com

    2008-07-01

    Studying the effects mechanism of material physical parameters on the heat and mass transfer characteristics, the process parameters and energy consumption during freeze-drying process is of importance in improving the vacuum freeze-drying process with low energy consumption. In this paper, the sliced and mashed carrots of one variety were selected to perform the vacuum freeze-drying experiments. First, the variation laws of surface temperatures and sublimation front temperatures of the two shapes samples during the freeze-drying processes were analyzed, and it was verified that the process of sliced carrots is controlled by mass transfer, while that of the mashed ones is heat-transfer control. Second, the variations of water loss rate, energy consumption and temperature of the two shapes samples under the appropriate heating plate temperature and the different drying chamber pressure were analyzed. In addition, the effects of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity on freeze-drying time and process parameters were discussed by utilizing the theory of heat and mass transfer. In conclusion, under the heat transfer condition, the temperature of the heating plate should be as high as possible within the permitted range, and the drying chamber pressure should be set at optimal level. While under the mass transport-limited condition, the pressure level need to be altered in short time. (author)

  2. Effect of cooling heat-stressed dairy cows during the dry period on insulin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S; Thompson, I M; Monteiro, A P A; Hayen, M J; Young, L J; Dahl, G E

    2012-09-01

    Heat stress (HT) during the dry period affects hepatic gene expression and adipose tissue mobilization during the transition period. In addition, it is postulated that HT may alter insulin action on peripheral tissues. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of cooling heat-stressed cows during the dry period on insulin effects on peripheral tissues during the transition period. Cows were dried off 46 d before expected calving and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: HT (n = 16) or cooling (CL, n = 16). During the dry period, the average temperature-humidity index was 78, but CL cows were cooled with sprinklers and fans, whereas HT cows were not. After calving, all cows were housed and managed under the same conditions. Rectal temperatures were measured twice daily (0730 and 1430 h) and respiration rate recorded 3 times weekly during the dry period. Dry matter intake was recorded daily from dry-off to 42 d relative to calving (DRC). Body weight and body condition score were measured weekly from dry-off to 42 DRC. Milk yield and composition were recorded daily to 42 wk postpartum. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) and insulin challenges (IC) were performed at dry-off, -14, 7, and 28 DRC in a subset of cows (HT, n = 8; CL, n = 8). Relative to HT, CL cows had lower rectal temperatures (39.3 vs. 39.0°C) in the afternoon and respiration rate (69 vs. 48 breath/min). Cows from the cooling treatment tended to consume more feed than HT cows prepartum and postpartum. Compared with HT, CL cows gained more weight before calving but lost more weight and body condition in early lactation. Cows from the cooling treatment produced more milk than HT cows (34.0 vs. 27.7 kg/d), but treatments did not affect milk composition. Treatments did not affect circulating insulin and metabolites prepartum, but CL cows had decreased glucose, increased nonesterified fatty acid, and tended to have lower insulin concentrations in plasma postpartum compared with HT cows. Cooling prepartum HT cows did not

  3. Dry and Semi-Dry Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of dynamics in our real moist atmosphere is strongly informed by idealized dry models. It is widely believed that tropical cyclones (TCs) are an intrinsically moist phenomenon - relying fundamentally on evaporation and latent heat release - yet recent numerical modeling work has found formation of dry axisymmetric tropical cyclones from a state of dry radiative-convective equilibrium. What can such "dry hurricanes" teach us about intensity, structure, and size of real moist tropical cyclones in nature? Are dry TCs even stable in 3D? What about surfaces that are nearly dry but have some latent heat flux - can they also support TCs? To address these questions, we use the SAM cloud-system resolving model to simulate radiative-convective equilibrium on a rapidly rotating f-plane, subject to constant tropospheric radiative cooling. We use a homogeneous surface with fixed temperature and with surface saturation vapor pressure scaled by a factor 0-1 relative to that over pure water - allowing for continuous variation between moist and dry limits. We also explore cases with surface enthalpy fluxes that are uniform in space and time, where partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes is specified directly. We find that a completely moist surface yields a TC-world where multiple vortices form spontaneously and persist for tens of days. A completely dry surface can also yield a parallel dry TC-world with many vortices that are even more stable and persistent. Spontaneous cyclogenesis, however, is impeded for a range of low to intermediate surface wetness values, and by the combination of large rotation rates and a dry surface. We discuss whether these constraints on spontaneous cyclogenesis might arise from: 1) rain evaporation in the subcloud layer limiting the range of viable surface wetness values, and 2) a natural convective Rossby number limiting the range of viable rotation rates. Finally, we discuss simulations with uniform surface enthalpy

  4. Effect of dry heat treatment on the physicochemical properties and structure of proso millet flour and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingjie; Gong, Min; Li, Ying; Xiong, Liu

    2014-09-22

    Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) flour and starch were heated in a dry state at 130°C for 2 or 4 h. The effects of dry heat treatment (DHT) on the pasting, morphological and structural properties of the samples were evaluated. Dry heat treatment had a more significant effect on the pasting viscosity of flour than starch; it increased the pasting viscosity of the flour while it only increased the final viscosity of the starch. After dry heating, the onset of gelatinization and the peak temperatures of the samples increased significantly while the endothermic enthalpy decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the gel structure of the samples became more compact and the particles were plumper when compared with the native ones. Crystallinity of the samples decreased while the X-ray diffraction patterns remained the same after DHT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental evaluation of dry/wet air-cooled heat exchangers. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, S.G.; Gruel, R.L.; Huenefeld, J.C.; Eschbach, E.J.; Johnson, B.M.; Kreid, D.K.

    1982-08-01

    The ultimate goal of this project was to contribute to the development of improved cooling facilities for power plants. Specifically, the objective during FY-81 was to experimentally determine the thermal performance and operating characteristics of an air-cooled heat exchanger surface manufactured by the Unifin Company. The performance of the spiral-wound finned tube surface (Unifin) was compared with two inherently different platefin surfaces (one developed by the Trane Co. and the other developed by the HOETERV Institute) which were previously tested as a part of the same continuing program. Under dry operation the heat transfer per unit frontal area per unit inlet temperature difference (ITD) of the Unifin surface was 10% to 20% below that of the other two surfaces at low fan power levels. At high fan power levels, the performances of the Unifin and Trane surfaces were essentially the same, and 25% higher than the HOETERV surface. The design of the Unifin surface caused a significantly larger air-side pressure drop through the heat exchanger both in dry and deluge operation. Generally higher overall heat transfer coefficients were calculated for the Unifin surface under deluged operation. They ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 Btu/hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F as compared to less than 2.0 Btu hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F for the Trane and HOETERV surfaces under similar conditions. The heat transfer enhancement due to the evaporative cooling effect was also measureably higher with the Unifin surface as compared to the Trane surface. This can be primarily attributed to the better wetting characteristics of the Unifin surface. If the thermal performance of the surfaces are compared at equal face velocities, the Unifin surface is as much as 35% better. This method of comparison accounts for the wetting characteristics while neglecting the effect of pressure drop. Alternatively the surfaces when compared at equal pressure drop essentially the same thermal performance.

  6. Advanced exergoeconomic analysis of a gas engine heat pump (GEHP) for food drying processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gungor, Aysegul; Tsatsaronis, George; Gunerhan, Huseyin; Hepbasli, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between conventional and advanced exergoconomic analyses for food drying. • 74% of the total energy destruction can be avoided. • The condenser has the highest improvement potential. • Inefficiencies and options for improvement are identified for each component. - Abstract: Exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses are often used to evaluate the performance of energy systems from the thermodynamic and economic points of view. While a conventional exergetic analysis can be used to recognize the sources of inefficiencies, the so-called advanced exergy-based analysis is convenient for identifying the real potential for thermodynamic improvements and the system component interactions by splitting the exergy destruction and the total operating cost within each component into endogenous/exogenous and unavoidable/avoidable parts. In this study for the first time an advanced exergoeconomic analysis is applied to a gas-engine-driven heat pump (GEHP) drying system used in food drying for evaluating its performance along with each component. The advanced exergoeconomic analysis shows that the unavoidable part of the exergy destruction cost rate within the components of the system is lower than the avoidable part. The most important components based on the total avoidable costs are drying ducts, the condenser and the expansion valve. The inefficiencies within the condenser could particularly be improved by structural improvements of the whole system and the remaining system components. Finally, it can be concluded that the internal design changes play a more essential role in determining the cost of each component

  7. HEAT INSULATING LIME DRY MORTARS FOR FINISHING OF WALLS MADE OF FOAM CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganina Valentina Ivanovna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Different aerated mortars are used for pargeting of walls made of aerated concrete. Though the regulatory documents don’t specify the dependence of plaster density from the density grade of gas-concrete blocks. In case of facing of gas-concrete blocks with the grade D500 using plaster mortars with the density 1400…1600 km/m3 there occurs a dismatch in the values of thermal insulation and vapor permeability of the plaster and base. The authors suggest using dry mortars for finishing of gas-concrete block of the grades D500 и D600, which allow obtaining facing thermal insulating coatings. The efficiency of using four different high-porous additives in the lime dry mortar was compared. They were: hollow glass microspheres, aluminosilicate ash microspheres, expanded vermiculite sand, expanded pearlitic sand. The high efficiency of hollow glass microspheres in heat insulating finishing mortars compared to other fillers is proved.

  8. A study of the impact of moist-heat and dry-heat treatment processes on hazardous trace elements migration in food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Qiu, Xiaopeng; Chen, Xin

    2015-03-01

    Using laboratory experiments, the authors investigated the impact of dry-heat and moist-heat treatment processes on hazardous trace elements (As, Hg, Cd, Cr, and Pb) in food waste and explored their distribution patterns for three waste components: oil, aqueous, and solid components. The results indicated that an insignificant reduction of hazardous trace elements in heat-treated waste-0.61-14.29% after moist-heat treatment and 4.53-12.25% after dry-heat treatment-and a significant reduction in hazardous trace elements (except for Hg without external addition) after centrifugal dehydration (P heat treatment, over 90% of the hazardous trace elements in the waste were detected in the aqueous and solid components, whereas only a trace amount of hazardous trace elements was detected in the oil component (heat treatment process did not significantly reduce the concentration of hazardous trace elements in food waste, but the separation process for solid and aqueous components, such as centrifugal dehydration, could reduce the risk considerably. Finally, combined with the separation technology for solid and liquid components, dry-heat treatment is superior to moist-heat treatment on the removal of external water-soluble ionic hazardous trace elements. An insignificant reduction of hazardous trace elements in heat-treated waste showed that heat treatment does not reduce trace elements contamination in food waste considerably, whereas the separation process for solid and aqueous components, such as centrifugal dehydration, could reduce the risk significantly. Moreover, combined with the separation technology for solid and liquid components, dry-heat treatment is superior to moist-heat treatment for the removal of external water-soluble ionic hazardous trace elements, by exploring distribution patterns of trace elements in three waste components: oil, aqueous, and solid components.

  9. Experimental determination of surface heat transfer coefficient in a dry ice-ethanol cooling bath using a numerical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    BACKGROUND: Dry ice-ethanol bath (-78 degree C) have been widely used in low temperature biological research to attain rapid cooling of samples below freezing temperature. The prediction of cooling rates of biological samples immersed in dry ice-ethanol bath is of practical interest in cryopreservation. The cooling rate can be obtained using mathematical models representing the heat conduction equation in transient state. Additionally, at the solid cryogenic-fluid interface, the knowledge of the surface heat transfer coefficient (h) is necessary for the convective boundary condition in order to correctly establish the mathematical problem. The study was to apply numerical modeling to obtain the surface heat transfer coefficient of a dry ice-ethanol bath. A numerical finite element solution of heat conduction equation was used to obtain surface heat transfer coefficients from measured temperatures at the center of polytetrafluoroethylene and polymethylmetacrylate cylinders immersed in a dry ice-ethanol cooling bath. The numerical model considered the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties of plastic materials used. A negative linear relationship is observed between cylinder diameter and heat transfer coefficient in the liquid bath, the calculated h values were 308, 135 and 62.5 W/(m 2 K) for PMMA 1.3, PTFE 2.59 and 3.14 cm in diameter, respectively. The calculated heat transfer coefficients were consistent among several replicates; h in dry ice-ethanol showed an inverse relationship with cylinder diameter.

  10. alpha-Dicarbonyl compounds formed by nonenzymatic browning during the dry heating of caseinate and lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Pan, Geoffrey; Oliver, Christine M; Melton, Laurence D

    2006-09-06

    A method using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection was developed for monitoring the alpha-dicarbonyl compound profiles generated from nonenzymatic browning using o-phenylenediamine (OPD) as a trapping agent. The alpha-dicarbonyl compounds were generated by the "dry" reaction of sodium caseinate and lactose heated at various relative humidities (RHs). The proportions of alpha-dicarbonyls formed were different for samples heated at low, intermediate, and high RHs. This study shows that relatively large amounts of 3-deoxypentosulose and galactosyl 2-pentosulose are produced under high RHs, while galactosyl hexosulose and 1,4-dideoxyhexosulose are elevated under low RH conditions. Both caramelization and Maillard reaction pathways contributed to the generation of alpha-dicarbonyls.

  11. Predictive modeling of infrared radiative heating in tomato dry-peeling process: Part II. Model validation and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A predictive mathematical model was developed to simulate heat transfer in a tomato undergoing double sided infrared (IR) heating in a dry-peeling process. The aims of this study were to validate the developed model using experimental data and to investigate different engineering parameters that mos...

  12. Caco-2 Invasion byCronobacter sakazakiiandSalmonella entericaExposed to Drying and Heat Treatments in Dried State in Milk Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Emilie; Guyot, Stéphane; Alvarez-Martin, Pablo; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Gervais, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Due to the ability of foodborne pathogens to survive in low moisture food, the decontamination of milk powder is an important issue in food protection. The safety of food products is, however, not always insured and the different steps in the processing of food involve physiological and metabolic changes in bacteria. Among these changes, virulence properties may also be affected. In this study, the effect of drying and successive thermal treatments on the invasion capacity of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Senftenberg, and Cronobacter sakazakii was assessed. Bacteria were dried on milk powder at three different water activity levels (0.25, 0.58, and 0.80) and heated at two different temperatures (90°C and 100°C) for 30 and 120 s. After recovery, stressed bacterial populations were placed in contact with Caco-2 cells to estimate their invasion capacity. Our results show that drying increases the invasion capacity of foodborne pathogens, but that heat treatment in the dried state did not exert a selective pressure on bacterial cells depending on their invasion capacity after drying. Taken together, our findings add to the sum of knowledge on food safety in dried food products and provide insight into the effects of food processing.

  13. Caco-2 Invasion by Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica Exposed to Drying and Heat Treatments in Dried State in Milk Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Lang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ability of foodborne pathogens to survive in low moisture food, the decontamination of milk powder is an important issue in food protection. The safety of food products is, however, not always insured and the different steps in the processing of food involve physiological and metabolic changes in bacteria. Among these changes, virulence properties may also be affected. In this study, the effect of drying and successive thermal treatments on the invasion capacity of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Senftenberg, and Cronobacter sakazakii was assessed. Bacteria were dried on milk powder at three different water activity levels (0.25, 0.58, and 0.80 and heated at two different temperatures (90°C and 100°C for 30 and 120 s. After recovery, stressed bacterial populations were placed in contact with Caco-2 cells to estimate their invasion capacity. Our results show that drying increases the invasion capacity of foodborne pathogens, but that heat treatment in the dried state did not exert a selective pressure on bacterial cells depending on their invasion capacity after drying. Taken together, our findings add to the sum of knowledge on food safety in dried food products and provide insight into the effects of food processing.

  14. The dry-heat loss effect of melt-spun phase change material fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjønnås, Maria Suong; Færevik, Hilde; Sandsund, Mariann; Reinertsen, Randi E

    2015-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) have the ability to store latent heat when they change phases, a property that gives clothing that incorporates PCM its cooling effect. This study investigated the effect of dry-heat loss (cooling) of a novel melt-spun PCM fibre on the basis of the area covered, mass, the latent heat of fusion and melting temperature, compared to a known PCM clothing product. PCM fibres with melting temperatures of 28.4 and 32.0°C and PCM packs with melting temperatures of 28.0 and 32.0°C were studied. The results showed that the PCM fibres had a larger initial peak cooling effect than that of the PCM packs. The duration of the cooling effect of PCM fibres was primarily dependent on the PCM mass and the latent heat of fusion capacity, and secondly on the covered area and melting temperature of the PCM. This study investigates the cooling effect of PCM fibres on a thermal manikin. The PCM fibres had a high but short-lasting cooling effect. This study contributes to the knowledge of how the body's temperature regulation may be affected by the cooling properties of clothing that incorporates PCM.

  15. Physicochemical Characterization of a Heat Treated Calcium Alginate Dry Film Prepared with Chicken Stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, Germán D; Piccirilli, Gisela N; Ballerini, Griselda A; Frattini, Agustín; Busti, Pablo A; Verdini, Roxana A; Delorenzi, Néstor J

    2017-04-01

    Solid sodium alginate was dissolved into chicken stock in order to give a final alginate concentration of 0.9 percent (w/v). Calcium ions present in chicken stock were enough to induce ionic gelation. After drying, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thickness and mechanical properties of films obtained were determined. Calcium alginate-chicken stock films were heated at 130 °C for different times between 0 and 15 min. Mechanical and optical studies, differential scanning calorimetry, visual aspect and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to describe physicochemical properties of heat treated films. Heating developed a maroon ochre color and increased the brittleness (crispness) of the films related to the intensity of the treatment. Differential scanning thermometry and study on appearance of the films suggested that Maillard reactions may be responsible for the observed changes. Maillard reactions mainly occurred between reducing sugar monomers and free amino groups of gelatin peptides present in the chicken stock, and between alginate and gelatin peptides to a lesser extent. In addition, the plasticizing effect of fat added with chicken stock was also studied. These studies suggest a potential use of heat treated chicken stock films as a substitute of roasted chicken skin. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Investigation of Pear Drying Performance by Different Methods and Regression of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient with Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an air heated solar collector (AHSC dryer was designed to determine the drying characteristics of the pear. Flat pear slices of 10 mm thickness were used in the experiments. The pears were dried both in the AHSC dryer and under the sun. Panel glass temperature, panel floor temperature, panel inlet temperature, panel outlet temperature, drying cabinet inlet temperature, drying cabinet outlet temperature, drying cabinet temperature, drying cabinet moisture, solar radiation, pear internal temperature, air velocity and mass loss of pear were measured at 30 min intervals. Experiments were carried out during the periods of June 2017 in Elazig, Turkey. The experiments started at 8:00 a.m. and continued till 18:00. The experiments were continued until the weight changes in the pear slices stopped. Wet basis moisture content (MCw, dry basis moisture content (MCd, adjustable moisture ratio (MR, drying rate (DR, and convective heat transfer coefficient (hc were calculated with both in the AHSC dryer and the open sun drying experiment data. It was found that the values of hc in both drying systems with a range 12.4 and 20.8 W/m2 °C. Three different kernel models were used in the support vector machine (SVM regression to construct the predictive model of the calculated hc values for both systems. The mean absolute error (MAE, root mean squared error (RMSE, relative absolute error (RAE and root relative absolute error (RRAE analysis were performed to indicate the predictive model’s accuracy. As a result, the rate of drying of the pear was examined for both systems and it was observed that the pear had dried earlier in the AHSC drying system. A predictive model was obtained using the SVM regression for the calculated hc values for the pear in the AHSC drying system. The normalized polynomial kernel was determined as the best kernel model in SVM for estimating the hc values.

  17. Exergetic analysis and evaluation of a new application of gas engine heat pumps (GEHPs) for food drying processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gungor, Aysegul [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gediz University, Izmir (Turkey); Erbay, Zafer [Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Hepbasli, Arif [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-03-15

    In this study, three medicinal and aromatic plants (Foeniculum vulgare, Malva sylvestris L. and Thymus vulgaris) were dried in a pilot scale gas engine driven heat pump drier, which was designed, constructed and installed in Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Drying experiments were performed at an air temperature of 45 C with an air velocity of 1 m/s. In this work, the performance of the drier along with its main components is evaluated using exergy analysis method. The most important component for improving the system efficiency is found to be the gas engine, followed by the exhaust air heat exchanger for the drying system. An exergy loss and flow diagram (the so-called Grassmann diagram) of the whole drying system is also presented to give quantitative information regarding the proportion of the exergy input dissipated in the various system components, while the sustainability index values for the system components are calculated to indicate how sustainability is affected by changing the exergy efficiency of a process. Gas engine, expansion valve and drying ducts account for more than 60% amount of exergy in the system. The exergetic efficiency values are in the range of 77.68-79.21% for the heat pump unit, 39.26-43.24% for the gas engine driven heat pump unit, 81.29-81.56% for the drying chamber and 48.24-51.28% for the overall drying system. (author)

  18. Allowable peak heat-up cladding temperature for spent fuel integrity during interim-dry storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Nam Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate allowable peak cladding temperature and hoop stress for maintenance of cladding integrity during interim-dry storage and subsequent transport, zirconium alloy cladding tubes were hydrogen-charged to generate 250 ppm and 500 ppm hydrogen contents, simulating spent nuclear fuel degradation. The hydrogen-charged specimens were heated to four peak temperatures of 250°C, 300°C, 350°C, and 400°C, and then cooled to room temperature at cooling rates of 0.3 °C/min under three tensile hoop stresses of 80 MPa, 100 MPa, and 120 MPa. The cool-down specimens showed that high peak heat-up temperature led to lower hydrogen content and that larger tensile hoop stress generated larger radial hydride fraction and consequently lower plastic elongation. Based on these out-of-pile cladding tube test results only, it may be said that peak cladding temperature should be limited to a level < 250°C, regardless of the cladding hoop stress, to ensure cladding integrity during interim-dry storage and subsequent transport.

  19. The resistance of surfaces treated with oils and waxes to the action of dry heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaić Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface treatment of wood can be done with different coatings, and the choice of the appropriate system of processing depends on several factors, such as technological, aesthetic, economic and ecological. Raising awareness of the need to preserve the living and working environment has had a crucial impact on the increase in the use of natural materials for surface treatment of wood - oil and wax. The application of oils and waxes allows surface treated wood to keep the natural look, while protecting it from different influences, which can cause degradation and deterioration of the final product. The paper presents the results of testing the resistance of beech surface (Fagus silvatica L. processed with linseed oil and beeswax to the action of dry heat. In order to compare the quality of surface treated with oil and/or wax, beech wood treated with 2K-polyurethane coating is taken as a reference of surface treatment of wood. Surfaces treated with beeswax are less resistant to dry heat than those treated with linseed oil, and both showed significantly less resistance than surface treated with 2K-polyurethane coating.

  20. Study of caprine bones after moist and dry heat processes by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Caroline M., E-mail: carolmattosb@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Arqueologia Brasileira (IAB), Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Azeredo, Soraia R.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: soraia@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/LIN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Souza, Sheila M.F.M de, E-mail: sferraz@ensp.fiocruz.br [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (ENSP/FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca

    2013-07-01

    Bone tissue is a biological material composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and collagen matrix. The bone X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern presents characteristics of the hydroxyapatite crystallography planes. This paper presents the characterization by X-ray diffraction of caprine bone powder pattern and the comparison of this pattern with moist or dry heat cooked bone patterns. The parameters chosen to characterize the X-ray diffraction peaks were: angular position (2θ), full width at half maximumt (FWHM), and relative intensity (I{sub rel}). The X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained with a Shimadzu XRD-6000 diffractometer. The caprine bone XRD pattern revealed a significant correlation of several crystallographic parameters (lattice data) with hydroxyapatite. The profiles of the three bone types analyzed presented differences. The study showed as small angular displacement (decrease of the 2θ angle) of some peaks was observed after moist and dry heat cooking processes. The characterization of bone tissue aimed to contribute to future analysis in the field of archeology. (author)

  1. Rheological and stability aspects of dry and hydrothermally heat treated aleurone-rich wheat milling fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; von Reding, Walter; Schwendener, Urs; Kálmán, Franka; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2017-04-01

    Novel aleurone-rich wheat milling fraction developed and produced on industry scale is investigated. The special composition of the novel flour with high protein, dietary fiber and fat content results in a unique combination of the mixing and viscosity properties. Due to the high lipid concentration, the fraction is exposed to fast rancidity. Dry heat (100°C for 12min) and hydrothermal treatment processes (96°C for 6min with 0-20 L/h steam) were applied on the aleurone-rich flour to modify the technological properties. The chemical, structural changes; the extractability of protein, carbohydrate and phenolic components and the rheological characteristics of the flours were evaluated. The dry treated flour decreased protein and carbohydrate extractability, shortened dough development time, reduced gel strength and enhanced the gelling ability. Hydrothermal treatment caused changes in the phenolic content improved the dough stability and -resistance. Heat treatment processes were able to extend the stability of the flour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of caprine bones after moist and dry heat processes by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Caroline M.; Azeredo, Soraia R.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Souza, Sheila M.F.M de

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue is a biological material composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and collagen matrix. The bone X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern presents characteristics of the hydroxyapatite crystallography planes. This paper presents the characterization by X-ray diffraction of caprine bone powder pattern and the comparison of this pattern with moist or dry heat cooked bone patterns. The parameters chosen to characterize the X-ray diffraction peaks were: angular position (2θ), full width at half maximumt (FWHM), and relative intensity (I rel ). The X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained with a Shimadzu XRD-6000 diffractometer. The caprine bone XRD pattern revealed a significant correlation of several crystallographic parameters (lattice data) with hydroxyapatite. The profiles of the three bone types analyzed presented differences. The study showed as small angular displacement (decrease of the 2θ angle) of some peaks was observed after moist and dry heat cooking processes. The characterization of bone tissue aimed to contribute to future analysis in the field of archeology. (author)

  3. System Model of Heat and Mass Transfer Process for Mobile Solvent Vapor Phase Drying Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvent vapor phase drying process is one of the most important processes during the production and maintenance for large oil-immersed power transformer. In this paper, the working principle, system composition, and technological process of mobile solvent vapor phase drying (MVPD equipment for transformer are introduced in detail. On the basis of necessary simplification and assumption for MVPD equipment and process, a heat and mass transfer mathematical model including 40 mathematical equations is established, which represents completely thermodynamics laws of phase change and transport process of solvent, water, and air in MVPD technological processes and describes in detail the quantitative relationship among important physical quantities such as temperature, pressure, and flux in key equipment units and process. Taking a practical field drying process of 500 KV/750 MVA power transformer as an example, the simulation calculation of a complete technological process is carried out by programming with MATLAB software and some relation curves of key process parameters changing with time are obtained such as body temperature, tank pressure, and water yield. The change trend of theoretical simulation results is very consistent with the actual production record data which verifies the correctness of mathematical model established.

  4. Dry sliding wear behavior of heat treated hybrid metal matrix composite using Taguchi techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, T.S.; Prasanna Kumar, M.; Basavarajappa, S.; Viswanatha, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZA-27 alloy is used as matrix material and reinforced with SiC and Gr particles. • Heat treatment was carried out for all specimen. • Dry sliding wear test was done on pin-on-disc apparatus by Taguchi technique. • ZA-27/9SiC–3Gr showed superior wear resistance over the base alloy. • Ceramic mixed mechanical layer on contact surface of composite was formed. - Abstract: Dry sliding wear behavior of zinc based alloy and composite reinforced with SiCp (9 wt%) and Gr (3 wt%) fabricated by stir casting method was investigated. Heat treatment (HT) and aging of the specimen were carried out, followed by water quenching. Wear behavior was evaluated using pin on disc apparatus. Taguchi technique was used to estimate the parameters affecting the wear significantly. The effect of HT was that it reduced the microcracks, residual stresses and improved the distribution of microconstituents. The influence of various parameters like applied load, sliding speed and sliding distance on wear behavior was investigated by means and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Further, correlation between the parameters was determined by multiple linear regression equation for each response. It was observed that the applied load significantly influenced the wear volume loss (WVL), followed by sliding speed implying that increase in either applied load or sliding speed increases the WVL. Whereas for composites, sliding distance showed a negative influence on wear indicating that increase in sliding distance reduces WVL due to the presence of reinforcements. The wear mechanism of the worn out specimen was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The analysis shows that the formation and retention of ceramic mixed mechanical layer (CMML) plays a major role in the dry sliding wear resistance

  5. Macroscopic modeling for heat and water vapor transfer in dry snow by homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonne, Neige; Geindreau, Christian; Flin, Frédéric

    2014-11-26

    Dry snow metamorphism, involved in several topics related to cryospheric sciences, is mainly linked to heat and water vapor transfers through snow including sublimation and deposition at the ice-pore interface. In this paper, the macroscopic equivalent modeling of heat and water vapor transfers through a snow layer was derived from the physics at the pore scale using the homogenization of multiple scale expansions. The microscopic phenomena under consideration are heat conduction, vapor diffusion, sublimation, and deposition. The obtained macroscopic equivalent model is described by two coupled transient diffusion equations including a source term arising from phase change at the pore scale. By dimensional analysis, it was shown that the influence of such source terms on the overall transfers can generally not be neglected, except typically under small temperature gradients. The precision and the robustness of the proposed macroscopic modeling were illustrated through 2D numerical simulations. Finally, the effective vapor diffusion tensor arising in the macroscopic modeling was computed on 3D images of snow. The self-consistent formula offers a good estimate of the effective diffusion coefficient with respect to the snow density, within an average relative error of 10%. Our results confirm recent work that the effective vapor diffusion is not enhanced in snow.

  6. Influence of product thickness, chamber pressure and heating conditions on production rate of freeze-dried yoghurt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, N.K. [G.B. Pant Univ., of Agriculture and Technology (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Arora, C.P. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India)

    1995-06-01

    The effects of product thickness, chamber pressure and heating conditions on product temperature profiles and production rate of freeze-dried yoghurt were investigated experimentally. Three sample thicknesses - 3.8 mm, 6.2 mm and 9.4 mm - were tested at chamber pressures of 0.01 and 0.5 mmHg. The production rate increased by decreasing product thickness in contact heating through the bottom of the frozen layer, whereas no significant change was observed in radiant heating. A reduction in chamber pressure from 0.50 to 0.01 mmHg increased the drying time in radiant heating. Maximum production rate was obtained when the thickness of dried product was 6.2 mm, when heat was transferred simultaneously through the frozen and dried layers, and the chamber pressure was at 0.01 mmHg. Use of the product tray developed in this study prevents the growth of dry layers at the contact surfaces. (Author)

  7. Produksi Benih Cabai Rawit (Capsicum frutescens L. Bebas TMV(Tobacco mosaic virus Melalui Dry Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KETUT SIADI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was done in Denpasar, Bali under greenhouse condition as well as in the field. The objective of the research is to know the effectiveness of dry heat treatment to inactivate TMV which was contaminated chili pepper seeds, and to improves the seeds quality. The seeds which were dry heated under 40ºC for 24 hours and hereinafter 70ºC for 72 hours showed to have no different viability with those of non treated seeds. These indicated that dry heat treatment does not affect to germination of chili pepper seeds. The dry heat treated chili pepper seeds (DHS, non treated ones (NT, and manually TMV-contaminated DHS (DHS+TMV were planted under field condition. Verification of TMV infection in the 90 days old chili pepper plants by enzyme-linked immunoassay revealed that the rate of TMV infection were 57.89%, 12.5% and 100% for NT, DHS and DHS+TMV. These results indicated that the TMV source was abundance in the field. Infection of TMV in the chili pepper plants given much effect on the plant height, branch number and production. These research results suggest a possibility of using dry heat.

  8. Acceleration of peat drying by intensifying the heat and mass transfer; Turpeen kuivumisen nopeuttaminen laemmoen- ja aineensiirtoa tehostamalla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillebrand, K.

    1996-12-31

    The efficiency of peat production can be increased by intensifying peat drying. To intensify drying one has to know the effects of the different factors affecting the heat and mass transfer in the drying layer and in the soil. The objective of the study is to increase the degree of utilization of solar energy in drying of peat from the present level of 30% to 40% of the total incoming solar energy. In this way it is possible to reduce the peat production costs about 10%. A numerical drying model has been developed which describes the transfer of liquid water, water vapor and heat in the drying layer and in the soil. In addition, the interaction between the atmosphere and the drying layer, as well as the rainfall interception by the layer, infiltration, evaporation, and drainage have been taking into account. Daily input requirements include global solar radiation, air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed and precipitation. In addition to the weather data one has to know the characteristics of the drying layer and the soil. The numerical drying model was also used to study the effect of soil frost on peat drying and the possibilities to hinder the frost formation. Producing peat on the field which is still partly frozen, the drying of peat takes 10 - 25% longer time than under normal conditions, which means 5 - 25 hours longer drying period. By forming a porous, insulating layer on the top of the soil surface, one can hinder the frost formation significantly. Raising the groundwater level prevents, however, only a little the frost formation in peat soil

  9. CFD simulation of a dry scroll vacuum pump with clearances, solid heating and thermal deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spille-Kohoff, A.; Hesse, J.; Andres, R.; Hetze, F.

    2017-08-01

    Although dry scroll vacuum pumps (DSPV) are essential devices in many different industrial processes, the CFD simulation of such pumps is not widely used and often restricted to simplified cases due to its complexity: The working principle with a fixed and an orbiting scroll leads to working chambers that are changing in time and are connected through moving small radial and axial clearances in the range of 10 to 100 μm. Due to the low densities and low mass flow rates in vacuum pumps, it is important to include heat transfer towards and inside the solid components. Solid heating is very slow compared to the scroll revolution speed and the gas behaviour, thus a special workflow is necessary to reach the working conditions in reasonable simulation times. The resulting solid temperature is then used to compute the thermal deformation, which usually results in gap size changes that influence leakage flows. In this paper, setup steps and results for the simulation of a DSVP are shown and compared to theoretical and experimental results. The time-varying working chambers are meshed with TwinMesh, a hexahedral meshing programme for positive displacement machines. The CFD simulation with ANSYS CFX accounts for gas flow with compressibility and turbulence effects, conjugate heat transfer between gas and solids, and leakage flows through the clearances. Time-resolved results for torques, chamber pressure, mass flow, and heat flow between gas and solids are shown, as well as time- and space-resolved results for pressure, velocity, and temperature for different operating conditions of the DSVP.

