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Sample records for sponge-like nanostructured conducting

  1. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry

  2. Transparent Conductive Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-22

    The objectives of this program between UT-Battelle, LLC (the ''Contractor'') and (Battelle Memorial Institute) (the "Participant") were directed towards achieving significant improvement: in the electrical conductivity and optical/infrared transmission of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based composite materials. These materials will be used in coating applications that range from aircraft canopies to display applications. The goal of the project was to obtain supported mats of SWNTs with sheet conductivities approaching 10 ohms/square combined with high optical transmission (>85% transmission at 550 nm), thereby permitting their application as a replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) in a variety of applications such as flexible displays.

  3. Nanostructured transparent conducting oxide electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Delia; Tangirala, Ravisubhash; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2016-05-17

    The embodiments described herein provide an electrochromic device. In an exemplary embodiment, the electrochromic device includes (1) a substrate and (2) a film supported by the substrate, where the film includes transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes (a) an electrolyte, where the nanostructures are embedded in the electrolyte, resulting in an electrolyte, nanostructure mixture positioned above the substrate and (b) a counter electrode positioned above the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a conductive coating deposited on the substrate between the substrate and the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a second substrate positioned above the mixture.

  4. Synthesis of sponge-like hydrophobic NiBi{sub 3} surface by 200 keV Ar ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siva, Vantari; Datta, D.P. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, HBNI, Jatni 752050 (India); Chatterjee, S. [Colloids and Materials Chemistry Department, CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Acharya Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751 013 (India); Varma, S. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sahoo, Pratap K., E-mail: pratap.sahoo@niser.ac.in [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, HBNI, Jatni 752050 (India)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • A sponge-like hydrophobic NiBi{sub 3} surface has been synthesized using 200 keV Ar ion implantation. • A competition between amorphization and re-crystallization was observed in the existing phases owing to comparable magnitudes of nuclear and electronic energy depositions. • The relation between hydrophobic nature and sponge-like NiBi{sub 3} phase seems interesting, which is attributed to ion beam induced sputtering and mixing of the layers. - Abstract: Sponge-like nanostructures develop under Ar-ion implantation of a Ni–Bi bilayer with increasing ion fluence at room temperature. The surface morphology features different stages of evolution as a function of ion fluence, finally resulting in a planar surface at the highest fluence. Our investigations on the chemical composition reveal a spontaneous formation of NiBi{sub 3} phase on the surface of the as deposited bilayer film. Interestingly, we observe a competition between crystallization and amorphization of the existing poly-crystalline phases as a function of the implanted fluence. Measurements of contact angle by sessile drop method clearly show the ion-fluence dependent hydrophobic nature of the nano-structured surfaces. The wettability has been correlated with the variation in roughness and composition of the implanted surface. In fact, our experimental results confirm dominant effect of ion-sputtering as well as ion-induced mixing at the bilayer interface in the evolution of the sponge-like surface.

  5. Sponge-like reduced graphene oxide/silicon/carbon nanotube composites for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Menglu; Wang, Zhao; Chen, Xiaojun; Guan, Shiyou

    2018-04-01

    Three-dimensional sponge-like reduced graphene oxide/silicon/carbon nanotube composites were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal self-assembly using silicon nanoparticles, graphene oxide and amino modified carbon nanotubes to develop high-performance anode materials of lithium ion batteries. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show the structure of composites that Silicon nanoparticles are coated with reduced graphene oxide while amino modified carbon nanotubes wrap around the reduced graphene oxide in the composites. When applied to lithium ion battery, these composites exhibit high initial specific capacity of 2552 mA h/g at a current density of 0.05 A/g. In addition, reduced graphene oxide/silicon/carbon nanotube composites also have better cycle stability than bare Silicon nanoparticles electrode with the specific capacity of 1215 mA h/g after 100 cycles. The three-dimension sponge-like structure not only ensures the electrical conductivity but also buffers the huge volume change, which has broad potential application in the field of battery.

  6. Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Pan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed.

  7. Nanostructured Transparent Conducting Oxides for Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Titas

    2011-12-01

    to elucidate the role of point defects, in controlling the carrier concentration and transport characteristics of nanostructured TCO films. This study presents the systematic changes in structural, electrical and optical properties of NiO thin films introduced by nanosecond duration Ultraviolet Excimer laser pulses. NiO films show transformation from p-type semiconducting to n-type conducting behavior with three order of magnitude decrease in resistivity, while maintaining its cubic crystal structure and good epitaxial relationship. This phenomenon is reversible via oxygen annealing. From XPS analysis, a strong correlation has been established between n-type conductivity and non-equilibrium concentrations of laser induced Ni 0-like defect states.

  8. Conducting polymer nanostructures for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichevsky, Yevgeny

    A novel polypyrrole nanowire actuator was fabricated and characterized, representing a completely new approach to the design of nanoscale mechanically active components (nanomachines). This design paradigm takes advantage of the fact that unique properties of polypyrrole allow development of mechanically active nanostructures capable of operating in aqueous salt solutions with many potential applications biology and medicine. Template synthesis technique was used to electropolymerize polypyrrole nanowires in the nanoporous alumina templates. Commercial alumina filters were used both "as is" and patterned with microbeads to reduce the open pore density, along with anodized alumina prepared as a thin film on a semiconductor substrate. The ability of the nanowires to expand and contract with applied voltage was then evaluated with scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution optical microscopy. It was confirmed that the nanowires can function as nanoactuators, which is a significant advance in developing nanomechanical structures. Polypyrrole nanoactuators are electrically controlled, rather than relying on changing the chemical composition of solution, can be easily synthesized in parallel and in high numbers without requiring e-beam lithography, and can operate in aqueous salt solutions at biologically-relevant pH. Furthermore, the speed of polypyrrole actuators depends on their size due to diffusion limitations, and nanoactuators are therefore able to operate at higher speeds that micro- or macro-sized devices. The development of these nanoactuators paves the way for mimicking the function of biological actuators such as cilia, creation of controllable membranes, small particle manipulation, cellular nanomechanical probes, and many other biomedical applications. Furthermore, the same technology and process flow used for fabrication of nanoactuators was also used to create nanosensors for detection of electrochemically oxidizable neurotransmitters such as

  9. Nanostructured polymer membranes for proton conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Park, Moon Jeong

    2013-06-18

    Polymers having an improved ability to entrain water are characterized, in some embodiments, by unusual humidity-induced phase transitions. The described polymers (e.g., hydrophilically functionalized block copolymers) have a disordered state and one or more ordered states (e.g., a lamellar state, a gyroid state, etc.). In one aspect, the polymers are capable of undergoing a disorder-to-order transition while the polymer is exposed to an increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. In some aspects the polymer includes a plurality of portions, wherein a first portion forms proton-conductive channels within the membrane and wherein the channels have a width of less than about 6 nm. The described polymers are capable of entraining and preserving water at high temperature and low humidity. Surprisingly, in some embodiments, the polymers are capable of entraining greater amounts of water with the increase of temperature. The polymers can be used in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes in fuel cells.

  10. Synthesis and growth mechanism of sponge-like nickel using a hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Bin; Yin, Xueguo; Hua, Weidong; Ma, Yilong; Sun, Jianchun; Li, Chunhong; Chen, Dengming; Guo, Donglin; Li, Kejian

    2018-05-01

    Sponge-like nickel composed of micro-chains with a diameter of 1-5 μm was selectively synthesized by the hydrothermal method, using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the alkaline reagent, aqueous hydrazine as reducing agent and citric acid as a coordination agent. The time-dependent samples prepared at different NaOH concentrations were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results showed that the agglomerates of nickel citrate hydrazine complex nanoplates were first precipitated and then reduced to prickly nickel micro-chains at a lower NaOH concentration, which played a role in the further formation of sponge-like nickel. Also, the probable growth mechanism of the sponge-like nickel was proposed. The magnetic properties of sponge-like nickel were studied using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The sponge-like nickel exhibited a ferromagnetic behavior with a saturation magnetization value of 43.8 emu g-1 and a coercivity value of 120.7 Oe.

  11. Grain Boundary Phase Transformations in Nanostructured Conducting Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumal, B. B.; Myatiev, A. A.; Straumal, P. B.; Mazilkin, A. A.

    Nanostructured conducting oxides are very promising for various applications like varistors (doped zinc oxide), electrolytes for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) (ceria, zirconia, yttria), semipermeable membranes, and sensors (perovskite-type oxides). Grain boundary (GB) phases crucially determine the properties of nanograined oxides. GB phase transformations (wetting, prewetting, pseudopartial wetting) proceed in the conducting oxides. Novel GB lines appear in the conventional bulk phase diagrams. They can be used for the tailoring of properties of nanograined conducting oxides, particularly by using the novel synthesis method of liquid ceramics.

  12. Nanostructure design for drastic reduction of thermal conductivity while preserving high electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    The design and fabrication of nanostructured materials to control both thermal and electrical properties are demonstrated for high-performance thermoelectric conversion. We have focused on silicon (Si) because it is an environmentally friendly and ubiquitous element. High bulk thermal conductivity of Si limits its potential as a thermoelectric material. The thermal conductivity of Si has been reduced by introducing grains, or wires, yet a further reduction is required while retaining a high electrical conductivity. We have designed two different nanostructures for this purpose. One structure is connected Si nanodots (NDs) with the same crystal orientation. The phonons scattering at the interfaces of these NDs occurred and it depended on the ND size. As a result of phonon scattering, the thermal conductivity of this nanostructured material was below/close to the amorphous limit. The other structure is Si films containing epitaxially grown Ge NDs. The Si layer imparted high electrical conductivity, while the Ge NDs served as phonon scattering bodies reducing thermal conductivity drastically. This work gives a methodology for the independent control of electron and phonon transport using nanostructured materials. This can bring the realization of thermoelectric Si-based materials that are compatible with large scale integrated circuit processing technologies.

  13. Quantum theory of terahertz conductivity of semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostatnický, T.; Pushkarev, V.; Němec, H.; Kužel, P.

    2018-02-01

    Efficient and controlled charge carrier transport through nanoelements is currently a primordial question in the research of nanoelectronic materials and structures. We develop a quantum-mechanical theory of the conductivity spectra of confined charge carriers responding to an electric field from dc regime up to optical frequencies. The broken translation symmetry induces a broadband drift-diffusion current, which is not taken into account in the analysis based on Kubo formula and relaxation time approximation. We show that this current is required to ensure that the dc conductivity of isolated nanostructures correctly attains zero. It causes a significant reshaping of the conductivity spectra up to terahertz or multiterahertz spectral ranges, where the electron scattering rate is typically comparable to or larger than the probing frequency.

  14. Nanostructured conducting polymers for stiffness controlled cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyen, Eric; Hama, Adel; Ismailova, Esma; Malliaras, George; Owens, Roisin M; Assaud, Loic; Hanbücken, Margrit

    2016-01-01

    We propose a facile and reproducible method, based on ultra thin porous alumina membranes, to produce cm 2 ordered arrays of nano-pores and nano-pillars on any kind of substrates. In particular our method enables the fabrication of conducting polymers nano-structures, such as poly[3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene]:poly[styrene sulfonate] (PEDOT:PSS). Here, we demonstrate the potential interest of those templates with controlled cell adhesion studies. The triggering of the eventual fate of the cell (proliferation, death, differentiation or migration) is mediated through chemical cues from the adsorbed proteins and physical cues such as surface energy, stiffness and topography. Interestingly, as well as through material properties, stiffness modifications can be induced by nano-topography, the ability of nano-pillars to bend defining an effective stiffness. By controlling the diameter, length, depth and material of the nano-structures, one can possibly tune the effective stiffness of a (nano) structured substrate. First results indicate a possible change in the fate of living cells on such nano-patterned devices, whether they are made of conducting polymer (soft material) or silicon (hard material). (paper)

  15. Effects of spatial confinement on conduction electrons in semiconductor nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germeau, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Semiconductor nanostructures show electrical and optical properties which can be very different from bulk semiconductors. The various effects that occur due to the spatial confinement of electrons in such structures are of scientific importance. In addition, semiconductor nanostructures are very

  16. Thermal Conductivity Suppression in Nanostructured Silicon and Germanium Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özden, Ayberk; Kandemir, Ali; Ay, Feridun; Perkgöz, Nihan Kosku; Sevik, Cem

    2016-03-01

    The inherent low lattice thermal conductivity (TC) of semiconductor nanowires (s-NW) due to one-dimensional phonon confinement might provide a solution for the long-lasting figure-of-merit problem for highly efficient thermoelectric (TE) applications. Standalone diameter modulation or alloying of s-NW serve as a toolkit for TC control, but realizing the full potential of nanowires requires new atomic-scale designs, growth, characterization, and understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the structure-property (TC) relationship. Before undertaking time-consuming and expensive experimental work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations serve as an excellent probe to investigate new designs and understand how nanostructures affect thermal transport properties through their capability to capture various phenomena such as phonon boundary scattering, phonon coherence resonance, and phonon backscattering. On the other hand, because different research groups use different structural and MD parameters in their simulations, it is rather difficult to make comparisons between different nanostructures and select appropriate ones for potential TE applications. Therefore, in this work, we systematically investigated pristine, core-shell (C-S), holey (H-N), superlattice (SL), sawtooth (ST), and superlattice sawtooth (SL-ST) nanowires with identical structural parameters. Specifically, we aim to compare the relative TC reduction achieved by these nanostructures with respect to pristine nanowires in order to propose the best structural design with the lowest lattice TC, using Green-Kubo method-based equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations at 300 K. Our results show that the TC can be minimized by changing specific parameters such as the core diameter and monolayer separation for C-S, H-N, and ST structures. In the case of SL structures, the TC is found to be independent of these parameters. However, surface roughness in the form of a ST morphology provides a TC value below 2 W

  17. Equilibrium limit of thermal conduction and boundary scattering in nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Justin B; Kınacı, Alper; Sevik, Cem; Çağın, Tahir

    2014-06-28

    Determining the lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of nanostructures is especially challenging in that, aside from the phonon-phonon scattering present in large systems, the scattering of phonons from the system boundary greatly influences heat transport, particularly when system length (L) is less than the average phonon mean free path (MFP). One possible route to modeling κ in these systems is through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, inherently including both phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering effects in the classical limit. Here, we compare current MD methods for computing κ in nanostructures with both L ⩽ MFP and L ≫ MFP, referred to as mean free path constrained (cMFP) and unconstrained (uMFP), respectively. Using a (10,0) CNT (carbon nanotube) as a benchmark case, we find that while the uMFP limit of κ is well-defined through the use of equilibrium MD and the time-correlation formalism, the standard equilibrium procedure for κ is not appropriate for the treatment of the cMFP limit because of the large influence of boundary scattering. To address this issue, we define an appropriate equilibrium procedure for cMFP systems that, through comparison to high-fidelity non-equilibrium methods, is shown to be the low thermal gradient limit to non-equilibrium results. Further, as a means of predicting κ in systems having L ≫ MFP from cMFP results, we employ an extrapolation procedure based on the phenomenological, boundary scattering inclusive expression of Callaway [Phys. Rev. 113, 1046 (1959)]. Using κ from systems with L ⩽ 3 μm in the extrapolation, we find that the equilibrium uMFP κ of a (10,0) CNT can be predicted within 5%. The equilibrium procedure is then applied to a variety of carbon-based nanostructures, such as graphene flakes (GF), graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), CNTs, and icosahedral fullerenes, to determine the influence of size and environment (suspended versus supported) on κ. Concerning the GF and GNR systems, we find that

  18. Fabrication of Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Conducting Polyaniline (NSPANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepshikha SAINI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, glucose and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 biosensors based on nanostructured conducting polyaniline (NSPANI (synthesized using sodiumdodecyl sulphate (SDS as structure directing agent were developed. Because of the large specific surface area, excellent conductivity of NSPANI, horseradish peroxidase (HRP and glucose oxidase (GOx could be easily immobilized with high loading and activity. In addition the small dimensions and the high surface-to-volume ratio of the NSCP allow the rapid transmission of electron and enhance current response. The linear dynamic range of optical glucose and H2O2 biosensors is 5–40 mM for glucose and 1–50 mM for H2O2, respectively where as the bulk PANI exhibits linearity between 5-20 mM/l. The miniature optical glucose biosensor also exhibits good reproducibility. The storage stability of optical glucose and H2O2 biosensors is two weeks for glucose and five days for H2O2. The high response value of NSPANI based biosensors as compared to bulk PANI based biosensor reflects higher enzymatic affinity of GOx/NSPANI and HRP/NSPANI with glucose and H2O2 due to biocompatibility, active surface area and high electron communication capability of nanobiopolymer film. In conclusion, the NSPANI based biosensors proposed herein have many advantages such as a low response time, high reproducibility, high sensitivity, stable and wide dynamic range.

  19. Nanostructured anion conducting block copolymer electrolyte thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arges, Christopher; Kambe, Yu; Nealey, Paul

    Lamellae forming block copolymer electrolyte (BCE) thin-films with perpendicular aligned orientation were registered with high fidelity over large areas via a self-assembly process followed by a novel chemical vapor infiltration reaction (CVIR) technique. In this scheme, poly(styrene- b-2-vinyl pyridine) (PS bP2VP) block copolymers were self-assembled with perpendicular orientations on neutral chemical brushes using solvent vapor annealing. The ionic groups were selectively introduced into the P2VP block via a Menshutkin reaction that converted the nitrogen in the pyridine to n-methylpyridinium - anion carrier groups. FTIR-ATR and XPS tools confirmed the formation of the aforementioned ionic moieties post CVIR process and structure imaging tools (e.g., SEM and AFM imaging, GI-SAXS and RSOXs) established that incorporation of the ionic groups did not alter the self-assembled nanostructured films nor did subsequent ion-exchange processes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy determined the in-plane ion conductivity of different counteranions in the BCE thin films and alteration to the symmetry of the block copolymer film substantially improved (or hindered) BCE ion conductivity if the P2VP block's volume fraction was slightly greater than (or less than) 0.5. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  20. Polyacrylonitrile Derived Sponge-like Micro/Macroporous Carbons for Selective CO2 Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-Ping; Hu, Qing-Tao; Zhang, Peng; Li, Wen-Cui; Lu, An-Hui

    2018-03-25

    CO2 capture under a dynamical flow situation requires adsorbents possessing balanced proportion of macropores as diffusion path and micropores as adsorption reservoir. However, the construction of interconnected micro-/macropores structure coupled with abundant nitrogen species into one carbon skeleton remains challenge. Here we report a new approach to prepare sponge-like carbon with well-developed micro-/macropores structure and enriched nitrogen species via aqueous phase polymerization of acrylonitrile in the presence of graphene oxide. The tension stress caused by uniformly thermal shrinkage of polyacrylonitrile during the pyrolysis together with the favorable flexibility of graphene oxide sheets are responsible for the formation of sponge-like morphology. The synergistic effect of micro-/macropores framework and rich CO2-philic site enables such carbon to decrease resistance to mass transfer and show high CO2 dynamic selectivity over N2 (454) and CH4 (11), and good CO2 capacity at 298 K under low CO2 partial pressure (0.17 bar, a typical CO2 partial pressure in flue gas). Above attributes make this porous carbon a promising candidate for CO2 capture from flue gas, methane sources and other relevant applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Application of nano-structured conducting polymers to humidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pilyeon

    Nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanocolumns, and nanotubes, have attracted a lot of attention because of their huge potential impact on a variety of applications. For sensor applications, nanostructures provide high surface area to volume ratios. The high surface area to volume ratio allows more reaction areas between target species and detection materials and also improves the detection sensitivity and response time. The main goal of this research was to exploit the advantages and develop innovative methods to accomplish the synthesis of nanowires and nano-coulmn conducting polymers used in humidity detection. To accomplish this, two fabrication methods are used. The first one utilizes the geometric confinement effect of a temporary nanochannel template to orient, precisely position, and assemble Polyaniline (PANI) nanowires as they are synthesized. The other approach is to simply spin-coat a polymer onto a substrate, and then oxygen plasma etch to generate a nano-columned Polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) thin film. 200 nm silicon oxide coated wafers with embedded platinum electrodes are used as a substrate for both fabrication methods. The biggest advantage of this first method is that it is simple, requires a single-step, i.e., synthesizing and positioning procedures are carried out simultaneously. The second method is potentially manufacturable and economic yet environmentally safe. These two methods do not produce extra nano-building materials to discard or create a health hazard. Both PANI nanowires and nano-columned PEDOT films have been tested for humidity detection using a system designed and built for this research to monitor response (current changes) to moisture, To explain the surface to volume ratio effect, 200 nm PANI nanowires and 10 microm PANI wires were directly compared for detecting moisture, and it was shown that the PANI nanowire had a better sensitivity. It was found difficult to monitor the behaviors of the PEDOT reaction to varying

  2. Electron-phonon scattering effect on the lattice thermal conductivity of silicon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bo; Tang, Guihua; Li, Yifei

    2017-11-01

    Nanostructuring technology has been widely employed to reduce the thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials because of the strong phonon-boundary scattering. Optimizing the carrier concentration can not only improve the electrical properties, but also affect the lattice thermal conductivity significantly due to the electron-phonon scattering. The lattice thermal conductivity of silicon nanostructures considering electron-phonon scattering is investigated for comparing the lattice thermal conductivity reductions resulting from nanostructuring technology and the carrier concentration optimization. We performed frequency-dependent simulations of thermal transport systematically in nanowires, solid thin films and nanoporous thin films by solving the phonon Boltzmann transport equation using the discrete ordinate method. All the phonon properties are based on the first-principles calculations. The results show that the lattice thermal conductivity reduction due to the electron-phonon scattering decreases as the feature size of nanostructures goes down and could be ignored at low feature sizes (50 nm for n-type nanowires and 20 nm for p-type nanowires and n-type solid thin films) or a high porosity (0.6 for n-type 500 nm-thick nanoporous thin films) even when the carrier concentration is as high as 10 21 cm -3 . Similarly, the size effect due to the phonon-boundary scattering also becomes less significant with the increase of carrier concentration. The findings provide a fundamental understanding of electron and phonon transports in nanostructures, which is important for the optimization of nanostructured thermoelectric materials.

  3. Thermal conductivity enhancement of paraffin by adding boron nitride nanostructures: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Changpeng; Rao, Zhonghao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different contributions to thermal conductivity are obtained. • Thermal conductivity of paraffin could be improved by boron nitride. • Crystallization effect from boron nitride was the key factor. • Paraffin nanocomposite is the desirable candidate for thermal energy storage. - Abstract: While paraffin is widely used in thermal energy storage today, its low thermal conductivity has become a bottleneck for the further applications. Here, we construct two kinds of paraffin-based phase change material nanocomposites through introducing boron nitride (BN) nanostructures into n-eicosane to enhance the thermal conductivity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was adopted to estimate their thermal conductivities and related thermal properties. The results indicate that, after adding BN nanostructures, the latent heat of composites is reduced compared with the pure paraffin and they both show a glass-like thermal conductivity which increases as the temperature rises. This happens because the increasing temperature leads to gradually smaller inconsistency in vibrational density of state along three directions and increasingly significant overlaps among them. Furthermore, by decomposing the thermal conductivity, it is found that the major contribution to the overall thermal conductivity comes from BN nanostructures, while the contribution of n-eicosane is insignificant. Though the thermal conductivity from n-eicosane term is small, it has been improved greatly compared with amorphous state of n-eicosane, mainly due to the crystallization effects from BN nanostructures. This work will provide microscopic views and insights into the thermal mechanism of paraffin and offer effective guidances to enhance the thermal conductivity.

  4. The first animals: ca. 760-million-year-old sponge-like fossils from Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Young

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most profound events in biospheric evolution was the emergence of animals, which is thought to have occurred some 600–650 Ma. Here we report on the discovery of phosphatised body fossils that we interpret as ancient sponge-like fossils and term them Otavia antiqua gen. et sp. nov. The fossils are found in Namibia in rocks that range in age between about 760 Ma and 550 Ma. This age places the advent of animals some 100 to 150 million years earlier than proposed, and prior to the extreme climatic changes and postulated stepwise increases in oxygen levels of Ediacaran time. These findings support the predictions based on genetic sequencing and inferences drawn from biomarkers that the first animals were sponges. Further, the deposition and burial of Otavia as sedimentary particles may have driven the large positive C-isotopic excursions and increases in oxygen levels that have been inferred for Neoproterozoic time.

  5. A Tunable 3D Nanostructured Conductive Gel Framework Electrode for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ye; Zhang, Jun; Bruck, Andrea M; Zhang, Yiman; Li, Jing; Stach, Eric A; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Esther S; Yu, Guihua

    2017-06-01

    This study develops a tunable 3D nanostructured conductive gel framework as both binder and conductive framework for lithium ion batteries. A 3D nanostructured gel framework with continuous electron pathways can provide hierarchical pores for ion transport and form uniform coatings on each active particle against aggregation. The hybrid gel electrodes based on a polypyrrole gel framework and Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles as a model system in this study demonstrate the best rate performance, the highest achieved mass ratio of active materials, and the highest achieved specific capacities when considering total electrode mass, compared to current literature. This 3D nanostructured gel-based framework represents a powerful platform for various electrochemically active materials to enable the next-generation high-energy batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Design rules of nanostructured transparent conductive electrodes for light trapping in hematite photoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekharinia, Behrooz; Moshaii, Ahmad; Dabirian, Ali

    2017-07-01

    Hematite is an appealing material for photoelectrochemical water splitting due to nearly ideal bandgap and Earth abundance. However, its short-distance hole transport has so far hindered exploiting its full potential. Two nanostructured transparent electrodes coated with a thin hematite layer are studied using full-field electromagnetic modeling. One structure comprises an ordered array of stripes of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) and the other is composed of a square-lattice array of TCO nanorods. We find that height and filling ratio (FR) of the nanostructured elements constitutes the most crucial design parameter where the tall nanostructures with small FR constitute the ideal design for a nanostructured electrode with resonant-size elements. The simulations show that current densities up to 10.4 mA cm-2 can be obtained in a 20-nm thick hematite layer uniformly coated onto a properly designed nanostructured transparent conductive scaffold. Practical permittivity data are used in the simulation and the results show that these structures are quite robust against irregularities that might occur during the fabrications process.

  7. Conductance of graphene-based double-barrier nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M R [Department of Campus of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahani, D, E-mail: Rezakord@ipm.co, E-mail: Dariush110@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-22

    The effect of a mass gap on the conductance of graphene double-barrier heterojunctions is studied. By obtaining the 2D expression for the electronic transport of the low energy excitations of pure graphene through double-barrier systems, it is found that the conductivity of these structures does not depend on the type of charge carriers in the zones of the electric field. However, a finite induced gap in the graphene spectrum makes conductivity dependent on the energy band index. We also discuss a few controversies concerning double-barrier systems stemming from an improper choice of the scattering angle. Then it is observed that, for some special values of the incident energy and potential's height, graphene junctions behave like left-handed materials, resulting in a maximum value for the conductivity.

  8. Nanostructured Transparent Conductive Oxide Films for Plasmonic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jongbum; Zhao, Yang; Naik, Gururaj V.

    2013-01-01

    Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) as substitutes to metals could offer many advantages for low-loss plasmonic and metamaterial (MM) applications in the near infrared (NIR) regime. By employing a lift-off process, we fabricated 2D-periodic arrays of TCO nanodisks and characterized the material...

  9. Growth of anisotropic gold nanostructures on conducting glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we describe a method for the growth of gold nanowires and nanoplates starting from a bilayer array of gold seeds, anchored on electrically conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. This is based on a seed-mediated growth approach, where the nanoparticles attached on the substrate through molecular ...

  10. Thermal Conductivity in Nanostructured Films: From Single Cellulose Nanocrystals to Bulk Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairo A. Diaz; Zhijiang Ye; Xiawa Wu; Arden L. Moore; Robert J. Moon; Ashlie Martini; Dylan J. Boday; Jeffrey P. Youngblood

    2014-01-01

    We achieved a multiscale description of the thermal conductivity of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from single CNCs (~­0.72−5.7 W m−1 K−1) to their organized nanostructured films (~­0.22−0.53 W m−1 K−1) using...

  11. Evidence for polaron conduction in nanostructured manganese ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, E Veena; Anantharaman, M R; Malini, K A; Saravanan, S; Kumar, D Sakthi; Yoshida, Yasuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticles of manganese ferrite were prepared by the chemical co-precipitation technique. The dielectric parameters, namely, real and imaginary dielectric permittivity (ε' and ε-prime), ac conductivity (σ ac ) and dielectric loss tangent (tanδ), were measured in the frequency range of 100 kHz-8 MHz at different temperatures. The variations of dielectric dispersion (ε') and dielectric absorption (ε-prime) with frequency and temperature were also investigated. The variation of dielectric permittivity with frequency and temperature followed the Maxwell-Wagner model based on interfacial polarization in consonance with Koops phenomenological theory. The dielectric loss tangent and hence ε-prime exhibited a relaxation at certain frequencies and at relatively higher temperatures. The dispersion of dielectric permittivity and broadening of the dielectric absorption suggest the possibility of a distribution of relaxation time and the existence of multiple equilibrium states in manganese ferrite. The activation energy estimated from the dielectric relaxation is found to be high and is characteristic of polaron conduction in the nanosized manganese ferrite. The ac conductivity followed a power law dependence σ ac = Bω n typical of charge transport assisted by a hopping or tunnelling process. The observed minimum in the temperature dependence of the frequency exponent n strongly suggests that tunnelling of the large polarons is the dominant transport process

  12. Thermal conductivity and thermal boundary resistance of nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merabia Samy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a fabrication process of low-cost superlattices and simulations related with the heat dissipation on them. The influence of the interfacial roughness on the thermal conductivity of semiconductor/semiconductor superlattices was studied by equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics and on the Kapitza resistance of superlattice's interfaces by equilibrium molecular dynamics. The non-equilibrium method was the tool used for the prediction of the Kapitza resistance for a binary semiconductor/metal system. Physical explanations are provided for rationalizing the simulation results. PACS 68.65.Cd, 66.70.Df, 81.16.-c, 65.80.-g, 31.12.xv

  13. Understanding the High Ionic Conductivity in Nanostructured Ytterbium Stabilized Zirconia Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benítez-Rico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, high ionic conduction has been reported in nanostructured materials. This increase in conductivity can be important in technological applications, including micro-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, so the understanding of this phenomenon is essential. In this work, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, EDS maps, and UV-Visible spectroscopy measurements are used to have an insight into the relationship between structural and electrical properties in nanostructured ytterbium stabilized zirconia (YbSZ thin films prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. Raman measurements allowed the identification of a mixture of tetragonal and cubic phases at 4% of Yb doping, which cannot be detected by XRD, while the compositional maps suggest that Yb can be located preferentially in the grain boundaries. Changes in the activation energy values in bulk and grain boundaries are related to the small grain sizes (≤10 nm. UV measurements support the ionic nature of the charge transport. These results indicate that the high conductivity is a consequence of different physical parameters in the films such as stress in the materials, different crystalline phases, impurities diffusion to the grain boundaries, and the presence or absence of electronic conduction. A model that explains the increase of conductivity in nanostructured materials must include all these aspects.

  14. Ultra-sensitive thermal conductance measurement of one-dimensional nanostructures enhanced by differential bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingert, Matthew C; Chen, Zack C Y; Kwon, Shooshin; Xiang, Jie; Chen, Renkun

    2012-02-01

    Thermal conductivity of one-dimensional nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanotubes, and polymer chains, is of significant interest for understanding nanoscale thermal transport phenomena as well as for practical applications in nanoelectronics, energy conversion, and thermal management. Various techniques have been developed during the past decade for measuring this fundamental quantity at the individual nanostructure level. However, the sensitivity of these techniques is generally limited to 1 × 10(-9) W∕K, which is inadequate for small diameter nanostructures that potentially possess thermal conductance ranging between 10(-11) and 10(-10) W∕K. In this paper, we demonstrate an experimental technique which is capable of measuring thermal conductance of ∼10(-11) W∕K. The improved sensitivity is achieved by using an on-chip Wheatstone bridge circuit that overcomes several instrumentation issues. It provides a more effective method of characterizing the thermal properties of smaller and less conductive one-dimensional nanostructures. The best sensitivity experimentally achieved experienced a noise equivalent temperature below 0.5 mK and a minimum conductance measurement of 1 × 10(-11) W∕K. Measuring the temperature fluctuation of both the four-point and bridge measurements over a 4 h time period shows a reduction in measured temperature fluctuation from 100 mK to 0.6 mK. Measurement of a 15 nm Ge nanowire and background conductance signal with no wire present demonstrates the increased sensitivity of the bridge method over the traditional four-point I-V measurement. This ultra-sensitive measurement platform allows for thermal measurements of materials at new size scales and will improve our understanding of thermal transport in nanoscale structures.

  15. Quantum Domains for Macroscopic Transport Effects in Nanostructures with Control Topology: Optics and e-Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antipov A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanostructures with different morphology have been obtained by us by methods of both direct laser modification (from cw to fs laser radiation of the target surface/thin films and laser evaporation of the target substance in liquid to produce the colloid systems, and then – to deposite substance on substrate from colloid, and also – by a single drop deposition technique. The analysis of induced nanostructures has been carried out by absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The island conductivity is dominant for the nanocluster semiconductor systems induced by laser ablation technique, and electroresistance can dramatically decrease due to spontaneous selected multichannel/parallel electron transportation trajectories. A tunneling quantum coherent effect takes place for electron conductivity for the case.

  16. Thermal conductivity anisotropy in holey silicon nanostructures and its impact on thermoelectric cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongqing; Lee, Jaeho

    2018-01-01

    Artificial nanostructures have improved prospects of thermoelectric systems by enabling selective scattering of phonons and demonstrating significant thermal conductivity reductions. While the low thermal conductivity provides necessary temperature gradients for thermoelectric conversion, the heat generation is detrimental to electronic systems where high thermal conductivity are preferred. The contrasting needs of thermal conductivity are evident in thermoelectric cooling systems, which call for a fundamental breakthrough. Here we show a silicon nanostructure with vertically etched holes, or holey silicon, uniquely combines the low thermal conductivity in the in-plane direction and the high thermal conductivity in the cross-plane direction, and that the anisotropy is ideal for lateral thermoelectric cooling. The low in-plane thermal conductivity due to substantial phonon boundary scattering in small necks sustains large temperature gradients for lateral Peltier junctions. The high cross-plane thermal conductivity due to persistent long-wavelength phonons effectively dissipates heat from a hot spot to the on-chip cooling system. Our scaling analysis based on spectral phonon properties captures the anisotropic size effects in holey silicon and predicts the thermal conductivity anisotropy ratio up to 20. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the thermoelectric cooling effectiveness of holey silicon is at least 30% greater than that of high-thermal-conductivity bulk silicon and 400% greater than that of low-thermal-conductivity chalcogenides; these results contrast with the conventional perception preferring either high or low thermal conductivity materials. The thermal conductivity anisotropy is even more favorable in laterally confined systems and will provide effective thermal management solutions for advanced electronics.

  17. Thermal conductivity anisotropy in holey silicon nanostructures and its impact on thermoelectric cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongqing; Lee, Jaeho

    2018-01-26

    Artificial nanostructures have improved prospects of thermoelectric systems by enabling selective scattering of phonons and demonstrating significant thermal conductivity reductions. While the low thermal conductivity provides necessary temperature gradients for thermoelectric conversion, the heat generation is detrimental to electronic systems where high thermal conductivity are preferred. The contrasting needs of thermal conductivity are evident in thermoelectric cooling systems, which call for a fundamental breakthrough. Here we show a silicon nanostructure with vertically etched holes, or holey silicon, uniquely combines the low thermal conductivity in the in-plane direction and the high thermal conductivity in the cross-plane direction, and that the anisotropy is ideal for lateral thermoelectric cooling. The low in-plane thermal conductivity due to substantial phonon boundary scattering in small necks sustains large temperature gradients for lateral Peltier junctions. The high cross-plane thermal conductivity due to persistent long-wavelength phonons effectively dissipates heat from a hot spot to the on-chip cooling system. Our scaling analysis based on spectral phonon properties captures the anisotropic size effects in holey silicon and predicts the thermal conductivity anisotropy ratio up to 20. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the thermoelectric cooling effectiveness of holey silicon is at least 30% greater than that of high-thermal-conductivity bulk silicon and 400% greater than that of low-thermal-conductivity chalcogenides; these results contrast with the conventional perception preferring either high or low thermal conductivity materials. The thermal conductivity anisotropy is even more favorable in laterally confined systems and will provide effective thermal management solutions for advanced electronics.

  18. The Relation between the Electric Conductance of Nanostructure Bridge and Friedel Sum Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Y.; Shima, N.; Makoshi, K.

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the electric conductance through nanostructure bridges in terms of phase-shifts, which satisfy the Friedel sum rule. The phase-shifts are given by solving the eigenvalue equation obtained by extending the method applied to a single impurity problem in a metal. The local charge neutrality condition is introduced through the Friedel sum rule. It is analytically shown that the electric conductance can increase as the two electrodes separate with the condition in which the phase-shifts satisfy the Friedel sum rule. The increment of the distance between two electrodes is obtained by gradually separating interatomic distance.

  19. Charge separation dynamics in nanostructured matter. Contactless measurements of atomic-scale conductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Makoto; Nagaya, Kiyonobu

    2009-01-01

    To avoid 'electrode problems' in conductance measurements of nanostructured matter, a novel contactless method, in which deep inner shell excitation and the following decay processes are utilized, has been devised. The method is applied to Ar clusters, in each of which a Kr atom that absorbs X-ray photons is embedded, and to aromatic molecules, in each of which a Br atom acts as an X-ray absorbing atom. The decay processes are investigated by photoelectron-photoion-coincidence spectroscopy and multi-ion coincidence momentum imaging. The insulating nature of rare-gas clusters and the conductive nature of aromatic molecules are experimentally confirmed. (author)

  20. Electrochemical Deposition of Nanostructured Conducting Polymer Coatings on Neural Prosthetic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyan; Martin, David

    2003-03-01

    Micromachined neural prosthetic devices facilitate the functional stimulation of and recording from the central nervous system (CNS). These devices have been fabricated to consist of silicon shanks that have gold or iridium sites along their surface. Our goal is to improve the biocompatibility and long-term performance of the neural prosthetic probes when they are implanted chronically in the brain. In our most recent efforts we have established that electrochemical polymerization can be used to deposit fuzzy coatings of conducting polymers specifically on the electrode sites. For neural prosthetic devices that are intended for long term implantation, we need to develop surfaces that provide intimate contact and promote efficient signal transport at the interface of the microelectrode array and brain tissue. We have developed methods to rapidly and reliably fabricate nanostructured conducting polymer coatings on the electrode probes using templated and surfactant-mediated techniques. Conducting polymer nanomushrooms and nanohairs of polypyrrole (PPy) were electrochemically polymerized onto the functional sites of neural probes by using either nanoporous block copolymers thin films, "track-etched" polycarbonate films or anodic aluminium oxide membranes as templates. Nanofibers of conducting polymers have also been successfully obtained by polymerizations in the presence of surfactants. The influence of current density, monomer concentration, surfactant concentration, and deposition charge on the thickness and morphology of the nanostructured conducting polymer coatings has been studied by optical, scanned probe, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. As compared with the normal nodular morphology of polypyrrole, the nanostructured morphologies grown from the neural electrode result in fuzzy coatings with extremely high surface area. The electrical properties of the polymer coatings were studied by Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) and Cyclic Voltammetry

  1. Enhancing the Supercapacitor Performance of Graphene/MnO 2 Nanostructured Electrodes by Conductive Wrapping

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guihua

    2011-10-12

    MnO2 is considered one of the most promising pseudocapactive materials for high-performance supercapacitors given its high theoretical specific capacitance, low-cost, environmental benignity, and natural abundance. However, MnO2 electrodes often suffer from poor electronic and ionic conductivities, resulting in their limited performance in power density and cycling. Here we developed a "conductive wrapping" method to greatly improve the supercapacitor performance of graphene/MnO2-based nanostructured electrodes. By three-dimensional (3D) conductive wrapping of graphene/MnO2 nanostructures with carbon nanotubes or conducting polymer, specific capacitance of the electrodes (considering total mass of active materials) has substantially increased by ∼20% and ∼45%, respectively, with values as high as ∼380 F/g achieved. Moreover, these ternary composite electrodes have also exhibited excellent cycling performance with >95% capacitance retention over 3000 cycles. This 3D conductive wrapping approach represents an exciting direction for enhancing the device performance of metal oxide-based electrochemical supercapacitors and can be generalized for designing next-generation high-performance energy storage devices. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Enhancing the supercapacitor performance of graphene/MnO2 nanostructured electrodes by conductive wrapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guihua; Hu, Liangbing; Liu, Nian; Wang, Huiliang; Vosgueritchian, Michael; Yang, Yuan; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan

    2011-10-12

    MnO2 is considered one of the most promising pseudocapactive materials for high-performance supercapacitors given its high theoretical specific capacitance, low-cost, environmental benignity, and natural abundance. However, MnO2 electrodes often suffer from poor electronic and ionic conductivities, resulting in their limited performance in power density and cycling. Here we developed a "conductive wrapping" method to greatly improve the supercapacitor performance of graphene/MnO2-based nanostructured electrodes. By three-dimensional (3D) conductive wrapping of graphene/MnO2 nanostructures with carbon nanotubes or conducting polymer, specific capacitance of the electrodes (considering total mass of active materials) has substantially increased by ∼20% and ∼45%, respectively, with values as high as ∼380 F/g achieved. Moreover, these ternary composite electrodes have also exhibited excellent cycling performance with >95% capacitance retention over 3000 cycles. This 3D conductive wrapping approach represents an exciting direction for enhancing the device performance of metal oxide-based electrochemical supercapacitors and can be generalized for designing next-generation high-performance energy storage devices.

  3. Mesoporous silicon oxide films and their uses as templates in obtaining nanostructured conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, R.; Arteaga, G. C.; Arias, J. M.

    2018-04-01

    Obtaining conductive polymers (CPs) for the manufacture of OLEDs, solar cells, electrochromic devices, sensors, etc., has been possible through the use of electrochemical techniques that allow obtaining films of controlled thickness with positive results in different applications. Current trends point towards the manufacture of nanomaterials, and therefore it is necessary to develop methods that allow obtaining CPs with nanostructured morphology. This is possible by using a porous template to allow the growth of the polymeric materials. However, prior and subsequent treatments are required to separate the material from the template so that it can be evaluated in the applications mentioned above. This is why mesoporous silicon oxide films (template) are essential for the synthesis of nanostructured polymers since both the template and the polymer are obtained on the electrode surface, and therefore it is not necessary to separate the material from the template. Thus, the material can be evaluated directly in the applications mentioned above. The dimensions of the resulting nanostructures will depend on the power, time and technique used for electropolymerization as well as the monomer and the surfactant of the mesoporous film.

  4. Magnetoresistance effects associated with various electric conduction mechanisms in nanostructured [C/FeCo]n multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Y.P.; Liu, Z.W.; Mikmeková, E.

    2017-01-01

    An evolution of magnetoresistance (MR) mechanism with the film structure was discovered in nanostructured [C/FeCo] n thin films fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The discontinuous multilayer nanogranular structure was confirmed by microstructure characterization. As the layer number n increased, the MR value of the film changed from positive to negative. The fitting curves of lnR−T −1/2 and lnR−T −1/4 show that there is a transition of the conduction regime in the temperature range of 2–300 K. The significant different MR effects at various conduction regimes indicated that the type of transport regime plays an important role in MR origin. - Highlights: • Nanostructured [FeCo/C]n multilayers were produced and characterized. • MR changed from positive to negative with the increase of layer number. • An ES-VRH to Mott-VRH conduction transition with temperature was found. • Significant different MR effects are closely related to various conduction regimes.

  5. Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of a sponge-like bioactive-glass/gelatin composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeem, Danish [Biomaterials Engineering Group, School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, BS1 2LY (United Kingdom); Kiamehr, Mostafa [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS2 9LU (United Kingdom); Yang, Xuebin [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS2 9LU (United Kingdom); NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds LS7 4SA (United Kingdom); Su, Bo, E-mail: b.su@bristol.ac.uk [Biomaterials Engineering Group, School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, BS1 2LY (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    In this work a bioactive composite scaffold, comprised of bioactive-glass and gelatin, is introduced. Through direct foaming a sponge-like composite of a sol–gel derived bioactive-glass (70S30C; 70% SiO{sub 2}, 30% CaO) and porcine gelatin was developed for use as a biodegradable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The composite was developed to provide a suitable alternative to synthetic polymer based scaffolds, allowing directed regeneration of bone tissue. The fabricated scaffold was characterised through X-ray microtomography, scanning electron and light microscopy demonstrating a three dimensionally porous and interconnected structure, with an average pore size (170 μm) suitable for successful cell proliferation and tissue ingrowth. Acellular bioactivity was assessed through apatite formation during submersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) whereby the rate and onset of apatite nucleation was found to be comparable to that of bioactive-glass. Modification of dehydrothermal treatment parameters induced varying degrees of crosslinking, allowing the degradation of the composite to be tailored to suit specific applications and establishing its potential for a wide range of applications. Use of genipin to supplement crosslinking by dehydrothermal treatment provided further means of modifying degradability. Biocompatibility of the composite was qualified through successful cultures of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs) on samples of the composite scaffold. Osteogenic differentiation of HDPSCs and extracellular matrix deposition were confirmed through positive alkaline phosphatase staining and immunohistochemistry. - Highlights: ► Optimised composition and fabrication produced sponge-like porosity (pore size ∼ 170 μm). ► Maximum aqueous stability via dehydrothermal treatment at 145 °C, for 48 h ► Biocompatibility and osteogenic potential confirmed via successful HDPSC cultures. ► Minimal toxicity exhibited in optimally crosslinked samples (10 m

  6. High Yield Synthesis of Mesoscopic Conductive and Dispersible Carbon Nanostructures via Ultrasonication of Commercial Precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Vikram K [ORNL; Quinlan, Ronald [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Kisliuk, Alexander [ORNL; Bhat, Gajanan [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01

    The need to produce large quantities of graphenic materials displaying excellent conductivity, thermal resistance, and tunable properties for industrial applications has spurred interest in new techniques for exfoliating graphite. In this paper, sonication-assisted exfoliation of graphitic precursors in the presence of chloroform is shown to produce chemically and structurally unique exfoliated graphitic materials in high yields. These exfoliated graphites, referred to as mesographite and mesographene, respectively, exhibit unique properties which depend on the number of layers and exfoliation conditions. Structural characterization of mesographene reveals the presence of nanoscale two-dimensional graphene layers, and threedimensional carbon nanostructures sandwiched between layers, similar to those found in ball-milled and intercalated graphites. The conductivities of mesographite and mesographene are 2700 and 2000 S/m, respectively, indicating high conductivity despite flake damage. Optical absorption measurements of mesographite sonicated in various solvents showed significant changes in dispersion characteristics, and also indicated significant changes to mesoscopic colloidal behavior. A mechanism for functionalization and formation of capped carbon nanostructures is proposed by integrating the chemical and structural characterization in relation to the various carbon structures observed by electron microscopy. Composites based on common polymers were prepared by solution processing, and changes in thermal properties indicate improved dispersion of mesographite in polar polymers.

  7. Resonant enhancement in nanostructured thermoelectric performance via electronic thermal conductivity engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Urvesh; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2017-01-01

    The use of an asymmetric broadening in the transport distribution, a characteristic of resonant structures, is proposed as a route to engineer a decrease in electronic thermal conductivity thereby enhancing the electronic figure of merit in nanostructured thermoelectrics. Using toy models, we first demonstrate that a decrease in thermal conductivity resulting from such an asymmetric broadening may indeed lead to an electronic figure of merit well in excess of 1000 in an idealized situation and in excess of 10 in a realistic situation. We then substantiate with realistic resonant structures designed using graphene nano-ribbons by employing a tight binding framework with edge correction that match density functional theory calculations under the local density approximation. The calculated figure of merit exceeding 10 in such realistic structures further reinforces the concept and sets a promising direction to use nano-ribbon structures to engineer a favorable decrease in the electronic thermal conductivity.

  8. Conduction mechanism in BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 columnar nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Heish, Ying-Hui; Liang, Chen-Wei; Liou, Jia-Ming; Chiu, Ya-Ping; He, Qing; Zhan, Qian; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2012-02-01

    Multiferroic materials, which possess interaction between more than one ferroic ordering parameters, had attracted great scientific and technological interests. Among the bi-phase magneto-electric nanostructures, BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 (BFO-CFO) is a model system with ferroelectricity and ferrimagnetism coupling to each other through stress mediation. In this study, we investigated the electron transport behavior and the leakage-current mechanism in high quality nano-composite BFO-CFO thin films. The CFO nanopillars were heteroepitaxially embedded in a BFO matrix grown on SrTiO3 substrates. Macroscopic vertical transport result showed the interface limit model was the dominant mechanism of the large leakage. Local conduction in epitaxial BFO-CFO nanostructures was studied by conducting atomic force microscope (C-AFM) while the nature of band structure variation was demonstrated by scanning tunneling microscope (STM). This study provides a basic explanation of leakage mechanism in self-assembled composite material system.

  9. Antireflective conducting nanostructures with an atomic layer deposited an AlZnO layer on a transparent substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun-Woo; Ji, Seungmuk; Herdini, Diptya Suci; Lim, Hyuneui; Park, Jin-Seong; Chung, Kwun-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We investigated the antireflective conducting nanostructures on a transparent substrate using atomic layer deposited AlZnO films. • The conformal AlZnO layer on a transparent nanostructured substrate exhibited 5.52 × 10 −4 Ω cm in resistivity and 88% in average visible transmittance. • The improvement of transparency was explained by the gradual changes of the refractive index in the film depth direction. • The decrease in electrical resistivity is strongly correlated to the increased surface area with the nanostructure and the change of chemical bonding states. - Abstract: The antireflective conducting nanostructures on a transparent substrate were shown to have enhanced optical and electrical properties via colloidal lithography and atomic layer deposition. The conformal AlZnO layer on a transparent nanostructured substrate exhibited 5.52 × 10 −4 Ω cm in resistivity and 88% in average visible transmittance, both of which were superior to those of a flat transparent conducting substrate. The improvement of transparency was explained by the gradual changes of the refractive index in the film depth direction. The decrease in electrical resistivity is strongly correlated to the increased surface area with the nanostructure and the change of chemical bonding states.

  10. Thermal conductivity of 2D nano-structured graphitic materials and their composites with epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Mulan; Wan, Chaoying; McNally, Tony

    2017-12-01

    The outstanding thermal conductivity (λ) of graphene and its derivatives offers a potential route to enhance the thermal conductivity of epoxy resins. Key challenges still need to be overcome to ensure effective dispersion and distribution of 2D graphitic fillers throughout the epoxy matrix. 2D filler type, morphology, surface chemistry and dimensions are all important factors in determining filler thermal conductivity and de facto the thermal conductivity of the composite material. To achieve significant enhancement in the thermal conductivity of epoxy composites, different strategies are required to minimise phonon scattering at the interface between the nano-filler and epoxy matrix, including chemical functionalisation of the filler surfaces such that interactions between filler and matrix are promoted and interfacial thermal resistance (ITR) reduced. The combination of graphitic fillers with dimensions on different length scales can potentially form an interconnected multi-dimensional filler network and, thus contribute to enhanced thermal conduction. In this review, we describe the relevant properties of different 2D nano-structured graphitic materials and the factors which determine the translation of the intrinsic thermal conductivity of these 2D materials to epoxy resins. The key challenges and perspectives with regard achieving epoxy composites with significantly enhanced thermal conductivity on addition of 2D graphitic materials are presented.

  11. Doping in controlling the type of conductivity in bulk and nanostructured thermoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, D.; Komisarchik, G.; Kaller, M.; Gelbstein, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Doping of materials for thermoelectric applications is widely used nowadays to control the type of conductivity. We report the results of ab-initio calculations aimed at developing the consistent scheme for determining the role of impurities that may change the type of conductivity in two attractive thermoelectric classes of materials. It is demonstrated that alloying of TiNiSn with Cu makes the material of n-type, and alloying with Fe leads to p-type conductivity. Similar calculations for PbTe with small amount of Na substituting for Pb leads to p-type conductivity, while Cl substituting for Te makes PbTe an n-type material. It is shown also that for nano-grained materials the n-type conductivity should be observed. The effect of impurities segregating to the grain boundaries in nano-structured PbTe is also discussed. - Highlights: • Bulk and nano-grained TE materials were analyzed by DFT. • The electronic effects on both PbTe and TiNiSn were demonstrated. • The role of impurities on the conductivity type was analyzed. • Interfacial states in nano-grained PbTe affect the conductivity type.

