WorldWideScience

Sample records for sponge petrosia sp

  1. Structure Elucidation and Cytotoxic Evaluation of New Polyacetylenes from a Marine Sponge Petrosia sp.

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    Yung-Shun Juan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Petrosia sp. yielded five polyacetylenic compounds (1–5, including two new polyacetylenes, petrosianynes A (1 and B (2. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with the physical and spectral data of related known analogues. Compounds 1–5 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against a limited panel of cancer cell lines.

  2. New purine derivatives from the marine sponge Petrosia nigricans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashour, M.; Edrada-Ebel, R.; Ebel, R.; Wray, V.; van Soest, R.W.M.; Proksch, P.

    2008-01-01

    Four new purine analogues (nigricines 1 - 4) have been isolated from the Indonesian marine sponge Petrosia nigricans. The structures were elucidated by extensive 2D-NMR spectroscopic experiments and mass spectrometry.

  3. Molecular cloning of silicatein gene from marine sponge Petrosia ficiformis (Porifera, Demospongiae) and development of primmorphs as a model for biosilicification studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzolini, Marina; Sturla, Laura; Cerrano, Carlo; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Camardella, Laura; Parodi, Anna Maria; Raheli, Federica; Benatti, Umberto; Müller, Werner E G; Giovine, Marco

    2004-01-01

    In some sponges peculiar proteins called silicateins catalyze silica polymerization in ordered structures, and their study is of high interest for possible biotechnological applications in the nanostructure industry. In this work we describe the isolation and the molecular characterization of silicatein from spicules of Petrosia ficiformis, a common Mediterranean sponge, and the development of a cellular model (primmorphs) suitable for in vitro studies of silicatein gene regulation. The spicule of P. ficiformis contains an axial filament composed of 2 insoluble proteins, of 30 and 23 kDa. The 23-kDa protein was characterized, and the full-length cDNA was cloned. The putative amino acid sequence has high homology with previously described silicateins from other sponge species and also is very similar to cathepsins, a cystein protease family. Finally, P. ficiformis primmorphs express the silicatein gene, suggesting that they should be a good model for biosilicification studies.

  4. Inhibitory effect of Indian sponge extracts on bacterial strains and larval settlement of the barnacle, Balanus Amphitrite

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LimnaMol, V.P.; Raveendran, T.V.; Abhilash, K.R.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    .R., Lee, B.J., Jung, J.H. 2002. Polyacetylenes from a marine sponge Petrosia sp. inhibit DNA replication at the level of initiation. Cancer Letters. 185, 95–101. 12. Limna Mol, V.P., Raveendran, T.V., Parameswaran, P.S. 2009. Antifouling activity...

  5. Lipid contents of the sponge Haliclona sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Several fatty acids, sterols, batyl alcohol and its analogs and an N-acylated sphingosine (ceramide) have been isolated from the lipid fraction of the extract of the sponge Haliclona sp. The major sterol is found to be cholesterol (54%), followed...

  6. Biological characterisation of Haliclona (?gellius) sp.: sponge and associated microorganisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Holmes, B.; Nichols, S.A.; Blanch, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    We have characterised the northern Pacific undescribed sponge Haliclona (?gellius) sp. based on rDNA of the sponge and its associated microorganisms. The sponge is closely related to Amphimedon queenslandica from the Great Barrier Reef as the near-complete 18S rDNA sequences of both sponges were

  7. Sterols from the Madagascar sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aknin, Maurice; Gros, Emmanuelle; Vacelet, Jean; Kashman, Yoel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2010-12-17

    The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae) from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean) is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, Δ(5), Δ(7) and Δ(5,7), were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in Δ(5,7) sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5α,8α-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts) were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and β-caroten bleaching assays.

  8. Sterols from the Madagascar Sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp.

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    Yoel Kashman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, D5, D7 and D5,7, were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in D5,7 sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5a,8a-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5a,8a-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and b-caroten bleaching assays.

  9. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI MIKROBA SIMBION SPONGE AXINELLA SP.

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    Asadatun Abdullah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are host organisms for various symbiotic microorganisms. Various symbiotic microorganisms have been found in Sponges such as archaea, heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, green algae, red algae, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates, and diatoms. The objectives of the research were to isolate and identify teh Axinella sp. Sponge-symbiotic microoganisms such asbacteria, micro fungi, and yeast. Sponge-symbiotic microoganisms that have been isolated cosisted of 7 bacteria isolates, 3 micro fungi, and 2 yeast isolates. Result from this research showed that the genus of bacteria was Alteromonas, Bacillus, and 2 yeast isolates have not been to identified.

  10. Biological characterisation of Haliclona (?gellius) sp.: sponge and associated microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipkema, Detmer; Holmes, Bradley; Nichols, Scott A; Blanch, Harvey W

    2009-11-01

    We have characterised the northern Pacific undescribed sponge Haliclona (?gellius) sp. based on rDNA of the sponge and its associated microorganisms. The sponge is closely related to Amphimedon queenslandica from the Great Barrier Reef as the near-complete 18S rDNA sequences of both sponges were identical. The microbial fingerprint of three specimens harvested at different times and of a transplanted specimen was compared to identify stably associated microorganisms. Most bacterial phyla were detected in each sample, but only a few bacterial species were determined to be stably associated with the sponge. A sponge-specific beta- and gamma-Proteobacterium were abundant clones and both of them were present in three of the four specimens analysed. In addition, a Planctomycete and a Crenarchaea were detected in all sponge individuals. Both were closely related to operational taxonomic units that have been found in other sponges, but not exclusively in sponges. Interestingly, also a number of clones that are closely related to intracellular symbionts from insects and amoeba were detected.

  11. Antibacterial secondary metabolites from the cave sponge Xestospongia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankisetty, Sridevi; Slattery, Marc

    2012-05-01

    Chemical investigation of the cave sponge Xestospongia sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated.

  12. Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from the Cave Sponge Xestospongia sp

    OpenAIRE

    Ankisetty, Sridevi; Slattery, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the cave sponge Xestospongia sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated.

  13. Two new alkaloids from Xestospongia sp., a New Caledonian sponge.

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    Quirion, J C; Sevenet, T; Husson, H P; Weniger, B; Debitus, C

    1992-10-01

    Five alkaloids have been isolated from a New Caledonian sponge Xestospongia sp. These include three known xestospongin derivatives, the new demethylxestospongin B (1) and a tetrahydrocarboline derivative 5. The structures of the new compounds 1 and 5 have been established by nmr studies and comparison with previously described products.

  14. An Acetylenic Alkaloid from the Calcareous Sponge Leucetta sp.

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    Nicole J. de Voogd

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new acetylenic alkaloid was isolated from the sponge Leucetta sp. The structure was established by analyzing spectroscopic data. The alkaloid showed cytotoxicity IC50 2.5 mg/mL against NBT-T2 cells.

  15. Novel Adociaquinone Derivatives from the Indonesian Sponge Xestospongia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    He, Fei; Mai, Linh H.; Longeon, Arlette; Copp, Brent R.; Loa?c, Nad?ge; Bescond, Amandine; Meijer, Laurent; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Seven new adociaquinone derivatives, xestoadociaquinones A (1a), B (1b), 14-carboxy-xestoquinol sulfate (2) and xestoadociaminals A–D (3a, 3c, 4a, 4c), together with seven known compounds (5–11) were isolated from an Indonesian marine sponge Xestospongia sp. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometric data. All the compounds were evaluated for their potential inhibitory activity against eight different protein kinases involved in cell proliferation, can...

  16. Heavy metal distribution in organic and siliceous marine sponge tissues measured by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, S; Annibaldi, A; Truzzi, C; Scarponi, G

    2016-10-15

    May sponge spicules represent a "tank" to accumulate heavy metals? In this study we test this hypothesis determining the distribution of Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations between organic and siliceous tissues in Antarctic Demospongia (Sphaerotylus antarcticus, Kirkpatrikia coulmani and Haliclona sp.) and in the Mediterranean species Petrosia ficiformis. Results show that although, in these sponges, spicules represent about 80% of the mass content, the accumulation of pollutant is lower in the spicules than in the corresponding organic fraction. The contribution of tissues to the total sponge content of Cd, Pb and Cu is respectively 99%, 82% and 97% for Antarctic sponges and 96%, 95% and 96% for P. ficiformis, similar in polar and temperate organisms. These results pave the way to a better understanding of the role of marine sponges in uptaking heavy metals and to their possible use as monitor of marine ecosystems, recommend by the Water Framework Directive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

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    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  18. Karakterisasi Simplisia dan Isolasi Senyawa Alkaloida Ekstrak Etanol Sponge Xestospongia sp de Laubenfels

    OpenAIRE

    Muliaty

    2015-01-01

    Sponge is one of the marine life that has not been widely used. Sponge found in coastal waters Labuhan Angin Sibolga of North Sumatera province. The main secondary metabolites content of sponge are group of alkaloids, steroids and terpenoids with variety of biological activity thus has great potential to developed in the field of medicine. The purpose of this research was to know characteristic of simplex and isolated alkaloid compound of ethanol extract from sponge Xestospongia sp de Laubenf...

  19. Renierosides, cerebrosides from a marine sponge Haliclona (Reniera) sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Tayyab A; Shinde, Pramod B; Luo, Xuan; Hong, Jongki; Lee, Chong-O; Sim, Chung Ja; Son, Byeng Wha; Jung, Jee H

    2007-09-01

    Guided by the brine shrimp lethality assay, eight new cerebrosides (1-8) have been isolated from an extract of the marine sponge Haliclona (Reniera) sp. A novel feature of these cerebrosides was the presence of unprecedented amide-linked long-chain fatty acid moieties. The planar structures of the cerebrosides (1-8) were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques, mass spectrometric analyses, and chemical degradation methods. The isolated compounds did not display cytotoxicity to a panel of five human solid tumor cell lines.

  20. Novel Adociaquinone Derivatives from the Indonesian Sponge Xestospongia sp.

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    Fei He

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven new adociaquinone derivatives, xestoadociaquinones A (1a, B (1b, 14-carboxy-xestoquinol sulfate (2 and xestoadociaminals A–D (3a, 3c, 4a, 4c, together with seven known compounds (5–11 were isolated from an Indonesian marine sponge Xestospongia sp. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometric data. All the compounds were evaluated for their potential inhibitory activity against eight different protein kinases involved in cell proliferation, cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders as well as for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  1. Novel Adociaquinone Derivatives from the Indonesian Sponge Xestospongia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Mai, Linh H; Longeon, Arlette; Copp, Brent R; Loaëc, Nadège; Bescond, Amandine; Meijer, Laurent; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2015-04-28

    Seven new adociaquinone derivatives, xestoadociaquinones A (1a), B (1b), 14-carboxy-xestoquinol sulfate (2) and xestoadociaminals A-D (3a, 3c, 4a, 4c), together with seven known compounds (5-11) were isolated from an Indonesian marine sponge Xestospongia sp. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometric data. All the compounds were evaluated for their potential inhibitory activity against eight different protein kinases involved in cell proliferation, cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders as well as for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  2. Novel Adociaquinone Derivatives from the Indonesian Sponge Xestospongia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Mai, Linh H.; Longeon, Arlette; Copp, Brent R.; Loaëc, Nadège; Bescond, Amandine; Meijer, Laurent; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Seven new adociaquinone derivatives, xestoadociaquinones A (1a), B (1b), 14-carboxy-xestoquinol sulfate (2) and xestoadociaminals A–D (3a, 3c, 4a, 4c), together with seven known compounds (5–11) were isolated from an Indonesian marine sponge Xestospongia sp. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometric data. All the compounds were evaluated for their potential inhibitory activity against eight different protein kinases involved in cell proliferation, cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders as well as for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:25927661

  3. Verrucosispora andamanensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supong, Khomsan; Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Thawai, Chitti

    2013-11-01

    An actinomycete strain, SP03-05(T), was isolated from a marine sponge sample (Xestospongia sp.) collected from Phuket Province of Thailand. The strain was aerobic, Gram-stain-positive and produced single spores at the tips of the substrate mycelium. Strain SP03-05(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan; whole-cell sugars were arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose, ribose and xylose. The polar lipid profile of strain SP03-05(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and unknown polar lipids. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain identified it as a member of the family Micromonosporaceae. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed similarity of the strain to Verrucosispora lutea YIM 013(T) (96.90 %), Verrucosispora sediminis MS426(T) (96.90 %), Verrucosispora gifhornensis DSM 44337(T) (96.80 %), Verrucosispora maris AB-18-032(T) (96.80 %) and Verrucosispora qiuiae RtIII47(T) (95.40 %). The DNA G+C content was 72.4 mol%. The phenotypic, genotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization results supported the classification of this strain as a representative of a novel species in the genus Verrucosispora, for which the name Verrucosispora andamanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SP03-05(T) ( = BCC 45620(T) = NBRC 109075(T)).

  4. Structure of a tetrameric galectin from Cinachyrella sp. (ball sponge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freymann, Douglas M., E-mail: freymann@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Nakamura, Yuka [Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato-cho, Hakodate 041-8611 (Japan); Focia, Pamela J. [Northwestern University, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Sakai, Ryuichi [Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato-cho, Hakodate 041-8611 (Japan); Swanson, Geoffrey T. [Northwestern University, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The structure of a tetrameric sponge galectin suggests a basis for glutamate receptor potentiation. The galectins are a family of proteins that bind with highest affinity to N-acetyllactosamine disaccharides, which are common constituents of asparagine-linked complex glycans. They play important and diverse physiological roles, particularly in the immune system, and are thought to be critical metastatic agents for many types of cancer cells, including gliomas. A recent bioactivity-based screen of marine sponge (Cinachyrella sp.) extract identified an ancestral member of the galectin family based on its unexpected ability to positively modulate mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptor function. To gain insight into the mechanistic basis of this activity, the 2.1 Å resolution X-ray structure of one member of the family, galectin CchG-1, is reported. While the protomer exhibited structural similarity to mammalian prototype galectin, CchG-1 adopts a novel tetrameric arrangement in which a rigid toroidal-shaped ‘donut’ is stabilized in part by the packing of pairs of vicinal disulfide bonds. Twofold symmetry between binding-site pairs provides a basis for a model for interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors.