  10. Nonenzymatic browning of lactose and caseinate during dry heating at different relative humidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Geoffrey Ge; Melton, Laurence D

    2007-11-28

    Dry mixtures of lactose and caseinate were heated at 60 degrees C for up to 96 h at different relative humidities (RHs) ranging from 29 to 95%. The resulting nonenzymatic browning was studied by determining lactulosyl lysine formation in the caseinate (as measured by the conversion to furosine), amount of reacted lactose, loss of lysine, color formation, and fluorescent intensity. For each measurement, the maximum reaction occurred at intermediate RHs. While there is general agreement between the results obtained by different methods, discrepancies are understandable given the complex nature of nonenzymatic browning. It was shown that the degradation of the Amadori product, lactulosyl lysine, increased with RH. Moreover, the Maillard reaction, as opposed to caramelization of lactose, was the major pathway at all RHs. Visible browning occurred when the destruction of Amadori product became dominant, and interactions between sugar fragments and caseinate were not the rate-limiting steps in the nonenzymatic browning.

  11. Combined heat recovery and dry scrubbing for MWCs to meet the new EPA guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnis, P.J. [Procedair Industries Corp., Louisville, KY (United States); Heap, B.M. [Procedair Limited, Wombourne (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-01

    Both the UK and US Municipal Waste Combuster (MWC) markets have undergone upgraded regulatory control. In the UK, the government`s Integrated Pollution Control (IPC) regime, enforced by the 1990 Environmental Protection Act (EPA) Standard IPR5/3 moved control of emissions of MWCs from local councils to the government Environmental Authority (EA). Existing MWCs had until December 1, 1996 to complete environmental upgrades. Simultaneously, the European Community (EC) was finalizing more stringent legislation to take place in the year 2001. In the US, the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue emission guidelines for new and existing facilities. Existing facilities are likely to have only until the end of 1999 to complete upgrades. In North America, Procedair Industries Corp had received contracts from Kvaerner EnviroPower AB, for APC systems of four new Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) fluid bed boilers that incorporated low outlet temperature economizers as part of the original boiler equipment. The Fayetteville, North Carolina facility was designed for 200,000 tpy. What all these facilities have in common is low economizer outlet temperatures of 285{degrees}F coupled with a Total Dry Scrubbing System. MWC or RDF facilities using conventional spray dryer/fabric filter combinations have to have economizer gas outlet temperatures about 430{degrees}F to allow for evaporation of the lime slurry in the spray dryer without the likelihood of wall build up or moisture carry over. Since the Totally Dry Scrubbing System can operate with economizer gas outlet temperatures about 285{degrees}F, the added energy available for sale from adding low outlet temperature economizer heat recovery can be considerable. This paper focuses on Procedair`s new plant and retrofit experience using `Dry Venturi Reactor/Fabric Filter` combinations with the lower inlet temperature operating conditions.

  12. Utilization of heat from High Temperature Reactors (HTR) for dry reforming of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrząb, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    One of the methods for utilization of waste carbon dioxide consists in reaction of methane with carbon dioxide, referred to as dry reforming of methane. It is an intensely endothermic catalytic process that takes place at the temperature above 700°C. Reaction of methane with carbon dioxide leads to formation of synthesis gas (syngas) that is a valuable chemical raw material. The energy that is necessary for the process to take place can be sourced from High Temperature Nuclear Reactors (HTR). The completed studies comprises a series of thermodynamic calculations and made it possible to establish optimum conditions for the process and demand for energy from HTR units. The dry reforming of methane needs also a catalytic agent with appropriate activity, therefore the hydrotalcite catalyser with admixture of cerium and nickel, developed at AGH University of Technology seems to be a promising solution. Thus, the researchers from the Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW) in Zabrze have developed a methodology for production of the powdery hydrotalcite catalyser and investigated catalytic properties of the granulate obtained. The completed experiments confirmed that the new catalyser demonstrated high activity and is suitable for the process of methane dry reforming. In addition, optimum parameters of the were process (800°C, CO2:CH4 = 3:1) were established as well. Implementation of the technology in question into industrial practice, combined with utilization of HTR heat can be a promising method for management of waste carbon dioxide and may eventually lead to mitigation of the greenhouse effect.

  13. Utilization of heat from High Temperature Reactors (HTR for dry reforming of methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastrząb Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods for utilization of waste carbon dioxide consists in reaction of methane with carbon dioxide, referred to as dry reforming of methane. It is an intensely endothermic catalytic process that takes place at the temperature above 700°C. Reaction of methane with carbon dioxide leads to formation of synthesis gas (syngas that is a valuable chemical raw material. The energy that is necessary for the process to take place can be sourced from High Temperature Nuclear Reactors (HTR. The completed studies comprises a series of thermodynamic calculations and made it possible to establish optimum conditions for the process and demand for energy from HTR units. The dry reforming of methane needs also a catalytic agent with appropriate activity, therefore the hydrotalcite catalyser with admixture of cerium and nickel, developed at AGH University of Technology seems to be a promising solution. Thus, the researchers from the Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW in Zabrze have developed a methodology for production of the powdery hydrotalcite catalyser and investigated catalytic properties of the granulate obtained. The completed experiments confirmed that the new catalyser demonstrated high activity and is suitable for the process of methane dry reforming. In addition, optimum parameters of the were process (800°C, CO2:CH4 = 3:1 were established as well. Implementation of the technology in question into industrial practice, combined with utilization of HTR heat can be a promising method for management of waste carbon dioxide and may eventually lead to mitigation of the greenhouse effect.

  14. Effect of manufacturing process parameters on virus inactivation by dry heat treatment at 80 degrees C in factor VIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, P L; Dunkerley, C; McAuley, A; Winkelman, L

    2007-01-01

    Dry heat treatment at 80 degrees C for 72 h is used as a virus inactivation step for some coagulation factor concentrates such as Bio Products Laboratory's (BPL) factor VIII 8Y. In the current study, the effect of this process has been tested on a range of viruses. In addition the effect of various manufacturing process parameters on virus inactivation has been investigated. Samples of product intermediate were obtained from manufacturing, spiked with virus and subjected to freeze drying and dry heat treatment. Virus inactivation was determined by infectivity assay. Freeze drying followed by dry heat treatment was effective for inactivating a wide range of enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. Sucrose or protein concentration had no effect on virus inactivation. Product presentation or the interruption of heat treatment also had no effect. The inactivation of some of the viruses was greater at higher residual water content but under such conditions the stability of the product was reduced. This virus inactivation step was effective for a wide range of viruses and over the range of process conditions encountered in manufacturing. This demonstrates the robustness of this process step.

  15. Dry Heat Treatment Reduces the Occurrence of Cladosporium cucumerinum, Ascochyta citrullina, and Colletotrichum orbiculare on the Surface and Interior of Cucumber Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yanxia Shi; Shanshan Meng; Xuewen Xie; Ali Chai; Baoju Li

    2016-01-01

    Dry heat treatment has been identified as a method for disinfecting seed-borne pathogens in vegetable seeds. This study demonstrated that three seed-borne pathogens of cucumber (Cladosporium cucumerinum that causes scabs, Ascochyta citrullina that results in gummy stem blight, and Colletotrichum orbiculare that induces anthracnose) could be effectively eradicated from cucumber seeds by dry heat treatment. In vitro growth of these three pathogens was inhibited by dry heat treatment at 70 °C fo...

  16. Short communication: Effect of heat stress on markers of autophagy in the mammary gland during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, S E; Ramirez-Lee, Y; Tao, S; Monteiro, A P A; Ahmed, B M; Dahl, G E

    2016-06-01

    Heat stress (HT) during the dry period compromises mammary gland (MG) growth, thus negatively affecting subsequent milk yield. Cooling during the late dry period, when mammary tissue proliferates, is a common management practice. However, it neglects MG involution during the early dry period, a process that is accomplished by both apoptosis and autophagy. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of HT on MG autophagy during the early dry period. Holstein cows were dried off ~45d before expected calving and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: HT or cooling (CL). All cows were housed in the same free stall barn during the dry period, but only the stall area for CL cows was equipped with soakers and fans. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were measured daily during the dry period. Mammary gland biopsies were collected from each cow 3d before dry-off and on d 3, 7, 14, and 22±2 after dry-off. Autophagy in the MG was determined by measuring protein expression of 2 autophagic markers, autophagy-related protein 7 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3). The average temperature-humidity index during the dry period was 77.7, which indicated that HT and CL cows were exposed to significant heat stress. However, the cooling system effectively alleviated heat strain in CL cows by decreasing the rectal temperature (39.0 vs. 39.4°C) and respiration rate (47.3 vs. 71.2 breaths per minute) relative to HT cows. Protein expression of autophagy-related protein 7, a marker for early autophagosome formation, did not change within or between groups. In contrast, protein expression of LC3-II, a marker of autophagosomes, and its precursor LC3-I showed a dynamic expression pattern in MG from CL cows during the early dry period. Relative to HT cows, MG from CL cows displayed higher expression of LC3-I and LC3-II on d 7 and lower expression of LC3-II on d 14 and 22 after dry-off. Collectively, our data provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the impairment of

  17. Effect of immobilized Lactobacillus casei on volatile compounds of heat treated probiotic dry-fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidira, Marianthi; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the amount of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat grains on the generation of volatile compounds during the production of heat treated probiotic dry-fermented sausages was investigated. For comparison reasons, sausages containing free L. casei cells or no starter culture as well as a similar commercial product were also included in the study. Samples ripened for 8 days and heat treated to 70-72°C for 8-10 min were subjected to Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The starter culture affected significantly the production of volatile compounds. The highest content of esters and alcohols was observed in the sample containing 30 g of immobilized cells/kg of stuffing mixture, while the highest concentration of organic acids was observed in the sausages with no starter culture. In contrast, the commercial product contained the lowest concentration of volatiles. Principal component analysis of the semi-quantitative data revealed that the volatile composition was affected primarily by the nature and concentration of the starter culture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lower pressure heating steam is practical for the distributed dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shuai; Zhang, Jian; Hou, Weiliang; Qureshi, Abdul Sattar; Bao, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Most studies paid more attention to the pretreatment temperature and the resulted pretreatment efficiency, while ignored the heating media and their scalability to an industry scale. This study aimed to use a relative low pressure heating steam easily provided by steam boiler to meet the requirement of distributed dry dilute acid pretreatment. The results showed that the physical properties of the pretreated corn stover were maintained stable using the steam pressure varying from 1.5, 1.7, 1.9 to 2.1MPa. Enzymatic hydrolysis and high solids loading simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) results were also satisfying. CFD simulation indicated that the high injection velocity of the low pressure steam resulted in a high steam holdup and made the mixing time of steam and solid corn stover during pretreatment much shorter in comparison with the higher pressure steam. This study provides a design basis for the boiler requirement in distributed pretreatment concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of combined treatment of irradiation and heat on bacteria escherichia coli and sarcina lutea in dry condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikham; Hilmy, Nazly

    1987-01-01

    The effects of combination treatment of irradiation and heat on bacteria escherichia coli and sarcina lutea in dry condition. Investigation on the effects of combined irradiation + heat and heat + irradiation treatments have been carried out i.e. at the doses of 0; 1.0; 1.5; and 2.0 kGy with heating at 50 0 C for 10; 20; and 30 minutes on escherichia coli B/r, escherichia coli from sludge and sarcine lutea. Samples of bacteria were prepared in dry condition by using sterile fine sand as carrier. Irradiation was done in aerobic condition with RH 90% and the time range between irradiation and heating was not more than 2 hours. The results showed that the D 10 value did not give significant difference between the combined irradiation + heat, and heat + irradiation treatments for the 3 species of bacteria, compared to irradiation only (p 0.05). Doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy combined with heating at 50 0 C for 10 and 20 minutes gave better results compared to irradiation only. 17 refs

  20. Irradiation versus methyl bromide fumigation or heating as procedures for increasing shelf life of dry date varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Samahy, S.K.; Abd El-Hady, S.A.; Swailam, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of irradiation as an alternative method and comparing it with the traditional methods such as fumigation and heating for increasing shelf life dry date varieties. two varieties of dry dates, Malakaby and Gandilla, were obtained from Aswan, Upper Egypt and were used in this study. The irradiation was carried out with different doses of gamma rays to select the recommended dose to increase shelf life of dry dates. The fumigated, heated and irradiated samples were stored at room temperature after packaging in polyethylene plus cloth bags. The date characteristics such as insect infestation percent, weight loss, microbiological analyses, and firmness and chemical analyses were evaluated. The results obtained indicated that irradiation as a procedure for insect disinfestation and increasing shelf life of dry dates was better than both fumigation and heating methods. Where, irradiation of date fruits at dose of 1.0 kGy inhibited the insect infestation and improved the microbial quality of the date fruits during storage up to 18 months. Adding cloths to polyethylene packages raised the percentage of intact dry date fruits

  1. Effect of sequential dry heat and hydrogen peroxide treatment on inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium on alfalfa seeds and seeds germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eun-Jeong; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to inactivate Salmonella Typhimurium on alfalfa seeds without having negative effect on seed germination. Inoculated alfalfa seeds were treated with dry heat at 60, 70 or 80 °C for 0, 12, 18 or 24 h followed by 2% hydrogen peroxide solution (10 min). Populations of Salmonella on alfalfa seeds treated with dry heat alone (60, 70 or 80 °C) for up to 24 h were reduced by 0.26-2.76 log CFU/g, and sequential treatment with dry heat and H2O2 reduced populations by 1.66-3.60 log CFU/g. The germination percentage of seeds subjected to sequential treatments was significantly enhanced to up to 97%, whereas that of untreated seeds was only 79.5%. This study suggests that sequential treatment with dry heat and hydrogen peroxide is applicable for reducing levels of Salmonella on seeds while simultaneously enhancing seeds germinability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Heat stress abatement during the dry period influences prolactin signaling in lymphocytes Heat stress abatement during the dry period influences prolactin signaling in lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat stress perturbs PRL release and affects dairy cow lactational performance and immune cell function. We hypothesized that greater PRL concentration in plasma of heat-stressed cows would decrease expression of PRL-R mRNA and increase mRNA expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in ...

  3. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variation in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling

  4. Modelling the mid-infrared drying of sweet potato: kinetics, mass and heat transfer parameters, and energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwude, Daniel I.; Hashim, Norhashila; Abdan, Khalina; Janius, Rimfiel; Chen, Guangnan

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the drying kinetics, mass and heat transfer characteristics of sweet potato slices (0.4-0.6 cm thickness) during drying based on mid-infrared experimental set-up (intensity of 1100-1400 W/m2). Thin layer drying models were used to evaluate the drying kinetics of sweet potato slices. Two analytical models (Fick's diffusion model, and Dincer and Dost model) were used to study the mass transfer behaviour of sweet potato slices with and without shrinkage during mid-infrared drying. The heat transfer flux between the emitter and sweet potato slices was also investigated. Results demonstrated that an increase in infrared intensity from 1100 W/m2 to 1400 W/m2 resulted in increased in average radiation heat flux by 3.4 times and a 15% reduction in the overall drying time. The two-term exponential model was found to be the best in predicting the drying kinetics of sweet potato slices during mid-infrared drying. The specific heat consumption varied from 0.91-4.82 kWh/kg. The effective moisture diffusivity with and without shrinkage using the Fick's diffusion model varied from 2.632 × 10-9 to 1.596 × 10-8 m2/s, and 1.24 × 10-8 to 2.4 × 10-8 m2/s using Dincer and Dost model, respectively. The obtained values of mass transfer coefficient, Biot number and activation energy varied from 5.99 × 10-6 to 1.17 × 10-5 m/s, 0.53 to 2.62, and 12.83 kJ/mol to 34.64 kJ/mol, respectively. The values obtained for Biot number implied the existence of simultaneous internal and external resistances. The findings further explained that mid-infrared intensity of 1100 W/m2 did not significantly affect the quality of sweet potato during drying, demonstrating a great potential of applying low intensity mid-infrared radiation in the drying of agricultural crops.

  5. Modeling coupled heat and mass transfer during drying in tape casting with a simple ceramics-water system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Hattel, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    In many industrial processes such as in tape casting for electronics or in the food industry, drying is one of the determining physical phenomena. In this study, the evaporation of water from a ceramic-water mixture is investigated with the purpose of understanding the drying rate in the drying...... process of thin sheets produced by the tape casting process. The rate of mass loss in the drying process is a key factor that often is of interest, as it affects the final properties of the tapes. The 1D heat conduction equation is solved numerically to obtain the temperature field in a ceramic sheet....... The change in the concentration of the water content is then used as the driving force for diffusive mass transport of the water. Mass-averaged thermal properties are assumed for the ceramic-water mixture in the initial stage. As the water evaporates, the thermal properties of the solid ceramic become more...

  6. Effect of Thermophysical Properties on Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer in Porous Material during Forced Convective Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The convective drying kinetics of porous medium was investigated numerically. A mathematical model for forced convective drying was established to estimate the evolution of moisture content and temperature inside multilayered porous medium. The set of coupled partial differential equations with the specified boundary and initial conditions were solved numerically using a MATLAB code. An experimental setup of convective drying had been constructed and validated the theoretical model. The temperature and moisture content of the potato samples were dynamically measured and recorded during the drying process. Results indicate that thermal diffusion coefficient has significant positive impact on temperature distribution and mass diffusion coefficient might directly affect the moisture content distribution. Soret effect has a significant impact on heat flux and temperature distribution in the presence of large temperature gradient.

  7. PhD Thesis Summary: Energy Efficient Multistage Zeolite Drying for Heat-Sensitive Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Although drying takes a significant part of the total energy usage in industry, currently available drying technology is often not efficient in terms of energy consumption. Generally, the energy efficiency for drying processes ranges between 20 and 60% depending on the dryer type and product to be

  8. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rooms shall be well-lighted and have ceilings and walls of a tile surface, enamel paint, or other water... and accessories. (b) Dry blending of edible egg products, including adding edible dry ingredients, and/or packaging of spray-dried products shall be done in a room separate from other processing...

  9. grain size and heat source effect on the drying profile of cocoa bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    L x W x H and one electric bulb with 100,200,300 and 400watts rating hoisted in each box interchangeably. Cocoa bean cleaned and sorted into four different grain sizes samples four different grain sizes samples (A, B, C, D) was subjected to drying till 13 subjected to drying till 13 subjected to drying till 13-14% moisture co.

  10. The Effect of Contact Angle on Dynamics of Dry Spots Spreading in a Horizontal Layer of Liquid at Local Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsev D.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of equilibrium contact angle on dynamics of dry spot spreading at disruption of a horizontal water layer heated locally from the substrate was studied using the high-speed Schlieren technique. Different methods of working surface processing were applied; this allowed variations of the equilibrium contact angle from 27±6° to 74±9° without a change in thermal properties of the system. It is found out that substrate wettability significantly affects the propagation velocity of dry spot and its final size. It is also found out that the velocity of contact line propagation is higher in the areas of substrate with a higher temperature.

  11. Bacterial dynamics during yearlong spontaneous fermentation for production of ngari, a dry fermented fish product of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Khunjamayum Romapati; Deka, Manab; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2015-04-16

    Ngari is the most popular traditionally processed non-salted fish product, prepared from sun-dried small cyprinid fish Puntius sophore (Ham.) in Manipur state of Northeast India. The microbial involvement in ngari production remained uncertain due to its low moisture content and yearlong incubation in anaerobically sealed earthen pots without any significant change in total microbial count. The culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis used during this study confirmed a drastic bacterial community structural change in comparison to its raw material. To understand the bacterial dynamics during this dry fermentation, time series samples collected over a period of nine months through destructive sampling from two indigenous ngari production centres were analysed by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods. A total of 210 bacteria isolated from the samples were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) based grouping and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis. The dominant bacteria were Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii (38.0%), Tetragenococcus halophilus subsp. flandriensis (16.8%), a novel phylotype related to Lactobacillus pobuzihii (7.2%), Enterococcus faecium (7.2%), Bacillus indicus (6.3%) and Staphylococcus carnosus (3.8%). Distinct bacterial dynamics with the emergence of T. halophilus at third month (10(6)CFU/g), L. pobuzihii at sixth month (10(6)CFU/g), S. carnosus at three to six months (10(4)CFU/g) and B. indicus at six to nine months (10(5)CFU/g) in both the production centres was observed during ngari fermentation. However, the other two dominant bacteria S. cohnii and E. faecium were isolated throughout the fermentation with the population of 10(6)CFU/g and 10(4)CFU/g respectively. Culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis further showed the presence of additional species, in which Kocuria halotolerans and Macrococcus caseolyticus disappeared during fermentation while Clostridium irregulare and

  12. Intensification of heat transfer during mild thermal treatment of dry-cured ham by using airborne ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, M; Benedito, J; Bon, J; Garcia-Perez, J V

    2018-03-01

    The application of power ultrasound (PuS) could be used as a novel technology with which to intensify thermal treatments using hot air. Mild thermal treatments have been applied to improve the soft texture of dry-cured ham caused by defective processing. In this regard, the aim of this study was to assess the kinetic intensification linked to the application of airborne PuS in the mild thermal treatment using hot air of dry-cured ham. For this purpose, vacuum packed cylindrical samples (2.52±0.11cm in diameter and 1.90±0.14cm in height) of dry-cured ham were heated using hot air at different temperatures (40, 45, 50°C) and air velocities (1, 2, 3, 4, 6m/s) with (22.3kHz, 50W) and without PuS application. Heat transfer was analyzed by considering that it was entirely controlled by conduction and the apparent thermal diffusivity was identified by fitting the model to the heating kinetics. The obtained results revealed that PuS application sped up the heat transfer, showing an increase in the apparent thermal diffusivity (up to 37%). The improvement in the apparent thermal diffusivity produced by PuS application was greater at high temperatures (50°C) but negligible at high air velocities (6m/s). Heating caused an increase in the hardness and elasticity of dry-cured ham, which would correct ham pastiness defects, while the influence of PuS on such textural parameters was negligible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Numerical characterisation of one-step and three-step solar air heating collectors used for cocoa bean solar drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbegoso, Elder Mendoza; Saavedra, Rafael; Marcelo, Daniel; La Madrid, Raúl

    2017-12-01

    In the northern coastal and jungle areas of Peru, cocoa beans are dried using artisan methods, such as direct exposure to sunlight. This traditional process is time intensive, leading to a reduction in productivity and, therefore, delays in delivery times. The present study was intended to numerically characterise the thermal behaviour of three configurations of solar air heating collectors in order to determine which demonstrated the best thermal performance under several controlled operating conditions. For this purpose, a computational fluid dynamics model was developed to describe the simultaneous convective and radiative heat transfer phenomena under several operation conditions. The constructed computational fluid dynamics model was firstly validated through comparison with the data measurements of a one-step solar air heating collector. We then simulated two further three-step solar air heating collectors in order to identify which demonstrated the best thermal performance in terms of outlet air temperature and thermal efficiency. The numerical results show that under the same solar irradiation area of exposition and operating conditions, the three-step solar air heating collector with the collector plate mounted between the second and third channels was 67% more thermally efficient compared to the one-step solar air heating collector. This is because the air exposition with the surface of the collector plate for the three-step solar air heating collector former device was twice than the one-step solar air heating collector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dry Heat Treatment Reduces the Occurrence of Cladosporium cucumerinum, Ascochyta citrullina, and Colletotrichum orbiculare on the Surface and Interior of Cucumber Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry heat treatment has been identified as a method for disinfecting seed-borne pathogens in vegetable seeds. This study demonstrated that three seed-borne pathogens of cucumber (Cladosporium cucumerinum that causes scabs, Ascochyta citrullina that results in gummy stem blight, and Colletotrichum orbiculare that induces anthracnose could be effectively eradicated from cucumber seeds by dry heat treatment. In vitro growth of these three pathogens was inhibited by dry heat treatment at 70 °C for 40 min. These pathogens were inactivated after exposing infected seeds to 70 °C dry heat for at least 90 min. Seed infection was significantly reduced by exposing the seeds to 70 °C dry heat for at least 40 min. Seed moisture content and germination were slightly reduced after 70 °C heat treatment for 40–120 min. Seed vigor remained at a high level after dry heat treatment at 70 °C for 90 min. In conclusion, 70 °C dry heat treatment for 90 min was determined to be the optimal method for eradication of C. cucumerinum, Didymella bryoniae, and C. orbiculare from cucumber seeds.

  15. Effect of dry heating and ionic gum on the physicochemical and release properties of starch from Dioscorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisht, Deepika; Pandey, Anima; Hermenean, Anca; Yáñez-Gascón, Maria Josefa; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2017-02-01

    To meet the ever increasing industrial demand for excipients with desirable properties, modified starch is regarded as an alternative to it. With this in mind, the present study focuses on the modification of starches of Dioscorea from Jharkhand (India) using dry heat treatment with and without ionic gum. Modified starches were prepared using sodium alginate (1% w/w). Native and modified starches were subjected to heat treatment at 130°C for 2h and 4h. The effect of heating and ionic gum on the properties of Dioscorea starch was investigated. The amylose content, water holding capacity, micromeritic properties, swelling power, solubility and morphology of starches were evaluated. Dry heat treatment of starches without gum showed an increment in water-holding capacity after two-hours heating, but no such increment was found after four-hours heating. Oil binding capacity of starches modified with gum varied from 62% to 78%. Strongest effect of heat treatment occurred on the morphology of starches and thereby modified starches showed distorted surface morphology. Amylose content (21.09-21.89%) found to be decreased with the addition of gum which lead to decrease in paste clarity. Starches heated with gum at high-temperature resulted in restrict swelling and slight increase in solubility. Micromeritic properties of the modified starches showed the good flow properties. Further, the modified starches were investigated for in-vitro release studies and that the thermally modified derivatives can be a good prospect in slow release formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Heat transfer enhancement in a natural draft dry cooling tower under crosswind operation with heterogeneous water distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, Mohsen; Amooie, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Crosswind significantly decreases cooling efficiency of a natural draft dry cooling tower. The possibility of improving cooling efficiency with heterogeneous water distribution within the cooling tower radiators under crosswind condition is analysed. A CFD approach was used to model the flow field and heat transfer phenomena within the cooling tower and airflow surrounding the cooling tower. A mathematical model was developed from various CFD results. Having used a trained Genetic Algorithm with the result of mathematical model, the best water distribution was found among the others. Remodeling the best water distribution with the CFD approach showed that the highest enhancement of the heat transfer compared to the usual uniform water distribution.

  17. A dry-spot model of critical heat flux and transition boiling in pool and subcooled forced convection boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Sang Jun

    1998-02-01

    A new dry-spot model for critical heat flux (CHF) is proposed. The new concept for dry area formation based on Poisson distribution of active nucleation sites and the critical active site number is introduced. The model is based on the boiling phenomena observed in nucleate boiling such as Poisson distribution of active nucleation sites and formation of dry spots on the heating surface. It is hypothesized that when the number of bubbles surrounding one bubble exceeds a critical number, the surrounding bubbles restrict the feed of liquid to the microlayer under the bubble. Then a dry spot of vapor will form on the heated surface. As the surface temperature is raised, more and more bubbles will have a population of surrounding active sites over the critical number. Consequently, the number of the spots will increase and the size of dry areas will increase due to merger of several dry spots. If this trend continues, the number of effective sites for heat transport through the wall will diminish, and CHF and transition boiling occur. The model is applicable to pool and subcooled forced convection boiling conditions, based on the common mechanism that CHF and transition boiling are caused by the accumulation and coalescences of dry spots. It is shown that CHF and heat flux in transition boiling can be determined without any empirical parameter based on information on the boiling parameters such as active site density and bubble diameter, etc., in nucleate boiling. It is also shown that the present model well represents actual phenomena on CHF and transition boiling and explains the mechanism on how parameters such as flow modes (pool or flow) and surface wettability influence CHF and transition boiling. Validation of the present model for CHF and transition boiling is achieved without any tuning parameter always present in earlier models. It is achieved by comparing the predictions of CHF and heat flux in transition boiling using measured boiling parameters in nucleate

  18. Preparation of phosphorylated starch by dry-heating in the presence of pyrophosphate and its calcium-phosphate solubilizing ability

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Rong; Li, Can-Peng; Chen, Deyi; Zhao, Gaihong; Cheng, Weihua; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Starch was phosphorylated through dry-heating in the presence of pyrophosphate at various conditions, and the characteristics of phosphorylated starch (PS) were examined. Starch phosphorylation increases as the pH increases from 3 to 6, but diminishes at pH 7. Increased temperatures enhance phosphorylation. Data from 31P NMR suggests that starch phosphorylation occurs mainly at the C3-OH and C6-OH of the glucose residue. The phosphate linkage is mainly due to monostarch monophosphate. Althoug...

  19. Compressive strength measurements of hybrid dental composites treated with dry heat and light emitting diodes (LED post cure treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Krisnawaty

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid composites are mostly used on large cavities as restorative dental materials, whether it is used directly or indirectly. The mechanical properties of composite resin shall increase if it is treated with post cure treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate compressive strength differences between dry heat and Light Emitting Diodes (LED treatment on the hybrid dental composite. A quasi-experimental was applied on this research with a total of 30 samples that were divided into two groups. Each sample was tested using LLOYD Universal Testing Machine with 1 mm/min speed to evaluate the compressive strength. The compressive strength results were marked when the sample was broken. The results of two groups were then analyzed using t-test statistical calculation. The results of this study show that post cure treatment on hybrid composite using LED light box (194.138 MPa was lower than dry heat treatment (227.339 MPa, which was also significantly different from statistical analysis. It can be concluded that compressive strength of LED light box was lower than dry heat post-cure treatment on the hybrid composite resin.

  20. Compressive strength differences between hybrid composites using post curing light box with LED and dry heating, in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Krisnawaty

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid type of composite resins is used as dental restorative materials in a wide cavity directly or indirectly. The mechanical properties of the composite resin would increase post-curing. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between the compressive strength of hybrid type composite resin post-curing using LED light box and dry heating. This type of research was a quasi-experimental in vitro with the sample size of 30 samples which were divided into two groups. Each sample was tested using a Universal Testing Machine (Lloyd at a speed of 1 mm/minute to test the compressive strength. Compressive strength values were recorded when the sample broke. The average value of compressive strength of the two treatment groups was statistically calculated using t-test. The results, of this study, showed that a hybrid composite resin with post curing using a light box with LED was at 194.138 Mpa which was lower than using the dry heat of 227.339 Mpa. It showed the statistically significant difference. The conclusion of this study was that the compressive strength of post-cured hybrid composites using a light box with LED was significantly lower than the post-curing using dry heat.

  1. Validation of radio-frequency dielectric heating system for destruction of Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella species in nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, M; Phebus, R K; Thippareddi, H; Subbiah, J; Birla, S L; Schmidt, K A

    2014-12-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella species have been associated with human illnesses from consumption of contaminated nonfat dry milk (NDM), a key ingredient in powdered infant formula and many other foods. Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella spp. can survive the spray-drying process if milk is contaminated after pasteurization, and the dried product can be contaminated from environmental sources. Compared with conventional heating, radio-frequency dielectric heating (RFDH) is a faster and more uniform process for heating low-moisture foods. The objective of this study was to design an RFDH process to achieve target destruction (log reductions) of C. sakazakii and Salmonella spp. The thermal destruction (decimal reduction time; D-value) of C. sakazakii and Salmonella spp. in NDM (high-heat, HH; and low-heat, LH) was determined at 75, 80, 85, or 90 °C using a thermal-death-time (TDT) disk method, and the z-values (the temperature increase required to obtain a decimal reduction of the D-value) were calculated. Time and temperature requirements to achieve specific destruction of the pathogens were calculated from the thermal destruction parameters, and the efficacy of the RFDH process was validated by heating NDM using RFDH to achieve the target temperatures and holding the product in a convection oven for the required period. Linear regression was used to determine the D-values and z-values. The D-values of C. sakazakii in HH- and LH-NDM were 24.86 and 23.0 min at 75 °C, 13.75 and 7.52 min at 80 °C, 8.0 and 6.03 min at 85 °C, and 5.57 and 5.37 min at 90 °C, respectively. The D-values of Salmonella spp. in HH- and LH-NDM were 23.02 and 24.94 min at 75 °C, 10.45 and 12.54 min at 80 °C, 8.63 and 8.68 min at 85 °C, and 5.82 and 4.55 min at 90 °C, respectively. The predicted and observed destruction of C. sakazakii and Salmonella spp. were in agreement, indicating that the behavior of the organisms was similar regardless of the heating system (conventional vs

  2. Short communication: Maternal heat stress during the dry period alters postnatal whole-body insulin response of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S; Monteiro, A P A; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E

    2014-02-01

    Heat stress during the dry period not only negatively affects a cow's performance but also affects her offspring. Previous studies indicate that calves born to cows heat-stressed during late gestation have lower birth weight but similar overall weight gain during the prepubertal period compared with those cooled in utero. However, it is unclear if whole-body insulin response, and thus metabolism, of calves is altered in their postnatal life after in utero heat stress. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of maternal heat stress during the dry period on whole-body insulin response of calves after weaning. Calves (10/treatment) were born to cows exposed to heat stress (HT) or cooling (CL) when dry. Calves were immediately separated from their dams and fed 3.8L of high-quality colostrum within 1h after birth and then 1.9L 12h later. All calves were fed 1.9 to 3.8L of pasteurized milk in the morning and afternoon from 2 to 42 d of age and then only in the morning until weaning at 49 d. Calf starter and water were offered ad libitum starting at 2 d of age. All calves were managed in the same manner throughout the study. All calves were subjected to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and an insulin challenge (IC) at 55 d of age. Calves heat-stressed in utero were born lighter (40 ± 1.4 vs. 45 ± 1.4 kg) compared with CL calves. Both groups of calves had similar weaning weights (HT: 68 ± 3.2 kg; CL: 71 ± 3.3 kg) and body weight gain from birth to weaning (HT: 28 ± 2.2 kg; CL: 26 ± 2.3 kg). Compared with those cooled in utero, HT calves had a similar insulin response to GTT and insulin clearance during IC but faster glucose clearance during GTT and IC. In conclusion, in addition to impaired fetal growth, maternal heat stress during the dry period enhances the whole-body insulin response of calves after weaning, which suggests the possibility of accelerated lipogenesis and fat deposition in early life. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association

  3. Mathematical Modeling of Microwave-Assisted Convective Heating and Drying of Grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research studied the processing performance and product quality of Thompson seedless grapes dried using microwave-assisted convective hot air drying as well as the effect of blanching and dipping pretreatments. Two pretreatment methods were compared, dipping into 2% ethyl oleate (V/V) and 5% p...