  12. Thermal conductivity of zinc blende and wurtzite CdSe nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juekuan; Tang, Hao; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Yin; Li, Jiapeng; Ni, Zhonghua; Chen, Yunfei; Xu, Dongyan

    2015-10-14

    Many binary octet compounds including CdSe can be grown in either the wurtzite (WZ) or zinc blende (ZB) phase, which has aroused great interest among the research community in understanding the phase dependence of the thermal transport properties of these compounds. So far, it has been debatable whether the ZB phase possesses higher thermal conductivity than the WZ phase. In this work, we report on thermal conductivity measurements of CdSe nanowires/nanoribbons with both WZ and ZB phases via a suspended device method. At room temperature, the thermal conductivity of all the ZB CdSe nanostructures measured in this work is higher than the bulk thermal conductivity of the WZ CdSe reported in the literature, suggesting that the bulk thermal conductivity of the ZB CdSe is higher than that of the WZ phase. Our result is different from previous experimental results in the literature for InAs nanowires which suggest similar thermal conductivity values for the bulk ZB and WZ InAs crystals. The higher thermal conductivity of the ZB CdSe can be explained by its lower anharmonicity and a smaller number of atoms per unit cell compared to the WZ phase.

  13. Photo-conductive detection of continuous THz waves via manipulated ultrafast process in nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kiwon; Lee, Eui Su; Lee, Il-Min; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Kyung Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Time-domain and frequency-domain terahertz (THz) spectroscopy systems often use materials fabricated with exotic and expensive methods that intentionally introduce defects to meet short carrier lifetime requirements. In this study, we demonstrate the development of a nano-photomixer that meets response speed requirements without using defect-incorporated, low-temperature-grown (LTG) semiconductors. Instead, we utilized a thin InGaAs layer grown on a semi-insulating InP substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) combined with nano-electrodes to manipulate local ultrafast photo-carrier dynamics via a carefully designed field-enhancement and plasmon effect. The developed nano-structured photomixer can detect continuous-wave THz radiation up to a frequency of 2 THz with a peak carrier collection efficiency of 5%, which is approximately 10 times better than the reference efficiency of 0.4%. The better efficiency results from the high carrier mobility of the MOCVD-grown InGaAs thin layer with the coincidence of near-field and plasmon-field distributions in the nano-structure. Our result not only provides a generally applicable methodology for manipulating ultrafast carrier dynamics by means of nano-photonic techniques to break the trade-off relation between the carrier lifetime and mobility in typical LTG semiconductors but also contributes to mass-producible photo-conductive THz detectors to facilitate the widespread application of THz technology.

  14. Fabrication of flexible silver nanowire conductive films and transmittance improvement based on moth-eye nanostructure array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengpeng; Zhu, Yuwen; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin

    2017-07-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) are widely used in optoelectronic devices, such as touch screens, liquid-crystal displays and light-emitting diodes. To date, the material of the most commonly used TCEs was indium-tin oxide (ITO), which had several intrinsic drawbacks that limited its applications in the long term, including relatively high material cost and brittleness. Silver nanowire (AgNW), as one of the alternative materials for ITO TCEs, has already gained much attention all over the world. In this paper, we reported a facile method to greatly enhance the transmittance of the AgNW TCEs without reducing the electrical conductivity based on moth-eye nanostructures, and the moth-eye nanostructures were fabricated by using a roll-to-roll ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography process. Besides, the effects of mechanical pressure and bending on the moth-eye nanostructure layer were also investigated. In the research, the optical transmittance of the flexible AgNW TCEs was enhanced from 81.3% to 86.0% by attaching moth-eye nanostructures onto the other side of the flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate while the electrical conductivity of the AgNW TCEs was not sacrificed. This research can provide a direction for the cost-effective fabrication of moth-eye nanostructures and the transmittance improvement of the flexible transparent electrodes.

  15. Conductivity Scaling Relationships in Nanostructured Membranes based on Protic Polymerized Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanoja, Gabriel; Lynd, Nathaniel; Segalman, Rachel

    2015-03-01

    Nanostructured membranes based on protic polymerized ionic liquids are of great interest for a variety of electrochemical applications. Understanding the relationship between composition, structure, and ionic conductivity for these materials is essential for designing novel membranes with improved properties. In this work, we explore the effect of volume fraction of ionic liquid on conductivity, σ using a model system composed of poly[isoprene-block-(ethylene oxide-stat-histamine glycidyl ether) diblock copolymers [PI- b - P(EO-stat-HGE)] and the resulting [PI- b - P(EO-stat-IL)] obtained after treatment with trifluoroacetic acid. These materials self-assemble into lamellar structures with volume fractions of ionic liquid ranging from 0.50 to 0.90 as demonstrated by SAXS. PI- b - P(EO-stat-IL) membranes exhibit conductivities up to 4 x 10-3 S/cm at room temperature. In addition, PI- b - P(EO-stat-IL) based membranes have lower water uptake (λ = 8-10) in comparison with most proton conducting membranes reported elsewhere. The low λ in these membranes might translate into a stronger effect of morphology on transport properties. Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis.

  16. High-modulus, high-conductivity nanostructured polymer electrolyte membranes via polymerization-induced phase separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Morgan W; McIntosh, Lucas D; Hillmyer, Marc A; Lodge, Timothy P

    2014-01-08

    The primary challenge in solid-state polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) is to enhance properties, such as modulus, toughness, and high temperature stability, without sacrificing ionic conductivity. We report a remarkably facile one-pot synthetic strategy based on polymerization-induced phase separation (PIPS) to generate nanostructured PEMs that exhibit an unprecedented combination of high modulus and ionic conductivity. Simple heating of a poly(ethylene oxide) macromolecular chain transfer agent dissolved in a mixture of ionic liquid, styrene and divinylbenzene, leads to a bicontinuous PEM comprising interpenetrating nanodomains of highly cross-linked polystyrene and poly(ethylene oxide)/ionic liquid. Ionic conductivities higher than the 1 mS/cm benchmark were achieved in samples with an elastic modulus approaching 1 GPa at room temperature. Crucially, these samples are robust solids above 100 °C, where the conductivity is significantly higher. This strategy holds tremendous potential to advance lithium-ion battery technology by enabling the use of lithium metal anodes or to serve as membranes in high-temperature fuel cells.

  17. Dependence of the carrier mobility and trapped charge limited conduction on silver nanoparticles embedment in doped polypyrrole nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swarup; Dutta, Bula; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu

    2013-10-01

    The present article demonstrates an intensive study upon the temperature dependent current density (J)-voltage (V) characteristics of moderately doped polypyrrole nanostructure and its silver nanoparticles incorporated nanocomposites. Analysis of the measured J-V characteristics of different synthesized nano-structured samples within a wide temperature range revealed that the electrical conduction behavior followed a trapped charge-limited conduction and a transition of charge transport mechanism from deep exponential trap limited conduction to shallow traps limited conduction had been occurred due to the incorporation of silver nanoparticles within the polypyrrole matrix. A direct evaluation of carrier mobility as a function of electric field and temperature from the measured J-V characteristics illustrates that the incorporation of silver nanoparticles within the polypyrrole matrix enhances the carrier mobility at a large extent by reducing the concentration of traps within the polypyrrole matrix. The calculated mobility is consistent with the Poole-Frenkel form for the electrical field up to a certain temperature range. The nonlinear low temperature dependency of mobility of all the nanostructured samples was explained by Mott variable range hopping conduction mechanisms. Quantitative information regarding the charge transport parameters obtained from the above study would help to extend optimization strategies for the fabrication of new organic semiconducting nano-structured devices.

  18. Homogenization Effect on Nanostructure and Conductivity of Polyaniline Nanofibre Synthesis by Mini-Emulsion Polymerization Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, M.; Kamarudin, S.; Mohamed, N. H.; Asim, N.; Sopian, K.

    2017-12-01

    Nanofibre polyaniline (n-PANI) was synthesized by mini-emulsion polymerization technique between aniline monomer and ammonium persulfate as an oxidant using homogenizer. The synthesis was performed by optimizing mixing speed from 10,000 to 30,000 rpm and time reaction between 0.5 to 24 hours at fixed monomer to oxidant molar ratio 4:1. An attempt has been made to investigate on how the speed of homogenizer affects the size and conductivity of n-PANI. The formation of n-PANI chain was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed PANI crystalline nature. Hall effect measurement used indicated that the electrical conductivity of n-PANI is increased with homogenizer speed from 5.2 to 17.5 Scm-1. The morphological properties of n-PANI performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show the decreasing size of n-PANI from 50-60 nm to 20-30 nm with the increment homogenizer speed. This study indicated the optimum speed parameter of homogenizer play a role in reducing the nanostructured size and thus, increasing the electrical conductivity of n-PANI.

  19. Conductive transition metal oxide nanostructured electrochromic material and optical switching devices constructed thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattox, Tracy M.; Koo, Bonil; Garcia, Guillermo; Milliron, Delia J.; Trizio, Luca De; Dahlman, Clayton

    2017-10-10

    An electrochromic device includes a nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer that includes one or more transition metal oxide and one or more dopant, a solid state electrolyte, and a counter electrode. The nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze selectively modulates transmittance of near-infrared (NIR) spectrum and visible spectrum radiation as a function of an applied voltage to the device.

  20. Transparent conductive oxide films embedded with plasmonic nanostructure for light-emitting diode applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shih-Hao; Tsung, Cheng-Sheng; Chen, Ching-Ho; Ou, Sin-Liang; Horng, Ray-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Yi; Wuu, Dong-Sing

    2015-02-04

    In this study, a spin coating process in which the grating structure comprises an Ag nanoparticle layer coated on a p-GaN top layer of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode (LED) was developed. Various sizes of plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in a transparent conductive layer were clearly observed after the deposition of indium tin oxide (ITO). The plasmonic nanostructure enhanced the light extraction efficiency of blue LED. Output power was 1.8 times the magnitude of that of conventional LEDs operating at 350 mA, but retained nearly the same current-voltage characteristic. Unlike in previous research on surface-plasmon-enhanced LEDs, the metallic nanoparticles were consistently deposited over the surface area. However, according to microstructural observation, ITO layer mixed with Ag-based nanoparticles was distributed at a distance of approximately 150 nm from the interface of ITO/p-GaN. Device performance can be improved substantially by using the three-dimensional distribution of Ag-based nanoparticles in the transparent conductive layer, which scatters the propagating light randomly and is coupled between the localized surface plasmon and incident light internally trapped in the LED structure through total internal reflection.

  1. Optimizing the design of nanostructures for improved thermal conduction within confined spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jintu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maintaining constant temperature is of particular importance to the normal operation of electronic devices. Aiming at the question, this paper proposes an optimum design of nanostructures made of high thermal conductive nanomaterials to provide outstanding heat dissipation from the confined interior (possibly nanosized to the micro-spaces of electronic devices. The design incorporates a carbon nanocone for conducting heat from the interior to the exterior of a miniature electronic device, with the optimum diameter, D 0, of the nanocone satisfying the relationship: D0 2 (x ∝ x 1/2 where x is the position along the length direction of the carbon nanocone. Branched structure made of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs are shown to be particularly suitable for the purpose. It was found that the total thermal resistance of a branched structure reaches a minimum when the diameter ratio, β* satisfies the relationship: β* = γ -0.25b N -1/k* , where γ is ratio of length, b = 0.3 to approximately 0.4 on the single-walled CNTs, b = 0.6 to approximately 0.8 on the multiwalled CNTs, k* = 2 and N is the bifurcation number (N = 2, 3, 4 .... The findings of this research provide a blueprint in designing miniaturized electronic devices with outstanding heat dissipation. PACS numbers: 44.10.+i, 44.05.+e, 66.70.-f, 61.48.De

  2. Evaluation of Tap Water Based on Sensor Array and Conducting Nanostructured Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A sensor system, adapted to evaluate tap water, was fabricated and tested. Interdigitated  gold-coated microelectrodes were covered with various conducting polymers, single or mixed, under several different conditions. Polymer films were laid down by a  self-assembly technique and their impedance was analyzed over a range of frequencies from 1Hz to 1MHz. Samples collected from different localities at São Paulo state (Brazil were used. The results of sensorial system analyzed by Principal Component Analysis had allowed completing discrimination of tap water samples. Good discrimination between the sensors was observed when there was obtained a PCA with different samples, obtaining the total variance (PC1 = 62.03%; PC2 = 37.97% of the observations. The sensorial system based in global selectivity using interdigitated electrode and nanostruturated conducting polymers allowed a statistical discrimination of sample waters of different locations. The future expectations are the upgrading of the system and implementation of a monitoring of tap water systems based nanostructured sensors.

  3. Photoluminescence Quenching and Enhanced Optical Conductivity of P3HT-Derived Ho(3+)-Doped ZnO Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabongo, Guy L; Mbule, Pontsho S; Mhlongo, Gugu H; Mothudi, Bakang M; Hillie, Kenneth T; Dhlamini, Mokhotjwa S

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we demonstrate the surface effect and optoelectronic properties of holmium (Ho(3+))-doped ZnO in P3HT polymer nanocomposite. We incorporated ZnO:Ho(3+) (0.5 mol% Ho) nanostructures in the pristine P3HT-conjugated polymer and systematically studied the effect of the nanostructures on the optical characteristics. Detailed UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis revealed enhanced absorption coefficient and optical conductivity in the P3HT-ZnO:Ho(3+) film as compared to the pristine P3HT. Moreover, the obtained photoluminescence (PL) results established the improvement of exciton dissociation as a result of ZnO:Ho(3+) nanostructures inclusion. The occurrence of PL quenching is the result of enhanced charge transfer due to ZnO:Ho(3+) nanostructures in the polymer, whereas energy transfer from ZnO:Ho(3+) to P3HT was verified. Overall, the current investigation revealed a systematic tailoring of the optoelectronic properties of pristine P3HT after inclusion of ZnO:Ho(3+) nanostructures, thus opening brilliant perspectives for applications in various optoelectronic devices.

  4. Fabrication of nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer of organic photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyomin; Kwon, Yiseul; Choe, Youngson

    2013-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of fibrous nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer on the performance of polymer photovoltaic cells. By increasing the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate, the changes of performance characteristics were evaluated. Fibrous nanostructured ZnO film was prepared by sol-gel process and annealed on a hot plate. As the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate increased, ZnO fibrous nanostructure grew from 300 to 600 nm. The obtained ZnO nanostructured fibrous films have taken the shape of a maze-like structure and were characterized by UV-visible absorption, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The intensity of absorption bands in the ultraviolet region was increased with increasing precursor concentration. The X-ray diffraction studies show that the ZnO fibrous nanostructures became strongly (002)-oriented with increasing concentration of precursor. The bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells were fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and indene-C60 bisadduct as active layer, and their electrical properties were investigated. The external quantum efficiency of the fabricated device increased with increasing precursor concentration.

  5. Using the carbon nanotube (CNT)/CNT interaction to obtain hybrid conductive nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J.; Silva, A.; Bretas, R.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combine unique physical, electrical, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties with a huge surface area that qualify them to a broad range of applications. These potential applications, however, are often limited due to the strong inter-tubes van der Waals interactions, which results in poor dispersion in polymeric matrixes or solvents in general. Thus, the goal of this work was to use this limitation as an advantage, to produce novel conductive hybrid nanostructures, which consist of nonwoven Nylon 6 (PA6) mats of electrospun nanofibers with a large amount of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) strongly attached and adsorbed on the nanofiberś surfaces. To produce such structures, the MWCNT were previously functionalized with carboxylic groups and subsequently incorporated in the nanofibers by two subsequent steps: i) preparation of nonwoven mats of PA6/MWCNT by electrospinning and ii) treatment of the mats in an aqueous dispersion of MWCNT/Triton X-100. Analyses of UV-visible light showed that carboxylic groups were actually inserted in the MWCNT. Thermogravimetric analyzes (TGA) showed that the amount of adsorbed MWCNT on the fiberś surfaces at the end of the procedure was approximately 12 times higher than after the first step. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed this result and electrical conductivities measurements of the MWCNT/PA6, after the treatment in the aqueous solution, showed that these structures had conductivity of 10-2 S/m. It was concluded that the adhesion of CNTs at the surface of the nanofibers occurred due a combination of two types of bonding: hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic groups of the functionalized CNT and the PA6 and van der Waals interactions between the CNTs.

  6. Using the carbon nanotube (CNT)/CNT interaction to obtain hybrid conductive nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.; Silva, A.; Bretas, R., E-mail: joaopaulofsbrasil@hotmail.com, E-mail: bretas@ufscar.br [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235, PO Box 676, São Carlos, SP, 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2015-05-22

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combine unique physical, electrical, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties with a huge surface area that qualify them to a broad range of applications. These potential applications, however, are often limited due to the strong inter-tubes van der Waals interactions, which results in poor dispersion in polymeric matrixes or solvents in general. Thus, the goal of this work was to use this limitation as an advantage, to produce novel conductive hybrid nanostructures, which consist of nonwoven Nylon 6 (PA6) mats of electrospun nanofibers with a large amount of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) strongly attached and adsorbed on the nanofibers´ surfaces. To produce such structures, the MWCNT were previously functionalized with carboxylic groups and subsequently incorporated in the nanofibers by two subsequent steps: i) preparation of nonwoven mats of PA6/MWCNT by electrospinning and ii) treatment of the mats in an aqueous dispersion of MWCNT/Triton X–100. Analyses of UV-visible light showed that carboxylic groups were actually inserted in the MWCNT. Thermogravimetric analyzes (TGA) showed that the amount of adsorbed MWCNT on the fibers´ surfaces at the end of the procedure was approximately 12 times higher than after the first step. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed this result and electrical conductivities measurements of the MWCNT/PA6, after the treatment in the aqueous solution, showed that these structures had conductivity of 10-2 S/m. It was concluded that the adhesion of CNTs at the surface of the nanofibers occurred due a combination of two types of bonding: hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic groups of the functionalized CNT and the PA6 and van der Waals interactions between the CNTs.

  7. Using the carbon nanotube (CNT)/CNT interaction to obtain hybrid conductive nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.; Silva, A.; Bretas, R.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combine unique physical, electrical, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties with a huge surface area that qualify them to a broad range of applications. These potential applications, however, are often limited due to the strong inter-tubes van der Waals interactions, which results in poor dispersion in polymeric matrixes or solvents in general. Thus, the goal of this work was to use this limitation as an advantage, to produce novel conductive hybrid nanostructures, which consist of nonwoven Nylon 6 (PA6) mats of electrospun nanofibers with a large amount of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) strongly attached and adsorbed on the nanofibers´ surfaces. To produce such structures, the MWCNT were previously functionalized with carboxylic groups and subsequently incorporated in the nanofibers by two subsequent steps: i) preparation of nonwoven mats of PA6/MWCNT by electrospinning and ii) treatment of the mats in an aqueous dispersion of MWCNT/Triton X–100. Analyses of UV-visible light showed that carboxylic groups were actually inserted in the MWCNT. Thermogravimetric analyzes (TGA) showed that the amount of adsorbed MWCNT on the fibers´ surfaces at the end of the procedure was approximately 12 times higher than after the first step. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed this result and electrical conductivities measurements of the MWCNT/PA6, after the treatment in the aqueous solution, showed that these structures had conductivity of 10-2 S/m. It was concluded that the adhesion of CNTs at the surface of the nanofibers occurred due a combination of two types of bonding: hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic groups of the functionalized CNT and the PA6 and van der Waals interactions between the CNTs

  8. Nanostructures and thin films of transparent conductive oxides studied by perturbed angular correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, M B; Redondo-Cubero, A; Miranda, S M C; Simon, R; Kessler, P; Brandt, M; Henneberger, F; Nogales, E; Méndez, B; Johnston, K; Alves, E; Vianden, R; Araújo, J P; Lorenz, K; Correia, J G

    2013-01-01

    The versatility of perturbed angular correlations (PAC) in the study of nanostructures and thin films is demonstrated, namely for the specific cases of ZnO/Cd$_x$Zn$_{1-x}$O thin films and Ga$_2$O$_3$ powder pellets and nanowires, examples of transparent conductive oxides. PAC measurements as a function of annealing temperature were performed after implantation of $^{111m}$Cd$/^{111}$Cd (T$_{1/2}$=48$\\,$min.) and later compared to density functional theory simulations. For ZnO, the substitution of Cd probes at Zn sites was observed, as well as the formation of a probe-defect complex. The ternary Cd$_x$Zn$_{1-x}$O (x=0.16) showed good macroscopic crystal quality but revealed some clustering of local defects around the probe Cd atoms, which could not be annealed. In the Ga$_2$O$_3$ samples, the substitution of the Cd probes in the octahedral Ga-site was observed, demonstrating the potential of ion-implantation for the doping of nanowires.

  9. All Inkjet-Printed Amperometric Multiplexed Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Conductive Hydrogel Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanlan; Pan, Lijia; Ma, Zhong; Yan, Ke; Cheng, Wen; Shi, Yi; Yu, Guihua

    2018-02-12

    Multiplexing, one of the main trends in biosensors, aims to detect several analytes simultaneously by integrating miniature sensors on a chip. However, precisely depositing electrode materials and selective enzymes on distinct microelectrode arrays remains an obstacle to massively produced multiplexed sensors. Here, we report on a "drop-on-demand" inkjet printing process to fabricate multiplexed biosensors based on nanostructured conductive hydrogels in which the electrode material and several kinds of enzymes were printed on the electrode arrays one by one by employing a multinozzle inkjet system. The whole inkjet printing process can be finished within three rounds of printing and only one round of alignment. For a page of sensor arrays containing 96 working electrodes, the printing process took merely ∼5 min. The multiplexed assays can detect glucose, lactate, and triglycerides in real time with good selectivity and high sensitivity, and the results in phosphate buffer solutions and calibration serum samples are comparable. The inkjet printing process exhibited advantages of high efficiency and accuracy, which opens substantial possibilities for massive fabrication of integrated multiplexed biosensors for human health monitoring.

  10. Nanostructure and optoelectronic phenomena in germanium-transparent conductive oxide (Ge:TCO) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Grace Hwei-Pyng

    Nanostructured composites are attracting intense interest for electronic and optoelectronic device applications, specifically as active elements in thin film photovoltaic (PV) device architectures. These systems implement fundamentally different concepts of enhancing energy conversion efficiencies compared to those seen in current commercial devices. This is possible through considerable flexibility in the manipulation of device-relevant properties through control of the interplay between the nanostructure and the optoelectronic response. In the present work, inorganic nanocomposites of semiconductor Ge embedded in transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) as well as Ge in zinc oxide (ZnO) were produced by a single step RF-magnetron sputter deposition process. It is shown that, by controlling the design of the nanocomposites as well as heat treatment conditions, decreases in the physical dimensions of Ge nanophase size provided an effective tuning of the optical absorption and charge transport properties. This effect of changes in the optical properties of nanophase semiconductors with respect to size is known as the quantum confinement effect. Variation in the embedding matrix material between ITO and ZnO with corresponding characterization of optoelectronic properties exhibit notable differences in the presence and evolution of an interfacial oxide within these composites. Further studies of interfacial structures were performed using depth-profiling XPS and Raman spectroscopy, while study of the corresponding electronic effects were performed using room temperature and temperature-dependent Hall Effect. Optical absorption was noted to shift to higher onset energies upon heat treatment with a decrease in the observed Ge domain size, indicating quantum confinement effects within these systems. This contrasts to previous investigations that have involved the introduction of nanoscale Ge into insulating, amorphous oxides. Comparison of these different matrix

  11. Conductive nanostructured materials based on poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and starch/κ-carrageenan for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Sequeira, Roy; Ardao, Inés; Starbird, Ricardo; García-González, Carlos A

    2018-06-01

    Smart electroactive biomaterials are sought to allow the direct delivery of electrical, electrochemical and electromechanical signals to biological tissues. Specifically, poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is a polymer of special interest attending to its biocompatibility, tuneable electrical conductivity and processing versatility. In this work, nanostructured PEDOT was synthesized using starch/κ-carrageenan aerogels as templates. κ-carrageenan biopolymer acted as doping agent of the conductive polymer to enhance the biocompatibility and the electrical response. The physicochemical, morphological, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanostructured PEDOT and templates were characterized. The incorporation of κ-carrageenan to the nanostructured materials resulted in an increase in the compressive strength of ca. 40% and a decrease in the electrical impedance of one order-of-magnitude. The synergistic combination of the inherent electrical properties of the PEDOT, the advantageous features of κ-carrageenan as doping agent and the porous morphology of the aerogel template resulted in electroactive PEDOT nanostructures with relevant properties for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transparent conducting films of hierarchically nanostructured polyaniline networks on flexible substrates for high-performance gas sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shouli; Sun, Chaozheng; Wan, Pengbo; Wang, Cheng; Luo, Ruixian; Li, Yaping; Liu, Junfeng; Sun, Xiaoming

    2015-01-21

    Transparent chemical gas sensors are assembled from a transparent conducting film of hierarchically nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) networks fabricated on a flexible PET substrate, by coating silver nanowires (Ag NWs) followed by the in situ polymerization of aniline near the sacrificial Ag NW template. The sensor exhibits enhanced gas sensing performance at room temperature in both sensitivity and selectivity to NH3 compared to pure PANI film. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Precise 3D printing of micro/nanostructures using highly conductive carbon nanotube-thiol-acrylate composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Xiong, W.; Jiang, L. J.; Zhou, Y. S.; Lu, Y. F.

    2016-04-01

    Two-photon polymerization (TPP) is of increasing interest due to its unique combination of truly three-dimensional (3D) fabrication capability and ultrahigh spatial resolution of ~40 nm. However, the stringent requirements of non-linear resins seriously limit the material functionality of 3D printing via TPP. Precise fabrication of 3D micro/nanostructures with multi-functionalities such as high electrical conductivity and mechanical strength is still a long-standing challenge. In this work, TPP fabrication of arbitrary 3D micro/nanostructures using multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-thiolacrylate (MTA) composite resins has been developed. Up to 0.2 wt% MWNTs have been incorporated into thiol-acrylate resins to form highly stable and uniform composite photoresists without obvious degradation for one week at room temperature. Various functional 3D micro/nanostructures including woodpiles, micro-coils, spiral-like photonic crystals, suspended micro-bridges, micro-gears and complex micro-cars have been successfully fabricated. The MTA composite resin offers significant enhancements in electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, and on the same time, preserving high optical transmittance and flexibility. Tightly controlled alignment of MWNTs and the strong anisotropy effect were confirmed. Microelectronic devices including capacitors and resistors made of the MTA composite polymer were demonstrated. The 3D micro/nanofabrication using the MTA composite resins enables the precise 3D printing of micro/nanostructures of high electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, which is expected to lead a wide range of device applications, including micro/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), integrated photonics and 3D electronics.

  14. Field emission properties and strong localization effect in conduction mechanism of nanostructured perovskite LaNiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamble, Ramesh B., E-mail: rbk.physics@coep.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India); Department of Physics, College of Engineering, Pune 411005, Maharashtra (India); Tanty, Narendra; Patra, Ananya; Prasad, V. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India)

    2016-08-22

    We report the potential field emission of highly conducting metallic perovskite lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO{sub 3}) from the nanostructured pyramidal and whisker shaped tips as electron emitters. Nano particles of lanthanum nickelate (LNO) were prepared by sol-gel route. Structural and morphological studies have been carried out. Field emission of LNO exhibited high emission current density, J = 3.37 mA/cm{sup 2} at a low threshold electric field, E{sub th} = 16.91 V/μm, obeying Fowler–Nordheim tunneling. The DC electrical resistivity exhibited upturn at 11.6 K indicating localization of electron at low temperature. Magnetoresistance measurement at different temperatures confirmed strong localization in nanostructured LNO obeying Anderson localization effect at low temperature.

  15. Magnetoresistance effects associated with various electric conduction mechanisms in nanostructured [C/FeCo]{sub n} multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Y.P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 China (China); Liu, Z.W., E-mail: zwliu@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 China (China); Mikmeková, E. [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Kralovopolska 147, Brno, 61264 Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    2017-01-01

    An evolution of magnetoresistance (MR) mechanism with the film structure was discovered in nanostructured [C/FeCo]{sub n} thin films fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The discontinuous multilayer nanogranular structure was confirmed by microstructure characterization. As the layer number n increased, the MR value of the film changed from positive to negative. The fitting curves of lnR−T{sup −1/2} and lnR−T{sup −1/4} show that there is a transition of the conduction regime in the temperature range of 2–300 K. The significant different MR effects at various conduction regimes indicated that the type of transport regime plays an important role in MR origin. - Highlights: • Nanostructured [FeCo/C]n multilayers were produced and characterized. • MR changed from positive to negative with the increase of layer number. • An ES-VRH to Mott-VRH conduction transition with temperature was found. • Significant different MR effects are closely related to various conduction regimes.

  16. Thermal conductivity of 2D nano-structured graphitic materials and their composites with epoxy resins

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Mulan; Wan, Chaoying; McNally, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The outstanding thermal conductivity (λ) of graphene and its derivatives offers a potential route to enhance the thermal conductivity of epoxy resins. Key challenges still need to be overcome to ensure effective dispersion and distribution of 2D graphitic fillers throughout the epoxy matrix. 2D filler type, morphology, surface chemistry and dimensions are all important factors in determining filler thermal conductivity and de facto the thermal conductivity of the composite material. ...

  17. Electrochemically oxidized electronic and ionic conducting nanostructured block copolymers for lithium battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shrayesh N; Javier, Anna E; Balsara, Nitash P

    2013-07-23

    Block copolymers that can simultaneously conduct electronic and ionic charges on the nanometer length scale can serve as innovative conductive binder material for solid-state battery electrodes. The purpose of this work is to study the electronic charge transport of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (P3HT-PEO) copolymers electrochemically oxidized with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt in the context of a lithium battery charge/discharge cycle. We use a solid-state three-terminal electrochemical cell that enables simultaneous conductivity measurements and control over electrochemical doping of P3HT. At low oxidation levels (ratio of moles of electrons removed to moles of 3-hexylthiophene moieties in the electrode), the electronic conductivity (σe,ox) increases from 10(-7) S/cm to 10(-4) S/cm. At high oxidation levels, σe,ox approaches 10(-2) S/cm. When P3HT-PEO is used as a conductive binder in a positive electrode with LiFePO4 active material, P3HT is electrochemically active within the voltage window of a charge/discharge cycle. The electronic conductivity of the P3HT-PEO binder is in the 10(-4) to 10(-2) S/cm range over most of the potential window of the charge/discharge cycle. This allows for efficient electronic conduction, and observed charge/discharge capacities approach the theoretical limit of LiFePO4. However, at the end of the discharge cycle, the electronic conductivity decreases sharply to 10(-7) S/cm, which means the "conductive" binder is now electronically insulating. The ability of our conductive binder to switch between electronically conducting and insulating states in the positive electrode provides an unprecedented route for automatic overdischarge protection in rechargeable batteries.

  18. Proton conductivity enhancement by nanostructural control of sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone) membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuwei; Ge, Junjie; Cui, Zhiming; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, Jilin (China); Zhang, Jiujun [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council of Canada. 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lin, Haidan; Na, Hui [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2010-08-15

    A series of sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) membranes for direct methanol fuel cells are successfully prepared under different humidity degree conditions. These membranes exhibit enhanced proton conductivity at high humidity degree. It is proved that the different proton conductivity is ascribed to the orientation arrangement of sulphonic acid groups, which is caused by environmental water in the preparing process of membranes. A model is established by analyzing the dynamics of membrane formation and proved by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (author)

  19. Magnetoresistance effects associated with various electric conduction mechanisms in nanostructured [C/FeCo]n multilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeng, Y.P.; Liu, Z.W.; Mikmeková, Eliška

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 421, January (2017), s. 39-43 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : magnetoresistance * thin film * microstructure * conduction regime Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2016

  20. Gold-decorated highly ordered self-organized grating-like nanostructures on Ge surface: Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollick, Safiul Alam; Kumar, Mohit; Singh, Ranveer; Satpati, Biswarup; Ghose, Debabrata; Som, Tapobrata

    2016-10-28

    Nanoarchitecture by atomic manipulation is considered to be one of the emerging trends in advanced functional materials. It has a gamut of applications to offer in nanoelectronics, chemical sensing, and nanobiological science. In particular, highly ordered one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures fabricated by self-organization methods are in high demand for their high aspect ratios and large number of applications. An efficient way of fabricating semiconductor nanostructures is by molecular beam epitaxy, where atoms are added to a crystalline surface at an elevated temperature during growth, yielding the desired structures in a self-assembled manner. In this article, we offer a room temperature process, in which atoms are sputtered away by ion impacts. Using gold ion implantation, the present study reports on the formation of highly ordered self-organized long grating-like nanostructures, with grooves between them, on a germanium surface. The ridges of the patterns are shown to have flower-like protruding nanostructures, which are mostly decorated by gold atoms. By employing local probe microscopic techniques like Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy, we observe a spatial variation in the work function and different nanoscale electrical conductivity on the ridges of the patterns and the grooves between them, which can be attributed to gold atom decorated ridges. Thus, the architecture  presented offers the advantage of using the patterned germanium substrates as periodic arrays of conducting ridges and poorly conducting grooves between them.

  1. Construction of a Novel Method of Measuring Thermal Conductivity for Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroya Ikeda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of characterizing the thermal conduction in a nanometer-scaled materials, we have constructed a novel method on the basis of an ac calorimetric method. In this method, periodic sample heating is performed by light irradiation and the corresponding periodic temperature is detected by infrared irradiative thermometer. This makes us measure the thermal diffusivity out of contact with the objective sample. In the present study, we confirm to measure the thermal diffusivity of bulk Si and Cu by this non-contact method with halogen-lamp irradiation. In determining the thermal diffusivity from the relationship between distance deviation and delay time, the simplest wave equation is used, and the obtained values of thermal diffusivity for Si and Cu are close to those reported. Therefore, this non-contact method is useful for evaluating the thermal conduction and applicable for nanometer-scaled materials by improving local heating and local detecting systems.

  2. Design and synthesis of guest-host nanostructures to enhance ionic conductivity across nanocomposite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Michael Z [Knoxville, TN; Kosacki, Igor [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-01-05

    An ion conducting membrane has a matrix including an ordered array of hollow channels and a nanocrystalline electrolyte contained within at least some or all of the channels. The channels have opposed open ends, and a channel width of 1000 nanometers or less, preferably 60 nanometers or less, and most preferably 10 nanometers or less. The channels may be aligned perpendicular to the matrix surface, and the length of the channels may be 10 nanometers to 1000 micrometers. The electrolyte has grain sizes of 100 nanometers or less, and preferably grain sizes of 1 to 50 nanometers. The electrolyte may include grains with a part of the grain boundaries aligned with inner walls of the channels to form a straight oriented grain-wall interface or the electrolyte may be a single crystal. In one form, the electrolyte conducts oxygen ions, the matrix is silica, and the electrolyte is yttrium doped zirconia.

  3. Nanostructured polypyrrole: enhancement in thermoelectric figure of merit through suppression of thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shantanu; Bharti, Meetu; Singh, Ajay; Debnath, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Semi-crystalline polypyrrole (PPy) nanotubes were synthesized through a chemical polymerization route using methyl orange-ferric chloride (MO-FeCl3) as a template for growth. The thermoelectric properties of these PPy nanotubes have been studied in the temperature range 300-380 K after treatment with various dopants such as hydrochloric acid (HCl), p-toluene-sulphonic acid monohydrate (ToS), and tetrabutyl ammonium hexaflurophosphate (PF6). It has been observed that these dopants affect the electrical and thermal transport properties of PPy nanotubes in different ways. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity suggests that pure PPy and ToS-doped PPy nanotubes exhibit a critical regime of metal-to-insulator transition, and doping with HCl drives them into the metallic regime. In contrast, PF6 doping of PPy nanotubes carries them into the insulating regime and these samples exhibited the highest figure of merit of ~3.4  ×  10‒3 at 380 K, which was 240% higher than the value obtained in the case of pristine PPy nanotubes. Strongly repressed thermal conductivity along with moderately high Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity have been found to be responsible for the high figure of merit observed in PF6-doped PPy nanotubes. The suppression of thermal conductivity in PF6-doped PPy nanotubes is attributed to the scattering of the spectrum of phonons via hierarchical length-scale defect structures present in the sample.

  4. Study on Electrical conductivity and Activation Energy of doped Ceria nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, N. S. Chitra; Sandhya, K.; Rajendran, Deepthi N.

    2018-01-01

    Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-δ (GDC) and Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ (SDC) nanocrystalline materials are prepared by a solid state reaction method. The synthesized nano crystalline solid solutions have cubic fluorite structure as evident from XRD patterns. The materials are qualitatively analyzed by FTIR. The morphology, size and shape of grains etc. are identified from the SEM images. The grain size of GDC is smaller than that of SDC. The better morphology is obtained for GDC. Hence, this is electrically characterized. The activation energy is calculated from the slope of Arrhenius plot (showing variation of conductivity with temperature).

  5. Fabrication and characterization of transparent conducting titanium-zinc oxide nanostructured thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhou; Long, Lu; Zhong, Zhi-you; Hou, Jin; Yang, Chun-yong; Gu, Jin-hua; Long, Hao

    2016-03-01

    Nano transparent conducting titanium-zinc oxide (Ti-ZnO) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The deposited films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), four-probe meter and UV-visible spectrophotometer. The effects of Ti-doping content on the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films are investigated. The XRD results show that the obtained films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and preferentially oriented in the (002) crystallographic direction. The structural and optoelectronic characteristics of the deposited films are subjected to the Ti-doping content. The Ti-ZnO sample fabricated with the Ti-doping content of 3% (weight percentage) possesses the best crystallinity and optoelectronic performance, with the highest degree of preferred (002) orientation of 99.87%, the largest crystallite size of 83.2 nm, the minimum lattice strain of 6.263×10-4, the highest average visible transmittance of 88.8%, the lowest resistivity of 1.18×10-3 Ω·cm and the maximum figure of merit ( FOM) of 7.08×103 Ω-1·cm-1. Furthermore, the optical bandgaps of the films are evaluated by extrapolation method and observed to be an increasing tendency with the increase of the Ti-doping content.

  6. Electrically conductive nanostructured silver doped zinc oxide (Ag:ZnO) prepared by solution-immersion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afaah, A. N., E-mail: afaahabdullah@yahoo.com; Asib, N. A. M., E-mail: amierahasib@yahoo.com; Aadila, A., E-mail: aadilaazizali@gmail.com; Khusaimi, Z., E-mail: zurai142@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohamed, R., E-mail: ruzianamohd@pahang.uitm.edu.my [NANO-Electronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rusop, M., E-mail: nanouitm@gmail.com [NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-Electronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    p-type ZnO films have been fabricated on ZnO-seeded glass substrate, using AgNO{sub 3} as a source of silver dopant by facile solution-immersion. Cleaned glass substrate were seeded with ZnO by mist-atomisation, and next the seeded substrates were immersed in Ag:ZnO solution. The effects of Ag doping concentration on the Ag-doped ZnO have been investigated. The substrates were immersed in different concentrations of Ag dopant with variation of 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 at. %. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). In order to investigate the electrical properties, the films were characterized by Current-Voltage (I-V) measurement. FESEM micrographs showed uniform distribution of nanostructured ZnO and Ag:ZnO. Besides, the electrical properties of Ag-doped ZnO were also dependent on the doping concentration. The I-V measurement result indicated the electrical properties of 1 at. % Ag:ZnO thin film owned highest electrical conductivity.

  7. Electrically conductive nanostructured silver doped zinc oxide (Ag:ZnO) prepared by solution-immersion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afaah, A. N.; Asib, N. A. M.; Aadila, A.; Khusaimi, Z.; Mohamed, R.; Rusop, M.

    2016-01-01

    p-type ZnO films have been fabricated on ZnO-seeded glass substrate, using AgNO 3 as a source of silver dopant by facile solution-immersion. Cleaned glass substrate were seeded with ZnO by mist-atomisation, and next the seeded substrates were immersed in Ag:ZnO solution. The effects of Ag doping concentration on the Ag-doped ZnO have been investigated. The substrates were immersed in different concentrations of Ag dopant with variation of 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 at. %. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). In order to investigate the electrical properties, the films were characterized by Current-Voltage (I-V) measurement. FESEM micrographs showed uniform distribution of nanostructured ZnO and Ag:ZnO. Besides, the electrical properties of Ag-doped ZnO were also dependent on the doping concentration. The I-V measurement result indicated the electrical properties of 1 at. % Ag:ZnO thin film owned highest electrical conductivity.

  8. Fabrication of Conductive Nanostructures by Femtosecond Laser Induced Reduction of Silver Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Peter G.

    Nanofabrication through multiphoton absorption has generated considerable interest because of its unique ability to generate 2D and 3D structures in a single laser-direct-write step as well as its ability to generate feature sizes well below the diffraction limited laser spot size. The majority of multiphoton fabrication has been used to create 3D structures of photopolymers which have applications in a wide variety of fields, but require additional post-processing steps to fabricate conductive structures. It has been shown that metal ions can also undergo multiphoton absorption, which reduces the metal ions to stable atoms/nanoparticles which are formed at the laser focal point. When the focus is located at the substrate surface, the reduced metal is deposited on the surface, which allows arbitrary 2D patterning as well as building up 3D structures from this first layer. Samples containing the metal ions can be prepared either in a liquid solution, or in a polymer film. The polymer film approach has the benefit of added support for the 3D metallic structures; however it is difficult to remove the polymer after fabrication to leave a free standing metallic structure. With the ion solution method, free standing metallic structures can be fabricated but need to be able to withstand surface tension forces when the remaining unexposed solution is washed away. So far, silver nanowires with resistivity on the order of bulk silver have been fabricated, as well as a few small 3D structures. This research focuses on the surfactant assisted multiphoton reduction of silver ions in a liquid solution. The experimental setup consists of a Coherent Micra 10 Ultrafast laser with 30fs pulse length, 80MHz repetition rate, and a wavelength centered at 800nm. This beam is focused into the sample using a 100x objective with a N.A. of 1.49. Silver structures such as nanowires and grid patterns have been produced with minimum linewidth of 180nm. Silver nanowires with resistivity down to

  9. Photoluminescence quenching and enhanced optical conductivity of P3HT derived Ho3+-doped ZnO nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kabongo, GL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we demonstrate the surface effect and optoelectronic properties of holmium (Ho(sup3+))-doped ZnO in P3HT polymer nanocomposite. We incorporated ZnO:Ho(sup3+) (0.5 mol% Ho) nanostructures in the pristine P3HT-conjugated polymer...

  10. Barrier efficiency of sponge-like La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} buffer layers for YBCO-coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Leopoldo; Tan, Haiyan; Biermans, Ellen; Verbeeck, Jo; Bals, Sara; Tendeloo, Gustaaf Van [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, BE-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Batenburg, Kees J, E-mail: leopoldo.molina-luna@ua.ac.be [Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, BE-2020 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2011-06-15

    Solution derived La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} films have drawn much attention for potential applications as thermal barriers or low-cost buffer layers for coated conductor technology. Annealing and coating parameters strongly affect the microstructure of La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, but different film processing methods can yield similar microstructural features such as nanovoids and nanometer-sized La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} grains. Nanoporosity is a typical feature found in such films and the implications for the functionality of the films are investigated by a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and quantitative electron tomography. Chemical solution based La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} films deposited on flexible Ni-5 at.%W substrates with a {l_brace}100{r_brace}(001) biaxial texture were prepared for an in-depth characterization. A sponge-like structure composed of nanometer-sized voids is revealed by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy in combination with electron tomography. A three-dimensional quantification of nanovoids in the La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} film is obtained on a local scale. Mostly non-interconnected highly faceted nanovoids compromise more than one-fifth of the investigated sample volume. The diffusion barrier efficiency of a 170 nm thick La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} film is investigated by STEM-EELS, yielding a 1.8 {+-} 0.2 nm oxide layer beyond which no significant nickel diffusion can be detected and intermixing is observed. This is of particular significance for the functionality of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} coated conductor architectures based on solution derived La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} films as diffusion barriers.

  11. The low resistive and transparent Al-doped SnO{sub 2} films: p-type conductivity, nanostructures and photoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benouis, C.E. [Department of Material Technology, Physics Faculty, USTOMB University, BP1505 Oran (Algeria); Benhaliliba, M., E-mail: mbenhaliliba@gmail.com [Department of Material Technology, Physics Faculty, USTOMB University, BP1505 Oran (Algeria); Mouffak, Z. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering California State University, Fresno, CA (United States); Avila-Garcia, A. [Cinvestav-IPN, Dept. Ingeniería Eléctrica-SEES, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000 México, D.F. (Mexico); Tiburcio-Silver, A. [ITT-DIE, Apdo, Postal 20, Metepec 3, 52176 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ortega Lopez, M.; Romano Trujillo, R. [Centro de Investigación en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Instituto de Ciencias-BUAP, 14 Sur y Av. San Claudio, C.U. Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Ocak, Y.S. [Dicle University, Education Faculty, Science Department, 21280 Diyarbakir (Turkey)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Low resistive and high transparency Al doped SnO{sub 2} films. • Films are deposited onto ITO substrate by spray pyrolysis. • Nanostructured films are revealed. • p-Type conductivity is exhibited. • Photoluminescence of films is studied. - Abstract: In this work, we study the crystalline structure, surface morphology, transmittance, optical bandgap and n/p type inversion of tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}). The Nanostructured films of Al-doped SnO{sub 2} were successfully produced onto ITO-coated glass substrates via the spray pyrolysis method at a deposition temperature of 300 °C. A (1 0 1) and (2 1 1)-oriented tetragonal crystal structure was confirmed by X-ray patterns; and grain sizes varied within the range 8−42 nm. The films were polycrystalline, showing a high transparency in the visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) spectra. The optical bandgap was estimated to be around 3.4 eV. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed the nanostructures consisting of nanotips, nanopatches, nanopits and nanobubbles. The samples exhibited high conductivity that ranged from 0.55 to 10{sup 4} (S/cm) at ambient and showed an inversion from n to p-type as well as a degenerate semiconductor characters with a bulk concentration reaching 1.7 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The photoluminescence measurements reveal the detection of violet, green and yellow emissions.

  12. Influence of non-thermal plasma on structural and electrical properties of globular and nanostructured conductive polymer polypyrrole in water suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galář, Pavel; Khun, Josef; Kopecký, Dušan; Scholtz, Vladimír; Trchová, Miroslava; Fučíková, Anna; Jirešová, Jana; Fišer, Ladislav

    2017-11-08

    Non-thermal plasma has proved its benefits in medicine, plasma assisted polymerization, food industry and many other fields. Even though, the ability of non-thermal plasma to modify surface properties of various materials is generally known, only limited attention has been given to exploitations of this treatment on conductive polymers. Here, we show study of non-thermal plasma treatment on properties of globular and nanostructured polypyrrole in the distilled water. We observe that plasma presence over the suspension level doesn't change morphology of the polymer (shape), but significantly influences its elemental composition and physical properties. After 60 min of treatment, the relative concentration of chloride counter ions decreased approximately 3 and 4 times for nanostructured and globular form, respectively and concentration of oxygen increased approximately 3 times for both forms. Simultaneously, conductivity decrease (14 times for globular and 2 times for nanostructured one) and changes in zeta potential characteristics of both samples were observed. The modification evolution was dominated by multi-exponential function with time constants having values approximately 1 and 10 min for both samples. It is expected that these time constants are related to two modification processes connected to direct presence of the spark and to long-lived species generated by the plasma.

  13. Engineering Mixed Ionic Electronic Conduction in La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3+ δ Nanostructures through Fast Grain Boundary Oxygen Diffusivity

    KAUST Repository

    Saranya, Aruppukottai M.

    2015-04-09

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Nanoionics has become an increasingly promising field for the future development of advanced energy conversion and storage devices, such as batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors. Particularly, nanostructured materials offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. However, the enhancement of the mass transport properties at the nanoscale has often been found to be difficult to implement in nanostructures. Here, an artificial mixed ionic electronic conducting oxide is fabricated by grain boundary (GB) engineering thin films of La0.8Sr0.2MnO3+δ. This electronic conductor is converted into a good mixed ionic electronic conductor by synthesizing a nanostructure with high density of vertically aligned GBs with high concentration of strain-induced defects. Since this type of GBs present a remarkable enhancement of their oxide-ion mass transport properties (of up to six orders of magnitude at 773 K), it is possible to tailor the electrical nature of the whole material by nanoengineering, especially at low temperatures. The presented results lead to fundamental insights into oxygen diffusion along GBs and to the application of these engineered nanomaterials in new advanced solid state ionics devices such are micro-solid oxide fuel cells or resistive switching memories. An electronic conductor such as La0.8Sr0.2MnO3+δ is converted into a good mixed ionic electronic conductor by synthesizing a nanostructure with excellent electronic and oxygen mass transport properties. Oxygen diffusion highways are created by promoting a high concentration of strain-induced defects in the grain boundary region. This novel strategy opens the way for synthesizing new families of artificial mixed ionic-electronic conductors by design.

  14. Correlation of carrier localization with relaxation time distribution and electrical conductivity relaxation in silver-nanoparticle-embedded moderately doped polypyrrole nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swarup; Dutta, Bula; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu

    2014-02-01

    The electrical conductivity relaxation in moderately doped polypyrrole and its nanocomposites reinforced with different proportion of silver nanoparticles was investigated in both frequency and time domain. An analytical distribution function of relaxation times is constructed from the results obtained in the frequency domain formalism and is used to evaluate the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) type decay function in the time domain. The thermal evolution of different relaxation parameters was analyzed. The temperature-dependent dc electrical conductivity, estimated from the average conductivity relaxation time is observed to depend strongly on the nanoparticle loading and follows Mott three-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism. The extent of charge carrier localization calculated from the VRH mechanism is well correlated to the evidences obtained from the structural characterizations of different nanostructured samples.

  15. Nanostructuring the electronic conducting La0.8Sr0.2MnO3-δ cathode for high-performance in proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells below 600°C

    KAUST Repository

    Da’as, Eman Husni

    2017-10-28

    Proton-conducting oxides offer a promising electrolyte solution for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to their high conductivity and low activation energy. However, the lower operation temperature leads to a reduced cathode activity and thus a poorer fuel cell performance. La0.8Sr0.2MnO3-δ (LSM) is the classical cathode material for high-temperature SOFCs, which lack features as a proper SOFC cathode material at intermediate temperatures. Despite this, we here successfully couple nanostructured LSM cathode with proton-conducting electrolytes to operate below 600°C with desirable SOFC performance. Inkjet printing allows depositing nanostructured particles of LSM on Y-doped BaZrO3(BZY) backbones as cathodes for proton-conducting SOFCs, which provides one of the highest power output for the BZY-based fuel cells below 600°C. This somehow changes the common knowledge that LSM can be applied as a SOFC cathode materials only at high temperatures (above 700°C).

  16. Long-Term Stable Adhesion for Conducting Polymers in Biomedical Applications: IrOx and Nanostructured Platinum Solve the Chronic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Christian; Oberueber, Felix; Schlabach, Sabine; Stieglitz, Thomas; Asplund, Maria

    2017-01-11

    Conducting polymers (CPs) have frequently been described as outstanding coating materials for neural microelectrodes, providing significantly reduced impedance or higher charge injection compared to pure metals. Usability has until now, however, been limited by poor adhesion of polymers like poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to metallic substrates, ultimately precluding long-term applications. The aim of this study was to overcome this weakness of CPs by introducing two novel adhesion improvement strategies that can easily be integrated with standard microelectrode fabrication processes. Iridium Oxide (IrOx) demonstrated exceptional stability for PEDOT coatings, resulting in polymer survival over 10 000 redox cycles and 110 days under accelerated aging conditions at 60 °C. Nanostructured Pt was furthermore introduced as a purely mechanical adhesion promoter providing 10-fold adhesion improvement compared to smooth Pt substrates by simply altering the morphology of Pt. This layer can be realized in a very simple process that is compatible with any electrode design, turning nanostructured Pt into a universal adhesion layer for CP coatings. By the introduction of these adhesion-promoting strategies, the weakness of CP-based neural probes can ultimately be eliminated and true long-term stable use of PEDOT on neural probes will be possible in future electrode generations.