  5. Multiple approaches to enhance the cultivability of bacteria associated with the marine sponge Haliclona (gellius) sp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Schippers, K.J.; Maalcke, W.J.; Yang, Y.; Salim, S.; Blanch, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Three methods were examined to cultivate bacteria associated with the marine sponge Haliclona (gellius) sp.: agar plate cultures, liquid cultures, and floating filter cultures. A variety of oligotrophic media were employed, including media with aqueous and organic sponge extracts, bacterial signal

  6. Antioxidant alkaloid from the South China Sea marine sponge Iotrochota sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonghong; Ji, Hong; Dong, Junde; Zhang, Si; Lee, Kyung Jin; Matthew, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Purpurone was isolated from the sponge Iotrochota sp. by bioactivity-guided fractionation. The compound showed antioxidant activity using the DPPH assay. The structure was established on the basis of NMR data and comparison with data reported.

  7. Distribution and Abundance of Archaea in South China Sea Sponge Holoxea sp. and the Presence of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Sponge Cells

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    Fang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with bacterial symbionts, little is known about archaea in sponges especially about their spatial distribution and abundance. Understanding the distribution and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea will help greatly in elucidating the potential function of symbionts in nitrogen cycling in sponges. In this study, gene libraries of 16S rRNA gene and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA genes and quantitative real-time PCR were used to study the spatial distribution and abundance of archaea in the South China Sea sponge Holoxea sp. As a result, Holoxea sp. specific AOA, mainly group C1a (marine group I: Crenarchaeota were identified. The presence of ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaea was observed for the first time within sponge cells. This study suggested a close relationship between sponge host and its archaeal symbionts as well as the archaeal potential contribution to sponge host in the ammonia-oxidizing process of nitrification.

  8. Sphingomonas jejuensis sp. nov., isolated from marine sponge Hymeniacidon flavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghwa; Yokota, Akira; Itoh, Takashi; Park, Jin-Sook

    2011-04-01

    A Gram-negative, non-motile, rod shaped, and orange-pigmented chemoheterotrophic bacterium, strain MS-31(T) was isolated from the marine sponge Hymeniacidon flavia, collected from near Jeju Island, Korea. The Strain MS-31(T) was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel isolate could be affiliated within the genus Sphingomonas. The strain MS-31(T) showed 95.6% of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the most closely related species Sphingomonas koreensis JSS26(T). The DNA G+C content of the strain MS-31(T) was 69.4 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiqunone 10 and predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 7 (comprising C(18:1) ω7c, C(18:1) Ω9t and/or C(18:1) ωl2t, 39.7%), C(16:0) (16.3%), C(14:0) 2OH (15.9%) and summed feature 3 (comprising C(16:1) ω7c and/or C(15:0) iso 2OH, 11.7%). The polar lipids were sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidyletha-nolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and unidentified glycolipid. Based on the evidence from the polyphasic taxonomic study, the strain should be classified as a new species of the genus Sphingomonas. As a result, the name Sphingomonas jejuensis sp. nov. (type strain MS-31(T) =KCTC 23321(T) =NBRC 107775(T)) is proposed.

  9. Quinolizidines alkaloids: Petrosin and xestospongins from the sponge Oceanapia sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Das, B.; Naik, C.G.

    having di-hetro atom rings, from the ethyl acetate extract of the sponge. The compounds exhibited moderate to high activities against some microorganisms and clinical isolates. The structures of the alkaloids were elucidated by NMR and ESIMS spectroscopic...

  10. Xestosaprols from the Indonesian marine sponge Xestospongia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jingqiu; Sorribas, Analia; Yoshida, Wesley Y; Kelly, Michelle; Williams, Philip G

    2010-06-25

    Eight pentacyclic compounds, xestosaprols F-M (1-8), were isolated from a marine sponge belonging to the genus Xestospongia. The structures of these new compounds were determined on the basis of extensive analyses of NMR experiments and mass spectrometric measurements. These compounds inhibited the aspartic protease BACE1 at moderate levels in a dose-dependent manner.

  11. Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from the Cave Sponge Xestospongia sp.

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    Sridevi Ankisetty

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the cave sponge Xestospongia sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated.

  12. Puupehanol, a Sesquiterpene-Dihydroquinone Derivative from the Marine Sponge Hyrtios sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puupehanol (1), a new sesquiterpene-dihydroquinone derivative, was isolated from the marine sponge Hyrtios sp., along with the known compounds puupehenone (2) and chloropuupehenone (3). The structure of 1 was established as (20R,21R)-21-hydroxy-20,21-dihydropuupehenone by interpretation of spectros...

  13. Nepheliosyne B, a New Polyacetylenic Acid from the New Caledonian Marine Sponge Niphates sp.

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    Patrick Auberger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new C47 polyoxygenated acetylenic acid, nepheliosyne B (2, along with the previously described nepheliosyne A (1, have been isolated from the New Caledonian marine sponge Niphates sp. Their structures have been elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. These metabolites exhibited a moderate cytotoxicity against K562, U266, SKM1, and Kasumi cancer cell lines.

  14. A new carnivorous sponge, Chondrocladia robertballardi sp. nov. (Porifera: Cladorhizidae) from two Northeast Atlantic seamounts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cristobo, J.; Rios, P.; Pomponi, S.A.; Xavier, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous sponges (Porifera: Cladorhizidae) are a particularly interesting group of species typically occurring in deep-sea habitats. In this study a new species, Chondrocladia (Chondrocladia) robertballardi sp. nov., is described from specimens collected on two large north-east Atlantic seamounts

  15. A new acyclic thiophene sesterterpene from the Sikao Bay sponge, Xestospongia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedpradab, Patchara; Suwanborirux, Khanit

    2011-09-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of a marine sponge, Xestospongia sp., led to the isolation of a new thiophene-S-oxide acyclic sesterterpene (1). The chemical structure was extensively analyzed using NMR and mass spectral data. Compound 1 showed weak cytotoxicity against Vero cells.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Antitrypanosomally Active Sponge-Associated Bacterium Actinokineospora sp. Strain EG49

    KAUST Repository

    Harjes, Janno

    2014-03-06

    The marine sponge-associated bacterium Actinokineospora sp. strain EG49 produces the antitrypanosomal angucycline-like compound actinosporin A. The draft genome of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 has a size of 7.5 megabases and a GC content of 72.8% and contains 6,629 protein-coding sequences (CDS). antiSMASH predicted 996 genes residing in 36 secondary metabolite gene clusters.

  17. Isolasi Dan Identifikasi Steroid/Triterpenoid Pada Sponge (Xestospongia Sp De Laubenfels)Dari Pantai Lhoknga Aceh Besar

    OpenAIRE

    Sonie, Hendra

    2015-01-01

    Sponge is one of ocean invertebrate which lives on coral reef and it has Bioactive potential that has not been widely used in various occasion, especially in drugs. Secondary metabolite compound that can be isolated from sponge is Alkaloida from Xestospongia sp., Diterpenoida from Oceanapia sp., sesquiterpenoida from Dysidea herbaceae, isonitril and terpenoid from Halicandria sp., and sesterterpenoid from Hyrtios erecta. Triterpenoid compound can be used in various needs such as to treat diab...

  18. Sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortés, J.; van der Hal, N.; van Soest, R.W.M.; Wehrtmann, I.S.; Cortés, J.

    2009-01-01

    A total of 127 species of sponges distributed in two classes, 14 orders, 42 families, and 72 genera are reported for Costa Rica in this part. Sixty-five species from the Caribbean coast are included here, belonging to 1 class, 10 orders, 29 families, and 45 genera; and 62 species in 2 classes, 13

  19. Zamamidine D, a Manzamine Alkaloid from an Okinawan Amphimedon sp. Marine Sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takaaki; Nakamura, Kenta; Kurimoto, Shin-Ichiro; Sakai, Kanae; Fromont, Jane; Gonoi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2017-04-28

    A new manzamine alkaloid, zamamidine D (1), was isolated from an Okinawan Amphimedon sp. marine sponge. The structure of zamamidine D (1) including the relative configuration was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Zamamidine D (1) is the first manzamine alkaloid possessing a 2,2'-methylenebistryptamine unit as the aromatic moiety instead of a β-carboline unit. Zamamidine D (1) showed antimicrobial activity against several bacteria and fungi.

  20. Multiple Approaches To Enhance the Cultivability of Bacteria Associated with the Marine Sponge Haliclona (gellius) sp.▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipkema, Detmer; Schippers, Klaske; Maalcke, Wouter J.; Yang, Yu; Salim, Sina; Blanch, Harvey W.

    2011-01-01

    Three methods were examined to cultivate bacteria associated with the marine sponge Haliclona (gellius) sp.: agar plate cultures, liquid cultures, and floating filter cultures. A variety of oligotrophic media were employed, including media with aqueous and organic sponge extracts, bacterial signal molecules, and siderophores. More than 3,900 isolates were analyzed, and 205 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. Media containing low concentrations of mucin or a mixture of peptone and starch were most successful for the isolation of diversity, while the commonly used marine broth did not result in a high diversity among isolates. The addition of antibiotics generally led to a reduced diversity on plates but yielded different bacteria than other media. In addition, diversity patterns of isolates from agar plates, liquid cultures, and floating filters were significantly different. Almost 89% of all isolates were Alphaproteobacteria; however, members of phyla that are less commonly encountered in cultivation studies, such as Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Deltaproteobacteria, were isolated as well. The sponge-associated bacteria were categorized into three different groups. The first group represented OTUs that were also obtained in a clone library from previously analyzed sponge tissue (group 1). Furthermore, we distinguished OTUs that were obtained from sponge tissue (in a previous study) but not from sponge isolates (group 2), and there were also OTUs that were not obtained from sponge tissue but were obtained from sponge isolates (group 3). The 17 OTUs categorized into group 1 represented 10 to 14% of all bacterial OTUs that were present in a large clone library previously generated from Haliclona (gellius) sp. sponge tissue, which is higher than previously reported cultivability scores for sponge-associated bacteria. Six of these 17 OTUs were not obtained from agar plates, which underlines that the use of multiple cultivation methods is

  1. Selective uptake of prokaryotic picoplankton by a marine sponge ( Callyspongia sp.) within an oligotrophic coastal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Christine E.; McLaughlin, M. James; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Strzelecki, Joanna

    2009-09-01

    Marine sponges are key players in the transfer of carbon from the pelagic microbial food web into the benthos. Selective uptake of prokaryotic picoplankton (time in the oligotrophic coastal waters of southwestern Australia, where sponge abundance and biodiversity ranks among the highest in the world. Water sampling and flow rate measurements were conducted over five sampling occasions following the InEx method of Yahel et al. (2005), with heterotrophic bacteria and autotrophic Synechococcus cyanobacteria identified and enumerated by flow cytometry. Callyspongia sp. demonstrated high filtration efficiencies, particularly for high DNA (HDNA) bacteria (up to 85.3% in summer 2008) and Synechococcus (up to 91.1% in autumn 2007), however efficiency varied non-uniformly with time and food type ( p food types, Callyspongia sp. exhibited consistently negative selectivity for LDNA bacteria and positive selectivity for Synechococcus, while HDNA bacteria was generally a neutral or positive selection. The total carbon removal rate (sum of all prokaryotic picoplankton cells), calculated on a per unit area basis, varied significantly with time ( p food webs of southwestern Australia, and support the conclusion that sponges actively select food particles that optimise their nutritional intake.

  2. Bioactive indole derivatives from the South Pacific marine sponges Rhopaloeides odorabile and Hyrtios sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longeon, Arlette; Copp, Brent R; Quévrain, Elodie; Roué, Mélanie; Kientz, Betty; Cresteil, Thierry; Petek, Sylvain; Debitus, Cécile; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2011-01-01

    Indole derivatives including bromoindoles have been isolated from the South Pacific marine sponges Rhopaloeides odorabile and Hyrtios sp. Their structures were established through analysis of mass spectra and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Their potential inhibitory phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂), antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were evaluated. The new derivative 5,6-dibromo-L-hypaphorine (9) isolated from Hyrtios sp. revealed a weak bee venom PLA₂ inhibition (IC₅₀ 0.2 mM) and a significant antioxidant activity with an Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) value of 0.22. The sesquiterpene aureol (4), also isolated from Hyrtios sp., showed the most potent antioxidant activity with an ORAC value of 0.29.

  3. Bioactive Indole Derivatives from the South Pacific Marine Sponges Rhopaloeides odorabile and Hyrtios sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Lise Bourguet-Kondracki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Indole derivatives including bromoindoles have been isolated from the South Pacific marine sponges Rhopaloeides odorabile and Hyrtios sp. Their structures were established through analysis of mass spectra and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Their potential inhibitory phospholipase A2 (PLA2, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were evaluated. The new derivative 5,6-dibromo-l-hypaphorine (9 isolated from Hyrtios sp. revealed a weak bee venom PLA2 inhibition (IC50 0.2 mM and a significant antioxidant activity with an Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC value of 0.22. The sesquiterpene aureol (4, also isolated from Hyrtios sp., showed the most potent antioxidant activity with an ORAC value of 0.29.