  4. Breaking seed dormancy in smooth loofah (Luffa cylindrica (L. M. Roem. using scarification and dry heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajee Chaodumrikul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hard seed dormancy is a common problem with smooth loofah seed. Scarification, clipping and dry heat were used to break dormancy in smooth loofah seed at the Department of Horticulture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand. A completely randomized design with 20 treatments was used involving: untreated seed (control, clipping, scarifying by scarifier at 40, 70 and 100 revolutions per minute (rpm for 1 min, and dry heat at 60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C for 1–5 h. After breaking dormancy, seed germination was tested in four replicates, with 50 seeds per replicate. The thickness of the seed coat was measured under a digital microscope. The results showed that clipped seeds gave the highest germination (100% and decreased mean germination time (3.58 d. Scarified seed using a scarifier at 70 and 100 rpm for 1 min resulted in germination rates of 67.0–75.5%, which was higher than for seeds scarified at 40 rpm. The dry heat-treated seeds at 60 °C for 3–5 h and at 70 °C for 2–5 h had germination of 71.0–80.5%. The outer layer of seed coat scarified at 100 rpm for 1 min was thinner than those of un-scarified seed samples. Dry heat had no effect on the seed coat thickness, but affected cells of the inner seed coat as the sclerenchymous cells showed disordered characteristics and were non-uniform and seemed to have been torn off. Dry heat treatment and scarification significantly improved germination compared to the control treatment. However, 80% germination may not be considered as an effective method at a commercial scale where 100% germination is needed. Further investigation of more accessions that may have different seed coat thicknesses may be needed.

  5. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variations in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  6. Numerical simulation of heat transfer process in solar enhanced natural draft dry cooling tower with radiation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiuhuan; Zhu, Jialing; Lu, Xinli

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A 3-D numerical model integrated with a discrete ordinate (DO) solar radiation model (considering solar radiation effect in the room of solar collector) was developed to investigate the influence of solar radiation intensity and ambient pressure on the efficiency and thermal characteristics of the SENDDCT. Our study shows that introducing such a radiation model can more accurately simulate the heat transfer process in the SENDDCT. Calculation results indicate that previous simulations overestimated solar energy obtained by the solar collector and underestimated the heat loss. The cooling performance is improved when the solar radiation intensity or ambient pressure is high. Air temperature and velocity increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. But ambient pressure has inverse effects on the changes of air temperature and velocity. Under a condition that the solar load increases but the ambient pressure decreases, the increased rate of heat transferred in the heat exchanger is not obvious. Thus the performance of the SENDDCT not only depends on the solar radiation intensity but also depends on the ambient pressure. - Highlights: • A radiation model has been introduced to accurately simulate heat transfer process. • Heat transfer rate would be overestimated if the radiation model was not introduced. • The heat transfer rate is approximately proportional to solar radiation intensity. • The higher the solar radiation or ambient pressure, the better SENDDCT performance. - Abstract: Solar enhanced natural draft dry cooling tower (SENDDCT) is more efficient than natural draft dry cooling tower by utilizing solar radiation in arid region. A three-dimensional numerical model considering solar radiation effect was developed to investigate the influence of solar radiation intensity and ambient pressure on the efficiency and thermal characteristics of SENDDCT. The numerical simulation outcomes reveal that a model with consideration of

  7. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds by sequential application of aqueous chlorine dioxide and dry-heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, J; Kim, H; Kim, H; Beuchat, L R; Kim, Y; Ryu, J-H

    2011-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sequential treatments of radish seeds with aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO(2) ) and dry heat in reducing the number of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Radish seeds containing E. coli O157:H7 at 5.5 log CFU g(-1) were treated with 500 μg ml(-1) ClO(2) for 5 min and subsequently heated at 60 °C and 23% relative humidity for up to 48 h. Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased by more than 4.8 log CFU g(-1) after 12 h dry-heat treatment. The pathogen was inactivated after 48 h dry-heat treatment, but the germination rate of treated seeds was substantially reduced from 91.2 ± 5.0% to 68.7 ± 12.3%. Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds can be effectively reduced by sequential treatments with ClO(2) and dry heat. To eliminate E. coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without decreasing the germination rate, partial drying of seeds at ambient temperature before dry-heat treatment should be investigated, and conditions for drying and dry-heat treatment should be optimized. This study showed that sequential treatment with ClO(2) and dry-heat was effective in inactivating large numbers of E. coli O157:H7 on radish seeds. These findings will be useful when developing sanitizing strategies for seeds without compromising germination rates. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Thermal design of heat-exchangeable reactors using a dry-sorbent CO2 capture multi-step process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hokyu; Yoo, Hoanju; Seo, Hwimin; Park, Yong-Ki; Cho, Hyung Hee

    2015-01-01

    The present study proposes a multi-stage CO 2 capture process that incorporates heat-exchangeable fluidized-bed reactors. For continuous multi-stage heat exchange, three dry regenerable sorbents: K 2 CO 3 , MgO, and CaO, were used to create a three-stage temperature-dependent reaction chain for CO 2 capture, corresponding to low (50–150 °C), middle (350–650 °C), and high (750–900 °C) temperature stages, respectively. Heat from carbonation in the high and middle temperature stages was used for regeneration for the middle and low temperature stages. The feasibility of this process is depending on the heat-transfer performance of the heat-exchangeable fluidized bed reactors as the focus of this study. The three-stage CO 2 capture process for a 60 Nm 3 /h CO 2 flow rate required a reactor area of 0.129 and 0.130 m 2 for heat exchange between the mid-temperature carbonation and low-temperature regeneration stages and between the high-temperature carbonation and mid-temperature regeneration stages, respectively. The reactor diameter was selected to provide dense fluidization conditions for each bed with respect to the desired flow rate. The flow characteristics and energy balance of the reactors were confirmed using computational fluid dynamics and thermodynamic analysis, respectively. - Highlights: • CO 2 capture process is proposed using a multi-stage process. • Reactor design is conducted considering heat exchangeable scheme. • Reactor surface is designed by heat transfer characteristics of fluidized bed

  9. Effect of temperature and heating duration of drying on quality of low amylose rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutarop Yardthaisong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Processed food is mostly made from stale rice which contains high viscosity. However the storage of stale rice takes approximately 4-6 months, so acceleration aging of rice saves time and area in the warehouse. Therefore the study aims to observe effects of temperatures and heating duration on the quality of rice with initial low-amylose. Optimum temperature and heating duration of rice quality similar to stale rice were analyzed. The Khao Dok Mali 105 has been tested under controlled temperatures at 70, 80 and 90 °C with heating duration for 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours. The results showed that final viscosity, color value, amylose content and grain cracking increased, but Breakdown decreased as temperature, heating duration and storage time increased. The optimum temperature at 90 °C and heating duration for 4 hours affected to rice quality in the experiment similar to stale rice after storage for 4 months.

  10. Experimental study on the optimization of heat and mass transfer of industrial drying of the TiO2 bulb by infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kai; Yang, Junhong; Li, Xun; Li, Chunying; Chu, Zhide; Jiang, Juyuan

    1996-12-01

    The characteristics of radiation and drying properties of TiO2 bulb in the fixed bed with infrared radiation have been studied in this paper, and the experiments on drying dynamics has been analysed also. The optimization of heat and mass transfer data has been determined, which could provide the scientific basis for engineering design.

  11. A COUPLED LAND-SURFACE AND DRY DEPOSITION MODEL AND COMPARISON TO FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF SURFACE HEAT, MOISTURE, AND OZONE FLUXES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed a coupled land-surface and dry deposition model for realistic treatment of surface fluxes of heat, moisture, and chemical dry deposition within a comprehensive air quality modeling system. A new land-surface model (LSM) with explicit treatment of soil moisture...

  12. High Temperature Heat Pump Integration using Zeotropic Working Fluids for Spray Drying Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zühlsdorf, Benjamin; Bühler, Fabian; Mancini, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    and show a large potential to reuse the excess heat from exhaust gases. This study analyses a heat pump application with an improved integration by choosing the working fluid as a mixture in such a way, that the temperature glide during evaporation and condensation matches the temperature glide of the heat...... source and sink best possibly. Therefore, a set of six common working fluids is defined and the possible binary mixtures of these fluids are analyzed. The performance of the fluids is evaluated based on the energetic performance (COP) and the economic potential (NPV). The results show...

  13. An economic optimization of evaporator and air collector area in a solar assisted heat pump drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.M.A.; Saidur, R.; Hawlader, M.N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimum combination will provide around 89% of the total load. • The system has a savings during the life cycle with least payback period of 4.37 year. • The optimal system is insensitive to the variation in fuel inflation and discount rate. - Abstract: This paper presents an economic optimization of evaporator and air collector area of a solar assisted heat pump drying system. Economic viability of solar heating systems is usually made by comparing the cost flows recurring throughout the lifetime of the solar and conventional alternative systems. Therefore, identification of optimum variables by using a simulation program and an economic analysis based on payback period of the system are presented in this paper. FORTRAN language is used to run the simulation. Effect of load and different economic variables on payback period is also investigated. Economic analysis reveals that system has sufficient amount of savings during the life cycle with a minimum payback period of about 4 years

  14. Summer Indoor Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation in a Hot-Dry Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seitzler, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water energy savings.

  15. Dry heat treatment affects wheat bran surface properties and hydration kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Pieter J; Hemdane, Sami; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-07-15

    Heat stabilization of wheat bran aims at inactivation of enzymes which may cause rancidity and processability issues. Such treatments may however cause additional unanticipated phenomena which may affect wheat bran technological properties. In this work, the impact of toasting on wheat bran hydration capacity and hydration kinetics was studied. Hydration properties were assessed using the Enslin-Neff and drainage centrifugation water retention capacity methods, thermogravimetric analysis and contact angle goniometry, next to more traditional methods. While equilibrium hydration properties of bran were not affected by the heat treatment, the rate at which the heat treated bran hydrated was, however, very significantly reduced compared to the untreated bran. This phenomenon was found to originate from the formation of a lipid coating during the treatment rendering the bran surface hydrophobic. These insights help to understand and partially account for the modified processability of heat treated bran in food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of heat source on the growth of dendritic drying patterns

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... Shining a tightly-focussed but low-powered laser beam on an absorber dispersed in a biological fluid gives rise to spectacular growth of dendritic patterns. These result from localized drying of the fluid because of efficient absorption and conduction of optical energy by the absorber. We have carried out ...

  17. Sporulation dynamics and spore heat resistance in wet and dry biofilms of Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayrapetyan, Hasmik; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2016-01-01

    Environmental conditions and growth history can affect the sporulation process as well as subsequent properties of formed spores. The sporulation dynamics was studied in wet and air-dried biofilms formed on stainless steel (SS) and polystyrene (PS) for Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 and the

  18. Integration of biomass fast pyrolysis and precedent feedstock steam drying with a municipal combined heat and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, Thomas; Laukkanen, Timo P.; Järvinen, Mika P.

    2014-01-01

    Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) is a promising pre-treatment technology for converting biomass to transport fuel and in the future also for high-grade chemicals. BFP can be integrated with a municipal combined heat and power (CHP) plant. This paper shows the influence of BFP integration on a CHP plant's main parameters and its effect on the energetic and environmental performance of the connected district heating network. The work comprises full- and part-load operation of a CHP plant integrated with BFP and steam drying. It also evaluates different usage alternatives for the BFP products (char and oil). The results show that the integration is possible and strongly beneficial regarding energetic and environmental performance. Offering the possibility to provide lower district heating loads, the operation hours of the plant can be increased by up to 57%. The BFP products should be sold rather than applied for internal use as this increases the district heating network's primary energy efficiency the most. With this integration strategy future CHP plants can provide valuable products at high efficiency and also can help to mitigate global CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: • Part load simulation of a cogeneration plant integrated with biomas fast pyrolysis. • Analysis of energetic and environmental performance. • Assessment of different uses of the pyrolysis products

  19. Evaluation of manometric temperature measurement (MTM), a process analytical technology tool in freeze drying, part III: heat and mass transfer measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolin Charlie; Nail, Steven L; Pikal, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    This article evaluates the procedures for determining the vial heat transfer coefficient and the extent of primary drying through manometric temperature measurement (MTM). The vial heat transfer coefficients (Kv) were calculated from the MTM-determined temperature and resistance and compared with Kv values determined by a gravimetric method. The differences between the MTM vial heat transfer coefficients and the gravimetric values are large at low shelf temperature but smaller when higher shelf temperatures were used. The differences also became smaller at higher chamber pressure and smaller when higher resistance materials were being freeze-dried. In all cases, using thermal shields greatly improved the accuracy of the MTM Kv measurement. With use of thermal shields, the thickness of the frozen layer calculated from MTM is in good agreement with values obtained gravimetrically. The heat transfer coefficient "error" is largely a direct result of the error in the dry layer resistance (ie, MTM-determined resistance is too low). This problem can be minimized if thermal shields are used for freeze-drying. With suitable use of thermal shields, accurate Kv values are obtained by MTM; thus allowing accurate calculations of heat and mass flow rates. The extent of primary drying can be monitored by real-time calculation of the amount of remaining ice using MTM data, thus providing a process analytical tool that greatly improves the freeze-drying process design and control.

  20. The relative nutritive value of irradiated spray-dried blood powder and heat-sterilized blood meal as measured in combination with whey protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, T.E.H.; Nourse, L.D.; Siebrits, F.K.; Hastings, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    A method of processing blood meal in which nutritive value of the protein is preserved is described, since appreciable losses occur in the nutritive value of the protein when prepared by heat sterilization with drying at atmospheric pressure in steam jacketed vessels. Blood was spray dried and irradiated at an intensity of 10 kGy. Collectively the heat of spray drying and irradiation was effective in killing both the virus plaque-forming units and the bacteria, thus producing a commercially acceptable sterile product of higher nutritive value. The relative nutritive values (RNV) of 50:50 protein were 0,56 for whey protein concentrate plus heat-sterilized blood meal and 0.90 for whey protein concentrate plus irradiated spray-dried blood powder. Whey protein concentrate used as a control has a RNV of 1,0

  1. Drying textile yarns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCullough, H.C.

    1987-05-20

    The material drying apparatus described comprises a moisture withdrawal or drying section, wherein a tray carrying textile yarn bobbins is removably installed, a heat input section and recirculating ducting for recirculating a flow of drying gas between the heat input and withdrawal sections such that moisture taken from the material in the moisture withdrawal section is removed from the drying gas in the heat input section. A receptable means is provided for the collection of condensate. Preferably the heat input section includes a heat pump: thus the drying gas passing from the drying section laden with moisture can be directed through a condensing section of the heat pump for dehumidification.

  2. The effect of sublethal injury by heating, freezing, drying and gamma-radiation on the duration of the lag phase of Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, B.M.; Derrick, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The duration of the lag phase of Salmonella typhimurium surviving heat, freezing, drying and gamma-radiation was used to indicate the time needed to repair sublethal injury. Following equivalent lethal treatments, heat and freeze-injured cells needed longer to repair than those injured by drying or gamma-radiation. Measurement of repair on membrane filters showed that in a heat-injured population having a lag time of 9 h, some individual cells needed up to 14 h to recover maximum tolerance to 3% NaCl. (author)

  3. Impact of non-binder ingredients and molecular weight of polymer binders on heat assisted twin screw dry granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Thompson, M R; O'Donnell, K P

    2018-01-30

    Two grades of commercial AFFINISOL™ HPMC HME were used as polymer binders to explore the influence of polymer viscosity and concentration on a novel heat assisted dry granulation process with a twin screw extruder. Contributions of other non-binder ingredients in the formulations were also studied for lactose, microcrystalline cellulose and an active pharmaceutical ingredient of caffeine. As sensitive indicators of processing conditions that expose the drug to high internally generated heat, dehydration of α-lactose monohydrate and polymorphic transformation of caffeine were monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Additionally, any decomposition of caffeine was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Granular samples were characterized by particle size, circularity, fracture strength and their temperature on the exit of extruder. Higher screw speed and lower feed rate were found to help particles agglomerate by allowing feed particles a greater opportunity to increase in temperature. Lower binder molecular weight and higher binder concentration enable granules to build stronger strength and thereby lead to higher particle size. This new twin screw dry granulation was demonstrated as offering advantages over conventional hot melt granulation by minimizing thermal degradation of the tested ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Operational Performance Characterization of a Heat Pump System Utilizing Recycled Water as Heat Sink and Heat Source in a Cool and Dry Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piljae Im

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater leaving from homes and businesses contains abundant low-grade energy, which can be utilized through heat pump technology to heat and cool buildings. Although the energy in the wastewater has been successfully utilized to condition buildings in other countries, it is barely utilized in the United States, until recently. In 2013, the Denver Museum of Nature & Science at Denver, the United States implemented a unique heat pump system that utilizes recycled wastewater from a municipal water system to cool and heat its 13,000 m2 new addition. This recycled water heat pump (RWHP system uses seven 105 kW (cooling capacity modular water-to-water heat pumps (WWHPs. Each WWHP uses R-410A refrigerant, has two compressors, and can independently provide either 52 °C hot water (HW or 7 °C chilled water (CHW to the building. This paper presents performance characterization results of this RWHP system based on the measured data from December 2014 through August 2015. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was also calculated and compared with that of a baseline Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC system which meets the minimum energy efficiencies that are allowed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 90.1-2013. The performance analysis results indicate that recycled water temperatures were favorable for effective operation of heat pumps. As a result, on an annual basis, the RWHP system avoided 50% of source energy consumption (resulting from reduction in natural gas consumption although electricity consumption was increased slightly, reduced CO2 emissions by 41%, and saved 34% in energy costs as compared with the baseline system.

  5. Grain Size and Heat Source Effect on the Drying Profile of Cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four sweat boxes were constructed with wooden material (0.95 x 0.25 x 0.25m) L x W x H and one electric bulb with 100,200,300 and 400watts rating hoisted in each box interchangeably. Cocoa bean cleaned and sorted into four different grain sizes samples (A, B, C, D) was subjected to drying till 13-14% moisture content ...

  6. Dry and wet heat transfer through clothing dependent on the clothing properties under cold conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, M.G.M.; Rossi, R.; Meinander, H.; Broede, P.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Holmér, I.; Nocker, W.; Havenith, G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture on the heat transfer through clothing in relation to the water vapour resistance, type of underwear, location of the moisture and climate. This forms part of the work performed for work package 2 of the European Union THERMPROTECT

  7. Large solar heating system with seasonal storage for buld drying in Lisse, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhoven, T.P.; Geus, A.C. de

    1996-01-01

    Within IEA Task 14 (Advanced Solar Systems) of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme a working group was established dealing with large advanced solar energy systems (the Large Systems Working group). The goal of this working group was to generate a common base of experiences for the design

  8. Process Analytical Technology in Freeze-Drying: Detection of the Secondary Solute + Water Crystallization with Heat Flux Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiming; Shalaev, Evgenyi

    2017-11-03

    In situ and non-invasive detection of solute crystallization during freeze-drying would facilitate cycle optimization and scale-up from the laboratory to commercial manufacturing scale. The objective of the study is to evaluate heat flux sensor (HFS) as a tool for monitoring solute crystallization and other first-order phase transitions (e.g., onset of freezing). HFS is a thin-film differential thermopile, which acts as a transducer to generate an electrical signal proportional to the total heat applied to its surface. In this study, HFS is used to detect both primary (ice formation) and secondary (also known as eutectic) solute + water crystallization during cooling and heating of solutions in a freeze-dryer. Binary water-solute mixtures with typical excipients concentrations (e.g., 0.9% of NaCl and 5% mannitol) and fill volumes (1 to 3 ml/vial) are studied. Secondary crystallization is detected by the HFS during cooling in all experiments with NaCl solutions, whereas timing of mannitol crystallization depends on the cooling conditions. In particular, mannitol crystallization takes place during cooling, if the cooling rate is lower than the critical value. On the other hand, if the cooling rate exceeds the critical cooling rate, mannitol crystallization during cooling is prevented, and crystallization occurs during subsequent warming or annealing. It is also observed that, while controlled ice nucleation allows initiation of the primary freezing event in different vials simultaneously, there is a noticeable vial-to-vial difference in the timing of secondary crystallization. The HFS could be a valuable process monitoring tool for non-invasive detection of various crystallization events during freeze-drying manufacturing.

  9. Drying of brick as a function of heat flows and analysis of moisture and temperature distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the driving mechanisms for frost damages in brickwork, laboratory tests has been performed on a test brick wall. These test include monitoring of temperature and moisture distribution in the wall as function of the influence of driving rain, wind speed and solar radiation........ After the initial tests the surface of the wall was treated with mortar and a new series of test was performed. The wall with and without treatment performed almost equal during the influence of driving rain, and during the later drying phase, the difference was equally small....

  10. Effect of dry heat treatment on physical property and in vitro starch digestibility of high amylose rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Im Kyung; Bae, In Young; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2018-03-01

    The influence of dry heat treatment (DHT) of high amylose rice starch was investigated on starch digestibility and physical properties and their characteristics were compared through the PCA analysis. High amylose rice starch was prepared by DHT under different temperatures (110, 130, and 150°C) and times (0, 1, 2, and 4h). The gelatinization temperature and enthalpy decreased as temperature and time increased, revealing the change of semi-crystalline region. There were significant increases in gel strength and pasting viscosity above 130°C, whereas gel strength and pasting viscosity were reduced with increasing heating time. On in vitro starch digestibility of DHT starch gel, the rapidly digestible starch and predicted glycemic index of DHT starches were lower than those of native starch. Both the lowest predicted glycemic index and the highest gel strength was observed at 130°C for 1h. In the results of PCA analysis, the heating temperature was negatively correlated with in vitro starch digestibility as well as pasting viscosity and gel strength. These results demonstrated that DHT could be useful of enhancing the physical and nutritional properties of high amylose rice starch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Heat transfer analysis of consolidated dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel considering environmental conditions of Wolsong site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. H.; Yoon, J. H.; Choi, B. I.; Lee, H. Y.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to perform heat transfer analysis of the MACSTOR/KN-400 dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel in order to predict maximum concrete temperatures and temperature gradients. This module has twice the capacity of the existing MACSTOR-200, which is in operation at Gentilly-2. In the thermal design of the MACSTOR/KN-400, Thermal Insulation Panels(TIP) were introduced to reduce concrete temperatures and temperature gradients in the module caused by the high fuel heat loads. Environmental factors such as solar heat, daily temperature variations and ambient temperatures in summer and winter at Wolsong site and the assumed presence of hot baskets were taken into consideration in the simulations. Two cases were performed for the MACSTOR/KN-400: Off-normal cases in summer and winter. The maximum local concrete temperatures were predicted to be 63 .deg. C for the off-normal case. The temperature gradients in the concrete walls and roof are predicted to be 28C and 25C for off-normal operation in summer, incorporating a 3C uncertainty. In conclusion, this paper shows that the maximum temperature for the module is expected to meet the temperature limitations of ACI 349

  12. Cellular Injuries in Cronobacter sakazakii CIP 103183T and Salmonella enterica Exposed to Drying and Subsequent Heat Treatment in Milk Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Lang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the ability of foodborne pathogens to survive in low-moisture foods, their decontamination is an important issue in food protection. This study aimed to clarify some of the cellular mechanisms involved in inactivation of foodborne pathogens after drying and subsequent heating. Individual strains of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Senftenberg, and Cronobacter sakazakii were mixed into whole milk powder and dried to different water activity levels (0.25 and 0.58; the number of surviving cells was determined after drying and subsequent thermal treatments in closed vessels at 90 and 100°C, for 30 and 120 s. For each condition, the percentage of unculturable cells was estimated and, in parallel, membrane permeability and respiratory activity were estimated by flow cytometry using fluorescent probes. After drying, it was clearly observable that the percentage of unculturable cells was correlated with the percentage of permeabilized cells (responsible for 20–40% of the total inactivated bacteria after drying, and to a lesser degree with the percentage of cells presenting with loss of respiratory activity. In contrast, the percentages of unculturable cells observed after heat treatment were strongly correlated with the loss of respiratory activity and weakly with membrane permeability (for 70–80% of the total inactivated bacteria after heat treatment. We conclude that cell inactivation during drying is closely linked to membrane permeabilization and that heat treatment of dried cells affects principally their respiratory activity. These results legitimize the use of time–temperature scales and allow better understanding of the cellular mechanisms of bacterial death during drying and subsequent heat treatment. These results may also allow better optimization of the decontamination process to ensure food safety by targeting the most deleterious conditions for bacterial cells without denaturing the food product.

  13. Coupled heat and water flow dynamics in dry soils : application to a multilayer waste cover

    OpenAIRE

    Gran Esforzado, Meritxell

    2015-01-01

    Unsaturated flow plays an important role in numerous environmental phenomena. It is complex in arid regions, where liquid water fluxes are small and vapor fluxes become relevant, so that heat, water and solute mass transport are needed to understand evaporation. This thesis aims at gaining insight evaporation and vapor flow mechanisms and the relevance of matric potential, temperature and osmotic gradients. These issues are especially relevant for soil salinization, whose mechanisms are po...

  14. Effects of moist- and dry-heat cooking on the meat quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Chih-Feng; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of moist- (water-cooking; WC) and dry-heat (oven-cooking; OC) on the quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken breast meat. The results revealed that OC meat had a significantly higher cooking time, cooking loss, and shear force values and lower L* values. Protein solubility decreased after cooking in both cooking methods; however, no statistical difference was observed between WC and OC meats, whereas collagen solubility and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) increased after cooking and WC meat exhibited higher collagen solubility and MFI (P meat (P meat exhibited a significantly higher moisture release and lower initial hardness, chewdown hardness and residual loose particles. A darker color and enhanced chickeny flavor were observed for OC meat. Based on the unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics in demand, producers should employ appropriate cooking methods to optimize native chicken meat quality. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Encoding noxious heat by spike bursts of antennal bimodal hygroreceptor (dry) neurons in the carabid Pterostichus oblongopunctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Anne; Merivee, Enno; Nurme, Karin; Sibul, Ivar; Muzzi, Maurizio; Di Giulio, Andrea; Williams, Ingrid; Tooming, Ene

    2017-04-01

    Despite thermosensation being crucial in effective thermoregulation behaviour, it is poorly studied in insects. Very little is known about encoding of noxious high temperatures by peripheral thermoreceptor neurons. In carabids, thermo- and hygrosensitive neurons innervate antennal dome-shaped sensilla (DSS). In this study, we demonstrate that several essential fine structural features of dendritic outer segments of the sensory neurons in the DSS and the classical model of insect thermo- and hygrosensitive sensilla differ fundamentally. Here, we show that spike bursts produced by the bimodal dry neurons in the antennal DSS may contribute to the sensation of noxious heat in P. oblongopunctatus. Our electrophysiological experiments showed that, at temperatures above 25 °C, these neurons switch from humidity-dependent regular spiking to temperature-dependent spike bursting. Five out of seven measured parameters of the bursty spike trains, the percentage of bursty dry neurons, the CV of ISIs in a spike train, the percentage of bursty spikes, the number of spikes in a burst and the ISIs in a burst, are unambiguously dependent on temperature and thus may precisely encode both noxious high steady temperatures up to 45 °C as well as rapid step-changes in it. The cold neuron starts to produce temperature-dependent spike bursts at temperatures above 30-35 °C. Thus, the two neurons encode different but largely overlapping ranges in noxious heat. The extent of dendritic branching and lamellation of the neurons largely varies in different DSS, which might be the structural basis for their variation in threshold temperatures for spike bursting.

  16. Resolution of the direct containment heating issue for all Westinghouse plants with large dry containments or subatmospheric containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.; Klamerus, E.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    This report uses the scenarios described in NUREG/CR-6075 and NUREG/CR-6075, Supplement 1, to address the direct containment heating (DCH) issue for all Westinghouse plants with large dry or subatmospheric containments. DCH is considered resolved if the conditional containment failure probability (CCFP) is less than 0.1. Loads versus strength evaluations of the CCFP were performed for each plant using plant-specific information. The DCH issue is considered resolved for a plant if a screening phase results in a CCFP less than 0.01, which is more stringent than the overall success criterion. If the screening phase CCFP for a plant is greater than 0.01, then refined containment loads evaluations must be performed and/or the probability of high pressure at vessel breach must be analyzed. These analyses could be used separately or could be integrated together to recalculate the CCFP for an individual plant to reduce the CCFP to meet the overall success criterion of less than 0.1. The CCFPs for all of the Westinghouse plants with dry containments were less than 0.01 at the screening phase, and thus, the DCH issue is resolved for these plants based on containment loads alone. No additional analyses are required.

  17. Studies of natural convection heat transfer in dry spent fuel storage casks using the cobra-SFS thermal-hydraulic computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michener, T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA (United States); Guttmann, J.; Bajwa, C. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, One White Flin North, Rockville MD (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the importance of natural convection cooling within a nuclear dry spent fuel storage system. In the past, applicants submitting requests to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) for a license for a dry spent fuel storage system design did not rigorously treat natural convection within the fuel package of the dry storage system. Typically, the applicant applies heat transfer correlations that raise the thermal conductivity of the materials (gas and solid structures) to account for the impact of convection on the thermal performance of the system. (author)

  18. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Abrasive Wear Behavior of High Chromium Iron under Dry Sliding Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ayeni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment on the abrasive wear behavior of high chromium cast iron (NF253AHT under dry sliding condition has been investigated. Rectangular cross sectioned samples of the alloy were produced by sand casting. After casting, the samples were machined to equal dimensions of 50 mm x 15 mm x 10 mm and heat treated by annealing, hardening and tempering. Abrasive wear tests were carried out on the samples using the pin-on-disc wear test. The tests were carried out under restricted values of speed, load and time. Within this limit, the hardened sample displayed a superior wear resistance, while the annealed sample displayed the weakest wear resistance. A graphical model (wear map displaying all the wear regimes of the alloy, which may serve as a wear predictive tool was subsequently developed from the results of the wear tests. With the exception of the as-cast and annealed specimen, all other specimens (hardened and tempered have functioned adequately in wear prone environment, but with different degree of effectiveness. Hence, the hardened and tempered samples can be used in shot blast equipments and in the grinding of minerals.

  19. Effects of superficial heating and insulation on walking speed in people with hereditary and spontaneous spastic paraparesis: A randomised crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Amanda L; Hough, Alan D; Freeman, Jennifer A; Marsden, Jonathan F

    2018-03-01

    Cooling of the lower limb in people with Hereditary and Spontaneous Spastic Paraparesis (pwHSSP) has been shown to affect walking speed and neuromuscular impairments. The investigation of practical strategies, which may help to alleviate these problems is important. The potential of superficial heat to improve walking speed has not been explored in pwHSSP. Primary objective was to explore whether the application of superficial heat (hot packs) to lower limbs in pwHSSP improves walking speed. Secondary objective was to explore whether wearing insulation after heating would prolong any benefits. A randomised crossover study design with 21 pwHSSP. On two separate occasions two hot packs and an insulating wrap (Neo-G™) were applied for 30minutes to the lower limbs of pwHSSP. On one occasion the insulating wrap was maintained for a further 30minutes and on the other occasion it was removed. Measures of temperature (skin, room and core), walking speed (10 metre timed walk) and co-ordination (foot tap time) were taken at baseline (T1), after 30 mins (T2) and at one hour (T3). All 21 pwHSSP reported increased lower limb stiffness and decreased walking ability when their legs were cold. After thirty minutes of heating, improvements were seen in walking speed (12.2%, P0.001) in both conditions. Application of 30minutes superficial heating moderately improved walking speed in pwHSSP with effects maintained at 1hour. The use of hot packs applied to lower limbs should be the focus of further research for the clinical management of pwHSSP who report increased stiffness of limbs in cold weather and do not have sensory deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling heat stress effect on Holstein cows under hot and dry conditions: selection tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabaño, M J; Bachagha, K; Ramón, M; Díaz, C

    2014-12-01

    Data from milk recording of Holstein-Friesian cows together with weather information from 2 regions in Southern Spain were used to define the models that can better describe heat stress response for production traits and somatic cell score (SCS). Two sets of analyses were performed, one aimed at defining the population phenotypic response and the other at studying the genetic components. The first involved 2,514,762 test-day records from up to 5 lactations of 128,112 cows. Two models, one fitting a comfort threshold for temperature and a slope of decay after the threshold, and the other a cubic Legendre polynomial (LP) model were tested. Average (TAVE) and maximum daily temperatures were alternatively considered as covariates. The LP model using TAVE as covariate showed the best goodness of fit for all traits. Estimated rates of decay from this model for production at 25 and 34°C were 36 and 170, 3.8 and 3.0, and 3.9 and 8.2g/d per degree Celsius for milk, fat, and protein yield, respectively. In the second set of analyses, a sample of 280,958 test-day records from first lactations of 29,114 cows was used. Random regression models including quadratic or cubic LP regressions (TEM_) on TAVE or a fixed threshold and an unknown slope (DUMMY), including or not cubic regressions on days in milk (DIM3_), were tested. For milk and SCS, the best models were the DIM3_ models. In contrast, for fat and protein yield, the best model was TEM3. The DIM3DUMMY models showed similar performance to DIM3TEM3. The estimated genetic correlations between the same trait under cold and hot temperatures (ρ) indicated the existence of a large genotype by environment interaction for fat (ρ=0.53 for model TEM3) and protein yield (ρ around 0.6 for DIM3TEM3) and for SCS (ρ=0.64 for model DIM3TEM3), and a small genotype by environment interaction for milk (ρ over 0.8). The eigendecomposition of the additive genetic covariance matrix from model TEM3 showed the existence of a dominant

  1. Hot Dry Rock Heat Mining Geothermal Energy Development Program - Annual Report Fiscal Year 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, David

    1991-01-01

    This was a year of significant accomplishment in the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Program. Most importantly, the design, construction, and installation of the surface plant for the Phase II system neared completion by the end of the year. Basic process design work has been completed, and all major components of the system except the gas/particle separator have been procured. For this component, previous design problems have been resolved, and purchase during the first half of FY91 is anticipated. Installation of the surface plant is well underway. The system will be completed and ready for operation by the end of FY91 under the current funding scenario. The operational schedule to be followed will then depend upon the program funding level. Our goal is to start long-term flow testing as soon as possible. Of equal importance, from the standpoint of the long-term viability of HDR technology, during this year, for the first time, it has been demonstrated in field testing that it should be possible to operate HDR reservoirs with water losses of 1-3%, or even less. Our experience in the deep, hot, Phase II reservoir at Fenton Hill is in sharp contrast to the significant water losses seen by Japanese and British scientists working in shallower, cooler, HDR reservoirs. Calculations and modeling based on field data have shown that water consumption declines with the log of time in a manner related to water storage in the reservoir. This work may be crucial in proving that HDR can be an economically viable means for producing energy, and that it is useful even in areas where water is in short supply. In addition, an engineering model was developed to predict and explain water consumption in HDR reservoirs under pressure, the collection and processing of seismic information was more highly automated, and the detection limits for reactive tracers were lowered to less than 1 part per billion. All of these developments will add greatly to our ability to conduct, analyze, and understand

  2. Endotracheal temperature and humidity in laryngectomized patients in a warm and dry environment and the effect of a heat and moisture exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, R.J.; Muller, S.H.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to assess endotracheal climate in laryngectomized patients in a warm and dry environment and the effects of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME). Methods: Endotracheal temperature and humidity were measured in 11 laryngectomized patients with a regularly used HME

  3. On adaptive time stepping for large-scale parabolic problems: Computer simulation of heat and mass transfer in vacuum freeze-drying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Georgiev, K.; Kosturski, N.; Margenov, S.; Starý, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 226, č. 2 (2009), s. 268-274 ISSN 0377-0427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Vacuum freeze drying * Zeolites * Heat and mass transfer * Finite element method * MIC(0) preconditioning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.292, year: 2009 http://apps.isiknowledge.com

  4. Melatonin treatment at dry-off improves reproductive performance postpartum in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; Abdelfatah, A; López-Gatius, F

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin treatment during the early dry-off period on subsequent reproductive performance and milk production in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions. In experiment I, addressing the pharmacokinetics of melatonin treatment in lactating dairy cows, doses of untreated, 3, 6, 9 or 12 implants/animal (18-mg melatonin each implant) were given as subcutaneous implants on gestation day 120-20 multiparous lactating dairy cows (four cows/dose group). Experiment II was performed during the warm season on 25 heifers and 114 high milk-producing Holstein-Friesian cows. Animals were randomly assigned to a control (C) or melatonin group (M). Animals in the M group received nine implants (heifers) or 12 (cows) of melatonin on day 220 of gestation. In experiment I, cows in the 12 implants group showed a higher maximum melatonin concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration curve from treatment day 0 to day 49 (AUC0-49d ) than those in the remaining groups, among which there were no significant differences in this variable. In experiment II, the likelihood of repeat breeding syndrome (pregnancy loss (first trimester) were 0.36 and 0.19 times lower in treated than control animals, respectively. Plasma prolactin levels decreased significantly (p = 0.01) after melatonin treatment and recovered during the postpartum compared to control cows. No significant effects on milk production were observed in the subsequent lactation. Significant differences in days open between groups (means 123 ± 71.9 and 103 ± 43, respectively, for C and M; p = 0.02) were registered. In conclusion, melatonin treatment in the early dry-off period improves the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, reducing the number of days open, repeat breeding syndrome and pregnancy loss. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Effect Of Dried Whey Milk Supplement On Some Blood Biochemical And Immunological Indices In Relation To Growth Performance Of Heat Stressed Bovine baladi Calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDALLA, E.B.; EL-MASRY, K.A.; TEAMA, F.E.; EMARA, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was carried out under hot environmental conditions, where temperature-humidity index was equivalent to 86 - 90 and 78 - 80 during day and night, respectively. Twelve bovine Baladi calves of 8 - 10 months old and 112 kg average initial live body weight were used in this study. The calves were divided into two groups of 6 animals each to study the effect of supplementation of dried whey milk on some blood biochemical and immunological indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions of Egypt. The results showed that supplementation of dried whey milk to the diet of heat-stressed calves at the level of 150 g / calf / day reduced significantly each of respiration rate and rectal temperature as well as serum lipid concentrations and their fractions e.g. total cholesterol and phospholipids. Also, dried whey milk supplement caused a significant decline in both AST and ALT activities and reduced significantly alpha globulin concentration, while non-significant changes were observed in each of beta globulin, gamma globulin and immunoglobulin G. However, supplementing dried whey milk to growing calves increased significantly serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphorous, T 3 and T 4 . Moreover, dried whey milk improved significantly both feed efficiency and daily gain of growing calves. It could be concluded that addition of dried whey milk to the diet reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate and induced an improvement in most blood biochemical parameters and growth performance of heat-stressed bovine Baladi calves.