  17. Nanostructured Conductive Polymer Gels as a General Framework Material To Improve Electrochemical Performance of Cathode Materials in Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ye; Zhou, Xingyi; Zhang, Jun; Bruck, Andrea M; Bond, Andrew C; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S; Yu, Guihua

    2017-03-08

    Controlling architecture of electrode composites is of particular importance to optimize both electronic and ionic conduction within the entire electrode and improve the dispersion of active particles, thus achieving the best energy delivery from a battery. Electrodes based on conventional binder systems that consist of carbon additives and nonconductive binder polymers suffer from aggregation of particles and poor physical connections, leading to decreased effective electronic and ionic conductivities. Here we developed a three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured hybrid inorganic-gel framework electrode by in situ polymerization of conductive polymer gel onto commercial lithium iron phosphate particles. This framework electrode exhibits greatly improved rate and cyclic performance because the highly conductive and hierarchically porous network of the hybrid gel framework promotes both electronic and ionic transport. In addition, both inorganic and organic components are uniformly distributed within the electrode because the polymer coating prevents active particles from aggregation, enabling full access to each particle. The robust framework further provides mechanical strength to support active electrode materials and improves the long-term electrochemical stability. The multifunctional conductive gel framework can be generalized for other high-capacity inorganic electrode materials to enable high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  18. Using nanostructured conductive carbon tape modified with bismuth as the disposable working electrode for stripping analysis in paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiu-Mei; Zhang, Qing; Shi, Chuan-Guo; Xu, Jing-Juan; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying

    2013-10-15

    Low cost disposable working electrodes are specifically desired for practical applications of electrochemical detection considering maturity of electrochemical stations and data collection protocols. In this paper double-sided conductive adhesive carbon tape with nanostructure was applied to fabricate disposable working electrodes. Being supported by indium tin oxide glass, the prepared carbon tape electrodes were coated with bismuth film for stripping analysis of heavy metal ions. By integrating the bismuth modified electrodes with paper-based analytical devices, we were able to differentiate Zn, Cd and Pb ions with the sample volume of around 15 μL. After the optimization of parameters, including modification of bismuth film and the area of the electrodes, etc., Pb ions could be measured in the linear range from 10 to 500 μg/L with the detection limit of 2 μg/L. Our experimental results revealed that the disposable modified electrodes could be used to quantify migrated lead from toys with the results agreed well with that using atomic absorption spectrometry. Although bismuth modification and stripping analysis could be influenced by the low conductivity of the carbon tape, the low cost disposable carbon tape electrodes take the advantages of large-scaled produced double-sided carbon tape, including its reproducible nanostructure and scaled-up fabrication process. In addition, the preparation of disposable electrodes avoids time-consuming pretreatment and experienced operation. This study implied that the carbon tape might be an alternative candidate for practical applications of electrochemical detection. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Construction of nanostructures for selective lithium ion conduction using self-assembled molecular arrays in supramolecular solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    In the development of innovative molecule-based materials, the identification of the structural features in supramolecular solids and the understanding of the correlation between structure and function are important factors. The author investigated the development of supramolecular solid electrolytes by constructing ion conduction paths using a supramolecular hierarchical structure in molecular crystals because the ion conduction path is an attractive key structure due to its ability to generate solid-state ion diffusivity. The obtained molecular crystals exhibited selective lithium ion diffusion via conduction paths consisting of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (LiTFSA) and small molecules such as ether or amine compounds. In the present review, the correlation between the crystal structure and ion conductivity of the obtained molecular crystals is addressed based on the systematic structural control of the ionic conduction paths through the modification of the component molecules. The relationship between the crystal structure and ion conductivity of the molecular crystals provides a guideline for the development of solid electrolytes based on supramolecular solids exhibiting rapid and selective lithium ion conduction.

  20. Direct growth of NiCo2O4 nanostructures on conductive substrates with enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability for methanol oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lei; Gu, Li; Yang, Li; Yuan, Hongyan; Xiao, Dan

    2013-08-21

    In this report, NiCo2O4 nanostructures with different morphologies were directly grown on conductive substrates (stainless steel and ITO) by a facile electrodeposition method in addition to a post-annealing process. The morphology changes on different conductive substrates are discussed in detail. The NiCo2O4 on stainless steel (SS) had a high surface area (119 m(2) g(-1)) and was successfully used in the electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol. The electrocatalytic performance was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Impressively, the NiCo2O4 showed much higher electrocatalytic activity, lower overpotential and greater stability compared to that of only NiO or Co3O4 synthesized by the same method. The higher electrocatalytic activity is due to the high electron conductivity, large surface area of NiCo2O4 and the fast ion/electron transport in the electrode and at the electrolyte-electrode interface. This is important for further development of high performance non-platinum electrocatalysts for application in direct methanol fuel cells.

  1. Nanostructured conducting molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of salicylate from urine and serum samples by electrochemically controlled solid-phase micro-extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameli, Akram; Alizadeh, Naader

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Overoxidized polypyrrole templated with salicylate has been utilized as conducting molecular imprinted polymer for EC-SPME. ► This first study reported on conducting molecular imprinted polymer was used to EC-SPME of salicylate. ► Proposed method, is particularly effective in sample clean-up and selective monitoring of salicylate in physiological samples. - Abstract: Overoxidized polypyrrole (OPPy) films templated with salicylate (SA) have been utilized as conducting molecular imprinted polymers (CMIPs) for potential-induced selective solid-phase micro-extraction processes. Various important fabrication factors for controlling the performance of the OPPy films have been investigated using fluorescence spectrometry. Several key parameters such as applied potential for uptake, release, pH of uptake and release solution were varied to achieve the optimum micro-extraction procedure. The film template with SA exhibited excellent selectivity over some interference. The calibration graphs were linear in the ranges of 5 × 10 −8 to 5 × 10 −4 and 1.2 × 10 −6 to 5 × 10 −4 mol mL −1 and the detection limit was 4 × 10 −8 mol L −1 . The OPPy film as the solid-phase micro-extraction absorbent has been applied for the selective clean-up and quantification of trace amounts of SA from physiological samples. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have confirmed the nano-structure morphologies of the films.

  2. Highly conductive and flexible nano-structured carbon-based polymer nanocomposites with improved electromagnetic-interference-shielding performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Subhadip; Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Ganguly, Sayan; Das, Poushali; Ravindren, Revathy; Sit, Subhashis; Chakraborty, Goutam; Das, Narayan Ch

    2017-10-01

    Widespread usage and development of electrical/electronic devices can create severe problems for various other devices and in our everyday lives due to harmful exposure to electromagnetic (EM) radiation. Herein, we report on the electromagnetic interference (EMI)-shielding performance of highly flexible and conductive chlorinated polyethylene (CPE)/carbon nanofiber (CNF) nanocomposites fabricated by a probe-sonication-assisted simple solution-mixing process. The dispersion of CNF nanofillers inside the CPE matrix has been studied by electron micrographs. This dispersion is reflected in the formation of continuous conductive networks at a low percolation-threshold value of 2.87 wt% and promising EMI-shielding performance of 41.5 dB for 25 wt% CNF in the X-band frequency (8.2–12.4 GHz). Such an intriguing performance mainly depends on the unique filler–filler or filler–polymer networks in CPE nanocomposites. In addition, the composite material displays a superior EMI efficiency of 47.5 dB for 2.0 mm thickness at 8.2 GHz. However, we have been encouraged by the promotion of highly flexible and lightweight CPE/CNF nanocomposite as a superior EMI shield, which can protect electronic devices against harm caused by EM radiation and offers an adaptable solution in advanced EMI-shield applications.

  3. A self-regenerable soot sensor with a proton-conductive thin electrolyte and a nanostructured platinum sensing electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Peiling; Ito, Takenori; Oogushi, Akihide; Nakashima, Kensaku; Nagao, Masahiro; Hibino, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, exhaust sensors have become increasingly attractive for use in energy and environmental technologies. Important issues regarding practical applications of these sensors, especially for soot measurements, include the further development of ion-conductive electrolytes and active electrode catalysts for meeting performance and durability requirements. Herein, we design a proton conductor with a high breakdown voltage and a sensing electrode with high sensitivity to electrochemical carbon oxidation, enabling continuous soot monitoring with self-regeneration of the sensor. A Si0.97Al0.03HxP2O7-δ layer with an excellent balance between proton conductivity and voltage endurance was grown on the surface of a Si0.97Al0.03O2-δ substrate by reacting it with liquid H3PO4 at 600 °C. Specific reactivity of the electrochemically formed active oxygen toward soot was accomplished by adding a Pt-impregnated Sn0.9In0.1HxP2O7-δ catalyst into a Pt sensing electrode. To make the best use of these optimized materials, a unipolar electrochemical device was fabricated by configuring the sensing and counter electrodes on the same surface of the electrolyte layer. The resulting amperometric mode sensor successfully produced a current signal that corresponded to the quantity of soot.

  4. Nanostructured bacterial cellulose-poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) composite membranes with high storage modulus and protonic conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadim, Tiago D O; Figueiredo, Andrea G P R; Rosero-Navarro, Nataly C; Vilela, Carla; Gamelas, José A F; Barros-Timmons, Ana; Neto, Carlos Pascoal; Silvestre, Armando J D; Freire, Carmen S R; Figueiredo, Filipe M L

    2014-05-28

    The present study reports the development of a new generation of bio-based nanocomposite proton exchange membranes based on bacterial cellulose (BC) and poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) (PSSA), produced by in situ free radical polymerization of sodium 4-styrenesulfonate using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as cross-linker, followed by conversion of the ensuing polymer into the acidic form. The BC nanofibrilar network endows the composite membranes with excellent mechanical properties at least up to 140 °C, a temperature where either pure PSSA or Nafion are soft, as shown by dynamic mechanical analysis. The large concentration of sulfonic acid groups in PSSA is responsible for the high ionic exchange capacity of the composite membranes, reaching 2.25 mmol g(-1) for a composite with 83 wt % PSSA/PEGDA. The through-plane protonic conductivity of the best membrane is in excess of 0.1 S cm(-1) at 94 °C and 98% relative humidity (RH), decreasing to 0.042 S cm(-1) at 60% RH. These values are comparable or even higher than those of ionomers such as Nafion or polyelectrolytes such as PSSA. This combination of electric and viscoelastic properties with low cost underlines the potential of these nanocomposites as a bio-based alternative to other polymer membranes for application in fuel cells, redox flow batteries, or other devices requiring functional proton conducting elements, such as sensors and actuators.

  5. Nanostructured conducting molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of salicylate from urine and serum samples by electrochemically controlled solid-phase micro-extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameli, Akram [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alizadeh, Naader, E-mail: alizaden@modares.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overoxidized polypyrrole templated with salicylate has been utilized as conducting molecular imprinted polymer for EC-SPME. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This first study reported on conducting molecular imprinted polymer was used to EC-SPME of salicylate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed method, is particularly effective in sample clean-up and selective monitoring of salicylate in physiological samples. - Abstract: Overoxidized polypyrrole (OPPy) films templated with salicylate (SA) have been utilized as conducting molecular imprinted polymers (CMIPs) for potential-induced selective solid-phase micro-extraction processes. Various important fabrication factors for controlling the performance of the OPPy films have been investigated using fluorescence spectrometry. Several key parameters such as applied potential for uptake, release, pH of uptake and release solution were varied to achieve the optimum micro-extraction procedure. The film template with SA exhibited excellent selectivity over some interference. The calibration graphs were linear in the ranges of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} and 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} mol mL{sup -1} and the detection limit was 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1}. The OPPy film as the solid-phase micro-extraction absorbent has been applied for the selective clean-up and quantification of trace amounts of SA from physiological samples. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have confirmed the nano-structure morphologies of the films.

  6. Nanostructure conducting molecularly imprinted polypyrrole film as a selective sorbent for benzoate ion and its application in spectrophotometric analysis of beverage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manbohi, Ahmad; Shamaeli, Ehsan; Alizadeh, Naader

    2014-07-15

    The benzoate anion was selectively extracted by electrochemically controlled solid-phase microextraction (EC-SPME) using a electro-synthesised nanostructure conducting molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (CMIP) film that imprinted for benzoate ions (template ion). The sorbent behaviors of CMIP were characterised using spectrophotometry analysis. The effect of pH, uptake and released times and potentials, template ion concentration, and interference were investigated, and experimental conditions optimised. The film exhibited excellent selectivity in the presence of potential interference from anions including salicylate, sorbate, citrate, phosphate, acetate and chloride ions. The calibration graph was linear (R(2)⩾ 0.993) in the range 1.1 × 10(-5)-5.5 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) and detection limit was 5.2 × 10(-6) mol L(-1). The relative standard deviation was less than 4.5% (n=3). The CMIP film, as a solid-phase micro-extraction absorbent, was applied for the selective clean up and quantification of benzoate in beverage samples using the EC-SPME-spectrophotometric method. The results were in agreement with those obtained using HPLC analysis. This method has a good selectivity and mechanical stability and is disposable simple to construct. However, HPLC method is more selective for determination of benzoate in some food products which have interference compounds such as vanilla and flavoring agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructures useful for thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Kevin C.; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Segalman, Rachel A.; Coates, Nelson E.; Yee, Shannon K.

    2017-11-28

    The present invention provides for an inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructure, useful as a thermoelectric composite material, comprising (a) an inorganic nanostructure, and (b) an electrically conductive organic polymer disposed on the inorganic nanostructure. Both the inorganic nanostructure and the electrically conductive organic polymer are solution-processable.

  8. PdCo porous nanostructures decorated on polypyrrole @ MWCNTs conductive nanocomposite—Modified glassy carbon electrode as a powerful catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fard, Leyla Abolghasemi [Electroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, 3rd Kilometer of Air Force Road, 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ojani, Reza, E-mail: fer-o@umz.ac.ir [Electroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, 3rd Kilometer of Air Force Road, 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh [Electroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, 3rd Kilometer of Air Force Road, 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, Ehsan Nazarzadeh; Lakouraj, Moslem Mansour [Polymer Research Laboratory Department of Organic-Polymer Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, 3rd Kilometer of Air Force Road, 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The PdCo PNS/PPy@MWCNT electrocatalyst was easily prepared. • The electrocatalyst exhibits high electrocatalytic activity and stability toward the EOR. • The specific activity of PdCo PNS/PPy@MWCNTs for ethanol electrooxidation (1.65 mA cm{sup −2}) is higher than those of other compared electrocatalysts. • The high electrocatalytic performance is attributed to concerted effects of Porous nature, Co and PPy@MWCNT. • The PdCo PNS/PPy@MWCNT electrocatalyst has never been reported. - Abstract: In the current study, well-defined PdCo porous nanostructure (PdCo PNS) is prepared by a simple one-pot wet-chemical method and polypyrrole@multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PPy@MWCNTs) nanocomposite is used as a catalyst support. The morphology and the structural properties of the prepared catalyst were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The electrocatalytic performance of PdCo PNS/PPy@MWCNTs on glassy carbon electrode has been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The specific activity of PdCo PNS/PPy@MWCNTs for ethanol electrooxidation (1.65 mA cm{sup −2}) is higher than those of other compared electrocatalysts. Also, PdCo PNS/PPy@MWCNTs catalyst represented higher electrocatalytic activity, better long-term stability and high level of poisoning tolerance to the carbonaceous oxidative intermediates for ethanol electrooxidation reaction in alkaline media. Furthermore, the presence of PPY@MWCNTs on the surface of GCE produce a high activity to electrocatalyst, which might be due to the easier charge transfer at polymer/carbon nanotubes interfaces, higher electrochemically accessible surface areas and electronic conductivity. The superior catalytic activity of PdCo PNS/PPy@MWCNTs suggests it to be as a promising electrocatalyst for future direct ethanol fuel cells.

  9. Superhydrophilic nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Zormpa, Vasileia; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-05-12

    An embodiment of a superhydrophilic nanostructure includes nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are formed into porous clusters. The porous clusters are formed into aggregate clusters. An embodiment of an article of manufacture includes the superhydrophilic nanostructure on a substrate. An embodiment of a method of fabricating a superhydrophilic nanostructure includes applying a solution that includes nanoparticles to a substrate. The substrate is heated to form aggregate clusters of porous clusters of the nanoparticles.

  10. Nanostructured superconductors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moshchalkov, V. V; Fritzsche, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    ... through nanostructuring and for developing a variety of novel fluxonics devices based on vortex manipulation. Nanostructuring can, in fact, create such conditions for the flux pinning by arrays of nanofabricated antidots or magnetic dots, which could maximize the second important superconducting critical parameter (critical current) up to its theoretical limit ...

  11. Defects in semiconductor nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Impurities play a pivotal role in semiconductors. One part in a million of phosphorous in silicon alters the conductivity of the latter by several orders of magnitude. Indeed, the information age is possible only because of the unique role of shallow impurities in semiconductors. Although work in semiconductor nanostructures ...

  12. Facilitative capture of As(V), Pb(II) and methylene blue from aqueous solutions with MgO hybrid sponge-like carbonaceous composite derived from sugarcane leafy trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ronghua; Liang, Wen; Wang, Jim J; Gaston, Lewis A; Huang, Di; Huang, Hui; Lei, Shuang; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Zhou, Baoyue; Xiao, Ran; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2018-04-15

    Enhancing the contaminant adsorption capacity is a key factor affecting utilization of carbon-based adsorbents in wastewater treatment and encouraging development of biomass thermo-disposal. In this study, a novel MgO hybrid sponge-like carbonaceous composite (HSC) derived from sugarcane leafy trash was prepared through an integrated adsorption-pyrolysis method. The resulted HSC composite was characterized and employed as adsorbent for the removal of negatively charged arsenate (As(V)), positively charged Pb(II), and the organic pollutant methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions in batch experiments. The effects of solution pH, contact time, initial concentration, temperature, and ionic strength on As(V), Pb(II) and MB adsorption were investigated. HSC was composed of nano-size MgO flakes and nanotube-like carbon sponge. Hybridization significantly improved As(V), Pb(II) and methylene blue (MB) adsorption when compared with the material without hybridization. The maximum As(V), Pb(II) and MB adsorption capacities obtained from Langmuir model were 157 mg/g, 103 mg/g and 297 mg/g, respectively. As(V) adsorption onto HSC was best fit by the pseudo-second-order model, and Pb(II) and MB with the intraparticle diffusion model. Increased temperature and ionic strength decreased Pb(II) and MB adsorption onto HSC more than As(V). Further FT-IR, XRD and XPS analysis demonstrated that the removal of As(V) by HSC was mainly dominated by surface deposition of MgHAsO 4 and Mg(H 2 AsO 4 ) 2 crystals on the HSC composite, while carbon π-π* transition and carbon π-electron played key roles in Pb(II) and MB adsorption. The interaction of Pb(II) with carbon matrix carboxylate was also evident. Overall, MgO hybridization improves the preparation of the nanotube-like carbon sponge composite and provides a potential agricultual residue-based adsorbent for As(V), Pb(II) and MB removal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2018-01-23

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  14. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  15. Anomalous conductivity-type transition sensing behaviors of n-type porous α-Fe2O3 nanostructures toward H2S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Quanyi; Li Limiao; Yin Xiaoming; Liu Shuang; Li Qiuhong; Wang Taihong

    2011-01-01

    Porous urchin-like α-Fe 2 O 3 nanostructures with n-type semiconducting properties were used as gas sensing materials. Interestingly, it was observed abnormal n-p transition sensing behavior induced by the variation of working temperature and p-n transition sensing behavior related to the increase of H 2 S concentration. Large density of unstable surface states resulting from high surface-to-volume ratio would be beneficial for the formation of a surface inversion layer and account for the n-p transition. Furthermore, the as-prepared sensor showed good H 2 S sensing performances with short response/recovery time within 5/10 s, and relatively low detection limit of 1 ppm. These results help us to understand the sensing mechanism of α-Fe 2 O 3 and hint the potential application of the as-prepared sensor in monitoring H 2 S.

  16. Label-free and reagentless electrochemical detection of microRNAs using a conducting polymer nanostructured by carbon nanotubes: application to prostate cancer biomarker miR-141.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H V; Piro, B; Reisberg, S; Tran, L D; Duc, H T; Pham, M C

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, a label-free and reagentless microRNA sensor based on an interpenetrated network of carbon nanotubes and electroactive polymer is described. The nanostructured polymer film presents very well-defined electroactivity in neutral aqueous medium in the cathodic potential domain from the quinone group embedded in the polymer backbone. Addition of microRNA miR-141 target (prostate cancer biomarker) gives a "signal-on" response, i.e. a current increase due to enhancement of the polymer electroactivity. On the contrary, non-complementary miRNAs such as miR-103 and miR-29b-1 do not lead to any significant current change. A very low detection limit of ca. 8 fM is achieved with this sensor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. NANOSTRUCTURE PATTERNING UNDER ENERGETIC PARTICLE BEAM IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lumin [Regents of the University of Michigan; Lu, Wei [Regents of the University of Michigan

    2013-01-31

    Energetic ion bombardment can lead to the development of complex and diverse nanostructures on or beneath the material surface through induced self-organization processes. These self-organized structures have received particular interest recently as promising candidates as simple, inexpensive, and large area patterns, whose optical, electronic and magnetic properties are different from those in the bulk materials [1-5]. Compared to the low mass efficiency production rate of lithographic methods, these self-organized approaches display new routes for the fabrication of nanostructures over large areas in a short processing time at the nanoscale, beyond the limits of lithography [1,4]. Although it is believed that surface nanostructure formation is based on the morphological instability of the sputtered surface, driven by a kinetic balance between roughening and smoothing actions [6,7], the fundamental mechanisms and experimental conditions for the formation of these nanostructures has still not been well established, the formation of the 3-D naopatterns beneath the irradiated surface especially needs more exploration. During the last funding period, we have focused our efforts on irradiation-induced nanostructures in a broad range of materials. These structures have been studied primarily through in situ electron microscopy during electron or ion irradiation. In particular, we have performed studies on 3-D void/bubble lattices (in metals and CaF2), embedded sponge-like porous structure with uniform nanofibers in irradiated semiconductors (Ge, GaSb, and InSb), 2-D highly ordered pattern of nanodroplets (on the surface of GaAs), hexagonally ordered nanoholes (on the surface of Ge), and 1-D highly ordered ripple and periodic arrays (of Cu nanoparticles) [3,8-11]. The amazing common feature in those nanopatterns is the uniformity of the size of nanoelements (nanoripples, nanodots, nanovoids or nanofibers) and the distance separating them. Our research focuses on the

  18. Anomalous conductivity-type transition sensing behaviors of n-type porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures toward H{sub 2}S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Quanyi; Li Limiao; Yin Xiaoming; Liu Shuang [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, and State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Li Qiuhong, E-mail: liqiuhong2004@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, and State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Wang Taihong, E-mail: thwang@hnu.cn [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, and State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-04-25

    Porous urchin-like {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures with n-type semiconducting properties were used as gas sensing materials. Interestingly, it was observed abnormal n-p transition sensing behavior induced by the variation of working temperature and p-n transition sensing behavior related to the increase of H{sub 2}S concentration. Large density of unstable surface states resulting from high surface-to-volume ratio would be beneficial for the formation of a surface inversion layer and account for the n-p transition. Furthermore, the as-prepared sensor showed good H{sub 2}S sensing performances with short response/recovery time within 5/10 s, and relatively low detection limit of 1 ppm. These results help us to understand the sensing mechanism of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and hint the potential application of the as-prepared sensor in monitoring H{sub 2}S.

  19. Influence of non-thermal plasma on structural and electrical properties of globular and nanostructured conductive polymer polypyrrole in water suspension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galář, P.; Khun, J.; Kopecký, D.; Scholtz, V.; Trchová, Miroslava; Fučíková, A.; Jirešová, J.; Fišer, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, 08 November (2017), s. 1-10, č. článku 15068. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04109S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conductive polymer * polypyrrole * plasma Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  20. Gold nanostructures and methods of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin Z [Santa Cruz, CA; Schwartzberg, Adam [Santa Cruz, CA; Olson, Tammy Y [Santa Cruz, CA

    2012-03-20

    The invention is drawn to novel nanostructures comprising hollow nanospheres and nanotubes for use as chemical sensors, conduits for fluids, and electronic conductors. The nanostructures can be used in microfluidic devices, for transporting fluids between devices and structures in analytical devices, for conducting electrical currents between devices and structure in analytical devices, and for conducting electrical currents between biological molecules and electronic devices, such as bio-microchips.

  1. The exchange interaction effects on magnetic properties of the nanostructured CoPt particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komogortsev, S.V., E-mail: komogor@iph.krasn.ru [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Iskhakov, R.S. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Zimin, A.A. [Siberian Federal University, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Filatov, E.Yu.; Korenev, S.V.; Shubin, Yu.V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Chizhik, N.A. [Siberian Federal University, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Yurkin, G.Yu.; Eremin, E.V. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    Various manifestations of the exchange interaction effects in magnetization curves of the CoPt nanostructured particles are demonstrated and discussed. The inter-grain exchange constant A in the sponge-like agglomerates of crystallites is estimated as A=(7±1) pJ/m from the approach magnetization to saturation curves that is in good agreement with A=(6.6±0.5) pJ/m obtained from Bloch T {sup 3/2} law. The fractal dimensionality of the exchange coupled crystallite system in the porous media of the disordered CoPt alloy d=(2.60±0.18) was estimated from the approach magnetization to saturation curve. Coercive force decreases with temperature as H{sub c}~T {sup 3/2} which is assumed to be a consequence of the magnetic anisotropy energy reduction due to the thermal spin wave excitations in the investigated CoPt particles. - Highlights: • Nanostructured CoPt particles were synthesized and then annealed in He atmosphere. • The structure of the material and magnetization curves were studied. • The maximum on reduced coercivity vs grain size dependence was observed. • The dimensionality d of exchange coupled crystallite system was estimated. • Exchange stiffness constant A was estimated.

  2. A novel high energy hybrid Li-ion capacitor with a three-dimensional hierarchical ternary nanostructure of hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanoparticles/conductive polymer/carbon nanotubes anode and an activated carbon cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gang; Cao, Liujun; Xiao, Peng; Zhang, Yunhuai; Liu, Hao

    2017-07-01

    Lithium ion capacitors (LICs) are considered to be high-performance energy storage devices that have stimulated intense attention to bridge the gap between lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. Currently, the major challenge for LICs has been to improve the energy density without sacrificing the high rate of power output performance. Herein, we designed a three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous nanostructure of hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanoparticles wrapped conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) framework with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) hybrid (denoted as, H-TiO2/PPy/SWCNTs) anode material for LICs through a conventional and green approach. Such a unique network can offer continuous electron transport and reduce the diffusion length of lithium ions. A greatly lithium storage specific capacity is achieved with reversible discharge capacity ∼213 mA h g-1 (based on the mass of TiO2) over 50 cycles (@ 0.1 A g-1), which is almostly three times compared with raw TiO2 (a commercial TiO2 nanoparticles powder). In addition, coupled with commercial activated carbon (AC) cathode, the fully assembled H-TiO2/PPy/SWCNTs//AC LICs delivers a maximum energy and power densities of 31.3 Wh kg-1 and 4 kW kg-1, a reasonably good cycling stability (∼77.8% retention after 3000 cycles) within the voltage range of 1.0-3.0 V.

  3. Facile and controllable construction of vanadium pentoxide@conducting polymer core/shell nanostructures and their thickness-dependent synergistic energy storage properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Zhongqiu; Liu, Shikun; Li, Xingang; Ding, Yanbo; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Here, we report a novel approach to prepare metal oxide@conducting polymer core/shell hybrids with controlled shell thickness and morphology, and the influence of PANI shell thickness on the electrochemical performance of V 2 O 5 @PANI core/shell hybrids is systematically investigated. Thickness-dependent synergistic electron transport, Li-ion diffusion distance, and shell mechanical strength mechanisms are proposed. - Highlights: • Thickness- and morphology-controlled V 2 O 5 /PANI core/shell hybrid nanofibers are fabricated. • The enhancement of energy storage performance of core/shell hybrids varies with the shell thickness. • Thickness-dependent synergistic electron transport, Li-ion diffusion distances, and shell mechanical strength mechanisms are proposed. - Abstract: Thickness- and morphology-controlled vanadium pentoxide/polyaniline (V 2 O 5 /PANI) core/shell hybrid nanofibers are fabricated by electropolymerization of PANI on V 2 O 5 nanofibers for enhanced energy storage. By simply adjusting the electrodeposition time, the thickness of the PANI shells can be controlled from 5 nm to 47 nm, and the morphology can be changed from coaxial to branched. The influence of shell thickness on the improved Li-ion storage performance of the V 2 O 5 /PANI core/shell nanofibers is systematically investigated, and this enhancement of charge capability and cycling stability strongly varies with the shell thickness. Thickness-dependent synergistic electron transport, Li-ion diffusion distances, and shell mechanical strength mechanisms are also proposed. These results provide meaningful references for developing new functional core/shell materials and high-performance energy storage composite materials.

  4. Analysis of non-contact and contact probe-to-sample thermal exchange for quantitative measurements of thin film and nanostructure thermal conductivity by the scanning hot probe method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Adam A.

    The ability to measure thermal properties of thin films and nanostructured materials is an important aspect of many fields of academic study. A strategy especially well-suited for nanoscale investigations of these properties is the scanning hot probe technique, which is unique in its ability to non-destructively interrogate the thermal properties with high resolution, both laterally as well as through the thickness of the material. Strategies to quantitatively determine sample thermal conductivity depend on probe calibration. State of the art calibration strategies assume that the area of thermal exchange between probe and sample does not vary with sample thermal conductivity. However, little investigation has gone into determining whether or not that assumption is valid. This dissertation provides a rigorous study into the probe-to-sample heat transfer through the air gap at diffusive distances for a variety of values of sample thermal conductivity. It is demonstrated that the thermal exchange radius and gap/contact thermal resistance varies with sample thermal conductivity as well as tip-to-sample clearance in non-contact mode. In contact mode, it is demonstrated that higher thermal conductivity samples lead to a reduction in thermal exchange radius for Wollaston probe tips. Conversely, in non-contact mode and in contact mode for sharper probe tips where air contributes the most to probe-to-sample heat transfer, the opposite trend occurs. This may be attributed to the relatively strong solid-to-solid conduction occurring between probe and sample for the Wollaston probes. A three-dimensional finite element (3DFE) model was developed to investigate how the calibrated thermal exchange parameters vary with sample thermal conductivity when calibrating the probe via the intersection method in non-contact mode at diffusive distances. The 3DFE model was then used to explore the limits of sensitivity of the experiment for a range of simulated experimental conditions. It

  5. Probing the effects of the ester functional group, alkyl side chain length and anions on the bulk nanostructure of ionic liquids: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraee, Mostafa; Gholami, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-14

    The effects of ester addition on nanostructural properties of biodegradable ILs composed of 1-alkoxycarbonyl-3-alkyl-imidazolium cations ([C1COOCnC1im](+), n = 1, 2, 4) combined with [Br](-), [NO3](-), [BF4](-), [PF6](-), [TfO](-), and [Tf2N](-) were explored by using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analysis at 400 K. Various thermodynamic properties of these ILs were extensively computed in our earlier work (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2015, 54, 11678-11700). Nano-scale segregation analysis demonstrates the formation of a small spherical island-like hydrocarbon within the continuous ionic domain for ILs with short alkyl side chain ([C1COOC1C1im]), and a sponge-like nanostructure for the compound with long alkyl side chain ([C1COOC4C1im]). Ester-functionalized ILs with ethyl side chain ([C1COOC2C1im]) are the turning point between two different morphologies. Non-polar channels were observed for [C1COOC4C1im] ILs composed of smaller anions such as [Br] and [NO3], whereas clustering organization was found for the other anions. Formation of the spherical micelle-like nanostructure was seen for lengthened cations. Finally, the incorporation of an ester group into the alkyl side chain of the cation leads to stronger segregation between charged and uncharged networks, which consequently increased the possibility of self-assembly and micelle formation.

  6. Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmyer, David

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures is devoted to the fabrication, characterization, experimental investigation, theoretical understanding, and utilization of advanced magnetic nanostructures. Focus is on various types of 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' artificial nanostructures, as contrasted to naturally occurring magnetic nanostructures, such as iron-oxide inclusions in magnetic rocks, and to structures such as perfect thin films. Chapter 1 is an introduction into some basic concepts, such as the definitions of basic magnetic quantities. Chapters 2-4 are devoted to the theory of magnetic nanostructures, Chapter 5 deals with the characterization of the structures, and Chapters 6-10 are devoted to specific systems. Applications of advanced magnetic nanostructures are discussed in Chapters11-15 and, finally, the appendix lists and briefly discusses magnetic properties of typical starting materials. Industrial and academic researchers in magnetism and related areas such as nanotechnology, materials science, and theore...

  7. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  8. Thermoelectric effects in graphene nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollfus, Philippe; Hung Nguyen, Viet; Saint-Martin, Jérôme

    2015-04-10

    The thermoelectric properties of graphene and graphene nanostructures have recently attracted significant attention from the physics and engineering communities. In fundamental physics, the analysis of Seebeck and Nernst effects is very useful in elucidating some details of the electronic band structure of graphene that cannot be probed by conductance measurements alone, due in particular to the ambipolar nature of this gapless material. For applications in thermoelectric energy conversion, graphene has two major disadvantages. It is gapless, which leads to a small Seebeck coefficient due to the opposite contributions of electrons and holes, and it is an excellent thermal conductor. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of a two-dimensional (2D) graphene sheet is thus very limited. However, many works have demonstrated recently that appropriate nanostructuring and bandgap engineering of graphene can concomitantly strongly reduce the lattice thermal conductance and enhance the Seebeck coefficient without dramatically degrading the electronic conductance. Hence, in various graphene nanostructures, ZT has been predicted to be high enough to make them attractive for energy conversion. In this article, we review the main results obtained experimentally and theoretically on the thermoelectric properties of graphene and its nanostructures, emphasizing the physical effects that govern these properties. Beyond pure graphene structures, we discuss also the thermoelectric properties of some hybrid graphene structures, as graphane, layered carbon allotropes such as graphynes and graphdiynes, and graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures which offer new opportunities. Finally, we briefly review the recent activities on other atomically thin 2D semiconductors with finite bandgap, i.e. dichalcogenides and phosphorene, which have attracted great attention for various kinds of applications, including thermoelectrics.

  9. Nanostructured Materials for Magnetoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikailzade, Faik

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date review of nanometer-scale magnetism and focuses on the investigation of the basic properties of magnetic nanostructures. It describes a wide range of physical aspects together with theoretical and experimental methods. A broad overview of the latest developments in this emerging and fascinating field of nanostructured materials is given with emphasis on the practical understanding and operation of submicron devices based on nanostructured magnetic materials.

  10. Nanostructured layers of thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Jeffrey J.; Lynch, Jared; Coates, Nelson; Forster, Jason; Sahu, Ayaskanta; Chabinyc, Michael; Russ, Boris

    2018-01-30

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to thermoelectric materials. In one aspect, a method includes providing a plurality of nanostructures. The plurality of nanostructures comprise a thermoelectric material, with each nanostructure of the plurality of nanostructures having first ligands disposed on a surface of the nanostructure. The plurality of nanostructures is mixed with a solution containing second ligands and a ligand exchange process occurs in which the first ligands disposed on the plurality of nanostructures are replaced with the second ligands. The plurality of nanostructures is deposited on a substrate to form a layer. The layer is thermally annealed.

  11. Imaging edges of nanostructured graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Jens; Cagliani, Alberto; Booth, T. J.

    Graphene, as the forefather of 2D-materials, attracts much attention due to its extraordinary properties like transparency, flexibility and outstanding high conductivity, together with a thickness of only one atom. However, graphene also possesses no band gap, which makes it unsuitable for many...... electronic applications like transistors. It has been shown theoretically that by nanostructuring pristine graphene, e.g. with regular holes, the electronic properties can be tuned and a band gap introduced. The size, distance and edge termination of these “defects” influence the adaptability....... Such nanostructuring can be done experimentally, but especially characterization at atomic level is a huge challenge. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) is used to characterize the atomic structure of graphene. We optimized the imaging conditions used for the FEI Titan ETEM. To reduce the knock-on damage of the carbon atoms...

  12. Phonon engineering for nanostructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, Sylvie (Stanford University); Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sullivan, John Patrick; Peebles, Diane Elaine; Hurley, David H. (Idaho National Laboratory); Shinde, Subhash L.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Emerson, John Allen

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the physics of phonon transport at small length scales is increasingly important for basic research in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, nanomechanics, and thermoelectrics. We conducted several studies to develop an understanding of phonon behavior in very small structures. This report describes the modeling, experimental, and fabrication activities used to explore phonon transport across and along material interfaces and through nanopatterned structures. Toward the understanding of phonon transport across interfaces, we computed the Kapitza conductance for {Sigma}29(001) and {Sigma}3(111) interfaces in silicon, fabricated the interfaces in single-crystal silicon substrates, and used picosecond laser pulses to image the thermal waves crossing the interfaces. Toward the understanding of phonon transport along interfaces, we designed and fabricated a unique differential test structure that can measure the proportion of specular to diffuse thermal phonon scattering from silicon surfaces. Phonon-scale simulation of the test ligaments, as well as continuum scale modeling of the complete experiment, confirmed its sensitivity to surface scattering. To further our understanding of phonon transport through nanostructures, we fabricated microscale-patterned structures in diamond thin films.

  13. Sponge-Like: A New Protocol for Preparing Bacterial Ghosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Amro A.; Salem-Bekhit, Mounir M.; Alanazi, Fars K.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial Ghosts (BGs) received an increasing interest in the recent years for their promising medicinal and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, for the first time we introduce a new protocol for BGs production. E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS (Promega) was used as a model to establish a general protocol for BGs preparation. The protocol is based on using active chemical compounds in concentrations less than the Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC). Those chemical compounds are SDS, NaOH, and H2O2. Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to map the best conditions for BGs production. Normal and electronic microscopes were used to evaluate the BGs quality (BGQ). Spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the amount of the released protein and DNA. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to determine the existence of any residue of DNA after each BGs preparation. Viable cells, which existed after running this protocol, were subjected to lysis by inducing the lysozyme gene carried on pLysS plasmid. This protocol is able to produce BGs that can be used in different biotechnological applications. PMID:23576904

  14. Sponge-Like: A New Protocol for Preparing Bacterial Ghosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro A. Amara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Ghosts (BGs received an increasing interest in the recent years for their promising medicinal and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, for the first time we introduce a new protocol for BGs production. E. coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS (Promega was used as a model to establish a general protocol for BGs preparation. The protocol is based on using active chemical compounds in concentrations less than the Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC. Those chemical compounds are SDS, NaOH, and H2O2. Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to map the best conditions for BGs production. Normal and electronic microscopes were used to evaluate the BGs quality (BGQ. Spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the amount of the released protein and DNA. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to determine the existence of any residue of DNA after each BGs preparation. Viable cells, which existed after running this protocol, were subjected to lysis by inducing the lysozyme gene carried on pLysS plasmid. This protocol is able to produce BGs that can be used in different biotechnological applications.

  15. Sponge-like: a new protocol for preparing bacterial ghosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Amro A; Salem-Bekhit, Mounir M; Alanazi, Fars K

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial Ghosts (BGs) received an increasing interest in the recent years for their promising medicinal and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, for the first time we introduce a new protocol for BGs production. E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS (Promega) was used as a model to establish a general protocol for BGs preparation. The protocol is based on using active chemical compounds in concentrations less than the Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC). Those chemical compounds are SDS, NaOH, and H2O2. Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to map the best conditions for BGs production. Normal and electronic microscopes were used to evaluate the BGs quality (BGQ). Spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the amount of the released protein and DNA. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to determine the existence of any residue of DNA after each BGs preparation. Viable cells, which existed after running this protocol, were subjected to lysis by inducing the lysozyme gene carried on pLysS plasmid. This protocol is able to produce BGs that can be used in different biotechnological applications.

  16. Field Emission from Carbon Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Giubileo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Field emission electron sources in vacuum electronics are largely considered to achieve faster response, higher efficiency and lower energy consumption in comparison with conventional thermionic emitters. Carbon nanotubes had a leading role in renewing attention to field emission technologies in the early 1990s, due to their exceptional electron emitting properties enabled by their large aspect ratio, high electrical conductivity, and thermal and chemical stability. In the last decade, the search for improved emitters has been extended to several carbon nanostructures, comprising carbon nanotubes, either individual or films, diamond structures, graphitic materials, graphene, etc. Here, we review the main results in the development of carbon-based field emitters.

  17. Controlled alpha-sexithiophene nanostructure formation in standard and inverted configuration organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis

    temperature during low rate (continuous films and dispersed clusters at low temperatures, to larger crystalline nanostructures at higher temperatures. Optical and atomic force microscopy is conducted together...

  18. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...... in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  19. Self-assembled nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin Z; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shaowei; Liu, Gang-yu

    2003-01-01

    Nanostructures refer to materials that have relevant dimensions on the nanometer length scales and reside in the mesoscopic regime between isolated atoms and molecules in bulk matter. These materials have unique physical properties that are distinctly different from bulk materials. Self-Assembled Nanostructures provides systematic coverage of basic nanomaterials science including materials assembly and synthesis, characterization, and application. Suitable for both beginners and experts, it balances the chemistry aspects of nanomaterials with physical principles. It also highlights nanomaterial-based architectures including assembled or self-assembled systems. Filled with in-depth discussion of important applications of nano-architectures as well as potential applications ranging from physical to chemical and biological systems, Self-Assembled Nanostructures is the essential reference or text for scientists involved with nanostructures.

  20. Nanostructured CNx (0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongiorno, G; Blomqvist, M; Piseri, P; Milani, P; Lenardi, C; Ducati, C; Caruso, T; Rudolf, P; Wachtmeister, S; Csillag, S; Coronel, E

    Nanostructured CNx thin films were prepared by supersonic cluster beam deposition (SCBD) and systematically characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The

  1. Versatile Method for Producing 2D and 3D Conductive Biomaterial Composites Using Sequential Chemical and Electrochemical Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severt, Sean Y; Ostrovsky-Snider, Nicholas A; Leger, Janelle M; Murphy, Amanda R

    2015-11-18

    Flexible and conductive biocompatible materials are attractive candidates for a wide range of biomedical applications including implantable electrodes, tissue engineering, and controlled drug delivery. Here, we demonstrate that chemical and electrochemical polymerization techniques can be combined to create highly versatile silk-conducting polymer (silk-CP) composites with enhanced conductivity and electrochemical stability. Interpenetrating silk-CP composites were first generated via in situ deposition of polypyrrole during chemical polymerization of pyrrole. These composites were sufficiently conductive to serve as working electrodes for electropolymerization, which allowed an additional layer of CP to be deposited on the surface. This sequential method was applied to both 2D films and 3D sponge-like silk scaffolds, producing conductive materials with biomimetic architectures. Overall, this two-step technique expanded the range of available polymers and dopants suitable for the synthesis of mechanically robust, biocompatible, and highly conductive silk-based materials.

  2. Vibron and phonon hybridization in dielectric nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Thomas C; Signorell, Ruth

    2011-04-05

    Plasmon hybridization theory has been an invaluable tool in advancing our understanding of the optical properties of metallic nanostructures. Through the prism of molecular orbital theory, it allows one to interpret complex structures as "plasmonic molecules" and easily predict and engineer their electromagnetic response. However, this formalism is limited to conducting particles. Here, we present a hybridization scheme for the external and internal vibrations of dielectric nanostructures that provides a straightforward understanding of the infrared signatures of these particles through analogy to existing hybridization models of both molecular orbitals and plasmons extending the range of applications far beyond metallic nanostructures. This method not only provides a qualitative understanding, but also allows for the quantitative prediction of vibrational spectra of complex nanoobjects from well-known spectra of their primitive building blocks. The examples of nanoshells illustrate how spectral features can be understood in terms of symmetry, number of nodal planes, and scale parameters.

  3. Thermoelectric properties of nanostructured porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Palma, R. J.; Cabrera, H.; Martín-Adrados, B.; Korte, D.; Pérez-Cappe, E.; Mosqueda, Y.; Frutis, M. A.; Danguillecourt, E.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we report on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS) layers grown onto silicon substrates. More specifically, nanoPS layers of different porosity, nanocrystal size, and thickness were fabricated and their electrical conductivities, Seebeck coefficients, and thermal conductivities were subsequently measured. It was found that these parameters show a strong dependence on the characteristics of the nanoPS layers and thus can be controlled.

  4. Selective Functionalization of Tailored Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingenbergh, Winand; Boer, Sanne K. de; Cordes, Thorben; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Hoogenboom, Jacob P.; Hosson, Jeff Th.M. De; Dorp, Willem F. van

    2012-01-01

    The controlled positioning of nanostructures with active molecular components is of importance throughout nanoscience and nanotechnology. We present a novel three-step method to produce nanostructures that are selectively decorated with functional molecules. We use fluorophores and nanoparticles to

  5. Nanostructured materials in potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzgün, Ali; Zelada-Guillén, Gustavo A; Crespo, Gastón A; Macho, Santiago; Riu, Jordi; Rius, F Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Potentiometry is a very simple electrochemical technique with extraordinary analytical capabilities. It is also well known that nanostructured materials display properties which they do not show in the bulk phase. The combination of the two fields of potentiometry and nanomaterials is therefore a promising area of research and development. In this report, we explain the fundamentals of potentiometric devices that incorporate nanostructured materials and we highlight the advantages and drawbacks of combining nanomaterials and potentiometry. The paper provides an overview of the role of nanostructured materials in the two commonest potentiometric sensors: field-effect transistors and ion-selective electrodes. Additionally, we provide a few recent examples of new potentiometric sensors that are based on receptors immobilized directly onto the nanostructured material surface. Moreover, we summarize the use of potentiometry to analyze processes involving nanostructured materials and the prospects that the use of nanopores offer to potentiometry. Finally, we discuss several difficulties that currently hinder developments in the field and some future trends that will extend potentiometry into new analytical areas such as biology and medicine.

  6. Micromachining with Nanostructured Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the brief is to explain how nanostructured tools can be used to machine materials at the microscale.  The aims of the brief are to explain to readers how to apply nanostructured tools to micromachining applications. This book describes the application of nanostructured tools to machining engineering materials and includes methods for calculating basic features of micromachining. It explains the nature of contact between tools and work pieces to build a solid understanding of how nanostructured tools are made.

  7. Nanostructured electronic and magnetic materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research and development in nanostructured materials is one of the most intensely studied areas in science. As a result of concerted R & D efforts, nanostructured electronic and magnetic materials have achieved commercial success. Specific examples of novel industrially important nanostructured electronic and magnetic ...

  8. Multifunctional Carbon Nanostructures for Advanced Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanostructures—including graphene, fullerenes, etc.—have found applications in a number of areas synergistically with a number of other materials. These multifunctional carbon nanostructures have recently attracted tremendous interest for energy storage applications due to their large aspect ratios, specific surface areas, and electrical conductivity. This succinct review aims to report on the recent advances in energy storage applications involving these multifunctional carbon nanostructures. The advanced design and testing of multifunctional carbon nanostructures for energy storage applications—specifically, electrochemical capacitors, lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells—are emphasized with comprehensive examples.

  9. Novel nanostructures for next generation dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we review our latest advancements in nanostructured photoanodes for next generation photovoltaics in general and dye-sensitized solar cells in particular. Bottom-up self-assembly techniques are developed to fabricate large-area 3D nanostructures that enable enhanced charge extraction and light harvesting through optical scattering or photonic crystal effects to improve photocurrent, photovoltage and fill factor. Using generalized techniques to fabricate specialized nanostructures enables specific optoelectronic and physical characteristics like conduction, charge extraction, injection, recombination and light harvesting but also helps improve mechanical flexibility and long-term stability in low cost materials. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Metal nanostructures: from clusters to nanocatalysis and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    The properties of metal clusters and nanostructures composed of them are reviewed. Various existing methods for the generation of intense beams of metal clusters and their subsequent conversion into nanostructures are compared. Processes of the flow of a buffer gas with active molecules through a nanostructure are analyzed as a basis of using nanostructures for catalytic applications. The propagation of an electric signal through a nanostructure is studied by analogy with a macroscopic metal. An analysis is given of how a nanostructure changes its resistance as active molecules attach to its surface and are converted into negative ions. These negative ions induce the formation of positively charged vacancies inside the metal conductor and attract the vacancies to together change the resistance of the metal nanostructure. The physical basis is considered for using metal clusters and nanostructures composed of them to create new materials in the form of a porous metal film on the surface of an object. The fundamentals of nanocatalysis are reviewed. Semiconductor conductometric sensors consisting of bound nanoscale grains or fibers acting as a conductor are compared with metal sensors conducting via a percolation cluster, a fractal fiber, or a bunch of interwoven nanofibers formed in superfluid helium. It is shown that sensors on the basis of metal nanostructures are characterized by a higher sensitivity than semiconductor ones, but are not selective. Measurements using metal sensors involve two stages, one of which measures to high precision the attachment rate of active molecules to the sensor conductor, and in the other one the surface of metal nanostructures is cleaned from the attached molecules using a gas discharge plasma (in particular, capillary discharge) with a subsequent chromatography analysis for products of cleaning.

  11. Chiral Inorganic Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; de Moura, André F; Wu, Xiaoling; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2017-06-28

    The field of chiral inorganic nanostructures is rapidly expanding. It started from the observation of strong circular dichroism during the synthesis of individual nanoparticles (NPs) and their assemblies and expanded to sophisticated synthetic protocols involving nanostructures from metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and nanocarbons. Besides the well-established chirality transfer from bioorganic molecules, other methods to impart handedness to nanoscale matter specific to inorganic materials were discovered, including three-dimentional lithography, multiphoton chirality transfer, polarization effects in nanoscale assemblies, and others. Multiple chiral geometries were observed with characteristic scales from ångströms to microns. Uniquely high values of chiral anisotropy factors that spurred the development of the field and differentiate it from chiral structures studied before, are now well understood; they originate from strong resonances of incident electromagnetic waves with plasmonic and excitonic states typical for metals and semiconductors. At the same time, distinct similarities with chiral supramolecular and biological systems also emerged. They can be seen in the synthesis and separation methods, chemical properties of individual NPs, geometries of the nanoparticle assemblies, and interactions with biological membranes. Their analysis can help us understand in greater depth the role of chiral asymmetry in nature inclusive of both earth and space. Consideration of both differences and similarities between chiral inorganic, organic, and biological nanostructures will also accelerate the development of technologies based on chiroplasmonic and chiroexcitonic effects. This review will cover both experiment and theory of chiral nanostructures starting with the origin and multiple components of mirror asymmetry of individual NPs and their assemblies. We shall consider four different types of chirality in nanostructures and related physical, chemical, and

  12. Optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Kristin Nicole

    Semiconductor nanostructures have unique optical and electronic properties that have inspired research into their technological applications and basic science. This thesis presents approaches to the fabrication and characterization of optoelectronic devices incorporating individual semiconductor nanostructures. Nanowires of the II-VI semiconductors CdSe and CdS were synthesized using nanoparticle-catalysed solution-liquid-solid growth. Single-component nanowires and heterostructure nanowires with axial compositional modulation were generated using this method. Individual nanowires and nanocrystals were then incorporated into devices with a three-terminal field-effect transistor geometry. An experimental platform was developed which allows for simultaneous electrical characterization of devices and measurement of their optical properties. This setup enables the measurement of spatially and spectrally resolved electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) from individual nanostructures and nanostructure devices. It also allows the measurement of photon coincidence histograms for emitted light and the acquisition of photocurrent images via laser scanning microscopy. Electroluminescence was observed from individual CdSe nanocrystals contacted by gold electrodes. Concomitant transport measurements at low temperature showed clear evidence of Coulomb blockade at low bias voltage, with light only emitted from devices exhibiting asymmetric tunnel couplings between the nanocrystal and electrodes. Combined analyses of the data indicate that the resistances of the tunnel barriers are bias voltage dependent and that light emission results from the inelastic scattering of tunneling electrons. Three-terminal devices incorporating individual CdSe nanoNvires exhibited EL localized near the positively-biased electrode. Characterization of these devices by scanning photocurrent microscopy (SPCM) and Kelvin probe microscopy (KPM) indicates that while there are n-type Schottky

  13. Nanostructured piezoelectric energy harvesters

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a range of devices that use piezoelectricity to convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy and relates their output capabilities to a range of potential applications. Starting with a description of the fundamental principles and properties of piezo- and ferroelectric materials, where applications of bulk materials are well established, the book shows how nanostructures of these materials are being developed for energy harvesting applications. The authors show how a nanostructured device can be produced, and put in context some of the approaches that are being invest

  14. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  15. Nanostructured catalyst supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  16. Nanostructures-History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Nanostructures-History. Inspiration to Nanotechnology-. The Japanese scientist Norio Taniguchi of the Tokyo University of Science was used the term "nano-technology" in a 1974 conference, to describe semiconductor processes such as thin film His definition was, ...

  17. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hojin Choi; Hyeonseok Yoon

    2015-01-01

    The advent of novel organic and inorganic nanomaterials in recent years, particularly nanostructured carbons, conducting polymers, and metal oxides, has enabled the fabrication of various energy devices with enhanced performance. In this paper, we review in detail different nanomaterials used in the fabrication of electrochemical capacitor electrodes and also give a brief overview of electric double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and hybrid capacitors. From a materials point of view, t...

  18. Anodic growth of titanium dioxide nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing nanostructures of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) by anodisation of titanium (Ti) in an electrochemical cell, comprising the steps of: immersing a non-conducting substrate coated with a layer of titanium, defined as the anode, in an electrolyte solution...... an electrical contact to the layer of titanium on the anode, where the electrical contact is made in the electrolyte solution...

  19. Fabrication of Nanostructures Using Self-Assembled Peptides as Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    This chapter evaluates the use of a short-aromatic dipeptide, diphenylalanine, as a template in the fabrication of new nanostructures (nanowires, coaxial nanocables, nanochannels) using materials such as silicon, conducting and non-conducting polymers. Diphenylalanine self-organize into nanostruc......This chapter evaluates the use of a short-aromatic dipeptide, diphenylalanine, as a template in the fabrication of new nanostructures (nanowires, coaxial nanocables, nanochannels) using materials such as silicon, conducting and non-conducting polymers. Diphenylalanine self......-organize into nanostructures (nanotubes, nanofibers or nanospheres) under very mild conditions; some of its properties make them excellent candidates to be use as, for instance, dry-etch masks in a reactive ion etching process for the rapid fabrication of silicon micro and nanowires. Here, the methods used to exploit...