  4. Antimicrobial activities of secondary metabolites and phylogenetic study of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria, Bacillus sp. at Agatti Island, Lakshadweep Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi Mohan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of sponges were recorded under the class of Demospongiae and Calcareous sponges of which 19 species were new to Agatti reef. A total of 113 Sponge endosymbiotic bacterial strains were isolated from twenty-one species of sponges and screened for antimicrobial activity. Five bacterial strains of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria (SEB namely SEB32, SEB33, SEB36, SEB43 and SEB51 showed antimicrobial activity against virulent marine fish pathogens such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium sp., Edwardsiella sp., Proteus mirabilis and Citrobacter brackii. The secondary metabolites produced by SEB32 from sponge Dysidea fragilis (Montagu, 1818 [48] was selected with broad range of antibacterial activity and subjected for production, characterization by series of chromatography techniques and spectroscopic methods. Based on the results of FT-IR and mass spectrometry, the active molecule was tentatively predicted as “Pyrrol” and the structure is Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro- with molecular formula of C7H10N2O2. The LC50 of active molecule was 31 μg/ml and molecular weight of the metabolites was 154. The potential strain SEB32 was identified by gene sequence (GenBank Accession number JX985748 and identified as Bacillus sp. from GenBank database.

  5. Screening and Characterization of Protease Inhibitors from Marine Bacteria Associated with Sponge Jaspis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIS TRI WAHYUDI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three isolates among 138 sponge-associated bacteria were isolated from Waigeo Island, Raja Ampat West Papua Province, Indonesia, have been shown protease inhibitory activity against subtilisin (serine protease, thermolysin (metalloprotease, and crude extract from pathogenic bacteria (Eschericia coli enteropathogenic/EPEC K.1.1, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Those three isolates were designated as sponge associated bacteria SAB S-12, SAB S-21, and SAB S-17. A simple casein and Sea Water Complete (SWC double layer agar method was used to screen the bacteria against pathogenic bacteria producing protease, i.e. EPEC K.1.1, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. Among them, SAB S-12 isolate showed no inhibitory zone indicated. The isolate had the highest inhibitory activity against subtilisin and crude extract enzyme of pathogenic bacteria, the inhibitory activity was 91.6 and 98.9%, respectively. In addition, the SAB S-21 isolate had the highest inhibitory activity against thermolysin, it was 70.4%. The optimum pH and temperature for protease inhibition of the three isolates was at pH 7.0-8.0 and 40-50 °C respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, the closest related with SAB S-12, SAB-17, and SAB-21 isolates was Providencia sp. (92% identity, Paracoccus sp. (86% identity, and Bacillus sp. (100% identity, respectively.

  6. Screening and Characterization of Protease Inhibitors from Marine Bacteria Associated with Sponge Jaspis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIS TRI WAHYUDI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three isolates among 138 sponge-associated bacteria were isolated from Waigeo Island, Raja Ampat West Papua Province, Indonesia, have been shown protease inhibitory activity against subtilisin (serine protease, thermolysin (metalloprotease, and crude extract from pathogenic bacteria (Eschericia coli enteropathogenic/EPEC K.1.1, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Those three isolates were designated as sponge associated bacteria SAB S-12, SAB S-21, and SAB S-17. A simple casein and Sea Water Complete (SWC double layer agar method was used to screen the bacteria against pathogenic bacteria producing protease, i.e. EPEC K.1.1, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. Among them, SAB S-12 isolate showed no inhibitory zone indicated. The isolate had the highest inhibitory activity against subtilisin and crude extract enzyme of pathogenic bacteria, the inhibitory activity was 91.6 and 98.9%, respectively. In addition, the SAB S-21 isolate had the highest inhibitory activity against thermolysin, it was 70.4%. The optimum pH and temperature for protease inhibition of the three isolates was at pH 7.0-8.0 and 40-50 oC respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, the closest related with SAB S-12, SAB-17, and SAB-21 isolates was Providencia sp. (92% identity, Paracoccus sp. (86% identity, and Bacillus sp. (% identity, respectively.

  7. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Viegelmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8 isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1, 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2, and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3 that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont.

  8. Purification, Chemical Characterization, and Bioactivity of an Extracellular Polysaccharide Produced by the Marine Sponge Endogenous Fungus Alternaria sp. SP-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin; Mao, Wen-Jun; Yan, Meng-Xia; Liu, Xue; Wang, Shu-Yao; Xia, Zheng; Xiao, Bo; Cao, Su-Jian; Yang, Bao-Qin; Li, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Marine sponges are ancient and simple multicellular filter-feeding invertebrates attached to solid substrates in benthic habitats and host a variety of fungi both inside and on their surface because of its unique ingestion and digest system. Investigation on marine sponge-associated fungi mainly focused on the small molecular metabolites, yet little attention had been paid to the extracellular polysaccharides. In this study, a homogeneous extracellular polysaccharide AS2-1 was obtained from the fermented broth of the marine sponge endogenous fungus Alternaria sp. SP-32 using ethanol precipitation, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Results of chemical and spectroscopic analyses showed that AS2-1 was composed of mannose, glucose, and galactose with a molar ratio of 1.00:0.67:0.35, and its molecular weight was 27.4 kDa. AS2-1 consists of a mannan core and a galactoglucan chain. The mannan core is composed of (1→6)-α-Manp substituted at C-2 by (1→2)-α-Manp with different degrees of polymerization. The galactoglucan chain consists of (1→6)-α-Glcp residues with (1→6)-β-Galf residues attached to the last glucopyranose residue at C-6. (1→6)-β-Galf residues have additional branches at C-2 consisting of disaccharide units of (1→2)-β-Galf and (1→2)-α-Glcp residues. The glucopyranose residue of the galactoglucan chain is linked to the mannan core. AS2-1 possessed a high antioxidant activity as evaluated by scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. AS2-1 was also evaluated for cytotoxic activity on Hela, HL-60, and K562 cell lines by the MTT and SRB methods. The investigation demonstrated that AS2-1 was a novel extracellular polysaccharide with different characterization from extracellular polysaccharides produced by other marine microorganisms.

  9. Nortriterpene glycosides of the sarasinoside class from the sponge Lipastrotethya sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Jeon, Ju-eun; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Sim, Chung J; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2012-07-27

    Five new nortriterpene glycosides, along with eight known compounds of the sarasinoside class, were isolated from the tropical sponge Lipastrotethya sp. collected from Chuuk, Micronesia. The structures of these new compounds, designated as sarasinosides N-R (9-13), were determined by combined spectroscopic and chemical methods. The aglycone portions of 10-13 were found to be unprecedented among nortriterpeneoids on the basis of extensive NMR analyses. Several of these compounds exhibited cytotoxicity against A549 and K562 cell lines as well as weak inhibitory activity against Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

  10. Triterpene galactosides of the pouoside class and corresponding aglycones from the sponge Lipastrotethya sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Jang, Kyoung Hwa; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Sim, Chung J; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2011-12-27

    Nine new triterpene galactosides and aglycones, along with three known compounds from the rare pouoside class, were isolated from the tropical sponge Lipastrotethya sp. collected from Micronesia. The structures of these new compounds were determined by combined spectroscopic methods and designated as pouosides F-I (4, 8, 10, and 12) and pouogenins A-E (5-7, 9, and 11). The absolute configurations of the asymmetric centers and the cyclohexenone moiety, which had been previously undetermined, were assigned by NOESY analyses and Mosher's methods. Several of these compounds exhibited weak cytotoxicity against the K562 cell line.

  11. Cyclic Bis-1,3-dialkylpyridiniums from the Sponge Haliclona sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongheon Shin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight novel cyclic bis-1,3-dialkylpyridiniums, as well as two known compounds from the cyclostellettamine class, were isolated from the sponge Haliclona sp. from Korea. Structures of these novel compounds were determined using combined NMR and FAB-MS/MS analyses. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxic and antibacterial activities against A549 cell-line and Gram-positive strains, respectively. The structure-activity relationships of cyclostellettamines are discussed based on their bioactivities.

  12. Dihydroxystyrene metabolites from an association of the sponges Poecillastra wondoensis and Jaspis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yong Ha; Shin, Daehyun; Na, Zeyei; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Kim, Dae-Duk; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2008-05-01

    Five new dihydroxystyrene metabolites and six known compounds of the same structural class were isolated from an association of the sponges Poecillatra wondoensis and Jaspis sp., collected from Keomun Island, Korea. The structures of novel compounds were determined to be the sodium or N, N-dimethyl guanidinium salts of a dihydroxystyrene dimer (5) and two trimers (6, 7). Two dimers (10, 11) containing imidazole moieties were also identified on the basis of the results of combined spectroscopic analyses. Several compounds exhibited weak to moderate inhibitory effects against isocitrate lyase and sortase A enzymes derived from microorganisms.

  13. Topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage by adocia- and xestoquinones from the Philippine sponge Xestospongia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción, G P; Foderaro, T A; Eldredge, G S; Lobkovsky, E; Clardy, J; Barrows, L R; Ireland, C M

    1995-10-27

    Investigation of an orange Xestospongia sp. sponge collected at Cape Bolinao in northern Luzon, Philippines, yielded the known compounds adociaquinones A and B (1, 2) and six new metabolites, secoadociaquinones A and B (3, 4), 14-methoxyxestoquinone (5), 15-methoxyxestoquinone (6), 15-chloro-14-hydroxyxestoquinone (7), and 14-chloro-15-hydroxyxestoquinone (8). All compounds showed inhibition of topoisomerase II in catalytic DNA unwinding and/or decatenation assays. Furthermore, adociaquinone B showed activity in a KSDS assay, suggesting it inhibits the enzyme by freezing the enzyme-DNA cleavable complex. Interestingly, adociaquinone B did not displace ethidium bromide from DNA or unwind supercoiled DNA, implying it does not intercalate DNA.

  14. Antagonistic activity of marine sponge associated Streptomyces sp. against isolated fish pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Palani Selvan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antibacterial potential of the marine actinomycetes isolated from sponge samples. Methods: Thirty six marine sponge samples were collected from Palk Strait and further used for actinomycetes isolation by using serial dilution. The antibacterial activity was carried out by using cross streak assay method. Moreover, most potential strain also subjected to MIC and MBC techniques and the isolated potential strain was identified by molecular tools. Results: The maximum counts (26 x 102 CFU/g were observed in the month of May and minimum counts (1 x 102 CFU/g were noticed in April. A total of 21 actinomycetes were isolated and their antibacterial potential was assessed by using cross streak method. Among the 21 actinomycetes, the ACT-21 showed sensitivity against all the isolated fish pathogens. Further, the MIC and MBC results reveal that, the ACT-21 showed sensitivity at the concentration ranged between 500 毺 g/ mL-1 500 毺 g/mL. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that, the potential isolate ACT-21 (accession no: JF899543 showed maximum similarity index (>98% with Streptomyces sp. Conclusions: It is concluded from present study that, the crude extracts of sponge associated actinomycetes could be used as an effective antibacterial agent for the management of disease free fish culture system.

  15. Marilones A–C, phthalides from the sponge-derived fungus Stachylidium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Almeida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The marine-derived fungus Stachylidium sp. was isolated from the sponge Callyspongia sp. cf. C. flammea. Culture on a biomalt medium supplemented with sea salt led to the isolation of three new phthalide derivatives, i.e., marilones A–C (1–3, and the known compound silvaticol (4. The skeleton of marilones A and B is most unusual, and its biosynthesis is suggested to require unique biochemical reactions considering fungal secondary metabolism. Marilone A (1 was found to have antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei liver stages with an IC50 of 12.1 µM. Marilone B (2 showed selective antagonistic activity towards the serotonin receptor 5-HT2B with a Ki value of 7.7 µM.

  16. Pentacyclic ingamine-type alkaloids, a new antiplasmodial pharmacophore from the marine sponge petrosid Ng5 Sp5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new pentacyclic ingamine- type alkaloids, namely 22(S)-hydroxyingamine A (2) and dihydroingenamine D (3), together with the known ingamine A (1) have been isolated from marine sponge Petrosid Ng5 Sp5 (Family: Petrosiidae) obtained from the open repository of National Cancer Institute, USA. The s...

  17. Salaramides A and B; two alpha-oxoamides isolated from the marine sponge Hippospongia sp. (Porifera, Dictyoceratida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensemhoun, Julia; Rudi, Amira; Kashman, Yoel; Gaydou, Emile M; Vacelet, Jean; Aknin, Maurice

    2010-02-01

    Two novel alpha-oxoamides, salaramide A (1) and its homologue salaramide B (2), were isolated from the Madagascar marine sponge, Hippospongia sp., collected in Salary Bay, north of Tulear. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by interpretation of mass spectra, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and confirmed by chemical transformation.

  18. Haliclona (Haliclona) Epiphytica n. sp. (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida), a seaweed-dwelling sponge from the Colombian Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zea, Sven; Weerdt, de Wallie H.

    1999-01-01

    Haliclona (Haliclona) epiphytica n.sp., a new species of seaweed-dwelling sponge of the family Chalinidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida) from the Colombian Caribbean, is described. As the only member of the subgenus Haliclona (hitherto referred to as the ‘oculata’ group by De Weerdt, 1989)

  19. Cytotoxic and antibacterial substances against multi-drug resistant pathogens from marine sponge symbiont: Citrinin, a secondary metabolite of Penicillium sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Subramani, Ramesh; Kumar, Rohitesh; Prasad, Pritesh; Aalbersberg, William

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To Isolate, purify, characterize, and evaluate the bioactive compounds from the sponge-derived fungus Penicillium sp. FF001 and to elucidate its structure. Methods: The fungal strain FF001 with an interesting bioactivity profile was isolated from a marine Fijian sponge Melophlus sp. Based on conidiophores aggregation, conidia development and mycelia morphological characteristics, the isolate FF001 was classically identified as a Penicillium sp. The bioactive compound was identif...