  6. Individual and combined application of dry heat with high hydrostatic pressure to inactivate Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neetoo, Hudaa; Chen, Haiqiang

    2011-02-01

    Alfalfa sprouts are recurrently implicated in outbreaks of food-borne illnesses as a result of contamination with Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157:H7. In the majority of these outbreaks, the seeds themselves have been shown to be the most likely source of contamination. The aims of this study were to comparatively assess the efficacy of dry heat treatments alone or in conjunction with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) to eliminate a ∼5 log CFU/g load of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds. Dry heat treatments at mild temperatures of 55 and 60 °C achieved ≤1.6 and 2.2 log CFU/g reduction in the population of Salmonella spp. after a 10-d treatment, respectively. However, subjecting alfalfa seeds to more aggressive temperatures of 65 °C for 10 days or 70 °C for 24 h eliminated a ∼5 log population of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7. We subsequently showed that the sequential application of dry heating followed by HHP could substantially reduce the dry heating exposure time while achieving equivalent decontamination results. Dry heating at 55, 60, 65 and 70 °C for 96, 24, 12 and 6 h, respectively followed by a pressure treatment of 600 MPa for 2 min at 35 °C were able to eliminate a ∼5 log CFU/g initial population of both pathogens. Finally, we evaluated the impact of selected treatments on the seed germination percentages and yield ratios and showed that dry heating at 65 °C for 10 days did not bring about any considerable decrease in the germination percentage. However, the sprout yield of treated alfalfa seeds was reduced by 21%. Dry heating at 60 and 65 °C for 24 and 12 h respectively followed by the pressure treatment of 600 MPa for 2 min at 35 °C did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect the germination percentage of alfalfa seeds although a reduction in the sprouting yield was observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Splitting the exergy destruction into avoidable and unavoidable parts of a gas engine heat pump (GEHP) for food drying processes based on experimental values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gungor, Aysegul; Erbay, Zafer; Hepbasli, Arif; Gunerhan, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced exergy analysis of a gas engine heat pump drying system for the first time. • Varying exergy efficiency values from 79.71% to 81.66% for the overall drying system. • Obtaining modified exergy efficiencies of 84.50–86.00% for the overall drying system. - Abstract: Some limitations in a conventional exergy analysis may be significantly reduced through an advanced exergy analysis. In this regard, the latter is a very useful tool to assess the real potential for improving a system component by splitting the exergy destruction into unavoidable and avoidable parts. This may provide a realistic measure to deduct the improvement potential for the thermodynamic efficiency of a component. For this purpose, improvement efforts are then made by focusing only on these avoidable parts. In this paper, a gas engine heat pump (GEHP) drying system was analyzed using both conventional and advanced exergy analyses. Three medicinal and aromatic plants (Foeniculum vulgare, Malva sylvestris L. and Thymus vulgaris) were dried in a pilot scale GEHP drier, which was designed, constructed and installed in Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Drying experiments were performed at an air temperature of 45 °C with an air velocity of 1 m/s. For each system component, avoidable and unavoidable exergy destructions, modified exergy efficiency values and modified exergy destruction ratios were determined. Except for the compressor, the evaporator and the drying cabinet, most of the exergy destructions in the system components were avoidable and these avoidable parts can be reduced by design improvements. For the HP unit and the overall drying system, the values for exergy efficiency were obtained to be in the range of 82.51–85.11% and 79.71–81.66% while those for the modified exergy efficiency were calculated to be in the range of 85.70–89.26% and 84.50–86.00%, respectively

  8. The effect of lime-dried sewage sludge on the heat-resistance of eco-cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Quan; Liu, Wei; Cao, Hai-Hua; Xu, Jing-Cheng; Liu, Jia; Li, Guang-Ming; Huang, Juwen

    2016-01-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is a growing problem for sewage treatment plants. One method of disposal is to use sewage sludge as partial replacement for raw material in cement manufacture. Although this process has been well researched, little attention has been given to the thermal properties of cement that has had sewage sludge incorporated in the manufacturing process. This study investigated the fire endurance of eco-cement to which lime-dried sludge (LDS) had been added. LDS was added in proportions of 0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, and 12% (by weight) to the raw material. The eco-cement was exposed to 200, 400, or 600 °C for 3 h. The residual strength and the microstructural properties of eco-cement were then studied. Results showed that the eco-cement samples suffered less damage than conventional cement at 600 °C. The microstructural studies showed that LDS incorporation could reduce Ca(OH)(2) content. It was concluded that LDS has the potential to improve the heat resistance of eco-cement products.

  9. Effect of Thermophysical Properties on Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer in Porous Material during Forced Convective Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Cai; Lexian Zhu; Shilin Dong; Guozhen Xie; Junming Li

    2014-01-01

    The convective drying kinetics of porous medium was investigated numerically. A mathematical model for forced convective drying was established to estimate the evolution of moisture content and temperature inside multilayered porous medium. The set of coupled partial differential equations with the specified boundary and initial conditions were solved numerically using a MATLAB code. An experimental setup of convective drying had been constructed and validated the theoretical model. The tempe...

  10. Effect of dry heat and steam sterilization on load-deflection characteristics of β-titanium wires: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Shiva; Sinaee, Neda

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sterilization techniques could affect the characteristics of orthodontic wires. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of steam and dry heat sterilization techniques on load-deflection behavior of five types of β-titanium alloy wires. Materials and Methods: The samples consisted of 30 straight lengths of five types of β-titanium alloy wires: Titanium Molybdenum Alloy (TMA) Low Friction (TMAL), TMA Low Friction Colored (HONE), Resolve (RES), BetaForce (BETA), and BETA CNA (CNA). Thirty wire segments were divided into three groups of 10. Group 1 was the control group and the group 2 samples were sterilized by dry heat in an oven (60 minutes at 160°C) and group 3 by steam in an autoclave (15 minutes at 121°C). Then all the wire samples underwent a three-point bending test in a testing machine to evaluate load-deflection properties. Data was analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Scheffé's test (α = 0.05). Results: The results showed that dry heat sterilization significantly increased force levels during both loading and unloading of CNA, BETA and RES and during loading of HONE (P 0.05). Conclusion: It appears dry heat sterilization increases stiffness of RES, BETA, CNA and HONE but autoclave sterilization did not have any effect on load-deflection characteristics of most of the β-titanium wires tested, indicating that clinicians who want to provide maximum safety for their patients can autoclave TMAL, RES and CNA before applying them. PMID:23559917

  11. Inhibitory effects of UV treatment and a combination of UV and dry heat against pathogens on stainless steel and polypropylene surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Sun-Young

    2012-01-01

    Pathogens that contaminate the surfaces of food utensils may contribute to the occurrence of foodborne disease outbreaks. We investigated the efficacy of UV treatment combined with dry heat (50 °C) for inhibiting 5 foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus) on stainless steel and polypropylene surfaces in this study. We inoculated substrates with each of the 5 foodborne pathogens cultured on agar surface and then UV treatment alone or a combination of both UV and dry heat (50 °C) was applied for 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h. The initial populations of the 5 pathogens before treatment were 8.02 to 9.18 and 8.73 to 9.16 log₁₀ CFU/coupon on the surfaces of stainless steel and polypropylene coupons, respectively. UV treatments for 3 h significantly inhibited S. Typhimurium, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus on the stainless steel by 3.06, 2.18, and 2.70 log₁₀ CFU/coupon, and S. aureus on the polypropylene by 3.11 log₁₀ CFU/coupon, respectively. The inhibitory effects of the combined UV and dry heat treatment (50 °C) increased as treatment time increased, yielding significant reductions in all samples treated for 3 h, with the exception of S. aureus on polypropylene. The reduction level of E. coli O157:H7 treated for 3 h on the surface of stainless steel and polypropylene treated was approximately 6.00 log₁₀ CFU/coupon. These results indicate that combined UV and dry heat (50 °C) treatments may be effective for controlling microbial contamination on utensils and cooking equipment surfaces as well as in other related environments. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Large-scale purification of high purity α1-antitrypsin from Cohn Fraction IV with virus inactivation by solvent/detergent and dry-heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Chaoji; Zhang, Jinchao; Ma, Yuyuan; Jia, Junting; Li, Jingxuan; Lv, Maomin; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhao, Xiong; Zhang, Jingang

    2017-10-26

    α1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is widely used to treat patients with congenital AAT deficiency. Cohn Fraction IV (Cohn F IV) is normally discarded during the manufacturing process of albumin but contains approximately 33% of plasma AAT. We established a new process for large-scale purification of AAT from it. liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography were applied for qualitative identification and composition analysis, respectively. Stabilizers were optimized for AAT activity protection during lyophilization and dry-heat. Virus inactivation by dry-heat and solvent/detergent (S/D) was validated on a range of viruses. AAT with purity of 95.54%, specific activity of 3,938.5 IU/mg, and yield of 26.79%, was achieved. More than 95% activity was reserved after S/D. More than 96% activity was obtained after lyophilization or dry-heat. After S/D, pseudorabies virus (PRV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) were inactivated below detectable level within 1 H. Virus titer reductions of more than 5.50 log 10 and 5.38 log 10 were achieved for PRV and VSV, respectively. Porcine parvovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus were inactivated by 3.17 log 10 and 5.88 log 10 reduction after dry-heat. The advantages of this process, including suitability for large-scale production, high purity, better utilization of human plasma, viral safety, commercial and inexpensive chromatography medium, may facilitate its further application. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Simulation of the ACE L2 and ACE L5 MCCI experiment under dry surface conditions with ASTEC MEDICIS using an effective heat transfer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agethen, Kathrin; Koch, Marco K.

    2013-01-01

    In a postulated severe accident the loss of cooling can lead to a melting of the core and to a failure of the vessel. The molten core material discharges to the containment cavity and interacts with the concrete basemat. The heat up of the concrete leads to the release of sparing gases (H 2 , CO 2 , SiO), which stir the pool und causes chemical reactions. Especially the metals (Zr, Fe, Ni, Cr) in the corium are oxidized und the exothermic energy is released to the melt, which raises the melt temperature further. The release of combustible gases (H 2 , CO) and fission products to the containment atmosphere occurs as a result. In the long time (>10 h) containment failure and basemat penetration may occur, which can lead to fission product release to the environment. For further development and validation, simulations of experiments in which molten core concrete interaction (MCCI) is investigated, are necessary. In this work the new available effective heat transfer model in MEDICIS is used to calculate experiments of the ACE program, in which generic corium material is heated up and interacts with the concrete basemat. Here, especially the ACE L2 experiment with siliceous concrete and the ACE L5 experiment with limestone common sand (LCS) concrete will be presented. These experiments enable to analyze the heat transfer from the interior of the melt to the upper surface under dry conditions. Secondary the modeling in ASTEC version 2.p2 with the effective heat transfer module in MEDICIS is described. Results of MEDICIS simulations will be discussed by means of phenomena like ablation behavior and erosions depth, layer temperature and surface heat loss. Finally the issue of an effective heat transfer coefficient for the surface under dry conditions without top flooding is figured out. (orig.)

  14. Individual responses to short-term heat acclimatisation as predictors of football performance in a hot, dry environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Racinais, Sebastien; Mohr, Magni; Buchheit, Martin

    2012-01-01

    To identify the relationship between field performance in a hot environment and individual heat acclimatisation responses in football players.......To identify the relationship between field performance in a hot environment and individual heat acclimatisation responses in football players....

  15. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari R

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A case with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was presented. Etiology, mechanism, and treatment were discussed on the review of literature. Spontaneous Pneumothorax is a clinical entity resulting from a sudden non traumatic rupture of the lung. Biach reported in 1880 that 78% of 916 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax had tuberculosis. Kjergaard emphasized 1932 the primary importance of subpleural bleb disease. Currently the clinical spectrum of spontaneous pneumothorax seems to have entered a third era with the recognition of the interstitial lung disease and AIDS as a significant etiology. Standard treatment is including: observation, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy. Chemical pleurodesis, bullectomy or wedge resection of lung with pleural abrasion and occasionally pleurectomy. Little information has been reported regarding the efficacy of such treatment in spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to non bleb disease

  16. Gene expression programming approach for the estimation of moisture ratio in herbal plants drying with vacuum heat pump dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, Erkan; Ayaz, Mahir; Gül, Doğan; Şahin, Arzu Şencan

    2017-07-01

    The determination of drying behavior of herbal plants is a complex process. In this study, gene expression programming (GEP) model was used to determine drying behavior of herbal plants as fresh sweet basil, parsley and dill leaves. Time and drying temperatures are input parameters for the estimation of moisture ratio of herbal plants. The results of the GEP model are compared with experimental drying data. The statistical values as mean absolute percentage error, root-mean-squared error and R-square are used to calculate the difference between values predicted by the GEP model and the values actually observed from the experimental study. It was found that the results of the GEP model and experimental study are in moderately well agreement. The results have shown that the GEP model can be considered as an efficient modelling technique for the prediction of moisture ratio of herbal plants.

  17. Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows Grazing in Dry-summer Subtropical Climatic Conditions: Effect of Heat Stress and Heat Shock on Meiotic Competence and Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Pavani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate how environmental factors in a dry-summer subtropical climate in Terceira-Azores (situated in the North Atlantic Ocean: 38° 43′ N 27° 12′ W can affect dairy cow (Holstein fertility, as well as seasonal influence on in vitro oocytes maturation and embryos development. Impact of heat shock (HS effects on in vitro oocyte’s maturation and further embryo development after in vitro fertilization (IVF was also evaluated. For such purpose the result of the first artificial insemination (AI performed 60 to 90 days after calving of 6,300 cows were recorded for one year. In parallel, climatic data was obtained at different elevation points (n = 5 from 0 to 1,000 m and grazing points from 0 to 500 m, in Terceira island, and the temperature humidity index (THI was calculated. For in vitro experiments, oocytes (n = 706 were collected weekly during all year, for meiotic maturation and IVF. Further, to evaluate HS effect, 891 oocytes were collected in the cold moths (December, January, February and March and divided in three groups treated to HS for 24 h during in vitro maturation at: C (Control = 38.5°C, HS1 (39.5°C and HS2 (40.5°C. Oocytes from each group were used for meiotic assessment and IVF. Cleavage, morula and blastocyst development were evaluated respectively on day 2, 6, and 9 after IVF. A negative correlation between cow’s conception rate (CR and THI in grazing points (−91.3%; p<0.001 was observed. Mean THI in warmer months (June, July, August and September was 71.7±0.7 and the CR (40.2±1.5% while in cold months THI was 62.8±0.2 and CR was 63.8±0.4%. A similar impact was obtained with in vitro results in which nuclear maturation rate (NMR ranged from 78.4% (±8.0 to 44.3% (±8.1, while embryos development ranged from 53.8% (±5.8 to 36.3% (±3.3 in cold and warmer months respectively. In vitro HS results showed a significant decline (p<0.05 on NMR of oocytes for every 1°C rising

  18. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, M. Seitzler

    2017-06-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners.

  19. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-15

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored. May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored.

  20. Qualidade de sementes de tomate influenciada pelos tratamentos térmico e osmótico Tomato seeds quality affected by dry heat and osmotic treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Souza Lopes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento térmico via calor seco, visando o controle de patógenos associado às sementes, pode causar danos à qualidade fisiológica das mesmas, que podem ser recuperados, por meio do condicionamento osmótico. Avaliou-se o efeito do tratamento térmico via calor seco na qualidade sanitária e fisiológica das sementes de tomate, assim como a influência do condicionamento osmótico na qualidade fisiológica das sementes submetidas à termoterapia. As sementes das cultivares Quadrado Mix, Topmec e Calmec VFN foram expostas ao tratamento térmico a 70; 72,5 e 75ºC, em estufa com circulação forçada, por períodos de zero, 48; 96 e 120 horas. O período zero, sem a aplicação de calor, foi considerado como testemunha. Posteriormente, estas sementes foram avaliadas quanto à sanidade, condicionadas em solução aerada de polietilenoglicol a 0,0 e -1,0 MPa e submetidas à avaliação do teor de água, da germinação e do vigor. Pelos resultados pode-se concluir que o tratamento térmico via calor seco não foi eficiente em eliminar os patógenos associados às sementes de tomate, dependendo da cultivar avaliada. Períodos prolongados de exposição ao calor seco causaram danos à qualidade fisiológica das sementes de tomate, que não foram recuperados com o subseqüente condicionamento osmótico.The dry heat treatment aiming to control microorganisms in the seeds can cause damage to the physiological quality of seeds. Osmotic conditioning can be useful tool for recovering the physiological quality of the heat treated seeds. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dry heat treatments on the tomato seeds sanitary and physiologic quality, as well as to analyze the effect of the osmotic conditioning on seeds submitted to dry heat treatment. The seeds of cultivars Quadrado Mix, Topmec and Calmec VFN were heated at 70; 72.5 and 75ºC by periods of zero, 48; 96 and 120 hours. After the heat treatment, the seeds were evaluated for

  1. Inactivation of viruses during a new manufacturing process of α2-macroglobulin from Cohn Fraction IV by dry-heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Chaoji; Zhao, Xiong; Lv, Maomin; Jia, Junting; Zhu, Fengxuan; Wang, Rui; Ma, Yuyuan; Zhang, Jingang

    2016-09-01

    α2-Macroglobulin (α2-M) has a curative effect on radiation injury. Virus transmission through plasma derivatives is still not risk-free. Effect of dry heat on α2-M activity and virus inactivation by dry heat in a new manufacturing process of α2-M were studied. Effects of 100°C for 30 minutes, 80°C for 72 hours, and lyophilization on α2-M activity were detected, and stabilizing agents were optimized. Effect of a treatment at 100°C for 30 minutes has been tested on a range of viruses and characteristics change of α2-M was investigated. More than 90 and 80% α2-M activity recovery were reserved after treatment at 100°C for 30 minutes and 80°C for 72 hours, respectively. A concentration of 0.05 mol/L histidine presented a better protecting effect for α-M activity. No substantial changes were observed in the characteristics of α2-M compared with the untreated. By lyophilization and dry-heat treatment at 100°C for 30 minutes, murine encephalomyocarditis virus and pseudorabies virus (PRV) were inactivated below detectable level within 5 minutes (virus titers reduction ≥ 5.75 log) and 30 minutes (virus titers reduction ≥ 6.00 log), respectively. Bovine viral diarrhea virus and porcine parvovirus were inactivated by 4.29 and 2.46 log reduction, respectively. Treatment at 100°C for 30 minutes could improve the virus safety of α2-M with a slight activity loss. © 2016 AABB.

  2. The decrease in the IgG-binding capacity of intensively dry heated whey proteins is associatead with intense Maillard reaction, structural changes of the proteins and formation of RAGE-ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Teodorowicz, M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Wichers, H.J.; Hettinga, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Heat treatment is the most common way of milk processing, inducing structural changes as well as chemical modifications in milk proteins. These modifications influence the immune-reactivity and allergenicity of milk proteins. This study shows the influence of dry heating on the solubility, particle

  3. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  4. Heat

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to make heat by rubbing your hands together? Why does an ice cube melt when you hold it? In this title, students will conduct experiments to help them understand what heat is. Kids will also investigate concepts such as which materials are good at conducting heat and which are the best insulators. Using everyday items that can easily be found around the house, students will transform into scientists as they carry out step-by-step experiments to answer interesting questions. Along the way, children will pick up important scientific skills. Heat includes seven experiments with detailed, age-appropriate instructions, surprising facts and background information, a "conclusions" section to pull all the concepts in the book together, and a glossary of science words. Colorful, dynamic designs and images truly put the FUN into FUN-damental Experiments.

  5. Effect of Deep Drying and Torrefaction Temperature on Proximate, Ultimate Composition, and Heating Value of 2-mm Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta Grind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep drying and torrefaction compose a thermal pretreatment method where biomass is heated in the temperature range of 150–300 °C in an inert or reduced environment. The process parameters, like torrefaction temperature and residence time, have a significant impact on the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties. In this study, torrefaction experiments were conducted on 2-mm ground lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Both deep drying and torrefaction temperature (160–270 °C and time (15–120 min were selected. Torrefied samples were analyzed for the proximate, ultimate, and higher heating value. The results indicate that moisture content decreases with increases in torrefaction temperature and time, where at 270 °C and 120 min, the moisture content is found to be 1.15% (w.b.. Volatile content in the lodgepole pine decreased from about 80% to about 45%, and ash content increased from 0.77% to about 1.91% at 270 °C and 120 min. The hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur content decreased to 3%, 28.24%, and 0.01%, whereas the carbon content and higher heating value increased to 68.86% and 23.67 MJ/kg at 270 °C and 120 min. Elemental ratio of hydrogen to carbon and oxygen to carbon (H/C and O/C calculated at 270 °C and a 120-min residence time were about 0.56 and 0.47. Based on this study, it can be concluded that higher torrefaction temperatures ≥230 °C and residence time ≥15 min influence the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties of ground lodgepole pine.

  6. Effect of Deep Drying and Torrefaction Temperature on Proximate, Ultimate Composition, and Heating Value of 2-mm Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Grind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar

    2016-06-22

    Deep drying and torrefaction compose a thermal pretreatment method where biomass is heated in the temperature range of 150-300 °C in an inert or reduced environment. The process parameters, like torrefaction temperature and residence time, have a significant impact on the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties. In this study, torrefaction experiments were conducted on 2-mm ground lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta ) using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Both deep drying and torrefaction temperature (160-270 °C) and time (15-120 min) were selected. Torrefied samples were analyzed for the proximate, ultimate, and higher heating value. The results indicate that moisture content decreases with increases in torrefaction temperature and time, where at 270 °C and 120 min, the moisture content is found to be 1.15% (w.b.). Volatile content in the lodgepole pine decreased from about 80% to about 45%, and ash content increased from 0.77% to about 1.91% at 270 °C and 120 min. The hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur content decreased to 3%, 28.24%, and 0.01%, whereas the carbon content and higher heating value increased to 68.86% and 23.67 MJ/kg at 270 °C and 120 min. Elemental ratio of hydrogen to carbon and oxygen to carbon (H/C and O/C) calculated at 270 °C and a 120-min residence time were about 0.56 and 0.47. Based on this study, it can be concluded that higher torrefaction temperatures ≥230 °C and residence time ≥15 min influence the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties of ground lodgepole pine.

  7. Development of Combined Dry Heat and Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatment with Mechanical Mixing for Inactivation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo on Mung Bean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annous, Bassam A; Burke, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh sprouted beans. The sprouting conditions of mung bean seeds provide optimal conditions of temperature and relative humidity for any potential pathogenic contaminant on the seeds to grow. The lack of a kill step postsprouting is a major safety concern. Thus, the use of a kill step on the seeds prior to a sprouting step would enhance the safety of fresh sprouts. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combined thermal and chlorine dioxide gas (3.5 mg/liter of air) treatment with mechanical mixing (tumbling) to eliminate Salmonella on artificially inoculated mung bean seeds. Although no viable Salmonella was recovered from seeds treated in hot water at 60°C for 2 h, these treated seeds failed to germinate. Dry heat treatments (55, 60, or 70°C) for up to 8 h reduced Salmonella populations in excess of 3 log CFU/g. The use of tumbling, while treating the seeds, resulted in up to 1.6 log CFU/g reduction in Salmonella populations compared with no tumbling. Dry heat treatment at 65°C for 18 h with tumbling resulted in a complete inactivation of Salmonella populations on inoculated seeds with low inoculum levels (2.83 log CFU/g) as compared with high inoculum levels (4.75 log CFU/g). The increased reductions in pathogenic populations on the seeds with the use of tumbling could be attributed to increased uniformity of heat transfer and exposure to chlorine dioxide gas. All treated seeds were capable of germinating, as well as the nontreated controls. These results suggest that this combined treatment would be a viable process for enhancing the safety of fresh sprouts.

  8. Evaluation of wetting ability of five new saliva substitutes on heat-polymerized acrylic resin for retention of complete dentures in dry mouth patients: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Abdul Habeeb Bin; Reddy, Varalakshmi; Kumar, Praveen; Raj, Jeevan; Babu, Siva Santosh

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate & compare the wetting ability of five saliva substitutes & distilled water on heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Contact angle of the saliva substitute on denture base can be taken as an indicator of wettability. Good wetting of heat-polymerized acrylic resin is critical for optimum retention of complete dentures. Two hundred & forty samples of heat-polymerized acrylic resin were fabricated using conventional method. 240 samples divided into 6 groups with 40 samples in each group. Advancing & Receding contact angles were measured using Contact Angle Goniometer & DSA4 software analysis. Anova test was carried out to test the significance in difference of contact angle values in the six groups. The mean of advancing angle values & mean of receding angle values of all the six groups has shown statistically significant difference between the groups. The mean of angle of hysteresis values of all the six groups are statistically not significant between the groups. A multiple comparison using Bonferroni's test was carried out to verify the significance of difference between the contact angles in a pair of groups. Statistically significant difference was seen when Aqwet (Group II) was compared to Distilled water (Group I), Wet Mouth (Group III), E-Saliva (Group IV), Biotene (Group V), and Moi-Stir (Group VI). The contact angles of five saliva substitutes and distilled water were measured and compared. Group II (AQWET) has the lowest advancing and receding contact angle values and the highest angle of hysteresis on heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Based on contact angle values, Group II (AQWET) has the best wetting ability on heat-cured acrylic resins. The ability of saliva to wet the denture surface is one of the most important properties for complete denture retention in dry mouth cases.

  9. Fabrication and electrical characterization of 15% yttrium-doped barium zirconate-nitrate freeze drying method combined with vacuum heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imashuku, Susumu; Uda, Tetsuya; Nose, Yoshitaro; Awakura, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Very fine 15% yttrium-doped barium zirconate powder of particle size about 30 nm was obtained by synthesizing at 500 deg. C in vacuum from powder mixed by the nitrate freeze-drying method. → Large and homogeneous grains of 15% yttrium-doped barium zirconate were easily obtained using the synthesized powder. → Grain boundary resistance was not inversely proportional to the grain size as theoretically expected. → Specific grain boundary conductivity varies with samples because impurities and/or evaporation loss of barium oxide might affect the grain-boundary resistance in 15% yttrium-doped barium zirconate. - Abstract: We applied a nitrate freeze-drying method to obtain a fine synthesized powder of 15% yttrium-doped barium zirconate. Fine 15% yttrium-doped barium zirconate powder of particle size about 30 nm was obtained by synthesizing at 500 deg. C in vacuum from a powder mixed by the nitrate freeze-drying method. However, we could not obtain such fine powder by synthesizing in air. Using the powder synthesized in vacuum, large and homogeneous grains of 15% yttrium-doped barium zirconate were easily obtained after sintering. Then, the bulk and grain boundary resistance were evaluated by AC 2-terminal measurement of sample in the form of bar and pellet and DC 4-terminal measurement of bar-shape sample. The grain boundary resistance was not inversely proportional to the grain size as theoretically expected. We concluded that specific grain boundary conductivity varies with samples. Some impurities, evaporation loss of barium oxide and/or other unexpected reasons might affect the grain boundary resistance in 15% yttrium-doped barium zirconate.

  10. Effect of Heat Drawing Process on Mechanical Properties of Dry-Jet Wet Spun Fiber of Linear Low Density Polyethylene/Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Won Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene is one of the most commonly used polymer materials. Even though linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE has better mechanical properties than other kinds of polyethylene, it is not used as a textile material because of its plastic behavior that is easy to break at the die during melt spinning. In this study, LLDPE fibers were successfully produced with a new approach using a dry-jet wet spinning and a heat drawing process. The fibers were filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs to improve the strength and reduce plastic deformation. The crystallinity, degree of orientation, mechanical properties (strength to yield, strength to break, elongation at break, and initial modulus, electrical conductivity, and thermal properties of LLDPE fibers were studied. The results show that the addition of CNTs improved the tensile strength and the degree of crystallinity. The heat drawing process resulted in a significant increase in the tensile strength and the orientation of the CNTs and polymer chains. In addition, this study demonstrates that the heat drawing process effectively decreases the plastic deformation of LLDPE.

  11. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.

    2017-01-01

    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  12. Techno-economic analysis of a roof-integrated solar air heating system for drying fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, A.

    2010-01-01

    The solar air heater was 46 m 2 and recorded a maximum temperature of 76.6 deg. C. The dryer was loaded with 200 kg of fresh pineapple slices 5 mm thick. The initial moisture content of 82% was reduced to the desired level (<10%) within 8 h. The performance of the dryer was analyzed in detail by three methods namely annualized cost, present worth of annual savings, and present worth of cumulative savings. The cost of drying 1 kg pineapple worked out to Rs. 11 which was roughly half of that of an electric dryer. The payback period worked out to 0.54 year, much less than the estimated life of the system (20 years).

  13. Effective survival of immobilized Lactobacillus casei during ripening and heat treatment of probiotic dry-fermented sausages and investigation of the microbial dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidira, Marianthi; Karapetsas, Athanasios; Galanis, Alex; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2014-02-01

    The aim was the assessment of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat in the production of probiotic dry-fermented sausages and the investigation of the microbial dynamics. For comparison, sausages containing either free L. casei ATCC 393 or no starter culture were also prepared. During ripening, the numbers of lactobacilli exceeded 7 log cfu/g, while a drastic decrease was observed in enterobacteria, staphylococci and pseudomonas counts. Microbial diversity was further studied applying a PCR-DGGE protocol. Members of Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Carnobacterium, Brochothrix, Bacillus and Debaryomyces were the main microbial populations detected. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis confirmed that the levels of L. casei ATCC 393 in the samples after 66 days of ripening were above the minimum concentration for conferring a probiotic effect (≥ 6 log cfu/g). However, after heat treatment, this strain was detected at the above levels, only in sausages containing immobilized cells. © 2013.

  14. Performance evaluation of two wet bulb globe temperature equipment for heat stress assessment in hot/dry and hot/wet conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Dehghan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Since there is a high correlation between the values recorded by two devices and a remarkable cost - efficacy of WBGT Model 686 , using WBGT Model 686 is an acceptable method for measuring the heat stress if the prediction equations are utilized. According to the different temperature conditions, was obtained dry temperature, wet temperature and globe temperature both devices measurement in different climatic conditions equation WBGT Casella = 2.04 + 1.03 (WBGT Model 686 . About 2 units WBGT Model 686 lower than the WBGT Casella and recommend the measures to be considered in this case as well as the manufacturers also, recommend doing that the reform of sensor measurements and the calculation methods.

  15. Effect of Deep Drying and Torrefaction Temperature on Proximate, Ultimate Composition, and Heating Value of 2-mm Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Grind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, Jaya

    2016-06-01

    Deep drying and torrefaction is a thermal pretreatment method, where biomass is heated in the temperature range of 150–300°C in an inert or reduced environment. The process parameters like temperature and residence time has a significant impact on proximate, ultimate, and energy properties of the biomass. In the present study, torrrefaction experiments were conducted on 2 mm lodgepole pine grind using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Both deep drying and torrefaction temperature (160–270°C) and time (15–120 min) were selected. Torrefied samples were analyzed for proximate, ultimate and energy properties. Results indicated that moisture content decreased with increases in torrefaction temperature and time, where at 270°C and 120 min, the moisture content was found to be 1.15% (w.b.). Volatile content in the biomass decreased from about 80% to about 45%, and ash content increased from 0.77 to about 1.91% at 270°C and 120 min. The hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur content decreased to 3%, 28.24%, and 0.01 whereas carbon content and higher heating value increased to 68.86% and 23.67 MJ/kg at 270°C and 120 min. H/C and O/C ratio calculated at 270°C and 120 min residence time were about 0.56 and 0.47. This study indicated that higher torrefaction temperatures >230°C and residence time >15 min influenced the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties.