  20. Manganese Nanostructures and Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simov, Kirie Rangelov

    The primary goal of this study is to incorporate adatoms with large magnetic moment, such as Mn, into two technologically significant group IV semiconductor (SC) matrices, e.g. Si and Ge. For the first time in the world, we experimentally demonstrate Mn doping by embedding nanostructured thin layers, i.e. delta-doping. The growth is observed by in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), which combines topographic and electronic information in a single image. We investigate the initial stages of Mn monolayer growth on a Si(100)(2x1) surface reconstruction, develop methods for classification of nanostructure types for a range of surface defect concentrations (1.0 to 18.2%), and subsequently encapsulate the thin Mn layer in a SC matrix. These experiments are instrumental in generating a surface processing diagram for self-assembly of monoatomic Mn-wires. The role of surface vacancies has also been studied by kinetic Monte Carlo modeling and the experimental observations are compared with the simulation results, leading to the conclusion that Si(100)(2x1) vacancies serve as nucleation centers in the Mn-Si system. Oxide formation, which happens readily in air, is detrimental to ferromagnetism and lessens the magnetic properties of the nanostructures. Therefore, the protective SC cap, composed of either Si or Ge, serves a dual purpose: it is both the embedding matrix for the Mn nanostructured thin film and a protective agent for oxidation. STM observations of partially deposited caps ensure that the nanostructures remain intact during growth. Lastly, the relationship between magnetism and nanostructure types is established by an in-depth study using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). This sensitive method detects signals even at coverages less than one atomic layer of Mn. XMCD is capable of discerning which chemical compounds contribute to the magnetic moment of the system, and provides a ratio between the orbital and spin contributions. Depending on the amount

  1. Polymer-nanostructured carbon composites as multifunctional sensor materials: design, processing, and properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knite, M.; Hill, A.; Bovtun, Viktor; Teteris, V.; Solovjovs, A.; Shakale, G.; Zavickis, J.; Aulika, I.; Polakovs, B.; Pas, S.J.; Veljko, Sergiy; Noujni, Dmitri; Klemenoks, I.; Zicans, J.; Kiploka, A.; Erts, D.; Petzelt, Jan; Fuith, A.

    -, č. 2 (2006), s. 15-29 ISSN 0868-8257 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : polymer-nanostructured carbon composites * carbon black * sensors * conductivity * dielectric conductivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  2. Synthesis of ferroelectric nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roervik, Per Martin

    2008-12-15

    The increasing miniaturization of electric and mechanical components makes the synthesis and assembly of nanoscale structures an important step in modern technology. Functional materials, such as the ferroelectric perovskites, are vital to the integration and utility value of nanotechnology in the future. In the present work, chemical methods to synthesize one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of ferroelectric perovskites have been studied. To successfully and controllably make 1D nanostructures by chemical methods it is very important to understand the growth mechanism of these nanostructures, in order to design the structures for use in various applications. For the integration of 1D nanostructures into devices it is also very important to be able to make arrays and large-area designed structures from the building blocks that single nanostructures constitute. As functional materials, it is of course also vital to study the properties of the nanostructures. The characterization of properties of single nanostructures is challenging, but essential to the use of such structures. The aim of this work has been to synthesize high quality single-crystalline 1D nanostructures of ferroelectric perovskites with emphasis on PbTiO3 , to make arrays or hierarchical nanostructures of 1D nanostructures on substrates, to understand the growth mechanisms of the 1D nanostructures, and to investigate the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the 1D nanostructures. In Paper I, a molten salt synthesis route, previously reported to yield BaTiO3 , PbTiO3 and Na2Ti6O13 nanorods, was re-examined in order to elucidate the role of volatile chlorides. A precursor mixture containing barium (or lead) and titanium was annealed in the presence of NaCl at 760 degrees Celsius or 820 degrees Celsius. The main products were respectively isometric nanocrystalline BaTiO3 and PbTiO3. Nanorods were also detected, but electron diffraction revealed that the composition of the nanorods was

  3. Ductility of Nanostructured Bainite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Morales-Rivas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured bainite is a novel ultra-high-strength steel-concept under intensive current research, in which the optimization of its mechanical properties can only come from a clear understanding of the parameters that control its ductility. This work reviews first the nature of this composite-like material as a product of heat treatment conditions. Subsequently, the premises of ductility behavior are presented, taking as a reference related microstructures: conventional bainitic steels, and TRIP-aided steels. The ductility of nanostructured bainite is then discussed in terms of work-hardening and fracture mechanisms, leading to an analysis of the three-fold correlation between ductility, mechanically-induced martensitic transformation, and mechanical partitioning between the phases. Results suggest that a highly stable/hard retained austenite, with mechanical properties close to the matrix of bainitic ferrite, is advantageous in order to enhance ductility.

  4. Vortices and nanostructured superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides expert coverage of modern and novel aspects of the study of vortex matter, dynamics, and pinning in nanostructured and multi-component superconductors. Vortex matter in superconducting materials is a field of enormous beauty and intellectual challenge, which began with the theoretical prediction of vortices by A. Abrikosov (Nobel Laureate). Vortices, vortex dynamics, and pinning are key features in many of today’s human endeavors: from the huge superconducting accelerating magnets and detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, which opened new windows of knowledge on the universe, to the tiny superconducting transceivers using Rapid Single Flux Quanta, which have opened a revolutionary means of communication. In recent years, two new features have added to the intrinsic beauty and complexity of the subject: nanostructured/nanoengineered superconductors, and the discovery of a range of new materials showing multi-component (multi-gap) superconductivity. In this book, leading researche...

  5. Relaxation in magnetic nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, M.A.; Folly, W.S.D.; Sinnecker, J.P.; Soriano, S.

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured magnetic materials present a wide range of magnetic relaxation phenomena. One problem in studying nanomagnetic granular materials is the strong dependence of the relaxation with the anisotropy barrier which, even for systems with narrow size distributions, brings difficulties in the analysis of the experimental data. Molecular magnetism, with the chemists' bottom-up approach to build molecular nanostructures, provides this field with some beautiful model systems, well ordered crystals of single molecule magnets, single molecule chains, molecular magnetic multilayers and others novelties to appear. Most of these systems present slow relaxation and the study of these well-characterized nanomaterials may elucidate many features that are difficult to grasp in the non molecular materials

  6. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Hybrid phonons in nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Ridley, Brian K

    2017-01-01

    Crystalline semiconductor nanostructures have special properties associated with electrons and lattice vibrations and their interaction, and this is the topic of the book. The result of spatial confinement of electrons is indicated in the nomenclature of nonostructures: quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots. Confinement also has a profound effect on lattice vibrations and an account of this is the prime focus. The documentation of the confinement of acoustic modes goes back to Lord Rayleigh’s work in the late nineteenth century, but no such documentation exists for optical modes. Indeed, it is only comparatively recently that any theory of the elastic properties of optical modes exists, and the account given in the book is comprehensive. A model of the lattice dynamics of the diamond lattice is given that reveals the quantitative distinction between acoustic and optical modes and the difference of connection rules that must apply at an interface. The presence of interfaces in nanostructures forces ...

  8. Plasmonic Nanostructured Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhazraji, Emad; Ghalib, A.; Manzoor, K.; Alsunaidi, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we have investigated the scattering plasmonic resonance characteristics of silver nanospheres with a geometrical distribution that is modelled by Cellular Automata using time-domain numerical analysis. Cellular Automata are discrete mathematical structures that model different natural phenomena. Two binary one-dimensional Cellular Automata rules are considered to model the nanostructure, namely rule 30 and rule 33. The analysis produces three-dimensional scattering profiles of the entire plasmonic nanostructure. For the Cellular Automaton rule 33, the introduction of more Cellular Automata generations resulted only in slight red and blue shifts in the plasmonic modes with respect to the first generation. On the other hand, while rule 30 introduced significant red shifts in the resonance peaks at early generations, at later generations however, a peculiar effect is witnessed in the scattering profile as new peaks emerge as a feature of the overall Cellular Automata structure rather than the sum of the smaller parts that compose it. We strongly believe that these features that emerge as a result adopting the different 256 Cellular Automata rules as configuration models of nanostructures in different applications and systems might possess a great potential in enhancing their capability, sensitivity, efficiency, and power utilization.

  9. Nanostructured CoSi Obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhin, Marco; Viennois, Romain; Ravot, Didier; Robin, Jean-Jacques; Villeroy, Benjamin; Vaney, Jean-Baptiste; Candolfi, Christophe; Lenoir, Bertrand; Papet, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Cobalt monosilicide is a cheap, environmentally friendly thermoelectric material for medium temperatures (200-700°C). While its power factor is similar to the state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials, its thermal conductivity is too large to reach high ZT values. Nanostructuring might be an interesting strategy to reduce the phonon mean free path thereby improving the thermoelectric performance. In this paper, we report on a 35% reduction of the thermal conductivity of n-type CoSi by a nanostructuring approach. CoSi nanostructured powders were synthesized by arc melting, followed by 4° h mechanical milling. By optimizing the spark plasma sintering thermal and pressure cycle, pellets with 5â€"10% porosity were obtained. During sintering, a small amount of Co2Si extra phase appeared and grains coarsened. After sintering, the pellets remained nanostructured, with an averaged grain size of 70 nm. The reduction of thermal conductivity is ascribed to a decrease in both the electronic and lattice contributions. The former is directly related to a decrease in the electrical conductivity, which appears to be the limiting factor preventing nanostructured CoSi from reaching enhanced thermoelectric performances.

  10. semiconducting nanostructures: morphology and thermoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Mario; Torán, Raquel; Gómez, Clara M.; Cantarero, Andrés

    2014-08-01

    Semiconducting metallic oxides, especially perosvkite materials, are great candidates for thermoelectric applications due to several advantages over traditionally metallic alloys such as low production costs and high chemical stability at high temperatures. Nanostructuration can be the key to develop highly efficient thermoelectric materials. In this work, La 1- x Ca x MnO 3 perosvkite nanostructures with Ca as a dopant have been synthesized by the hydrothermal method to be used in thermoelectric applications at room temperature. Several heat treatments have been made in all samples, leading to a change in their morphology and thermoelectric properties. The best thermoelectric efficiency has been obtained for a Ca content of x=0.5. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient are strongly related to the calcium content.

  11. Growth and characterization of two-dimensional nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Sancho, Oscar Andrey

    2008-01-01

    Two dimensional nanostructures of palladium, nickel, silver and gadolinium were grown by means of physical evaporation in atmospheres of high vacuum and ultra high vacuum. The qualitative characterization, in situ, of the nanostructures was carried out with techniques of surface analysis: Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The model for the quantification of contaminants in the nanostructures, was proposed by Seah and Shirley, and was made using the spectra XPS measured in situ in the atmospheres of vacuum. For the two-dimensional nanostructures of gadolinium of thicknesses 8 Å, 16 Å, 24 Å, 32 Å, 36 Å, 44 Å, 50 Å, 61 Å, 77 Å, 81 Å, 92 Å and 101 Å, were obtained optical spectra of transmission measured in situ. An band of absorption centered at approximately 2,40 eV is obtained by an increase in the dynamic conductivity from the optical constants, i.e. refractive index and extinction coefficient, of the nanostructure of gadolinium. In addition, the optical constants for the gadolinium nanostructures have presented a maximum of 80 Å of thickness and then it was continued a decreasing tendency toward the values that were reported in the literature for bulk of gadolinium. (author) [es

  12. Computational modeling of geometry dependent phonon transport in silicon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Drew A.

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that thermal properties of semiconductor nanostructures depend on nanostructure boundary geometry. Phonons are quantized mechanical vibrations that are the dominant carrier of heat in semiconductor materials and their aggregate behavior determine a nanostructure's thermal performance. Phonon-geometry scattering processes as well as waveguiding effects which result from coherent phonon interference are responsible for the shape dependence of thermal transport in these systems. Nanoscale phonon-geometry interactions provide a mechanism by which nanostructure geometry may be used to create materials with targeted thermal properties. However, the ability to manipulate material thermal properties via controlling nanostructure geometry is contingent upon first obtaining increased theoretical understanding of fundamental geometry induced phonon scattering processes and having robust analytical and computational models capable of exploring the nanostructure design space, simulating the phonon scattering events, and linking the behavior of individual phonon modes to overall thermal behavior. The overall goal of this research is to predict and analyze the effect of nanostructure geometry on thermal transport. To this end, a harmonic lattice-dynamics based atomistic computational modeling tool was created to calculate phonon spectra and modal phonon transmission coefficients in geometrically irregular nanostructures. The computational tool is used to evaluate the accuracy and regimes of applicability of alternative computational techniques based upon continuum elastic wave theory. The model is also used to investigate phonon transmission and thermal conductance in diameter modulated silicon nanowires. Motivated by the complexity of the transmission results, a simplified model based upon long wavelength beam theory was derived and helps explain geometry induced phonon scattering of low frequency nanowire phonon modes.

  13. Optical switching systems using nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems.......High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems....

  14. Semiconductors and semimetals nanostructured systems

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, Robert K; Beer, Albert C; Reed, Mark A

    1992-01-01

    This is the first available volume to consolidate prominent topics in the emerging field of nanostructured systems. Recent technological advancements have led to a new era of nanostructure physics, allowing for the fabrication of nanostructures whose behavior is dominated by quantum interference effects. This new capability has enthused the experimentalist and theorist alike. Innumerable possibilities have now opened up for physical exploration and device technology on the nanoscale. This book, with contributions from five pioneering researchers, will allow the expert and novice alike to explore a fascinating new field.Provides a state-of-the-art review of quantum-scale artificially nanostructured electronic systemsIncludes contributions by world-known experts in the fieldOpens the field to the non-expert with a concise introductionFeatures discussions of:Low-dimensional condensed matter physicsProperties of nanostructured, ultrasmall electronic systemsMesoscopic physics and quantum transportPhysics of 2D ele...

  15. Nanostructured metal sulfides for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xianhong; Tan, Huiteng; Yan, Qingyu

    2014-09-07

    Advanced electrodes with a high energy density at high power are urgently needed for high-performance energy storage devices, including lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs), to fulfil the requirements of future electrochemical power sources for applications such as in hybrid electric/plug-in-hybrid (HEV/PHEV) vehicles. Metal sulfides with unique physical and chemical properties, as well as high specific capacity/capacitance, which are typically multiple times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials, are currently studied as promising electrode materials. However, the implementation of these sulfide electrodes in practical applications is hindered by their inferior rate performance and cycling stability. Nanostructures offering the advantages of high surface-to-volume ratios, favourable transport properties, and high freedom for the volume change upon ion insertion/extraction and other reactions, present an opportunity to build next-generation LIBs and SCs. Thus, the development of novel concepts in material research to achieve new nanostructures paves the way for improved electrochemical performance. Herein, we summarize recent advances in nanostructured metal sulfides, such as iron sulfides, copper sulfides, cobalt sulfides, nickel sulfides, manganese sulfides, molybdenum sulfides, tin sulfides, with zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensional morphologies for LIB and SC applications. In addition, the recently emerged concept of incorporating conductive matrices, especially graphene, with metal sulfide nanomaterials will also be highlighted. Finally, some remarks are made on the challenges and perspectives for the future development of metal sulfide-based LIB and SC devices.

  16. Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

    1999-08-09

    This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

  17. Nanostructured core-shell electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Long-bo; Yuan, Xing-zhong; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Hou; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2016-11-01

    Core-shell nanostructure represents a unique system for applications in electrochemical energy storage devices. Owing to the unique characteristics featuring high power delivery and long-term cycling stability, electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have emerged as one of the most attractive electrochemical storage systems since they can complement or even replace batteries in the energy storage field, especially when high power delivery or uptake is needed. This review aims to summarize recent progress on core-shell nanostructures for advanced supercapacitor applications in view of their hierarchical architecture which not only create the desired hierarchical porous channels, but also possess higher electrical conductivity and better structural mechanical stability. The core-shell nanostructures include carbon/carbon, carbon/metal oxide, carbon/conducting polymer, metal oxide/metal oxide, metal oxide/conducting polymer, conducting polymer/conducting polymer, and even more complex ternary core-shell nanoparticles. The preparation strategies, electrochemical performances, and structural stabilities of core-shell materials for ECs are summarized. The relationship between core-shell nanostructure and electrochemical performance is discussed in detail. In addition, the challenges and new trends in core-shell nanomaterials development have also been proposed.

  18. Fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report on different approaches that we have adopted and developed for the fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization seem to be the most promising for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures due to their easiness and low...... cost. The development of a supported nanoporous alumina template and the possibility of using this template to combine electrochemical synthesis with lithographic methods open new ways for the fabrication of complex nanostructures. The numerous advantages of the supported template and its compatibility...

  19. Mechanical design of DNA nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carlos E; Su, Hai-Jun; Marras, Alexander E; Zhou, Lifeng; Johnson, Joshua

    2015-04-14

    Structural DNA nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field that has demonstrated great potential for applications such as single molecule sensing, drug delivery, and templating molecular components. As the applications of DNA nanotechnology expand, a consideration of their mechanical behavior is becoming essential to understand how these structures will respond to physical interactions. This review considers three major avenues of recent progress in this area: (1) measuring and designing mechanical properties of DNA nanostructures, (2) designing complex nanostructures based on imposed mechanical stresses, and (3) designing and controlling structurally dynamic nanostructures. This work has laid the foundation for mechanically active nanomachines that can generate, transmit, and respond to physical cues in molecular systems.

  20. Lithium insertion in nanostructured TiO(2)(B) architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylla, Anthony G; Henkelman, Graeme; Stevenson, Keith J

    2013-05-21

    (+) pathways from surface to subsurface sites, which many chemists believe to contribute to the pseudocapacitive charging. Several disadvantages exist as well. TiO2(B), and titania in general, suffers from poor electronic and ionic conductivity. Nanostructured TiO2(B) also exhibits significant irreversible capacity loss (ICL) upon first discharge (lithiation). Nanostructuring TiO2(B) can help alleviate problems with poor ionic conductivity by shortening lithium diffusion pathways. Unfortunately, this also increases the likelihood of severe first discharge ICL due to reactive Ti-OH and Ti-O surface sites that can cause unwanted electrolyte degradation and irreversible trapping of Li(+). Nanostructuring also results in lowered volumetric energy density, which could be a considerable problem for mobile applications. We will also discuss these problems and proposed solutions. Scientists have synthesized TiO2(B) in a variety of nanostructures including nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles, mesoporous-ordered nanostructures, and nanosheets. Many of these structures exhibit enhanced Li(+) diffusion kinetics and increased specific capacities compared to bulk material, and thus warrant investigation on how nanostructuring influences lithiation behavior. This Account will focus on these influences from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. We will discuss the surface charging mechanism that gives rise to the increased lithiation and delithiation kinetics for TiO2(B), along with the influence of dimensional confinement of the nanoarchitectures, and how nanostructuring can change the lithiation mechanism considerably.

  1. Nanostructured Surfaces of Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sivolella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural and functional fusion of the surface of the dental implant with the surrounding bone (osseointegration is crucial for the short and long term outcome of the device. In recent years, the enhancement of bone formation at the bone-implant interface has been achieved through the modulation of osteoblasts adhesion and spreading, induced by structural modifications of the implant surface, particularly at the nanoscale level. In this context, traditional chemical and physical processes find new applications to achieve the best dental implant technology. This review provides an overview of the most common manufacture techniques and the related cells-surface interactions and modulation. A Medline and a hand search were conducted to identify studies concerning nanostructuration of implant surface and their related biological interaction. In this paper, we stressed the importance of the modifications on dental implant surfaces at the nanometric level. Nowadays, there is still little evidence of the long-term benefits of nanofeatures, as the promising results achieved in vitro and in animals have still to be confirmed in humans. However, the increasing interest in nanotechnology is undoubted and more research is going to be published in the coming years.

  2. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojin; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2015-06-02

    The advent of novel organic and inorganic nanomaterials in recent years, particularly nanostructured carbons, conducting polymers, and metal oxides, has enabled the fabrication of various energy devices with enhanced performance. In this paper, we review in detail different nanomaterials used in the fabrication of electrochemical capacitor electrodes and also give a brief overview of electric double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and hybrid capacitors. From a materials point of view, the latest trends in electrochemical capacitor research are also discussed through extensive analysis of the literature and by highlighting notable research examples (published mostly since 2013). Finally, a perspective on next-generation capacitor technology is also given, including the challenges that lie ahead.

  3. Magnetism in carbon nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Hagelberg, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Magnetism in carbon nanostructures is a rapidly expanding field of current materials science. Its progress is driven by the wide range of applications for magnetic carbon nanosystems, including transmission elements in spintronics, building blocks of cutting-edge nanobiotechnology, and qubits in quantum computing. These systems also provide novel paradigms for basic phenomena of quantum physics, and are thus of great interest for fundamental research. This comprehensive survey emphasizes both the fundamental nature of the field, and its groundbreaking nanotechnological applications, providing a one-stop reference for both the principles and the practice of this emerging area. With equal relevance to physics, chemistry, engineering and materials science, senior undergraduate and graduate students in any of these subjects, as well as all those interested in novel nanomaterials, will gain an in-depth understanding of the field from this concise and self-contained volume.

  4. Nanostructured epoxi networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Bluma G.; Silva, Adriana A.; Sollymossy, Ana Paula F.; Dahmouche, Karim

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured epoxy materials including nanocomposites were obtained by incorporating different organic or inorganic systems. Epoxy networks containing rubber particles with nanometric size have been obtained by an appropriate functionalization of the elastomers, in order to improve the interfacial adhesion between rubber and epoxy matrix. This adhesion also conferred an improvement of the impact resistance and thermal properties. This work also presents some results related to the utilization of inorganic nanoparticles in epoxy systems, including organo clay or hybrid materials based on functionalized silsesquioxanes. The nanoscopic characterization of these materials were performed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of dispersion degree of the inorganic nanoparticles on the rheological properties was also investigated. (author)

  5. A study of nanostructured gold modified glassy carbon electrode for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A nanostructured gold modified glassy carbon electrode (Aunano/GCE) was employed for the determination of trace chromium(VI). To prepare Aunano/GCE, the GCE was immersed into KAuCl4 solution and electrodeposition was conducted at the potential of -0.4 V (vs Ag/AgCl) for 600 s. Scanning electron microscopy ...

  6. @AuAg nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rina; Soni, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    Bimetallic and trimetallic nanoparticles have attracted significant attention in recent times due to their enhanced electrochemical and catalytic properties compared to monometallic nanoparticles. The numerical calculations using Mie theory has been carried out for three-layered metal nanoshell dielectric-metal-metal (DMM) system consisting of a particle with a dielectric core (Al@Al2O3), a middle metal Ag (Au) layer and an outer metal Au (Ag) shell. The results have been interpreted using plasmon hybridization theory. We have also prepared Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au and Al@Al2O3@AgAu triple-layered core-shell or alloy nanostructure by two-step laser ablation method and compared with calculated results. The synthesis involves temporal separations of Al, Ag, and Au deposition for step-by-step formation of triple-layered core-shell structure. To form Al@Ag nanoparticles, we ablated silver for 40 min in aluminium nanoparticle colloidal solution. As aluminium oxidizes easily in water to form alumina, the resulting structure is core-shell Al@Al2O3. The Al@Al2O3 particle acts as a seed for the incoming energetic silver particles for multilayered Al@Al2O3@Ag nanoparticles is formed. The silver target was then replaced by gold target and ablation was carried out for different ablation time using different laser energy for generation of Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au core-shell or Al@Al2O3@AgAu alloy. The formation of core-shell and alloy nanostructure was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The absorption spectra show shift in plasmon resonance peak of silver to gold in the range 400-520 nm with increasing ablation time suggesting formation of Ag-Au alloy in the presence of alumina particles in the solution.

  7. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  8. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nan, Alexandrina, E-mail: alexandrina.nan@itim-cj.ro; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  9. Nanostructured Photovoltaics for Space Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA NSTRF proposal entitled Nanostructured Photovoltaics for Space Power is targeted towards research to improve the current state of the art photovoltaic...

  10. Quantum optics with semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Jahnke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A guide to the theory, application and potential of semiconductor nanostructures in the exploration of quantum optics. It offers an overview of resonance fluorescence emission.$bAn understanding of the interaction between light and matter on a quantum level is of fundamental interest and has many applications in optical technologies. The quantum nature of the interaction has recently attracted great attention for applications of semiconductor nanostructures in quantum information processing. Quantum optics with semiconductor nanostructures is a key guide to the theory, experimental realisation, and future potential of semiconductor nanostructures in the exploration of quantum optics. Part one provides a comprehensive overview of single quantum dot systems, beginning with a look at resonance fluorescence emission. Quantum optics with single quantum dots in photonic crystal and micro cavities are explored in detail, before part two goes on to review nanolasers with quantum dot emitters. Light-matter interaction...

  11. Synthesis of vertically aligned metal oxide nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Roqan, Iman S.

    2016-03-03

    Metal oxide nanostructure and methods of making metal oxide nanostructures are provided. The metal oxide nanostructures can be 1 -dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires, nanofibers, or nanotubes. The metal oxide nanostructures can be doped or undoped metal oxides. The metal oxide nanostructures can be deposited onto a variety of substrates. The deposition can be performed without high pressures and without the need for seed catalysts on the substrate. The deposition can be performed by laser ablation of a target including a metal oxide and, optionally, a dopant. In some embodiments zinc oxide nanostructures are deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition of a zinc oxide target using an excimer laser emitting UV radiation. The zinc oxide nanostructure can be doped with a rare earth metal such as gadolinium. The metal oxide nanostructures can be used in many devices including light-emitting diodes and solar cells.

  12. Electrochemical characterization of organosilane-functionalized nanostructured ITO surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruna, R., E-mail: rpruna@el.ub.edu; Palacio, F.; López, M. [SIC, Departament d' Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pérez, J. [Nanobioengineering Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Baldiri Reixac 15-21, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Mir, M. [Nanobioengineering Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Baldiri Reixac 15-21, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Monforte de Lemos 3-5 Pabellón 11, E-28029 Madrid (Spain); Blázquez, O.; Hernández, S.; Garrido, B. [MIND-IN" 2UB, Departament d' Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-08-08

    The electroactivity of nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) has been investigated for its further use in applications such as sensing biological compounds by the analysis of redox active molecules. ITO films were fabricated by using electron beam evaporation at different substrate temperatures and subsequently annealed for promoting their crystallization. The morphology of the deposited material was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, confirming the deposition of either thin films or nanowires, depending on the substrate temperature. Electrochemical surface characterization revealed a 45 % increase in the electroactive surface area of nanostructured ITO with respect to thin films, one third lower than the geometrical surface area variation determined by atomic force microscopy. ITO surfaces were functionalized with a model organic molecule known as 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol. The chemical attachment was done by means of a glycidoxy compound containing a reactive epoxy group, the so-called 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy-silane. ITO functionalization was useful for determining the benefits of nanostructuration on the surface coverage of active molecules. Compared to ITO thin films, an increase in the total peak height of 140 % was observed for as-deposited nanostructured electrodes, whereas the same measurement for annealed electrodes resulted in an increase of more than 400 %. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability of nanostructured ITO to increase the surface-to-volume ratio, conductivity and surface area functionalization, features that highly benefit the performance of biosensors.

  13. Electrochemical characterization of organosilane-functionalized nanostructured ITO surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruna, R.; Palacio, F.; López, M.; Pérez, J.; Mir, M.; 2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (MIND-IN2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Blázquez, O.; 2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (MIND-IN2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Hernández, S.; 2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (MIND-IN2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Garrido, B.

    2016-01-01

    The electroactivity of nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) has been investigated for its further use in applications such as sensing biological compounds by the analysis of redox active molecules. ITO films were fabricated by using electron beam evaporation at different substrate temperatures and subsequently annealed for promoting their crystallization. The morphology of the deposited material was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, confirming the deposition of either thin films or nanowires, depending on the substrate temperature. Electrochemical surface characterization revealed a 45 % increase in the electroactive surface area of nanostructured ITO with respect to thin films, one third lower than the geometrical surface area variation determined by atomic force microscopy. ITO surfaces were functionalized with a model organic molecule known as 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol. The chemical attachment was done by means of a glycidoxy compound containing a reactive epoxy group, the so-called 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy-silane. ITO functionalization was useful for determining the benefits of nanostructuration on the surface coverage of active molecules. Compared to ITO thin films, an increase in the total peak height of 140 % was observed for as-deposited nanostructured electrodes, whereas the same measurement for annealed electrodes resulted in an increase of more than 400 %. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability of nanostructured ITO to increase the surface-to-volume ratio, conductivity and surface area functionalization, features that highly benefit the performance of biosensors.

  14. Growth of anisotropic gold nanostructures on conducting glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our modified approach can be used to make nanowires of several tens of micrometers length at a lower CTAB concentration of 0.1 M. The length of the nanowires can be varied by adjusting the time of the reaction. As the concentration of CTAB was increased to 0.25 M, the nanoparticles got converted to nanoplates.

  15. Growth of anisotropic gold nanostructures on conducting glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Analytical Instrument Facility, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 e-mail: pradeep@iitm.ac.in. Abstract. In this paper, we describe a method for the growth of ... of metal nanoparticles of diverse shape and size has become a major area of research due to their geometry-dependent properties and potential.

  16. Growth of anisotropic gold nanostructures on conducting glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    were sonicated with a mild detergent solution, etha- nol and finally with pure water (in the order men- tioned). They were then soaked in a 10% HCl solution for activation, washed with water, and dried under a stream of nitrogen. These plates were annealed at. 450°C for 7 h and cooled in a desiccator. The glass slides were ...

  17. Effects of surface morphology on the optical and electrical properties of Schottky diodes of CBD deposited ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwankemwa, Benard S.; Akinkuade, Shadrach; Maabong, Kelebogile; Nel, Jackie M.; Diale, Mmantsae

    2018-04-01

    We report on effect of surface morphology on the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures. ZnO nanostructures were deposited on the seeded conducting indium doped tin oxide substrate positioned in three different directions in the growth solution. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the morphological properties of the synthesized nanostructures and revealed that the positioning of the substrate in the growth solution affects the surface morphology of the nanostructures. The optical absorbance, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy of the resulting nanostructures are discussed. The electrical characterization of the Schottky diode such as barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratios, reverse saturation current and series resistance were found to depend on the nanostructures morphology. In addition, current transport mechanism in the higher forward bias of the Schottky diode was studied and space charge limited current was found to be the dominant transport mechanism in all samples.

  18. Multiscale modelling of nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vvedensky, Dimitri D

    2004-01-01

    Most materials phenomena are manifestations of processes that are operative over a vast range of length and time scales. A complete understanding of the behaviour of materials thereby requires theoretical and computational tools that span the atomic-scale detail of first-principles methods and the more coarse-grained description provided by continuum equations. Recent efforts have focused on combining traditional methodologies-density functional theory, molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo methods and continuum descriptions-within a unified multiscale framework. This review covers the techniques that have been developed to model various aspects of materials behaviour with the ultimate aim of systematically coupling the atomistic to the continuum descriptions. The approaches described typically have been motivated by particular applications but can often be applied in wider contexts. The self-assembly of quantum dot ensembles will be used as a case study for the issues that arise and the methods used for all nanostructures. Although quantum dots can be obtained with all the standard growth methods and for a variety of material systems, their appearance is a quite selective process, involving the competition between equilibrium and kinetic effects, and the interplay between atomistic and long-range interactions. Most theoretical models have addressed particular aspects of the ordering kinetics of quantum dot ensembles, with far fewer attempts at a comprehensive synthesis of this inherently multiscale phenomenon. We conclude with an assessment of the current status of multiscale modelling strategies and highlight the main outstanding issues. (topical review)

  19. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima

    2016-07-26

    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane\\'s water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. The nanostructure problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinge, S.

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction techniques are making progress in tackling the difficult problem of solving the structures of nanoparticles and nanoscale materials. The great gift of x-ray crystallography has made us almost complacent in our ability to locate the three-dimensional coordinates of atoms in a crystal with a precision of around 10 -4 nm. However, the powerful methods of crystallography break down for structures in which order only extends over a few nanometers. In fact, as we near the one hundred year mark since the birth of crystallography, we face a resilient frontier in condensed matter physics: our inability to routinely and robustly determine the structure of complex nanostructured and amorphous materials. Knowing the structure and arrangement of atoms in a solid is so fundamental to understanding its properties that the topic routinely occupies the early chapters of every solid-state physics textbook. Yet what has become clear with the emergence of nanotechnology is that diffraction data alone may not be enough to uniquely solve the structure of nanomaterials. As part of a growing effort to incorporate the results of other techniques to constrain x-ray refinements - a method called 'complex modeling' which is a simple but elegant approach for combining information from spectroscopy with diffraction data to solve the structure of several amorphous and nanostructured materials. Crystallography just works, so we rarely question how and why this is so, yet understanding the physics of diffraction can be very helpful as we consider the nanostructure problem. The relationship between the electron density distribution in three dimensions (i.e., the crystal structure) and an x-ray diffraction pattern is well established: the measured intensity distribution in reciprocal space is the square of the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function of the electron density distribution ρ(r). The fact that we get the autocorrelation function (rather than just the density

  1. Nuclear spins in nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coish, W.A.; Baugh, J.

    2009-01-01

    We review recent theoretical and experimental advances toward understanding the effects of nuclear spins in confined nanostructures. These systems, which include quantum dots, defect centers, and molecular magnets, are particularly interesting for their importance in quantum information processing devices, which aim to coherently manipulate single electron spins with high precision. On one hand, interactions between confined electron spins and a nuclear-spin environment provide a decoherence source for the electron, and on the other, a strong effective magnetic field that can be used to execute local coherent rotations. A great deal of effort has been directed toward understanding the details of the relevant decoherence processes and to find new methods to manipulate the coupled electron-nuclear system. A sequence of spectacular new results have provided understanding of spin-bath decoherence, nuclear spin diffusion, and preparation of the nuclear state through dynamic polarization and more general manipulation of the nuclear-spin density matrix through ''state narrowing.'' These results demonstrate the richness of this physical system and promise many new mysteries for the future. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Nanostructured Basaltfiberconcrete Exploitational Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraykina, K. A.; Shamanov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article demonstrates that the mass use of basalt fiber concrete (BFC) is constrained by insufficient study of their durability and serviceability in a variety of environments. This research is aimed at the study of the basalt fiber corrosion processes in the cement stone of BFC, the control of the new products structure formation in order to protect the reinforcing fiber from alkaline destruction and thereby improve the exploitational characteristics of the composite. The research result revealed that the modification of basaltfiber concrete by the dispersion of MWNTs contributes to the directional formation of new products in the cement matrix. The HAM additive in basaltfiberconcrete provides for the binding of portlandite to low-basic calcium hydroaluminosilicates, thus reducing the aggressive effect of the cement environment on the reinforcing fibers properties. The complex modification of BFC with nanostructured additives provides for an increase in its durability and exploitational properties (strength, frost resistance and water resistance) due to basalt fiber protection from alkali corrosion on account of the compacting of the contact zone “basalt fiber - cement stone” and designing of the new products structure and morphology of cement matrix over the fiber surface.

  3. Metal Nanoparticles and Carbon-Based Nanostructures as Advanced Materials for Cathode Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Calandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the most advanced methods for the fabrication of cathodes for dye-sensitized solar cells employing nanostructured materials. The attention is focused on metal nanoparticles and nanostructured carbon, among which nanotubes and graphene, whose good catalytic properties make them ideal for the development of counter electrode substrates, transparent conducting oxide, and advanced catalyst materials.

  4. Nanostructured catalysts for organic transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Leng Leng; Erathodiyil, Nandanan; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-08-20

    The development of green, sustainable and economical chemical processes is one of the major challenges in chemistry. Besides the traditional need for efficient and selective catalytic reactions that will transform raw materials into valuable chemicals, pharmaceuticals and fuels, green chemistry also strives for waste reduction, atomic efficiency and high rates of catalyst recovery. Nanostructured materials are attractive candidates as heterogeneous catalysts for various organic transformations, especially because they meet the goals of green chemistry. Researchers have made significant advances in the synthesis of well-defined nanostructured materials in recent years. Among these are novel approaches that have permitted the rational design and synthesis of highly active and selective nanostructured catalysts by controlling the structure and composition of the active nanoparticles (NPs) and by manipulating the interaction between the catalytically active NP species and their support. The ease of isolation and separation of the heterogeneous catalysts from the desired organic product and the recovery and reuse of these NPs further enhance their attractiveness as green and sustainable catalysts. This Account reviews recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for catalytic organic transformations. We present a broad overview of nanostructured catalysts used in different types of organic transformations including chemoselective oxidations and reductions, asymmetric hydrogenations, coupling reactions, C-H activations, oxidative aminations, domino and tandem reactions, and more. We focus on recent research efforts towards the development of the following nanostructured materials: (i) nanostructured catalysts with controlled morphologies, (ii) magnetic nanocomposites, (iii) semiconductor-metal nanocomposites, and (iv) hybrid nanostructured catalysts. Selected examples showcase principles of nanoparticle design such as the enhancement of reactivity, selectivity

  5. Photonic effects in natural nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey GonzáLez, Rafael Ramón; Barrera Patiã+/-O, Claudia Patricia

    Nature exhibits a great variety of structures and nanostructures. In particular the interaction light-matter has a strong dependence with the shape of the nanostructures. In some cases, in the so called structural color, ordered arrays of nanostructures play a very critical role. One of the most interesting color effects is the iridescence, the angular dependence of the observed color in some species of butterflies, insects, plants, beetles, fishes, birds and even in minerals. In the last years, iridescence has been related with photonic properties. In the present work, we present a theoretical study of the photonic properties for different patterns that exist in natural nanostructures present in wings of butterflies that exhibit iridescence. The nanostructures observed in these cases present spatial variations of the dielectric constant that are possible to model them as 1D and 2D photonic crystal. Partial photonic gaps are found as function of lattice constant, dielectric contrast and geometrical configuration. Also, disordered effects are considered. Authors would like to thank the División de Investigación Sede Bogotá for their financial support at Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

  6. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S

  7. Plasmonic effects in metal-semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Toropov, Alexey A

    2015-01-01

    Metal-semiconductor nanostructures represent an important new class of materials employed in designing advanced optoelectronic and nanophotonic devices, such as plasmonic nanolasers, plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes and solar cells, plasmonic emitters of single photons, and quantum devices operating in infrared and terahertz domains. The combination of surface plasmon resonances in conducting structures, providing strong concentration of an electromagnetic optical field nearby, with sharp optical resonances in semiconductors, which are highly sensitive to external electromagnetic fields, creates a platform to control light on the nanoscale. The design of the composite metal-semiconductor system imposes the consideration of both the plasmonic resonances in metal and the optical transitions in semiconductors - a key issue being their resonant interaction providing a coupling regime. In this book the reader will find descriptions of electrodynamics of conducting structures, quantum physics of semiconducto...

  8. Terahertz response of DNA oligonucleotides on the surface of silicon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagraev, N. T., E-mail: bagraev@mail.ioffe.ru [Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Chernev, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg Academic University—Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Klyachkin, L. E.; Malyarenko, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Emel’yanov, A. K.; Dubina, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg Academic University—Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The possibility of identifying DNA oligonucleotides deposited onto the region of the edge channels of silicon nanostructures is considered. The role of various THz (terahertz) radiation harmonics of silicon nanostructures in the resonance response of oligonucleotides is analyzed. In particular, this makes it possible to compare single-stranded 100- and 50-mer DNA oligonucleotides. A technique for the rapid identification of different oligonucleotides by measuring changes in the conductance and transverse potential difference of silicon nanostructures with microcavities, embedded in the edge channels for selecting THz radiation characteristics, is proposed.

  9. Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Nanostructure Graphene Electron Transfer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of nanostructure graphene thin films as electron transfer layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was demonstrated. The effect of a nanostructure graphene thin film in DSSC structure was examined. The nanostructure graphene thin films provides a great electron transfer channel for the photogenerated electrons from TiO2 to indium tin oxide (ITO glass. Obvious improvements in short-circuit current density of the DSSCs were observed by using the graphene electron transport layer modified photoelectrode. The graphene electron transport layer reduces effectively the back reaction in the interface between the ITO transparent conductive film and the electrolyte in the DSSC.

  10. Effect of Second Phase Particles on the Tensile Instability of a Nanostructured Al-1%Si Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Tian Lin; Wu, Gui Lin; Liu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    A nanostructured Al-1%Si alloy containing dispersed Si particles was produced by heavily cold-rolling to study the effect of second phase particles on the tensile instability of nanostructured metals. Tensile tests were conducted on the as-deformed sample and the samples after recovery annealing...... treatments. The structural features of deformed and annealed samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. By comparing with the behavior of nanostructured commercial purity Al without dispersed particles, a remarked improvement in the tensile stability was found. This is related...... to a prevention of localized deformation by the presence of finely dispersed Si particles in the nanoscale matrix structure....

  11. On the Response of Nascent Soot Nanostructure and Oxidative Reactivity to Photoflash Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soot particles are a kind of major pollutant from fuel combustion. To enrich the understanding of soot, this work focuses on investigating detailed influences of instantaneous external irradiation (conventional photoflash exposure on nanostructure as well as oxidation reactivity of nascent soot particles. By detailed soot characterizations flash can reduce the mass of soot and soot nanostructure can be reconstructed substantially without burning. After flash, the degree of soot crystallization increases while the soot reactive rate decreases and the activation energy increases. In addition, nanostructure and oxidative reactivity of soot in air and Ar after flash are different due to their different thermal conductivities.

  12. Nanostructure Neutron Converter Layer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Thibeault, Sheila A. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods for making a neutron converter layer are provided. The various embodiment methods enable the formation of a single layer neutron converter material. The single layer neutron converter material formed according to the various embodiments may have a high neutron absorption cross section, tailored resistivity providing a good electric field penetration with submicron particles, and a high secondary electron emission coefficient. In an embodiment method a neutron converter layer may be formed by sequential supercritical fluid metallization of a porous nanostructure aerogel or polyimide film. In another embodiment method a neutron converter layer may be formed by simultaneous supercritical fluid metallization of a porous nanostructure aerogel or polyimide film. In a further embodiment method a neutron converter layer may be formed by in-situ metalized aerogel nanostructure development.

  13. Nanostructuring of Solar Cell Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    Solar energy is by far the most abundant renewable energy source available, but the levelized cost of solar energy is still not competitive with that of fossil fuels. Therefore there is a need to improve the power conversion effciency of solar cells without adding to the production cost. The main...... objective of this PhD thesis is to develop nanostructured silicon (Si) solar cells with higher power conversion efficiency using only scalable and cost-efficient production methods. The nanostructures, known as 'black silicon', are fabricated by single-step, maskless reactive ion etching and used as front...... texturing of different Si solar cells. Theoretically the nanostructure topology may be described as a graded refractive index in a mean-field approximation between air and Si. The optical properties of the developed black Si were simulated and experimentally measured. Total AM1.5G-weighted average...

  14. PREFACE: Self-organized nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Sylvie; Ortega, Enrique

    2006-04-01

    In order to fabricate ordered arrays of nanostructures, two different strategies might be considered. The `top-down' approach consists of pushing the limit of lithography techniques down to the nanometre scale. However, beyond 10 nm lithography techniques will inevitably face major intrinsic limitations. An alternative method for elaborating ultimate-size nanostructures is based on the reverse `bottom-up' approach, i.e. building up nanostructures (and eventually assemble them to form functional circuits) from individual atoms or molecules. Scanning probe microscopies, including scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) invented in 1982, have made it possible to create (and visualize) individual structures atom by atom. However, such individual atomic manipulation is not suitable for industrial applications. Self-assembly or self-organization of nanostructures on solid surfaces is a bottom-up approach that allows one to fabricate and assemble nanostructure arrays in a one-step process. For applications, such as high density magnetic storage, self-assembly appears to be the simplest alternative to lithography for massive, parallel fabrication of nanostructure arrays with regular sizes and spacings. These are also necessary for investigating the physical properties of individual nanostructures by means of averaging techniques, i.e. all those using light or particle beams. The state-of-the-art and the current developments in the field of self-organization and physical properties of assembled nanostructures are reviewed in this issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. The papers have been selected from among the invited and oral presentations of the recent summer workshop held in Cargese (Corsica, France, 17-23 July 2005). All authors are world-renowned in the field. The workshop has been funded by the Marie Curie Actions: Marie Curie Conferences and Training Courses series named `NanosciencesTech' supported by the VI Framework Programme of the European Community, by

  15. Interfacing nanostructures to biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed herein are methods and materials by which nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, nanorods, etc. are bound to lectins and/or polysaccharides and prepared for administration to cells. Also disclosed are complexes comprising glycosylated nanostructures, which bind selectively to cells expressing glycosylated surface molecules recognized by the lectin. Exemplified is a complex comprising a carbon nanotube functionalized with a lipid-like alkane, linked to a polymer bearing repeated .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine sugar groups. This complex is shown to selectively adhere to the surface of living cells, without toxicity. In the exemplified embodiment, adherence is mediated by a multivalent lectin, which binds both to the cells and the .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine groups on the nanostructure.

  16. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  17. Fabrication of nanostructured Al-doped ZnO thin film for methane sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafura, A. K.; Azhar, N. E. I.; Uzer, M.; Mamat, M. H.; Sin, N. D. Md.; Saurdi, I.; Shuhaimi, A.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-01-01

    CH 4 gas sensor was fabricated using spin-coating method of the nanostructured ZnO thin film. Effect of annealing temperature on the electrical and structural properties of the film was investigated. Dense nanostructured ZnO film are obtained at higher annealing temperature. The optimal condition of annealing temperature is 500°C which has conductivity and sensitivity value of 3.3 × 10 −3 S/cm and 11.5%, respectively.

  18. Fabrication of nanostructured Al-doped ZnO thin film for methane sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafura, A. K., E-mail: shafura@ymail.com; Azhar, N. E. I.; Uzer, M.; Mamat, M. H. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Sin, N. D. Md. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Johor, Kampus Pasir Gudang, 81750 Masai, Johor (Malaysia); Saurdi, I. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak, Kampus Kota Samarahan Jalan Meranek, Sarawak (Malaysia); Shuhaimi, A. [Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University ofMalaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A. [Research Chair of Targeting and Treatment Cancer Using Nanoparticles, Department Of Biochemistry, College Of Science, King Saud University, P.O: 2454 Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Rusop, M., E-mail: nanouitm@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    CH{sub 4} gas sensor was fabricated using spin-coating method of the nanostructured ZnO thin film. Effect of annealing temperature on the electrical and structural properties of the film was investigated. Dense nanostructured ZnO film are obtained at higher annealing temperature. The optimal condition of annealing temperature is 500°C which has conductivity and sensitivity value of 3.3 × 10{sup −3} S/cm and 11.5%, respectively.

  19. Thermoelectric effects in magnetic nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatami, Moosa; Bauer, Gerrit E.W.; Zhang, Q.F.; Kelly, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    We model and evaluate the Peltier and Seebeck effects in magnetic multilayer nanostructures by a finite-element theory of thermoelectric properties. We present analytical expressions for the thermopower and the current-induced temperature changes due to Peltier cooling/heating. The thermopower of a

  20. Computer Code for Nanostructure Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Due to their small size, nanostructures can have stress and thermal gradients that are larger than any macroscopic analogue. These gradients can lead to specific regions that are susceptible to failure via processes such as plastic deformation by dislocation emission, chemical debonding, and interfacial alloying. A program has been developed that rigorously simulates and predicts optoelectronic properties of nanostructures of virtually any geometrical complexity and material composition. It can be used in simulations of energy level structure, wave functions, density of states of spatially configured phonon-coupled electrons, excitons in quantum dots, quantum rings, quantum ring complexes, and more. The code can be used to calculate stress distributions and thermal transport properties for a variety of nanostructures and interfaces, transport and scattering at nanoscale interfaces and surfaces under various stress states, and alloy compositional gradients. The code allows users to perform modeling of charge transport processes through quantum-dot (QD) arrays as functions of inter-dot distance, array order versus disorder, QD orientation, shape, size, and chemical composition for applications in photovoltaics and physical properties of QD-based biochemical sensors. The code can be used to study the hot exciton formation/relation dynamics in arrays of QDs of different shapes and sizes at different temperatures. It also can be used to understand the relation among the deposition parameters and inherent stresses, strain deformation, heat flow, and failure of nanostructures.

  1. Nanostructures for Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The experimental work in this thesis is focused on the fabrication of nanostructures that can be implemented in organic solar cell (OSC) architecture for enhancement of the device performance. Solar devices made from organic material are gaining increased attention, compared to their inorganic...... for organic solar cell applications, opening new patterning possibilities....

  2. Nanostructured electronic and magnetic materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Nanostructured systems are useful in tailoring the magnetic, optical and electronic properties of materials. It is obvious that .... A hysteresis effect is produced and forms a hysteresis loop, this loop is a key tool in the quantitative analysis of ..... below the secondary crystallization temperature, in controlled time. Doing so yields ...

  3. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.

    2004-01-01

    A dry release method for fabrication of suspended nanostructures is presented. The technique has been combined with an anti-stiction treatment for fabrication of nanocantilever based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The process combines a dry release method, using a supporting layer of photo...

  4. Synthesis of cadmium oxide doped ZnO nanostructures using electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Trilok; Pandya, D.K.; Singh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Ternary ZnCdO alloy semiconductor nanostructures were grown using electrochemical deposition. → X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the nanostructures were of wurtzite structure and possessed a compressive stress along the c-axis direction. → The cut-off wavelength shifted from blue to red on account of the Cd incorporation in the ZnO and the average transmittance decreased by ∼31%. → The bandgap tuning for 4-16 at% Cd in the initial solution was achieved in the range of 3.08-3.32 eV (up to 0.24 eV). - Abstract: Ternary ZnCdO alloy semiconductor nanostructures were grown using electrochemical deposition. Crystalline nanostructures/nanorods with cadmium concentration ranging from 4 to 16 at% in the initial solution were electrodeposited on tin doped indium oxide (ITO) conducting glass substrates at a constant cathodic potential -0.9 V and subsequently annealed in air at 300 deg. C. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the nanostructures were of wurtzite structure and possessed a compressive stress along the c-axis direction. The elemental composition of nanostructures was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). ZnO nanostructures were found to be highly transparent and had an average transmittance of 85% in the visible range of the spectrum. After the incorporation of Cd content into ZnO the average transmittance decreased and the bandgap tuning was also achieved.