  20. Cellular localization of debromohymenialdisine and hymenialdisine in the marine sponge Axinella sp. using a newly developed cell purification protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yue-Fan; Qu, Yi; Cao, Xu-Peng; Zhang, Wei

    2011-10-01

    Sponges (Porifera), as the best known source of bioactive marine natural products in metazoans, play a significant role in marine drug discovery and development. As sessile filter-feeding animals, a considerable portion of the sponge biomass can be made of endosymbiotic and associated microorganisms. Understanding the cellular origin of targeted bioactive compounds from sponges is therefore important not only for providing chemotaxonomic information but also for defining the bioactive production strategy in terms of sponge aquaculture, cell culture, or fermentation of associated bacteria. The two alkaloids debromohymenialdisine (DBH) and hymenialdisine (HD), which are cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors with pharmacological activities for treating osteoarthritis and Alzheimer's disease, have been isolated from the sponge Axinella sp. In this study, the cellular localization of these two alkaloids was determined through the quantification of these alkaloids in different cell fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). First, using a differential centrifugation method, the dissociated cells were separated into different groups according to their sizes. The two bioactive alkaloids were mainly found in sponge cells obtained from low-speed centrifugation. Further cell purifications were accomplished by a newly developed multi-step protocol. Four enriched cell fractions (C1, C2, C3, and C4) were obtained and subjected to light and transmission electron microscopy, cytochemical staining, and HPLC quantification. Compared to the low concentrations in other cell fractions, DBH and HD accounted for 10.9% and 6.1%, respectively, of dry weight in the C1 fraction. Using the morphological characteristics and cytochemical staining results, cells in the C1 fraction were speculated to be spherulous cells. This result shows that DBH and HD in Axinella sp. are located in sponge cells and mostly stored in spherulous cells.

  1. New merosesquiterpenes from a Vietnamese marine sponge of Spongia sp. and their biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hien Minh; Ito, Takuya; Kurimoto, Shin-Ichiro; Ogawa, Mika; Win, Nwet Nwet; Hung, Vo Quoc; Nguyen, Hoai Thi; Kubota, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-15

    The investigation of the Vietnamese marine sponge Spongia sp. led to the isolation of three new sesquiterpene phenols, langconols A-C (1-3), and one new sesquiterpene hydroxyquinone, langcoquinone C (4), together with two known meroterpenoids (5 and 6). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and comparisons with published data. Furthermore, the antibacterial assays of the isolates 1-6 suggested that 4 and 6 had significant antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, with MICs ranging from 6.25 to 25.0µM, while 1 and 3 possessed significant antibacterial activities against B. subtilis with MICs of 12.5 and 25.0µM, respectively. In contrast, cytotoxic assays of the isolated compounds 1-6, as well as compounds 7-15 previously isolated from this sponge, indicated that 1 and the previously reported anti-B. subtilis and anti-S. aureus sesquiterpene phenol 9 lacked cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines (A549, lung cancer; MCF7, breast cancer; HeLa, cervix cancer) and a human normal cell line (WI-38 fibroblast). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Meroterpenoids with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitory Activity from a Hyrtios sp. Marine Sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Mu, Feng-Rong; Jiao, Wei-Hua; Huang, Jian; Hong, Li-Li; Yang, Fan; Xu, Ying; Wang, Shu-Ping; Sun, Fan; Lin, Hou-Wen

    2017-09-22

    Three new meroterpenoids, hyrtiolacton A (1), nakijinol F (2), and nakijinol G (3), along with three known ones, nakijinol B (4), nakijinol E (5), and dactyloquinone A (6), were isolated and characterized from a Hyrtios sp. marine sponge collected from the South China Sea. The new structures were determined based on extensive analysis of HRESIMS and NMR data, and their absolute configurations were assigned by a combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism analyses. Hyrtiolacton A (1) represents an unprecedented meroterpenoid featuring an unusual 2-pyrone attached to the sesquiterpene core, which is the first example of a pyrone-containing 4,9-friedodrimane-type sesquiterpene. These compounds were evaluated for their protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B) inhibitory and cytotoxic activities. Nakijinol G (3) showed PTP1B inhibitory activity with an IC 50 value of 4.8 μM but no cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines.

  3. Topsensterols A-C, Cytotoxic Polyhydroxylated Sterol Derivatives from a Marine Sponge Topsentia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Wu, Xu-Dong; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-08-01

    Three new polyhydroxylated sterol derivatives topsensterols A-C (1-3) have been isolated from a marine sponge Topsentia sp. collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data, especially the NOESY spectra. Topsensterols A-C (l-3) possess novel 2β,3α,4β,6α-tetrahydroxy-14α-methyl Δ(9(11)) steroidal nuclei with unusual side chains. Compound 2 exhibited cytotoxicity against human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901 with an IC50 value of 8.0 μM. Compound 3 displayed cytotoxicity against human erythroleukemia cell line K562 with an IC50 value of 6.0 μM.

  4. Three new polyketides from the marine sponge-derived fungus Trichoderma sp. SCSIO41004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaoyan; Lin, Xiuping; Tian, Yongqi; Liang, Rui; Wang, Junfeng; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Xuefeng; Kaliyaperumal, Kumaravel; Luo, Xiaowei; Tu, Zhengchao; Liu, Yonghong

    2018-01-01

    Three new polyketides named trichbenzoisochromen A (1), 5,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl -2-(2-oxopropyl)naphthalene-1,4-dione (2) and 7-acetyl-1,3,6-trihydroxyanthracene-9,10- dione (3) together with six known compounds (4-9) were isolated from a sponge-derived fungus Trichoderma sp. SCSIO41004. The structures of three new polyketides (1-3) were determined by the extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS data. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was confirmed by the specific optical rotation value and CD spectra analyses. Compound 4 exhibited significant inhibitory activity against EV71 with the IC 50 value of 25.7 μM.

  5. Antibacterial Bisabolane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dan

    2012-01-19

    Four new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, aspergiterpenoid A (1), (-)-sydonol (2), (-)-sydonic acid (3), and (-)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(2′, 6′,6′-trimethyltetrahydro-2Hpyran-2-yl)phenol (4) together with one known fungal metabolite (5) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Four of them (1-4) are optically active compounds. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by using NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometric analysis, and by comparing their optical rotations with those related known analogues. Compounds 1-5 showed selective antibacterial activity against eight bacterial strains with the MIC (minimum inhibiting concentrations) values between 1.25 and 20.0 μM. The cytotoxic, antifouling, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of these compounds were also examined. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  6. Antibacterial Bisabolane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, aspergiterpenoid A (1, (−-sydonol (2, (−-sydonic acid (3, and (−-5-(hydroxymethyl-2-(2′,6′,6′-trimethyltetrahydro-2H- pyran-2-ylphenol (4 together with one known fungal metabolite (5 were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Four of them (1–4 are optically active compounds. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by using NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometric analysis, and by comparing their optical rotations with those related known analogues. Compounds 1–5 showed selective antibacterial activity against eight bacterial strains with the MIC (minimum inhibiting concentrations values between 1.25 and 20.0 µM. The cytotoxic, antifouling, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of these compounds were also examined.

  7. Two new polyacetylene derivatives from the Red Sea sponge Xestospongia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyad, Seif-Eldin N; Katoua, Dina F; Alarif, Walied M; Sobahi, Tariq R; Aly, Magda M; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Ghandourah, Mohamed A

    2015-11-01

    Two new polyacetylenes (1 and 2), along with two known C-30 steroids (3 and 4) were identified from the Red Sea sponge, Xestospongia sp. The chemical structures were determined based on extensive spectroscopic measurements 1D (1H, 13C and DEPT) and 2D (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) NMR, UV, IR and MS. The new compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antitumor activities. 1 and 2 were active against multidrug- resistant bacteria with MICs ranged from 2.2 to 4.5 μM. No toxicity was recorded for the two tested compounds up to 5 μM using Artemia salina as a test organism. Compound 2 showed excellent antifungal activity against some pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans (MIC 2.2-2.5 μM) and antitumor activity against both Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and lymphocytic leukemia (LD50 5.0 μM).

  8. Antibacterial bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids from the sponge-derived fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Xu, Ying; Shao, Chang-Lun; Yang, Rui-Yun; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Chen, Yi-Yan; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Qian, Pei-Yuan; She, Zhi-Gang; de Voogd, Nicole J; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Four new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, aspergiterpenoid A (1), (-)-sydonol (2), (-)-sydonic acid (3), and (-)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(2',6',6'-trimethyltetrahydro-2H- pyran-2-yl)phenol (4) together with one known fungal metabolite (5) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Four of them (1-4) are optically active compounds. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by using NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometric analysis, and by comparing their optical rotations with those related known analogues. Compounds 1-5 showed selective antibacterial activity against eight bacterial strains with the MIC (minimum inhibiting concentrations) values between 1.25 and 20.0 µM. The cytotoxic, antifouling, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of these compounds were also examined.

  9. Antimicrobial and Antimycobacterial Activity of Cyclostellettamine Alkaloids from Sponge Pachychalina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. S. Berlinck

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Cyclostellettamines A – F (1 – 6 isolated from the sponge Pachychalina sp. and cyclostellettamines G - I, K and L (7 – 11 obtained by synthesis were evaluated in bioassays of antimicrobial activity against susceptible and antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antibiotic-susceptible Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, as well as in antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv bioassays. The results obtained indicated that cyclostellettamines display different antimicrobial activity depending on the alkyl-chain size, suggesting that, if a mechanism-of action is implied, it is dependent on the distance between the two pyridinium moieties of cyclostellettamines.

  10. New Hexactinellid Sponge Chaunoplectella megapora sp. nov. (Lyssacinosida: Leucopsacidae) from Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, Eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunsheng; Zhang, Yuan; Lu, Bo; Wang, Dexiang

    2018-01-23

    The new Hexactinellid sponge Chaunoplectella megapora sp. nov. reported in this study was collected from the COMRA contract area, the western part of Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) in the eastern Pacific Ocean at a depth of 5258 m. This sponge's extraordinary multiporous body with the presence of unique codonhexasters, sigmatocomes, toothed discohexasters and hemidiscohexasters, as well as stellate disocohexasters, characterizes it as a new species in the genus Chaunoplectella. This report presents the first record of family Leucopsacidae at this site in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  11. Anticancer Activity of Marine Sponge Hyrtios sp. Extract in Human Colorectal Carcinoma RKO Cells with Different p53 Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kyung Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug development using marine bioresources is limited even though the ocean occupies about 70% of the earth and contains a large number of biological materials. From the screening test of the marine sponge extracts, we found Hyrtios sp. sponge collected from Chuuk island, Micronesia. In this study, the Hyrtios sp. extract was examined for anticancer activity against human colorectal carcinoma RKO cells that are wildtype for p53 and RKO-E6 that are p53 defective. The Hyrtios sp. extract dose-dependently inhibited viability in both cell lines. Multinucleation as an indication of mitotic catastrophe was also observed. Cytotoxicity tests gave significantly different results for RKO and RKO-E6 cells after 48 h exposure to Hyrtios sp. extract. In RKO cells treated with Hyrtios sp. extract, cell death occurred by induction of p53 and p21 proteins. In p53-defective RKO-E6 cells, Hyrtios sp. extract decreased expression of JNK protein and increased p21 protein. These results indicate that Hyrtios sp. extract induced apoptosis via different pathways depending on p53 status and could be a good natural product for developing new anticancer drugs.

  12. A new alkaline lipase obtained from the metagenome of marine sponge Ircinia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Zhang, Fengli; Sun, Wei; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Zhang, Guangya; Li, Zhiyong; Jiang, Qun

    2015-07-01

    Microorganisms associated with marine sponges are potential resources for marine enzymes. In this study, culture-independent metagenomic approach was used to isolate lipases from the complex microbiome of the sponge Ircinia sp. obtained from the South China Sea. A metagenomic library was constructed, containing 6568 clones, and functional screening on 1 % tributyrin agar resulted in the identification of a positive lipase clone (35F4). Following sequence analysis 35F4 clone was found to contain a putative lipase gene lipA. Sequence analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of LipA revealed that it is a member of subfamily I.1 of lipases, with 63 % amino acid similarity to the lactonizing lipase from Aeromonas veronii (WP_021231793). Based on the predicted secondary structure, LipA was predicted to be an alkaline enzyme by sequence/structure analysis. Heterologous expression of lipA in E. coli BL21 (DE3) was performed and the characterization of the recombinant enzyme LipA showed that it is an alkaline enzyme with high tolerance to organic solvents. The isolated lipase LipA was active in the broad alkaline range, with the highest activity at pH 9.0, and had a high level of stability over a pH range of 7.0-12.0. The activity of LipA was increased in the presence of 5 mM Ca(2+) and some organic solvents, e.g. methanol, acetone and isopropanol. The optimum temperature for the activity of LipA is 40 °C and the molecular weight of LipA was determined to be ~30 kDa by SDS-PAGE. LipA is an alkaline lipase and shows good tolerance to some organic solvents, which make it of potential utility in the detergent industry and enzyme mediated organic synthesis. The result of this study has broadened the diversity of known lipolytic genes and demonstrated that marine sponges are an important source for new enzymes.

  13. Identification and Antibacterial Activity of Bacteria Isolated from Marine Sponge Haliclona (Reniera) sp. against Multi-Drug Resistant Human Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhanu Asagabaldan, Meezan; Ayuningrum, D.; Kristiana, R.; Sabdono, A.; Radjasa, O. K.; Trianto, A.