  16. Design and construction of a hybrid system of heating air by combustion of biomass and solar radiation, using phase change material (PCM as a source of thermal storage, for cassava drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Torres-Gallo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study consisted of designing, building and validation a hybrid system of heating air by combustion of biomass and solar radiation, using phase change material (PCM as a thermal storage source, for cassava drying, a small scale. The dryer consists of a centrifugal fan, two solar collectors, a fuel burner solid (rice husk and a tray dryer. System validation was performed drying up Yucca. The PCM allowed to follow the drying process, even when the solar radiation was below 116,22 ± 31,94 W / m2, being able to maintain drying air temperatures in the two solar collectors at 46 ± 4, 29 ° C and 51 ± 4.08 ° C for an additional 45 min. The drying time was 10 h and 45 min, the efficiency of the solar collectors was 43.91 % and the rice husk burner of 36.72 %.

  17. Heat treatment effect on the microstructure, tensile properties and dry sliding wear behavior of A356-10%B4C cast composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashgari, H.R.; Zangeneh, Sh.; Shahmir, H.; Saghafi, M.; Emamy, M.

    2010-01-01

    In present paper, an attempt was made to examine the influence of T6 heat treatment (solution treatment at 540 o C for 5 h, quenching in hot water and artificial aging at 170 o C for 8 h) on the microstructure, tensile properties and dry sliding wear behavior of A356-10%B 4 C cast composites. The composite ingots were made by stir casting process. In this work, the matrix alloy and composite were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, tensile tests and conventional pin-on-disk experiment. The obtained results showed that in Al-B 4 C composite, T6 treatment was a dominant factor on the hardness improvement in comparison with hardness increasing due to the addition of B 4 C hard particles. In addition, T6 treatment can contribute to the strong bonding between B 4 C and matrix alloy and also it can change eutectic silicon morphology from acicular to near spherical. This case can lead to higher strength and wear properties of heat treated metal matrix composites in comparison with unheat treated state. Observation of worn surfaces indicated detachment of mechanically mixed layer which can primarily due to the delamination wear mechanism under higher applied load.

  18. Bio-oil production from dry sewage sludge by fast pyrolysis in an electrically-heated fluidized bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato O. Arazo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of bio-oil produced from sewage sludge using fast pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor was investigated. Effects of temperature, sludge particle size and vapor residence time on bio-oil properties, such as yield, high heating value (HHV and moisture content were evaluated through experimental and statistical analyses. Characterization of the pyrolysis products (bio-oil and biogas was also done. Optimum conditions produced a bio-oil product with an HHV that is nearly twice as much as lignocellulosic-derived bio-oil, and with properties comparable to heavy fuel oil. Contrary to generally acidic bio-oil, the sludge-derived bio-oil has almost neutral pH which could minimize the pipeline and engine corrosions. The Fourier Transform Infrared and gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of bio-oil showed a dominant presence of gasoline-like compounds. These results demonstrate that fast pyrolysis of sewage sludge from domestic wastewater treatment plant is a favorable technology to produce biofuels for various applications.

  19. Corncob-fueled drying system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, R.V.; Thimsen, D.P.; Lang, J.P.; Hansen, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A system to collect, transport, process, dry and burn corncobs to dry shelled corn was evaluated. A mixture of shelled corn and cobs was harvested and transported to the drying facility where a continuous, automated system separated, dried and conveyed cobs to the combustor, a two-stage downdraft device with a 400 to 800 kW heat output. Exhaust products were put directly into the drying air without adversely affecting the corn's appearance or odor. 6 references.

  20. Heat waves and jet stream relations - nature of dry and wet shifts around the 2.8 kyr BP event in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowinski, M. M.; Persoiu, A.; Slowinska, S.; Marcisz, K.; Ionita, M.; Lamentowicz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Solar insolation was the main driver of N Hemisphere storm tracks changes, with significant impacts on European climate variability during the Holocene. Consequently, the Homeric solar minimum, which occurred between 2,750 and 2,550 cal BP, was characterized by cooling and increase in wind strength and humidity in W Europe. In contrast, environmental reconstructions from Central and E Europe show that the climatic changes during this period were often more complex, with increased hydrological instability and a shift towards drier conditions. These contrasting conditions could be explained by the blocking in a stationary position of a high-pressure system above Central and E Europe as a result of the behavior of the jet stream. In order to understand how these changes in the behavior of the jet stream were acting in the past, we have analyzed a modern analogue to better understand the climatic map of Europe during the Homeric minimum of the 9th century BC. Thus, in summer 2015, a northward extending meander of the jet stream led to dry and hot conditions in C Europe, blocking the transport of Atlantic-sourced moisture eastwards and leading to increased precipitation in W Europe. Contrary, in 2013, the position of the high-pressure cells associated with the meandering of the jet-stream was located over W Russia and E Europe (both affected by heat waves resulting from meridional advection of dry/hot air), leading to more Rossby waves breaking over C Europe and delivering record amounts of precipitation. To test whether a similar mechanism could act on longer times scales, we have analyzed two high-resolution palaeoclimate datasets from E Europe (Rąbień peatbog, Poland and Scăriloara Ice Cave, Romania), located in areas with both N Atlantic and Mediterranean climatic influences. At the time of the Homeric Solar Minimum, warm climatic conditions dominated in SE Europe, with advection of warm and dry air from the Mediterranean. W Europe was rather wet around that time

  1. Kinetics of the Degradation of Anthocyanins, Phenolic Acids and Flavonols During Heat Treatments of Freeze-Dried Sour Cherry Marasca Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Zorić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heating temperature (80–120 °C and processing time (5–50 min on the stability of anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin- 3-glucoside, quercetin-3-glucoside and phenolic acids (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids in freeze-dried Marasca sour cherry pastes was studied. The degradation rates of individual anthocyanins, quercetin-3-glucoside and phenolic acids followed the first order reaction kinetics. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was found to be the most unstable among the anthocyanins, together with p-coumaric and neochlorogenic acids among other phenols. Activation energies for anthocyanin degradation ranged from 42 (cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside to 55 kJ/mol (cyanidin-3-glucoside, and for other phenols from 8.12 (chlorogenic acid to 27 kJ/mol (neochlorogenic acid. By increasing the temperature from 80 to 120 °C, the reaction rate constant of cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside increased from 2.2·10–2 to 8.5·10–2 min–1, of p-coumaric acid from 1.12·10–2 to 2.5·10–2 min–1 and of quercetin-3-glucoside from 1.5·10–2 to 2.6·10–2 min–1. The obtained results demonstrate that at 80°C the half-life of anthocyanins ranges from 32.10 min for cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside to 45.69 min for cyanidin-3-rutinoside, and of other phenolic compounds from 43.39 for neochlorogenic acid to 66.99 min for chlorogenic acid. The results show that the heating temperature and duration affect the anthocyanins considerably more than the other phenols in terms of degradation.

  2. Large-scale vertical velocity, diabatic heating and drying profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed in the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Shuaiqi; Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Yunyan; Zhang, Minghua; Schumacher, Courtney; Upton, Hannah; Jensen, Michael P.; Johnson, Karen L.; Wang, Meng; Ahlgrimm, Maike; Feng, Zhe; Minnis, Patrick; Thieman, Mandana

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of large-scale vertical velocity, apparent heating source (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2) profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed during the two intensive operational periods (IOPs) that were conducted from 15 February to 26 March 2014 (wet season) and from 1 September to 10 October 2014 (dry season) near Manaus, Brazil, during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment. The derived large-scale fields have large diurnal variations according to convective activity in the GoAmazon region and the morning profiles show distinct differences between the dry and wet seasons. In the wet season, propagating convective systems originating far from the GoAmazon region are often seen in the early morning, while in the dry season they are rarely observed. Afternoon convective systems due to solar heating are frequently seen in both seasons. Accordingly, in the morning, there is strong upward motion and associated heating and drying throughout the entire troposphere in the wet season, which is limited to lower levels in the dry season. In the afternoon, both seasons exhibit weak heating and strong moistening in the boundary layer related to the vertical convergence of eddy fluxes. A set of case studies of three typical types of convective systems occurring in Amazonia – i.e., locally occurring systems, coastal-occurring systems and basin-occurring systems – is also conducted to investigate the variability of the large-scale environment with different types of convective systems.

  3. Heat jettisoning from solar-thermal driven LiBr-H{sub 2}O absorber cooling units by pulsed spraying a dry cooler with water; Waermeabwurf aus einer solarthermisch getriebenen LiBr- H{sub 2}O Absorptionskaeltemaschine durch gepulstes Bespruehen eines Trockenkuehlers mit Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantenbein, P.; Helfenberger, R.; Frank, E.

    2010-07-01

    This short, illustrated final report discusses the removal of heat from solar-thermal driven LiBr-H{sub 2}O absorber cooling units by pulsed spraying a dry cooler with water. The reduction of electricity consumption for room cooling using conventional chillers is examined. Heat dissipation using open cooling towers and the disadvantages encountered are compared with heat dissipation using a dry cooler with heat-exchanger and fans. Additional evaporation cooling achieved by spraying the heat exchanger with water is described and discussed. The results of measurements made at the Institute for Solar Technology in Rapperswil, Switzerland, are presented and discussed.

  4. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  5. The effect of Al–8B grain refiner and heat treatment conditions on the microstructure, mechanical properties and dry sliding wear behavior of an Al–12Zn–3Mg–2.5Cu aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipour, M.; Azarbarmas, M.; Heydari, F.; Hoghoughi, M.; Alidoost, M.; Emamy, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect of Al–8B on the properties of aluminum alloy was studied. ► Al–8B is an effective in reducing the grain and reagent fine microstructure. ► Al–8B is an effective in optimization of properties. -- Abstract: In this study the effect of Al–8B grain refiner on the structural and properties of Al–12Zn–3Mg–2.5Cu aluminum alloy were investigated. The optimum amount for B containing grain refiner was selected as 3.75 wt.%. The results showed that B containing grain refiner is more effective in reducing average grain size of the alloy. T6 heat treatment was applied for all specimens before tensile testing. Significant improvements in mechanical properties were obtained with the addition of grain refiner combined with T6 heat treatment. After the heat treatment, the average tensile strength increased from 479 MPa to 537 MPa for sample refined with 3.75 wt.% Al–8B. The fractography of the fractured faces and microstructure evolution was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. Dry sliding wear performance of the alloy was examined in normal atmospheric conditions. The experimental results showed that the T6 heat treatment considerably improved the resistance of Al–12Zn–3Mg–2.5Cu aluminum alloy to the dry sliding wear.

  6. Microbiology of cooked and dried edible Mediterranean field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) and superworms (Zophobas atratus) submitted to four different heating treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Nils Th; Klein, Günter

    2017-01-01

    To increase the shelf life of edible insects, modern techniques (e.g. freeze-drying) add to the traditional methods (degutting, boiling, sun-drying or roasting). However, microorganisms become inactivated rather than being killed, and when rehydrated, many return to vegetative stadia. Crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) and superworms (Zophobas atratus) were submitted to four different drying techniques (T1 = 10' cooking, 24 h drying at 60℃; T2 = 10' cooking, 24 h drying at 80℃; T3 = 30' cooking, 12 h drying at 80℃, and 12 h drying at 100℃; T4 = boiling T3-treated insects after five days) and analysed for total bacteria counts, Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, bacilli, yeasts and moulds counts, E. coli, salmonellae, and Listeria monocytogenes (the latter three being negative throughout). The microbial counts varied strongly displaying species- and treatment-specific patterns. T3 was the most effective of the drying treatments tested to decrease all counts but bacilli, for which T2 was more efficient. Still, total bacteria counts remained high (G. bimaculatus > Z. atratus). Other opportunistically pathogenic microorganisms (Bacillus thuringiensis, B. licheniformis, B. pumilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Cryptococcus neoformans) were also encountered. The tyndallisation-like T4 reduced all counts to below detection limit, but nutrients leakage should be considered regarding food quality. In conclusion, species-specific drying procedures should be devised to ensure food safety. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE INTENSIFICATION CONVECTIVE DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gavrilenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identified and analyzed the relationship of the intensity convective drying and air pollution emissions of heat. The ways to reduce the thermal pollution of the atmosphere at convective drying.

  8. Humidification performance of humidifying devices for tracheostomized patients with spontaneous breathing: a bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikata, Yusuke; Oto, Jun; Onodera, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Masaji

    2013-09-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) are commonly used for humidifying respiratory gases administered to mechanically ventilated patients. While they are also applied to tracheostomized patients with spontaneous breathing, their performance in this role has not yet been clarified. We carried out a bench study to investigate the effects of spontaneous breathing parameters and oxygen flow on the humidification performance of 11 HMEs. We evaluated the humidification provided by 11 HMEs for tracheostomized patients, and also by a system delivering high-flow CPAP, and an oxygen mask with nebulizer heater. Spontaneous breathing was simulated with a mechanical ventilator, lung model, and servo-controlled heated humidifier at tidal volumes of 300, 500, and 700 mL, and breathing frequencies of 10 and 20 breaths/min. Expired gas was warmed to 37°C. The high-flow CPAP system was set to deliver 15, 30, and 45 L/min. With the 8 HMEs that were equipped with ports to deliver oxygen, and with the high-flow CPAP system, measurements were taken when delivering 0 and 3 L/min of dry oxygen. After stabilization we measured the absolute humidity (AH) of inspired gas with a hygrometer. AH differed among HMEs applied to tracheostomized patients with spontaneous breathing. For all the HMEs, as tidal volume increased, AH decreased. At 20 breaths/min, AH was higher than at 10 breaths/min. For all the HMEs, when oxygen was delivered, AH decreased to below 30 mg/L. With an oxygen mask and high-flow CPAP, at all settings, AH exceeded 30 mg/L. None of the HMEs provided adequate humidification when supplemental oxygen was added. In the ICU, caution is required when applying HME to tracheostomized patients with spontaneous breathing, especially when supplemental oxygen is required.

  9. Evaluation of wetting ability of five new saliva substitutes on heat-polymerized acrylic resin for retention of complete dentures in dry mouth patients: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsin, Abdul Habeeb Bin; Reddy, Varalakshmi; Kumar, Praveen; Raj, Jeevan; Babu, Siva Santosh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate & compare the wetting ability of five saliva substitutes & distilled water on heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Contact angle of the saliva substitute on denture base can be taken as an indicator of wettability. Good wetting of heat-polymerized acrylic resin is critical for optimum retention of complete dentures. Methods Two hundred & forty samples of heat-polymerized acrylic resin were fabricated using conventional method. 240 samples divided ...

  10. Spontaneous pneumothorax in weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnejon, T; Sarac, S; Cropp, A J

    1995-06-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is infrequently caused by strenuous exertion. To our knowledge there has only been one case of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting reported in the medical literature. We describe three consecutive cases of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting. We postulate that spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients may be secondary to improper breathing techniques. It is important that physicians and weight trainers be aware of the association between weight lifting and spontaneous pneumothorax and assure that proper instruction is given to athletes who work with weights.

  11. The influence of heat treatment and role of boron on sliding wear behaviour of β-type Ti-35Nb-7.2Zr-5.7Ta alloy in dry condition and in simulated body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, P; Singh, S B; Chakraborty, M

    2011-04-01

    The wear behaviour of heat-treated Ti-35Nb-7.2Zr-5.7Ta (TNZT) and Ti-35Nb-7.2Zr-5.7Ta-0.5B (TNZTB) alloys (all compositions are in wt%) was investigated in dry condition and in simulated body fluids. It has been found that there is no straightforward relationship between the wear rate and the microstructure. The hardness has no appreciable effect on the wear behaviour of these alloys. The presence of boron in the TNZT alloy deteriorates its wear properties. The wear rate of TNZT and TNZTB alloys in various media increases in the following sequence: dry condition < Hank's solution < bovine serum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Heat and humidity induced plastic changes in body lipids and starvation resistance in the tropicalZaprionus indianusof wet - dry seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, T N; Pradeep, B E; Parkash, Ravi

    2018-03-28

    Insects from tropical wet or dry seasons are likely to cope starvation stress through plastic changes (developmental as well as adult acclimation) in energy metabolites. Control and experimental groups of flies of Zaprionus indianus were reared under wet or dry conditions but adults were acclimated at different thermal or humidity conditions. Adult flies of control group were acclimated at 27°C and low (50% RH) or high (60% RH) humidity. For experimental groups, adult flies were acclimated at 32℃ for 1 to 6 days and under low (40% RH) or high (70% RH). For humidity acclimation, adult flies were acclimated at 27°C but under low (40% RH) or high (70% RH) for 1 to 6 days. Plastic changes in experimental groups as compared to control group (developmental as well as adult acclimation) revealed significant accumulation of body lipids due to thermal or humidity acclimation of wet season flies but low humidity acclimation did not change the level of body lipids in dry season flies. Starvation resistance and body lipids were higher in the males of dry season but in the females of wet season. Adult acclimation under thermal or humidity conditions exhibited changes in the rate of utilization of body lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Adult acclimation of wet or dry season flies revealed plastic changes in mean daily fecundity; and a reduction in fecundity under starvation. Thus, thermal or humidity acclimation of adults revealed plastic changes in energy metabolites to support starvation resistance of wet or dry seasons flies. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Changes in physical, chemical and functional properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) and sugar beet pectin (SBP) conjugates formed by controlled dry-heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Maillard type reaction in the dry state was utilized to create conjugates between whey protein isolate (WPI) and sugar beet pectin (SBP) to achieve improved functional properties including solubility, colloidal stability and oil-in-water emulsion stability. To optimize the reaction conditions, mi...

  14. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  15. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying. Yearly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  16. Phenomenological modeling of the drying of a thin cloth with a rotating cylinder heated by electromagnetic induction; Modelisation phenomenologique du sechage d'une nappe mince avec un cylindre rotatoire chauffe par induction electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, S. [Universidad de Carabobo, Facultad de Ingenieria, Valencia (Venezuela); Therien, N.; Broadbent, A.D. [Sherbrooke Univ., Faculte de Genie, Quebec (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A phenomenological model of the evolution of the humidity and temperature during the drying of a thin fiber cloth in contact with a metal surface heated by electric induction is presented. The model calculates also the temperature inside the cylinder with respect to its position. Differential mass and energy statuses are established and the concept of substantial derivative is used to bind the state variables with respect to the time and position. The conduction, convection, radiant heat transfer, thermal induction, and energy transfer due to water vaporization are explicitly considered. The model takes into consideration the disturbances due to the variations of the humidity of the cloth at the input of the process. It calculates the response of the process in front of these disturbances and in front of the rotation speed of the cylinder and the electric power supplied to the system. Multiple experiments performed on a bench test have permitted to characterize the response of the drying process (temperature of the cylinder, humidity and temperature of the cloth) under different combinations of conditions. (J.S.)

  17. Wheat cultivars selected for high Fv/Fm under heat stress maintain high photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, transpiration and dry matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl Otto

    2015-01-01

    ) than the low group, accompanied by higher stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E) and evaporative cooling of the leaf (ΔT). The difference in PN between the groups was not caused by differences in PSII capacity or gs as the variation in Fv/Fm and intracellular CO2 (Ci) was non...... variation for tolerance to severe heat stress (3 days at 40∘C in controlled conditions) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here we investigated the performance of the previously selected cultivars (high and low group based on Fv/Fm value) in terms of growth and photosynthetic traits undermoderate heat stress...

  18. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rupture of a gravid uterus is a surgical emergency. Predisposing factors include a scarred uterus. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient ...

  19. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  20. Effect of heat damage in an autoclave on the reactive lysine contents of soy products and corn distillers dried grains with solubles. Use of the results to check on lysine damage in common qualities of these ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Johannes; Zimmer, Ulrike; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2007-12-26

    The suitability of the homoarginine reaction for determining the reactive lysine in soy products and corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was tested. For this purpose, some batches were subjected to deliberate heat damage for up to 30 min in an autoclave with 135 degrees C hot steam, and the samples were analyzed for total lysine and reactive lysine. In addition, 84 samples of common soy and 80 samples of corn DDGS were tested for their content of total and reactive lysine, and the contents were compared with those of the autoclave tests. For soy products conclusive results were obtained. In the case of heat treatment, both total lysine and reactive lysine decrease, but the latter is clearly a more sensitive indicator of lysine damage. Most normal products are quite similar, with toasting-induced damage to reactive lysine of ca. 15% compared to untoasted beans. The cause of the constantly occurring residual lysine after guanidination and the poorer reaction balance in the case of damage were explained. For common DDGS samples, however, less favorable results were obtained. Reactive and total lysine decreased almost in parallel due to heat damage, showing a great gap between them. Results showed indeed that variation of total and reactive lysine in DDGS is high, proving that its production conditions are not yet optimal for a feed ingredient.

  1. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    for the higher processing rates in FPDs, high-density plasma processing tools that can handle larger-area substrate uniformly are more intensively studied especially for the dry etching of polysilicon thin films. In the case of FPD processing, the current substrate size ranges from 730 × 920 mm (fourth...... etching requirements, and advantages of dry etching over wet processing. Current status and future trends are also presented....

  2. Theoretical evaluation of heat transfer in dry cargo ship's tanks using thermal oil as a heat transfer medium. (Theoretische evaluatie van de warmteoverdracht in de tanks van droge-ladingschepen bij toepassing van thermische olie als warmtetransportmedium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeden, D.J. van der

    1966-01-01

    Heat transfer by means of suitable organic fluids has been applied succesfully in industry. The advantages of these fluids with respect to steam for shipboard application are a.o.: low vapourpressure at relatively high temperatures and no corrosion or erosion of metallic surfaces. Disadvantages are

  3. Comparison of wet and dry heat transfer and pressure drop tests of smooth and rough corrugated PVC packing in cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goshayeshi, H.R.; Missenden, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the performance of a cooling tower with PVC packing. The following were examined; the effect of surface roughness, the effect of the angle of roughness and the effect of packing spacing. The investigation was divided into two parts: comparison of film heat transfer with air pressure drop, without water circulation and comparison of enthalpy change and pressure drop in the model cooling tower, with circulation of water. Seven commercial packing were investigated, covering a size range of 1.1< P/D<1.70 and 1≤p/e≤5 and a discussion of the dimensionless correlation resulting is given

  4. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  5. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  6. Market opportunities for solar drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskens, R.G.J.H.; Out, P.G.; Schulte, B.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most promising applications for solar heating is the drying of agricultural products. The drying of agricultural products requires large quantities of low temperature air, in many cases, on a year-round basis. Low cost air-based collectors can provide heated air at solar collection efficiencies of 30 to 70%. In 1998/1999 a study was commissioned to better understand the technical and economic potential for solar drying of agricultural products in the world. The practical potential for solar drying was then determined for 59 crops and 22 regions. The world market for solar drying can be divided into three market segments: 1) mechanical drying T 50 deg. C; 3) sun drying. The most promising market for solar drying is generally market segment 1. For this segment the potential amount of energy displaced by solar is in between 216 770 PJ (World-wide). For Western Europe this potential is estimated between 23 88 PJ and for Eastern Europe between 7 and 13 PJ. A different market introduction strategy is required for each market segment. A total of 13 combinations of crops and regions are selected that appear to have the highest practical potential for solar drying. In the Netherlands a programme of activities was carried out by Ecofys and other organisations, to identify and develop the market potential for solar (assisted) drying of agricultural products. A promotional campaign for the use of renewable energy in the (promising) flower bulb sector is planned on a short-term basis to speed up market developments. It can be concluded that there is a large market for solar drying in the World as well as in Europe. (au)

  7. Microwave processing heats up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwaves are a common appliance in many households. In the United States microwave heating is the third most popular domestic heating method food foods. Microwave heating is also a commercial food processing technology that has been applied for cooking, drying, and tempering foods. It's use in ...

  8. After-heat removing system in FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    The after-heat removing system of the present invention removes the after heat generated in a reactor core without using dynamic equipments such as pumps or blowers. There are disposed a first heat exchanger for heating a heat medium by the heat in a reactor container and a second heat exchanger situated above the first heat exchanger for spontaneously air-cooling the heat medium. Recycling pipeways connect the first and the second heat exchangers to form a recycling path for the heat medium. Then, since the second heat exchanger for spontaneously air-cooling the heat medium is disposed above the first heat exchanger and they are connected by the recycling pipeways, the heat medium can be circulated spontaneously. Accordingly, dynamic equipments such as pumps or blowers are no more necessary. As a result, the after-heat removing system of the FBR type reactor of excellent safety and reliability can be obtained. (I.S.)

  9. Foam-mat drying technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Z; Jideani, V A

    2017-08-13

    This article reviews various aspects of foam-mat drying such as foam-mat drying processing technique, main additives used for foam-mat drying, foam-mat drying of liquid and solid foods, quality characteristics of foam-mat dried foods, and economic and technical benefits for employing foam-mat drying. Foam-mat drying process is an alternative method that allows the removal of water from liquid materials and pureed materials. In this drying process, a liquid material is converted into foam that is stable by being whipped after adding an edible foaming agent. The stable foam is then spread out in sheet or mat and dried by using hot air (40-90°C) at atmospheric pressure. Methyl cellulose (0.25-2%), egg white (3-20%), maltodextrin (0.5-05%), and gum Arabic (2-9%) are the commonly utilized additives for the foam-mat drying process at the given range, either combined together for their effectiveness or individual effect. The foam-mat drying process is suitable for heat sensitive, viscous, and sticky products that cannot be dried using other forms of drying methods such as spray drying because of the state of product. More interest has developed for foam-mat drying because of the simplicity, cost effectiveness, high speed drying, and improved product quality it provides.

  10. The Effect of Cooling Vest on Heat Strain Indexes and Reaction Time While Wearing Chemical-Microbial-Radioactive Protective Clothing in Hot and Dry Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Heat is a harmful factor in workplaces that causes physiologic and cognitive changes in workers. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cooling vest on heat strain and reaction time while wearing chemical-biological-nuclear protective clothes. Methods Twelve male students with mean age of 25 ± 2 and body mass index (BMI of 23 ± 1.5 were recruited in the experiment. Each student ran on a treadmill with a speed of 2.4 km/hour in the climate chamber at 35°C and 30% relative humidity. physiological strain index score, oral temperature, heart rate, reaction time and number of errors were measured at the end of the two levels and analyzed by the SPSS software. Results Wilcoxon test showed that the differences of physiological strain index score (P = 0.02, oral temperature (P = 0.02, reaction time (P = 0.02, heart Rate (P = 0.02 and errors (P = 0.03 with and without the cooling vest were significant. The mean physiological strain index score without cooling vest was 4.038 ± 0.882 and with the cooling vest was 1.42 ± 0.435. The mean reaction time without and with the cooling vest was 0.769 ± 0.0972 and 0.539 ± 0.977, respectively. Conclusions The results of the study showed that the cooling vest reduces the physiological strain, reaction time and errors rate of workers.

  11. Dry Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley, Lindsey; Weller, Chanae

    2010-01-01

    Despite its name, commercial dry cleaning is not actually a “dry” process. Clothes are immersed in a solvent, most commonly perchlorethylene (perc), instead of in water. Perc or other similar solvents are effective in the removal of oil and grease-based stains without damaging or shrinking sensitive fabrics, unlike a regular detergents and fabric softeners.

  12. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  13. Dry Mouth or Xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Side Effects > Dry Mouth or Xerostomia Request Permissions Dry Mouth or Xerostomia Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 05/ ... with a dry mouth. Signs and symptoms of dry mouth The signs and symptoms of dry mouth include ...

  14. NILAI BIOLOGIS MI KERING JAGUNG YANG DISUBSTITUSI TEPUNG JAGUNG TERMODIFIKASI MELALUI HEAT MOISTURE TREATMENT [Biological Values of Dried Corn Noodles Substituted with Heat Moisture Treated (HMT-Corn Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurheni Sri Palupi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effects of physical modification of corn flour by heat moisture treatment (110°C, 6 hours on the biological values of Heat Moisture Treated (HMT-corn flour obtained as well as corn noodles substituted with the HMT-corn flour. The parameters tested which were directly associated were starch and protein digestibility in vitro while indirect parameters included the resistant starch and insoluble fiber contents. The chemical composition (protein, fat, carbohydrates, starch, amylose and amylopectin of the substituted corn noodles were analyzed by chemical methods. In vitro dietary fiber of the noodles were determined gravimetrically whereas the resistant starch, starch and protein digestibility for both the HMT-corn flour and corn noodles substituted with 10% HMT-corn flour were determined using spectrophotometry. The HMT-corn flour had higher resistant starch and soluble fiber contents, but lower starch and protein digestibilities. Meanwhile, the substituted corn noodle had higher resistant starch and soluble fiber yet had significantly lower starch digestibility than those of corn noodle without HMT-corn flour.

  15. Use of response surface methodology to optimize the drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aims to optimize the heat drying conditions of a bioactive feed ingredient derived from the African opaque sorghum beer. The bioactive ingredient was dried at various temperatures 35 to 50°C and times 5 to 24 h. The effects of the drying conditions on the dry matter, water activity, pH, titratable acidity, ...

  16. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  17. dry sausage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-08-17

    Aug 17, 2006 ... fermentation, desired pH of fermentation (4.9 - 5.0) was achieved after 24 h fermentation, at temperature 30 and. 35°C, which is the desired mesophilic condition for lactic bacterial growth. With the progress of drying, the decrease in pH due to formation of lactic acid was directly proportional to the increase ...

  18. Water adsorption isotherms and isosteric sorption heat of spray-dried and freeze-dried dehydrated passion fruit pulp with additives and skimmed milk Isotermas de adsorção e calor isostérico de sorção de polpa de maracujá desidratada por spray dryer e liofilizador com aditivos e leite desnatado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Tafari Catelam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture equilibrium data of passion fruit pulp powders with maltodextrin and gum arabic were obtained by two different drying methods (spray drying and freeze drying and determined at 20, 30, 40 and 50º C. Skimmed milk was used to substitute part of these additives in the samples. One formulation using passion fruit pulp/maltodextrin/skimmed milk (PMS was prepared, and another using passion fruit pulp/gum arabic/skimmed milk (PGS. The behavior of curves was type III, according to Brunauer's classification. GAB models were fitted to experimental equilibrium data. The parameters obtained from GAB models was affected by the presence of additives. The behavior of the sorption isotherms for different temperatures are similar, noting only a small effect of temperature. There were little differences between both drying methods and additives used in relation to equilibrium moisture content. The parameters obtained with the addition of the skimmed milk were considered satisfactory (Xm values ranged from 0,04084 to 0,06488 in dry basis, demonstrating that it is an effective and cheap alternative for regular additives. A progressive increase in the heat of sorption in relation to decreasing moisture content was observed and the heat of sorption values of different samples are all similar, comparing the relative equilibrium moisture content.Dados de umidade de equilíbrio da polpa de maracujá em pó com maltodextrina e goma arábica obtidas por dois diferentes processos de secagem (spray dryer e liofilizador foram determinados a 20, 30, 40 e 50° C. Leite desnatado foi utilizado nas amostras em substituição a uma parte desses dois aditivos. Prepararou-se uma formulação, usando polpa de maracujá/maltodextrina/leite desnatado (PMS e outra com polpa de maracujá/goma arábica/leite desnatado (PGS. Os comportamentos das isotermas obedeceram ao tipo III, de acordo com a classificação de Brunauer e utilizou-se o modelo de GAB para ajuste dos dados de

  19. Preservation of flavor in freeze dried green beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Davis, D.

    1973-01-01

    Before freeze drying, green beans are heated to point at which their cell structure is altered. Beans freeze dried with altered cell structure have improved rehydration properties and retain color, flavor, and texture.

  20. Spontaneous Appendicocutaneous Fistula I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M T0k0de* MB, BS and. Dr 0. A. AWOj0bi+ FMCS (Nig). ABSTRACT. Ruptured appendicitis is not a common cause of spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula. A case of ruptured retrocaecal appendicitis presenting as an enterocutaneous fistula in a Nigerian woman is presented. The literature on this disorder is also reviewed.

  1. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Edna; Caly, Wanda Regina

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs in 30% of patients with ascites due to cirrhosis leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. The pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is related to altered host defenses observed in end-stage liver disease, overgrowth of microorganisms, and bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes. Clinical manifestations vary from severe to slight or absent, demanding analysis of the ascitic fluid. The diagnosis is confirmed by a number of neutrophils over 250/mm3 associated or not to bacterial growth in culture of an ascites sample. Enterobacteriae prevail and Escherichia coli has been the most frequent bacterium reported. Mortality rates decreased markedly in the last two decades due to early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment. Third generation intravenous cephalosporins are effective in 70% to 95% of the cases. Recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is common and can be prevented by the continuous use of oral norfloxacin. The development of bacterial resistance demands the search for new options in the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; probiotics are a promising new approach, but deserve further evaluation. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients with cirrhosis and ascites shortly after an acute episode of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  2. Spontaneous Grammar Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoo, Hong Sing; Lewis, Marilyn

    1998-01-01

    Describes one New Zealand university language teacher's reflection on her own grammar explanations to university-level students of Bahasa Indonesian. Examines form-focused instruction through the teacher's spontaneous answers to students' questions about the form of the language they are studying. The teacher's experiences show that it takes time…

  3. EDITORIAL SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) frequent]y occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. It is defined as an infection of previously sterile ascitic fluid without any demonstrable intrabdominal source of infection. It is now internationally agreed that a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid of over 250 ...

  4. Spontaneous dimensional reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, Steven

    2012-10-01

    Over the past few years, evidence has begun to accumulate suggesting that spacetime may undergo a "spontaneous dimensional reduction" to two dimensions near the Planck scale. I review some of this evidence, and discuss the (still very speculative) proposal that the underlying mechanism may be related to short-distance focusing of light rays by quantum fluctuations.

  5. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert States

    2006-07-15

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  6. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.; Phelan, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on a sheet-fed pilot-scale shoe press to compare impulse drying and double-felted pressing. Both an IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology) ceramic coated and Beloit Type A press roll were evaluated for lienrboard sheet structures having a wide range of z-direction permeability. Purpose was to find ways of correcting sheet sticking problems observed in previous pilot-scale shoe press experiments. Results showed that impulse drying was superior to double felted pressing in both press dryness and in important paper physical properties. Impulse drying critical temperature was found to depend on specific surface of the heated layer of the sheet, thermal properties of the press roll surface, and choice of felt. Impulse drying of recycled and two-ply liner was demonstrated for both Southern Pile and Douglas fir-containing furnishes.