  5. A Comprehensive Review of One-Dimensional Metal-Oxide Nanostructure Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Tianyou; Fang, Xiaosheng; Liao, Meiyong; Xu, Xijin; Zeng, Haibo; Yoshio, Bando; Golberg, Dmitri

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) metal-oxide nanostructures are ideal systems for exploring a large number of novel phenomena at the nanoscale and investigating size and dimensionality dependence of nanostructure properties for potential applications. The construction and integration of photodetectors or optical switches based on such nanostructures with tailored geometries have rapidly advanced in recent years. Active 1D nanostructure photodetector elements can be configured either as resistors whose conductions are altered by a charge-transfer process or as field-effect transistors (FET) whose properties can be controlled by applying appropriate potentials onto the gates. Functionalizing the structure surfaces offers another avenue for expanding the sensor capabilities. This article provides a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art research activities in the photodetector field. It mainly focuses on the metal oxide 1D nanostructures such as ZnO, SnO2, Cu2O, Ga2O3, Fe2O3, In2O3, CdO, CeO2, and their photoresponses. The review begins with a survey of quasi 1D metal-oxide semiconductor nanostructures and the photodetector principle, then shows the recent progresses on several kinds of important metal-oxide nanostructures and their photoresponses and briefly presents some additional prospective metal-oxide 1D nanomaterials. Finally, the review is concluded with some perspectives and outlook on the future developments in this area. PMID:22454597

  6. Hybrid nanostructured materials for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guihua

    2013-03-01

    The exciting development of advanced nanostructured materials has driven the rapid growth of research in the field of electrochemical energy storage (EES) systems which are critical to a variety of applications ranging from portable consumer electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, to large industrial scale power and energy management. Owing to their capability to deliver high power performance and extremely long cycle life, electrochemical capacitors (ECs), one of the key EES systems, have attracted increasing attention in the recent years since they can complement or even replace batteries in the energy storage field, especially when high power delivery or uptake is needed. This review article describes the most recent progress in the development of nanostructured electrode materials for EC technology, with a particular focus on hybrid nanostructured materials that combine carbon based materials with pseudocapacitive metal oxides or conducting polymers for achieving high-performance ECs. This review starts with an overview of EES technologies and the comparison between various EES systems, followed by a brief description of energy storage mechanisms for different types of EC materials. This review emphasizes the exciting development of both hybrid nanomaterials and novel support structures for effective electrochemical utilization and high mass loading of active electrode materials, both of which have brought the energy density of ECs closer to that of batteries while still maintaining their characteristic high power density. Last, future research directions and the remaining challenges toward the rational design and synthesis of hybrid nanostructured electrode materials for next-generation ECs are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Plasmonic Nanostructures for Biosensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Akshitha

    Improving the sensitivity of existing biosensors is an active research topic that cuts across several disciplines, including engineering and biology. Optical biosensors are the one of the most diverse class of biosensors which can be broadly categorized into two types based on the detection scheme: label-based and label-free detection. In label-based detection, the target bio-molecules are labeled with dyes or tags that fluoresce upon excitation, indicating the presence of target molecules. Label-based detection is highly-sensitive, capable of single molecule detection depending on the detector type used. One method of improving the sensitivity of label-based fluorescence detection is by enhancement of the emission of the labels by coupling them with metal nanostructures. This approach is referred as plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (PEF). PEF is achieved by increasing the electric field around the nano metal structures through plasmonics. This increased electric field improves the enhancement from the fluorophores which in turn improves the photon emission from the fluorophores which, in turn, improves the limit of detection. Biosensors taking advantage of the plasmonic properties of metal films and nanostructures have emerged an alternative, low-cost, high sensitivity method for detecting labeled DNA. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensors employing noble metal nanostructures have recently attracted considerable attention as a new class of plasmonic nanosensors. In this work, the design, fabrication and characterization of plasmonic nanostructures is carried out. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations were performed using software from Lumerical Inc. to design a novel LSPR structure that exhibit resonance overlapping with the absorption and emission wavelengths of quantum dots (QD). Simulations of a composite Au/SiO2 nanopillars on silicon substrate were performed using FDTD software to show peak plasmonic enhancement at QD emission wavelength

  8. Fabrication of zein nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecha, Jarupat

    resins. The soft lithography technique was mainly used to fabricate micro and nanostructures on zein films. Zein material well-replicated small structures with the smallest size at sub micrometer scale that resulted in interesting photonic properties. The bonding method was also developed for assembling portable zein microfluidic devices with small shape distortion. Zein-zein and zein-glass microfluidic devices demonstrated sufficient strength to facilitate fluid flow in a complex microfluidic design with no leakage. Aside from the fabrication technique development, several potential applications of this environmentally friendly microfluidic device were investigated. The concentration gradient manipulation of Rhodamine B solution in zein-glass microfluidic devices was demonstrated. The diffusion of small molecules such as fluorescent dye into the wall of the zein microfluidic channels was observed. However, with this formulation, zein microfluidic devices were not suitable for cell culture applications. This pioneer study covered a wide spectrum of the implementation of the two nanotechnology approaches to advance zein biomaterial which provided proof of fundamental concepts as well as presenting some limitations. The findings in this study can lead to several innovative research opportunities of advanced zein biomaterials with broad applications. The information from the study of zein nanocomposite structure allows the packaging industry to develop the low cost biodegradable materials with physical property improvement. The information from the study of the zein microfluidic devices allows agro-industry to develop the nanotechnology-enabled microfluidic sensors fabricated entirely from biodegradable polymer for on-site disease or contaminant detection in the fields of food and agriculture.

  9. METALLIC AND HYBRID NANOSTRUCTURES: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S.

    2012-05-02

    This book chapter presents an overview of research conducted in our laboratory on preparation, optical and physico-chemical properties of metallic and nanohybrid materials. Metallic nanoparticles, particularly gold, silver, platinum or a combination of those are the main focus of this review manuscript. These metallic nanoparticles were further functionalized and used as templates for creation of complex and ordered nanomaterials with tailored and tunable structural, optical, catalytic and surface properties. Controlling the surface chemistry on/off metallic nanoparticles allows production of advanced nanoarchitectures. This includes coupled or encapsulated core-shell geometries, nano-peapods, solid or hollow, monometallic/bimetallic, hybrid nanoparticles. Rational assemblies of these nanostructures into one-, two- and tridimensional nano-architectures is described and analyzed. Their sensing, environmental and energy related applications are reviewed.

  10. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Choi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of novel organic and inorganic nanomaterials in recent years, particularly nanostructured carbons, conducting polymers, and metal oxides, has enabled the fabrication of various energy devices with enhanced performance. In this paper, we review in detail different nanomaterials used in the fabrication of electrochemical capacitor electrodes and also give a brief overview of electric double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and hybrid capacitors. From a materials point of view, the latest trends in electrochemical capacitor research are also discussed through extensive analysis of the literature and by highlighting notable research examples (published mostly since 2013. Finally, a perspective on next-generation capacitor technology is also given, including the challenges that lie ahead.

  11. Conduct disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000919.htm Conduct disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Conduct disorder is a set of ongoing emotional and behavioral ...

  12. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would exhibit electronic conductivity, their conductivities (of compressed pellets) were indeed measured by others, and were found to be .... Polyaniline. Polyphenylene. Polypheny lene- vinylene. Table 1. G!NeRAl I ARTICl! structure. Maximum conductivity Stem Stability. Processability. ~. 1.5 x 105. Reacts with Film not n air.

  13. Designing Nanostructures for Phonon Transport via Bayesian Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghong Ju

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate optimization of thermal conductance across nanostructures by developing a method combining atomistic Green’s function and Bayesian optimization. With an aim to minimize and maximize the interfacial thermal conductance (ITC across Si-Si and Si-Ge interfaces by means of the Si/Ge composite interfacial structure, the method identifies the optimal structures from calculations of only a few percent of the entire candidates (over 60 000 structures. The obtained optimal interfacial structures are nonintuitive and impacting: the minimum ITC structure is an aperiodic superlattice that realizes 50% reduction from the best periodic superlattice. The physical mechanism of the minimum ITC can be understood in terms of the crossover of the two effects on phonon transport: as the layer thickness in the superlattice increases, the impact of Fabry-Pérot interference increases, and the rate of reflection at the layer interfaces decreases. An aperiodic superlattice with spatial variation in the layer thickness has a degree of freedom to realize optimal balance between the above two competing mechanisms. Furthermore, the spatial variation enables weakening the impact of constructive phonon interference relative to that of destructive interference. The present work shows the effectiveness and advantage of material informatics in designing nanostructures to control heat conduction, which can be extended to other nanostructures and properties.

  14. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic nanostructure creation on PET surface for controlling of cell spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuji; Tsukamoto, Masahiro; Shinonaga, Togo; Kawa, Takuya

    2016-03-01

    A new method of periodic nanostructure formation on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface has been developed, employing a femtosecond laser with a wavelength of 1045 nm. To generate structured films, the PET was placed in contact with a silicon (Si) wafer, followed by irradiation with the laser focused on the Si wafer, passing through the PET film. In order to evaluate the surface morphology, atomic force microscopy analysis was conducted on both treated and untreated PET surfaces. From the results, nanostructures with a period of 600 nm and height of 100 nm were formed on the PET film surface by laser treatment. A cell cultivation test was carried out on PET films with and without periodic nanostructures, showing that for nanostructured films, the cells (MG-63) were spread along the periodic grooves; in contrast, random cell spreading was observed for cultures grown on the untreated PET film.

  15. Organosilane-functionalization of nanostructured indium tin oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, R; Palacio, F; Martínez, M; Blázquez, O; Hernández, S; Garrido, B; López, M

    2016-12-06

    Fabrication and organosilane-functionalization and characterization of nanostructured ITO electrodes are reported. Nanostructured ITO electrodes were obtained by electron beam evaporation, and a subsequent annealing treatment was selectively performed to modify their crystalline state. An increase in geometrical surface area in comparison with thin-film electrodes area was observed by atomic force microscopy, implying higher electroactive surface area for nanostructured ITO electrodes and thus higher detection levels. To investigate the increase in detectability, chemical organosilane-functionalization of nanostructured ITO electrodes was performed. The formation of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOPTS) layers was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As an indirect method to confirm the presence of organosilane molecules on the ITO substrates, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were also carried out. Cyclic voltammograms of functionalized ITO electrodes presented lower reduction-oxidation peak currents compared with non-functionalized ITO electrodes. These results demonstrate the presence of the epoxysilane coating on the ITO surface. EIS showed that organosilane-functionalized electrodes present higher polarization resistance, acting as an electronic barrier for the electron transfer between the conductive solution and the ITO electrode. The results of these electrochemical measurements, together with the significant difference in the X-ray spectra between bare ITO and organosilane-functionalized ITO substrates, may point to a new exploitable oxide-based nanostructured material for biosensing applications. As a first step towards sensing, rapid functionalization of such substrates and their application to electrochemical analysis is tested in this work. Interestingly, oxide-based materials are highly integrable with the silicon chip technology, which would permit the easy adaptation of such sensors into lab

  16. Tunable conductivity in mesoporous germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Meghan N.; Bioud, Youcef A.; Hobson, David G.; Boucherif, Abderraouf; Valdivia, Christopher E.; Drouin, Dominique; Arès, Richard; Hinzer, Karin

    2018-05-01

    Germanium-based nanostructures have attracted increasing attention due to favourable electrical and optical properties, which are tunable on the nanoscale. High densities of germanium nanocrystals are synthesized via electrochemical etching, making porous germanium an appealing nanostructured material for a variety of applications. In this work, we have demonstrated highly tunable electrical conductivity in mesoporous germanium layers by conducting a systematic study varying crystallite size using thermal annealing, with experimental conductivities ranging from 0.6 to 33 (×10‑3) Ω‑1 cm‑1. The conductivity of as-prepared mesoporous germanium with 70% porosity and crystallite size between 4 and 10 nm is shown to be ∼0.9 × 10‑3 Ω‑1 cm‑1, 5 orders of magnitude smaller than that of bulk p-type germanium. Thermal annealing for 10 min at 400 °C further reduced the conductivity; however, annealing at 450 °C caused a morphological transformation from columnar crystallites to interconnecting granular crystallites and an increase in conductivity by two orders of magnitude relative to as-prepared mesoporous germanium caused by reduced influence of surface states. We developed an electrostatic model relating the carrier concentration and mobility of p-type mesoporous germanium to the nanoscale morphology. Correlation within an order of magnitude was found between modelled and experimental conductivities, limited by variation in sample uniformity and uncertainty in void size and fraction after annealing. Furthermore, theoretical results suggest that mesoporous germanium conductivity could be tuned over four orders of magnitude, leading to optimized hybrid devices.

  17. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  18. Chiroplasmonic DNA-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconello, Alessandro; Besteiro, Lucas V.; Govorov, Alexander O.; Willner, Itamar

    2017-09-01

    Chiroplasmonic properties of nanoparticles, organized using DNA-based nanostructures, have attracted both theoretical and experimental interest. Theory suggests that the circular dichroism spectra accompanying chiroplasmonic nanoparticle assemblies are controlled by the sizes, shapes, geometries and interparticle distances of the nanoparticles. In this Review, we present different methods to assemble chiroplasmonic nanoparticle or nanorod systems using DNA scaffolds, and we discuss the operations of dynamically reconfigurable chiroplasmonic nanostructures. The chiroplasmonic properties of the different systems are characterized by circular dichroism and further supported by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy or cryo-transmission electron microscopy imaging and theoretical modelling. We also outline the applications of chiroplasmonic assemblies, including their use as DNA-sensing platforms and as functional systems for information processing and storage. Finally, future perspectives in applying chiroplasmonic nanoparticles as waveguides for selective information transfer and their use as ensembles for chiroselective synthesis are discussed. Specifically, we highlight the upscaling of the systems to device-like configurations.

  19. Reactor casts light on nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, C.

    2002-01-01

    Chris Garvey explains how the replacement research reactor will help scientists to design better materials by understanding how macromolecules behave. Australia is making a substantial financial commitment to providing scientists with facilities to scatter neutrons. Neutron scattering is one of the core areas of science in which the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) invests its resources. His particular interest is to find out the way nature uses macromolecules, and how the shape and interaction of macromolecules with other molecules change their function. Biologists call aggregates of macromolecules, 'nanostructures'. Neutron probes are used at ANSTO for studying nanostructures, and in particular the organisation of the protein that is used to transport oxygen in the blood. Small angle neutron scattering was also allowed to understand at microscopic level, how humidity changes the mechanical properties of fibres

  20. Nanostructured Biomaterials and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Parratt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most important advances in the life sciences have come from transitioning to thinking of materials and their properties on the nanoscale rather than the macro or even microscale. Improvements in imaging technology have allowed us to see nanofeatures that directly impact chemical and mechanical properties of natural and man-made materials. Now that these can be imaged and quantified, substantial advances have been made in the fields of biomimetics, tissue engineering, and drug delivery. For the first time, scientists can determine the importance of nanograins and nanoasperities in nacre, direct the nucleation of apatite and the growth of cells on nanostructured scaffolds, and pass drugs tethered to nanoparticles through the blood-brain barrier. This review examines some of the most interesting materials whose nanostructure and hierarchical organization have been shown to correlate directly with favorable properties and their resulting applications.

  1. Pressure effects on nanostructured manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acha, C.; Garbarino, G.; Leyva, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the pressure sensitivity of magnetic properties on La 5/8-y Pr y Ca 3/8 MnO 3 (y=0.3) nanostructured powders. Samples were synthesized following a microwave assisted denitration process and a final heat treatment at different temperatures to control the grain size of the samples. A span in grain diameters from 40 nm to ∼1000 nm was obtained. Magnetization curves as a function of temperature were measured following different thermomagnetic histories. AC susceptibility as a function of temperature was also measured at different hydrostatic pressures (up to 10 kbar) and for different frequencies. Our results indicate that the nanostructuration plays a role of an internal pressure, producing a structural deformation with similar effects to those obtained under an external hydrostatic pressure

  2. Electrochemical Positioning of Ordered Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-26

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15...MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b...make images on semiconducting surfaces and to show that we can modify the surface of DNA nanostructures with electro-active molecules. We will use

  3. Fibrin nanostructures for biomedical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Riedelová-Reicheltová, Zuzana; Brynda, Eduard; Riedel, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl. 2 (2016), S263-S272 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : fibrinogen * fibrin-bound thrombin * nanostructures Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/65%20Suppl%202/65_S263.pdf

  4. Stress Controlled Catalysis via Engineered Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    fields on catalysis : “Stress Controlled Catalysis via Engineered Nanostructures.” For this effort a workshop was organized and held at Brown... Catalysis via Engineered Nanostructures" The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued...Support for current award "Stress Controlled Catalysis via Engineered Nanostructures" Report Title This is the final report of the ARO project of

  5. Metal chalcogenide nanostructures for renewable energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq

    2014-01-01

    This first ever reference book that focuses on metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures for renewable energy applications encapsulates the state-of-the-art in multidisciplinary research on the metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures (nanocrystals, nanoparticles, nanorods, nanowires,  nanobelts, nanoflowers, nanoribbons and more).  The properties and synthesis of a class of nanomaterials is essential to renewable energy manufacturing and this book focuses on the synthesis of metal chalcogendie nanostructures, their growth mechanism, optical, electrical, and other important prop

  6. Nanostructured materials in electroanalysis of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, A; Karimian, K; Heli, H

    2016-03-15

    Basic strategies and recent developments for the enhancement of the sensory performance of nanostructures in the electroanalysis of pharmaceuticals are reviewed. A discussion of the properties of nanostructures and their application as modified electrodes for drug assays is presented. The electrocatalytic effect of nanostructured materials and their application in determining low levels of drugs in pharmaceutical forms and biofluids are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanostructures having crystalline and amorphous phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-04-28

    The present invention includes a nanostructure, a method of making thereof, and a method of photocatalysis. In one embodiment, the nanostructure includes a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase in contact with the crystalline phase. Each of the crystalline and amorphous phases has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes a nanoparticle comprising a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase. The amorphous phase is in a selected amount. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes crystalline titanium dioxide and amorphous titanium dioxide in contact with the crystalline titanium dioxide. Each of the crystalline and amorphous titanium dioxide has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale.

  8. Reactor and method for production of nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Kim, Jeong H.; Kumar, Vivekanand

    2017-04-25

    A reactor and method for production of nanostructures, including metal oxide nanowires or nanoparticles, are provided. The reactor includes a regulated metal powder delivery system in communication with a dielectric tube; a plasma-forming gas inlet, whereby a plasma-forming gas is delivered substantially longitudinally into the dielectric tube; a sheath gas inlet, whereby a sheath gas is delivered into the dielectric tube; and a microwave energy generator coupled to the dielectric tube, whereby microwave energy is delivered into a plasma-forming gas. The method for producing nanostructures includes providing a reactor to form nanostructures and collecting the formed nanostructures, optionally from a filter located downstream of the dielectric tube.

  9. Surface modification of cadmium sulfide thin film honey comb nanostructures: Effect of in situ tin doping using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.C., E-mail: wilsonphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Polytechnic College Kothamangalam, Chelad P O, Ernakulam, Kerala 686681 (India); Department of Physics, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandaloor, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600048 (India); Basheer Ahamed, M. [Department of Physics, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandaloor, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600048 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel honey comb like cadmium sulfide thin film nanostructures prepared using chemical bath deposition on glass substrates. • Honey comb nanostructure found in two layers: an ultra thin film at bottom and well inter connected with walls of < 25 nm thick on top; hence maximum surface area possible for CdS nanostructure. • Shell size of the nanostructures and energy band gaps were controlled also an enhanced persistent conductivity observed on Sn doping. - Abstract: Even though nanostructures possess large surface to volume ratio compared to their thin film counterpart, the complicated procedure that demands for the deposition on a substrate kept them back foot in device fabrication techniques. In this work, a honey comb like cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films nanostructure are deposited on glass substrates using simple chemical bath deposition technique at 65 °C. Energy band gaps, film thickness and shell size of the honey comb nanostructures are successfully controlled using tin (Sn) doping and number of shells per unit area is found to be maximum for 5% Sn doped (in the reaction mixture) sample. X-ray diffraction and optical absorption analysis showed that cadmium sulfide and cadmium hydroxide coexist in the samples. TEM measurements showed that CdS nanostructures are embedded in cadmium hydroxide just like “plum pudding”. Persistent photoconductivity measurements of the samples are also carried out. The decay constants found to be increased with increases in Sn doping.

  10. Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not receive early and comprehensive treatment . Without treatment, many youngsters with conduct disorder are unable to adapt to the demands of ... break laws or behave in an antisocial manner. Treatment of children with conduct disorder can be complex and challenging. Treatment can be ...

  11. Fabrication of hybrid nanostructures by liquid plasma for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponraj, Sri Balaji; Dai, Xiujuan Jane; Li, Luhua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Surya Narayanan, Jayanth; Kanwar, Jagat; Du Plessis, Johan

    2013-09-01

    Liquid plasma, generated by a nanosecond pulsed generator at atmospheric pressure, was used to treat bamboo-like boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). It was observed that the length of the BNNTs was reduced and found more cup like structures called boron nitride nanocups (BNNCs). Interestingly, a new peak appeared at 406.86 eV in the N1s X-ray photoelectron spectrum, which seems to be attributable to the oxidation of nitrogen (N-O) in BNNTs. The C1s spectrum showed that oxygen functional groups were introduced onto the BNNT/BNNC surface. The liquid plasma was also used to assemble gold nanoparticles onto the treated BNNTs/BNNCs. This hybrid nanostructure was fabricated efficiently, compared with normal equilibrium conditions. The pH values and conductivity of all samples were measured. After plasma treatment, the pH values were greatly reduced and conductivity was significantly increased. We propose that the plasma acid, hydrogen peroxide, OH-, H ions and radicals formed in liquid plasma as well as the pulsed electric field contribute to the oxidation of nitrogen, reduced length of the BNNTs(forming BNNCs), surface functionalization, and to the fabrication of hybrid nanostructure. The cytotoxic tests for these hybrid nanostructures is underway. The authors acknowledge Rosey van Driel and Prabhukumar Sellamuthu for assisting with TEM and SEM, and the access of the XPS facility at RMIT University.

  12. Rayleigh waves, surface disorder, and phonon localization in nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, L. N.; Mei, S.; Knezevic, I.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a technique to calculate thermal conductivity in disordered nanostructures: a finite-difference time-domain solution of the elastic-wave equation combined with the Green-Kubo formula. The technique captures phonon wave behavior and scales well to nanostructures that are too large or too surface disordered to simulate with many other techniques. We investigate the role of Rayleigh waves and surface disorder on thermal transport by studying graphenelike nanoribbons with free edges (allowing Rayleigh waves) and fixed edges (prohibiting Rayleigh waves). We find that free edges result in a significantly lower thermal conductivity than fixed ones. Free edges both introduce Rayleigh waves and cause all low-frequency modes (bulk and surface) to become more localized. Increasing surface disorder on free edges draws energy away from the center of the ribbon and toward the disordered edges, where it gets trapped in localized surface modes. These effects are not seen in ribbons with fixed boundary conditions and illustrate the importance of phonon-surface modes in nanostructures.

  13. Nanostructure assembly of indium sulphide quantum dots and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneashwari, B; Ravichandran, V; Parameswaran, P; Dash, S; Tyagi, A K

    2008-02-01

    Nanocrystals (approximately 5 nm) of the semiconducting wide band gap material beta-In2S3 obtained by chemical synthesis through a hydrothermal route were characterized for phase and compositional purity. These nanoparticles exhibited quantum confinement characteristics as revealed by a blue-shifted optical absorption. These quantum dots of beta-In2S3 were electrically driven from a monodisperse colloidal suspension on to conducting glass substrates by Electophoretic Deposition (EPD) technique and nanostructural thin films were obtained. The crystalline and morphological structures of these deposits were investigated by X-ray diffraction and nanoscopic techniques. We report here that certain interesting nanostructural morphologies were observed in the two-dimensional quantum dot assemblies of beta-In2S3. The effect of the controlling parameters on the cluster growth and deposit integrity was also systematically studied through a series of experiments and the results are reported here.

  14. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  15. 2D Hybrid Nanostructured Dirac Materials for Broadband Transparent Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yunfan; Lin, Li; Zhao, Shuli; Deng, Bing; Chen, Hongliang; Ma, Bangjun; Wu, Jinxiong; Yin, Jianbo; Liu, Zhongfan; Peng, Hailin

    2015-08-05

    Broadband transparent electrodes based on 2D hybrid nanostructured Dirac materials between Bi2 Se3 and graphene are synthesized using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Bi2 Se3 nanoplates are preferentially grown along graphene grain boundaries as "smart" conductive patches to bridge the graphene boundary. These hybrid films increase by one- to threefold in conductivity while remaining highly transparent over broadband wavelength. They also display outstanding chemical stability and mechanical flexibility. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Hollow metal nanostructures for enhanced plasmonics: synthesis, local plasmonic properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genç Aziz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metallic nanostructures have received great attention due to their ability to generate surface plasmon resonances, which are collective oscillations of conduction electrons of a material excited by an electromagnetic wave. Plasmonic metal nanostructures are able to localize and manipulate the light at the nanoscale and, therefore, are attractive building blocks for various emerging applications. In particular, hollow nanostructures are promising plasmonic materials as cavities are known to have better plasmonic properties than their solid counterparts thanks to the plasmon hybridization mechanism. The hybridization of the plasmons results in the enhancement of the plasmon fields along with more homogeneous distribution as well as the reduction of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR quenching due to absorption. In this review, we summarize the efforts on the synthesis of hollow metal nanostructures with an emphasis on the galvanic replacement reaction. In the second part of this review, we discuss the advancements on the characterization of plasmonic properties of hollow nanostructures, covering the single nanoparticle experiments, nanoscale characterization via electron energy-loss spectroscopy and modeling and simulation studies. Examples of the applications, i.e. sensing, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, photothermal ablation therapy of cancer, drug delivery or catalysis among others, where hollow nanostructures perform better than their solid counterparts, are also evaluated.

  17. ZnO nanostructures for optoelectronics: Material properties and device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurišić, A. B.; Ng, A. M. C.; Chen, X. Y.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in ZnO nanostructures due to their variety of morphologies and availability of simple and low cost processing. While there are still unanswered questions concerning fundamental properties of this material, in particular those related to defects and visible luminescence lines, great progress has been made in synthesis methods and device applications of ZnO nanostructures. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of synthesis methods of ZnO nanostructures, with particular focus on the growth of perpendicular arrays of nanorods/nanowires which are of interest for optoelectronic device applications. Then, we will provide an overview of material properties of ZnO nanostructures, issues related to doping with various elements to achieve either p- or n-type conductivity. Doping to alter optical or magnetic properties will also be discussed. Then, issues related to practical problems in achieving good electrical contacts to nanostructures will be presented. Finally, we will provide an overview of applications of ZnO nanostructures to light-emitting devices, photodetectors and solar cells.

  18. Experimental study of thermophysical properties and nanostructure of self-assembled water/polyalphaolefin nanoemulsion fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the nanostructures and thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, and specific heat of one new type of nanostructured heat transfer fluid, water/polyalphaolefin nanoemulsion fluid, are investigated. The water/polyalphaolefin nanoemulsion fluids are thermodynamically stable containing dispersed water nanodroplets formed by self-assembly. It has been found that the nanostructure inside nanoemulsion fluids may affect their thermophysical properties, especially the phase change heat transfer characteristics. The small-angle neutron scattering technique has been used to help identify the nanostructure inside the water/polyalphaolefin nanoemulsion fluids. By using the 3-region Guinier–Porod model, the fitting curve shows that there is a nonlinear variation of the nanodroplets’ size and shape with water’s concentration, which also coincides with the trend of its viscosity and specific heat. On the other hand, the thermal conductivity increases linearly with higher volume fraction of water which, however, appears to be insensitive to the nanostructure change. While the water nanodroplets inside can increase the thermal conductivity of the nanoemulsion fluid by 16%, its effective specific heat can be boosted up to 90% when the water nanodroplets undergo liquid–solid phase change.

  19. Spin tunneling and manipulation in nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, E Ya; Ban, Yue; Gulyaev, L V; Khomitsky, D V

    2012-09-01

    The results for joint effects of tunneling and spin-orbit coupling on spin dynamics in nanostructures are presented for systems with discrete and continuous spectra. We demonstrate that tunneling plays the crucial role in the spin dynamics and the abilities of spin manipulation by external electric field. This result can be important for design of nanostructures-based spintronics devices.

  20. Simple Approach to Superamphiphobic Overhanging Silicon Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Superhydrophobic silicon nanostructures were fabricated by anisotropic etching of silicon coated with a thin hydrophobic layer. At certain etch parameters, overhanging nanostructures form at the apexes of the rod-shaped tips, This leads to superoleophobic behavior for several oily liquids...

  1. Electron Microscopy of Nanostructures in Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købler, Carsten

    with cells is therefore increasingly more relevant from both an engineering and a toxicological viewpoint. My work involves developing and exploring electron microscopy (EM) for imaging nanostructures in cells, for the purpose of understanding nanostructure-cell interactions in terms of their possibilities...

  2. Electroluminescence from Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quantum confinement model (QCM), that can explain PL and EL on pure Si nanostructures and Si-terminated with impurities. Keywords: Quantum confinement, Nanostructure, Exciton binding energy,. Electroluminescence. INTRODUCTION. It has been realized that the integration of optoelectronic components on all Si ...

  3. Synthesis of nanostructured polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surwade, Sumedh P.

    The organization of my thesis is as follows: (a) Chapter III describes the synthesis of bulk quantities of polyaniline nanofibers in one step using a simple and versatile high ionic strength aqueous system (HCl/NaCl) that permits the use of pure H2O2 as a mild oxidant without any added metal or enzyme catalyst. Polyaniline nanofibers obtained are highly conducting, sigma˜1--5 S/cm, and spectroscopically similar to conventional polyaniline synthesized using stronger oxidants. The synthesis method is further extended to the synthesis of oligoanilines of controlled molecular weight, e.g., aniline tetramer, octamer, and hexadecamer. Microns long tetramer nanofibers are synthesized using this method. (b) Chapter IV describes the mechanism of nanofiber formation in polyaniline. It is proposed that the surfaces such as the walls of the reaction vessel and/or intentionally added surfaces play a dramatic role in the evolution of nanofibrillar morphology. Nucleation sites on surfaces promote the accumulation of aniline dimer that reacts further to yield aniline tetramer, which (surprisingly) is entirely in form of nanofibers and whose morphology is transcribed to the bulk by a double heterogeneous nucleation mechanism. This unexpected phenomenon could form the basis of nanofiber formation in all classes of precipitation polymerization systems. (c) Chapter V is the mechanistic study on the formation of oligoanilines during the chemical oxidation of aniline in weakly acidic, neutral or basic media using peroxydisulfate oxidant. It is proposed that the reaction proceeds via the intermediacy of benzoquinone monoimine that is formed as a result of a Boyland-Sims rearrangement of aniline. The initial role of peroxydisulfate is to provide a pathway for the formation of benzoquinone monoimine intermediate that is followed by a conjugate Michael-type addition reaction with aniline or sulfated anilines. The products isolated in pH 2.5--10.0 buffers are intermediate species at various

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Chemically Etched Nanostructured Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad Jahangir

    2012-05-01

    Silicon is an essential element in today’s modern world. Nanostructured Si is a more recently studied variant, which has currently garnered much attention. When its spatial dimensions are confined below a certain limit, its optical properties change dramatically. It transforms from an indirect bandgap material that does not absorb or emit light efficiently into one which can emit visible light at room temperatures. Although much work has been conducted in understanding the properties of nanostructured Si, in particular porous Si surfaces, a clear understanding of the origin of photoluminescence has not yet been produced. Typical synthesis approaches used to produce nanostructured Si, in particular porous Si and nanocrystalline Si have involved complex preparations used at high temperatures, pressures, or currents. The purpose of this thesis is to develop an easier synthesis approach to produce nanostructured Si as well as arrive at a clearer understanding of the origin of photoluminescence in these systems. We used a simple chemical etching technique followed by sonication to produce nanostructured Si suspensions. The etching process involved producing pores on the surface of a Si substrate in a solution containing hydrofluoric acid and an oxidant. Nanocrystalline Si as well as nanoscale amorphous porous Si suspensions were successfully synthesized using this process. We probed into the phase, composition, and origin of photoluminescence in these materials, through the use of several characterization techniques. TEM and SEM were used to determine morphology and phase. FT-IR and XPS were employed to study chemical compositions, and steady state and time resolved optical spectroscopy techniques were applied to resolve their photoluminescent properties. Our work has revealed that the type of oxidant utilized during etching had a significant impact on the final product. When using nitric acid as the oxidant, we formed nanocrystalline Si suspensions composed of

  5. Vicinal surfaces for functional nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegenkamp, Christoph [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)], E-mail: tegenkamp@fkp.uni-hannover.de

    2009-01-07

    Vicinal surfaces are currently the focus of research. The regular arrangements of atomic steps on a mesoscopic scale reveal the possibility to functionalize these surfaces for technical applications, e.g. nanowires, catalysts, etc. The steps of the vicinal surface are well-defined defect structures of atomic size for nucleation of low-dimensional nanostructures. The concentration and therefore the coupling between the nanostructures can be tuned over a wide range by simply changing the inclination angle of the substrate. However, the coupling of these nano-objects to the substrate is just as important in controlling their electronic or chemical properties and making a functionality useable. On the basis of stepped insulating films, these aspects are fulfilled and will be considered in the first part of this review. Recent results for the epitaxial growth of wide bandgap insulating films (CaF{sub 2}, MgO, NaCl, BaSrO) on metallic and semiconducting vicinal substrates (Si(100), Ge(100), Ag(100)) will be presented. The change of the electronic structure, the adsorption behavior as well as the kinetics and energetics of color centers in the presence of steps is discussed. The successful bridging of the gap between the atomic and mesoscopic world, i.e. the functionalization of vicinal surfaces by nanostructures, is demonstrated in the second part by metal adsorption on semiconducting surfaces. For (sub)monolayer coverage these systems have in common that the surface states do not hybridize with the support, i.e. the semiconducting surfaces are insulating. Here I will focus on the latest results of macroscopic transport measurements on Pb quantum wires grown on vicinal Si(111) showing indeed a one-dimensional transport behavior. (topical review)

  6. Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azawi, A.; Smistrup, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The production of nanostructured plastic items by injection molding with ridges down to 400 nm in width, which is the smallest line width replicated from nanostructured steel shims, is presented. Here we detail a micro-fabrication method where electron beam lithography, nano-imprint lithography...... and ion beam etching are combined to nanostructure the planar surface of a steel wafer. Injection molded plastic parts with enhanced surface properties, like anti-reflective, superhydrophobic and structural colors can be achieved by micro-and nanostructuring the surface of the steel molds. We investigate...... has been produced by injection molding with good structure transfer fidelity. Thus we have demonstrated that by utilizing well-established fabrication techniques, nanostructured steel shims that are used in injection molding, a technique that allows low cost mass fabrication of plastic items...

  7. Nanostructures, systems, and methods for photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Steven Y.; Jarvi, Thomas D.

    2015-12-08

    The present invention generally relates to nanostructures and compositions comprising nanostructures, methods of making and using the nanostructures, and related systems. In some embodiments, a nanostructure comprises a first region and a second region, wherein a first photocatalytic reaction (e.g., an oxidation reaction) can be carried out at the first region and a second photocatalytic reaction (e.g., a reduction reaction) can be carried out at the second region. In some cases, the first photocatalytic reaction is the formation of oxygen gas from water and the second photocatalytic reaction is the formation of hydrogen gas from water. In some embodiments, a nanostructure comprises at least one semiconductor material, and, in some cases, at least one catalytic material and/or at least one photosensitizing agent.

  8. Polarized electroluminescence from silicon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagraev, Nikolay; Danilovsky, Eduard; Gets, Dmitry; Klyachkin, Leonid; Kudryavtsev, Andrey; Kuzmin, Roman; Malyarenko, Anna [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mashkov, Vladimir [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    We present the first findings of the circularly polarized electroluminescence (CPEL) from silicon nanostructures which are the p-type ultra-narrow silicon quantum well (Si-QW) confined by {delta}-barriers heavily doped with boron. The CPEL dependences on the forward current and lateral electric field show the circularly polarized light emission which appears to be caused by the exciton recombination through the negative-U dipole boron centers at the Si-QW-{delta}-barriers interface with the assistance of phosphorus donors. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Transport Properties of Nanostructured Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Despite of its many wonderful properties, pristine graphene has one major drawback: it does not have a band gap, which complicates its applications in electronic devices. Many routes have been suggested to overcome this difficulty, such as cutting graphene into nanoribbons, using chemical methods...... device operation. In this talk I elaborate these ideas and review the state-of-the-art both from the theoretical and the experimental points of view. I also introduce two new ideas: (1) triangular antidots, and (2) nanobubbles formed in graphene. Both of these nanostructuring methods are predicted...

  10. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF HEMATITE NANOSTRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Munayco S., J.; 5aavedra V., I.; Munayco S., P.; Ale B., N.

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured a-Fe203 (hematite) was produced usíng high-energy ball milling and analized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), 57Fe Mi.issbauer spectrometry and magnetization measurements. The results showed that after 2 h milling, a-Fe203 nanosize particles were obtained about 15 nm. The 57 Fe Mossbauer spectrometry correlated with magnetometry showed also that Morin transition was notobserved after 0,75 h milling. Son estudiados los procedimientos de producción nanopartículas de hematita, evaluá...

  11. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    backbone (by the process of doping) and make them electrically. Conducting Polymers. From a Laboratory Curiosity to the Market Place. S Ramakrishnan ..... switching occurs between transparent yellow and green in less than. 100ms. Thus, while these materials are yet to achieve the set target. (in terms of their life cycle) ...

  12. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Conducting Polymers - From a Laboratory Curiosity to the Market Place. S Ramakrishnan. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1254-1265. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  14. Thermal and Thermoelectric Properties of Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao-Hsiang

    Many modern technologies are enabled by the use of thin films and/or nanostructured composite materials. For example, many thermoelectric devices, solar cells, power electronics, thermal barrier coatings, and hard disk drives contain nanostructured materials where the thermal conductivity of the material is a critical parameter for the device performance. At the nanoscale, the mean free path and wavelength of heat carriers may become comparable to or smaller than the size of a nanostructured material and/or device. For nanostructured materials made from semiconductors and insulators, the additional phonon scattering mechanisms associated with the high density of interfaces and boundaries introduces additional resistances that can significantly change the thermal conductivity of the material as compared to a macroscale counterpart. Thus, better understanding and control of nanoscale heat conduction in solids is important scientifically and for the engineering applications mentioned above. In this dissertation, I discuss my work in two areas dealing with nanoscale thermal transport: (1) I describe my development and advancement of important thermal characterization tools for measurements of thermal and thermoelectric properties of a variety of materials from thin films to nanostructured bulk systems, and (2) I discuss my measurements on several materials systems done with these characterization tools. First, I describe the development, assembly, and modification of a time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) system that we use to measure the thermal conductivity and the interface thermal conductance of a variety of samples including nanocrystalline alloys of Ni-Fe and Co-P, bulk metallic glasses, and other thin films. Next, a unique thermoelectric measurement system was designed and assembled for measurements of electrical resistivity and thermopower of thermoelectric materials in the temperature range of 20 to 350 °C. Finally, a commercial Anter Flashline 3000 thermal

  15. Natural nanostructure and superlattice nanodomains in AgSbTe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, Christopher E.; De Armas, Ricardo; Shao-Horn, Yang, E-mail: delaireoa@ornl.gov, E-mail: shaohorn@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Ma, Jie [Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); May, Andrew F.; Delaire, Olivier, E-mail: delaireoa@ornl.gov, E-mail: shaohorn@mit.edu [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-04-14

    AgSbTe{sub 2} has long been of interest for thermoelectric applications because of its favorable electronic properties and its low lattice thermal conductivity of ∼0.7 W/mK. In this work, we report new findings from a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study revealing two nanostructures in single crystal Ag{sub 1−x}Sb{sub 1+x}Sb{sub 2+x} (with x = 0, 0.1, 0.2); (i) a rippled natural nanostructure with a period of ∼2.5–5 nm and (ii) superlattice ordered nanodomains consistent with cation ordering predicted in previous density functional theory studies. These nanostructures, combined with point-defects, probably serve as sources of scattering for phonons, thereby yielding a low lattice thermal conductivity over a wide temperature range.

  16. Pseudo template synthesis of poly (1-naphthylamine): effect of environment on nanostructured morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, Ufana; Ahmad, Sharif; Ashraf, S. M.

    2008-01-01

    A template free approach was adopted to explore the effect of polymerization environment on the synthesis of nanostructured poly (1-naphthylamine) (PNA) using cupric chloride as oxidant and methyl alcohol as medium. The polymerization environment was varied by carrying out the synthesis in the presence of nitrogen and oxygen. The morphology of the synthesized nanostructured PNA was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis and FT-IR spectroscopies. PNA nanorods of sizes varying between 50-100 nm were obtained in presence of nitrogen while in presence of oxygen, it formed aggregated globular particles of sizes varying between 80-100 nm. The results provide valuable information on controlling the synthesis of one-dimensional nanostructured conducting polymers that exhibit superior processibility as compared to the conventional conducting polymers.

  17. Sponge like microparticles for drug delivery and cosmeto-textile use: Formulation and human skin penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Nadiah; Robin, Sophie; Viennet, Céline; Humbert, Philippe; Valour, Jean Pierre; Agusti, Geraldine; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2017-10-30

    This unique work is targeted to achieve three main goals: i) to enhance the aqueous solubility of three specifically selected hydrophobic active agents, ii) to prepare such polymeric biodegradable microparticles which can encapsulate actives-cyclodextrin complexes and iii) to functionalize a polyamide base textile with active loaded microparticles and active-cyclodextrin loaded microparticles. To achieve this objective, biodegradable cationic microparticles were prepared via double emulsion solvent evaporation process and were loaded with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin based complexes of Indomethacin, α-tocopheroland Lauryl Isoquinolinium Bromide during the formulation process. Inclusion complex based particles were evaluated for their morphology, size distribution, zeta potential, skin penetration aptitude and adsorption onto a selected textile. It was observed that active-cyclodextrin complex encapsulation do not affect the morphology, size and zeta potential of the microparticles as well as adsorption of the microparticles onto textile remains unaltered. However such active-cyclodextrin complex encapsulated particles provided the enhancement in the aqueous solubility of hydrophobic agents and also provided prolonged release formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Photonic Nanostructures Design and Optimization for Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a semiconducting photonic nanostructure capable of wide range absorption and tunable optical resonance has been designed with a proposed theoretical optimization model. The design consists of ZnO/CdS core-shell nanowire arrays as well as multilayer thin films that act to absorb incident electromagnetic (EM waves over a broad frequency range. Theoretical, as well as numerical, studies of the nanostructure inside a solar cell plate have been conducted in order to validate the proposed microstructural design. Excellent energy absorption rates of EM waves have been achieved in the high frequency range by using the optical resonance of the nanowire array. By combining multilayer thin film with the core-shell nanowire in the unit cell of a photonic solar cell, a broadband high absorption has been achieved. Moreover, the geometry of the proposed photonic nanostructure is obtained through the implementation of a genetic algorithm. This avoids local minima and an optimized absorption rate of ~90% over the frequency range of 300 to 750 THz has been obtained in the solar cell.

  19. NANOSTRUCTURING AS A WAY FOR THERMOELECTRIC EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Bochkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of thermoelectric energy conversion is proved. Perspectives of nanostructures usage as thermoelectric materials are shown. The authors have systematized and generalized the methods and investigation results of bulk nanostructure thermoelectrics based on Bi-Sb-Te solid solutions. Ways of nanoparticles fabrication and their subsequent sintering into a bulk sample, results of structure study of the received materials are shown by methods of electronic microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy, results of mechanical properties investigation. Methods of manufacturing suggested with the authors’ participation and properties of thermoelectric nanocomposites, fabricated with addition of fullerene, thermally split graphite, graphene and molybdenum disulphide are discussed. Methods for prevention of recrystallization, measurement methods of thermoelectric properties of studied nanothermoelectrics are considered, including electric and thermal conductivities, thermoemf and the figure of merit. Factors that influence on thermoelectric figure of merit, including the tunneling of carriers through interfaces between nanograins, the additional phonon scattering on nanograin borders and the energy filtration of carriers through barriers have been theoretically investigated. Mechanisms and ways for improvement of the figure of merit are determined. Experimental confirmation for thermoelectric figure of merit increase is received. Physical mechanisms of thermoelectric figure of merit increase are shown by perceptivity of nanostructures utilization. The growth of thermoelectric figure of merit means an expansion of areas for rational application of thermoelectric energy generation and thermoelectric cooling.

  20. Heterogeneous nanostructured electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Duay, Jonathon; Lee, Sang Bok

    2011-02-07

    In order to fulfil the future requirements of electrochemical energy storage, such as high energy density at high power demands, heterogeneous nanostructured materials are currently studied as promising electrode materials due to their synergic properties, which arise from integrating multi-nanocomponents, each tailored to address a different demand (e.g., high energy density, high conductivity, and excellent mechanical stability). In this article, we discuss these heterogeneous nanomaterials based on their structural complexity: zero-dimensional (0-D) (e.g. core-shell nanoparticles), one-dimensional (1-D) (e.g. coaxial nanowires), two-dimensional (2-D) (e.g. graphene based composites), three-dimensional (3-D) (e.g. mesoporous carbon based composites) and the even more complex hierarchical 3-D nanostructured networks. This review tends to focus more on ordered arrays of 1-D heterogeneous nanomaterials due to their unique merits. Examples of different types of structures are listed and their advantages and disadvantages are compared. Finally a future 3-D heterogeneous nanostructure is proposed, which may set a goal toward developing ideal nano-architectured electrodes for future electrochemical energy storage devices.

  1. Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Frank (Bud) Bridges, University of California-Santa Cruz

    2010-08-05

    The two-and-a-half day symposium on the "Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials" will be the first comprehensive meeting on this topic held under the auspices of a major U.S. professional society. Spring MRS Meetings provide a natural venue for this symposium as they attract a broad audience of researchers that represents a cross-section of the state-of-the-art regarding synthesis, structure-property relations, and applications of nanostructured materials. Close interactions among the experts in local structure measurements and materials researchers will help both to identify measurement needs pertinent to real-world materials problems and to familiarize the materials research community with the state-of-the-art local structure measurement techniques. We have chosen invited speakers that reflect the multidisciplinary and international nature of this topic and the need to continually nurture productive interfaces among university, government and industrial laboratories. The intent of the symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for discussion and exchange of ideas on the recent progress in quantitative characterization of structural order in nanomaterials using different experimental techniques and theory. The symposium is expected to facilitate discussions on optimal approaches for determining atomic structure at the nanoscale using combined inputs from multiple measurement techniques.

  2. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  3. Aluminum nanostructures for ultraviolet plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jérôme; Khlopin, Dmitry; Zhang, Feifei; Schuermans, Silvère; Proust, Julien; Maurer, Thomas; Gérard, Davy; Plain, Jérôme

    2017-08-01

    An electromagnetic field is able to produce a collective oscillation of free electrons at a metal surface. This allows light to be concentrated in volumes smaller than its wavelength. The resulting waves, called surface plasmons can be applied in various technological applications such as ultra-sensitive sensing, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, or metal-enhanced fluorescence, to name a few. For several decades plasmonics has been almost exclusively studied in the visible region by using nanoparticles made of gold or silver as these noble metals support plasmonic resonances in the visible and near-infrared range. Nevertheless, emerging applications will require the extension of nano-plasmonics toward higher energies, in the ultraviolet range. Aluminum is one of the most appealing metal for pushing plasmonics up to ultraviolet energies. The subsequent applications in the field of nano-optics are various. This metal is therefore a highly promising material for commercial applications in the field of ultraviolet nano-optics. As a consequence, aluminum (or ultraviolet, UV) plasmonics has emerged quite recently. Aluminium plasmonics has been demonstrated efficient for numerous potential applications including non-linear optics, enhanced fluorescence, UV-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, optoelectronics, plasmonic assisted solid-state lasing, photocatalysis, structural colors and data storage. In this article, different preparation methods developed in the laboratory to obtain aluminum nanostructures with different geometries are presented. Their optical and morphological characterizations of the nanostructures are given and some proof of principle applications such as fluorescence enhancement are discussed.

  4. Multifunctional Ceramic Nanostructure Thin Films Prepared by Solution Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jong Hyun

    Oxide semiconductor coatings have been studied for the development of their nanostructures that can be tailored for multifunctional surface properties. We employed solution processing methods such as chemical bath deposition and hydrothermal process to deposit TiO2 and ZnO thin film nanostructures on various substrates including transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), polymers (polycarbonate, Teflon), and metals (stainless steels, Ti). In particular, low dimensional nanostructures (1D, 2D) were tailored by different solution process conditions. Especially, the 1D TiO2 nanorod structure were shown to grow via a non-classical crystallization way. The performances of vertically aligned TiO2 (rutile) nanorod thin films were evaluated for its use as a photoanode in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and as a photocatalytic surface for organic dye degradation. In addition, densely packed 2-dimensional rutile nanoblade structure was examined for a high-k dielectric layer. And the vertically aligned ZnO nanorod thin films were grown as photocatalytic coatings and antimicrobial surfaces. The latter aspect resulted from the strong photocatalytic behavior, as well as the nanoshape effects. To control the nano- and microstructures of TiO2 and ZnO through process parameters, we used the degree of 'supersaturation' that was calculated from aqueous thermodynamics. When the thermodynamics data were not available, it was obtained through experimental measurements. In an effort to maximize the photo-responsive capacity, the hybrid structures consisting of TiO2/ZnO and ZnO/P3HT[Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)] were investigated for further enhancement of the photoanode properties and photocurrent generation, respectively. This work shows that highly multifunctional oxide surface properties can be made possible through the developments of low-temperature, solution-grown nanostructures with precise process controls.

  5. Equilibrium Limit of Boundary Scattering in Carbon Nanostructures: Molecular Dynamics Calculations of Thermal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Justin; Kinaci, Alper; Sevik, Cem; Cagin, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    It is widely known that graphene and many of its derivative nanostructures have exceedingly high reported thermal conductivities (up to 4000 W/mK at 300 K). Such attractive thermal properties beg the use of these structures in practical devices; however, to implement these materials while preserving transport quality, the influence of structure on thermal conductivity should be thoroughly understood. For graphene nanostructures, having average phonon mean free paths on the order of one micron, a primary concern is how size influences the potential for heat conduction. To investigate this, we employ a novel technique to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity from the Green-Kubo relations and equilibrium molecular dynamics in systems where phonon-boundary scattering dominates heat flow. Specifically, the thermal conductivities of graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes are calculated in sizes up to 3 microns, and the relative influence of boundary scattering on thermal transport is determined to be dominant at sizes less than 1 micron, after which the thermal transport largely depends on the quality of the nanostructure interface. The method is also extended to carbon nanostructures (fullerenes) where phonon confinement, as opposed to boundary scattering, dominates, and general trends related to the influence of curvature on thermal transport in these materials are discussed.

  6. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickert, Jonas; Dunbar, Ricky B; Hesse, Holger C; Wiedemann, Wolfgang; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2011-04-26

    This Progress Report highlights recent developments in nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells. The authors discuss novel approaches to control the film morphology in fully organic solar cells and the design of nanostructured hybrid solar cells. The motivation and recent results concerning fabrication and effects on device physics are emphasized. The aim of this review is not to give a summary of all recent results in organic and hybrid solar cells, but rather to focus on the fabrication, device physics, and light trapping properties of nanostructured organic and hybrid devices. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Solar Cells Having a Nanostructured Antireflection Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    An solar cell having a surface in a first material is provided, the optical device having a non-periodic nanostructure formed in the surface, the nanostructure comprising a plurality of cone -haped structures wherein the cones are distributed non-periodically on the surface and have a random height...... distribution, at least a part of the cone-shaped structures having a height of at least 100 nm. The first material may be SiC or GaN. A method of manufacturing a non-periodic nanostructured surface on a solar cell, is furthermore provided, the method comprising the steps of providing a surface comprising Si...

  9. Nanostructured thin films and coatings functional properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The second volume in ""The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings"" set, this book focuses on functional properties, including optical, electronic, and electrical properties, as well as related devices and applications. It explores the large-scale fabrication of functional thin films with nanoarchitecture via chemical routes, the fabrication and characterization of SiC nanostructured/nanocomposite films, and low-dimensional nanocomposite fabrication and applications. The book also presents the properties of sol-gel-derived nanostructured thin films as well as silicon nanocrystals e

  10. nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    collected at the bottom of the cell after electrolysis at 2 V for 1 h, (b) is the representative TEM micro- graph of dense Cu2O network of nanowires, obtained after electrolysis at 6 and 10 V, respectively for 1 h and (c) is the X-ray diffraction of the as obtained materials at the bottom of the electrolytic cell after electrolysis at 6 V.

  11. Titanium Surfaces with Nanostructures Influence on Osteoblasts Proliferation: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nanothechnology found to be increasingly implemented in implantology sphere over the recent years and it shows encouraging effect in this field. The aim of present review is to compare, based on the recent evidence, the influence of various nanostructure surface modifications of titanium for implants, on osteoblasts proliferation. Material and Methods: A literature review of English articles was conducted by using MEDLINE database restricted to 2009 - 2014 and constructed according PRISMA guidelines. Search terms included “Titanium implant”, “Titanium surface with nanostructure”, “Osteoblast”. Additional studies were identified in bibliographies. Only in vitro and/or in vivo studies on nano structured implant surfaces plus control sample, with specific evaluation method for osteoblasts proliferation and at least one Ti sample with nanostructure, were included in the review. Results: 32 studies with 122 groups of examined samples were selected for present review. Each study conducted in vitro experiment, two studies conducted additional in vivo experiments. All studies were dispensed by type of surface modification into two major groups; “Direct ablative titanium implant surface nano-modifications” with 19 studies and ”Nanocomposite additive implant surface modifications” with 13 studies. Overall 24 studies reporting on positive effect of nanostructured surface, 2 studies found no significant advantage and 6 studies reported on negative effect compared to other structure scales. Conclusions: From examination of selected articles we can notice marked advantage in implementation of various nanostructures onto implant surface. Yet for discovering the ultimate implant surface nanostructure, further comparable investigations of Ti surface nanostructures need to be done.

  12. Properties of gold nanostructures sputtered on glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolská Zdeňka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the electrical and optical properties, density, and crystalline structure of Au nanostructures prepared by direct current sputtering on glass. We measured temperature dependence of sheet resistance and current-voltage characteristics and also performed scanning electron microscopy [SEM] analysis of gold nanolayers. It was shown that within the wide range of temperatures, gold nanolayers (<10 nm exhibit both metal and semiconducting-like type of conductivity. UV/Vis analysis proved the semiconducting characteristic of intrinsic Au clusters. SEM analysis showed the initiatory stadium of gold layer formation to be running over isolated islands. Gold density calculated from the weight and effective thickness of the layers is an increasing function of the layer thickness up to approximately 100 nm. In thin layers deposited on solid surface, a lattice expansion is observed, which is manifested in the increase of the lattice parameter and the decrease of metal density. With increasing layer thickness, the lattice parameter and the density approach the bulk values.