    2017-02-01

    The marine sponge Haliclona (Reniera) sp. was a potential source of natural bioactive compounds. This sponge widely distributed along the coast of Panjang Island, Jepara, Indonesia. The aims of this research were to isolate the associated bacteria with Haliclona (Reniera) sp. and to screen the antibacterial activity against Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria. Amount five bacteria were isolated using media selective for bacteria. The antibacterial activities of bacteria were performed by overlay methods. The bacteria strain PSP. 39-04 had the best activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterobacter cloaceae. Based on colony morphology and phylogenetic characterization using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, PSP 39-04 was closely related with Chromohalobacter salixigens strain DSM3043.

  14. Dragmacidins G and H, Bisindole Alkaloids Tethered by a Guanidino Ethylthiopyrazine Moiety, from a Lipastrotethya sp. Marine Sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitora, Yuki; Takada, Kentaro; Ise, Yuji; Okada, Shigeru; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2016-11-23

    LCMS analysis of the extract and a cytotoxicity assay of the HPLC fractions generated from a small-scale extract of a Lipastrotethya sp. marine sponge demonstrated the presence of bisindole alkaloids that were associated with the cytotoxic activity. Two bisindole alkaloids tethered by a guanidino ethylthiopyrazine moiety, dragmacidins G (1) and H (2), were isolated, and their structures were assigned by analysis of the MS and NMR data. They showed moderate cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells.

  15. Stable and biocompatible cystine knot peptides from the marine sponge Asteropus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mingzhi; Li, Huayue; Wang, Haibo; Kim, Eun La; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Jaewon; Jung, Jee H

    2016-07-01

    Two new cystine knot peptides, asteropsins F (ASPF) and G (ASPG), were isolated from the marine sponge Asteropus sp. ASPF and ASPG are composed of 33 and 32 amino acids, respectively, and contain six cysteines which are involved in three disulfide bonds. They shared the characteristic features of the asteropsin family, such as, N-terminal pyroglutamate modification, incorporation of cis prolines, and the unique anionic profile, which distinguish them from other knottin families. Tertiary structures of the peptides were determined by high resolution NMR. ASPF and ASPG were found to be remarkably resistant not only to digestive enzymes (chymotrypsin, pepsin, elastase, and trypsin) but also to thermal degradation. In addition, these peptides were pharmacologically inert; non-hemolytic to human and fish red blood cells, non-stimulatory to murine macrophage cells, and nontoxic in vitro or in vivo. These observations support their stability and biocompatibility as suitable carrier scaffolds for the design of oral peptide drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from marine sponge Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fábio Sérgio Paulino; Souza, Danilo Tosta; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Pansa, Camila Cristiane; de Figueiredo Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2016-11-01

    The taxonomic position of a novel marine actinomycete isolated from a marine sponge, Aplysina fulva, which had been collected in the Archipelago of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (Equatorial Atlantic Ocean), was determined by using a polyphasic approach. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces and forms a distinct branch within the Streptomyces somaliensis 16S rRNA gene tree subclade. It is closely related to Streptomyces violascens ISP 5183 T (97.27 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Streptomyces hydrogenans NBRC 13475 T (97.15 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The 16S rRNA gene similarities between the isolate and the remaining members of the subclade are lower than 96.77 %. The organism can be distinguished readily from other members of the S. violacens subclade using a combination of phenotypic properties. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that isolate 103 T (=NRRL B-65309 T  = CMAA 1378 T ) merits recognition as the type strain of a new Streptomyces species, namely Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov.

  17. Williamsia spongiae sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from the marine sponge Amphimedon viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso de Menezes, Cláudia Beatriz; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; Souza, Wallace Rafael de; Parma, Márcia; Melo, Itamar Soares de; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana

    2017-05-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated isolate B138T, was isolated from the marine sponge, Amphimedon viridis, which was collected from Praia Guaecá (São Paulo, Brazil), and its taxonomic position was established using data from a polyphasic study. The organism showed a combination of chemotaxonomic and morphological characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Williamsia and it formed a distinct phyletic line in the Williamsia 16S rRNA gene tree. It was most closely related to Williamsia serinedens DSM 45037T and Williamsia deligens DSM 44902T (99.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Williamsia maris DSM 44693T (97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), but was distinguished readily from these strains by the low DNA-DNA relatedness values (62.3-64.4 %) and by the discriminatory phenotypic properties. Based on the data obtained, the isolate B138T (=CBMAI 1094T=DSM 46676T) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Williamsia, for which the name Williamsia spongiae sp. nov. is proposed.

  18. Tsukamurella spongiae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a deep-water marine sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Julie B; Harmody, Dedra K; Bej, Asim K; McCarthy, Peter J

    2007-07-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain K362(T)) was isolated from a deep-water marine sponge collected off the coast of Curaçao in the Netherlands Antilles. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain K362(T) was shown to belong to the genus Tsukamurella, being most closely related to Tsukamurella pulmonis (99.2 %), Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens (98.9 %), Tsukamurella strandjordii (98.8 %), Tsukamurella pseudospumae (98.8 %) and Tsukamurella spumae (98.8 %). A combination of the substrate utilization patterns, the fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles and the DNA-DNA hybridization results supported the affiliation of strain K362(T) to the genus Tsukamurella and enabled the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain K362(T) from the seven recognized Tsukamurella species. Strain K362(T) therefore represents a novel species of the genus Tsukamurella, for which the name Tsukamurella spongiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is K362(T) (=DSM 44990(T)=NRRL B-24467(T)).

  19. Nocardia xestospongiae sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge in the Andaman Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawai, Chitti; Rungjindamai, Nattawut; Klanbut, Khanungkan; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2017-05-01

    A marine sponge-derived actinomycete, strain ST01-07T, was isolated from Xestospongia sp. collected from the Andaman Sea. The strain was characterised taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. The strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan, whole-cell sugars were arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose and ribose. Mycolic acids that co-migrated with those from Nocardia araoensis NBRC 100135T were observed in whole-cell extracts. MK-8(H4ω-cycl) was the predominant menaquinone. Major cellular fatty acids were C17 : 1ω8c, C16 : 0 and C17 : 0. The diagnostic phospholipids in the cell consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain ST01-07T belonged to the genus Nocardia and was most closely related to N. araoensis IFM 0575T (98.71 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Nocardia niwae W9241T (98.56 %), Nocardia beijingensis AS4.1521T (98.41 %) and Nocardia arthritidis IFM 10035T (98.36 %). In addition, low DNA-DNA relatedness values (13.6±0.1% to 40.1±0.6%) confirmed that strain ST01-07T represents a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia xestospongiae sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is ST01-07T (=BCC 45622T=NBRC 109069T).

  20. Two new antioxidant actinosporin analogues from the calcium alginate beads culture of sponge-associated Actinokineospora sp. strain EG49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grkovic, Tanja; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Othman, Eman Maher; Stopper, Helga; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Hentschel, Ute; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-11-01

    Marine sponge-associated actinomycetes represent an exciting new resource for the identification of new and novel natural products . Previously, we have reported the isolation and structural elucidation of actinosporins A (1) and B (2) from Actinokineospora sp. strain EG49 isolated from the marine sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda. Herein, by employing different fermentation conditions on the same microorganism, we report on the isolation and antioxidant activity of structurally related metabolites, actinosporins C (3) and D (4). The antioxidant potential of actinosporins C and D was demonstrated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Additionally, at 1.25 μM, actinosporins C and D showed a significant antioxidant and protective capacity from the genomic damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in the human promyelocytic (HL-60) cell line. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Sulawesins A-C, Furanosesterterpene Tetronic Acids That Inhibit USP7, from a Psammocinia sp. Marine Sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ahmed H; Kagiyama, Ippei; El-Desoky, Ahmed H; Kato, Hikaru; Mangindaan, Remy E P; de Voogd, Nicole J; Ammar, Nagwa M; Hifnawy, Mohammed S; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

    2017-07-28

    Three new furanosesterterpene tetronic acids, sulawesins A-C (1-3), were isolated from a Psammocinia sp. marine sponge, along with the known compounds ircinins-1 (4) and -2 (5). Although ircinins-1 and -2 were previously isolated as (+)- or (-)-enantiomers from marine sponges, we isolated them as enantiomeric mixtures. Sulawesins A and B possess a new carbon skeleton with a 5-(furan-3-yl)-4-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone moiety and were also found to be diastereomeric mixtures of four isomers by an HPLC analysis with a chiral-phase column. Sulawesin C has a dimeric structure of ircinin-1 and is the first dimer in this family. USP7, a deubiquitinating enzyme, is an emergent target of cancer therapy, and the isolated compounds inhibited USP7 with IC 50 values in the range of 2.7-4.6 μM.

  2. New isoquinolinequinone alkaloids from the South China Sea nudibranch Jorunna funebris and its possible sponge-prey Xestospongia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Fei; Li, Yan; Feng, Mei-Tang; Gavagnin, Margherita; Mollo, Ernesto; Mao, Shui-Chun; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2014-07-01

    Two new renieramycin-type bistetrahydroisoquinolinequinone alkaloids, fennebricins A (1) and B (5), and one new isoquinolinequinone alkaloid, N-formyl-1,2-dihydrorenierol (7), were isolated from the skin of the South China Sea nudibranch Jorunna funebris and its possible sponge-prey Xestospongia sp., together with eight known metabolites, including three bistetrahydroisoquinolinequinones (2-4) and five isoquinolinequinones (8-12). Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and by comparison with data for related known compounds. All the metabolites except for 7 occurred simultaneously in the two animals, supporting recent ecological studies that the nudibranch J. funebris preys on the sponge of the genus Xestospongia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of Induced Secondary Metabolites by a Co-Culture of Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Dashti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two sponge-derived actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163, were grown in co-culture and the presence of induced metabolites monitored by 1H NMR. Ten known compounds, including angucycline, diketopiperazine and β-carboline derivatives 1–10, were isolated from the EtOAc extracts of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163. Co-cultivation of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163 induced the biosynthesis of three natural products that were not detected in the single culture of either microorganism, namely N-(2-hydroxyphenyl-acetamide (11, 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine (12 and 5a,6,11a,12-tetrahydro-5a,11a-dimethyl[1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-b][1,4]benzoxazine (13a. When tested for biological activity against a range of bacteria and parasites, only the phenazine 12 was active against Bacillus sp. P25, Trypanosoma brucei and interestingly, against Actinokineospora sp. EG49. These findings highlight the co-cultivation approach as an effective strategy to access the bioactive secondary metabolites hidden in the genomes of marine actinomycetes.

  4. Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.

    2011-10-14

    A Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-sporulating, rod-shaped and slightly halophilic bacterial strain, designated UST090418-1611(T), was isolated from the marina sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain UST090418-1611(T) in the family Alteromonadaceae with the closest relationship to the genus Marinobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the strain and the type strains of recognized Marinobacter species ranged from 92.9 to 98.3%. Although strain UST090418-1611(T) shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Marinobacter mobilis CN46(T), M. zhejiangensis CN74(T) and M. sediminum R65(T) (98.3, 97.4 and 97.3%, respectively), the relatedness of the strain to these three strains in DNA DNA hybridization was only 58, 56 and 33%, respectively, supporting the novelty of the strain. In contrast to most strains in the genus Marinobacter, strain UST090418-1611(T) tolerated only 6% (w/v) NaCl, and optimal growth occurred at 2.0% (w/v) NaCl, pH 7.0-8.0 and 28-36 degrees C. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C-12:0 3-OH, C-16:0, C-12:0 and summed feature 3 (C-16.1 omega 6c and/or C-16:1 omega 7c) The genomic DNA G+C content was 57.1 mol%. Based on the physiological, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics presented in this study, we suggest that the strain represents a novel species in the genus Marinobacter, for which the name Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov. is proposed, with UST090418-1611(T) (=JCM 17469(T) =NRRL B-59512(T)) as the type strain.

  5. Formosa spongicola sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Hymeniacidon flavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Byoung-Jun; Oh, Duck-Chul

    2011-02-01

    A Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic, non-flagellated, oxidase- and catalase-positive, marine bacterium, designated A2(T), was isolated from a marine sponge, Hymeniacidon flavia, collected from the coast of Jeju Island, South Korea. Phylogenetic analysis based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain A2(T) was a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae. Its closest relatives were Formosa agariphila KMM 3901(T) and Formosa algae KMM 3553(T) (96.99 and 96.98 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). DNA-DNA relatedness between strain A2(T) and F. agariphila KMM 3901(T) and F. algae KMM 3553(T) was 14.1 and 26.8 %, respectively. The dominant fatty acids (>5 %) of strain A2(T) were iso-C(15 : 0) (33.9 %), iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH (20.8 %), iso-C(15 : 1) G (10.5 %) and iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH (6.1 %). The DNA G+C content of strain A2(T) was 36.0 mol% and the major respiratory quinone was MK-6. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis, strain A2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Formosa, for which the name Formosa spongicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A2(T) (=KCTC 22662(T) =DSM 22637(T)).

  6. Response of sponges with autotrophic endosymbionts during the coral-bleaching episode in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, V. P.

    1990-04-01

    An updated list of sponges with algal endosymbionts including new records for Puerto Rico and the Caribbean, indicates that thirty-five species of common Caribbean sponges possess photosynthetic endosymbionts. Of these, 23 (67.6%) species in seven orders, were found with unicellular chroococcoid cyanobacteria ( Aphanocapsa-like) and 5 (14.7%) hadromerid species were found with zooxanthellae. Sponges with other algae as symbionts occur less frequently (≦6%). Thirty-one common sponge species were inspected for bleaching during coral-bleaching months (July-September 1987; January 1988) in Puerto Rico. Anthosigmella varians, Xestospongia muta and Petrosia pellasarca bleached partially, but only few individuals within any given population became bleached and the bleaching of sponges was very localized. Adaptations between cyanobacterial symbionts and sponges, acquired during the long evolutionary history of these two taxa may explain the paucity of bleached sponges when compared to the high incidence of bleached corals reported.