  7. Fuel-Cell Structure Prevents Membrane Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Embossed plates direct flows of reactants and coolant. Membrane-type fuel-cell battery has improved reactant flow and heat removal. Compact, lightweight battery produces high current and power without drying of membranes.

  8. Drying of α-amylase by spray drying and freeze-drying - a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Jesus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at comparing two traditional methods of drying of enzymes and at verifying the efficiency of each one and their advantages and disadvantages. The experiments were performed with a laboratory spray dryer and freeze-dryer using α-amylase as the model enzyme. An experimental design in star revealed that spray drying is mainly influenced by the inlet air temperature and feed flow rate, which were considered to be the main factors influencing the enzymatic activity and water activity; the long period of material exposure to high temperatures causes a partial activity loss. In the experiments of freeze drying, three methods of freezing were used (freezer, acetone and dry ice, and liquid nitrogen and samples subsequently freeze-dried for times ranging between 0-24 hours. The product obtained from the two techniques showed high enzymatic activity and low water activity. For the drying of heat-resistant enzymes, in which the product to be obtained does not have high added value, spray drying may be more economically viable because, in the freeze drying process, the process time can be considered as a limiting factor when choosing a technique.

  9. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  10. Drying characteristics and nitrogen loss of biogas digestate during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, C.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

    2010-07-01

    The cost of transporting biogas digestate can be decreased by reducing its water content. However, the digestate emits volatile compounds during drying. This study investigated the drying behaviour and the change of digestate composition. Drying took place in a hybrid solar/waste-heat dryer that used solar energy as well as waste heat from a combined heat and power unit (CHP) and the exhaust air of a microturbine. The experiment involved the use of 60 t of liquid digestate. Climatic conditions were measured inside and outside the drying hall. Dry matter (DM) and organic dry matter (ODM) were also measured on a daily basis. In addition, the energy consumption of waste and solar heat were recorded and related to the quantity of dried feedstock. The total nitrogen, ammonium, phosphate, potassium oxide, magnesium oxide and calcium oxide in the digestate were subjected to chemical analysis before and after the drying process. Losses of nitrogen were calculated. Specific energy consumption depended on the climatic condition. Most of the energy consumption was covered by the waste heat of the CHP. A considerable amount of nitrogen was lost during the drying process.

  11. Spontaneous healing of spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almafragi, Amar; Convens, Carl; Heuvel, Paul Van Den

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. It should be suspected in every healthy young woman without cardiac risk factors, especially during the peripartum or postpartum periods. It is important to check for a history of drug abuse, collagen vascular disease or blunt trauma of the chest. Coronary angiography is essential for diagnosis and early management. We wonder whether thrombolysis might aggravate coronary dissection. All types of treatment (medical therapy, percutaneous intervention or surgery) improve the prognosis without affecting survival times if used appropriately according to the clinical stability and the angiographic features of the involved coronary arteries. Prompt recognition and targeted treatment improve outcomes. We report a case of SCAD in a young female free of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, who presented six hours after thrombolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a dissection of the left anterior descending and immediate branch. She had successful coronary artery bypass grafting, with complete healing of left anterior descending dissection.

  12. Evaluation of alternative drying techniques for the earthworm flour processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Suárez Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of earthworm flour includes several steps, among which the most critical is the drying process due to factors such as time and energ y requirements. In addition, the information available about this process is relquite limited. Thus, this work evaluated four drying techniques likely to be implemented by lombricultores: sun drying, oven drying, drying tunnel and microwave assisted drying. Drying kinetics values were obtained for all drying techniques, and specific parameters as the following were evaluated: drying tray material (stainless and ceramic steel for sun drying, microwave power (30 %, 50 % and 80 % and amount of material to be dried (72 and 100 g for microwave assisted drying, temperature (50, 65, 90 and 100 °C for oven drying, and temperature (50 and 63 °C and air speed (2.9 to 3.6 m/s for tunnel drying. It was determined that the most efficient technique is the drying tunnel, because this allows the combination of heat transfer by conduction and convection, and enables controlling the operating parameters. Finally, nutritional analyzes were performed in samples obtained by each drying technique evaluated. The crude protein content for sun drying, microwave assisted drying, oven drying and tunnel drying were 66.36 %, 67.91 %, 60.35 % and 62.33 % respectively, indicating that the drying method and operating parameters do not significantly affect the crude protein content.

  13. Geothermal rice drying unit in Kotchany, Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, K.; Dimitrov, K.; Andrejevski, B.; Popovska, S.

    1992-01-01

    A geothermal field in Kotchany (Macedonia) has very advantageous characteristics for direct application purposes. Low content of minerals, moderate temperature (78C) and substantial available geothermal water flow (up to 300 1/s) enabled the establishment of a district heating scheme comprising mainly agricultural and industrial uses. A rice drying unit of 10 t/h capacity was installed 8 years ago, using the geothermal water as the primary heat source. A temperature drop of 75/50C enables the adaptation of conventional drying technology, already proven in practice in the surrounding rice growing region. Water to air heat exchanger and all necessary equipment and materials are of local production, made of copper and carbon steel. The use of such drying units is strongly recommended for the concrete district heating scheme because it offers a very simple geothermal application and enables improvement in the annual heating load factor without high investments in geothermal water distribution lines

  14. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  15. Thermal influences on spontaneous rock dome exfoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.; Eppes, Martha C.; Lewis, Scott W.; Corbett, Skye C.; Smith, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Rock domes, with their onion-skin layers of exfoliation sheets, are among the most captivating landforms on Earth. Long recognized as integral in shaping domes, the exact mechanism(s) by which exfoliation occurs remains enigmatic, mainly due to the lack of direct observations of natural events. In August 2014, during the hottest days of summer, a granitic dome in California, USA, spontaneously exfoliated; witnesses observed extensive cracking, including a ~8000 kg sheet popping into the air. Subsequent exfoliation episodes during the following two summers were recorded by instrumentation that captured—for the first time—exfoliation deformation and stress conditions. Here we show that thermal cycling and cumulative dome surface heating can induce subcritical cracking that culminates in seemingly spontaneous exfoliation. Our results indicate that thermal stresses—largely discounted in dome formation literature—can play a key role in triggering exfoliation and therefore may be an important control for shaping domes worldwide.

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  17. Preformulation Studies of a Liposomal Formulation Containing Sirolimus for the Treatment of Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Alba, Mónica Anayántzin; Gómez-Guajardo, Magda Berenice; Fonzar, Joice Furtado; Brooks, Dennis E; García-Sánchez, Gustavo Adolfo; Bernad-Bernad, Maria Josefa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a liposomal product containing sirolimus to be administered subconjunctivally for the treatment of nonresponsive keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) or dry eye. Formulations were prepared using an ethanol injection method and an adaptation of the heating method in pursuance of the most suitable methodology for future industrial production. Liposomes were loaded with either a high dose of 1 mg/mL of sirolimus or a less toxic dose of 0.4 mg/mL. The effects of critical process and formulation parameters were investigated. Liposomes were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, polydispersity, differential scanning calorimetry, morphology, entrapment efficiency, phospholipid content, thermal stability, and sterility. The formulation was evaluated clinically in dogs with spontaneous KCS. Sterile liposomal dispersions with sizes ranging from 140 to 211 nm, were successfully obtained. High entrapment efficiency of 93%-98% was achieved. The heating method allowed an easier production of liposomes with high entrapment efficiency, to significantly shorten production time and the elimination of the use of alcohol. The poor stability of the obtained liposomes in aqueous dispersion made the inclusion of a lyophilization step necessary to the manufacturing process. In vivo testing of the liposomal sirolimus formulations in the spontaneous KCS dog model have produced promising results, particularly with a sirolimus dose of 1 mg/mL, indicating the need for further development and study of proposed formulations in the treatment of canine KCS. Clinical improvement in tear production in dogs with spontaneous KCS treated with the 1 mg/mL dose product was observed. The heating method allowed easier production of high entrapment efficiency liposomes to significantly shorten production time and the elimination of the use of alcohol. Tear production was increased in dogs administered with the formulation.

  18. Experimental studies on mushroom and pollen drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, Adnan; Olgun, Hayati; Ayhan, Teoman [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Trabzon (Turkey)

    1999-07-01

    In this study, drying periods of mushrooms and pollens (for Anzer honey) were investigated. The experiments of mushrooms were carried out under both laboratory and shady- and sunny-atmospheric conditions and those of pollens were conducted in the drying cupboard heated by electric heater and under sunny atmospheric conditions. The temperature of the drying cupboard was regulated at 45degC during the drying experiment of pollen. The mass loss of pollens and the temperature of each shelf including pollens in the drying cupboard were measured. Drying curves of mushrooms and pollens for each experiment and the variation of the mass change ratio, the moisture ratio of pollens and the temperatures in the shelves with drying time were presented, respectively. Furthermore, their equations of drying curves and the average experimental uncertainty ratios were calculated based on the experimental results. It was concluded that mushrooms can be dried in the cupboards by using hot air at 50degC in a time period of 5-6 h, and the dried must be protected in vacuum, and the pollens also must be dried at temperatures between 40 and 45degC in a time period of 2.5-3 h without their losing the colour, flavour, smell and structure. The average experimental uncertainty ratio of mushrooms and pollens during the drying process were calculated to be 22 and 18% respectively. (Author)

  19. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  20. Spontaneous Thigh Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan, Sameer K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A young man presented with a painful and swollen thigh, without any history of trauma, illness, coagulopathic medication or recent exertional exercise. Preliminary imaging delineated a haematoma in the anterior thigh, without any fractures or muscle trauma. Emergent fasciotomies were performed. No pathology could be identified intra-operatively, or on follow-up imaging. A review of thigh compartment syndromes described in literature is presented in a table. Emergency physicians and traumatologists should be cognisant of spontaneous atraumatic presentations of thigh compartment syndrome, to ensure prompt referral and definitive management of this limb-threatening condition. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:134-138].

  1. Joseph Conrad and the spontaneous combustion of coal - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, A.D. [Kilborn Engineering Pacific Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Joseph Conrad`s novel `Youth` described an on-board fire and explosion from transported coal between Sumatra and Bangka Island. This incident is based on Conrad`s experience as a mariner transporting coal, and displays a detailed knowledge of the technical issues and preventative actions involved in the spontaneous combustion of coal cargoes at sea. The coal concerned was West Hartley coal, and in this article the author examines the combustion characteristics of this coal, and the historical information available on the explosion on board the `Palestine`. The reasons for spontaneous combustion are examined, with particular attention paid to oxidation, moisture content and pyrite oxidation. West Hartley coal was a high volatile bituminous coal, with high self-heating tendencies, and so likely to undergo spontaneous combustion in the right conditions. Self-heating in ships is now well researched as a result of the international maritime coal trade. 21 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Recent advances in fluidized bed drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, N. S.; Zakaria, J. H.; Mohideen Batcha, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    Fluidized bed drying are very well known to yield high heat and mass transfer and hence adopted to many industrial drying processes particularly agricultural products. In this paper, recent advances in fluidized bed drying were reviewed and focus is given to the drying related to the usage of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It can be seen that usage of modern computational tools such as CFD helps to optimize the fluidized bed dryer design and operation for lower energy consumption and thus better thermal efficiency. Among agricultural products that were reviewed in this paper were oil palm frond, wheat grains, olive pomace, coconut, pepper corn and millet.

  3. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  4. Modelling of fertilizer drying in a rotary dryer: parametric sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the influence of the following parameters: overall volumetric heat transfer coefficient, coefficient of heat loss, drying rate, specific heat of the solid and specific heat of dry air on the prediction of a model for the fertilizer drying in rotary dryers. The method of parametric sensitivity using an experimental design was employed in this study. All parameters studied significantly affected the responses of the drying model. In general, the model showed greater sensitivity to the parameters drying rate and overall volumetric heat transfer coefficient.

  5. The Spontaneous Combustion of Railway Ties and Asphalt Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Geoffrey

    Many Low Carbon Fuels (LCFs) present unknown spontaneous combustion risks, which must be quantified before their use as fossil fuel replacements. Wood and coal spontaneous combustion is well understood; however, LCFs weather, and subsequent chemical changes could affect their spontaneous combustion properties. LCF spontaneous combustion could lead to accidental fires with possible loss of life, limb and property. The spontaneous combustion risks of two LCFs, discarded creosote-treated wooden railway ties and roofing asphalt shingles, were investigated with calorimetry and heat transfer experiments. Chemical changes due to weathering were studied with pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Creosote-treated wooden railway tie dust, roofing asphalt shingle particles, poplar wood pellets, and petroleum coke self-heating were studied with isothermal calorimetry. Railway tie dust and asphalt shingle heat transfer were characterized with a guarded hot plate. Petroleum coke self-heating was consistent with coal, while both poplar pellets and railway tie dust were found to be more reactive compared to oven test results of similar materials. The observed increase in reactivity was probably a result of significant moisture contenint in the pellet and railway tie dust. Critical conditions for spontaneous combustion were evaluated with the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, assuming an ambient temperature of 40°C and constant moisture content. Kamenetskii calculations indicate that a 1.6 m cube of railway tie dust, or a 58 m cube of asphalt particles, would be unstable and combust. LCF chemistry may have been affected by weathering, which would cause chemical changes that affect their spontaneous combustion properties. Therefore, railway tie wood and roofing asphalt shingle chemistry were investigated by identifying products of 250° and 550°C pyrolysis with py-GC/MS. Railway tie wood pyrolyzates did not show signs of weathering; in contrast, asphalt pyrolysis

  6. Dry patch formed boiling and burnout in potassium pool boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michiyoshi, I.; Takenaka, N.; Takahashi, O.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on dry patch formed boiling and burnout in saturated potassium pool boiling on a horizontal plane heater for system pressures from 30 to 760 torr and liquid levels from 5 to 50 mm. The dry patch formation occurs in the intermittent boiling which is often encountered when liquid alkali metals are used under relatively low pressure conditions. Burnout is caused from both continuous nucleate and dry patch formed boiling. The burnout heat flux together with nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficients are empirically correlated with system pressures. A model is also proposed to predict the minimum heat flux to form the dry patch. (author)

  7. Rehydration ratio of fluid bed-dried vegetables

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The prerequisite for a technologically sound process of drying is a knowledge of biological, physical, chemical and other characteristics of food materials and products and their behaviour under various conditions. One of the promising drying processes is drying of minced vegetables in a fluidized bed, due to better heat and ...

  8. Effect of microwave freeze drying on quality and energy supply in drying of barley grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaohuang; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Zhong, Qifeng; Wang, Zhushang

    2018-03-01

    Young barley grass leaves are well-known for containing the antioxidant substances flavonoid and chlorophyll. However, low product quality and energy efficiency exist with respect to the dehydration of barley grass leaves. To improve energy supply and the quality of barley grass, microwave heating instead of contact heat was applied for the freeze drying of barley grass at a pilot scale at 1, 1.5 and 2 W g -1 , respectively; After drying, energy supply and quality parameters of color, moisture content, chlorophyll, flavonoids, odors of dried barley grass were determined to evaluate the feasibility of the study. Microwave freeze drying (MFD) allowed a low energy supply and high contents of chlorophyll and flavonoids. A lightness value of 60.0, a green value of -11.5 and an energy supply of 0.61 kW h -1  g -1 were observed in 1.5 W g -1 MFD; whereas drying time (7 h) decreased by 42% compared to contact heating. Maximum content of flavonoid and chlorophyll was 11.7 and 12.8 g kg -1 barley grass. Microwave heating leads to an odor change larger than that for contact heating observed for the freeze drying of barley grass. MFD retains chlorophyll and flavonoids, as well as colors and odors of samples, and also decreases energy consumption in the freeze drying of barley grass. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Design Of Dry Cask Storage For Serpong Multipurpose Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Sulistyani Rahayu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available DESIGN OF DRY CASK STORAGE FOR SERPONG MULTI PURPOSE REACTOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL. The spent nuclear fuel (SNF from Serpong Multipurpose Reactor, after 100 days storing in the reactor pond, is transferred to water pool interim storage for spent fuel (ISFSF. At present there are a remaining of 245 elements of SNF on the ISSF,198 element of which have been re-exported to the USA. The dry-cask storage allows the SNF, which has already been cooled in the ISSF, to lower its radiation exposure and heat decayat a very low level. Design of the dry cask storage for SNF has been done. Dual purpose of unventilated vertical dry cask was selected among other choices of metal cask, horizontal concrete modules, and modular vaults by taking into account of technical and economical advantages. The designed structure of cask consists of SNF rack canister, inner steel liner, concrete shielding of cask, and outer steel liner. To avoid bimetallic corrosion, the construction material for canister and inner steel liner follows the same material construction of fuel cladding, i.e. the alloy of AlMg2. The construction material of outer steel liner is copper to facilitate the heat transfer from the cask to the atmosphere. The total decay heat is transferred from SNF elements bundle to the atmosphere by a serial of heat transfer resistance for canister wall, inner steel liner, concrete shielding, and outer steel liner respectedly. The rack canister optimum capacity of 34 fuel elements was designed by geometric similarity method basedon SNF position arrangement of 7 x 6 triangular pitch array of fuel elements for prohibiting criticality by spontaneous neutron. The SNF elements are stored vertically on the rack canister.  The thickness of concrete wall shielding was calculated by trial and error to give air temperature of 30 oC and radiation dose on the wall surface of outer liner of 200 mrem/h. The SNF elements bundles originate from the existing racks of wet storage, i

  10. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  11. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  12. Development of Solar Biomass Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atnaw Samson Mekbib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper focuses on the experimental pre-treatment of biomass in agricultural site using solar energy as power source and contribution of common use and efficiency solar dryer system for consumer. The main purpose of this design for solar cabinet dryer is to dry biomass via direct and indirect heating. Direct heating is the simplest method to dry biomass by exposing the biomass under direct sunlight. The solar cabinet dryer traps solar heat to increase the temperature of the drying chamber. The biomass absorbs the heat and transforms the moisture content within the biomass into water vapour and then leaves the chamber via the exhaust air outlet. This problem however can be solved by adopting indirect solar drying system. High and controllable temperatures can be achieved as a fan is used to move the air through the solar collector. This project has successfully created a solar cabinet dryer that combines both direct and indirect solar drying systems and functions to dry biomass as well as crops effectively and efficiently with minimal maintenance. Hence, it is indeed a substitution for conventional dryers which are affordable to local farmers.

  13. Electrical current nanogeneration driven by spontaneous nanofluidic oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, R; Mercuri, M; Berli, C L A; Bellino, M G

    2018-02-15

    Exploiting natural phenomena is a central route for providing electricity to sustainably drive wearable electronics. Here we report a nano-scale water-driven energy generator that produces tiny electrical currents from spontaneous wetting-drying oscillations in mesoporous thin films. The system was fabricated with a wormlike mesoporous silica film, which was packed in between Cu and silicon contacts. The nanogenerator runs autonomously when a water droplet is laid over the film close to the Cu electrode, as water infiltration into the film under the electrode produces a direct-current. Wetting-drying cycles, which are spontaneously triggered by water evaporation, are perfectly correlated to the generated electrical current. The autonomous water displacement through the film yields a sustained energy conversion until the droplet reservoir vanishes. This novel water-driven nanogenerator opens new alternatives for versatile, mobile and cost-effective self-powering of nanosystems and nanodevices.

  14. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  15. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  16. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS

    2018-04-01

    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  17. Fundamentals of freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nail, Steven L; Jiang, Shan; Chongprasert, Suchart; Knopp, Shawn A

    2002-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of reducing development time for new pharmaceutical products, formulation and process development scientists must continually look for ways to "work smarter, not harder." Within the product development arena, this means reducing the amount of trial and error empiricism in arriving at a formulation and identification of processing conditions which will result in a quality final dosage form. Characterization of the freezing behavior of the intended formulation is necessary for developing processing conditions which will result in the shortest drying time while maintaining all critical quality attributes of the freeze-dried product. Analysis of frozen systems was discussed in detail, particularly with respect to the glass transition as the physical event underlying collapse during freeze-drying, eutectic mixture formation, and crystallization events upon warming of frozen systems. Experiments to determine how freezing and freeze-drying behavior is affected by changes in the composition of the formulation are often useful in establishing the "robustness" of a formulation. It is not uncommon for seemingly subtle changes in composition of the formulation, such as a change in formulation pH, buffer salt, drug concentration, or an additional excipient, to result in striking differences in freezing and freeze-drying behavior. With regard to selecting a formulation, it is wise to keep the formulation as simple as possible. If a buffer is needed, a minimum concentration should be used. The same principle applies to added salts: If used at all, the concentration should be kept to a minimum. For many proteins a combination of an amorphous excipient, such as a disaccharide, and a crystallizing excipient, such as glycine, will result in a suitable combination of chemical stability and physical stability of the freeze-dried solid. Concepts of heat and mass transfer are valuable in rational design of processing conditions. Heat transfer by conduction

  18. Dynamics of acoustic-convective drying of sunflower cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The dynamics of drying sunflower cake by a new acoustic-convective method has been studied. Unlike the conventional (thermal-convective) method, the proposed method allows moisture to be extracted from porous materials without applying heat to the sample to be dried. Kinetic curves of drying by the thermal-convective and acoustic-convective methods were obtained and analyzed. The advantages of the acoustic-convective extraction of moisture over the thermal-convective method are discussed. The relaxation times of drying were determined for both drying methods. An intermittent drying mode which improves the efficiency of acoustic-convective extraction of moisture is considered.

  19. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Thomassen, Anne-Marie; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates...... and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD...

  20. Absorption heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

  1. Dry storage cell for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.

    1982-01-01

    In a dry storage cell for irradiated nuclear fuel or other highly active waste, cooling air flow is by natural draught in heat exchange with fuel containing canisters housed in channels. To inhibit corrosion by ensuring that the temperature of the air flowing over the canisters does not fall below the dew point when heat generation by decay has fallen, a fraction of the heat energy transferred to the cooling air is recirculated to the air upstream of the canisters. Recirculation of heat energy is effected by recirculation of a fraction of the hot air from downstream of the canisters. (author)

  2. Improved compaction of dried tannery wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Zassa, M; Zerlottin, M; Refosco, D; Santomaso, A C; Canu, P

    2015-12-01

    We quantitatively studied the advantages of improving the compaction of a powder waste by several techniques, including its pelletization. The goal is increasing the mass storage capacity in a given storage volume, and reducing the permeability of air and moisture, that may trigger exothermic spontaneous reactions in organic waste, particularly as powders. The study is based on dried sludges from a wastewater treatment, mainly from tanneries, but the indications are valid and useful for any waste in the form of powder, suitable to pelletization. Measurements of bulk density have been carried out at the industrial and laboratory scale, using different packing procedures, amenable to industrial processes. Waste as powder, pellets and their mixtures have been considered. The bulk density of waste as powder increases from 0.64 t/m(3) (simply poured) to 0.74 t/m(3) (tapped) and finally to 0.82 t/m(3) by a suitable, yet simple, packing procedure that we called dispersion filling, with a net gain of 28% in the compaction by simply modifying the collection procedure. Pelletization increases compaction by definition, but the packing of pellets is relatively coarse. Some increase in bulk density of pellets can be achieved by tapping; vibration and dispersion filling are not efficient with pellets. Mixtures of powder and pellets is the optimal packing policy. The best compaction result was achieved by controlled vibration of a 30/70 wt% mixture of powders and pellets, leading to a final bulk density of 1t/m(3), i.e. an improvement of compaction by more than 54% with respect to simply poured powders, but also larger than 35% compared to just pellets. That means increasing the mass storage capacity by a factor of 1.56. Interestingly, vibration can be the most or the least effective procedure to improve compaction of mixtures, depending on characteristics of vibration. The optimal packing (30/70 wt% powders/pellets) proved to effectively mitigate the onset of smouldering

  3. Spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1981-12-01

    There has been recently a revival of interest in supersymmetric gauge theories, stimulated by the hope that supersymmetry might help in clarifying some of the questions which remain unanswered in the so called Grand Unified Theories and in particular the gauge hierarchy problem. In a Grand Unified Theory one has two widely different mass scales: the unification mass M approx. = 10/sup 15/GeV at which the unification group (e.g. SU(5)) breaks down to SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and the mass ..mu.. approx. = 100 GeV at which SU(2) x U(1) is broken down to the U(1) of electromagnetism. There is at present no theoretical understanding of the extreme smallness of the ratio ..mu../M of these two numbers. This is the gauge hierarchy problem. This lecture attempts to review the various mechanisms for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in gauge theories. Most of the discussions are concerned with the tree approximation, but what is presently known about radiative correction is also reviewed.

  4. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  5. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  7. Effect of drying conditions on drying kinetics and quality of aromatic Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Rayaguru, Kalpana; Routray, Winny

    2010-01-01

    Pandanus amaryllifolius is a plant with aromatic leaves, which impart the characteristic flavour of aromatic rice. The quality of aromatic Pandanus leaves dried at low temperature (35 °C) and low RH (27%) in a heat pump dryer was evaluated and compared with those obtained from hot air drying at 45 °C. Thin-layer drying kinetics has been studied for both the conditions. To determine the kinetic parameters, the drying data were fitted to various semi-theoretical models. The goodness of fit was ...

  8. Hydrophobic Light-to-Heat Conversion Membranes with Self-Healing Ability for Interfacial Solar Heating

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2015-07-01

    Self-healing hydrophobic light-to-heat conversion membranes for interfacial solar heating are fabricated by deposition of light-to-heat conversion material of polypyrrole onto porous stainless steel mesh, followed by hydrophobic fluoroalkylsilane modification. The mesh-based membranes spontaneously stay at the water–air interface, collect and convert solar light into heat, and locally heat only the water surface for an enhanced evaporation.

  9. Hydrophobic Light-to-Heat Conversion Membranes with Self-Healing Ability for Interfacial Solar Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianbin; Tang, Bo; Wu, Jinbo; Li, Renyuan; Wang, Peng

    2015-09-02

    Self-healing hydrophobic light-to-heat conversion membranes for interfacial solar heating are fabricated by deposition of light-to-heat conversion material of polypyrrole onto a porous stainless-steel mesh, followed by hydrophobic fluoroalkylsilane modification. The mesh-based membranes spontaneously stay at the water-air interface, collect and convert solar light into heat, and locally heat only the water surface for enhanced evaporation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Bilateral spontaneous carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, Bradley Scott; Traves, Laura; Crimmins, Denis

    2005-06-01

    Bilateral internal carotid artery dissections have been reported, but spontaneous bilateral dissections are rare. Internal carotid artery dissection can present with a spectrum of symptoms ranging from headache to completed stroke. Two cases of spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection are presented, one with headache and minimal symptoms and the other with a stroke syndrome. No cause could be found in either case, making the dissections completely spontaneous. Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) should be considered in young patients with unexplained head and neck pain with or without focal neurological symptoms and signs. The increasing availability of imaging would sustain the higher index of suspicion.

  11. Solar Trap for Banana Drying Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food drying methods nowadays are mostly in high use of electricity and fuel which lead to high operational cost. This has resulted in a waste of energy and money due to the use of modern tools requires significant costs for implementation. Meanwhile, the traditional food drying process only uses sun rays in their process, where the process is far more efficient than the modern drying method. In this study, the test was conducted to determine the trapped solar heat energy requirements for the process of drying foods such as agricultural products, particularly bananas. The solar trap test by using solar trap container was carried out include determining the thermal energy requirement for drying, preparing equipment (solar trap container to trap solar energy, handling and drying tests on samples of bananas. The percentage amount of water removal and energy required for the drying process was found to be 48% and 134 J. The results of this study can determine that solar trap drying method is easier, quicker and more effective than the usual method of drying because it use natural solar energy. Several proposals have been suggested for improvement for future study, such as controlling the solar trap air in the container, replacing the trap solar wall with a darker color, examining the floors slope so that more solar traps collected and installing a small hose on the base of the container so that the water evaporated in the solar trap may exit through the route.

  12. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  13. Effect of drying conditions on drying kinetics and quality of aromatic Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayaguru, Kalpana; Routray, Winny

    2010-12-01

    Pandanus amaryllifolius is a plant with aromatic leaves, which impart the characteristic flavour of aromatic rice. The quality of aromatic Pandanus leaves dried at low temperature (35 °C) and low RH (27%) in a heat pump dryer was evaluated and compared with those obtained from hot air drying at 45 °C. Thin-layer drying kinetics has been studied for both the conditions. To determine the kinetic parameters, the drying data were fitted to various semi-theoretical models. The goodness of fit was determined using the coefficient of determination, reduced chi square, and root mean square error. Aroma, colour, and overall acceptability determination of fresh and dried leaves were made using sensory evaluation. Drying of leaves took place mainly under the falling-rate period. The Page equation was found to be best among the proposed models to describe the thin-layer drying of Pandanus leaves with higher coefficient of determination. The effective moisture diffusivity values were also determined. The effect of low RH was prominent during the initial drying when the product was moist. The effect of temperature was prominent in the later part of drying, which acted as a driving force for moisture diffusion and hence the total drying time was reduced. Retention of aromatic compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline content was more in low temperature dried samples with higher sensory scores.

  14. Recent advances in drying and dehydration of fruits and vegetables: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, V R; Suresh Kumar, P

    2010-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are dried to enhance storage stability, minimize packaging requirement and reduce transport weight. Preservation of fruits and vegetables through drying based on sun and solar drying techniques which cause poor quality and product contamination. Energy consumption and quality of dried products are critical parameters in the selection of drying process. An optimum drying system for the preparation of quality dehydrated products is cost effective as it shortens the drying time and cause minimum damage to the product. To reduce the energy utilization and operational cost new dimensions came up in drying techniques. Among the technologies osmotic dehydration, vacuum drying, freeze drying, superheated steam drying, heat pump drying and spray drying have great scope for the production of quality dried products and powders.

  15. Heat transfer. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains the 4 key-note lectures and 83 of the 148 papers presented at the 3rd UK National Conference on Heat Transfer. The papers are grouped under the following broad headings: boiling and condensation; heat exchangers; refrigeration and air-conditioning; natural convection; process safety and nuclear reactors; two-phase flow; post dry-out; combustion, radiation and chemical reaction. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 13 papers of relevance to nuclear reactors. (UK)

  16. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  17. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  18. Spontaneous Blinking from a Tribological Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pult, Heiko; Tosatti, Samuele G P; Spencer, Nicholas D; Asfour, Jean-Michel; Ebenhoch, Michael; Murphy, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical forces between the lid wiper and the ocular surface, and between a contact lens and the lid wiper, are reported to be related to dry eye symptoms. Furthermore, the mechanical forces between these sliding partners are assumed to be related to the ocular signs of lid-wiper epitheliopathy (LWE) and lid-parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF). Recent literature provides some evidence that a contact lens with a low coefficient of friction (CoF) improves wearing comfort by reducing the mechanical forces between the contact lens surface and the lid wiper. This review discusses the mechanical forces during spontaneous blinks from a tribological perspective, at both low and high sliding velocities, in a healthy subject. It concludes that the coefficient of friction of the ocular surfaces appears to be strongly comparable to that of hydrophilic polymer brushes at low sliding velocity, and that, with increased sliding velocity, there is no wear at the sliding partners' surfaces thanks to the presence of a fluid film between the two sliding partners. In contrast, in the case of dry eye, the failure to maintain a full fluid film lubrication regime at high blinking speeds may lead to increased shear rates, resulting in deformation and wear of the sliding pairs. These shear rates are most likely related to tear film viscosity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spontaneous ignition characteristics of coal in a large-scale furnace: An experimental and numerical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Hu; Yu, Zhijin; Deng, Jun; Zhai, Xiaowei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three coal spontaneous combustion coupled models based on various flow equations were constructed and compared. • The airflow behavior in loose coal should be defined as a Brinkman flow. • The self-heating of coal in a large-scale reactor was numerically reappeared. • The effect of heat dissipated conditions on temperature profiles of broken coal was presented. - Abstract: A comprehensive understanding of the spontaneous combustion characteristics of coal in various surroundings is necessary for developing reliable test platform and predictive models. In this study, the characteristics of oxidation and self-heating combining various gas flow equations in loose coal were investigated separately and used to simulate the experimental procedure of spontaneous combustion. The main focus was to investigate the effect of thermal boundary on temperature profiles as well as spontaneous combustion period. The results showed that the numerical approach was validated by comparison with the test data. Furthermore, the model based upon Brinkman equation showed a higher accuracy, which indicated that airflow behavior influences the balances of coal oxidation and heat dissipation, thus impacts the temperature profiles of loose coal. The areas of high temperature zones would be evidently expanded and the spontaneous ignition time would be significantly accelerated if the thermal exchange between the coal and its surroundings decreased. Our results, especially for the field of engineering, have substantial effects for grasping and controlling coal spontaneous combustion disaster.

  20. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding Dental Care Home Health Info Health Topics Dry Mouth Saliva, or spit, is made by the salivary ... help keep teeth strong and fight tooth decay. Dry mouth, also called xerostomia (ZEER-oh-STOH-mee-ah), ...

  1. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  2. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2015-02-10

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es ... the tear film. It makes up most of what we see as tears. This layer cleans the ...

  4. Drying characteristics and engineering properties of fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of variety on the drying and engineering properties of fermented ground cassava was studied in order to generate data for design and optimum performance of various dryers used in cassava processing. This research attempts to provide data on the engineering properties such as moisture content, specific heat ...

  5. Spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, M.J.; Saez, J.; Perez-Paya, F.J.; Fernandez, F.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the role of CT in the etiologic diagnosis of spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. The CT findings are described in 13 patients presenting subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. Those patients in whom the bleeding was not spontaneous were excluded. Surgical confirmation was obtained in nine cases. In 11 of the 13 cases (84.6%), involving five adenocarcinomas, five angiomyolipoma, two complicated cysts and one case of panarterities nodosa, CT disclosed the underlying pathology. In two cases (15.4%), it only revealed the extension of the hematoma, but gave no clue to its origin. CT is the technique of choice when spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage is suspected since, in most cases, it reveals the underlying pathology. (Author)

  6. Heat Damaged Forages: Effects on Forage Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, heat damage in forages has been associated with alterations in forage protein quality as a result of Maillard reactions, and most producers and nutritionists are familiar with this concept. However, this is not necessarily the most important negative consequence of spontaneous heating...