  13. Green synthesis and structural control of metal and mineral nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian

    nanomaterials. In the first approach, time-resolved chronopotentiometry, pH, conductivity and turbidity, and ultraviolet-visible light spectroscopy were employed to follow the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Several distinct phases were observed with all techniques providing a broad picture....... Detailed crystallographic characterization was obtained by combining X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The synthesis of CuO was further optimized and the flat, rod-shaped nanostructures applied as heterogeneous catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation reactions. High activity and good reusability...

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, Walter Kenji; Ferreira, Nildemar A.M.; Rumbao, Ana Carolina S. Coutinho; Lazar, Dolores R.R.; Ussui, Valter

    2009-01-01

    Titania ceramics have many applications due to its surface properties and, recently, its nanostructured compounds, prepared by hydrothermal treatments, have been described to improve these properties. In this work, commercial titanium dioxide was treated with 10% sodium hydroxide solution in a pressurized reactor at 150°C for 24 hours under vigorous stirring and then washed following two different procedures. The first one consisted of washing with water and ethanol and the second with water and hydrochloric acid solution (1%). Resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N 2 gas adsorption and field emission gun scanning and transmission electronic microscopy. Results showed that from an original starting material with mainly rutile phase, both anatase and H 2 Ti 3 O 7 phase could be identified after the hydrothermal treatment. Surface area of powders presented a notable increase of one order of magnitude and micrographs showed a rearrangement on the microstructure of powders. (author)

  15. Nanostructured systems with GMR behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Bergenti, I; Savini, L; Bonetti, E; Bosco, E; Baricco, M

    2002-01-01

    Fe/Fe-oxide core-shell systems obtained by inert-gas condensation and Au sub 8 sub 0 Fe sub 2 sub 0 nanostructured alloys prepared by fast-quenching techniques followed by thermal treatment have been studied by polarised small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The particle-size distribution was derived from the fit of the scattering curves. In the core-shell samples, the results support the model of a magnetic iron core surrounded by a surface layer (oxide shell) with a reduced magnetisation. The SANS measurements on the Au sub 8 sub 0 Fe sub 2 sub 0 alloys do not show any appreciable magnetic signal, indicating that the iron precipitates have a superparamagnetic behaviour. Thermal treatment induces the formation of small precipitates of atomic size. (orig.)

  16. Optical Characterization of Nanostructured Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft

    Micro- and nanostructured surfaces are interesting due to the unique properties they add to the bulk material. One example is structural colors, where the interaction between surface structures and visible light produce bright color effects without the use of paints or dyes. Several research groups...... modeling to evaluate the dimensions of subwavelength gratings, by correlating the reflected light measured from the structures with a database of simulations. A new method is developed and termed color scatterometry, since compared to typical spectroscopic scatterometry, which evaluates the full reflection...... spectrum; the new method only evaluates the color of the reflected light using a standard RGB color camera. Color scatterometry provides the combined advantages of spectroscopic scatterometry, which provides fast evaluations, and imaging scatterometry that provides an overview image from which small...

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, W.K.; Ferreira, N.A.M.; Lazar, D.R.R.; Ussui, V.; Rumbao, A.C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Titania ceramics have many applications due to its surface properties and, recently, its nanostructured compounds, prepared by hydrothermal treatments, have been described to improve these properties. In this work, commercial titanium dioxide was treated with 10% sodium hydroxide solution in a pressurized reactor at 150 deg C for 24 hours under vigorous stirring and then washed following two different procedures. The first one consisted of washing with water and ethanol and the second with water and hydrochloric acid solution (1%). Resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N 2 gas adsorption and field emission gun scanning and transmission electronic microscopy. Results showed that from an original starting material with mainly rutile phase, both anatase and H 2 Ti 3 O 7 phase could be identified after the hydrothermal treatment. Surface area of powders presented a notable increase of one order of magnitude and micrographs showed a rearrangement on the microstructure of powders. (author)

  18. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Nanostructured zinc oxide thin films (ZnO) were prepared on conducting glass support (SnO2: F overlayer) via sol–gel starting from colloidal solution of zinc acetate 2-hydrate in ethanol and 2-methoxy ethanol. Films were obtained by spin coating at 1500 rpm under room conditions (temperature, 28–35°C) and.

  19. Lifetime of ALD Al2O3 Passivated Black Silicon Nanostructured for Photovoltaic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    .5%. For passivation purposes we used 37 nm ALD Al2O3 films and conducted lifetime measurements and found 1220 µs and to 4170 µs, respectively, for p- and n-type CZ silicon wafers. Such results are promising results to introduce for black silicon RIE nano-structuring in solar cell process flow....

  20. Porphyrin-Based Nanostructures for Photocatalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhi Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Well-defined organic nanostructures with controllable size and morphology are increasingly exploited in optoelectronic devices. As promising building blocks, porphyrins have demonstrated great potentials in visible-light photocatalytic applications, because of their electrical, optical and catalytic properties. From this perspective, we have summarized the recent significant advances on the design and photocatalytic applications of porphyrin-based nanostructures. The rational strategies, such as texture or crystal modification and interfacial heterostructuring, are described. The applications of the porphyrin-based nanostructures in photocatalytic pollutant degradation and hydrogen evolution are presented. Finally, the ongoing challenges and opportunities for the future development of porphyrin nanostructures in high-quality nanodevices are also proposed.

  1. Second harmonic spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Yu, Ping; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor nanostructures and their application to optoelectronic devices have attracted much attention recently. Lower-dimensional structures, and in particular quantum dots, are highly anisotropic resulting in broken symmetry as compared to their bulk counterparts. This is not only reflected...

  2. Nanostructure Science and Technology. A Worldwide Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siegel, Richard

    1999-01-01

    ... and other leading industrialized countries. Topics covered include particle synthesis and assembly, dispersions and coatings of nanoparticles, high surface area materials, functional nanoscale devices, bulk behavior of nanostructured materials...

  3. Optical Biosensors Based on Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Martín-Palma

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of semiconductor-based nanostructures with novel and unique properties has sparked widespread interest in their use in the field of biosensing. The precise control over the size, shape and composition of these nanostructures leads to the accurate control of their physico-chemical properties and overall behavior. Furthermore, modifications can be made to the nanostructures to better suit their integration with biological systems, leading to such interesting properties as enhanced aqueous solubility, biocompatibility or bio-recognition. In the present work, the most significant applications of semiconductor nanostructures in the field of optical biosensing will be reviewed. In particular, the use of quantum dots as fluorescent bioprobes, which is the most widely used application, will be discussed. In addition, the use of some other nanometric structures in the field of biosensing, including porous semiconductors and photonic crystals, will be presented.

  4. Sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures for multipotent protein activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungsoo S.; Fyrner, Timmy; Chen, Feng; Álvarez, Zaida; Sleep, Eduard; Chun, Danielle S.; Weiner, Joseph A.; Cook, Ralph W.; Freshman, Ryan D.; Schallmo, Michael S.; Katchko, Karina M.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Smith, Justin T.; Yun, Chawon; Singh, Gurmit; Hashmi, Sohaib Z.; McClendon, Mark T.; Yu, Zhilin; Stock, Stuart R.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Hsu, Erin L.; Stupp , Samuel I. (NWU)

    2017-06-19

    Biological systems have evolved to utilize numerous proteins with capacity to bind polysaccharides for the purpose of optimizing their function. A well-known subset of these proteins with binding domains for the highly diverse sulfated polysaccharides are important growth factors involved in biological development and tissue repair. We report here on supramolecular sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures, which display a trisulfated monosaccharide on their surfaces and bind five critical proteins with different polysaccharide-binding domains. Binding does not disrupt the filamentous shape of the nanostructures or their internal β-sheet backbone, but must involve accessible adaptive configurations to interact with such different proteins. The glycopeptide nanostructures amplified signalling of bone morphogenetic protein 2 significantly more than the natural sulfated polysaccharide heparin, and promoted regeneration of bone in the spine with a protein dose that is 100-fold lower than that required in the animal model. These highly bioactive nanostructures may enable many therapies in the future involving proteins.

  5. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-08-03

    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures extending from the HNWs.

  6. Carbon Nanostructures Containing Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (POSS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potsi, Georgia; Rossos, Andreas; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Antoniou, Myrsini K.; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Karakassides, Michael A.; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2015-01-01

    This mini review describes the synthesis and properties of carbon nanostructures containing organic-inorganic cage-like polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). The physical and chemical functionalization of carbon nanomaterials such as graphene, graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes

  7. Nanostructured Materials: Symthesis in Supercritical Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yuehe; Ye, Xiangrong; Wai, Chien M.

    2009-03-24

    This chapter summarizes the recent developent of synthesis and characterization of nanostructured materials synthesized in supercritical fluids. Nanocomposite catalysts such as Pt and Pd on carbon nanotube support have been synthesized and used for fuel cell applications.

  8. Chemical modifications and reactions in DNA nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-01-01

    provides rich opportunity to incorporate molecules, biomolecules, and a variety of nanomaterials in specific positions on DNA nanostructures. Several standard modifications for oligonucleotides are available commercially, such as dyes, biotin, and chemical handles, and such modified oligonucleotides can...

  9. Noise and dissipation in magnetoelectronic nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foros, J.; Brataas, A.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Tserkovnyak, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The interplay between current and magnetization fluctuations and dissipation in layered-ferromagnetic-normal-metal nanostructures is investigated. We use scattering theory and magnetoelectronic circuit theory to calculate charge and spin-current fluctuations. Via the spin-transfer torque,

  10. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eRen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  11. Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) EFRC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) EFRC is a multi-institutional research center, one of 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers established by the...

  12. Probing plasmonic nanostructures by photons and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneipp, Katrin; Kneipp, Harald; Kneipp, Janina

    2015-01-01

    We discuss recent developments for studying plasmonic metal nanostructures. Exploiting photons and electrons opens up new capabilities to probe the complete plasmon spectrum including bright and dark modes and related local optical fields at subnanometer spatial resolution. This comprehensive...

  13. Metallic Nanostructures Based on DNA Nanoshapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxuan Shen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Metallic nanostructures have inspired extensive research over several decades, particularly within the field of nanoelectronics and increasingly in plasmonics. Due to the limitations of conventional lithography methods, the development of bottom-up fabricated metallic nanostructures has become more and more in demand. The remarkable development of DNA-based nanostructures has provided many successful methods and realizations for these needs, such as chemical DNA metallization via seeding or ionization, as well as DNA-guided lithography and casting of metallic nanoparticles by DNA molds. These methods offer high resolution, versatility and throughput and could enable the fabrication of arbitrarily-shaped structures with a 10-nm feature size, thus bringing novel applications into view. In this review, we cover the evolution of DNA-based metallic nanostructures, starting from the metallized double-stranded DNA for electronics and progress to sophisticated plasmonic structures based on DNA origami objects.

  14. Conduct disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, Jan K; Smeets, Kirsten C; Herpers, Pierre; Scheepers, Floor; Glennon, Jeffrey; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-02-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to CD in the light of the forthcoming DSM-5 definition. The diagnostic criteria for CD will remain unchanged in DSM-5, but the introduction of a specifier of CD with a callous-unemotional (CU) presentation is new. Linked to this, we discuss the pros and cons of various other ways to subtype aggression/CD symptoms. Existing guidelines for CD are, with few exceptions, already of a relatively older date and emphasize that clinical assessment should be systematic and comprehensive and based on a multi-informant approach. Non-medical psychosocial interventions are recommended as the first option for the treatment of CD. There is a role for medication in the treatment of comorbid syndromes and/or in case of insufficient response to psychosocial interventions and severe and dangerous aggressive and violent behaviours.

  15. Photoelectrochemical properties of hierarchical ZnO micro-nanostructure sensitized with Sb2S3 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin GUO

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By using electrochemical deposition method, and assisted with additions of PEG-400 and EDA, well-aligned ZnO nanorods and hierarchical ZnO micro-nanostructure are fabricated directly on indium doped tin oxide coated conducting glass (ITO substrate. The shell-core Sb2S3/ZnO nanorod structure and the shell-core hierarchical Sb2S3/ZnO micro-nanostructure are prepared by chemical bath deposition method. SEM, XRD, UV-Vis and photocurrent test are used to characterize the morphology, nanostructures and their photoelectrochemical properties. The studies show that the photocurrent on the array membranes with shell-core hierarchical Sb2S3/ZnO micro-nanostructure is apparently higher than that with shell-core Sb2S3/ZnO nanorods array.

  16. ZnO nanostructures and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaowei, Sun

    2011-01-01

    This book focuses on the various functional properties and potential applications of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures, from basic principles to our most recent discoveries. It comprises experimental analysis of various properties of ZnO nanostructures, preparation techniques, research methods, and some promising applications. The areas of focus include ZnO-based gas/biochemical sensing devices, field emitters, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, e-papers, and single-nanowire-based transistors.

  17. Production of fullerenic nanostructures in flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jack B.; Vander Sande, John B.; Chowdhury, K. Das

    1999-01-01

    A method for the production of fullerenic nanostructures is described in which unsaturated hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen are combusted in a burner chamber at a sub-atmospheric pressure, thereby establishing a flame. The condensibles of the flame are collected at a post-flame location. The condensibles contain fullerenic nanostructures, such as single and nested nanotubes, single and nested nanoparticles and giant fullerenes. The method of producing fullerenic soot from flames is also described.

  18. Thermal transport characterization of stanene/silicene heterobilayer and stanene bilayer nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshin, Maliha; Khan, Asir Intisar; Subrina, Samia

    2018-05-04

    Recently, stanene and silicene based nanostructures with low thermal conductivity have incited noteworthy interest due to their prospect in thermoelectrics. Aiming at the possibility of extracting lower thermal conductivity, in this study, we have proposed and modeled stanene/silicene heterobilayer nanoribbons, a new heterostructure and subsequently characterized their thermal transport by using an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. In addition, the thermal transport in bilayer stanene is also studied and compared. We have computed the thermal conductivity of the stanene/silicene and bilayer stanene nanostructures to characterize their thermal transport phenomena. The studied nanostructures show good thermal stability within the temperature range of 100-600 K. The room temperature thermal conductivities of pristine 10 nm × 3 nm stanene/silicene hetero-bilayer and stanene bilayer are estimated to be 3.63 ± 0.27 W m -1 K -1 and 1.31 ± 0.34 W m -1 K -1 , respectively, which are smaller than that of silicene, graphene and some other 2D monolayers as well as heterobilayers such as stanene/graphene and silicene/graphene. In the temperature range of 100-600 K, the thermal conductivity of our studied bilayer nanoribbons decreases with an increase in the temperature. Furthermore, we have investigated the dependence of our estimated thermal conductivity on the size of the considered nanoribbons. The thermal conductivities of both the nanoribbons are found to increase with an increase in the width of the structure. The thermal conductivity shows a similar increasing trend with the increase in the ribbon length, as well. Our results suggest that, the low thermal conductivity of our studied bilayer structures can be further decreased by nanostructuring. The significantly low thermal conductivity of the stanene/silicene heterobilayer and stanene bilayer nanoribbons realized in our study would provide a good insight and encouragement into their appealing prospect

  19. Molding Inkjetted Silver on Nanostructured Surfaces for High-Throughput Structural Color Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Alan, Sheida; Shahbazbegian, Haleh; Patel, Jasbir N; Kaminska, Bozena

    2016-11-22

    Inkjet printing of silver ink has been widely used to print conductive patterns in flexible electronic devices, and the printed patterns are commonly known to be colorless. We demonstrate that by printing a single type of ordinary silver nanoparticle ink on top of a substrate patterned with polymer nanostructures, the printed silver is molded by the nanostructures and gains robust structural colors. The colors are tunable by varying the geometries of nanostructures, and a broad range of visual colors can be achieved by mixing the red, green, and blue colors displayed from silver dots printed on different nanostructures. Such mechanism can enable full-color, scalable, high-throughput, versatile, and cost-effective printing of structural color images for regular publishing and displaying purposes. In experiments, we implemented a transparent polymer substrate patterned with diffractive nanostructure arrays to print full-color images. The printed images display color-shifting optically variable effects useful for security and authentication applications that demand customizable anticounterfeiting features.

  20. Electric field-induced breakdown of the Mott insulating state in V2O3 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Justin; Gao, Li; Aetukuri, Nagaphani; Hughes, Brian; Rettner, Charles; Samant, Mahesh; Roche, Kevin; Parkin, Stuart

    2011-03-01

    The origin of the electric field-induced breakdown of the Mott insulating state in vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) nanostructures is of considerable interest. We have prepared high quality, epitaxial films of V2O3 on (0001)-oriented sapphire substrates by oxygen plasma-assisted thermal evaporation. Lateral, two-terminal nanostructures were patterned by electron beam lithography. The nanostructures displayed strong metal-to-insulator transitions upon cooling to below ~ 150 K. Modest voltages applied across the devices drive the films into a conducting state. We discuss the role of temperature, applied voltage, device size, and potential Joule heating effects on the switching process, as well as implications for the underlying mechanism involved.

  1. In Situ Mechanical Property Measurements of Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Lin, Yi; Nunez, Jennifer Carpena; Siochi, Emilie J.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Connell, John W.; Smith, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the mechanical properties of amorphous carbon (a-C)/boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) nanostructures, in situ mechanical tests are conducted inside a transmission electron microscope equipped with an integrated atomic force microscope system. The nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation. We demonstrate multiple in situ tensile, compressive, and lap shear tests with a-C/BNNT hybrid nanostructures. The tensile strength of the a-C/BNNT hybrid nanostructure is 5.29 GPa with about 90 vol% of a-C. The tensile strength and strain of the end-to-end joint structure with a-C welding is 0.8 GPa and 5.2% whereas the lap shear strength of the side-by-side joint structure with a-C is 0.25 GPa.

  2. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for extracellular recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueggemann, Dorothea; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Maybeck, Vanessa; Offenhaeusser, Andreas [CNI Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology and Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems 2, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Electrophysiological activity of electrogenic cells is currently recorded with planar bioelectronic interfaces such as microelectrode arrays (MEAs). In this work, a novel concept of biocompatible nanostructured gold MEAs for extracellular signal recording is presented. MEAs were fabricated using clean room technologies, e.g. photolithography and metallization. Subsequently, they were modified with gold nanopillars of approximately 300 to 400 nm in height and 60 nm width. The nanostructuring process was carried out with a template-assisted approach using nanoporous aluminium oxide. Impedance spectroscopy of the resulting nanostructures showed higher capacitances compared to planar gold. This confirmed the expected increase of the surface area via nanostructuring. We used the nanostructured microelectrodes to record extracellular potentials from heart muscle cells (HL1), which were plated onto the chips. Good coupling between the HL1 cells and the nanostructured electrodes was observed. The resulting signal-to-noise ratio of nanopillar-MEAs was increased by a factor of 2 compared to planar MEAs. In future applications this nanopillar concept can be adopted for distinct interface materials and coupling to cellular and molecular sensing components.

  3. Hybrid Nanostructured Textile Bioelectrode for Unobtrusive Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pratyush

    Coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases and strokes are the leading causes of mortality in United States of America. Timely point-of-care health diagnostics and therapeutics for person suffering from these diseases can save thousands of lives. However, lack of accessible minimally intrusive health monitoring systems makes timely diagnosis difficult and sometimes impossible. To remedy this problem, a textile based nano-bio-sensor was developed and evaluated in this research. The sensor was made of novel array of vertically standing nanostructures that are conductive nano-fibers projecting from a conductive fabric. These sensor electrodes were tested for the quality of electrical contact that they made with the skin based on the fundamental skin impedance model and electromagnetic theory. The hybrid nanostructured dry electrodes provided large surface area and better contact with skin that improved electrode sensitivity and reduced the effect of changing skin properties, which are the problems usually faced by conventional dry textile electrodes. The dry electrodes can only register strong physiological signals because of high background noise levels, thus limiting the use of existing dry electrodes to heart rate measurement and respiration. Therefore, dry electrode systems cannot be used for recording complete ECG waveform, EEG or measurement of bioimpedance. Because of their improved sensitivity these hybrid nanostructured dry electrodes can be applied to measurement of ECG and bioimpedance with very low baseline noise. These textile based electrodes can be seamlessly integrated into garments of daily use such as vests and bra. In combination with embedded wireless network device that can communicate with smart phone, laptop or GPRS, they can function as wearable wireless health diagnostic systems.

  4. Commercial Implementation of Model-Based Manufacturing of Nanostructured Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Terry C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-24

    Computational modeling is an essential tool for commercial production of nanostructured metals. Strength is limited by imperfections at the high strength levels that are achievable in nanostructured metals. Processing to achieve homogeneity at the micro- and nano-scales is critical. Manufacturing of nanostructured metals is intrinsically a multi-scale problem. Manufacturing of nanostructured metal products requires computer control, monitoring and modeling. Large scale manufacturing of bulk nanostructured metals by Severe Plastic Deformation is a multi-scale problem. Computational modeling at all scales is essential. Multiple scales of modeling must be integrated to predict and control nanostructural, microstructural, macrostructural product characteristics and production processes.

  5. Combination of lightweight elements and nanostructured materials for batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Cheng, Fangyi

    2009-06-16

    ), Co(3)O(4), TiS(2), and Ni(OH)(2) in battery applications. Electrochemical investigations reveal that we generally attain larger capacities and improved kinetics for electrode materials as their average particle size decreases. Novel nanostructures such as nanowires, nanotubes, nanourchins, and porous nanospheres show lower activation energy, enhanced reactivity, improved high-rate charge/discharge capability, and more controlled structural flexibility than their bulk counterparts. In particular, anode materials such as Si nanospheres and Fe(2)O(3) nanotubes can deliver reversible capacity exceeding 500 mA.h/g. (Graphite used commercially has a theoretical capacity of 372 mA x h/g.) Nanocomposite cathode materials such as NiP-doped LiFePO(4) and metal hydroxide-coated Ni(OH)(2) nanotubes allow us to integrate functional components, which enhance electrical conductivity and suppress volume expansion. Therefore, shifting from bulk to nanostructured electrode materials could offer a revolutionary opportunity to develop advanced green batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, and long cycle life.

  6. Calculation of terahertz conductivity spectra in semiconductors with nanoscale modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrozek, J.; Němec, Hynek

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 7 (2012), "075308-1"-"075308-7" ISSN 1098-0121 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100101218 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : terahertz spectroscopy * semiconductor nanostructures * far-infrared conductivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012

  7. Plastic deformation of indium nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Indium nanopillars display two different deformation mechanisms. → ∼80% exhibited low flow stresses near that of bulk indium. → Low strength nanopillars have strain rate sensitivity similar to bulk indium. → ∼20% of compressed indium nanopillars deformed at nearly theoretical strengths. → Low-strength samples do not exhibit strength size effects. - Abstract: Mechanical properties and morphology of cylindrical indium nanopillars, fabricated by electron beam lithography and electroplating, are characterized in uniaxial compression. Time-dependent deformation and influence of size on nanoscale indium mechanical properties were investigated. The results show two fundamentally different deformation mechanisms which govern plasticity in these indium nanostructures. We observed that the majority of indium nanopillars deform at engineering stresses near the bulk values (Type I), with a small fraction sustaining flow stresses approaching the theoretical limit for indium (Type II). The results also show the strain rate sensitivity and flow stresses in Type I indium nanopillars are similar to bulk indium with no apparent size effects.

  8. Mapping the nanostructures in human adult and baby tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, I.M.; Mahmood, U.; Duraman, N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates and compares the variations in crystal structure, composition, and nanostructures within the human adult and deciduous teeth. The similarities and differences in the nanostructure of both types of teeth are highlighted and discussed. (author)

  9. Differential Geometry Applied to Rings and Möbius Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Benny; Willatzen, Morten; Gravesen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructure shape effects have become a topic of increasing interest due to advancements in fabrication technology. In order to pursue novel physics and better devices by tailoring the shape and size of nanostructures, effective analytical and computational tools are indispensable...

  10. Plasmonic nanostructures for bioanalytical applications of SERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Mehmet; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a potential analytical technique for the detection and identification of chemicals and biological molecules and structures in the close vicinity of metallic nanostructures. We present a novel method to fabricate tunable plasmonic nanostructures and perform a comprehensive structural and optical characterization of the structures. Spherical latex particles are uniformly deposited on glass slides and used as templates to obtain nanovoid structures on polydimethylsiloxane surfaces. The diameter and depth of the nanovoids are controlled by the size of the latex particles. The nanovoids are coated with a thin Ag layer for fabrication of uniform plasmonic nanostructures. Structural characterization of the surfaces is performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Optical properties of these plasmonic nanostructures are evaluated via UV/Vis spectroscopy, and SERS. The sample preparation step is the key point to obtain strong and reproducible SERS spectra from the biological structures. When the colloidal suspension is used as a SERS substrate for the protein detection, the electrostatic interaction of the proteins with the nanoparticles is described by the nature of their charge status, which influences the aggregation properties such as the size and shape of the aggregates, which is critical for the SERS experiment. However, when the solid SERS substrates are fabricated, SERS signal of the proteins that are background free and independent of the protein charge. Pros and cons of using plasmonic nano colloids and nanostructures as SERS substrate will be discussed for label-free detection of proteins using SERS.

  11. Terminating DNA Tile Assembly with Nanostructured Caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Deepak K; Jiang, Ruoyu; Reinhart, Seth; Mohammed, Abdul M; Jorgenson, Tyler D; Schulman, Rebecca

    2017-10-24

    Precise control over the nucleation, growth, and termination of self-assembly processes is a fundamental tool for controlling product yield and assembly dynamics. Mechanisms for altering these processes programmatically could allow the use of simple components to self-assemble complex final products or to design processes allowing for dynamic assembly or reconfiguration. Here we use DNA tile self-assembly to develop general design principles for building complexes that can bind to a growing biomolecular assembly and terminate its growth by systematically characterizing how different DNA origami nanostructures interact with the growing ends of DNA tile nanotubes. We find that nanostructures that present binding interfaces for all of the binding sites on a growing facet can bind selectively to growing ends and stop growth when these interfaces are presented on either a rigid or floppy scaffold. In contrast, nucleation of nanotubes requires the presentation of binding sites in an arrangement that matches the shape of the structure's facet. As a result, it is possible to build nanostructures that can terminate the growth of existing nanotubes but cannot nucleate a new structure. The resulting design principles for constructing structures that direct nucleation and termination of the growth of one-dimensional nanostructures can also serve as a starting point for programmatically directing two- and three-dimensional crystallization processes using nanostructure design.

  12. Architecting boron nanostructure on the diamond particle surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, H.; Dai, D.; Yu, J.H.; Nishimura, K.; Sasaoka, S.; Jiang, N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides an efficient approach for nano-functionalization of diamond powders. Boron nanostructure can be grown on diamond particle entire surface by a simple heat-treatment process. After treatment, various boron nanoforms were grown on the diamond particle surface at different processing temperature. High-density boron nanowires (BNWs) grow on the diamond particle entire surface at 1333 K, while nanopillars cover diamond powders when the heat treatment process is performed at 1393 K. The influence of the pretreatment temperature on the microstructure and thermal conductivity of Cu/diamond composites were investigated. Cu/diamond composites with high thermal conductivity of 670 W (m K) −1 was obtained, which was achieved by the formation of large number of nanowires and nanopillars on the diamond particle surface.

  13. Si-Ge Nano-Structured with Tungsten Silicide Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Traditional silicon germanium high temperature thermoelectrics have potential for improvements in figure of merit via nano-structuring with a silicide phase. A second phase of nano-sized silicides can theoretically reduce the lattice component of thermal conductivity without significantly reducing the electrical conductivity. However, experimentally achieving such improvements in line with the theory is complicated by factors such as control of silicide size during sintering, dopant segregation, matrix homogeneity, and sintering kinetics. Samples are prepared using powder metallurgy techniques; including mechanochemical alloying via ball milling and spark plasma sintering for densification. In addition to microstructural development, thermal stability of thermoelectric transport properties are reported, as well as couple and device level characterization.

  14. Nonlocal spin-transport measurement of superconductor-ferromagnet nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolenda, Stefan; Wolf, Michael J.; Huebler, Florian; Beckmann, Detlef [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We present measurements of the nonlocal conductance of nanostructures with several ferromagnetic electrodes lying perpendicular on a superconducting wire. In these structures nonlocal conductance is mostly given by diffusion of quasiparticles, which are injected by one of the electrodes and detected by an other one. Applying a magnetic field induces a Zeeman splitting in the quasiparticles density of states, which suppresses the relaxation of injected spin imbalance, thus spin transport over distances of several micrometers is found. While in the previous experiments the magnetic field was aligned parallel to the ferromagnetic electrodes, we also show measurements applying the magnetic field noncollinear with the magnetization of the ferromagnetic electrodes. We compare our results to the previous case.

  15. Facile Growth of Multi-twined Au Nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We describe a facile growth of chain-like Au nanostructures and their spontaneous transformation to multi-twined nanostructure using a mild reducing agent bisphenol A (BPA). The growth Au nanostructures involves the chemical reduction of HAuCl4 by BPA in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as ...

  16. Metal oxide nanostructures as gas sensing devices

    CERN Document Server

    Eranna, G

    2016-01-01

    Metal Oxide Nanostructures as Gas Sensing Devices explores the development of an integrated micro gas sensor that is based on advanced metal oxide nanostructures and is compatible with modern semiconductor fabrication technology. This sensor can then be used to create a compact, low-power, handheld device for analyzing air ambience. The book first covers current gas sensing tools and discusses the necessity for miniaturized sensors. It then focuses on the materials, devices, and techniques used for gas sensing applications, such as resistance and capacitance variations. The author addresses the issues of sensitivity, concentration, and temperature dependency as well as the response and recovery times crucial for sensors. He also presents techniques for synthesizing different metal oxides, particularly those with nanodimensional structures. The text goes on to highlight the gas sensing properties of many nanostructured metal oxides, from aluminum and cerium to iron and titanium to zinc and zirconium. The final...

  17. Silicon nanostructures for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fei; Cao, Zhaohui; Ji, Xiaoyuan; Chu, Binbin; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of nanotechnology suggests new and exciting opportunities for early diagnosis and therapy of cancer. During the recent years, silicon-based nanomaterials featuring unique properties have received great attention, showing high promise for myriad biological and biomedical applications. In this review, we will particularly summarize latest representative achievements on the development of silicon nanostructures as a powerful platform for cancer early diagnosis and therapy. First, we introduce the silicon nanomaterial-based biosensors for detecting cancer markers (e.g., proteins, tumor-suppressor genes and telomerase activity, among others) with high sensitivity and selectivity under molecular level. Then, we summarize in vitro and in vivo applications of silicon nanostructures as efficient nanoagents for cancer therapy. Finally, we discuss the future perspective of silicon nanostructures for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  18. Transport and dynamics of nanostructured graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunst, Tue

    This thesis is concerned with the heating and electronic properties of nanoscale devices based on nanostructured graphene. As electronic devices scale down to nanometer dimensions, the operation depends on the detailed atomic structure. Emerging carbon nano-materials such as graphene, carbon...... nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons, exhibit promising electronic and heat transport properties. Much research addresses the electron mobility of pristine graphene devices. However, the thermal transport properties, as well as the effects of e-ph interaction, in nanoscale devices, based on nanostructured...... graphene, have received much less attention. This thesis contributes to the understanding of the thermal properties of nanostructured graphene. The computational analysis is based on DFT/TB-NEGF. We show how a regular nanoperforation of a graphene layer - a graphene antidot lattice (GAL) - may...

  19. Polymer Masks for nanostructuring of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvets, Violetta

    This PhD project is a part of Center for Nanostructured Graphene (CNG) activities. The aim of the project is to develop a new lithography method for creation of highly ordered nanostructures with as small as possible feature and period sizes. The method should be applicable for graphene...... polymer masks is developed. Mask fabrication is realized by microtoming of 30-60 nm thin sections from pre-aligned polymer monoliths with different morphologies. The resulting polymer masks are then transferred to both silicon and graphene substrates. Hexagonally packed hole patterns with 10 nm hole...... diameter and 20 nm periodicity are successfully transferred to both substrates. The method allowed to realize the first ever transfer of moiré patterns to silicon. Furthermore, in collaboration with CNG, device with nanostructured graphene are fabricated and electrical measurements made on these devices...

  20. Designing fractal nanostructured biointerfaces for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengchao; Wang, Shutao

    2014-06-06

    Fractal structures in nature offer a unique "fractal contact mode" that guarantees the efficient working of an organism with an optimized style. Fractal nanostructured biointerfaces have shown great potential for the ultrasensitive detection of disease-relevant biomarkers from small biomolecules on the nanoscale to cancer cells on the microscale. This review will present the advantages of fractal nanostructures, the basic concept of designing fractal nanostructured biointerfaces, and their biomedical applications for the ultrasensitive detection of various disease-relevant biomarkers, such microRNA, cancer antigen 125, and breast cancer cells, from unpurified cell lysates and the blood of patients. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Synthesis and processing of nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    Significant and growing interest is being exhibited in the novel and enhanced properties of nanostructured materials. These materials, with their constituent phase or grain structures modulated on a length scale less than 100 nm, are artificially synthesized by a wide variety of physical, chemical, and mechanical methods. In this NATO Advanced Study Institute, where mechanical behavior is emphasized, nanostructured materials with modulation dimensionalities from one (multilayers) to three (nanophase materials) are mainly considered. No attempt is made in this review to cover in detail all of the diverse methods available for the synthesis of nanostructured materials. Rather, the basic principles involved in their synthesis are discussed in terms of the special properties sought using examples of particular synthesis and processing methodologies. Some examples of the property changes that can result from one of these methods, cluster assembly of nanophase materials, are presented

  2. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  3. Optical properties of nitride nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantarero, A.; Cros, A.; Garro, N.; Gomez-Gomez, M.I.; Garcia, A.; Lima, M.M. de [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, PO Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Daudin, B. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, SPMM, CEA/Grenoble, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Rizzi, A.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J. [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg August Universitaet Goettingen, 37073 Goettingen (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper we review some recent results on the optical properties of nitride nanostructures, in particular on GaN quantum dots (QDs) and InN nanocolumns (NCs). First, we will give a brief introduction on the particularities of vibrational modes of wurtzite. The GaN QDs, embedded in AlN, were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in the Stransky-Krastanov mode on c- and a-plane 6H-SiC. We have studied the optical properties by means of photoluminescence (PL) and performed Raman scattering measurements to analyze the strain relaxation in the dots and the barrier, the effect of the internal electric fields, and the influence of specific growth parameters, like the influence of capping or the spacer on the relaxation of the QDs. A theoretical model, based on continuous elastic theory, were developed to interpret the Raman scattering results. On the other hand, InN NCs have been grown by MBE in the vapor-liquid-solid mode using Au as a catalyst. The nanocolumns have different morphology depending on the growth conditions. The optical properties can be correlated to the morphology of the samples and the best growth conditions can be selected. We observe, from the analysis of the Raman data in InN NCs, the existence of two space regions contributing to the scattering: the surface and the inner region. From the inner region, uncoupled phonon modes are clearly observed, showing the high crystal quality and the complete relaxation of the NCs (no strain). The observation of a LO-phonon-plasmon couple in the same spectra is a fingerprint of the accumulation layer predicted at the surface of the nanocolumns. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Spin currents in metallic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czeschka, Franz Dominik

    2011-09-05

    A pure spin current, i.e., a flow of angular momentum without accompanying net charge current, is a key ingredient in the field of spintronics. In this thesis, we experimentally investigated two different concepts for pure spin current sources suggested by theory. The first is based on a time-dependent magnetization precession which ''pumps'' a pure spin current into an adjacent non-magnetic conductor. Our experiments quantitatively corroborated important predictions expected theoretically for this approach, including the dependence of the spin current on the sample geometry and the microwave power. Even more important, we could show for the first time that the spin pumping concept is viable in a large variety of ferromagnetic materials and that it only depends on the magnetization damping. Therefore, our experiments established spin pumping as generic phenomenon and demonstrated that it is a powerful way to generate pure spin currents. The second theoretical concept is based on the conversion of charge currents into spin currents in non-magnetic nanostructures via the spin Hall effect. We experimentally investigated this approach in H-shaped, metallic nanodevices, and found that the predictions are linked to requirements not realizable with the present experimental techniques, neither in sample fabrication nor in measurement technique. Indeed, our experimental data could be consistently understood by a spin-independent transport model describing the transition from diffusive to ballistic transport. In addition, the implementation of advanced fabrication and measurement techniques allowed to discover a new non-local phenomenon, the non-local anisotropic magnetoresistance. Finally, we also studied spin-polarized supercurrents carried by spin-triplet Cooper pairs. We found that low resistance interfaces are a key requirement for further experiments in this direction. (orig.)

  5. Elongated nanostructures for radial junction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yinghuan; Vece, Marcel Di; Rath, Jatindra K; Dijk, Lourens van; Schropp, Ruud E I

    2013-10-01

    In solar cell technology, the current trend is to thin down the active absorber layer. The main advantage of a thinner absorber is primarily the reduced consumption of material and energy during production. For thin film silicon (Si) technology, thinning down the absorber layer is of particular interest since both the device throughput of vacuum deposition systems and the stability of the devices are significantly enhanced. These features lead to lower cost per installed watt peak for solar cells, provided that the (stabilized) efficiency is the same as for thicker devices. However, merely thinning down inevitably leads to a reduced light absorption. Therefore, advanced light trapping schemes are crucial to increase the light path length. The use of elongated nanostructures is a promising method for advanced light trapping. The enhanced optical performance originates from orthogonalization of the light's travel path with respect to the direction of carrier collection due to the radial junction, an improved anti-reflection effect thanks to the three-dimensional geometric configuration and the multiple scattering between individual nanostructures. These advantages potentially allow for high efficiency at a significantly reduced quantity and even at a reduced material quality, of the semiconductor material. In this article, several types of elongated nanostructures with the high potential to improve the device performance are reviewed. First, we briefly introduce the conventional solar cells with emphasis on thin film technology, following the most commonly used fabrication techniques for creating nanostructures with a high aspect ratio. Subsequently, several representative applications of elongated nanostructures, such as Si nanowires in realistic photovoltaic (PV) devices, are reviewed. Finally, the scientific challenges and an outlook for nanostructured PV devices are presented.

  6. Controllable synthesis of flake-like Al-doped ZnO nanostructures and its application in inverted organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flake-like Al-doped ZnO (AZO nanostructures including dense AZO nanorods were obtained via a low-temperature (100°C hydrothermal process. By doping and varying Al concentrations, the electrical conductivity (σ and morphology of the AZO nanostructures can be readily controlled. The effect of σ and morphology of the AZO nanostructures on the performance of the inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs was studied. It presents that the optimized power conversion efficiency of the AZO-based IOSCs is improved by approximately 58.7% compared with that of un-doped ZnO-based IOSCs. This is attributed to that the flake-like AZO nanostructures of high σ and tunable morphology not only provide a high-conduction pathway to facilitate electron transport but also lead to a large interfacial area for exciton dissociation and charge collection by electrodes.

  7. Nanowires and nanostructures fabrication using template methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Vlad, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the great challenges of today is to find reliable techniques for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization are the most promising due to their easiness and low cost. This paper focuses on the electrochemical synthesis...... of nanowires and nanostructures using nanoporous host materials such as supported anodic aluminum considering it as a key template for nanowires based devices. New ways are opened for applications by combining such template synthesis methods with nanolithographic techniques....

  8. Screening effect on nanostructure of charged gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, M; Annaka, M; Hino, M

    2004-01-01

    Charge screening effects on nanostructures of N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) and -acrylic acid (NIPA-AAc) gels are investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The NIPA-SA and NIPA-AAc gels with low water content exhibit microphase separations with different dimensions....... The dehydrated NIPA-SA gel also makes the microphase separation but the dehydrated NIPA-AAc gel does not. These results indicate that ionic circumstance around charged bases strongly affects the nanostructures both of the dehydrated gel and the gel with low water content. (C) 2004 Elsevier B. V. All rights...

  9. Screening effect on nanostructure of charged gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Annaka, Masahiko; Hino, Masahiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Vigild, Martin E.; Hara, Kazuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Charge screening effects on nanostructures of N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) and -acrylic acid (NIPA-AAc) gels are investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The NIPA-SA and NIPA-AAc gels with low water content exhibit microphase separations with different dimensions. The dehydrated NIPA-SA gel also makes the microphase separation but the dehydrated NIPA-AAc gel does not. These results indicate that ionic circumstance around charged bases strongly affects the nanostructures both of the dehydrated gel and the gel with low water content

  10. Screening effect on nanostructure of charged gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Annaka, Masahiko; Hino, Masahiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; E. Vigild, Martin; Hara, Kazuhiro

    2004-07-01

    Charge screening effects on nanostructures of N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) and -acrylic acid (NIPA-AAc) gels are investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The NIPA-SA and NIPA-AAc gels with low water content exhibit microphase separations with different dimensions. The dehydrated NIPA-SA gel also makes the microphase separation but the dehydrated NIPA-AAc gel does not. These results indicate that ionic circumstance around charged bases strongly affects the nanostructures both of the dehydrated gel and the gel with low water content.

  11. Phase-shifted response of plasmonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerkararyan, Khachatur V.; Yezekyan, Torgom S.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE) illuminated by a resonant electromagnetic field and placed close to a metal nanostructure, whose response to the incident field is phase shifted by 3π/2 (-π/2). It is found that, due to the phase shift in a field scattered by the nanostruc......We analyze the dynamics of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE) illuminated by a resonant electromagnetic field and placed close to a metal nanostructure, whose response to the incident field is phase shifted by 3π/2 (-π/2). It is found that, due to the phase shift in a field scattered...

  12. Nanostructured systems for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.; Kuvshinov, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    The reservoir energy or that of the injected heat carrier was used to generate in situ intelligent chemical systems—nanostructured gels, sols and oil-displacing surfactants systems, preserving for a long time in the reservoir a complex of the properties being optimal for oil displacement. The results of field tests and commercial application of physicochemical technologies using nanostructured systems for enhanced oil recovery in oilfields with difficult-to-recover reserves, including deposits of high-viscosity oils, have been presented. Field tests of new "cold" technologies on the deposit of high-viscosity oil in Usinskoye oilfield proved their high efficiency.

  13. Nanocoatings size effect in nanostructured films

    CERN Document Server

    Aliofkhazraei, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Size effect in structures has been taken into consideration over the last years. In comparison with coatings with micrometer-ranged thickness, nanostructured coatings usually enjoy better and appropriate properties, such as strength and resistance. These coatings enjoy unique magnetic properties and are used with the aim of producing surfaces resistant against erosion, lubricant system, cutting tools, manufacturing hardened sporadic alloys, being resistant against oxidation and corrosion. This book reviews researches on fabrication and classification of nanostructured coatings with focus on size effect in nanometric scale. Size effect on electrochemical, mechanical and physical properties of nanocoatings are presented.

  14. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanostructured Vanadium Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livage, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    A wide range of vanadium oxides have been obtained via the hydrothermal treatment of aqueous V(V) solutions. They exhibit a large variety of nanostructures ranging from molecular clusters to 1D and 2D layered compounds. Nanotubes are obtained via a self-rolling process while amazing morphologies such as nano-spheres, nano-flowers and even nano-urchins are formed via the self-assembling of nano-particles. This paper provides some correlation between the molecular structure of precursors in the solution and the nanostructure of the solid phases obtained by hydrothermal treatment. PMID:28883325

  15. Research of Self-Formation Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romas Petrauskas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lateral etching processes for the modeling of the geometry of self-formation nanostructures with Silvaco TCAD Athena program are analyzed. Self-formation nanostructures is modeled with different mask selectivity values equal to 2, 10, 40 and 100 with respect to the etching layer, with the etching duration of 0–180 s. The etching rates are constant – 1.33 nm/s. The analysis of the dependence of the etching systematic error on its thickness has been carried out. The computer modeled results are close to the ones produced by means of the application of the analytical calculation models by other authors.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Functional nanostructures on injection molded plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    Nanotechnology can be used to make inexpensive plastic parts with functional surfaces. The plastic parts can be molded using a standard injection molding process. The nanostructures are directly transferred from the surface of the molding tool to the surface of the molded plastic part during...... the molding process. The main advantage with this method is that surface treatments and chemical additives are avoided, which minimizes health risks and simplifies recycling. Another advantage is that the unique technology enables nanostructuring of free form molded parts. The functional surfaces can have...

  17. Plasmonics of magnetic and topological graphene-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bychkov, Igor V.; Shavrov, Vladimir G.; Temnov, Vasily V.

    2018-02-01

    Graphene is a unique material in the study of the fundamental limits of plasmonics. Apart from the ultimate single-layer thickness, its carrier concentration can be tuned by chemical doping or applying an electric field. In this manner, the electrodynamic properties of graphene can be varied from highly conductive to dielectric. Graphene supports strongly confined, propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in a broad spectral range from terahertz to mid-infrared frequencies. It also possesses a strong magneto-optical response and thus provides complimentary architectures to conventional magneto-plasmonics based on magneto-optically active metals or dielectrics. Despite a large number of review articles devoted to plasmonic properties and applications of graphene, little is known about graphene magneto-plasmonics and topological effects in graphene-based nanostructures, which represent the main subject of this review. We discuss several strategies to enhance plasmonic effects in topologically distinct closed surface landscapes, i.e. graphene nanotubes, cylindrical nanocavities and toroidal nanostructures. A novel phenomenon of the strongly asymmetric SPP propagation on chiral meta-structures and the fundamental relations between structural and plasmonic topological indices are reviewed.

  18. Nanostructured energetic materials derived from sol-gel chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R L; Tillotson, T M; Hrubesh, L W; Gash, A E

    2000-01-01

    Initiation and detonation properties are dramatically affected by an energetic material's microstructural properties. Sol-gel chemistry allows intimacy of mixing to be controlled and dramatically improved over existing methodologies. One material goal is to create very high power energetic materials which also have high energy densities. Using sol-gel chemistry we have made a nanostructured composite energetic material. Here a solid skeleton of fuel, based on resorcinol-formaldehyde, has nanocrystalline ammonium perchlorate, the oxidizer, trapped within its pores. At optimum stoichiometry it has approximately the energy density of HMX. Transmission electron microscopy indicated no ammonium perchlorate crystallites larger than 20 nm while near-edge soft x-ray absorption microscopy showed that nitrogen was uniformly distributed, at least on the scale of less than 80 nm. Small-angle neutron scattering studies were conducted on the material. Those results were consistent with historical ones for this class of nanostructured materials. The average skeletal primary particle size was on the order of 2.7 nm, while the nanocomposite showed the growth of small 1 nm size crystals of ammonium perchlorate with some clustering to form particles greater than 10 nm

  19. Nanostructured Layered Cathode for Rechargeable Mg-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepavcevic, Sanja; Liu, Yuzi; Zhou, Dehua; Lai, Barry; Maser, Jorg; Zuo, Xiaobing; Chan, Henry; Král, Petr; Johnson, Christopher S; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad M; Rajh, Tijana

    2015-08-25

    Nanostructured bilayered V2O5 was electrochemically deposited within a carbon nanofoam conductive support. As-prepared electrochemically synthesized bilayered V2O5 incorporates structural water and hydroxyl groups, which effectively stabilizes the interlayers and provides coordinative preference to the Mg(2+) cation in reversible cycling. This open-framework electrode shows reversible intercalation/deintercalation of Mg(2+) ions in common electrolytes such as acetonitrile. Using a scanning transmission electron microscope we demonstrate that Mg(2+) ions can be effectively intercalated into the interlayer spacing of nanostructured V2O5, enabling electrochemical magnesiation against a Mg anode with a specific capacity of 240 mAh/g. We employ HRTEM and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging to understand the role of environment in the intercalation processes. A rebuilt full cell was tested by employing a high-energy ball-milled Sn alloy anode in acetonitrile with Mg(ClO4)2 salt. XRF microscopy reveals effective insertion of Mg ions throughout the V2O5 structure during discharge and removal of Mg ions during electrode charging, in agreement with the electrode capacity. We show using XANES and XRF microscopy that reversible Mg intercalation is limited by the anode capacity.

  20. Nanostructured energetic materials derived from sol-gel chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R L; Tillotson, T M; Hrubesh, L W; Gash, A E

    2000-03-15

    Initiation and detonation properties are dramatically affected by an energetic material's microstructural properties. Sol-gel chemistry allows intimacy of mixing to be controlled and dramatically improved over existing methodologies. One material goal is to create very high power energetic materials which also have high energy densities. Using sol-gel chemistry we have made a nanostructured composite energetic material. Here a solid skeleton of fuel, based on resorcinol-formaldehyde, has nanocrystalline ammonium perchlorate, the oxidizer, trapped within its pores. At optimum stoichiometry it has approximately the energy density of HMX. Transmission electron microscopy indicated no ammonium perchlorate crystallites larger than 20 nm while near-edge soft x-ray absorption microscopy showed that nitrogen was uniformly distributed, at least on the scale of less than 80 nm. Small-angle neutron scattering studies were conducted on the material. Those results were consistent with historical ones for this class of nanostructured materials. The average skeletal primary particle size was on the order of 2.7 nm, while the nanocomposite showed the growth of small 1 nm size crystals of ammonium perchlorate with some clustering to form particles greater than 10 nm.

  1. Single conducting polymer nanowire based conductometric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangar, Mangesh Ashok

    The detection of toxic chemicals, gases or biological agents at very low concentrations with high sensitivity and selectivity has been subject of immense interest. Sensors employing electrical signal readout as transduction mechanism offer easy, label-free detection of target analyte in real-time. Traditional thin film sensors inherently suffered through loss of sensitivity due to current shunting across the charge depleted/added region upon analyte binding to the sensor surface, due to their large cross sectional area. This limitation was overcome by use of nanostructure such as nanowire/tube as transducer where current shunting during sensing was almost eliminated. Due to their benign chemical/electrochemical fabrication route along with excellent electrical properties and biocompatibility, conducting polymers offer cost-effective alternative over other nanostructures. Biggest obstacle in using these nanostructures is lack of easy, scalable and cost-effective way of assembling these nanostructures on prefabricated micropatterns for device fabrication. In this dissertation, three different approaches have been taken to fabricate individual or array of single conducting polymer (and metal) nanowire based devices and using polymer by itself or after functionalization with appropriate recognition molecule they have been applied for gas and biochemical detection. In the first approach electrochemical fabrication of multisegmented nanowires with middle functional Ppy segment along with ferromagnetic nickel (Ni) and end gold segments for better electrical contact was studied. This multi-layered nanowires were used along with ferromagnetic contact electrode for controlled magnetic assembly of nanowires into devices and were used for ammonia gas sensing. The second approach uses conducting polymer, polypyrrole (Ppy) nanowires using simple electrophoretic alignment and maskless electrodeposition to anchor nanowire which were further functionalized with antibodies against

  2. Conductive atomic force microscopy on carbon nanowalls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vetushka, Aliaksi; Itoh, T.; Nakanishi, Y.; Fejfar, Antonín; Nonomura, S.; Ledinský, Martin; Kočka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 358, č. 17 (2012), s. 2545-2547 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB061012; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk 7E10061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 240826 - PolySiMode Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : carbon nanowalls * conductive atomic force microscopy * torsion resonance mode * nanostructures Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.597, year: 2012

  3. Terahertz Photoconductivity of Graphene Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren A.; Ulbricht, Ronald; Narita, Akimitsu

    2013-01-01

    The photoconductive properties of graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes were studied using optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy. A reduction in conductivity of GNRs compared to CNTs was observed.......The photoconductive properties of graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes were studied using optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy. A reduction in conductivity of GNRs compared to CNTs was observed....

  4. Nanostructure Diffraction Gratings for Integrated Spectroscopy and Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junpeng (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present disclosure pertains to metal or dielectric nanostructures of the subwavelength scale within the grating lines of optical diffraction gratings. The nanostructures have surface plasmon resonances or non-plasmon optical resonances. A linear photodetector array is used to capture the resonance spectra from one of the diffraction orders. The combined nanostructure super-grating and photodetector array eliminates the use of external optical spectrometers for measuring surface plasmon or optical resonance frequency shift caused by the presence of chemical and biological agents. The nanostructure super-gratings can be used for building integrated surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrometers. The nanostructures within the diffraction grating lines enhance Raman scattering signal light while the diffraction grating pattern of the nanostructures diffracts Raman scattering light to different directions of propagation according to their wavelengths. Therefore, the nanostructure super-gratings allows for the use of a photodetector array to capture the surface enhanced Raman scattering spectra.

  5. Carbon nanostructure composite for electromagnetic interference ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This communication reviews current developments in carbon nanostructure-based composite materials for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. With more and more elec- tronic gadgets being used at different frequencies, there is a need for shielding them from one another to avoid interference.