  7. Ageloline A, new antioxidant and antichlamydial quinolone from the marine sponge-derived bacterium Streptomyces sp. SBT345

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Cheng; Othman, Eman M.; Reimer, Anastasija; Grüne, Matthias; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Stopper, Helga; Hentschel, Ute; Abdelmohsen, Usama R.

    2016-01-01

    A new chlorinated quinolone, ageloline A, was isolated from the broth culture of Streptomyces sp. SBT345 that was cultivated from the Mediterranean sponge Agelas oroides. The structure of this compound was determined by spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR as well as HR-ESI-MS experiments. Ageloline A exhibited antioxidant potential using cell-free and cell-based assays and was further able to reduce oxidative stress and genomic damage induced by the oxidative stress inducer 4-nitro...

  8. Leucanone A and naamine J, glycerol ether lipid and imidazole alkaloid from the marine sponge Leucandra sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei-Zhuo; Yang, Zhong-Zhen; Sun, Fan; Wang, Shu-Ping; Yang, Fan; Lin, Hou-Wen

    2017-07-01

    Chemical investigation on CH 2 Cl 2 extract of the marine sponge Leucandra sp. afforded two new compounds named leucanone A (1) and naamine J (2), together with eight known compounds (3-10). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic analyses, and comparing with the literature. The cytotoxic activities of the compounds were evaluated against four cancer cell lines, and compound 2 showed mild cytotoxic activities against MCF-7, A549, HeLa, and PC9 cancer cell lines with IC 50 values in the range of 20.1-45.3 μM.

  9. New bisabolane sesquiterpenoids from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling-Ling; Shao, Chang-Lun; Chen, Jian-Feng; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Chen, Min; Chen, Yi-Yan; Li, Rui; de Voogd, Nicole J; She, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2012-02-01

    Three new phenolic bisabolane sesquiterpenoid dimers, disydonols A-C (1-3), and one known compound (S)-(+)-sydonol (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectral analysis including 1D and 2D NMR spectra and HR-ESI-MS. These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against HepG-2 and Caski human tumour cell lines. Among them, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited cytotoxicity against the two cell lines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lysobacter hymeniacidonis sp. nov., isolated from a crude oil-contaminated marine sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yanjuan; Qu, Junge; Xu, Junyi; Wu, Peichun; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2015-12-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, strain 2-5T, was isolated from a crude oil-contaminated marine sponge collected near Dalian Bay, China, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Cells of strain 2-5T were non-spore forming, non-motile, rods 0.2-0.3 µm wide and 1.1-1.2µm long. Strain 2-5T grew well on nutrient agar, TSA, R2A agar and LB agar. Colonies of strain 2-5T on LB agar were circular, smooth with entire margins, non-transparent and pale yellow after 3 d of incubation at 30°C. Growth of strain 2-5T occurred in LN medium with 0-6% NaCl; no growth occurred in the presence of 8.0% NaCl. Strain 2-5T grew at 15-42°C and at pH 6.0-8.0. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 2-5T clustered with the species of the genus Lysobacter. Its closet neighbors were the type strains of Lysobacter concretionis KCTC 12205T (97% similarity), Lysobacter arseniciresistens ZS79T (96%), and Lysobacter defluii APB-9T (96%). The value for DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 2-5T and L. concretionis KCTC 12205T was 23%. Branched fatty acids iso-C16: 0, iso-C15: 0, iso-C 11: 0 3-OH, iso-C17: 1ω9 c and iso-C11: 0 were found to be predominant. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Strain 2-5T had a DNA G+C content of 63.8 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, DNA-DNA hybridization and phylogenetic data, strain 2-5T represents a novel species of the genus Lysobacter, for which the name Lysobacter hymeniacidonis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2-5T (=CGMCC 1.12190T = JCM 18137T).

  11. Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, On On; Lai, Pok Yui; Wu, Hui-xian; Zhou, Xiao-jian; Miao, Li; Wang, Hao; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-08-01

    A Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-sporulating, rod-shaped and slightly halophilic bacterial strain, designated UST090418-1611(T), was isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain UST090418-1611(T) in the family Alteromonadaceae with the closest relationship to the genus Marinobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the strain and the type strains of recognized Marinobacter species ranged from 92.9 to 98.3%. Although strain UST090418-1611(T) shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Marinobacter mobilis CN46(T), M. zhejiangensis CN74(T) and M. sediminum R65(T) (98.3, 97.4 and 97.3%, respectively), the relatedness of the strain to these three strains in DNA-DNA hybridization was only 58, 56 and 33%, respectively, supporting the novelty of the strain. In contrast to most strains in the genus Marinobacter, strain UST090418-1611(T) tolerated only 6% (w/v) NaCl, and optimal growth occurred at 2.0% (w/v) NaCl, pH 7.0-8.0 and 28-36 °C. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C(12:0) 3-OH, C(16:0), C(12:0) and summed feature 3 (C(16:1)ω6c and/or C(16:1)ω7c). The genomic DNA G+C content was 57.1 mol%. Based on the physiological, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics presented in this study, we suggest that the strain represents a novel species in the genus Marinobacter, for which the name Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov. is proposed, with UST090418-1611(T) ( = JCM 17469(T)  = NRRL B-59512(T)) as the type strain.

  12. Apoptosis-Inducing Activity of Marine Sponge Haliclona sp. Extracts Collected from Kosrae in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woori Bae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although various anticancer drugs have been developed for the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer, chemotherapeutic efficacy is still limited. Natural products such as phytochemicals have been screened as novel alternative materials, but alternative funds such as marine bioresources remain largely untapped. Of these resources, marine sponges have undergone the most scrutiny for their biological activities, including antiinflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer properties. However, the biological mechanisms of the activities of these marine sponges are still unclear. We investigated the anticancer activity of marine sponges collected from Kosrae in Micronesia and examined their mechanisms of action using nonsmall cell lung cancer A549 cells as a model system. Of 20 specimens, the Haliclona sp. (KO1304-328 showed both dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Further, methanol extracts of Haliclona sp. significantly inhibited cell proliferation and cell viability. A549 cells treated with Haliclona sp. demonstrated induced expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, p53, p21, caspase-8, and caspase-3. The percentage of apoptotic cells significantly increased in A549 cultures treated with Haliclona sp. These results indicate that Haliclona sp. induces apoptosis via the JNK-p53 pathway and caspase-8, suggesting that this marine sponge is a good resource for the development of drugs for treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer.

  13. Similar sponge-associated bacteria can be acquired via both vertical and horizontal transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipkema, Detmer; de Caralt, Sònia; Morillo, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges host diverse communities of microorganisms that are often vertically transmitted from mother to oocyte or embryo. Horizontal transmission has often been proposed to co-occur in marine sponges, but the mechanism is poorly understood. To assess the impact of the mode of transmission...... on the microbial assemblages of sponges, we analysed the microbiota in sympatric sponges that have previously been reported to acquire bacteria via either vertical (Corticium candelabrum and Crambe crambe) or horizontal transmission (Petrosia ficiformis). The comparative study was performed by PCR......-DGGE and pyrosequencing of barcoded PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. We found that P. ficiformis and C. candelabrum each harbor their own species-specific bacteria, but they are similar to other high-microbial-abundance sponges, while the low-microbial-abundance sponge C. crambe hosts microbiota of a very different...

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Rhodococcus sp. Strain WMMA185, a Marine Sponge-Associated Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Adnani, Navid; Braun, Doug R.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Chevrette, Marc G.; Currie, Cameron R.; Bugni, Tim S.

    2016-01-01

    The Rhodococcus strain WMMA185 was isolated from the marine sponge Chondrilla nucula as part of ongoing drug discovery efforts. Analysis of the 4.44-Mb genome provides information regarding interspecies interactions as pertains to regulation of secondary metabolism and natural product biosynthetic potentials.

  15. An enrichment of CRISPR and other defense-related features in marine sponge-associated microbial metagenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Horn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many marine sponges are populated by dense and taxonomically diverse microbial consortia. We employed a metagenomics approach to unravel the differences in the functional gene repertoire among three Mediterranean sponge species, Petrosia ficiformis, Sarcotragus foetidus, Aplysina aerophoba and seawater. Different signatures were observed between sponge and seawater metagenomes with regard to microbial community composition, GC content, and estimated bacterial genome size. Our analysis showed further a pronounced repertoire for defense systems in sponge metagenomes. Specifically, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR, restriction modification, DNA phosphorothioation and phage growth limitation systems were enriched in sponge metagenomes. These data suggest that defense is an important functional trait for an existence within sponges that requires mechanisms to defend against foreign DNA from microorganisms and viruses. This study contributes to an understanding of the evolutionary arms race between viruses/phages and bacterial genomes and it sheds light on the bacterial defenses that have evolved in the context of the sponge holobiont.

  16. Bioactive isoquinolinequinone alkaloids from the South China Sea nudibranch Jorunna funebris and its sponge-prey Xestospongia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ren-Yong; Chen, Wen-Ting; Kurtán, Tibor; Mándi, Attila; Ding, Jian; Li, Jia; Li, Xu-Wen; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Nudibranchs are slug-like invertebrates, well known as rich sources of biologically active secondary metabolites with highly chemical diversity and complexity. The production of such interesting metabolites was possibly influenced by their diet relationship with sponges such as Xestospongia. Our continuous investigation of South China Sea nudibranch Jorunna funebris and its sponge-prey Xestospongia sp. led to the isolation of two new and eight known metabolites (1-10). The absolute configurations were determined by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) electronic circular dichroism (ECD) method and by the comparison of ECD spectra. In bioassays, 1-4 and 7 showed strong NF-κB inhibitory activity, 4-6 exhibited considerable cytotoxicity against A549 and HL-60 tumor cell lines. Five unusual isoquinolinequinones (3, 7-10) were discovered from both two animals, further confirmed their predator-prey relationship. Preliminary bioassay results and structure-activity relationship studies suggested that several isolated compounds were potential to be drug leads.

  17. Chemical Constituents of the Sponge Mycale Sp ecies from South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Zhou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the sponge Mycale species from the South China Sea afforded eleven known compounds, henicosanoic acid methyl ester (1 , hexadecyl ethers of glycerol ( 2 , N-docosanoyl-D-erythro-(2S,3R-16-methyl-heptadecasphing-4(E-enine ( 3 , dibutyl phthalate ( 4 , cholesterol ( 5 , 5α,8α-epidioxycholest-6,22-dien-3β-ol ( 6 , 5-hexadecyl-pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde ( 7 , benzoic acid ( 8 , 4-hydroxybenzoic acid ( 9 , thymine ( 10 ,and uracil ( 11 . Compounds 1 – 4 , 6 – 9 were obtained from the sponge of the genus Mycale for the first time, and 4 and 6 showed toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality test with the LD 50 values at 2.9 μg/mL and 4. 7 μg/mL, respectively .

  18. Papuamides E and F, Cytotoxic Depsipeptides from the Marine Sponge Melophlus sp

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Pritesh; Aalbersberg, William; Feussner, Klaus-D; Van Wagoner, Ryan M.

    2011-01-01

    Two known papuamides C (1) and D (2) together with two new depsipeptides, papuamides E (3) and F (4), were isolated from an undescribed sponge of the genus Melophlus collected in the Solomon Islands. The planar structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies. Papuamides C–F (1–4) showed cytotoxicity against brine shrimp with LD50 values between 92 and 106 μg/mL.

  19. Papuamides E and F, Cytotoxic Depsipeptides from the Marine Sponge Melophlus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Pritesh; Aalbersberg, William; Feussner, Klaus-D; Van Wagoner, Ryan M

    2011-11-04

    Two known papuamides C (1) and D (2) together with two new depsipeptides, papuamides E (3) and F (4), were isolated from an undescribed sponge of the genus Melophlus collected in the Solomon Islands. The planar structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies. Papuamides C-F (1-4) showed cytotoxicity against brine shrimp with LD(50) values between 92 and 106 μg/mL.

  20. Asteltoxins with Antiviral Activities from the Marine Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yong-Qi; Lin, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Zhen; Zhou, Xue-Feng; Qin, Xiao-Chu; Kaliyaperumal, Kumaravel; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Tu, Zheng-Chao; Liu, Yonghong

    2015-12-26

    Two new asteltoxins named asteltoxin E (2) and F (3), and a new chromone (4), together with four known compounds were isolated from a marine sponge-derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40. The structures of the compounds (1-7) were determined by the extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, and HRESIMS spectrometry. All the compounds were tested for their antiviral (H1N1 and H3N2) activity. Compounds 2 and 3 showed significant activity against H3N2 with the prominent IC50 values of 6.2 ± 0.08 and 8.9 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. In addition, compound 2 also exhibited inhibitory activity against H1N1 with an IC50 value of 3.5 ± 1.3 μM.