  7. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  8. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Stefan; Kruse, Karsten [Department of Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Street 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  9. Heat pump dryers theory, design and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Alves-Filho, Odilio

    2015-01-01

    Explore the Social, Technological, and Economic Impact of Heat Pump Drying Heat pump drying is a green technology that aligns with current energy, quality, and environmental concerns, and when compared to conventional drying, delivers similar quality at a lower cost. Heat Pump Dryers: Theory, Design and Industrial Applications details the progression of heat pump drying-from pioneering research and demonstration work to an applied technology-and establishes principles and theories that can aid in the successful design and application of heat pump dryers. Based on the author's personal experience, this book compares heat pump dryers and conventional dryers in terms of performance, quality, removal rate, energy utilization, and the environmental effect of both drying processes. It includes detailed descriptions and layouts of heat pump dryers, outlines the principles of operation, and explains the equations, diagrams, and procedures used to form the basis for heat pump dryer dimensioning and design. The author ...

  10. DRUM DRYER FOR DRYING THE PARTICULATE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Iurova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. For raise effectiveness drying process drum-type installation in which drum the mechanism of creation of various zones providing a necessary temperature and hydrodynamic regime of process of drying in process of product passage on a drum and changes in it of a relationship of various forms of communication of a moisture, and also a process intensification at last stage of drying by creation разряжения in a continuous technological stream of drying is provided is offered. The drum provides formation of a zone of separation of heat-transfer agent by means of the dissector, zones of intensive drying by disposing lobate nozzles in chessboard order with a dividing ring, zones of separation of the completed heat-transfer agent from жома as a result of separator installation in which the elliptic disk having cuts on a straight line from edge to the centre places, with formation of the triangular slot for passage dried pulp and heat-transfer agent, and also zones the final drying by performance of a section of a drum matching to a zone perforated on which length are had spring-loaded lobate nozzles representing the blades connected bow-shaped rod with metal plates, had with outer side of a drum and under the form repeating its contour, thus the bow-shaped rod from the interior of a drum which ends are supplied by springs rest against overhead and bottom persistent screw nuts, and blades and metal plates are installed with possibility of twirl concerning a fastening place on a drum and supplied by reinforcing ribs.

  11. Investigation on Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating and due to storage. The storage affects the heat demand passively due to higher temperatures. Hence heat loss is reduced and passive heating is optioned. In theory, by running the system flow backwards, active heating can......Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... be self-made to keep the price down. The system is working, but heat exchange from plastic piping to sand is rather poor. The dimensioning of the volume is rather difficult based on common knowledge. Passive heating, hence reduction of heat demand, due to the storage and especially due to the oversized...

  12. Spontaneous Bladder Perforation in an Infant Neurogenic Bladder: Laparoscopic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cabezalí Barbancho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder perforation is an uncommon event in childhood. It is usually associated with bladder augmentation. We are presenting a case of bladder rupture in an infant with neurogenic bladder without prior bladder surgery. Three days after lipomyelomeningocele excision the patient showed signs and symptoms of acute abdomen. The ultrasound exploration revealed significant amount of intraperitoneal free fluid and therefore a laparoscopic exploration was performed. A posterior bladder rupture was diagnosed and repaired laparoscopically. Currently, being 3 years old, she keeps successfully dry with clean intermittent catheterization. Neurogenic bladder voiding function can change at any time of its evolution and lead to complications. Early diagnosis of spontaneous bladder rupture is of paramount importance, so it is essential to think about it in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen.

  13. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen

    2016-01-01

    , and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1–11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and pretermdeliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50......%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (푃 spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm...

  14. Drying of healthy foods : from mechanism to optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.

    2013-01-01

    Convective drying is an effective post-harvest method to the extend shelf life of vegetables and to reduce the mass for transportation. The heat load during drying, however, affects the quality attributes negatively. Today, consumers in the industrialized world pay a raised attention on food

  15. Drying of healthy foods : from mechanism to optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.

    2013-01-01

    Convective drying is an effective post-harvest method to the extend shelf life of vegetables and to reduce the mass for transportation. The heat load during drying, however, affects the quality attributes negatively. Today, consumers in the industrialized world pay a raised attention on food

  16. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  17. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The papers presented at this meeting dealt with an international comparison of district heating, the Swiss district heating network, political aspects of nuclear district heating, nuclear and non-nuclear sources for district heating. 17 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  19. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  20. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  1. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  2. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  3. EAMJ Dec. Spontaneous.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... surgical abortion at one month gestation without any complication. The second pregnancy which was a year prior resulted in a spontaneous miscarriage at two months followed by evacuation of retained products of conception with no post abortion complications. Antibiotics were taken following both.

  4. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Yukawa-plus-exponential potential. The microscopic shell and pairing corrections are obtained using the Strutinsky and BCS approaches and the cranking formulae yield the inertia tensor. Finally, the WKB method is used to calculate penetrabilities and spontaneous fission half-lives. Calculations are performed for the ...

  5. Drying of mock spent nuclear fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepeau, J.C.; Reese, S.; McIlroy, H.M. Jr. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lords, R.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Spent nuclear fuel elements are stored in underwater cooling pools until the elements can be safely handled and prepared for interim dry storage. The fuel was intended for short-term storage in water before it was to be reprocessed. However, the fuel will no longer be reprocessed, and extended storage in water has caused many of the aluminum-clad elements to degrade, exposing the uranium fuel. In addition, sludge, comprised of corroded aluminum and sediment, has accumulated in and around the fuel plates. The water in the sludge must be removed before the spent fuel elements can be placed in dry storage. Experiments have been performed on mock spent fuel elements with simulated corrosion product applied between the plates. A series of vacuum and heating cycles were used to dry the elements, and a mixture of clay and aluminum oxide was used to simulate corrosion products on the elements. The procedures used in the experiments were determined to be adequate to dry the mock spent fuel elements, and the temperature behavior of the simulated corrosion product within the fuel elements could be used to determine when the element was dry. On plates where areas of wet simulant were found, a sharp frying front was observed that separated the wet and dry parts of the simulated corrosion product. The drying front propagated inward towards the center of the mock fuel elements over time.

  6. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  7. PENGERTING SUHU RENDAH UNTUK MENJAGA MUTU BAHAN PERTANIAN [Low Temperature Drying to Maintain the Quality of Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sarwono

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Drying equipment is an important unit operation in industrial processes. Reducing moisture content in order to prolog the storage time is very commonly used. There are many agricultural product which are very heat sensitive. To maintain the essential ingredient in those product, drying process should be applied at low temperature drying process gave lower drying rate, is time consuming and in general costly. Increasing drying rate by reducing the absolute humidity is this recommended. There are many ways to dry the air, firstly moisture is condensed in evaporator and then dried air is heated in condenser. Is conducted if the drying system in connected with heat pump system. Secondly, moisture is absorbed by hygroscopic materials such as CaO. Water absorbed and reacted with CaO become Ca(OH2 in exothermic reaction, and simultaneously dried air is heated.

  8. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  9. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    By request of the Dutch Lower House the Netherlands Court of Audit examined the profitability or loss-making of district heating projects between 2001 and 2003. District heating supplies heat to consumers for heating their houses and providing warm tap water. The heat is supplied via warm water that runs through a network of pipes. In the Netherlands, about 250,000 households use district heating. The request by the Dutch Lower House to conduct research on district heating coheres with the initiative District Heating Bill. The bill aims to legally guarantee the supply and affordability of heat for consumers of district heating. [mk] [nl

  10. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  11. La maladie de Grisel : Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Hermens, RAEC

    Objective: "La maladie de Grisel" (Grisel's syndrome) is a spontaneously occurring atlantoaxial subluxation with torticollis. We present a case of atlantoaxial subluxation occurring in a 20-year period of pharyngoplasty surgery. The occurrence of a "spontaneous" atlantoaxial subluxation after oral

  12. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P<0.0001; P<0.001), respectively. The ATTD of P was affected by the interaction between microbial phytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding.

  13. Fast Drying of Agriculture Commodities by Using Microwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode Ngkoimani, La; Megawati; Purwana Saputra, Gde; Cahyono, Edi; Aripin, Haji; Gde Suastika, Komang; Nyoman Sudiana, I.

    2017-05-01

    Some progress has been made and reported previously due to investigate microwave effects to materials. The microwave applications for material processing by using wide range microwave frequencies such as in sintering, chemical reaction, and drying have been performed. Microwave drying is based on a unique volumetric heating mode with electromagnetic radiation at 2,450 MHz. However, the quest for a what a true microwave effect is still plagued with difficulties. This paper provides a experimental and theoretical analysis of drying materials using microwave. For drying experiments, in this investigation, we were using a domestic microwave oven which operated at three power levels for drying chamber. The samples are agriculture commodity collected from local farmers. The experimental results show that microwave accelerate drying in most materials. The experimental data were analyzed by using an available model constructed from fundamental physics by other scholars. The model has been applied to more understanding the behavior of the microwave drying material.

  14. through Slicing, DryIng and Packagi.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lene b~gs than in perforated polyethylene bags. lished but in-pack condensation due to high moisture content of ihe 'dry' michembe could be held accountable. This would in tum lead to more activities of-food-bor'ne microorganisms than in the other, types of packaging materials,. Moisture losses in th~ l~,st month could not ...

  15. 7 CFR 52.3188 - Work sheet for dried prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for dried prunes. Size and kind of container Container mark or identification Label or brand Varietal... fermentation, scars, heat damage, insect injury, other means, mold, dirt, foreign material, insect infestation... fermentation, scars, heat damage, insect injury, other means, mold, dirt, foreign material, insect infestation...

  16. Effect of solar radiation on drying house performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachmat, R.

    2000-01-01

    Solar drying is one of thermal utilization where radiation energy can be utilized efficiently. Solar drying of all sorts of agricultural products have been thoroughly studied and reported in literature, but brown rice drying system has not yet done as many as other products. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of solar radiation on drying house performance and brown rice drying characteristics. A construction of drying house is made from FRP sheets with 30 deg. of root slope faces southern part and inside the drying house is installed a flat bed dryer. The site of construction has 136 deg. 31.4'E in longitude and 34 deg. 43.8N in latitude with 3 m in elevation from sea level. The investigated parameters are global solar radiation, absorbed and net radiation and brown rice drying characteristics. The results showed that in unload condition, the air temperature inside drying house was higher (10 deg. C - 12 deg. C) than ambient air when there was not collector and temperature rise become higher (16 deg. C) when there was a black FRP collector inside drying house. The effect of solar radiation on temperature rise has the trend as a linear function. The heat collection efficiency of drying house with black FRP collector was two times higher (36.9 percent) than that without collector (16.3 percent). These phenomena exhibited significant result of collector utilization to the advantageous condition for a drying purpose [in

  17. Systematics of spontaneous positron lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Reus, T. de; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.

    1985-08-01

    Dynamical and spontaneous positron emission are investigated for heavy-ion collisions with long time delay using a semiclassical description. Numerical results and analytical expressions for the characteristic quantities of the resulting spontaneous positron line, i.e., its position, width, and cross section, are compared. The expected behaviour of the line position and cross section and its visibility against the spectrum of dynamically created positrons is discussed in dependence of the united charge Zsub(u) of projectile and target nucleus in a range of systems from Zsub(u)=180 up to Zsub(u)=188. The results are confronted with presently available experimental data, and possible implications on further experiments are worked out. (orig.)

  18. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  19. Spontaneous regression of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Fujita, Shin; Ohshiro, Taihei; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sekine, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    A case of spontaneous regression of transverse colon cancer is reported. A 64-year-old man was diagnosed as having cancer of the transverse colon at a local hospital. Initial and second colonoscopy examinations revealed a typical cancer of the transverse colon, which was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy 6 weeks after the initial colonoscopy. The resected specimen showed only a scar at the tumor site, and no cancerous tissue was proven histologically. The patient is alive with no evidence of recurrence 1 year after surgery. Although an antitumor immune response is the most likely explanation, the exact nature of the phenomenon was unclear. We describe this rare case and review the literature pertaining to spontaneous regression of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pagan-Duran MD Sep. 01, 2017 Our eyes need tears to stay healthy and comfortable. If your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears ...

  4. Spontaneous baryogenesis in warm inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    We discuss spontaneous baryogenesis in the warm inflation scenario. In contrast with standard inflation models, radiation always exists in the warm inflation scenario, and the inflaton must be directly coupled to it. Also, the transition to the post-inflationary radiation dominated phase is smooth and the entropy is not significantly increased at the end of the period of inflation. In addition, after the period of warm inflation ends, the inflaton does not oscillate coherently but slowly roll...

  5. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  6. Energy Efficient Dryer with Rice Husk Fuel for Agriculture Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Djaeni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy usage is crucial aspect on agriculture drying process. This step spends about 70% of total energy in post harvest treatment. The design of efficient dryer with renewable energy source is urgently required due to the limitation of fossil fuel energy. This work discusses the performance of air dehumidification using rice husk fuel as heat source for onion, and paddy drying. Unlike conventional dryer, the humidity of air during the drying was dehumidified by adsorbent. Hence, the driving force of drying can be  kept high.  As consequences, the drying time and energy usage can be reduced. Here, the research was conducted in two step: laboratory and pilot scale tests. Results showed that the lowering air humidity with rice husk fuel has improved the energy efficiency. At operational temperature 60oC, the heat efficiency of 75%  was achieved. 

  7. Dry cooling tower operating experience in the LOFT reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A dry cooling tower has been uniquely utilized to dissipate heat generated in a small experimental pressurized water nuclear reactor. Operational experience revealed that dry cooling towers can be intermittently operated with minimal wind susceptibility and water hammer occurrences by cooling potential steam sources after a reactor scram, by isolating idle tubes from the external atmosphere, and by operating at relatively high pressures. Operating experience has also revealed that tube freezing can be minimized by incorporating the proper heating and heat loss prevention features

  8. Drying equipment for radioisotope-treated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikake, Toshio; Ohmori, Akira; Takada, Yukio; Nakano, Shozoh; Tamai, Shinsuke.

    1978-01-01

    The animal experiments using radioisotopes have been carried out over wide fields, accordingly, the number of radioisotope-contaminated animal cadavers has been increasing rapidly. It was decided that each establishment employing radioiosotopes dries those cadavers to such state as to be able to burn up with the device in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The animal waste-drying device meeting the above mentioned purpose was developed by the joint work of Fuji Electric General Devices Co. and Fuji Electric Co. It is known as the micro-wave drying device for animals (its nickname is Microdry). This device dehydrates at high speed by micro-wave drying method. By using along with a moisture detector, it gives the drying state as requested regardless of the water content of each animal. The animal wastes after perfect dehydration are reduced to the weight of about one-third, and the dried animal cadavers can be preserved for a long time at room temperature because of the sterilizing effect of the micro-wave heating. This device is noted for its excellent safeness, simple operation, and low treatment cost. It is anticipated that it can be further applied to other fields such as excreta, breeding materials, etc. (Kobatake, H.)

  9. A Comparative Study of the Drying Rate Constant, Drying Efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adoption of the drying techniques would ensure steady availability of these vegetables all the year round as well as reduce carbon emissions from the conventional drying methods and hence mitigate global warming. KEYWORDS: Solar drying, open- air sun drying, drying rate constant, falling rate, climate change, food ...

  10. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 2; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This guidebook is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates.

  11. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NEW OSHA- ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  12. Effects of steam-microwave blanching and different drying processes on drying characteristics and quality attributes of Thunbergia laurifolia Linn. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phahom, Traiphop; Phoungchandang, Singhanat; Kerr, William L

    2017-08-01

    Dried Thunbergia laurifolia leaves are usually prepared using tray drying, resulting in products that have lost substantial amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. The maturity of the raw material, blanching techniques and drying methods were investigated in order to select the best condition to produce high qualities of dried T. laurifolia leaves. The 1st stage of maturity was selected and steam-microwave blanching (SMB) for 4 min was adequate for blanching leading to the maximum recovery of bioactive compounds. The modified Halsey model was the best desorption isotherm model. A new drying model proposed in this study was the best to fit the drying curves as compared to five common drying models. Moisture diffusivities were increased with the increase of drying temperature when combining SMB and heat pump-dehumidified drying. Microwave heat pump-dehumidified drying (MHPD) provided the shortest drying time, high specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) and could reduce drying time by 67.5% and increase caffeic acid and quercetin by 51.24% and 60.89%, respectively. MHPD was found to be the best drying method and provided the highest antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds content, high SMER and short drying time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Finite element based model of parchment coffee drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeda Prakotmak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer in the parchment coffee during convective drying represents a complicated phenomena since it is important to consider not only the transport phenomena during drying but also the various changes of the drying materials. In order to describe drying of biomaterials adequately, a suitable mathematical model is needed. The aim of the present study was to develop a 3-D finite element model to simulate the transport of heat and mass within parchment coffee during the thin layer drying. Thin layer drying experiments of coffee bean and parchment coffee were conducted in the temperature range of 40-60o C, the relative humidity ranged from 14 to 28% and drying air velocity of 1.4 m/s. The moisture diffusivities in different coffee’s components (parchment and coffee bean were determined by minimizing the RMSE between the predicted and the experimental data of moisture contents. The simulated results showed that the moisture diffusivities of coffee bean were three orders of magnitude higher than those of the parchment. Moisture diffusivities of coffee components were found to significantly increase (P<0.05 with the increase in drying air temperature and were expressed by Arrhenius-type equations. Moreover, the model was also used to predict the moisture gradient in coffee bean during drying. The model simulates the moisture contents in different components of parchment coffee well and it provides a better understanding of the transport processes in the different components of the parchment coffee

  14. 20% Efficient Zn0.9Mg0.1O:Al/Zn0.8Mg0.2O/Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Solar Cell Prepared by All-Dry Process through a Combination of Heat-Light-Soaking and Light-Soaking Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantana, Jakapan; Kato, Takuya; Sugimoto, Hiroki; Minemoto, Takashi

    2018-04-04

    Development of Cd-free Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se) 2 (CIGSSe)-based thin-film solar cells fabricated by an all-dry process is intriguing to minimize optical loss at a wavelength shorter than 520 nm owing to absorption of the CdS buffer layer and to be easily integrated into an in-line process for cost reduction. Cd-free CIGSSe solar cells are therefore prepared by the all-dry process with a structure of Zn 0.9 Mg 0.1 O:Al/Zn 0.8 Mg 0.2 O/CIGSSe/Mo/glass. It is demonstrated that Zn 0.8 Mg 0.2 O and Zn 0.9 Mg 0.1 O:Al are appropriate as buffer and transparent conductive oxide layers with large optical band gap energy values of 3.75 and 3.80 eV, respectively. The conversion efficiency (η) of the Cd-free CIGSSe solar cell without K-treatment is consequently increased to 18.1%. To further increase the η, the Cd-free CIGSSe solar cell with K-treatment is next fabricated and followed by posttreatment called the heat-light-soaking (HLS) + light-soaking (LS) process, including HLS at 110 °C followed by LS under AM 1.5G illumination. It is disclosed that the HLS + LS process gives rise to not only the enhancement of carrier density but also the decrease in the carrier recombination rate at the buffer/absorber interface. Ultimately, the η of the Cd-free CIGSSe solar cell with K-treatment prepared by the all-dry process is enhanced to the level of 20.0%.

  15. Time and speed of fruit drying on batch fluid-beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    generally used. Keywords. Dried fruit; fluidization; rehydration; exponential drying model. 1. Introduction. Dried fruits are often used in very wide variety of products such as muesli, candy bars, children's food etc. The heat treatment of fruit is a very important and crucial process, where the nutritional quality of fruit can change, ...

  16. Rewetting analysis of hot surfaces with internal heat source by the heat balance integral method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, S.K.; Das, P.K.; Bhattacharyya, Souvik [IIT Kharagpur (India). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-08-15

    A two region conduction-controlled rewetting model of hot vertical surfaces with internal heat generation and boundary heat flux subjected to constant but different heat transfer coefficient in both wet and dry region is solved by the Heat Balance Integral Method (HBIM). The HBIM yields the temperature field and quench front temperature as a function of various model parameters such as Peclet number, Biot number and internal heat source parameter of the hot surface. Further, the critical (dry out) internal heat source parameter is obtained by setting Peclet number equal to zero, which yields the minimum internal heat source parameter to prevent the hot surface from being rewetted. Using this method, it has been possible to derive a unified relationship for a two-dimensional slab and tube with both internal heat generation and boundary heat flux. The solutions are found to be in good agreement with other analytical results reported in literature. (orig.)

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul ... Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of Ophthalmology 2018 ...

  18. Freeze drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser

  19. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  20. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson

    2017-11-01

    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  1. General features of spontaneous baryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuzova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    The classical version of spontaneous baryogenesis is studied in details. It is shown that the relation between the time derivative of the (pseudo)goldstone field and the baryonic chemical potential essentially depends upon the representation chosen for the fermionic fields with non-zero baryonic number (quarks). The kinetic equation, used for the calculations of the cosmological baryon asymmetry, is generalized to the case of non-stationary background. The effects of the finite interval of the integration over time are also included into consideration.

  2. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattapuram, Taj M. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States); Kattapuram, Susan V. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)], E-mail: skattapuram@partners.org

    2008-07-15

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee presents with acute onset of severe, pain in elderly patients, usually female and usually without a history of trauma. Originally described as idiopathic osteonecrosis, the exact etiology is still debated. Evidence suggests that an acute fracture occurs as a result of chronic stress or minor trauma to a weakened subchondral bone plate. The imaging characteristics on MR reflect the age of the lesion and the symptoms. More appropriate terminology may be ' subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee' or 'focal subchondral osteonecrosis'.

  3. A numerical approach to drying process of hygroscopic polymeric granulates with different drying configurations and parameter comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, A. M. Ishtiaque; Mawa, Zannatul

    2017-06-01

    Some polymers tend to possess affinity with water and eventually, absorb significant moisture content from the surrounding air, causing difficulties during their industrial processing. Drying of these hygroscopic polymers, therefore, plays a vital role in their usability in industrial applications. In this work, the drying kinetics of the polymeric granulates is numerically formulated and the influence of different parameters pertaining to the drying procedure has been investigated. Backward Euler or implicit algorithm has been considered for solving the second order partial differential heat and mass transfer equations for simulating the drying kinetics of Polyamide 6 (PA-6). At first, the conduction of heat from the granulate surface towards the core was formulated using one dimensional transient heat conduction law and corresponding diffusion coefficients were determined using Arrhenius diffusion model. Afterwards, the migration of moisture from the granulate core towards the surface has been calculated using Fick's second law of diffusion. The data obtained from the single polymer granulate was then used to calculate the amount of moisture removed and the drying rate. The numerical results showed similitude with the experimental data obtained from the literature, although deviated quantitatively. To investigate the influence of different parameters on the drying process, different cases with varying drying air temperature, granulate radius and initial moisture content were compared. The numerical analysis qualitatively predicted all the dependencies to be expected. With higher drying air temperature, drying rate was observed to be faster and with higher granulate radius, drying rate was slower. With better approximations of the applied parameters and algorithms, the accuracy of the developed numerical model could be improved and used as a prediction tool for the drying process of polymer samples with reasonable tolerance.

  4. TG-DSC method applied to drying characteristics of areca inflorescence during drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Wang, Hui; Huang, Yulin; Zhang, Yufeng; Chen, Weijun; Zhao, Songlin; Zhang, Ming

    2017-10-01

    In this study, suitability of eight drying models available in literature on defining drying characteristics of areca inflorescence has been examined by non-linear regression analysis using the Statistic Computer Program. The coefficient of determination ( R 2 ) and the reduced chi-square (χ2) are used as indicators to evaluate the best suitable model. According to the results, the Verma et al. model gave the best results for explaining the drying characteristics of areca inflorescence. The drying process could be divided into three periods: rising rate, constant rate and the falling rate period. Fick's second law can describe the moisture transport during the food drying process that takes place in the falling rate period. The values of effective diffusivity during the drying of areca inflorescence ranged from 2.756 × 10-7 to 6.257 × 10-7 m2/s and the activation energy was tested for 35.535 kJ/mol. The heat requirement of areca inflorescence at 40-60 °C was calculated from 50.57 to 60.50 kJ/kg during the drying process.

  5. Consumo, produção de leite e estresse térmico em vacas da raça Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju Dry mater intake, milk yield, and heat stress indicators of dairy cows fed diets with cashew nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Pimentel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo de matéria seca, a produção de leite e os indicadores de estresse térmico de vacas Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju no semi-árido do Nordeste do Brasil. Doze animais foram distribuídos em um ensaio de reversão, com quatro tratamentos: 0, 8, 16 e 24% de castanha no concentrado. As vacas receberam cana-de-açúcar à vontade e sete quilos de concentrado por dia. Maior consumo de matéria seca de cana-de-açúcar foi observado no tratamento com concentrado sem castanha (7,70kgMS/dia em relação aos tratamentos com 16% e 24% de castanha (7,35 e 7,05kgMS/dia, respectivamente. O consumo no tratamento com concentrado sem castanha não diferiu do consumo no tratamento com 8% (7,59kgMS/dia. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a produção de leite e sobre as variáveis indicativas de estresse térmico (P>0,05.A study was carried out to evaluate dry matter intake, milk yield, and heat stress parameters in Brown Swiss cows fed diets with cashew nut. Animals were raised in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian Northeast. Twelve cows were subjected to a switch back experimental design, with four treatments: 0, 8, 16, and 24% of cashew nut in the concentrate. Each cow received 7kg of concentrate per day and had free access to sugar cane. Dry matter (DM intake and milk yield were daily taken as well as measurements of rectal and milk temperature; and cardiac and respiratory rates. The highest intake of forage (sugar cane was obtained when the concentrate had no cashew nut (7.7kgDM/day. This value was not different when the concentrate contained 8% of cashew nut (7.59kgDM/day but greater than dry matter intake of cows receiving diets with 16% of cashew nut (7.35kgDM/day; P0.05. Such low variability in daily milk yield could be associated with the higher energy density of diets containing more cashew nut. Finally, indicators of heat stress were not influenced by changes in the diets, given the air temperatures and

  6. Effectiveness of a heat exchanger in a heat pump clothes dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, A. H.; Sembiring, P. G.; Ambarita, H.

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with study on a heat pump clothes dryer coupled with a heat exchanger. The objective is to explore the effects of the heat exchanger on the performance of the heat pump dryer. The heat pump dryer consists of a vapor compression cycle and integrated with a drying room with volume 1 m3. The power of compressor is 800 Watt and the refrigerant of the cycle is R22. The heat exchanger is a flat plate type with dimensions of 400 mm × 400 mm × 400 mm. The results show the present of the heat exchanger increase the performance of the heat pump dryer. In the present experiment the COP, TP and SMER increase 15.11%, 4.81% and 58.62%, respectively. This is because the heat exchanger provides a better drying condition in the drying room with higher temperature and lower relative humidity in comparison with heat pump dryer without heat exchanger. The effectiveness of the heat exchanger is also high, it is above 50%. It is suggested to install a heat exchanger in a heat pump dryer.

  7. Macroscopic influence on the spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirzhnitz, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Major results of investigations concerning macroscopic influence (heating, compression, external field and current) on elementary particle systems with spontaneous symmetry breaking are briefly reviewed. The study of this problem has been stimulated by recent progress in the unified renormalizable theory of elementary particles. Typically it appears that at some values of external parameters a phase transition with symmetry restoration takes place. There exists a profound and far going analogy with phase transition in many-body physics especially with superconductivity phenomenon. Some applications to cosmology are also considered

  8. Periods of constant and falling-rate for infrared drying of carrot slices Períodos de secagem constante e decrescente de fatias de cenoura por infravermelho

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando M. Botelho; Paulo C. Corrêa; André. L. D. Goneli; Márcio A. Martins; Felipe E. A. Magalhães; Sílvia C. Campos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the infrared drying process of carrot slices and to determine coefficients related to the heat and mass transfer of the process. Fresh carrots were used, dried until constant weight in a dryer with infrared heating source. Different models were utilized to fit the experimental data of constant and falling drying rate periods. It was verified that the coefficients of heat and mass transfer, during the constant drying rate, significantly increased with temperat...

  9. A drying system for spent fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.; Warinowski, M.; Nieminen, J.

    2007-06-01

    The report presents a proposed drying apparatus for spent fuel assemblies. The apparatus is used for removing the moisture left in fuel assemblies during intermediate storage and transport. The apparatus shall be installed in connection with the fuel handling cell of an encapsulation plant. The report presents basic requirements for and implementation of the drying system, calculation of the drying process, operation, service and maintenance of the equipment, as well as a cost estimate. Some aspects of the apparatus design are quite specified, but the actual detailed planning and final selection of components have not been included. The report also describes actions for possible malfunction and fault conditions. An objective of the drying system for fuel assemblies is to remove moisture from the assemblies prior to placing the same in a disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel. Drying is performed as a vacuum drying process for vaporizing and draining the moisture present on the surface of the assemblies. The apparatus comprises two pieces of drying equipment. One of the chambers is equipped to take up Lo1-2 fuel assemblies and the other OL1-2 fuel assemblies. The chambers have an internal space sufficient to accommodate also OL3 fuel assemblies, but this requires replacing the internal chamber structure for laying down the assemblies to be dried. The drying chambers can be closed with hatches facing the fuel handling cell. Water vapour pumped out of the chamber is collected in a controlled manner, first by condensing with a heat exchanger and further by freezing in a cold trap. For reasons of safety, the exhaust air of vacuum pumps is further delivered into the ventilation outlet duct of a controlled area. The adequate drying result is ascertained by a low final pressure of about 100 Pa, as well as by a sufficient holding time. The chamber is built for making its cleaning as easy as possible in the event of a fuel rod breaking during a drying, loading or unloading

  10. Modelling of the granular products vacuum freeze-dried process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work reviewed and simulated the process of vacuum freeze-drying of granular products with the destruction of the dried layer. As development of this direction serves the method based on removal of the dried product layer from a surface of a granule, formed in the form of spherical bodies and placed in the punched drum. After process of preliminary freezing of a granule get to the punched drum located in the vacuum drying chamber. In case of fixed hashing of granules of a product due to their friction among themselves and about drum walls a dry part of a product undergoes destruction and regularly separates from the refrigerated remaining balance. Process comes to an end when all product in a granule turns into dry powder. For creation of adequate model of process of drying, it is reasonable to consider a separate granule, but not a layer of granules in general, but taking into account influence of granules at each other in the course of drying. For this purpose, the scheme and mathematical description of radiation heat flux of the individual granules of the product. To account for the intermittent nature of exposure to granules suggested ratio and its two alternative approaches to its definition. As well as an algorithm for determining the coefficient that takes into account the one-sided irradiation of the pellets. Formulated mathematical model of the process the vacuum - freeze-drying of granular products, which is a one-dimensional parabolic boundary value problem with moving boundary. It includes the unsteady heat conduction equation, initial condition, boundary conditions and defining a movable boundary conditions. The sought quantities are the temperature field and the free boundary. Explained the origin of the functions of internal heat sources present in the equations of heat conduction.

  11. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  12. Modeling of Heating During Food Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleva, Ivanka; Kamburova, Veselka

    Heat transfer processes are important for almost all aspects of food preparation and play a key role in determining food safety. Whether it is cooking, baking, boiling, frying, grilling, blanching, drying, sterilizing, or freezing, heat transfer is part of the processing of almost every food. Heat transfer is a dynamic process in which thermal energy is transferred from one body with higher temperature to another body with lower temperature. Temperature difference between the source of heat and the receiver of heat is the driving force in heat transfer.

  13. Radiological evaluation of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    112 cases of spontaneous penumoperitoneum, the causes of which were confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure at Presbyterian Medical Center from January, 1977 to July, 1981 were reviewed radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. Perforation of duodenal ulcer (46/112: 41.1%), stomach ulcer (22/112: 19.6%), and stomach cancer (11/112: 9.8%) were the three most common causes of spontaneous penumoperitoneum. These were 70.5% of all causes. 2. The most common site of free gas was both subdiaphragmatic areas (46: 41.1%). Others were Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (31: 27.7%), both subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (16: 14.3%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (7: 6.2%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (5: 4.4%), diffuse in abdomen (4: 3.6%), and subhepatic only (3: 2.7%). So 92.0% (103/112) were located in RUQ. 3. The radiological shape of free gas was classified: crescent (52: 46.4%) of small amount; half-moon (21: 18.8%) of moderate amount; large or diffuse (39: 34.8%) of large amount.4. The age between 31 and 60 occupied 69.1% (77/112), and male was predominant (5.2 times). 5. The patient's position showing free air most frequently was erect

  14. Impact of the freeze-drying process on product appearance, residual moisture content, viability, and batch uniformity of freeze-dried bacterial cultures safeguarded at culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiren, Jindrich; Hellemans, Ann; De Vos, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In this study, causes of collapsed bacterial cultures in glass ampoules observed after freeze-drying were investigated as well as the influence of collapse on residual moisture content (RMC) and viability. Also, the effect of heat radiation and post freeze-drying treatments on the RMC was studied. Cake morphologies of 21 bacterial strains obtained after freeze-drying with one standard protocol could be classified visually into four major types: no collapse, porous, partial collapse, and collapse. The more pronounced the collapse, the higher residual moisture content of the freeze-dried product, ranging from 1.53 % for non-collapsed products to 3.62 % for collapsed products. The most important cause of collapse was the mass of the inserted cotton plug in the ampoule. Default cotton plugs with a mass between 21 and 30 mg inside the ampoule did not affect the viability of freeze-dried Aliivibrio fischeri LMG 4414(T) compared to ampoules without cotton plugs. Cotton plugs with a mass higher than 65 mg inside the ampoule induced a full collapsed product with rubbery look (melt-back) and decreasing viability during storage. Heat radiation effects in the freeze-drying chamber and post freeze-drying treatments such as exposure time to air after freeze-drying and manifold drying time prior to heat sealing of ampoules influenced the RMC of freeze-dried products. To produce uniform batches of freeze-dried bacterial strains with intact cake structures and highest viabilities, inserted cotton plugs should not exceed 21 mg per ampoule. Furthermore, heat radiation effects should be calculated in the design of the primary drying phase and manifold drying time before heat sealing should be determined as a function of exposure time to air.

  15. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  16. Spontaneity of communication in individuals with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Carter, Mark

    2008-04-01

    This article provides an examination of issues related to spontaneity of communication in children with autism. Deficits relating to spontaneity or initiation are frequently reported in individuals with autism, particularly in relation to communication and social behavior. Nevertheless, spontaneity is not necessarily clearly conceptualized or measured. Several approaches to conceptualization of communicative spontaneity are examined with a particular focus on the continuum model and how it might be practically applied. A range of possible explanations for deficits in spontaneity of communication in children with autism is subsequently explored, including external factors (highly structured teaching programs, failure to systematically instruct for spontaneity) and intrinsic characteristics (intellectual disability, stimulus overselectivity, weak central coherence). Possible implications for future research are presented.

  17. PRINCIPLES OF HEAT STERILIZATION IN DENTAL PRACTICE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rust carbon steel instruments and after the work cycle is ended instruments are dry and immediately available for use. Besides the disadvantage of chemical odour in a poorly ventilated room its major drawback is its dependence on a continuous supply of the chemical agent. Dry heat sterilization. This method has the lowest ...