  6. Natural and bioinspired nanostructured bactericidal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Abinash; Sen, Prosenjit; Su, Bo; Briscoe, Wuge H

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial antibiotic resistance is becoming more widespread due to excessive use of antibiotics in healthcare and agriculture. At the same time the development of new antibiotics has effectively ground to a hold. Chemical modifications of material surfaces have poor long-term performance in preventing bacterial build-up and hence approaches for realising bactericidal action through physical surface topography have become increasingly important in recent years. The complex nature of the bacteria cell wall interactions with nanostructured surfaces represents many challenges while the design of nanostructured bactericidal surfaces is considered. Here we present a brief overview of the bactericidal behaviour of naturally occurring and bio-inspired nanostructured surfaces against different bacteria through the physico-mechanical rupture of the cell wall. Many parameters affect this process including the size, shape, density, rigidity/flexibility and surface chemistry of the surface nanotextures as well as factors such as bacteria specificity (e.g. gram positive and gram negative) and motility. Different fabrication methods for such bactericidal nanostructured surfaces are summarised. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Langmuir Blodgett multilayers and related nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Langmuir Blodgett (LB) process is an important route to the development of organized molecular layered structures of a variety of organic molecules with suitably designed architecture and functionality. LB multilayers have also been used as templates and precursors to develop nano-structured thin films. In this article ...

  8. Ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures: From quasi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By suitable design it is possible to achieve quasi-ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures over times up to the ps-range. Monte-Carlo simulations reveal that under these conditions phase-coherent real-space oscillations of an electron ensemble, generated by fs-pulses become possible in wide potential wells.

  9. Functional nanostructures on injection molded plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    Nanotechnology can be used to make inexpensive plastic parts with functional surfaces. The plastic parts can be molded using a standard injection molding process. The nanostructures are directly transferred from the surface of the molding tool to the surface of the molded plastic part during...

  10. Nanostructures: Scattering beyond the Born approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoriev, S.V.; Syromyatnikov, A. V.; Chumakov, A. P.; Grigoryeva, N.A.; Napolskii, K.S.; Roslyakov, I. V.; Eliseev, A.A.; Petukhov, A.V.; Eckerlebe, H.

    2010-01-01

    The neutron scattering on a two-dimensional ordered nanostructure with the third nonperiodic dimension can go beyond the Born approximation. In our model supported by the exact theoretical solution a well-correlated hexagonal porous structure of anodic aluminum oxide films acts as a peculiar

  11. Soft chemical routes to semiconductor nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soft chemistry has emerged as an important means of generating nanocrystals, nanowires and other nanostructures of semiconducting materials. We describe the synthesis of CdS and other metal chalcogenide nanocrystals by a solvothermal route. We also describe the synthesis of nanocrystals of AlN, GaN and InN by the ...

  12. Hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weidong; Song, Shuyan; Zhang, Hongjie

    2013-07-07

    Because of their unique chemical and physical properties, inorganic semiconducting nanostructures have gradually played a pivotal role in a variety of research fields, including electronics, chemical reactivity, energy conversion, and optics. A major feature of these nanostructures is the quantum confinement effect, which strongly depends on their size, shape, crystal structure and polydispersity. Among all developed synthetic methods, the hydrothermal method based on a water system has attracted more and more attention because of its outstanding advantages, such as high yield, simple manipulation, easy control, uniform products, lower air pollution, low energy consumption and so on. Precise control over the hydrothermal synthetic conditions is a key to the success of the preparation of high-quality inorganic semiconducting nanostructures. In this review, only the representative hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures are selected and discussed. We will introduce the four types of strategies based on exterior reaction system adjustment, namely organic additive- and template-free hydrothermal synthesis, organic additive-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and substrate-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. In addition, the two strategies based on exterior reaction environment adjustment, including microwave-assisted and magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, will be also described. Finally, we conclude and give the future prospects of this research area.

  13. Hydrogen adsorption in carbon nanostructures compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmel, H.G.; Nijkamp, M.G.; Kearley, G.J.; Rivera, A.; de Jong, K.P.; Mulder, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports continue to suggest high hydrogen storage capacities for some carbon nanostructures due to a stronger interaction between hydrogen and carbon. Here the interaction of hydrogen with activated charcoal, carbon nanofibers, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), and electron beam ‘opened’

  14. Physicochemical properties of nanostructured lipid carriers as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The melting point depression of NLC80 was 5.71°C below bulk lipid's melting point (61.56°C), while NLC20 exhibited two melting points at 54.80 and 59.10°C. ... Key words: Nanostructured lipid carriers, colloidal delivery system, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, highpressure homogenization, physicochemical properties.

  15. Reducibility of platinum supported on nanostructured carbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, A.J.; Schubert, T.; Storr, U.; de Jong, K.P.; Bitter, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The nanostructure of graphite like carbon, i.e. carbon nanofibers (CNF), carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanoplatelets (CNP), displayed a significant influence on the reducibility of platinum deposited on these carbons. The onset temperature for reduction increased from 461 K for Pt/CNF to 466 K

  16. Monocrystalline halide perovskite nanostructures : For optoelectronic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoram, P.

    2018-01-01

    Halide perovskites are a promising class of materials for incorporation in optoelectronics with higher efficiency and lower cost. The solution processability of these materials provides unique opportunities for simple nanostructure fabrication. In the first half of the thesis (chapter 2 and 3) we

  17. Ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures: From quasi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. By suitable design it is possible to achieve quasi-ballistic transport in semi- conductor nanostructures over times up to the ps-range. Monte-Carlo simulations reveal that under these conditions phase-coherent real-space oscillations of an electron ensem- ble, generated by fs-pulses become possible in wide ...

  18. Ordered biological nanostructures formed from chaperonin polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor); McMillan, R. Andrew (Inventor); Kagawa, Hiromi (Inventor); Paavola, Chad D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The following application relates to nanotemplates, nanostructures, nanoarrays and nanodevices formed from wild-type and mutated chaperonin polypeptides, methods of producing such compositions, methods of using such compositions and particular chaperonin polypeptides that can be utilized in producing such compositions.

  19. Numerical simulations of nanostructured gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repän, Taavi; Frydendahl, Christian; Novikov, Sergey M.

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach to analyse near-field effects on nanostructured gold films by finite element simulations. The studied samples are formed by fabricating gold films near the percolation threshold and then applying laser damage. Resulting samples have complicated structures, which...

  20. Nanostructured metal particle-modified electrodes for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 118; Issue 6. Nanostructured ... Nanotechnology has become one of the most exciting frontier fields in analytical chemistry. The huge interest in nanomaterials, for example in chemical sensors and catalysis, is driven by their many desirable properties. Although metal ...

  1. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  2. Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Wubs, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a broad overview of the studies and effects of nonlocal response in metallic nanostructures. In particular, we thoroughly present the nonlocal hydrodynamic model and the recently introduced generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model. The influence of nonlocal response...

  3. Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels Bent

    We present a process for injection molding of 40 nm wide and >100 nm high pillars (pitch: 200 nm). We explored the effects of mold coatings and injection molding conditions on the replication quality of nanostructures in cyclic olefin copolymer. We found that optimization of molding parameters...

  4. Photoemission from optoelectronic materials and their nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad; Bhattacharya, Sitangshu

    2009-01-01

    This monograph investigates photoemission from optoelectronic materials and their nanostructures. It contains open-ended research problems which form an integral part of the text and are useful for graduate courses as well as aspiring Ph.D.'s and researchers..

  5. Soft chemical routes to semiconductor nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soft chemical routes to semiconductor nanostructures. UJJAL K GAUTAM1,2, KRIPASINDHU SARDAR1,2, F L DEEPAK1 and C N R RAO1,2,∗. 1Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit and CSIR Centre of Excellence in Chemistry,. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O.,. Bangalore 560 ...

  6. Nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Marion; Bowen, Benjamin; Northen, Trent

    2015-09-08

    Several embodiments described herein are drawn to methods of identifying an analyte on a subject's skin, methods of generating a fingerprint, methods of determining a physiological change in a subject, methods of diagnosing health status of a subject, and assay systems for detecting an analyte and generating a fingerprint, by nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS).

  7. Electroluminescence from Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The EL and PL intensities occurs at the same energy; however, the EL intensity has sharp Gaussian sub peaks and red shifted compared to the PL intensity. To get our result, we used the idea of quantum confinement model (QCM), that can explain PL and EL on pure Si nanostructures and Si-terminated with impurities.

  8. Langmuir Blodgett multilayers and related nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Langmuir Blodgett (LB) process is an important route to the development of organized molecular layered structures of a variety of organic molecules with suitably designed architecture and functionality. LB multilayers have also been used as templates and precursors to develop nano-structured thin films.

  9. Heat Generation by Irradiated Complex Composite Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Haiyan; Tian, Pengfei; Pello, Josselin

    2014-01-01

    Heating of irradiated metallic e-beam generated nanostructures was quantified through direct measurements paralleled by novel model-based numerical calculations. By comparing discs, triangles, and stars we showed how particle shape and composition determines the heating. Importantly, our results...

  10. Synthesis of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-Green Tea Extract Composite Nanostructures using Electrohydrodynamic Spraying Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin; Edikresnha, D.; Sriyanti, I.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal

    2017-05-01

    Green Tea Extract (GTE) as an active substance has successfully loaded to PVP nanostructures using electrohydrodynamic spraying technique. The precursor solution was the mixture of ethanolic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with a molecular weight of 1,300 kg/mol and ethanolic GTE solutions at a weight concentration of 4 wt.% and 2 wt.%, respectively, and it was estimated that the entanglement number was 2. The electrospraying was conducted at the voltage of 15 kV, the flow rate of 10 µL/min., and the distance between the collector and the tip of the nozzle of 10 cm. The SEM images showed that the PVP/GTE nanostructures had a combination of agglomerated beads (less spherical particles) and nanofibers. This occurred because if the PVP concentration is low, the PVP/GTE composite has weak core structures that cause the shell to be easily agglomerated each other. The intermolecular interaction between PVP and GTE in the PVP/GTE nanostructures occurred as confirmed by the peak at 3396 cm-1, which is the carboxyl group, proving that the PVP/GTE nanostructures contained water, alcohols, and phenols. The peak at 1040 cm-1, which is the stretching of C-O group in amino acid, gave another proof to the intermolecular interaction.

  11. In vitro biocompatibility evaluations of hyperbranched polyglycerol hybrid nanostructure as a candidate for nanomedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Ali; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Farokhi, Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, a detailed biocompatibility testing of a novel class of hybrid nanostructure based on hyperbranched polyglycerol and β-cyclodextrin is conducted. This highly water soluble nanostructure with size of less than 10 nm, polydispersity of less than 1.3, chemical tenability and highly branched architecture with the control over branching structure could be potentially used as a carrier in drug delivery systems. To this end, extensive studies in vitro and in vivo conditions have to be demonstrated. The in vitro studies include in vitro cytotoxicity tests; MTT and Neutral Red assay as an indicator of mitochondrial and lysosomal function, and blood biocompatibility tests such as effects on coagulation cascade, and complement activation. The results show that these hybrid nanostructures, which can be prepared in a simple reaction, are considerably biocompatible. The in vivo studies showed that the hybrid nanostructure is well tolerated by rats even in high doses of 10 mg ml(-1). After autopsy, the normal structure of liver tissue was observed; which divulges high biocompatibility and their potential applications as drug delivery and nanomedicine.

  12. Fabrication of Zircaloy-4 Fuel Cladding Pipe with Nanostructured Oxide Layer for Prevention of Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y. J.; Park, J. W.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, S. O. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    There has been an attempt to protect zircaloy fuel cladding by coating SiC. Research on producing oxide layer that can block fuel cladding from water on the surface of zircaloy fuel cladding by means of anodizing to reduce the rate of oxidation of fuel cladding at Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is an significant ongoing study subject. Applying nanostructured oxide layer to the prevention of thermal deformation of oxide layer was already suggested in our research group, the reasons of which is nanoporous structure is better than nanotube structure in terms of corrosion-resistant structure because nanotube structure can be easily peeled off. In this study, methods which are able to control morphology between nanoporous and nanotube structure were conducted by changing the anodizing conditions. Hence, Using glycerol and ammonium fluoride, Zircaloy-4 was anodized by varying water contents and applied voltage. Zircaloy-4 pipe with nanostructured surface was fabricated by anodization technique. The produced nanostructure is quite even but the thickness of the oxide layer is not even. The nanostructured surface can increase the thermal characteristics of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of subwavelength nanostructures on freestanding GaN slab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjin; Hu, Fangren; Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Sameshima, Hidehisa; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2010-02-01

    We develop a novel way to fabricate subwavelength nanostructures on the freestanding GaN slab using a GaN-on-silicon system by combining self-assemble technique and backside thinning method. Silicon substrate beneath the GaN slab is removed by bulk silicon micromachining, generating the freestanding GaN slab and eliminating silicon absorption of the emitted light. Fast atom beam (FAB) etching is conducted to thin the freestanding GaN slab from the backside, reducing the number of confined modes inside the GaN slab. With self-assembled silica nanospheres acting as an etching mask, subwavelength nanostructures are realized on the GaN surface by FAB etching. The reflection losses at the GaN interfaces are thus suppressed. When the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) active layers are excited, the light extraction efficiency is significantly improved for the freestanding nanostructured GaN slab. This work provides a very practical approach to fabricate freestanding nanostructures on the GaN-on-silicon system for further improving the light extraction efficiency.

  14. Structural and optical characterization of Cr2O3 nanostructures: Evaluation of its dielectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M. M.; Rajab, Fahd M.; Al-Abbas, Saleh M.

    2014-01-01

    The structural, optical and dielectric properties of as-grown Cr 2 O 3 nanostructures are demonstrated in this paper. Powder X-ray diffractometry analysis confirmed the rhombohedral structure of the material with lattice parameter, a = b = 4.953 Å; c = 13.578 Å, and average crystallize size (62.40 ± 21.3) nm. FE-SEM image illustrated the mixture of different shapes (disk, particle and rod) of as-grown nanostructures whereas; EDS spectrum confirmed the elemental purity of the material. FTIR spectroscopy, revealed the characteristic peaks of Cr–O bond stretching vibrations. Energy band gap (3.2 eV) of the nanostructures has been determined using the results of UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. The dielectric properties of the material were checked in the wide frequency region (100Hz-30 MHz). In the low frequency region, the matrix of the dielectric behaves like source as well as sink of electrical energy within the relaxation time. Low value of dielectric loss exhibits that the materials posses good optical quality with lesser defects. The ac conductivity of the material in the high frequency region was found according to frequency power law. The physical-mechanism and the theoretical-interpretation of dielectric-properties of Cr 2 O 3 nanostructures attest the potential candidature of the material as an efficient dielectric medium

  15. Polarization effects on spectra of spherical core/shell nanostructures: Perturbation theory against finite difference approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibral, Asmaa; Zouitine, Asmaa; Assaid, El Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Poisson equation is solved analytically in the case of a point charge placed anywhere in a spherical core/shell nanostructure, immersed in aqueous or organic solution or embedded in semiconducting or insulating matrix. Conduction and valence band-edge alignments between core and shell are described by finite height barriers. Influence of polarization charges induced at the surfaces where two adjacent materials meet is taken into account. Original expressions of electrostatic potential created everywhere in the space by a source point charge are derived. Expressions of self-polarization potential describing the interaction of a point charge with its own image–charge are deduced. Contributions of double dielectric constant mismatch to electron and hole ground state energies as well as nanostructure effective gap are calculated via first order perturbation theory and also by finite difference approach. Dependencies of electron, hole and gap energies against core to shell radii ratio are determined in the case of ZnS/CdSe core/shell nanostructure immersed in water or in toluene. It appears that finite difference approach is more efficient than first order perturbation method and that the effect of polarization charge may in no case be neglected as its contribution can reach a significant proportion of the value of nanostructure gap

  16. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for quantitative interface state characterization of planar and nanostructured semiconductor-dielectric interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Andrew C.; Tang, Kechao; Braun, Michael R.; Zhang, Liangliang; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2017-10-01

    The performance of nanostructured semiconductors is frequently limited by interface defects that trap electronic carriers. In particular, high aspect ratio geometries dramatically increase the difficulty of using typical solid-state electrical measurements (multifrequency capacitance- and conductance-voltage testing) to quantify interface trap densities (D it). We report on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to characterize the energy distribution of interface traps at metal oxide/semiconductor interfaces. This method takes advantage of liquid electrolytes, which provide conformal electrical contacts. Planar Al2O3/p-Si and Al2O3/p-Si0.55Ge0.45 interfaces are used to benchmark the EIS data against results obtained from standard electrical testing methods. We find that the solid state and EIS data agree very well, leading to the extraction of consistent D it energy distributions. Measurements carried out on pyramid-nanostructured p-Si obtained by KOH etching followed by deposition of a 10 nm ALD-Al2O3 demonstrate the application of EIS to trap characterization of a nanostructured dielectric/semiconductor interface. These results show the promise of this methodology to measure interface state densities for a broad range of semiconductor nanostructures such as nanowires, nanofins, and porous structures.

  17. Ethanol gas sensing performance of high-dimensional fuzz metal oxide nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibano, Kenzo; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Sugahara, Tohru; Lee, Heun Tae; Ueda, Yoshio

    2018-04-01

    Gas sensing ability of the He plasma induced fiber-like nanostructure, so-called fuzz structure, was firstly examined. A thin Mo layer deposited on a quartz surface was irradiated by He plasma to form the fuzz structure and oxidized by annealing in a quartz furnace. Electric conductivity of the fuzz Mo oxide layer was then measured through the Au electrodes deposited on the layer. Changes in electric conductivity by C2H5OH gas flow were examined as a function of temperature from 200 to 400 °C. Improved sensitivities were observed for the specimens after a fuzz nanostructure formation. However, the sensor developed in this study showed lower sensitivities than previously reported MoO3 nano-rod sensor, further optimization of oxidation is needed to improve the sensitivity.

  18. Critical sizes and critical characteristics of nanoclusters, nanostructures and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzdalev, I.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Critical sizes and characteristics of nanoclusters and nanostructures are introduced as the parameters of nanosystems and nanomaterials. The next critical characteristics are considered: atomic and electronic 'magic number', critical size of cluster nucleation, critical size of melting-freezing of cluster, critical size of quantum (laser) radiation, critical sizes for the single electron conductivity, critical energy and magnetic field for the magnetic tunneling, critical cluster sizes for the giant magnetic resistance, critical size of the first order magnetic phase transition. The critical characteristics are estimated by thermodynamic approaches, by Moessbauer spectroscopy, AFM, heat capacity, SQUID magnetometry and other technique, The influence of cluster-cluster interactions, cluster-matrix interactions and cluster defects on cluster atomic dynamics, cluster melting, cluster critical sizes, Curie or Neel points and the character of magnetic phase transitions were investigated. The applications of critical size and critical characteristic parameters for the nanomaterial characterization are considered

  19. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Johnson, Gary W.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1995-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  20. Nanostructured magnesium oxide biosensing platform for cholera detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manoj K.; Azahar Ali, Md.; Agrawal, Ved V.; Ansari, Z. A.; Ansari, S. G.; Malhotra, B. D.

    2013-04-01

    We report fabrication of highly crystalline nanostructured magnesium oxide (NanoMgO, size >30 nm) film electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate for Vibrio cholerae detection. The single stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) probe, consisting of 23 bases (O1 gene sequence) immobilized onto NanoMgO/ITO electrode surface, has been characterized using electrochemical, Fourier Transform-Infra Red, and UltraViolet-visible spectroscopic techniques. The hybridization studies of ssDNA/NanoMgO/ITO bioelectrode with fragmented target DNA conducted using differential pulse voltammetry reveal sensitivity as 16.80 nA/ng/cm2, response time of 3 s, linearity as 100-500 ng/μL, and stability of about 120 days.

  1. Synthesis and investigation of optical properties of ZnS nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to the bandgap energy of ZnS nanostructures (Jiang et al. 2003b). The emission peak at 380 nm (3·26 eV) could be assigned to free-exciton recombination. The green emission at about 538 nm (2·3 eV) corresponds to the transition from the conduction band (3·7 eV) to the sulfur vacancies (VS) level (1·4 eV) (Kurbatov et al ...

  2. High-frequency filtering for low-temperature thermal transport studies in nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Torgovkin, Andrii

    2012-01-01

    Filtering of external unwanted RF-noise and thermal noise generated at the high-temperature parts of the measuring circuit is essential for successful measurements of thermal transport of nanostructures at low temperatures. This is because of thermal decoupling of the systems, i.e. the extreme weakness of thermal conduction at sub-Kelvin temperatures, leading easily to overheating even with excess power in sub pW range. We have started to improve the noise filtering in our cryogenic diluti...

  3. Controlled adsorption of cytochrome c to nanostructured gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Inês; Feio, Maria J.; Santos, Nuno C.; Eaton, Peter; Serro, Ana Paula; Saramago, Benilde; Pereira, Eulália; Franco, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Controlled electrostatic physisorption of horse heart cytochrome c (Cyt c) onto nanostructured gold surfaces was investigated using Quartz-Crystal Microbalance measurements in planar gold surfaces with or without functionalization using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of the alkanethiol mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA). MUA is a useful functionalization ligand for gold surfaces, shedding adsorbed biomolecules from the excessive electron density of the metal. A parallel analysis was conducted in the corresponding curved surfaces of 15 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), using zeta-potential and UV– visible spectroscopy. Atomic Force Microscopy of both types of functionalized gold surfaces with a MUA SAM, allowed for visualization of Cyt c deposits on the nanostructured gold surface. The amount of Cyt c adsorbed onto the gold surface could be controlled by the solution pH. For the assays conducted at pH 4.5, when MUA SAM- functionalized planar gold surfaces are positive or neutral, and Cyt c has a positive net charge, only 13 % of the planar gold surface area was coated with protein. In contrast, at pH 7.4, when MUA SAM-functionalized planar gold surfaces and Cyt c have opposite charges, a protein coverage of 28 % could be observed implying an adsorption process strongly governed by electrostatic forces. Cyt c adsorption on planar and curved gold surfaces are found to be greatly favored by the presence of a MUA-capping layer. In particular, on the AuNPs, the binding constant is three times larger than the binding constant obtained for the original citrate-capped AuNPs.

  4. Controlled adsorption of cytochrome c to nanostructured gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Ines [Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica (Portugal); Feio, Maria J. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica (Portugal); Santos, Nuno C. [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Medicina Molecular (Portugal); Eaton, Peter [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica (Portugal); Serro, Ana Paula; Saramago, Benilde [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal); Pereira, Eulalia [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica (Portugal); Franco, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardo.franco@fct.unl.pt [Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica (Portugal)

    2012-12-15

    Controlled electrostatic physisorption of horse heart cytochrome c (Cyt c) onto nanostructured gold surfaces was investigated using Quartz-Crystal Microbalance measurements in planar gold surfaces with or without functionalization using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of the alkanethiol mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA). MUA is a useful functionalization ligand for gold surfaces, shedding adsorbed biomolecules from the excessive electron density of the metal. A parallel analysis was conducted in the corresponding curved surfaces of 15 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), using zeta-potential and UV- visible spectroscopy. Atomic Force Microscopy of both types of functionalized gold surfaces with a MUA SAM, allowed for visualization of Cyt c deposits on the nanostructured gold surface. The amount of Cyt c adsorbed onto the gold surface could be controlled by the solution pH. For the assays conducted at pH 4.5, when MUA SAM- functionalized planar gold surfaces are positive or neutral, and Cyt c has a positive net charge, only 13 % of the planar gold surface area was coated with protein. In contrast, at pH 7.4, when MUA SAM-functionalized planar gold surfaces and Cyt c have opposite charges, a protein coverage of 28 % could be observed implying an adsorption process strongly governed by electrostatic forces. Cyt c adsorption on planar and curved gold surfaces are found to be greatly favored by the presence of a MUA-capping layer. In particular, on the AuNPs, the binding constant is three times larger than the binding constant obtained for the original citrate-capped AuNPs.

  5. Supported 3-D Pt nanostructures: the straightforward synthesis and enhanced electrochemical performance for methanol oxidation in an acidic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zesheng; Ji, Shan; Pollet, Bruno G.; Shen, Pei Kang

    2013-01-01

    Noble metal nanostructures with branched morphologies [i.e., 3-D Pt nanoflowers (NFs)] by tri-dimensionally integrating onto conductive carbon materials are proved to be an efficient and durable electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation. The well-supported 3-D Pt NFs are readily achieved by an efficient cobalt-induced/carbon-mediated galvanic reaction approach. Due to the favorable nanostructures (3-D Pt configuration allowing a facile mass transfer) and supporting effects (including framework stabilization, spatially separate feature, and improved charge transport effects), these 3-D Pt NFs manifest much higher electrocatalytic activity and stability toward methanol oxidation than that of the commercial Pt/C and Pt-based electrocatalysts

  6. Thermal conductivity engineering of bulk and one-dimensional Si-Ge nanoarchitectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemir, Ali; Ozden, Ayberk; Cagin, Tahir; Sevik, Cem

    2017-01-01

    Various theoretical and experimental methods are utilized to investigate the thermal conductivity of nanostructured materials; this is a critical parameter to increase performance of thermoelectric devices. Among these methods, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) is an accurate technique to predict lattice thermal conductivity. In this study, by means of systematic EMD simulations, thermal conductivity of bulk Si-Ge structures (pristine, alloy and superlattice) and their nanostructured one dimensional forms with square and circular cross-section geometries (asymmetric and symmetric) are calculated for different crystallographic directions. A comprehensive temperature analysis is evaluated for selected structures as well. The results show that one-dimensional structures are superior candidates in terms of their low lattice thermal conductivity and thermal conductivity tunability by nanostructuring, such as by diameter modulation, interface roughness, periodicity and number of interfaces. We find that thermal conductivity decreases with smaller diameters or cross section areas. Furthermore, interface roughness decreases thermal conductivity with a profound impact. Moreover, we predicted that there is a specific periodicity that gives minimum thermal conductivity in symmetric superlattice structures. The decreasing thermal conductivity is due to the reducing phonon movement in the system due to the effect of the number of interfaces that determine regimes of ballistic and wave transport phenomena. In some nanostructures, such as nanowire superlattices, thermal conductivity of the Si/Ge system can be reduced to nearly twice that of an amorphous silicon thermal conductivity. Additionally, it is found that one crystal orientation, [Formula: see text]100[Formula: see text], is better than the [Formula: see text]111[Formula: see text] crystal orientation in one-dimensional and bulk SiGe systems. Our results clearly point out the importance of lattice thermal conductivity

  7. Nanostructured Mn-based oxides for electrochemical energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Han, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhe; Zhang, Xiaolong; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2015-02-07

    Batteries and supercapacitors as electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices are continuously serving for human life. The electrochemical performance of batteries and supercapacitors depends in large part on the active materials in electrodes. As an important family, Mn-based oxides have shown versatile applications in primary batteries, secondary batteries, metal-air batteries, and pseudocapacitors due to their high activity, high abundance, low price, and environmental friendliness. In order to meet future market demand, it is essential and urgent to make further improvements in energy and power densities of Mn-based electrode materials with the consideration of multiple electron reaction and low molecular weight of the active materials. Meanwhile, nanomaterials are favourable to achieve high performance by means of shortening the ionic diffusion length and providing large surface areas for electrode reactions. This article reviews the recent efforts made to apply nanostructured Mn-based oxides for batteries and pseudocapacitors. The influence of structure, morphology, and composition on electrochemical performance has been systematically summarized. Compared to bulk materials and notable metal catalysts, nanostructured Mn-based oxides can promote the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions occurring at the solid-liquid or the solid-liquid-gas interface. In particular, nanostructured Mn-based oxides such as one-dimensional MnO2 nanostructures, MnO2-conductive matrix nanocomposites, concentration-gradient structured layered Li-rich Mn-based oxides, porous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 nanorods, core-shell structured LiMnSiO4@C nanocomposites, spinel-type Co-Mn-O nanoparticles, and perovskite-type CaMnO3 with micro-nano structures all display superior electrochemical performance. This review should shed light on the sustainable development of advanced batteries and pseudocapacitors with nanostructured Mn-based oxides.

  8. Microscopic droplet formation and energy transport analysis of condensation on scalable superhydrophobic nanostructured copper oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, GuanQiu; Alhosani, Mohamed H; Yuan, ShaoJun; Liu, HaoRan; Ghaferi, Amal Al; Zhang, TieJun

    2014-12-09

    Utilization of nanotechnologies in condensation has been recognized as one opportunity to improve the efficiency of large-scale thermal power and desalination systems. High-performance and stable dropwise condensation in widely-used copper heat exchangers is appealing for energy and water industries. In this work, a scalable and low-cost nanofabrication approach was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic copper oxide (CuO) nanoneedle surfaces to promote dropwise condensation and even jumping-droplet condensation. By conducting systematic surface characterization and in situ environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) condensation experiments, we were able to probe the microscopic formation physics of droplets on irregular nanostructured surfaces. At the early stages of condensation process, the interfacial surface tensions at the edge of CuO nanoneedles were found to influence both the local energy barriers for microdroplet growth and the advancing contact angles when droplets undergo depinning. Local surface roughness also has a significant impact on the volume of the condensate within the nanostructures and overall heat transfer from the vapor to substrate. Both our theoretical analysis and in situ ESEM experiments have revealed that the liquid condensate within the nanostructures determines the amount of the work of adhesion and kinetic energy associated with droplet coalescence and jumping. Local and global droplet growth models were also proposed to predict how the microdroplet morphology within nanostructures affects the heat transfer performance of early-stage condensation. Our quantitative analysis of microdroplet formation and growth within irregular nanostructures provides the insight to guide the anodization-based nanofabrication for enhancing dropwise and jumping-droplet condensation performance.

  9. Nanostructure of highly aromatic graphene nanosheets -- From optoelectronics to electrochemical energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sanjib

    The exceptional electrical properties along with intriguing physical and chemical aspects of graphene nanosheets can only be realized by nanostructuring these materials through the homogeneous and orderly distribution of these nanosheets without compromising the aromaticity of the native basal plane. Graphene nanosheets prepared by direct exfoliation as opposed to the graphene oxide route are necessary in order to preserve the native chemical properties of graphene basal planes. This research has been directed at optimally combining the diverse physical and chemical aspects of graphene nanosheets such as particle size, surface area and edge chemistry to fabricate nanostructured architectures for optoelectronics and high power electrochemical energy storage applications. In the first nanostructuring effort, a monolayer of these ultrathin, highly hydrophobic graphene nanosheets was prepared on a large area substrate via self-assembly at the liquid-liquid interface. Driven by the minimization of interfacial energy these planar graphene nanosheets produce a close packed monolayer structure at the liquid-liquid interface. The resulting monolayer film exhibits high electrical conductivity of more than 1000 S/cm and an optical transmission of more than 70-80% between wavelengths of 550 nm and 2000 nm making it an ideal candidate for optoelectronic applications. In the second part of this research, nanostructuring was used to create a configuration suitable for supercapacitor applications. A free standing, 100% binder free multilayer, flexible film consisting of monolayers of graphene nanosheets was prepared by utilizing the van der Waals forces of attraction between the basal plans of the graphene nanosheets coupled with capillary driven and drying-induced collapse. A major benefit in this approach is that the graphene nanosheet's attractive physical and chemical characteristics can be synthesized into an architecture consisting of large and small nanosheets to create an

  10. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Zn1‑x Ni x O nanostructures synthesized by chemical precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Levna; Shafeeq, K. M.; Anjana, R.; Jayaraj, M. K.; Aneesh, P. M.

    2017-10-01

    ZnO nanomaterials have drawn considerable research interest as a multifunctional semiconductor material due to its unique thermal, electrical, optical and optoelectronic properties and also a suitable candidate for the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer in optoelectronic devices. The present work deals with the co-precipitation synthesis of ZnO nanostructures with Ni dopants. The structure and phase identification, morphology, optical and magnetic response of the prepared Zn1‑x Ni x O nanostructures have been investigated by employing x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), Raman analysis, UV–Vis–NIR and fluorescence spectrophotometer and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. Structural studies reveal the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO nanostructures with a slight decrease in the particle size with Ni doping. The incorporation Ni in the ZnO host lattice is confirmed by EDAX measurements. Optical studies confirm the observance of blue shift and violet photoluminescence emission for Zn1‑x Ni x O nanostructures. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements of Zn1‑x Ni x O nanostructures shows hysteresis loop at room temperature confirming the ferromagnetic behaviour of the samples.

  11. Recent progress in p-type doping and optical properties of SnO2 nanostructures for optoelectronic device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shusheng; Li, Guanghai

    2011-06-01

    SnO(2) semiconductor is a host material for ultraviolet optoelectronic devices applications because of its wide band gap (3.6 eV), large exciton binding energy (130 meV) and exotic electrical properties and has attracted great interests. The renewed interest is fueled by the availability of exciton emission in nanostructures, high quality epitaxial films, p-type conductivity, and heterojunction light emitting devices. This review begins with a survey of the patents and reports on the recent developments on SnO2 films. We focus on the epitaxial growth, p-type doping and photoluminescence properties of SnO(2) films and nanostructures, including the achievements in our group. Finally, the applications of SnO(2) nanostructures to optoelectronic devices including heterojunction light emitting devices, photodetectors and photovoltaic cells will be discussed.

  12. Thin inclusion approach for modelling of heterogeneous conducting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Nikolay; Smirnova, Alevtina; Gorgun, Haluk; Sammes, Nigel

    Experimental data show that heterogeneous nanostructure of solid oxide and polymer electrolyte fuel cells could be approximated as an infinite set of fiber-like or penny-shaped inclusions in a continuous medium. Inclusions can be arranged in a cluster mode and regular or random order. In the newly proposed theoretical model of nanostructured material, the most attention is paid to the small aspect ratio of structural elements as well as to some model problems of electrostatics. The proposed integral equation for electric potential caused by the charge distributed over the single circular or elliptic cylindrical conductor of finite length, as a single unit of a nanostructured material, has been asymptotically simplified for the small aspect ratio and solved numerically. The result demonstrates that surface density changes slightly in the middle part of the thin domain and has boundary layers localized near the edges. It is anticipated, that contribution of boundary layer solution to the surface density is significant and cannot be governed by classic equation for smooth linear charge. The role of the cross-section shape is also investigated. Proposed approach is sufficiently simple, robust and allows extension to either regular or irregular system of various inclusions. This approach can be used for the development of the system of conducting inclusions, which are commonly present in nanostructured materials used for solid oxide and polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEMFC) materials.

  13. Development of a gold-nanostructured surface for amperometric genosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.zanardi@unimore.it [Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Chimica (Italy); Baldoli, Clara, E-mail: clara.baldoli@istm.cnr.it [Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari del CNR (Italy); Licandro, Emanuela [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica Organica ed Industriale (Italy); Terzi, Fabio; Seeber, Renato [Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Chimica (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    A gold-nanostructured surface has been obtained by stable deposition of chemically synthesized gold nanoparticles (2.1-5.5 nm size range) on a gold substrate through a dithiol linker. The method proposed for the obtainment of the nanostructure is suitable for the further stable anchoring of a peptide nucleic acid oligomer through four amine groups of lysine terminal residues, leading to fairly reproducible systems. The geometric area of the nanostructured surface is compared with those of a smooth and of an electrochemically generated nanostructured surface by depositing a probe bearing an electrochemically active ferrocene residue. Despite the area of the two nanostructures being quite similar, the response toward a 2 nM target oligonucleotide sequence is particularly high when using the surface built up by nanoparticle deposition. This aspect indicates that morphologic details of the nanostructure play a key role in conditioning the performances of the genosensors.

  14. Hydrogen Gas Sensors Based on Semiconductor Oxide Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Hu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the hydrogen gas sensing properties of semiconductor oxide (SMO nanostructures have been widely investigated. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the research progress in the last five years concerning hydrogen gas sensors based on SMO thin film and one-dimensional (1D nanostructures. The hydrogen sensing mechanism of SMO nanostructures and some critical issues are discussed. Doping, noble metal-decoration, heterojunctions and size reduction have been investigated and proved to be effective methods for improving the sensing performance of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures. The effect on the hydrogen response of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures of grain boundary and crystal orientation, as well as the sensor architecture, including electrode size and nanojunctions have also been studied. Finally, we also discuss some challenges for the future applications of SMO nanostructured hydrogen sensors.

  15. Nanostructured metal foams: synthesis and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Erik P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tappan, Bryce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mueller, Alex [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Volz, Heather [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cardenas, Andreas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Papin, Pallas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veauthier, Jackie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Marius [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of monolithic metallic nanoporous materials is difficult using conventional methodology. Here they report a relatively simple method of synthesizing monolithic, ultralow density, nanostructured metal foams utilizing self-propagating combustion synthesis of novel metal complexes containing high nitrogen energetic ligands. Nanostructured metal foams are formed in a post flame-front dynamic assembly with densities as low as 0.011 g/cc and surface areas as high as 270 m{sup 2}/g. They have produced metal foams via this method of titanium, iron, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, copper, palladium, silver, hafnium, platinum and gold. Microstructural features vary as a function of composition and process parameters. Applications for the metal foams are discussed including hydrogen absorption in palladium foams. A model for the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in the foams is presented.

  16. Metal plasmas for the fabrication of nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2006-09-21

    A review is provided covering metal plasma production, theenergetic condensation of metal plasmas, and the formation ofnanostructures using such plasmas. Plasma production techniques includepulsed laser ablation, filtered cathodic arcs, and various forms ofionized physical vapor deposition, namely magnetron sputtering withionization of sputtered atoms in radio frequency discharges,self-sputtering, and high power impulse magnetron sputtering. Thediscussion of energetic condensation focuses on the control of kineticenergy by biasing and also includes considerations of the potentialenergy and the processes occurring at subplantation and implantation. Inthe final section on nanostructures, two different approaches arediscussed. In the top-down approach, the primary nanostructures arelithographically produced and metal plasma is used to coat or filltrenches and vias. Additionally, multilayers with nanosize periods(nanolaminates) can be produced. In the bottom-up approach, thermodynamicforces are used to fabricate nanocomposites and nanoporous materials bydecomposition and dealloying.

  17. Thermo-plasmonics of Irradiated Metallic Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Haiyan

    Thermo-plasmonics is an emerging field in photonics which aims at harnessing the kinetic energy of light to generate nanoscopic sources of heat. Localized surface plasmons (LSP) supported by metallic nanostructures greatly enhance the interactions of light with the structure. By engineering...... the size, morphology and composition of metallic nanostructures, the absorption of light can be maximized, resulting in a substantial temperature elevation in a nanoscopic volume. Applications of these nanoscopic sources of heat can be found in various contexts including localized cancer therapy, drug...... using conventional techniques. In this thesis, we present novel experimental and numerical tools to characterize thermo-plasmonic devices in a biologically relevant environment, and explore the thermodiffusion properties and measure thermophoretic forces for particles in temperature gradients ranging...

  18. Nanowires, nanostructures and devices fabricated therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2005-04-19

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  19. Physics of Nanostructured Solid State Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Nanostructured Solid State Devices introduces readers to theories and concepts such as semi-classical and quantum mechanical descriptions of electron transport, methods for calculations of band structures in solids with applications in calculation of optical constants, and other advanced concepts.  The information presented here will equip readers with the necessary tools to carry out cutting edge research in modern solid state nanodevices. This book also: Covers sophisticated models of charge transport including the drift-diffusion model, Boltzmann transport model and various quantum transport models Discusses the essential elements of quantum mechanics necessary for an understanding of nanostructured solid state devices Presents band structure calculation methods based on time-independent perturbation theory Discusses theory of optical transitions and optical devices employing quantum-confined structures such as quantum wells,wires and dots Elucidates quantum mechanics of electrons in a magneti...

  20. Biomolecule-based nanomaterials and nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Itamar; Willner, Bilha

    2010-10-13

    Biomolecule-nanoparticle (or carbon nanotube) hybrid systems provide new materials that combine the unique optical, electronic, or catalytic properties of the nanoelements with the recognition or biocatalytic functions of biomolecules. This article summarizes recent applications of biomolecule-nanoparticle (or carbon nanotubes) hybrid systems for sensing, synthesis of nanostructures, and for the fabrication of nanoscale devices. The use of metallic nanoparticles for the electrical contacting of redox enzymes with electrodes, and as catalytic labels for the development of electrochemical biosensors is discussed. Similarly, biomolecule-quantum dot hybrid systems are implemented for optical biosensing, and for monitoring intracellular metabolic processes. Also, the self-assembly of biomolecule-metal nanoparticle hybrids into nanostructures and functional nanodevices is presented. The future perspectives of the field are addressed by discussing future challenges and highlighting different potential applications.

  1. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taleb Mokari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been significant interest in the development of multicomponent nanocrystals formed by the assembly of two or more different materials with control over size, shape, composition, and spatial orientation. In particular, the selective growth of metals on the tips of semiconductor nanorods and wires can act to couple the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors with the unique properties of various metals. Here, we outline our progress on the solution-phase synthesis of metal-semiconductor heterojunctions formed by the growth of Au, Pt, or other binary catalytic metal systems on metal (Cd, Pb, Cu-chalcogenide nanostructures. We show the ability to grow the metal on various shapes (spherical, rods, hexagonal prisms, and wires. Furthermore, manipulating the composition of the metal nanoparticles is also shown, where PtNi and PtCo alloys are our main focus. The magnetic and electrical properties of the developed hybrid nanostructures are shown.

  3. Silver nanowires - unique templates for functional nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yugang

    2010-09-01

    This feature article reviews the synthesis and application of silver nanowires with the focus on a polyol process that is capable of producing high quality silver nanowires with high yield. The as-synthesized silver nanowires can be used as both physical templates for the synthesis of metal/dielectric core/shell nanowires and chemical templates for the synthesis of metal nanotubes as well as semiconductor nanowires. Typical examples including Ag/SiO2 coaxial nanocables, single- and multiple-walled nanotubes made of Au-Ag alloy, AgCl nanowires and AgCl/Au core/shell nanowires are discussed in detail to illustrate the versatility of nanostructures derived from silver nanowire templates. Novel properties associated with these one-dimensional nanostructures are also briefly discussed to shed the light on their potential applications in electronics, photonics, optoelectronics, catalysis, and medicine.

  4. Magnetic anisotropy of (Ge,Mn) nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, A; Jamet, M; Barski, A; Devillers, T; Yu, I-S; Porret, C; Gambarelli, S; Maurel, V; Desfonds, G; Jacquot, J F, E-mail: abhinav.jain@cea.fr [Institut Nanosciences et Cryogenie, CEA-UJF, F-38054, Grenoble (France)

    2011-04-01

    We present a correlation between structural and magnetic properties of different (Ge,Mn) nanostructures grown on Ge(001) and Ge(111) substrates. Thin films of Ge{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x} were grown by low temperature molecular beam epitaxy to favor the out-of-equilibrium growth. Depending on the growth conditions crystalline or amorphous (Ge,Mn) nanocolumns have been observed on Ge(001) substrates. The magnetic properties were probed by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). With the help of these complementary techniques (SQUID and EPR), magnetic anisotropy in these nanostructures has been investigated and different anisotropy constants were calculated.

  5. Computational modeling of semiconductor nanostructures for optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veprek, Ratko G.

    2009-07-01

    This dissertation deals with parts of the theory and its numerical implementation of a novel simulator tdkp/AQUA, suitable for the unified simulation of nanostructures for optoelectronics of any dimensionality. Here, the calculation of realistic electronic band structure, including strain and polarization effects, and the optical properties of nanostructures are covered. The presented theory is based on a continuum formulation of the physical behavior of the involved semiconductor crystal. As a central novelty, the k*p envelope function method for the band structure calculation is formulated absolutely spurious solution free by ensuring a mathematical consistent formulation retaining the elliptical nature of the equation. The optical properties are calculated within a density matrix formalism. Many-body effects due to Coulomb interactions between charge carriers are included on the level of the screened Hartree-Fock theory. At the end, an analysis of GaN-nanocolumn LEDs using the developed simulator is presented. (orig.)

  6. Mechanics of Nanostructures: Methods and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rod

    2003-03-01

    We continue to develop and use new tools to measure the mechanics and electromechanics of nanostructures. Here we discuss: (a) methods for making nanoclamps and the resulting: nanoclamp geometry, chemical composition and type of chemical bonding, and nanoclamp strength (effectiveness as a nanoclamp for the mechanics measurements to be made); (b) mechanics of carbon nanocoils. We have received carbon nanocoils from colleagues in Japan [1], measured their spring constants, and have observed extensions exceeding 100% relative to the unloaded length, using our scanning electron microscope nanomanipulator tool; (c) several new devices that are essentially MEMS-based, that allow for improved measurements of the mechanics of psuedo-1D and planar nanostructures. [1] Zhang M., Nakayama Y., Pan L., Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 39, L1242-L1244 (2000).

  7. Storage of hydrogen in nanostructured carbon materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yürüm, Yuda; Yurum, Yuda; Taralp, Alpay; Veziroğlu, T. Nejat; Veziroglu, T. Nejat

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments focusing on novel hydrogen storage media have helped to benchmark nanostructured carbon materials as one of the ongoing strategic research areas in science and technology. In particular, certain microporous carbon powders, carbon nanomaterials, and specifically carbon nanotubes stand to deliver unparalleled performance as the next generation of base materials for storing hydrogen. Accordingly, the main goal of this report is to overview the challenges, distinguishing trait...

  8. Nanostructured energy devices equilibrium concepts and kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Bisquert, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the pressing needs of society, low cost materials for energy devices have experienced an outstanding development in recent times. In this highly multidisciplinary area, chemistry, material science, physics, and electrochemistry meet to develop new materials and devices that perform required energy conversion and storage processes with high efficiency, adequate capabilities for required applications, and low production cost. Nanostructured Energy Devices: Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics introduces the main physicochemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices. It inclu

  9. Thin metal nanostructures: synthesis, properties and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Zhanxi; Huang, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional nanomaterials, especially graphene and single- or few-layer transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets, have attracted great research interest in recent years due to their distinctive physical, chemical and electronic properties as well as their great potentials for a broad range of applications. Recently, great efforts have also been devoted to the controlled synthesis of thin nanostructures of metals, one of the most studied traditional materials, for various applications. I...

  10. Noise and dissipation in magnetoelectronic nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Foros, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    This thesis adresses electric and magnetic noise and dissipation in magnetoelectronic nanostructures. Charge and spin current fluctuations are studied in various nanosized metallic structures consisting of both ferromagnetic and non-magnetic elements. The interplay between current and magnetization fluctuations, and the relation of these fluctuations to the electric and magnetic dissipation of energy, are considered. Special focus is on the enhancement of magnetization damping due to so-calle...

  11. Numerical simulations of nanostructured gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repan, Taavi; Frydendahl, Christian; Novikov, Sergey M.

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach to analyse near-field effects on nanostructured gold films by finite element simulations. The studied samples are formed by fabricating gold films near the percolation threshold and then applying laser damage. Resulting samples have complicated structures, which then was ca...... then was captured using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and the obtained dark field images are used to set up COMSOL simulations corresponding to actual structures....

  12. Imaging magnetic domains in Ni nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, A.; Jaafar, M.; Gonzalez, E.M.; Martin, J.I.; Vazquez, M.; Vicent, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The study of nanomagnets is the subject of increasing scientific effort. The size, the thickness and the geometric shape of the elements determine the magnetic properties and then the domain configuration. In this work, we fabricated by electron-beam lithography the three different arrays of Ni nanostructures keeping the size, the thickness and also the distance constant between the elements but varying the geometry: square, triangular and circular. The domain structure of the nanomagnets is studied by magnetic force microscopy

  13. Nanostructured complexes of polyelectrolytes and charged polypeptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, M.; Ouyang, W.; Bohatá, Karolína; Kessler, B.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, Sp. Iss. 9 (2010), B519-B528 ISSN 1438-1656. [Sino-German Symposium on Advanced Biomedical Nanostructures /1./. Jena, 26.10.2009-30.10.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : situ ATR-FTIR * alpha-helical polypeptides * multilayer films Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.746, year: 2010

  14. Binary DNA Nanostructures for Data Encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsen, Ken; Wong, Wesley P.

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple and secure system for encrypting and decrypting information using DNA self-assembly. Binary data is encoded in the geometry of DNA nanostructures with two distinct conformations. Removing or leaving out a single component reduces these structures to an encrypted solution of ssDNA, whereas adding back this missing "decryption key" causes the spontaneous formation of the message through self-assembly, enabling rapid read out via gel electrophoresis. Applications include auth...

  15. Binary DNA nanostructures for data encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Ken; Wong, Wesley P

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple and secure system for encrypting and decrypting information using DNA self-assembly. Binary data is encoded in the geometry of DNA nanostructures with two distinct conformations. Removing or leaving out a single component reduces these structures to an encrypted solution of ssDNA, whereas adding back this missing "decryption key" causes the spontaneous formation of the message through self-assembly, enabling rapid read out via gel electrophoresis. Applications include authentication, secure messaging, and barcoding.

  16. Preparation of 1D nanostructures using biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneanu, Stela; Olenic, Liliana; Kacso, Irina [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tudoran, Lucian Barbu [Babes-Bolyai University, Electron Microscopy Center, 1 Mihail Kogalniceanu, 400006 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Al-Said, Said A Farha; Hassanien, Reda; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R, E-mail: stela.pruneanu@itim-cj.r [School of Chemistry, Bedson Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we have shown that one-dimensional (1D) particle arrays can be obtained using biomolecules, like DNA or amino-acids. Nano-arrays of silver and gold were prepared in a single-step synthesis, by exploiting the binding abilities of {lambda}-DNA and L-Arginine. The morphology and optical properties of these nanostructures were investigated using AFM, TEM and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy.

  17. Characterization and Biomimcry of Avian Nanostructured Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-19

    chemistry. We use plasmonics to measure refractive index of melanins and synchrotron-based Vacuum Ultraviolet Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry...able to produce a dazzling display of colours with small shifts in viewing geometry, likely due to their periodic nanostructure, flattened barb...species use dazzling displays of changing colours to impress or capture the attention of females (e.g. Parotia lawesii and Pavo cristatus; Stavenga et

  18. Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes

    OpenAIRE

    Maijenburg, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes”. Templated electrodeposition is the synthesis technique that was used throughout this thesis, and it comprises the use of a template with specific shape and dimensions for the formation of different types of nanostructures. Throughout this thesis, three different nanostructures were made: nanowires (Chapters 2 to 6), nanotubes (Chapters 2 and 5) and nanocubes (Chapters 7 and ...

  19. Tracing Tellurium and Its Nanostructures in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Bijan; Nami, Mohammad; Shahverdi, Ahmad-Reza

    2017-12-01

    Tellurium (Te) is a semimetal rare element in nature. Together with oxygen, sulfur (S), and selenium (Se), Te is considered a member of chalcogen group. Over recent decades, Te applications continued to emerge in different fields including metallurgy, glass industry, electronics, and applied chemical industries. Along these lines, Te has recently attracted research attention in various fields. Though Te exists in biologic organisms such as microbes, yeast, and human body, its importance and role and some of its potential implications have long been ignored. Some promising applications of Te using its inorganic and organic derivatives including novel Te nanostructures are being introduced. Before discovery and straightforward availability of antibiotics, Te had considered and had been used as an antibacterial element. Antilishmaniasis, antiinflammatory, antiatherosclerotic, and immuno-modulating properties of Te have been described for many years, while the innovative applications of Te have started to emerge along with nanotechnological advances over the recent years. Te quantum dots (QDs) and related nanostructures have proposed novel applications in the biological detection systems such as biosensors. In addition, Te nanostructures are used in labeling, imaging, and targeted drug delivery systems and are tested for antibacterial or antifungal properties. In addition, Te nanoparticles show novel lipid-lowering, antioxidant, and free radical scavenging properties. This review presents an overview on the novel forms of Te, their potential applications, as well as related toxicity profiles.

  20. Subwavelength resonant nanostructured films for sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Edwards, Daniel L.; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-05-29

    We present a novel subwavelength nanostructure architecture that may be utilized for optical standoff sensing applications. The subwavelength structures are fabricated via a combination of nanoimprint lithography and metal sputtering to create metallic nanostructured films encased within a transparent media. The structures are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant LC circuits, which display a resonance frequency that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any perturbation of the nanostructured films due to chemical or environmental effects can alter the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which can shift the resonant frequency and provide an indication of the external stimulus. This shift in resonance can be interrogated remotely either actively using either laser illumination or passively using hyperspectral or multispectral sensing. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also provide polarization-sensitive interrogation. Due to the nanometer-scale of the structures, they can be tailored to be optically responsive in the visible or near infrared spectrum with a highly reflective resonant peak that is dependent solely on structural dimensions and material characteristics. We present experimental measurements of the optical response of these structures as a function of wavelength, polarization, and incident angle demonstrating the resonant effect in the near infrared region. Numerical modeling data showing the effect of different fabrication parameters such as structure parameters are also discussed.

  1. Semiconductor nanostructures for plasma energetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafaev, Alexander; Smerdov, Rostislav; Klimenkov, Boris

    2017-10-01

    In this talk we discuss the research results of the three types of ultrasmall electrodes namely the nanoelectrode arrays based on composite nanostructured porous silicon (PS) layers, porous GaP and nanocrystals of ZnO. These semiconductor materials are of great interest to nano- and optoelectronic applications by virtue of their high specific surface area and extensive capability for surface functionalization. The use of semiconductor (GaN) cathodes in photon-enhanced thermionic emission systems has also proved to be effective although only a few (less than 1%) of the incident photons exceed the 3.3 eV GaN band gap. This significant drawback provided us with a solid foundation for our research in the field of nanostructured PS, and composite materials based on it exhibiting nearly optimal parameters in terms of the band gap (1.1 eV). The band gap modification for PS nanostructured layers is possible in the range of less than 1 eV and 3 eV due to the existence of quantum confinement effect and the remarkable possibilities of PS surface alteration thus providing us with a suitable material for both cathode and anode fabrication. The obtained results are applicable for solar concentration and thermionic energy conversion systems. Dr. Sci., Ph.D, Principal Scientist, Professor.