  1. Two new protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors, hyattellactones A and B, from the Indonesian marine sponge Hyattella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Mangindaan, Remy E P; Namikoshi, Michio

    2015-02-15

    Two unique sesterterpenes, hyattellactones A (1) and B (2), together with two known sesterterpenes, phyllofolactones F (3) and G (4), were isolated from the Indonesian marine sponge Hyattella sp. The structures of the two new compounds, 1 and 2 were assigned based on their spectroscopic data. Hyattellactone A (1) was a scalarane sesterterpene with an α,β-unsaturated-γ-lactone ring and C-ethyl group, while B (2) was an epimer of 1 at the C-24 position. Compounds 1 and 3 inhibited PTP1B activity with IC50 values of 7.45 and 7.47μM, respectively. On the other hand, compounds 2 and 4 (24S-isomers of 1 and 3, respectively) showed much reduced activity than the 24R-isomers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genomic Attributes of Novel Symbiont Pseudovibrio brasiliensis sp. nov. Isolated From the Sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Fróes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sponge holobionts are defined as the host animals and their associated microbiomes. Both host and microbiome produce extracellular products that facilitate interaction within the holobiont. For example, microbes may provide nutrition for the animal host and protection against pathogens. The genomic study of bacterial cultures may shed light on the properties of novel symbiotic bacteria isolated from marine holobionts. In this study, we performed a genome-based analysis of Pseudovibrio brasiliensis Ab134T isolated from the sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis. This novel strain is phylogenetically related to Pseudovibrio denitrificans. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization and calculation of the average amino acid identity between the strain Ab134T and P. denitrificans JCM 12308T showed <70% similarity and <95% identity, respectively. This novel bacterial species possesses genomic features that hint at several possible roles in symbiosis (e.g., production of secondary metabolites, including bromotyrosine-derived alkaloids in sponge and coral holobionts. We also detected gene clusters encoding type III, type IV, and type VI secretion systems and 26 toxin-like proteins, including probable paralogs. Our results demonstrate the genome versatility of P. brasiliensis Ab134T and the potential to attach to host cells, which may play a role in its symbiotic lifestyle.

  3. Development of slow sponge sand filter (SpSF) as a post-treatment of UASB-DHS reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, N; Kuroda, K; Dehama, K; Hatamoto, M; Yamaguchi, T

    2016-01-01

    In this study, conventional slow sand filter (SSF) and modified slow sponge sand filter (SpSF) were investigated for the post-treatment of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor effluent. The seasonal variation did not show significant differences in removal efficiencies of both filters. However in summer, both filters were able to achieve high total suspended solids and total biochemical oxygen demand removal averaging 97% and 99%, respectively. Contrary to organic removal, total nitrogen removal efficiency was satisfactory, showing increased removal efficiencies averaging 58% and 62% for SSF and SpSF in summer. On the other hand, average total coliform removal of SSF and SpSF was 4.2 logs and 4.4 logs and corresponding Escherichia coli removal was 4.0 logs and 4.1 logs, respectively. From our observation, it could be concluded that the relative performance of SpSF for nutrients and coliforms was better than SSF due to the effectiveness of sponge media over fine sands. Moreover, microbial community analysis revealed that the members of phylum Proteobacteria were predominant in the biofilms of both filters, which could have contributed to pollutant removal. Therefore, SpSF could be concluded to be a suitable post-treatment of UASB-DHS system in warmer conditions.

  4. Antimalarial potential of xestoquinone, a protein kinase inhibitor isolated from a Vanuatu marine sponge Xestospongia sp

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Dominique; Jullian, Valérie; Parenty, A.; Knibiehler, M.; Dorin, D.; Schmitt, S.; Lozach, O.; Lebouvier, N.; Frostin, M.; Alby, F.; Maurel, Séverine; Doerig, C.; Meijer, L.; Sauvain, Michel

    2006-01-01

    As part of our search for new antimalarial drugs, we have screened for inhibitors of Pfnek-1, a protein kinase of Plasmodium falciparum, in south Pacific marine sponges. On the basis of a preliminary screening, the ethanolic crude extract of a new species of Xestospongia collected in Vanuatu was selected for its promising activity. A bioassay-guided fractionation led us to isolate xestoquinone which inhibits Pfnek-1 with an IC50 around 1 mu M. Among a small panel of plasmodial protein kinases...

  5. Cytotoxic and antibacterial substances against multi-drug resistant pathogens from marine sponge symbiont: Citrinin, a secondary metabolite of Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Ramesh; Kumar, Rohitesh; Prasad, Pritesh; Aalbersberg, William; Retheesh, S T

    2013-04-01

    To Isolate, purify, characterize, and evaluate the bioactive compounds from the sponge-derived fungus Penicillium sp. FF001 and to elucidate its structure. The fungal strain FF001 with an interesting bioactivity profile was isolated from a marine Fijian sponge Melophlus sp. Based on conidiophores aggregation, conidia development and mycelia morphological characteristics, the isolate FF001 was classically identified as a Penicillium sp. The bioactive compound was identified using various spectral analysis of UV, high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Further minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) assay and brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay were also carried out to evaluate the biological properties of the purified compound. Bioassay guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract of a static culture of this Penicillium sp. by different chromatographic methods led the isolation of an antibacterial, anticryptococcal and cytotoxic active compound, which was identified as citrinin (1). Further, citrinin (1) is reported for its potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), rifampicin-resistant S. aureus, wild type S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium showed MICs of 3.90, 0.97, 1.95 and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively. Further citrinin (1) displayed significant activity against the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC 3.90 µg/mL), and exhibited cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae LD50 of 96 µg/mL. Citrinin (1) is reported from sponge associated Penicillium sp. from this study and for its strong antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens including cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae, which indicated that sponge associated Penicillium spp. are promising sources of natural bioactive metabolites.

  6. Spongiimicrobium salis gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a marine sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Adachi, Kyoko; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, pale-yellow pigmented, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic bacterium, designated A6F-11(T), was isolated from a marine sponge collected in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the novel marine strain was affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it shared the highest (92.9 %) sequence similarity with Arenibacter palladensis LMG 21972(T). The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from related members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The major fatty acids of strain A6F-11(T) were iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0, C16:1 ω6c and/or C16:1 ω7c and iso-C17:0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.7 mol%, and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel taxon in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Spongiimicrobium salis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of S. salis gen. nov., sp. nov. is A6F-11(T) (= KCTC 42753(T) = NBRC 111401(T)).

  7. New 2-Methoxy Acetylenic Acids and Pyrazole Alkaloids from the Marine Sponge Cinachyrella sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mokhlesi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new 2-methoxy acetylenic acids (1–3 and a known derivative (4, in addition to three new natural pyrazole alkaloids (5–7 were isolated from an Indonesian marine sponge of the genus Cinachyrella. Compounds 5 and 6 have previously been reported as synthetic compounds. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy as well as by mass spectrometric data. The absolute configuration of the new acetylenic acid derivatives (1–3 was established by ECD spectroscopy. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Compounds 1–4 exhibited strong activity with an IC50 value of 0.3 µM. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for the pyrazole metabolites 5–7 is proposed.

  8. Anti-amoebic properties of a Malaysian marine sponge Aaptos sp. on Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakisah, M A; Ida Muryany, M Y; Fatimah, H; Nor Fadilah, R; Zalilawati, M R; Khamsah, S; Habsah, M

    2012-03-01

    Crude methanol extracts of a marine sponge, Aaptos aaptos, collected from three different localities namely Kapas, Perhentian and Redang Islands, Terengganu, Malaysia, were tested in vitro on a pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii (IMR isolate) to examine their anti-amoebic potential. The examination of anti-Acanthamoebic activity of the extracts was conducted in 24 well plates for 72 h at 30 °C. All extracts possessed anti-amoebic activity with their IC(50) values ranging from 0.615 to 0.876 mg/mL. The effect of the methanol extracts on the surface morphology of A. castellanii was analysed under scanning electron microscopy. The ability of the extracts to disrupt the amoeba cell membrane was indicated by extensive cell's blebbing, changes in the surface morphology, reduced in cell size and with cystic appearance of extract-treated Acanthamoeba. Number of acanthapodia and food cup was also reduced in this Acanthamoeba. Morphological criteria of apoptosis in Acanthamoeba following treatment with the sponge's extracts was determined by acridine orange-propidium iodide staining and observed by fluorescence microscopy. By this technique, apoptotic and necrotic cells can be visualized and quantified. The genotoxic potential of the methanol extracts was performed by the alkaline comet assay. All methanol extracts used were significantly induced DNA damage compared to untreated Acanthamoeba by having high percentage of scores 1, 2, and 3 of the DNA damage. Results from cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies carried out in the present study suggest that all methanol extracts of A. aaptos have anti-amoebic properties against A. castellanii.

  9. Antimalarial potential of xestoquinone, a protein kinase inhibitor isolated from a Vanuatu marine sponge Xestospongia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Dominique; Jullian, Valérie; Parenty, Arnaud; Knibiehler, Martine; Dorin, Dominique; Schmitt, Sophie; Lozach, Olivier; Lebouvier, Nicolas; Frostin, Maryvonne; Alby, Frédéric; Maurel, Séverine; Doerig, Christian; Meijer, Laurent; Sauvain, Michel

    2006-07-01

    As part of our search for new antimalarial drugs, we have screened for inhibitors of Pfnek-1, a protein kinase of Plasmodium falciparum, in south Pacific marine sponges. On the basis of a preliminary screening, the ethanolic crude extract of a new species of Xestospongia collected in Vanuatu was selected for its promising activity. A bioassay-guided fractionation led us to isolate xestoquinone which inhibits Pfnek-1 with an IC(50) around 1 microM. Among a small panel of plasmodial protein kinases, xestoquinone showed modest protein kinase inhibitory activity toward PfPK5 and no activity toward PfPK7 and PfGSK-3. Xestoquinone showed in vitro antiplasmodial activity against a FCB1 P. falciparum strain with an IC(50) of 3 microM and a weak selectivity index (SI 7). Xestoquinone exhibited a weak in vivo activity at 5mg/kg in Plasmodium berghei NK65 infected mice and was toxic at higher doses.

  10. Anticancer Effects of the Marine Sponge Lipastrotethya sp. Extract on Wild-Type and p53 Knockout HCT116 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kiheon; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Oh, Sung Ryong; Chung, Woo-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Interest in marine bioresources is increasing in the drug development sector. In particular, marine sponges produce a wide range of unique metabolites that enable them to survive in challenging environments, which makes them attractive sources of candidate pharmaceuticals. In previous study, we investigated over 40 marine specimens collected in Micronesia and provided by the Korean Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, for their antiproliferative effects on various cancer cell lines, and Lipastrotethya sp. extract (LSSE) was found to have a marked antiproliferative effect. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism responsible for its anticancer effect on wild-type p53 (WT) or p53 knockout (KO) HCT116 cells. LSSE inhibited cell viability and induced apoptotic cell death more so in HCT116 p53 KO cells than the WT. HCT116 WT cells treated with LSSE underwent apoptosis associated with the induction of p53 and its target genes. On the other hand, in HCT116 p53 KO cells, LSSE reduced mTOR and Bcl-2 and increased Beclin-1 and LC3-II protein levels, suggesting autophagy induction. These results indicate that the mechanisms responsible for the anticancer effect of LSSE depend on p53 status. PMID:28127380

  11. Anticancer Effects of the Marine Sponge Lipastrotethya sp. Extract on Wild-Type and p53 Knockout HCT116 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiheon Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in marine bioresources is increasing in the drug development sector. In particular, marine sponges produce a wide range of unique metabolites that enable them to survive in challenging environments, which makes them attractive sources of candidate pharmaceuticals. In previous study, we investigated over 40 marine specimens collected in Micronesia and provided by the Korean Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, for their antiproliferative effects on various cancer cell lines, and Lipastrotethya sp. extract (LSSE was found to have a marked antiproliferative effect. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism responsible for its anticancer effect on wild-type p53 (WT or p53 knockout (KO HCT116 cells. LSSE inhibited cell viability and induced apoptotic cell death more so in HCT116 p53 KO cells than the WT. HCT116 WT cells treated with LSSE underwent apoptosis associated with the induction of p53 and its target genes. On the other hand, in HCT116 p53 KO cells, LSSE reduced mTOR and Bcl-2 and increased Beclin-1 and LC3-II protein levels, suggesting autophagy induction. These results indicate that the mechanisms responsible for the anticancer effect of LSSE depend on p53 status.