  18. Spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis in cirrhotic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkanuparph S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common complication in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. However, spontaneous peritonitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans is uncommon. Delayed diagnosis of cryptococcal peritonitis often results in death. We describe three cases of spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. One case had associated symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clinical awareness of this entity may lead to the early diagnosis and proper treatment.

  19. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  20. Spontaneous renal hematoma - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrzut, M.; Obrzut, M.; Homa, J.; Obrzut, B.

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous pararenal hematoma is a rare pathology most frequently coexisting with renal tumours, vascular anomalies and inflammatory processes. In some cases one cannot establish its etiology. The paper describes a case of a 58-year-old man with a spontaneous pararenal hematoma and presents a diagnostic algorithm. Ultrasonography and CT play an important role in diagnostics of spontaneous pararenal haemorrhages. These methods enable a precise evaluation of size and location of hematoma and its evolution. (author)

  1. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschliman, Dave [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Lubbehusen, Mike [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    This project was initiated at a time when ground coupled heat pump systems in this region were limited in size and quantity. There were economic pressures with costs for natural gas and electric utilities that had many organizations considering ground coupled heat pumps; The research has added to the understanding of how ground temperatures fluctuate seasonally and how this affects the performance and operation of the heat pumps. This was done by using a series of temperature sensors buried within the middle of one of the vertical bore fields with sensors located at various depths below grade. Trending of the data showed that there is a lag in ground temperature with respect to air temperatures in the shoulder months, however as full cooling and heating season arrives, the heat rejection and heat extraction from the ground has a significant effect on the ground temps; Additionally it is better understood that while a large community geothermal bore field serving multiple buildings does provide a convenient central plant to use, it introduces complexity of not being able to easily model and predict how each building will contribute to the loads in real time. Additional controllers and programming were added to provide more insight into this real time load profile and allow for intelligent shedding of load via a dry cooler during cool nights in lieu of rejecting to the ground loop. This serves as a means to ‘condition’ the ground loop and mitigate thermal creep of the field, as is typically observed; and It has been observed when compared to traditional heating and cooling equipment, there is still a cost premium to use ground source heat pumps that is driven mostly by the cost for vertical bore holes. Horizontal loop systems are less costly to install, but do not perform as well in this climate zone for heating mode

  2. Spontaneous ignition of biodiesel: A potential fire risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibata Yasuhito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous ignition of biodiesel was for the first time suspected to be the cause of a recent fire in Japan. We herein present experimental evidence implying this potential risk of biodiesel. Thus, three independent biodiesel samples were subjected to a series of experiments, including a thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis, a differential scanning calorimetry analysis and a modified wire basket test. The results were comparatively evaluated with reference to vegetable oils, of which spontaneous ignition has been well reported as a cause of fires. The heat onset temperature of biodiesel samples was determined to be ~100 °C, which was ~45 °C lower than those of vegetable oils. Furthermore, under the isothermal condition at 100 °C, the inner temperature of biodiesel samples rose rapidly with the generation of smoke after short induction periods owing to their exothermal decomposition, whereas for vegetable oils neither change in the inside temperature nor generation of smoke was observed even after 10 hours. It was therefore concluded that biodiesel possesses the higher risk of spontaneous ignition than vegetable oils. This is very important information to minimize the fire risk in biodiesel production facilities and so on. .

  3. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depth and recommended for sun drying of cassava. However; there is need to investigate on whether there is significant quality difference between cassava sun dried at different bed depths investigated in this study. Key words: drying characteristics, weight loss, ambient air temperature, perforated surface, cassava drying ...

  4. Driving factors of the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites in a physic nut plantation and spontaneous plants associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Wilton P; Sarmento, Renato A; Teodoro, Adenir V; Neto, Marçal P; Ignacio, Maíra

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal changes in climate and plant diversity are known to affect the population dynamics of both pests and natural enemies within agroecosystems. In Brazil, spontaneous plants are usually tolerated in small-scale physic nut plantations over the year, which in turn may mediate interactions between pests and natural enemies within this agroecosystem. Here, we aimed to access the influence of seasonal variation of abiotic (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and biotic (diversity of spontaneous plants, overall richness and density of mites) factors on the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites found in a physic nut plantation and its associated spontaneous plants. Mite sampling was monthly conducted in dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous leaves of spontaneous plants as well as in physic nut shrubs over an entire year. In the dry season there was a higher abundance of phytophagous mites (Tenuipalpidae, Tarsonemidae and Tetranychidae) on spontaneous plants than on physic nut shrubs, while predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) showed the opposite pattern. The overall density of mites on spontaneous plants increased with relative humidity and diversity of spontaneous plants. Rainfall was the variable that most influenced the density of mites inhabiting physic nut shrubs. Agroecosystems comprising spontaneous plants associated with crops harbour a rich mite community including species of different trophic levels which potentially benefit natural pest control due to increased diversity and abundance of natural enemies.

  5. Spontaneous quenches of a high temperature superconducting pancake coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Aized, D.; Campbell, J.M.; Schwall, R.E. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A double-pancake coil made of Bi-2223/Ag high temperature superconducting (HTS) tape was constructed with an embedded heater and graded conductors to study the stability and quench propagation in HTS coils. The experiments were performed with liquid nitrogen and gaseous helium cooling in temperatures ranging from 5 to 77 K. The coil was very stable, and no ``normal`` zone was sustained or propagated with local pulsed heating. However, spontaneous quenches of the cod were experienced. This was found to be the result of having the coil current higher than that of the lower I{sub c} sections of the coil for a long time. This quench process took minutes to develop--much longer than would be expected in a low temperature superconducting coil. The quench behaved more like a spreading and continuous heating of an increasingly larger partially resistive section of the coil than like a sequential ``normal`` front propagation.

  6. Physical properties evaluation of roselle extract-egg white mixture under various drying temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyastuti, M. S.; Kumoro, A. C.; Djaeni, M.

    2017-03-01

    Roselle contains anthocyanin that is potential for food colorant. Occasionally, roselle extract is provided in dry powder prepared under high temperature. In this case, the anthocyanin color degrades due to the intervention of heat. The foammat drying with egg white is a potential method to speed up the drying process as well as minimize color degradation. This research aims to study the physical properties of roselle extract under foam mat drying. As indicators, the powder size and color intensity were observed. The result showed that at high temperatures, roselle powder under foam mat drying has the fine size with porous structure. However, at the higher the drying temperature the color retention decreased.

  7. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... destruction. Condensed milk products made from pasteurized milk may be transported to a drying plant, provided... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and buttermilk used in the manufacture of dry milk products and modified dry milk products shall be pasteurized...

  8. Investigation of influence of drying agent movement on the drying process effectiveness in the gravitational shelf dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Artyukhova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article stands for a research of the drying process efficiency of various approaches of reciprocal movement organization of drying agent and disperse material. It focuses on the results of shelf dryer investigation. The test condition was as follows: backflow of the drying agent and disperse material movement; backflow of the drying agent and disperse material movement with the drying agent recirculation; backflow of the drying agent and disperse material movement with the bypassing of drying agent and it’s putting on separate stage of gravitational shelf dryer. The influence of the drying agent movement organization on the characteristics of disperse material and drying agent, energy costs for this process and its efficiency is shown. The recommendations of usage of represented approaches of flows movement organization depending on the desired final moisture of the material as well as its physical and chemical properties are given. The proposed ways of reciprocal flows movement organization allow to reduce the costs of drying agent heating or to increase the efficiency of moisture removal at constant energy consumption.

  9. Trigger Point Dry Needling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Increasingly, physical therapists in the United States and throughout the world are using dry needling to treat musculoskeletal pain, even though this treatment has been a controversial addition to practice. To better generalize to physical therapy practice the findings about dry needling thus far, the authors of a study published in the March 2017 issue of JOSPT identified the need for a systematic review examining the effectiveness of dry needling performed by physical therapists on people with musculoskeletal pain. Their review offers a meta-analysis of data from several included studies and assesses the evidence for risks of bias. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):150. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0502.

  10. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  11. Biomarkers of spontaneous preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polettini, Jossimara; Cobo, Teresa; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2017-01-01

    predictors of pregnancy outcome. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the knowledge on PTB biomarkers identified using multiplex analysis. Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of multiplex assays for maternal......Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable......) followed by MIP-1β, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and TNF-RI (two studies) were reported more than once in maternal serum. However, results could not be combined due to heterogeneity in type of sample, study population, assay, and analysis methods. By this systematic review, we conclude that multiplex assays...

  12. Spontaneous Strategies in Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Husted, Emil Krastrup

    and a site ontology, we show how physical sites and objects become constitutive of the inside of virtual worlds through innovation processes. This argument is in line with ANT’s perspective on strategy, where sites and objects are considered a strategically relevant resource in the innovation process...... of materiality in relation to the organization and structuring of virtual worlds. We examine various innovation processes in five Danish entrepreneurial companies where actors continuously struggle to stabilize virtual worlds as platforms for professional communication. With inspiration from actor-network theory....... Empirically, the analysis is founded on descriptive accounts from the five entrepreneurs. By highlighting the spontaneous strategies described by actors, we show how sites and objects are actively used as an element in their strategy, and also how the sites and objects end up facilitating new ways of thinking...

  13. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  15. Experience in waste drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, R.E.; Temus, C.J.; Hillstrom, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    Ion exchange resins, filter media and sludges are currently either dewatered or solidified for stabilization, prior to disposal at a low level waste facility. Nuclear Packaging developed the Resin Drying System and placed it into commercial service to provide a system which meets the regulatory requirements for free standing water with a relatively short process duration, requiring no chemical or material addition and utilizing more volume efficient containers than were previously available. The Resin Drying System has proven to be a very cost effective, efficient and secure means of processing low level radioactive waste for many utilities in the United States

  16. Mechanism of subcooled water flow boiling critical heat flux in a circular tube at high liquid Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, K.; Fukuda, K.; Masuzaki, S.

    2014-01-01

    The subcooled boiling heat transfer and the steady state critical heat flux (CHF) in a vertical circular tube for the flow velocities (u=3.95 to 30.80 m/s) are systematically measured by the experimental water loop comprised of a multistage canned-type circulation pump with high pump head. The SUS304 test tube of inner diameter (d=6 mm) and heated length (L=59.5 mm) is used in this work. The outer surface temperatures of the SUS304 test tube with heating are observed by an infrared thermal imaging camera and a video camera. The subcooled boiling heat transfers for SUS304 test tube are compared with the values calculated by other workers' correlations for the subcooled boiling heat transfer. The influence of flow velocity on the subcooled boiling heat transfer and the CHF is investigated into details based on the experimental data. Nucleate boiling surface superheats at the CHF are close to the lower limit of the heterogeneous spontaneous nucleation temperature and the homogeneous spontaneous nucleation temperature. The dominant mechanism of the subcooled flow boiling CHF on the SUS304 circular tube is discussed at high liquid Reynolds number. On the other hand, theoretical equations for k-ε turbulence model in a circular tube of a 3 mm in diameter and a 526 mm long are numerically solved for heating of water on heated section of a 3 mm in diameter and a 67 mm long with various thicknesses of conductive sub-layer by using PHOENICS code under the same conditions as the experimental ones previously obtained considering the temperature dependence of thermo-physical properties concerned. The Platinum (Pt) test tube of inner diameter (d=3 mm) and heated length (L=66.5 mm) was used in this experiment. The thicknesses of conductive sub-layer from non-boiling regime to CHF are clarified. The thicknesses of conductive sub-layer at the CHF point are evaluated for various flow velocities. The experimental values of the CHF are also compared with the corresponding

  17. An evaluation of fluid bed drying of aqueous granulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlinak, A J; Saleki-Gerhardt, A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the work described was twofold: (a) to apply heat and mass balance approaches to evaluate the fluid bed drying cycle of an aqueous granulation, and (b) to determine the effect of the temperature and relative humidity of the drying air on the ability to meet a predetermined moisture content specification. Water content determinations were performed using Karl Fischer titration, and Computrac and Mark 1 moisture analyzers. The water vapor sorption isotherms were measured using a gravimetric moisture sorption apparatus with vacuum-drying capability. Temperature, relative humidity, and air flow were measured during the drying cycle of a production-scale fluid bed dryer. Heat and mass balance equations were used to calculate the evaporation rates. Evaporation rates calculated from heat and mass balance equations agreed well with the experimental data, whereas equilibrium moisture content values provided useful information for determination of the upper limit for inlet air humidity. Increasing the air flow rate and inlet temperature reduced the drying time through the effect on the primary driving force. As expected, additional drying of granules during the equilibration period did not show a significant impact on reducing the final moisture content of granules. Reducing the drying temperature resulted in measurement of higher equilibrium moisture content for the granules, which was in good agreement with the water vapor sorption data. Heat and mass balance equations can be used to successfully model the fluid bed drying cycle of aqueous granulations. The water vapor sorption characteristics of granules dictate the final moisture content at a given temperature and relative humidity.

  18. Stabiliteit spontane taal bij chronische milde afasie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Nienke; Mendez Orellana, Carolina; Nouwens, Femke; Jonkers, Roel; Visch-Brink, Evy; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2014-01-01

    In aphasia, an analysis of spontaneous speech provides opportunities to establish the linguistic and communicative abilities, to create suitable therapy plans and to measure language progress. The current study investigated the stability of spontaneous speech within an interview of ten mild aphasic

  19. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  20. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  1. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  2. Spontaneity and Equilibrium II: Multireaction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium in multireaction systems are developed and discussed. When N reactions are occurring simultaneously, it is shown that G and A will depend upon N independent reaction coordinates, ?a (a = 1,2, ..., N), in addition to T and p for G or T and V for A. The general criteria for spontaneity and…

  3. Heat diffusion and magnetic field generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstein, P.A.

    1983-10-01

    In the report of CECAM workshop in 1982 some results of heat diffusion, when the spontaneous B-field is calculated, have been given. Separately, a similar code (magneto-calo-dynamic or MCD code) has been built and it was interesting to compare them. Comparisom has been made during the workshop of October 1983

  4. FREEZE DRYING PROCESS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Soham Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Among the various methods of drying, this article has mentioned only one most important method, “Freeze drying”. This method is mainly used for the drying of thermo labile materials. This method works on the principle of sublimation. This method is divided into 3 steps for its better understanding; these are Freezing, Primary drying, and secondary drying. There are many advantages and disadvantages of this method, but still this is the most useful drying method nowadays.

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tested whether I close my eyes when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Can light sensitivity from Parkinson’s be treated? Jan 28, ... of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  6. Dry Cleaning, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Albert J.; Anderson, Floyd L.

    This course description was developed by educators for use at the Work Opportunity Center which was established to teach high school dropouts and/or hard-core unemployed youth. The ultimate objectives of this course are to prepare students for employment in dry cleaning occupations and to assist them in completing their high school graduation…

  7. Open-loop heat-recovery dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward Evan

    2013-11-05

    A drying apparatus is disclosed that includes a drum and an open-loop airflow pathway originating at an ambient air inlet, passing through the drum, and terminating at an exhaust outlet. A passive heat exchanger is included for passively transferring heat from air flowing from the drum toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the ambient air inlet toward the drum. A heat pump is also included for actively transferring heat from air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the drum. A heating element is also included for further heating air flowing from the heat pump toward the drum.

  8. Intensifying drying process with creation of functional plant compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Zh. Petrova; Yu. Snezhkіn; K. Getmanyuk; N. Dmytrenko; M. Vorontsov

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The process of drying agricultural raw products is associated with loss of bioactive substances by the products exposed to heat, light, oxygen, or рН medium. It is reasonable to enhance the table beet processing technology in order to achieve maximum betanin conservation at lower energy consumption. Materials and methods. Table beets, rhubarbs, lemons, and tomatoes were dried at temperature of 50 to 100 ºС, air speed of 1.5 to 3.5 m/s, heat c...

  9. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  10. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  11. Exergoeconomic optimization of an ammonia–water hybrid absorption–compression heat pump for heat supply in a spraydrying facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Spray-drying facilities are among the most energy intensive industrial processes. Using a heat pump to recover waste heat and replace gas combustion has the potential to attain both economic and emissions savings. In the case examined a drying gas of ambient air is heated to 200 C yielding a heat...... load of 6.1 MW. The exhaust air from the drying process is 80 C. The implementation of anammonia–water hybrid absorption–compression heat pump to partly cover the heat load is investigated. A thermodynamic analysis is applied to determine optimal circulation ratios for a number of ammonia mass...... fractions and heat pump loads. An exergo economic optimization is applied to minimize the lifetime cost of the system. Technological limitations are imposed to constrain the solution to commercial components. The best possible implementation is identified in terms of heat load, ammonia mass fraction...

  12. Myofascial trigger points: spontaneous electrical activity and its consequences for pain induction and propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Hong-You; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Active myofascial trigger points are one of the major peripheral pain generators for regional and generalized musculoskeletal pain conditions. Myofascial trigger points are also the targets for acupuncture and/or dry needling therapies. Recent evidence in the understanding of the pathophysiology of myofascial trigger points supports The Integrated Hypothesis for the trigger point formation; however unanswered questions remain. Current evidence shows that spontaneous electrical activi...

  13. Development and demonstration of calculation tool for industrial drying processes ''DryPack''; Udvikling og demonstration af beregningsvaerktoej til industrielle toerreprocesser ''DryPack''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, P.; Weinkauff Kristoffersen, J.; Blazniak Andreasen, M. [Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark); Elmegaard, B.; Kaern, M. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ.. DTU Mekanik, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Monrad Andersen, C. [Lokal Energi, Viby J. (Denmark); Grony, K. [SE Big Blue, Kolding (Denmark); Stihoej, A. [Enervision, Kolding (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    In this project we have developed a calculation tool for calculating energy consumption in different drying processes - primarily drying processes with air. The program can be used to determine the energy consumption of a current drying process, after which it can be calculated how much energy can be saved by various measures. There is also developed a tool for the simulation of a batch drier, which calculates the drying of a batch depending on the time. The programs have demonstrated their usefulness in connection with three cases that are reviewed in the report. In the project measurements on four different dryers have been carried out, and energy consumption is calculated using ''DryPack''. With ''DryPack'' it is possible to find potential savings by optimizing the drying processes. The program package includes utilities for the calculation of moist air: 1) Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of moist air; 2) Device operation with moist air (mixing, heating, cooling and humidification); 3) Calculation of the relative change of the drying time by changing the process parameters; 4) IX-diagram at a temperature above 100 deg. C. (LN)

  14. HEAT RECUPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat recovery is an effective method of shortening specific energy consumption. new constructions of recuperators for heating and cupola furnaces have been designed and successfully introduced. two-stage recuperator with computer control providing blast heating up to 600 °C and reducing fuel consumption by 30% is of special interest.

  15. Recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Huizhi; Mujumdar, Arun S; Tang, Juming; Miao, Song; Wang, Yuchuan

    2017-04-13

    Fresh foods like vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products have high water activity and they are highly heat-sensitive and easily degradable. Dehydration is one of the most common methods used to improve food shelf-life. However, drying methods used for food dehydration must not only be efficient and economic but also yield high-quality products based on flavor, nutrients, color, rehydration, uniformity, appearance, and texture. This paper reviews some new drying technologies developed for dehydration of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products. These include: infrared drying, microwave drying, radio frequency drying, electrohydrodynamic drying, etc., as well as hybrid drying methods combining two or more different drying techniques. A comprehensive review of recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits and aquatic products is presented and recommendations are made for future research.

  16. EFFECT OF THE STEAMING ON THE DRYING OF Eucalyptus grandis BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Nogueira Rezende

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the steaming on the drying rate and drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis boards. For this purpose, wood from an experimental plantation of the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with 24 years of age was used. Trees were felled and sectioned in logs and the logs were sawn by a tangential system. Half of the boards volume were steamed during 3 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity after the heating of the drying process. The other half was not steamed (control. The boards were dried in the dry-kiln and the resulting defects from the drying process and drying rate were determined. The results indicated that the steaming was effective in increase of the drying rate in 15% and decrease of the drying defects of 20 to 52%.

  17. The (perceived) meaning of spontaneous thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K; Giblin, Colleen E; Norton, Michael I

    2014-08-01

    Spontaneous thoughts, the output of a broad category of uncontrolled and inaccessible higher order mental processes, arise frequently in everyday life. The seeming randomness by which spontaneous thoughts arise might give people good reason to dismiss them as meaningless. We suggest that it is precisely the lack of control over and access to the processes by which they arise that leads people to perceive spontaneous thoughts as revealing meaningful self-insight. Consequently, spontaneous thoughts potently influence judgment. A series of experiments provides evidence supporting two hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the more a thought is perceived to be spontaneous, the more it is perceived to provide meaningful self-insight. Participants perceived more spontaneous kinds of thought (e.g., intuition) to reveal greater self-insight than did more controlled kinds of thought in Study 1 (e.g., deliberation). In Studies 2 and 3, participants perceived thoughts with the same content and target to reveal greater self-insight when spontaneously rather than deliberately generated (i.e., childhood memories and impressions formed). Second, we hypothesize that the greater self-insight attributed to thoughts that are (perceived to be) spontaneous leads those thoughts to more potently influence judgment. Participants felt more sexually attracted to an attractive person whom they thought of spontaneously than deliberately in Study 4, and reported their commitment to a current romantic relationship would be more affected by the spontaneous rather than deliberate recollection of a good or bad experience with their romantic partner in Study 5. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Research progress in physical therapy for dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye is a common ocular surface disease, which seriously affects the work and quality of life of the patients. In recent years, physical therapies for dry eye have developed rapidly. This paper summarizes the traditional physical therapies such as fumigation, atomization, eye massage, hot compress, moisture chamber glasses and so on, and bandage contact lenses and scleral contact lenses, intense pulsed light treatment, Blephasteam wet chamber warming device, LipiFlow heat pulse therapy and other advanced physical treatment methods widely used in recent years. We review the recent research progress about physical therapies for dry eye to provide reference for clinical treatment.

  19. Microwave vacuum drying of food products: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrucci, V.E.; Clary, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    A combination microwave/vacuum drying system (MIVAC) was used during 1987 to produce puffed dried grapes and other fruits in order to evaluate product quality and MIVAC system performance characteristics. The vacuum reduces the temperature necessary to dry the fruits and minimizes oxidation of the product. The microwave energy provides optimum heating to dry the product. The dried fruit product maintains the characteristics of fresh fruit with respect to color, flavor, and appearance using no chemical treatments for preservation. To improve the throughput and drying efficiency of the MIVAC unit, an oxygen-restricted convection dryer and a liquid medium drying system were tested. During the project, effect of fruit type and composition was evaluated to determine unit performance characteristics. Dried product was analyzed for nutritional value and storage stability. The system was evaluated for technical feasibility and possibility of commercialization. The MIVAC system incorporating a liquid medium predryer system demonstrates potential for commercialization. The dried puffed product maintains enhanced nutritional value in concentrated amounts due to the removal of water from the fruit. 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Physical-chemical quality of onion analyzed under drying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaeni, M.; Arifin, U. F.; Sasongko, S. B.

    2017-03-01

    Drying is one of conventional processes to enhance shelf life of onion. However, the active compounds such as vitamin and anthocyanin (represented in red color), degraded due to the introduction of heat during the process. The objective of this research was to evaluate thiamine content as well as color in onion drying under different temperature. As an indicator, the thiamine and color was observed every 30 minutes for 2 hours. Results showed that thiamine content and color were sensitvely influenced by the temperature change. For example, at 50°C for 2 hours drying process, the thiamine degradation was 55.37 %, whereas, at 60°C with same drying time, the degradation was 74.01%. The quality degradation also increased by prolonging drying time.

  1. Modelling of nectarine drying under near infrared - Vacuum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaei, Behnam; Chayjan, Reza Amiri

    2015-01-01

    Drying of nectarine slices was performed to determine the thermal and physical properties in order to reduce product deterioration due to chemical reactions, facilitate storage and lower transportation costs. Because nectarine slices are sensitive to heat with long drying period, the selection of a suitable drying approach is a challenging task. Infrared-vacuum drying can be used as an appropriate method for susceptible materials with high moisture content such as nectarine slices. Modelling of nectarine slices drying was carried out in a thin layer near infraredvacuum conditions. Drying of the samples was implemented at the absolute pressures of 20, 40 and 60 kPa and drying temperatures of 50, 60 and 70°C. Drying behaviour of nectarine slices, as well as the effect of drying conditions on moisture loss trend, drying rate, effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy, shrinkage, colour and energy consumption of nectarine slices, dried in near infrared-vacuum dryer are discussed in this study. Six mathematical models were used to predict the moisture ratio of the samples in thin layer drying. The Midilli model had supremacy in prediction of nectarine slices drying behaviour. The maximum drying rates of the samples were between 0.014-0.047 gwater/gdry material·min. Effective moisture diffusivity of the samples was estimated in the ranges of 2.46·10-10 to 6.48·10-10 m2/s. Activation energy were computed between 31.28 and 35.23 kJ/mol. Minimum shrinkage (48.4%) and total colour difference (15.1) were achieved at temperature of 50°C and absolute pressure of 20 kPa. Energy consumption of the tests was estimated in the ranges of 0.129 to 0.247 kWh. Effective moisture diffusivity was increased with decrease of vacuum pressure and increase of drying temperature but effect of drying temperature on effective moisture diffusivity of nectarine slices was more than vacuum pressure. Activation energy was decreased with decrease in absolute pressure. Total colour

  2. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  3. Mechanistic modelling of infrared mediated energy transfer during the primary drying step of a continuous freeze-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; De Meyer, Laurens; Corver, Jos; Vervaet, Chris; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Conventional pharmaceutical freeze-drying is an inefficient and expensive batch-wise process, associated with several disadvantages leading to an uncontrolled end product variability. The proposed continuous alternative, based on spinning the vials during freezing and on optimal energy supply during drying, strongly increases process efficiency and improves product quality (uniformity). The heat transfer during continuous drying of the spin frozen vials is provided via non-contact infrared (IR) radiation. The energy transfer to the spin frozen vials should be optimised to maximise the drying efficiency while avoiding cake collapse. Therefore, a mechanistic model was developed which allows computing the optimal, dynamic IR heater temperature in function of the primary drying progress and which, hence, also allows predicting the primary drying endpoint based on the applied dynamic IR heater temperature. The model was validated by drying spin frozen vials containing the model formulation (3.9mL in 10R vials) according to the computed IR heater temperature profile. In total, 6 validation experiments were conducted. The primary drying endpoint was experimentally determined via in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and compared with the endpoint predicted by the model (50min). The mean ratio of the experimental drying time to the predicted value was 0.91, indicating a good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental data. The end product had an elegant product appearance (visual inspection) and an acceptable residual moisture content (Karl Fischer). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Spontaneous flocking in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Michael; Pyritz, Lennart W; Boos, Margarete

    2013-01-01

    Flocking behaviour, as a type of self-organised collective behaviour, is described as the spatial formation of groups without global control and explicit inter-individual recruitment signals. It can be observed in many animals, such as bird flocks, shoals or herds of ungulates. Spatial attraction between humans as the central component of flocking behaviour has been simulated in a number of seminal models but it has not been detected experimentally in human groups so far. The two other sub-processes of this self-organised collective movement - collision avoidance and alignment - are excluded or held constant respectively in this study. We created a computer-based, multi-agent game where human players, represented as black dots, moved on a virtual playground. The participants were deprived of social cues about each other and could neither communicate verbally nor nonverbally. They played two games: (1) Single Game, where other players were invisible, and (2) Joint Game, where each player could see players' positions in a local radius around himself/herself. We found that individuals approached their neighbours spontaneously if their positions were visible, leading to less spatial dispersion of the whole group compared to moving alone. We conclude that human groups show the basic component of flocking behaviour without being explicitly instructed or rewarded to do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Zeybek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral primary pneumothorax is a very rare (1.6 / 100,000 and life-threatening condition. Clinical presentation may vary from mild dyspnea to tension pneumothorax. It may be milder particularly in younger patients, but more severe in patients with advanced age, and tube thoracostomy is a life preserver in the latter group. Since mortality and recurrence rates following tube thoracostomy are high, endoscopic approaches to bilateral hemithorax have been reported in literature. Apical wedge resection and pleural procedures are recommended in video thoracoscopy or mini thoracotomy even if no bulla and/or bleb are detected. Bilateral surgical interventions and additional pleural procedures are associated with increased rate of post-operative complications and longer postoperative hospital-stays. As a first-line approach, the surgical method toward any side of lung with air leakage following a previous tube thoracostomy is considered less invasive, especially in younger patients. Here, we present a case of simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax (SBPSP in a 21-year old male with no history of smoking and chronic pulmonary disease. A unilateral surgical intervention was performed, and no recurrence was observed during 5-year follow up.

  7. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  8. Quality of plant-based food materials and its prediction during intermittent drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc Pham, Nghia; Khan, Md Imran H; Joardder, M U H; Rahman, M M; Mahiuddin, Md; Abesinghe, A M Nishani; Karim, M A

    2017-11-30

    In most drying processes, several physical, chemical and nutritional modifications take place in food products. Innovative drying techniques such as intermittent drying can enhance the quality of dehydrated products effectively and efficiently. Intermittent drying is a technique where drying conditions are changed through varying the drying air temperature, humidity, velocity, pressure, or even mode of heat input. This drying technique has been successfully applied to overcome the problems of conventional drying systems such as longer time consumption, case hardening, lower energy efficiency and poor-quality attributes. However, as the effect of intermittent drying on food quality is not yet well understood, a comprehensive study of quality change during intermittent drying is crucial. The main aim of this paper is to present a thorough review of the potential effect of intermittent drying methods on physical, chemical, nutritional, and stability characteristics of plant-based food material. It is found that application of intermittency using different drying systems has a significant effect on product quality and its stability. In addition, a comprehensive review on existing models of physio/biochemical kinetics for food drying is presented. Finally, the paper is concluded with the discussion of the current challenges and future directions of intermittent drying for producing high-quality dried food products.

  9. a comparative study of the drying rate constant, drying efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vernonia amagdalina) and black pepper (Piper guinenses) using solar dryer and open- air sun drying methods. Two hundred grams (200g) of each sample were dried under the two different conditions. Their respective weight losses were used to ...

  10. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  11. Computer optimization of dry and wet/dry cooling tower systems for large fossil and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, M.; Glicksman, L.R.

    1979-02-01

    This study determined the cost of dry cooling compared to the conventional cooling methods. Also, the savings by using wet/dry instead of all-dry cooling were determined. A total optimization was performed for power plants with dry cooling tower systems using metal-finned-tube heat exchangers and surface condensers. The optimization minimizes the power production cost. The program optimizes the design of the heat exchanger and its air and water flow rates. In the base case study, the method of replacing lost capacity assumes the use of gas turbines. As a result of using dry cooling towers in an 800 MWe fossil plant, the incremental costs with the use of high back pressure turbine and conventional turbine over all-wet cooling are 11 and 15%, respectively. For a 1200 MWe nuclear plant, these are 22 and 25%, respectively. Since the method of making up lost capacity depends on the situation of a utility, considerable effort has been placed on testing the effects of using different methods of replacing lost capacity at high ambient temperatures by purchased energy. The results indicate that the optimization is very sensitive to the method of making up lost capacity. It is, therefore, important to do an accurate representation of all possible methods of making up capacity loss when optimizating power plants with dry cooling towers. A solution for the problem of losing generation capability by a power plant due to the use of a dry cooling tower is to supplement the dry tower during the hours of peak ambient temperatures by a wet tower. A separate wet/dry cooling tower system with series tower arrangement was considered in this study, and proved to be an economic choice over all-dry cooling where some water is available but supplies are insufficient for a totally evaporative cooling tower

  12. Clock frequency estimation under spontaneous emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xi-Zhou; Huang, Jia-Hao; Zhong, Hong-Hua; Lee, Chaohong

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the quantum dynamics of a driven two-level system under spontaneous emission and its application in clock frequency estimation. By using the Lindblad equation to describe the system, we analytically obtain its exact solutions, which show three different regimes: Rabi oscillation, damped oscillation, and overdamped decay. From the analytical solutions, we explore how the spontaneous emission affects the clock frequency estimation. We find that under a moderate spontaneous emission rate, the transition frequency can still be inferred from the Rabi oscillation. Our results enable potential practical applications in frequency measurement and quantum control under decoherence.

  13. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  14. Spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutaka, Yojiro; Omasa, Mitsugu; Shikuma, Kei; Okuda, Masato; Taki, Toshihiko

    2009-05-01

    Although there are many reports of spontaneous regression of noninvasive thymoma, there are no reports of spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma. Moreover, the mechanism of the spontaneous regression is still unknown. The present case concerns a 47-year-old man who presented with chest pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with left pleural effusion that occluded the innominate vein. The tissue obtained by video-assisted thoracic surgery suggested a diagnosis of invasive thymic carcinoma. One month later CT showed prominent regression of the tumor, and the tumor was completely resected. On pathology, the diagnosis was thymoma type B3.

  15. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  16. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of

  18. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  19. Dry Cleaning Sector (NAICS 8123)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dry cleaning sector includes establishments engaged in providing laundry services and industrial launderers. Find environmental regulatory information for perchloroethylene (PERC) cleaners as well as hazardous waste regulations for dry cleaners.

  20. CROSS-TOLERANCE MECHANISM INDUCTION IN MELON SEEDS BY PRIMING PRIOR DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marcel Sousa Lira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The loss of benefits after re-drying is one of the drawbacks of the seed priming technique. Different types of stresses have been used before re-drying to preserve the priming benefits. This process may be seen as promoting cross tolerance to increase the defense mechanisms that prevent loss of viability in seeds primed after drying. We tested the effect of some stresses to induce cross-tolerance and different drying conditions with the aim of maintaining priming benefits in melon seeds. The seeds were primed in an aerated KNO3 solution (0.35M, -1.7MPa, 25 °C, in the dark for six days. The primed seeds were then submitted to slow drying, fast drying, cold shock + slow drying, cold shock + fast drying, heat shock + slow drying, heat shock + fast drying, PEG + slow drying, PEG + fast drying, ABA + slow drying, ABA + fast drying and no drying (planted directly after priming. We evaluated antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and APX, germinability, mean time of germination (MTG and mean rate of germination (MRG. A completely randomized design was used with three repetitions of 50 seeds in each treatment. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by the Scott-Knott test (p ≤ 0.05. ABA increased SOD activity after drying and CAT activity was reduced by priming. APX activity was not observed. The stress submission prior to re-drying improved the MRG and reduced MTG. Therefore, the induction of the cross-tolerance mechanism could be effective to maintain priming benefits in melon seeds.