  2. Bulk nanostructured titanium fabricated by hydrostatic extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbacz, Halina; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Pachla, Waclaw [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Topolski, Krzysztof

    2010-05-15

    The paper is concerned with the use of hydrostatic extrusion (HE), which is one of the methods of Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD), for grain refinement of titanium grade 2. Titanium in the form of rods was subjected to multi-stage extrusion. The aim was to optimize the HE process so as to obtain nanostructured titanium rods. The results show that it is possible to produce nanostructured Ti rods of a diameter suitable for industrial applications. The refinement to nano-sized grains is accompanied by a significant improvement of mechanical properties. The tensile strength of more than 1000MPa was achieved and the hardness increase exceeded 50%. This study was also concerned with the problem of up-scaling the dimensions of nano-refined components produced by HE. The basic condition for HE to yield nanostructured Ti is that an appropriately high accumulated strain should be applied ({epsilon}>3). The results demonstrate that, by using HE, we can produce nano-Ti rods with diameters amounting to diameter 8mm. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Nanostructures for Electronic and Sensing Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will develop sensors and electronic components from metal oxide based nanotubes and nanowires. These nanostructured materials will be grown...

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured spinel lithium manganese oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanqiang; Wang, Wen-lou; Liu, Xianming; Wu, Minchang; Li, Dan; Zeng, Zhen

    2004-04-01

    Nanostructured spherical spinel lithium manganese oxide (LiMnO) with about 200 nm in diameter was synthesized for the first time by mild hydrothermal method. The formation of the nanostructured spheres was through self-assembly of the nanoparticles and nanobelts. The influence of the reaction temperature and the time of formation of the nanostructures have been systematically studied. The thermal stability of the nanostructures has been examined by heating-treatment at different temperatures. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy were used to characterize the products.

  5. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  6. Nanostructured dielectrics for high-temperature capacitors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space operation places extra physical and structural demands on the power components, including capacitors. Nanostructured dielectrics offer the opportunity to...

  7. Fabrication of Functional Plastic Parts Using Nanostructured Steel Mold Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Blondiaux

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the fabrication of sub-micro and nanostructured steel mold inserts for the replication of nanostructured immunoassay biochips. Planar and microstructured stainless steel inserts were textured at the sub-micron and nanoscale by combining nanosphere lithography and electrochemical etching. This allowed the fabrication of structures with lateral dimensions of hundreds of nanometers and aspect ratios of up to 1:2. Nanostructured plastic parts were produced by means of hot embossing and injection molding. Surface nanostructuring was used to control wettability and increase the sensitivity of an immunoassay.

  8. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  9. Modulation of the electron transfer processes in Au-ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M. E.; Armanelli, A.; Perelstein, G.; Feldhoff, A.; Tolley, A. J.; Grela, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures comprising Au and ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the spontaneous reduction of HAuCl4 in ethylene glycol were used to assess the possibility of modulating the direction of the electron transfer processes at the interface. One electron UV reduction and visible oxidation of the reversible couple TEMPOL/TEMPOL-H was confirmed by EPR spectroscopy. The apparent quantum yield for TEMPOL-H conversion under continuous wave visible excitation depends on the irradiation wavelength, being 0.57% and 0.27% at 450 +/- 12 and 530 +/- 12 nm, respectively. These results indicate that both the surface plasmon resonance and the interband transition from the 5d to the 6s level of Au nanoparticles contribute to the visible activity of the nanostructure. In addition, by detecting free electron conduction band electrons in ZnO, after the visible excitation of Au/ZnO nanostructures, we provide direct evidence of the photoexcited electron transfer from gold nanoparticles to ZnO.Plasmonic nanostructures comprising Au and ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the spontaneous reduction of HAuCl4 in ethylene glycol were used to assess the possibility of modulating the direction of the electron transfer processes at the interface. One electron UV reduction and visible oxidation of the reversible couple TEMPOL/TEMPOL-H was confirmed by EPR spectroscopy. The apparent quantum yield for TEMPOL-H conversion under continuous wave visible excitation depends on the irradiation wavelength, being 0.57% and 0.27% at 450 +/- 12 and 530 +/- 12 nm, respectively. These results indicate that both the surface plasmon resonance and the interband transition from the 5d to the 6s level of Au nanoparticles contribute to the visible activity of the nanostructure. In addition, by detecting free electron conduction band electrons in ZnO, after the visible excitation of Au/ZnO nanostructures, we provide direct evidence of the photoexcited electron transfer from gold nanoparticles to ZnO. Electronic

  10. Thermal resistance between low-dimensional nanostructures and semi-infinite media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Matthew A.; Goodson, Ken E.

    2008-05-01

    Nanostructured electronic and photonic devices include a high density of material interfaces, which can strongly impede heat conduction and influence performance and reliability. Thermal conduction through interfaces is a very mature discipline for the traditional geometry, in which the lateral interface dimensions are large compared to the phonon wavelength. In nanostructures, however, the localization of phonons in the directions parallel to the interface may strongly influence the effective thermal resistance. The present work investigates model problems of abrupt junctions between a harmonic one-dimensional (1D) and a three-dimensional (3D) fcc lattice and between a 1D and a two-dimensional square lattice. The abrupt change in geometry modifies the phonon modes participating in energy transmission and creates an additional thermal resistance that is comparable with that occurring due to the acoustic mismatch at the interface of bulk media. For both cases, varying the impedance mismatch at the junction suggests that engineering an intentional impedance mismatch at a nanostructured interface may enhance the transmission of energy. The lattice dynamics calculations are used to develop qualitative arguments for the interface resistances in the practical geometries involving carbon nanotubes, silicon nanopillars, and graphene. This research provides foundations for detailed investigations of the impact of localized phonon modes on the acoustic mismatch resistance.

  11. Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanostructures for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiwon Kang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanostructural materials have gained the spotlight as promising anode materials for energy storage; they exhibit unique physico-chemical properties such as large surface area, short Li+ ion diffusion length, and high electrical conductivity, in addition to their long-term stability. However, carbon-nanostructured materials have issues with low areal and volumetric densities for the practical applications in electric vehicles, portable electronics, and power grid systems, which demand higher energy and power densities. One approach to overcoming these issues is to design and apply a three-dimensional (3D electrode accommodating a larger loading amount of active anode materials while facilitating Li+ ion diffusion. Furthermore, 3D nanocarbon frameworks can impart a conducting pathway and structural buffer to high-capacity non-carbon nanomaterials, which results in enhanced Li+ ion storage capacity. In this paper, we review our recent progress on the design and fabrication of 3D carbon nanostructures, their performance in Li-ion batteries (LIBs, and their implementation into large-scale, lightweight, and flexible LIBs.

  12. A hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin method for computing nonlocal electromagnetic effects in three-dimensional metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Codina, F.; Nguyen, N. C.; Oh, S.-H.; Peraire, J.

    2018-02-01

    The interaction of light with metallic nanostructures produces a collective excitation of electrons at the metal surface, also known as surface plasmons. These collective excitations lead to resonances that enable the confinement of light in deep-subwavelength regions, thereby leading to large near-field enhancements. The simulation of plasmon resonances presents notable challenges. From the modeling perspective, the realistic behavior of conduction-band electrons in metallic nanostructures is not captured by Maxwell's equations, thus requiring additional modeling. From the simulation perspective, the disparity in length scales stemming from the extreme field localization demands efficient and accurate numerical methods. In this paper, we develop the hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method to solve Maxwell's equations augmented with the hydrodynamic model for the conduction-band electrons in noble metals. This method enables the efficient simulation of plasmonic nanostructures while accounting for the nonlocal interactions between electrons and the incident light. We introduce a novel postprocessing scheme to recover superconvergent solutions and demonstrate the convergence of the proposed HDG method for the simulation of a 2D gold nanowire and a 3D periodic annular nanogap structure. The results of the hydrodynamic model are compared to those of a simplified local response model, showing that differences between them can be significant at the nanoscale.

  13. Transition of carbon nanostructures in heptane diffusion flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei-Chieh [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China); Hou, Shuhn-Shyurng [Kun Shan University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China); Lin, Ta-Hui, E-mail: thlin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    The flame synthesis has high potential in industrial production of carbon nanostructure (CNS). Unfortunately, the complexity of combustion chemistry leads to less controlling of synthesized products. In order to improve the understanding of the relation between flames and CNSs synthesized within, experiments were conducted through heptane flames in a stagnation-point liquid-pool system. The operating parameters for the synthesis include oxygen supply, sampling position, and sampling time. Two kinds of nanostructures were observed, carbon nanotube (CNT) and carbon nano-onion (CNO). CNTs were synthesized in a weaker flame near extinction. CNOs were synthesized in a more sooty flame. The average diameter of CNTs formed at oxygen concentration of 15% was in the range of 20–30 nm. For oxygen concentration of 17%, the average diameter of CNTs ranged from 24 to 27 nm, while that of CNOs was around 28 nm. For oxygen concentration of 19%, the average diameter of CNOs produced at the sampling position 0.5 mm below the flame front was about 57 nm, while the average diameters of CNOs formed at the sampling positions 1–2.5 mm below the flame front were in the range of 20–25 nm. A transition from CNT to CNO was observed by variation of sampling position in a flame. We found that the morphology of CNS is directly affected by the presence of soot layer due to the carbonaceous environment and the growth mechanisms of CNT and CNO. The sampling time can alter the yield of CNSs depending on the temperature of sampling position, but the morphology of products is not affected.

  14. Nanostructured membranes and electrodes with sulfonic acid functionalized carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Tripathi, Bijay Prakash

    2011-02-01

    Herein we report the covalent functionalization of multiwall carbon nanotubes by grafting sulfanilic acid and their dispersion into sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The nanocomposites were explored as an option for tuning the proton and electron conductivity, swelling, water and alcohol permeability aiming at nanostructured membranes and electrodes for application in alcohol or hydrogen fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. The nanocomposites were extensively characterized, by studying their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. They were processed as self-supporting films with high mechanical stability, proton conductivity of 4.47 × 10 -2 S cm-1 at 30 °C and 16.8 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C and 100% humidity level, electron conductivity much higher than for the plain polymer. The methanol permeability could be reduced to 1/20, keeping water permeability at reasonable values. The ratio of bound water also increases with increasing content of sulfonated filler, helping in keeping water in the polymer in conditions of low external humidity level. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  15. (Plasmonic Metal Core)/(Semiconductor Shell) Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Caihong

    Over the past several years, integration of metal nanocrystals that can support localized surface plasmon has been demonstrated as one of the most promising methods to the improvement of the light-harvesting efficiency of semiconductors. Ag and Au nanocrystals have been extensively hybridized with semiconductors by either deposition or anchoring. However, metal nanocrystals tend to aggregate, reshape, detach, or grow into large nanocrystals, leading to a loss of the unique properties seen in the original nanocrystals. Fortunately, core/shell nanostructures, circumventing the aforementioned problems, have been demonstrated to exhibit superior photoactivities. To further improve the light-harvesting applications of (plasmonic metal core)/(semiconductor shell) nanostructures, it is vital to understand the plasmonic and structural evolutions during the preparation processes, design novel hybrid nanostructures, and improve their light-harvesting performances. In this thesis, I therefore studied the plasmonic and structural evolutions during the formation of (Ag core)/(Ag2S shell) nanostructures. Moreover, I also prepared (noble metal core)/(TiO2 shell) nanostructures and investigated their plasmonic properties and photon-harvesting applications. Clear understanding of the sulfidation process can enable fine control of the plasmonic properties as well as the structural composition of Ag/Ag 2S nanomaterials. Therefore, I investigated the plasmonic and structural variations during the sulfidation process of Ag nanocubes both experimentally and numerically. The sulfidation reactions were carried out at both the ensemble and single-particle levels. Electrodynamic simulations were also employed to study the variations of the plasmonic properties and plasmon modes. Both experiment and simulation results revealed that sulfidation initiates at the vertices of Ag nanocubes. Ag nanocubes are then gradually truncated and each nanocube becomes a nanosphere eventually. The cubic

  16. Synthesis of One-Dimensional SiC Nanostructures from a Glassy Buckypaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Mengning; Star, Alexander

    2013-02-21

    A simple and scalable synthetic strategy was developed for the fabrication of one-dimensional SiC nanostructures - nanorods and nanowires. Thin sheets of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by vacuum filtration and were washed repeatedly with sodium silicate (Na₂SiO₃) solution. The resulting “glassy buckypaper” was heated at 1300 - 1500 °C under Ar/H₂ to allow a solid state reaction between C and Si precursors to form a variety of SiC nanostructures. The morphology and crystal structures of SiC nanorods and nanowires were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive xray spectroscopy (EDX), electron diffraction (ED) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Furthermore, electrical conductance measurements were performed on SiC nanorods, demonstrating their potential applications in high-temperature sensors and control systems.

  17. La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 semiconducting nanostructures: morphology and thermoelectric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Mario; Torán, Raquel; Gómez, Clara M; Cantarero, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Semiconducting metallic oxides, especially perosvkite materials, are great candidates for thermoelectric applications due to several advantages over traditionally metallic alloys such as low production costs and high chemical stability at high temperatures. Nanostructuration can be the key to develop highly efficient thermoelectric materials. In this work, La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 perosvkite nanostructures with Ca as a dopant have been synthesized by the hydrothermal method to be used in thermoelectric applications at room temperature. Several heat treatments have been made in all samples, leading to a change in their morphology and thermoelectric properties. The best thermoelectric efficiency has been obtained for a Ca content of x=0.5. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient are strongly related to the calcium content.

  18. Synthesis of anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} nanostructures from natural ilmenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahyuingsih, Sayekti, E-mail: sayekti@mipa.uns.ac.id; Ramelan, Ari Handono; Pramono, Edi; Sulistya, Ariantama Djati; Argawan, Panji Rofa; Dharmawan, Frenandha Dwi; Rinawati, Ludfiaastu; Hanif, Qonita Awliya [Inorganic Materials Research Group, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Sebelas Maret University (Indonesia); Sulistiyono, Eko; Firdiyono, Florentinus [Metallurgy Extraction Laboratory, Central of Metallurgy Research LIPI, Serpong (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    Nanostructure anatase and rutile type TiO{sub 2} were synthesized from dissolution roasted ilmenite from natural ilmenite sand as the starting materials. Anatase TiO{sub 2} and rutile TiO{sub 2} (high crystallinity) with the diameters of 20–100 nm were obtained by calcined soluble ilmenite sand produced by leaching process. Calcinations of the xerogel TiO{sub 2} from liquor products were conducted for 4 hours at temperature of 450 °C. The samples were characterized by XRD (X-ray diffraction), STA (simultant thermal analysis), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), and BET surface area. Titania Anatase-Rutile form as a mixture were produced by titania slag with the hydrolysis product. While, in another route, complete titania anatase phase was produced through hydrolysis and condensation steps of leach liquors. This synthesis methods provide a simple route to fabricate nanostructure TiO{sub 2} from low cost material.

  19. Electrochemical fabrication of two-dimensional palladium nanostructures as substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Lu, Gewu; Wu, Xufeng; Shi, Gaoquan

    2006-12-07

    Two-dimensional palladium (Pd) nanostructures have been fabricated by electrochemical deposition of Pd onto an indium tin oxide glass substrate modified with a thin flat film of polypyrrole or a nanofibril film of polyaniline. The experimental results demonstrated that the morphology of Pd nanoparticles strongly depended on the properties of conducting polymers and the conditions of electrochemical deposition. Two-dimensional nanostructures composed of flower-like (consisting of staggered nanosheets) or pinecone-like Pd nanoparticles were successfully synthesized. They can be used as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering after partly decomposing the polymer components by heating in air, and the enhancement factor of the substrate composed of flower-like Pd nanoparticles was measured to be as high as 105 for 4-mercaptopyridine.

  20. Interfacial properties of a carbyne-rich nanostructured carbon thin film in ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomo Bettini, Luca; Della Foglia, Flavio; Piseri, Paolo; Milani, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Nanostructured carbon sp2 (ns-C) thin films with up to 30% of sp-coordinated atoms (carbynes) were produced in a high vacuum by the low kinetic energy deposition of carbon clusters produced in the gas phase and accelerated by a supersonic expansion. Immediately after deposition the ns-C films were immersed in situ in an ionic liquid electrolyte. The interfacial properties of ns-C films in the ionic liquid electrolyte were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The so-prepared carbyne-rich electrodes showed superior electric double layer (EDL) capacitance and electric conductivity compared to ns-C electrodes containing only sp2 carbon, showing the substantial influence of carbynes on the electrochemical properties of nanostructured carbon electrodes.

  1. Growth, structure and lattice dynamics of rare earth silicide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, Anja

    2015-07-13

    In the present thesis the epitaxial growth, crystal structure, stoichiometry, thermal stability and lattice dynamics of self-organized EuSi{sub 2} and DySi{sub 2} films, nanoislands and nanowires are investigated. The rare earth silicide (RESi) nanostructures have attracted considerable interest due to their high conductivity, very low Schottky barrier heights, remarkable chemical stability, self-organization in high area density and defects-free nano-objects with tunable size and shape, and the direct integration into the Si technology. The extensive research is driven by the continuous downscaling of the CMOS electronics that require new approaches in the devices architecture and circuits interconnects. Although RESi nanostructures attracted a lot of interest already several years ago and a lot of research has been done in this field, the lattice dynamics of these materials are still unknown. Recent developments at third generation synchrotron radiation sources have brought their performance to a stage where phonon spectroscopy of nanostructures and thin layers became feasible using nuclear inelastic X-ray scattering. This novel experimental technique is based on the process of phonon-assisted nuclear resonant absorption/emission of X-rays from the nuclei of Moessbauer-active isotopes. The method provides direct access to the phonon density of states (DOS) of the investigated element. Together with the ab initio calculations it was possible to get a comprehensive understanding of the lattice dynamics. EuSi{sub 2} films and nanoislands and DySi{sub 2} films, nanoislands and nanowires have been grown on the vicinal Si(001) surface by molecular beam epitaxy. While DySi{sub 2} was grown following known growth procedures, the growth conditions for EuSi{sub 2} had to be established first. EuSi{sub 2} was grown at two different growth conditions to study the influence of crystal structure and morphology upon different growth temperatures. The structure has been

  2. Growth and anisotropic transport properties of self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierwagen, O.

    2007-12-20

    Self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP, comprising quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots, are studied in terms of their formation and properties. In particular, the structural, optical, and anisotropic transport properties of the nanostructures are investigated. The focus is a comprehending exploration of the anisotropic in-plane transport in large ensembles of laterally coupled InAs nanostructures. The self-assembled Stranski-Krastanov growth of InAs nanostructures is studied by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy on both nominally oriented and vicinal InP(001). Optical polarization of the interband transitions arising from the nanostructure type is demonstrated by photoluminescence and transmission spectroscopy. The experimentally convenient four-contact van der Pauw Hall measurement of rectangularly shaped semiconductors, usually applied to isotropic systems, is extended to yield the anisotropic transport properties. Temperature dependent transport measurements are performed in large ensembles of laterally closely spaced nanostructures. The transport of quantum wire-, quantum dash- and quantum dot containing samples is highly anisotropic with the principal axes of conductivity aligned to the <110> directions. The direction of higher mobility is [ anti 110], which is parallel to the direction of the quantum wires. In extreme cases, the anisotropies exceed 30 for electrons, and 100 for holes. The extreme anisotropy for holes is due to diffusive transport through extended states in the [ anti 110], and hopping transport through laterally localized states in the [110] direction, within the same sample. A novel 5-terminal electronic switching device based on gate-controlled transport anisotropy is proposed. The gate-control of the transport anisotropy in modulation-doped, self-organized InAs quantum wires embedded in InP is demonstrated. (orig.)

  3. Growth and anisotropic transport properties of self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierwagen, O.

    2007-01-01

    Self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP, comprising quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots, are studied in terms of their formation and properties. In particular, the structural, optical, and anisotropic transport properties of the nanostructures are investigated. The focus is a comprehending exploration of the anisotropic in-plane transport in large ensembles of laterally coupled InAs nanostructures. The self-assembled Stranski-Krastanov growth of InAs nanostructures is studied by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy on both nominally oriented and vicinal InP(001). Optical polarization of the interband transitions arising from the nanostructure type is demonstrated by photoluminescence and transmission spectroscopy. The experimentally convenient four-contact van der Pauw Hall measurement of rectangularly shaped semiconductors, usually applied to isotropic systems, is extended to yield the anisotropic transport properties. Temperature dependent transport measurements are performed in large ensembles of laterally closely spaced nanostructures. The transport of quantum wire-, quantum dash- and quantum dot containing samples is highly anisotropic with the principal axes of conductivity aligned to the directions. The direction of higher mobility is [ anti 110], which is parallel to the direction of the quantum wires. In extreme cases, the anisotropies exceed 30 for electrons, and 100 for holes. The extreme anisotropy for holes is due to diffusive transport through extended states in the [ anti 110], and hopping transport through laterally localized states in the [110] direction, within the same sample. A novel 5-terminal electronic switching device based on gate-controlled transport anisotropy is proposed. The gate-control of the transport anisotropy in modulation-doped, self-organized InAs quantum wires embedded in InP is demonstrated. (orig.)

  4. Incubation and nanostructure formation on n- and p-type Si(1 0 0) and Si(1 1 1) at various doping levels induced by sub-nanojoule femto- and picosecond near-infrared laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schüle, M.; Afshar, M.; Feili, D.; Seidel, H.; König, K.; Straub, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanorifts, ripples of period 130 nm and randomly nanoporous surface structures were generated. • Such nanostructures emerged on heavily and lightly n- and p-doped Si(1 0 0) and Si(1 1 1) surfaces. • Strong incubation occurred irrespective of dopant type and concentration or surface orientation. • Incubation is attributed to photoexcitation from laser-induced defect states in the bandgap. • Aggregation of defects results in nanocracks, which turn into nanorift and nanoripple patterns. • Ablation involved predominantly single-photon processes but also multiphoton absorption. - Abstract: N- and p-doped Si(1 0 0) and Si(1 1 1) surfaces with dopant concentrations of 2 × 10 14 –1 × 10 19 cm −3 were irradiated by tightly focused 85-MHz repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser light (central wavelength 800 nm, bandwidth 120 nm) at pulse durations of 12 fs to 1.6 ps. Dependent on pulse peak intensity and exposure time nanorifts, ripples of period 130 nm as well as sponge-like randomly nanoporous surface structures were generated with water immersion and, thereafter, laid bare by etching off aggregated oxide nanoparticles. The same structure types emerged in air or water with transform-limited 100-fs pulses. At a pulse length of 12 fs pronounced incubation occurred with incubation coefficients S = 0.66–0.85, whereas incubation was diminished for picosecond pulses (S > 0.95). The ablation threshold strongly rose with dopant concentration. At similar doping level it was higher for n-type than for p-type samples and for Si(1 0 0) compared to Si(1 1 1) surfaces. These observations are attributed to laser-induced defect states in the bandgap which participate in photoexcitation, deactivation of dopants by complex formation, and different densities of interface states at the boundary with the ultrathin native silicon dioxide surface layer. The threshold increase with pulse length revealed predominant single-photon excitation as well as multiphoton

  5. A study of nanostructured gold modified glassy carbon electrode for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    A study of nanostructured gold modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of trace Cr(VI). BENZHI ... The method was applied to determine levels of chromium(VI) in tap water and sewage water. Keywords. Nanostructured gold modified ... analytical reagent-grade and double distilled water was used throughout.

  6. Metal-organic framework templated electrodeposition of functional gold nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrall, Stephen D.; Bissett, Mark A.; Hill, Patrick I.; Rooney, Aidan P.; Haigh, Sarah J.; Attfield, Martin P.; Dryfe, Robert A.W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrodeposition of anisotropic Au nanostructures templated by HKUST-1. • Au nanostructures replicate ∼1.4 nm pore spaces of HKUST-1. • Encapsulated Au nanostructures active as SERS substrate for 4-fluorothiophenol. - Abstract: Utilizing a pair of quick, scalable electrochemical processes, the permanently porous MOF HKUST-1 was electrochemically grown on a copper electrode and this HKUST-1-coated electrode was used to template electrodeposition of a gold nanostructure within the pore network of the MOF. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that a proportion of the gold nanostructures exhibit structural features replicating the pore space of this ∼1.4 nm maximum pore diameter MOF, as well as regions that are larger in size. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the electrodeposited gold nanostructure, produced under certain conditions of synthesis and template removal, is sufficiently inter-grown and mechanically robust to retain the octahedral morphology of the HKUST-1 template crystals. The functionality of the gold nanostructure within the crystalline HKUST-1 was demonstrated through the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) detection of 4-fluorothiophenol at concentrations as low as 1 μM. The reported process is confirmed as a viable electrodeposition method for obtaining functional, accessible metal nanostructures encapsulated within MOF crystals.

  7. Terahertz carrier dynamics in graphene and graphene nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren A.; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Tielrooij, Klaas Jan

    2014-01-01

    Photoexcited charge carriers in 2D graphene and in 1D graphene nanostructures were studied with optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy. We find efficient hot-carrier multiplication in 2D graphene, and predominantly free carrier early time response in 1D nanostructures. © 2014 OSA....

  8. Mapping of electromagnetic fields enhanced by gold nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Maibohm, Christian; Kostiučenko, Oksana

    2012-01-01

    Laser ablation of an ‘imaging’ polymer layer allows near-field mapping of metal nanostructures with subdiffraction resolution......Laser ablation of an ‘imaging’ polymer layer allows near-field mapping of metal nanostructures with subdiffraction resolution...

  9. Preparation and characterization of GA/RDX nanostructured ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thenhexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was added and trapped in the nano-porous three-dimensional networks of GA to obtain a novel GA/RDX nanostructured energetic composite. The composition, morphology andstructure of the obtained GA/RDX nanostructured energetic composite were characterized by ...

  10. XPS analysis of nanostructured materials and biological surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, D.R.; Engelhard, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the types of information that XPS can provide about a variety of nanostructured materials. Although it is sometimes not considered a 'nanoscale analysis method,' XPS can provide a great deal of information about elemental distributions, layer or coating structure and thicknesses, surface functionality, and even particles sizes on the 1-20 nm scale for sample types that may not be readily analyzed by other methods. This information is important for both synthetic nanostructured or nanosized materials and a variety of natural materials with nanostructure. Although the links between nanostructure materials and biological systems may not at first be obvious, many biological molecules and some organisms are the sizes of nanoparticles. The nanostructure of cells and microbes plays a significant role in how they interact with their environment. The interaction of biomolecules with nanoparticles is important for medical and toxicity studies. The interaction of biomolecules is important for sensor function and many nanomaterials are now the active elements in sensors. This paper first discusses how nanostructures influences XPS data as a part of understanding how simple models of sample structure and data analysis can be used to extract information about the physical and chemical structures of the materials being analyzed. Equally important, aspects of sample and analysis limitations and challenges associated with understanding nanostructured materials are indicated. Examples of the application of XPS to nanostructured and biological systems and materials are provided.

  11. Facile Growth of Multi-twined Au Nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We describe a facile growth of chain-like Au nanostructures and their spontaneous transforma- tion to multi-twined nanostructure using a mild reducing agent bisphenol A (BPA). The growth Au nanostruc- tures involves the chemical reduction of HAuCl4 by BPA in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

  12. Nanostructured Materials for Li-Ion Batteries and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifei Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue “Nanostructured Materials for Li-Ion Batteries and Beyond” of Nanomaterials is focused on advancements in the synthesis, optimization, and characterization of nanostructured materials, with an emphasis on the application of nanomaterials for building high performance Li-ion batteries (LIBs and future systems.[...

  13. Preparation and characterization of GA/RDX nanostructured ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results showed that GA could be a perfect aerogel matrix for the fabrication of GA/RDX nanostructured energetic composite due to itsunique nano-porous structure and attributes. It was also demonstrated that RDX homogeneously disperses in the asprepared GA/RDX nanostructured energetic composite at nanometric ...

  14. Reduction of thermal conductivity in phononic nanomesh structures

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Jen-Kan

    2010-07-25

    Controlling the thermal conductivity of a material independently of its electrical conductivity continues to be a goal for researchers working on thermoelectric materials for use in energy applications1,2 and in the cooling of integrated circuits3. In principle, the thermal conductivity κ and the electrical conductivity σ may be independently optimized in semiconducting nanostructures because different length scales are associated with phonons (which carry heat) and electric charges (which carry current). Phonons are scattered at surfaces and interfaces, so κ generally decreases as the surface-to-volume ratio increases. In contrast, σ is less sensitive to a decrease in nanostructure size, although at sufficiently small sizes it will degrade through the scattering of charge carriers at interfaces. Here, we demonstrate an approach to independently controlling κ based on altering the phonon band structure of a semiconductor thin film through the formation of a phononic nanomesh film. These films are patterned with periodic spacings that are comparable to, or shorter than, the phonon mean free path. The nanomesh structure exhibits a substantially lower thermal conductivity than an equivalently prepared array of silicon nanowires, even though this array has a significantly higher surface-to-volume ratio. Bulk-like electrical conductivity is preserved. We suggest that this development is a step towards a coherent mechanism for lowering thermal conductivity. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  15. [Nanostructured bioplastic material for traumatic corneal injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyukov, V N; Stadnikov, A A; Trubina, O M; Yakhina, O M

    2015-01-01

    To substantiate the use of nanostructured bioplastic material for the treatment of traumatic eye injuries. The study enrolled 96 eyes of 48 rabbits and was carried out in 3 series of experiments, different in the type of induced corneal trauma: mechanical erosion, alkaline or acid burn. The animals were clinically monitored and sacrificed for morphological investigation at days 3, 7, 14, 30, and 90. The size of mechanical corneal erosions was repeatedly evaluated with fluorescein eye stain test. In the experimental group, Hyamatrix biomaterial was topically administered according to an original technique. In the controls, soft contact lenses were inserted and sutured. Complete closure of the epithelial defect with no impact on corneal properties was achieved in 3 days in the experimental group and in4 days in the control group. As for alkaline and acid corneal burns, experimental and control groups received Hyamatrix biomaterial and Solcoseryl eye gel correspondingly. In the experimental group of alkaline burn the defect closed by day 7, in the controls--by day 10-11. Acid-induced corneal edema also resolved by day 7 in the experimental group and by day 14 in the control group. 1. The results of this experimental and morphological study prove the hyaluronic acid-derived nanostructured bioplastic material effective in accelerating corneal re-epithelialization after mechanical erosions as compared with the controls. 2. Topical application of the hyaluronic acid-derived nanostructured bioplastic material shortens the exudative phase of inflammation, promotes corneal defect closure with formation of a more subtle opacification, and stimulates corneal restoration after chemical burns.

  16. Nanostructured platinum as an electrochemically and mechanically stable electrode coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, C; Oberueber, F; Stieglitz, T; Asplund, M

    2017-07-01

    Nanostructured materials exhibit large electrochemical surface areas and are thus of high interest for neural interfaces where low impedance and high charge transfer characteristics are desired. While progress in nanotechnology successively enabled smaller feature sizes and thus improved electrochemical properties, concerns were raised with respect to the mechanical stability of such nano structures for use in neural applications. In our study we address these concerns by investigating the mechanical and electrochemical stability of nanostructured platinum. Neural probes with nano-Pt were exposed to exaggerated stress tests resembling insertion into neural tissue over 60 mm distance or long-term stimulation over 240 M biphasic current pulses. Thereby only insignificant changes in electrochemical properties and morphological appearance could be observed in response to the test, proving that nanostructured platinum exhibits outstanding stability. With this finding, a major concern in using nanostructured materials for interfacing neural tissue could be eliminated, demonstrating the high potential of nanostructured platinum for neuroprosthetic devices.

  17. Diverse Near-Infrared Resonant Gold Nanostructures for Biomedical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-12-08

    The ability of near-infrared (NIR) light to penetrate tissues deeply and to target malignant sites with high specificity via precise temporal and spatial control of light illumination makes it useful for diagnosing and treating diseases. Owing to their unique biocompatibility, surface chemistry and optical properties, gold nanostructures offer advantages as in vivo NIR photosensitizers. This chapter describes the recent progress in the varied use of NIR-resonant gold nanostructures for NIR-light-mediated diagnostic and therapeutic applications. We begin by describing the unique biological, chemical and physical properties of gold nanostructures that make them excellent candidates for biomedical applications. From here, we make an account of the basic principles involved in the diagnostic and therapeutic applications where gold nanostructures have set foot. Finally, we review recent developments in the fabrication and use of diverse NIR-resonant gold nanostructures for cancer imaging and cancer therapy.

  18. Mg-catalyzed autoclave synthesis of aligned silicon carbide nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Guangcheng; Liu, Yankuan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xiaoqing; Qian, Yitai

    2006-07-27

    In this article, a novel magnesium-catalyzed co-reduction route was developed for the large-scale synthesis of aligned beta-SiC one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures at relative lower temperature (600 degrees C). By carefully controlling the reagent concentrations, we could synthesize beta-SiC rodlike and needlelike nanostructures. The possible growth mechanism of the as-synthesized beta-SiC 1D nanostructures has been investigated. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized beta-SiC nanostructures are characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared absorption, and scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Raman and photoluminescence properties are also investigated at room temperature. The as-synthesized beta-SiC nanostructures exhibit strong shape-dependent field emission properties. Corresponding to their shapes, the as-synthesized nanorods and nanoneedles display the turn-on fields of 12, 8.4, and 1.8 V/microm, respectively.

  19. Patterning protein complexes on DNA nanostructures using a GFP nanobody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommese, R F; Hariadi, R F; Kim, K; Liu, M; Tyska, M J; Sivaramakrishnan, S

    2016-11-01

    DNA nanostructures have become an important and powerful tool for studying protein function over the last 5 years. One of the challenges, though, has been the development of universal methods for patterning protein complexes on DNA nanostructures. Herein, we present a new approach for labeling DNA nanostructures by functionalizing them with a GFP nanobody. We demonstrate the ability to precisely control protein attachment via our nanobody linker using two enzymatic model systems, namely adenylyl cyclase activity and myosin motility. Finally, we test the power of this attachment method by patterning unpurified, endogenously expressed Arp2/3 protein complex from cell lysate. By bridging DNA nanostructures with a fluorescent protein ubiquitous throughout cell and developmental biology and protein biochemistry, this approach significantly streamlines the application of DNA nanostructures as a programmable scaffold in biological studies. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  20. Structural DNA Nanotechnology: Artificial Nanostructures for Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yonggang; Castro, Carlos; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2018-04-04

    Structural DNA nanotechnology utilizes synthetic or biologic DNA as designer molecules for the self-assembly of artificial nanostructures. The field is founded upon the specific interactions between DNA molecules, known as Watson-Crick base pairing. After decades of active pursuit, DNA has demonstrated unprecedented versatility in constructing artificial nanostructures with significant complexity and programmability. The nanostructures could be either static, with well-controlled physicochemical properties, or dynamic, with the ability to reconfigure upon external stimuli. Researchers have devoted considerable effort to exploring the usability of DNA nanostructures in biomedical research. We review the basic design methods for fabricating both static and dynamic DNA nanostructures, along with their biomedical applications in fields such as biosensing, bioimaging, and drug delivery. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering Volume 20 is June 4, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  1. Enhanced structural stability of DNA origami nanostructures by graphene encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matković, Aleksandar; Vasić, Borislav; Pešić, Jelena; Gajić, Radoš; Prinz, Julia; Bald, Ilko; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that a single-layer graphene replicates the shape of DNA origami nanostructures very well. It can be employed as a protective layer for the enhancement of structural stability of DNA origami nanostructures. Using the AFM based manipulation, we show that the normal force required to damage graphene encapsulated DNA origami nanostructures is over an order of magnitude greater than for the unprotected ones. In addition, we show that graphene encapsulation offers protection to the DNA origami nanostructures against prolonged exposure to deionized water, and multiple immersions. Through these results we demonstrate that graphene encapsulated DNA origami nanostructures are strong enough to sustain various solution phase processing, lithography and transfer steps, thus extending the limits of DNA-mediated bottom-up fabrication. (paper)

  2. Nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopaedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    CATLEDGE, S.A.; THOMAS, V.; VOHRA, Y.K.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing numbers of orthopaedic devices being implanted, greater emphasis is being placed on ceramic coating technology to reduce friction and wear in mating total joint replacement components, in order to improve implant function and increase device lifespan. In this chapter, we consider ultra-hard carbon coatings, with emphasis on nanostructured diamond, as alternative bearing surfaces for metallic components. Such coatings have great potential for use in biomedical implants as a result of their extreme hardness, wear resistance, low friction and biocompatibility. These ultra-hard carbon coatings can be deposited by several techniques resulting in a wide variety of structures and properties. PMID:25285213

  3. Optical properties of plasmonic nanostructures: Theory & experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala Krishna, Juluri

    Metal nanoparticles and thin films enable localization of electromagnetic energy in the form of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) and propagating surface plasmons respectively. This research field, also known as plasmonics, involves understanding and fabricating innovative nanostructures designed to manage and utilize localized light in the nanoscale. Advances in plasmonics will facilitate innovation in sensing, biomedical engineering, energy harvesting and nanophotonic devices. In this thesis, three aspects of plasmonics are studied: 1) active plasmonic systems using charge-induced plasmon shifts (CIPS) and plasmon-molecule resonant coupling; 2) scalable solutions to fabricate large electric field plasmonic nanostructures; and 3) controlling the propagation of designer surface plasmons (DSPs) using parabolic graded media. The full potential of plasmonics can be realized with active plasmonic devices which provide tunable plasmon resonances. The work reported here develops both an understanding for and realization of various mechanisms to achieve tunable plasmonic systems. First, we show that certain nanoparticle geometries and material compositions enable large CIPS. Second, we propose and investigate systems which exhibit coupling between molecular and plasmonic resonances where energy splitting is observed due to interactions between plasmons and molecules. Large electric field nanostructures have many promising applications in the areas of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, higher harmonic light generation, and enhanced uorescence. High throughput techniques that utilize simple nanofabrication are essential their advancement. We contribute to this effort by using a salting-out quenching technique and colloidal lithography to fabricate nanodisc dimers and cusp nanostructures that allow localization of large electric fields, and are comparable to structures fabricated by conventional lithography/milling techniques. Designer surface plasmons (DSPs) are

  4. Quantum interference effects in nanostructured Au

    CERN Document Server

    Pratumpong, P; Evans, S D; Johnson, S; Howson, M A

    2002-01-01

    We present results on the magnetoresistance and temperature dependence of the resistivity for nanostructured Au produced by chemical means. The magnetoresistance was typical of highly disordered metals exhibiting quantum interference effects. We fitted the data and were able to determine the spin-orbit scattering relaxation time to be 10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 s and we found the inelastic scattering time at 10 K to be 10 sup - sup 1 sup 1 s. The inelastic scattering rate varied as T sup 3 between 4 and 20 K, which is typical for electron-phonon scattering in disordered metals.

  5. Tailored antireflective biomimetic nanostructures for UV applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhard, Christoph; Pacholski, Claudia; Spatz, Joachim P [Department of New Materials and Biosystems, Max Planck Institute for Metals Research, Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Lehr, Dennis; Brunner, Robert; Helgert, Michael [Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH, Technology Center, Carl-Zeiss-Promenade 10, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Sundermann, Michael, E-mail: Pacholski@mf.mpg.de [Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH, Technology Center, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 56, D-73447 Oberkochen (Germany)

    2010-10-22

    Antireflective surfaces composed of biomimetic sub-wavelength structures that employ the 'moth eye principle' for reflectance reduction are highly desirable in many optical applications such as solar cells, photodetectors and laser optics. We report an efficient approach for the fabrication of antireflective surfaces based on a two-step process consisting of gold nanoparticle mask generation by micellar block copolymer nanolithography and a multi-step reactive ion etching process. Depending on the RIE process parameters nanostructured surfaces with tailored antireflective properties can easily be fabricated that show optimum performance for specific applications.

  6. Raman Spectroscopy and its Application in Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shu-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Raman Spectroscopy and its Application in Nanostructures is an original and timely contribution to a very active area of physics and materials science research. This book presents the theoretical and experimental phenomena of Raman spectroscopy, with specialized discussions on the physical fundamentals, new developments and main features in low-dimensional systems of Raman spectroscopy. In recent years physicists, materials scientists and chemists have devoted increasing attention to low-dimensional systems and as Raman spectroscopy can be used to study and analyse such materials as carbon nan

  7. Atomic layer deposition of nanostructured materials

    CERN Document Server

    Pinna, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition, formerly called atomic layer epitaxy, was developed in the 1970s to meet the needs of producing high-quality, large-area fl at displays with perfect structure and process controllability. Nowadays, creating nanomaterials and producing nanostructures with structural perfection is an important goal for many applications in nanotechnology. As ALD is one of the important techniques which offers good control over the surface structures created, it is more and more in the focus of scientists. The book is structured in such a way to fi t both the need of the expert reader (du

  8. Nanostructured materials, production and application in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers characteristics of water-soluble high module silicate systems: based on polysilicates of alkali element called liquid glasses and the chains of their transformations from the lowest oligomers into the highest ones with further formation colloid solutions – silica sol. The authors describe the potentialities of the use of such systems as binders or modifying additives to produce different nanostructured silicate polymer concretes. There are examples of prospective application of liquid glass and water solutions of high module silicates in industrial areas and construction. Quantum-chemical calculations of the structure and properties of tetraphenylarsonium are given and heterogeneity of its functional groups is shown.

  9. Quantum Phase Extraction in Isospectral Electronic Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Christopher

    2010-04-28

    Quantum phase is not a direct observable and is usually determined by interferometric methods. We present a method to map complete electron wave functions, including internal quantum phase information, from measured single-state probability densities. We harness the mathematical discovery of drum-like manifolds bearing different shapes but identical resonances, and construct quantum isospectral nanostructures possessing matching electronic structure but divergent physical structure. Quantum measurement (scanning tunneling microscopy) of these 'quantum drums' [degenerate two-dimensional electron states on the Cu(111) surface confined by individually positioned CO molecules] reveals that isospectrality provides an extra topological degree of freedom enabling robust quantum state transplantation and phase extraction.

  10. Binary DNA nanostructures for data encryption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Halvorsen

    Full Text Available We present a simple and secure system for encrypting and decrypting information using DNA self-assembly. Binary data is encoded in the geometry of DNA nanostructures with two distinct conformations. Removing or leaving out a single component reduces these structures to an encrypted solution of ssDNA, whereas adding back this missing "decryption key" causes the spontaneous formation of the message through self-assembly, enabling rapid read out via gel electrophoresis. Applications include authentication, secure messaging, and barcoding.

  11. Radiation damage in nanostructured metallic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaiyuan

    High energy neutron and charged particle radiation cause microstructural and mechanical degradation in structural metals and alloys, such as phase segregation, void swelling, embrittlement and creep. Radiation induced damages typically limit nuclear materials to a lifetime of about 40 years. Next generation nuclear reactors require materials that can sustain over 60 - 80 years. Therefore it is of great significance to explore new materials with better radiation resistance, to design metals with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe. Such systems obtain high volume fraction of boundaries, which are considered sinks to radiation induced defects. From the viewpoint of nanomechanics, it is of interest to investigate the plastic deformation mechanisms of nanostructured films, which typically show strong size dependence. By controlling the feature size (layer thickness, twin spacing and grain size), it is applicable to picture a deformation mechanism map which also provides prerequisite information for subsequent radiation hardening study. And from the viewpoint of radiation effects, it is of interest to explore the fundamentals of radiation response, to examine the microstructural and mechanical variations of irradiated nanometals and to enrich the design database. More importantly, with the assistance of in situ techniques, it is appealing to examine the defect generation, evolution, annihilation, absorption and interaction with internal interfaces (layer interfaces, twin boundaries and grain boundaries). Moreover, well-designed nanostructures can also verify the speculation that radiation induced defect density and hardening show clear size dependence. The focus of this thesis lies in the radiation response of Ag/Ni multilayers and nanotwinned Ag

  12. ZnO-ionic liquid nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanes, Jose; Carrion, Francisco-Jose [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales y Fabricacion, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus de la Muralla del Mar, C/ Doctor Fleming s/n, 30202 Cartagena (Spain); Bermudez, Maria-Dolores, E-mail: mdolores.bermudez@upct.es [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales y Fabricacion, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus de la Muralla del Mar, C/ Doctor Fleming s/n, 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    The mixture of nanostructures derived from the surface interactions and reactivity of ZnO nanoparticles with the room-temperature ionic liquid (IL1) 1-hexyl, 3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate has been studied. Results are discussed on the basis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) determinations. Size and morphology changes in ZnO nanoparticles by surface modification with IL1 are observed. ZnF{sub 2} crystalline needles due to reaction with the hexafluorophosphate anion are also formed.

  13. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Marcie [Bandgap Engineering, Lincoln, MA (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  14. Tunable Metallic Conductivity in Ferroelectric Nanodomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymovych, P.; Morozovska, A. N.; Yu, P.; Eliseev, E. A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Ramesh, R.; Baddorf, A. P.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2012-02-01

    Domain wall conductivity in ferroelectric and multiferroic oxides is an essential example of new electronic properties created by topological defects. So far electron transport through domain walls in canonical BiFeO3 and PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 (PZT) ferroelectrics has been dominated by thermally activated hopping, concealing the enabling physics and limiting potential applications. We will present a pioneering observation of metallic conductivity in nanoscale ferroelectric domains in PZT, that unambiguously identifies a new conduction channel created through the bulk of the oxide film [1]. From a corollary theoretical analysis, we conclude that metallic conductance is enabled by the interplay of charging and flexoelectric effects at tilted and curved walls of the nanodomain. Furthermore, both type and density of carriers can be tuned by manipulation of the order parameter. Thus, a new family of electronic properties may be found in multiferroic and topologically nanostructured complex oxides. [1] Maksymovych et al, Nano Lett. in review (2011). Research conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, sponsored by BES, U. S. DOE.

  15. Structural and electrical studies on nanostructured InSe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, A.A.A., E-mail: aaadarwish@gmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Education at Al-Mahweet, Sana’a University, Al-Mahweet (Yemen); El-Nahass, M.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Rorxy, Cairo 11757 (Egypt); Bahlol, M.H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Science and Arts at Sada’a, Amran University, Sada’a (Yemen)

    2013-07-01

    InSe powder was found to be polycrystalline with hexagonal system. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy results confirmed that the InSe films have nanostructure nature. The heat treatment enhance the crystallite size. The dark electrical conductivity of InSe films showed that the dominant conduction is through the extended states in the temperature range 293–473 K. Thermoelectric properties show a negative sign exhibiting n-type semiconductig nature of films. Current density–voltage characteristics of InSe films showed Ohmic conduction in the lower voltage range, and space charge limited conductivity (SCLC) in the relatively high-voltage range. The SCLC was controlled by an exponential distribution of traps below the conduction band. The temperature dependence of the current density allowed the calculation of some essential parameters.

  16. Study of ZnS Nanostructures Based Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Biosensors for Uric Acid Detection †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; Wei, Xueyong; Peng, Niancai; Wang, Jiuhong; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2017-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) is a kind of purine metabolism product and important in clinical diagnosis. In this work, we present a study of ZnS nanostructures-based electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensors for UA detection. Through a simple hydrothermal method and varying the ratio of reaction solvents, we obtained ZnS nanomaterials of one-dimensional to three-dimensional morphologies and they were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). To fabricate the UA biosensor and study the effect of material morphology on its performance, ZnS nanomaterials were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) conducting glass and then coated with uricase by physical absorption. Three kinds of working electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry method. The effect of material morphology on performance of UA detection was investigated via amperometric response based electrochemical method based on enzymatic reaction. The ZnS urchin-like nanostructures electrode shows better sensitivity compared with those made of nanoparticles and nanoflakes because of its high surface-area-to-volume ratio. The photoelectrochemical method for detection of UA was also studied. The sensitivity was increased 5 times after irradiation of 300 nm UV light. These results indicate that ZnS nanostructures are good candidate materials for developing enzyme-based UA biosensors. PMID:28555028

  17. The Strategy to Control the Morphology of ZnO Nanostructure UV Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humayun, Q; Hashim, U; Foo, Kai Loong; Ruzaidi, C M

    2015-01-01

    The control morphology of ZnO nanostructures at specific area of electrodes by implemented a cost effective fabrication process, is extremely a challenging task. Rapid sensing, fast response and fast detection capability of the electronics devices is nowadays hot subject of keen interest. Our research is one of the successful attempts to achieve the desired goal at certain levels. Therefore in the current research article the ZnO thin film and ZnO nanorods were selectively deposited by low cost sol-gel and hydrothermal growth process at the selective area of microgap electrodes spacing and further the comparative study of ZnO thin film and ZnO nanorods were conducted electrically, for ultraviolet (UV) sensing application. On exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light the current gains, response/recovery times, repeatability, of the ZnO nanorods compared with ZnO thin film was improved probably due to the role of large surface area covered by the deposited nanostructures, and the most important is the bridging nanorods at the microgap electrodes tips. All the characterization including, surface, electrical and structural of the deposited nanostructures were completed by using SEM, sourcemeter and XRD respectively. (paper)

  18. Comprehensive Enhancement of Nanostructured Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials via Conformal Graphene Dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kan-Sheng [Department of Materials; Xu, Rui [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Luu, Norman S. [Department of Materials; Secor, Ethan B. [Department of Materials; Hamamoto, Koichi [Department of Materials; Li, Qianqian [Department of Materials; Kim, Soo [Department of Materials; Sangwan, Vinod K. [Department of Materials; Balla, Itamar [Department of Materials; Guiney, Linda M. [Department of Materials; Seo, Jung-Woo T. [Department of Materials; Yu, Xiankai [Department of Materials; Liu, Weiwei [Department of Materials; Wu, Jinsong [Department of Materials; Wolverton, Chris [Department of Materials; Dravid, Vinayak P. [Department of Materials; Barnett, Scott A. [Department of Materials; Lu, Jun [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials

    2017-03-01

    Efficient energy storage systems based on lithium-ion batteries represent a critical technology across many sectors including consumer electronics, electrified transportation, and a smart grid accommodating intermittent renewable energy sources. Nanostructured electrode materials present compelling opportunities for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, but inherent problems related to the high surface area to volume ratios at the nanometer-scale have impeded their adoption for commercial applications. Here, we demonstrate a materials and processing platform that realizes high-performance nanostructured lithium manganese oxide (nano-LMO) spinel cathodes with conformal graphene coatings as a conductive additive. The resulting nanostructured composite cathodes concurrently resolve multiple problems that have plagued nanoparticle-based lithium-ion battery electrodes including low packing density, high additive content, and poor cycling stability. Moreover, this strategy enhances the intrinsic advantages of nano-LMO, resulting in extraordinary rate capability and low temperature performance. With 75% capacity retention at a 20C cycling rate at room temperature and nearly full capacity retention at -20 degrees C, this work advances lithium-ion battery technology into unprecedented regimes of operation.

  19. Characteristics of zinc sulphide nanostructures grown onsilica modified-polyaniline with polymerization time-dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potestas, M.; Alguno, A.; Vequizo, R.; Sambo, B. R.; Odarve, M. K.

    2015-06-01

    Growth of zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanostructures on silica modified-polyaniline (SM- PAni) with polymerization time-dependent was prepared using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The grown samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM images revealed that polyaniline rod-like nanostructures and ZnS nanospheres were successfully grown. The average diameter of the grown ZnS nanospheres did not significantly change by changing the growth time of the polyaniline. However, ZnS nanospheres grown with longer polymerization time of PAni is less dense and loosely bound as compared to shorter polymerization time of PAni. The less density of ZnS nanostructures with longer polymerization time of PAni may be due to the presence of PAni agglomerates that hinders the growth of ZnS nanospheres. Furthermore, FTIR spectra confirmed that the grown polyaniline is of emeraldine salt oxidation state which is the most conductive state of PAni.

  20. Fabrication of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with a 3D Nanostructured Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC scheme for better solar conversion efficiency is proposed. The distinctive characteristic of this novel scheme is that the conventional thin film electrode is replaced by a 3D nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO electrode, which was fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering with an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template. The template was prepared by immersing the barrier-layer side of an AAO film into a 30 wt% phosphoric acid solution to produce a contrasting surface. RF magnetron sputtering was then used to deposit a 3D nanostructured ITO thin film on the template. The crystallinity and conductivity of the 3D ITO films were further enhanced by annealing. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were electrophoretically deposited on the 3D ITO film after which the proposed DSSC was formed by filling vacant spaces in the 3D nanostructured ITO electrode with dye. The measured solar conversion efficiency of the device was 0.125%. It presents a 5-fold improvement over that of conventional spin-coated TiO2 film electrode DSSCs.