  12. Absolute structures and bioactivities of euryspongins and eurydiene obtained from the marine sponge Euryspongia sp. collected at Iriomote Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kanno, Syu-Ichi; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Takahashi, Shiori; Ukai, Kazuyo; Sumilat, Deiske A; Ishikawa, Masaaki; Namikoshi, Michio

    2015-02-15

    Three unique sesquiterpenes, named euryspongins A-C (1-3), have been isolated from the marine sponge Euryspongia sp. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned as (4R,6R,9S) by comparing its experimental Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD) spectrum with the calculated ECD spectra of both enantiomers, and the absolute configurations of 2, 3 and artifact 4 were suggested on the basis of that of 1 by assuming common biogenesis of 1-3. These absolute configurations were opposite to those depicted in the previous communication. Further separation of the remaining fractions lead to the isolation of a new C11-polyketide, named as eurydiene (5), together with a known C11-polyketide, nakitriol (6). The structure of 5 was assigned on the basis of its spectroscopic data as a bicyclic alcohol with a diene side chain. Dehydroeuryspongin A (4) inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), an important target enzyme for the treatment of type II diabetes and obesity, with an IC50 value of 3.58μM. Moreover, compound 4 did not inhibit the proliferation of human hepatoma Huh-7 cells at 100μM. One of the locations in which PTP1B has been detected is hepatocytes. Compounds 1-3, 5, and 6 were not active against PTP1B. The growth of human colon (HCT-15) and T-cell lymphoma (Jurkat) cells was not disturbed by compounds 1-6. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of curdlan produced by Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 cells immobilized in a loofa sponge matrix, and application of this biopolymer in the development of functional yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Martinez, Camila; Pereira Ruiz, Suelen; Carvalho Fenelon, Vanderson; Rodrigues de Morais, Gutierrez; Luciano Baesso, Mauro; Matioli, Graciette

    2016-05-01

    Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 cells were immobilized on a loofa sponge and used to produce curdlan over five successive cycles. The interaction between microbial cells and the loofa sponge as well as the produced curdlan were characterized by Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectrometry. The purity of the curdlan was also evaluated. The storage stability of the immobilized cells was assessed and the produced curdlan was used in a functional yogurt formulation. The average curdlan production by immobilized cells was 17.84 g L(-1) . The presence of the microorganism in the sponge was confirmed and did not cause alterations in the matrix, and the chemical structure of the curdlan was the same as that of commercial curdlan. The purity of both was similar. The immobilized cells remained active after 300 days of storage at -18 °C. The use of the produced curdlan in a functional yogurt resulted in a product with lower syneresis. A large number of cells physically adhered to the surface of loofa sponge fibers, and its use as an immobilization matrix to produce curdlan was effective. The use of the produced curdlan in yogurt allowed the development of a more stable product. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. A solo luxI-type gene directs acylhomoserine lactone synthesis and contributes to motility control in the marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Jindong; Choi, Okhee; Meharena, Hiruy; Uhlson, Charis L; Churchill, Mair E A; Hill, Russell T; Fuqua, Clay

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges harbour abundant and diverse bacterial communities, providing an ideal environment for bacterial cell-density-dependent cell-cell signalling, termed quorum sensing. The marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11 produces mainly long chain acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) and has been developed as a quorum sensing model for roseobacterial sponge symbionts. Two pairs of luxR/I homologues were identified by genetic screening and were designated ssaRI and ssbRI (sponge-associated symbiont locus A or B, luxR/luxI homologue). In this study, we identified a third luxI-type gene, named sscI. The sscI gene does not have a cognate luxR homologue present at an adjacent locus and thus sscI is an AHL synthase solo. The sscI gene is required for production of long-chain hydroxylated AHLs, contributes to AHL pools and modestly influences flagellar motility in KLH11. A triple mutant for all luxI-type genes cannot produce AHLs, but still synthesizes para-coumaroyl-homoserine lactone. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. ISOLATION AND PRESENCE OF ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITIES OF MARINE SPONGE Xestospongia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Murtihapsari Murtihapsari; Apriani Sulu Parubak; Bertha Mangallo; Wiwied Ekasari; Puji Budi Asih; Ayu Indah Lestari

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the agent of malignant malaria, is one of mankind's most severe scourges, mainly in the tropic world. Efforts to develop preventive vaccines or remedial drugs are handicapped by the parasite's rapid evolution of drug resistance. Here, we presented an advance work on examination of antimalarial component from marine life of Xestospongia sp., the study is based on hexane extraction method. The premier result, we obtained five fractions. Among these five fractions, the fou...

  16. SARSTEINIA BABAI N. GEN., N. SP., A NEW PROBLEMATIC SPONGE (INOZOA? FROM THE LATE JURASSIC OF THE NORTHERN CALCAREOUS ALPS, AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIX SCHLAGINTWEIT

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The new problematic sponge Sarsteinia babai n. gen., n. sp. is described from the Kimmeridgian to Tithonian Plassen and Lärchberg Formations of the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria. The type-locality is the Sarsteinalm north of Mount Hoher Sarstein in the Austrian Salzkammergut, other findings come from Mount Sandling, Mount Jainzen, Mount Trisselwand and the Litzlkogel-Gerhardstein-complex west of Lofer. Most findings can be attributed to a fore-reef to upper slope facies or slope-of-toe breccias, small fragments can occasionally also be found in the back-reef facies. The suprageneric systematic position of the new sponge is unknown so far since it shows morphological characteristics known from Inozoa but also from "stromatoporoids".

  17. ISOLATION AND PRESENCE OF ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITIES OF MARINE SPONGE Xestospongia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtihapsari Murtihapsari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum, the agent of malignant malaria, is one of mankind's most severe scourges, mainly in the tropic world. Efforts to develop preventive vaccines or remedial drugs are handicapped by the parasite's rapid evolution of drug resistance. Here, we presented an advance work on examination of antimalarial component from marine life of Xestospongia sp., the study is based on hexane extraction method. The premier result, we obtained five fractions. Among these five fractions, the fourth has the most potent inhibitory against the growth of P. falciparum 3D7 with an IC50: 7.13 µg/mL. A compiled spectrum analysis, FTIR, 1H-NMR and GC-MS, revealed that the fourth fraction consisted abundantly of two secondary metabolites such as flavonoids and triterpenoids. Finally, our results suggest a plausible structure rooted to the base of ibuprofen.

  18. Astrocoryne cabela, gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Hydrozoa : Sphaerocorynidae), a new sponge-associated hydrozoan

    KAUST Repository

    Maggioni, Davide

    2017-11-16

    The family Sphaerocorynidae includes two valid genera and five species, most of which have a confusing taxonomic history. Here, a new genus and species, Astrocoryne cabela, gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Maldives and the Red Sea, based on both morphological and molecular evidence. Astrocoryne cabela has an apomorphy represented by the type of tentacles, here named ‘dicapitate’, and consisting of capitate tentacles with a proximal capitulum-like cluster of nematocysts. Molecular analyses confirmed the monophyly of this species, as well as its belonging to the Sphaerocorynidae, together with Sphaerocoryne spp. and Heterocoryne caribbensis Wedler & Larson, 1986, for which we present molecular data for the first time. Moreover, the high divergence of A. cabela from other species of the family justifies the establishment of a new genus. Interestingly, specimens from the Maldives and the Red Sea showed marked morphological variation in the polyp stage, although only a slight genetic divergence was detected. This study highlights that a comprehensive morpho-molecular assessment of Sphaerocorynidae is strongly needed in order to clarify the taxonomic issues and the diversity of this taxon.

  19. Long-Chain Acetylenic Ketones from the Micronesian Sponge Haliclona sp. Importance of the 1-yn-3-ol Group for Antitumor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Xiong Zhou

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Two new long-chain C33 polyacetylenic compounds, halicynones A and B were isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. along with known analogs. The known compound pellynol A possessing a 1-yn-3-ol terminus, exhibited strong antitumor activity against the human colon tumor cell line HCT-116 (IC50 0.026 μg/mL, however, the corresponding 1-yn-3-one, halicynone A, was inactive, which suggests an important role for the terminal 1-yn-3-ol functional group in mediating cytotoxic activity.

  20. Aspergchromones A and B, two new polyketides from the marine sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS03F03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Lin, Xiu-Ping; Ju, Zhi-Ran; Liao, Xiao-Jian; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Chen; Zhao, Bing-Xin; Xu, Shi-Hai

    2017-07-01

    Two new polyketides, aspergchromones A (1) and B (2), together with five known compounds, secalonic acid D (3), noreugenin (4), (3S)-5-hydroxymellein (5), (4S)-6-hydroxyisosclerone (6), and (-)-regiolone (7), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of marine sponge-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS03F03. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic techniques (1D and 2D NMR, MS, UV, and IR). The absolute configurations of the new compounds were established by ECD calculations. Compound 3 showed moderate antimicrobial activity.

  1. N-Methylniphatyne A, a New 3-Alkylpyridine Alkaloid as an Inhibitor of the Cancer Cells Adapted to Nutrient Starvation, from an Indonesian Marine Sponge of Xestospongia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Masayoshi; Kamiya, Kentaro; Shin, Dayoung; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Hisa, Tomoya; Setiawan, Andi; Kotoku, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2016-01-01

    In the course of searching for selective growth inhibitors of the cancer cells adapted to nutrient starvation, a new 3-alkylpyridine alkaloid named N-methylniphatyne A (1) was isolated from an Indonesian marine sponge of Xestospongia sp. The chemical structure of 1 was determined on the basis of the spectroscopic analysis and comparison with the synthesized 1 and its analogues. Compound 1 showed the cytotoxic activity against PANC-1 cells under the condition of glucose starvation with IC50 value of 16 µM, whereas no growth-inhibition was observed up to 100 µM under the general culture conditions.

  2. Araguspongines B, C, D, E, F, G, H, and J, new vasodilative bis-1-oxaquinolizidine alkaloids from an okinawan marine sponge, Xestospongia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Kawazoe, K; Kitagawa, I

    1989-06-01

    Nine new vasodilative alkaloids, araguspongines A, B (1), C (2), D (3), E (4), F (5), G (6), H (7), and J (8), were isolated from an Okinawan marine sponge, Xestospongia sp. On the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, the absolute stereostructures of araguspongines B, D, E, F, G, H, and J were determined respectively as 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and the relative stereostructure of araguspongine C was determined as 2 having two 1-oxaquinolizidine moieties. Araguspongines B, D, and E each comprised a pair of the enantiomers, 1a and 1b, 3a and 3b, and 4a and 4b, respectively.

  3. Whole Genome Sequencing of the Symbiont Pseudovibrio sp. from the Intertidal Marine Sponge Polymastia penicillus Revealed a Gene Repertoire for Host-Switching Permissive Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Anoop; Antunes, Agostinho

    2015-10-31

    Sponges harbor a complex consortium of microbial communities living in symbiotic relationship benefiting each other through the integration of metabolites. The mechanisms influencing a successful microbial association with a sponge partner are yet to be fully understood. Here, we sequenced the genome of Pseudovibrio sp. POLY-S9 strain isolated from the intertidal marine sponge Polymastia penicillus sampled from the Atlantic coast of Portugal to identify the genomic features favoring the symbiotic relationship. The draft genome revealed an exceptionally large genome size of 6.6 Mbp compared with the previously reported genomes of the genus Pseudovibrio isolated from a coral and a sponge larva. Our genomic study detected the presence of several biosynthetic gene clusters-polyketide synthase, nonribosomal peptide synthetase and siderophore-affirming the potential ability of the genus Pseudovibrio to produce a wide variety of metabolic compounds. Moreover, we identified a repertoire of genes encoding adaptive symbioses factors (eukaryotic-like proteins), such as the ankyrin repeats, tetratrico peptide repeats, and Sel1 repeats that improve the attachment to the eukaryotic hosts and the avoidance of the host's immune response : The genome also harbored a large number of mobile elements (∼5%) and gene transfer agents, which explains the massive genome expansion and suggests a possible mechanism of horizontal gene transfer. In conclusion, the genome of POLY-S9 exhibited an increase in size, number of mobile DNA, multiple metabolite gene clusters, and secretion systems, likely to influence the genome diversification and the evolvability. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Similar sponge-associated bacteria can be acquired via both vertical and horizontal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipkema, Detmer; de Caralt, Sònia; Morillo, Jose A; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Sørensen, Søren J; Smidt, Hauke; Uriz, María J

    2015-10-01

    Marine sponges host diverse communities of microorganisms that are often vertically transmitted from mother to oocyte or embryo. Horizontal transmission has often been proposed to co-occur in marine sponges, but the mechanism is poorly understood. To assess the impact of the mode of transmission on the microbial assemblages of sponges, we analysed the microbiota in sympatric sponges that have previously been reported to acquire bacteria via either vertical (Corticium candelabrum and Crambe crambe) or horizontal transmission (Petrosia ficiformis). The comparative study was performed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing of barcoded PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. We found that P. ficiformis and C. candelabrum each harbour their own species-specific bacteria, but they are similar to other high-microbial-abundance sponges, while the low-microbial-abundance sponge C. crambe hosts microbiota of a very different phylogenetic signature. In addition, nearly 50% of the reads obtained from P. ficiformis were most closely related to bacteria that were previously reported to be vertically transmitted in other sponges and comprised vertical-horizontal transmission phylogenetic clusters (VHT clusters). Therefore, our results provide evidence for the hypothesis that similar sponge-associated bacteria can be acquired via both vertical and horizontal transmission. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Aragusterol C: a novel halogenated marine steroid from an Okinawan sponge, Xestospongia sp., possessing potent antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, H; Iguchi, K; Yamada, Y; Nakaike, S; Yamagishi, T; Matsumoto, K; Yokoo, C

    1994-02-15

    A novel chlorinated steroid, aragusterol C, was isolated from an Okinawan marine sponge of the genus Xestospongia. The compound strongly inhibited the proliferation of KB cells in vitro, and also showed potent in vivo antitumor activity against L1210 cells in mice. The complete structure of aragusterol C was determined by spectroscopic analysis and X-ray crystallographic analysis.

  6. Quinone/hydroquinone meroterpenoids with antitubercular and cytotoxic activities produced by the sponge-derived fungus Gliomastix sp. ZSDS1-F7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei-Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Jiang; Qin, Xiao-Chu; Mai, Yong-Xin; Lin, Xiu-Ping; Liao, Sheng-Rong; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Tianyu; Tu, Zheng-Chao; Wang, Jun-Feng; Liu, Yonghong

    2017-03-01

    Fifteen compounds, including six quinone/hydroquinone meroterpenoids, purpurogemutantin (1), macrophorin A (2), 4'-oxomacrophorin (3), 7-deacetoxyyanuthone A (4), 2,3-hydro-deacetoxyyanuthone A (5), 22-deacetylyanuthone A (6), anicequol (7), three roquefortine derivatives, roquefortine C (8), (16S)-hydroxyroquefortine C (9), (16R)-hydroxyroquefortine C (10), dihydroresorcylide (11), nectriapyrone (12), together with three fatty acid derivatives, methyl linoleate (13), phospholipase A 2 (14), methyl elaidate (15), were isolated from the sponge-derived fungus Gliomastix sp. ZSDS1-F7 isolated from the sponge Phakellia fusca Thiele collected in the Yongxing island of Xisha. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. Among these compounds, compounds 1-3 and 5-7 showed significant in vitro cytotoxicities against the K562, MCF-7, Hela, DU145, U937, H1975, SGC-7901, A549, MOLT-4 and HL60 cell lines, with IC 50 values ranging from 0.19 to 35.4 μM. And compounds 2-4 exhibited antitubercular activity with IC 50 values of 22.1, 2.44 and 17.5 μM, respectively. Furthermore, compound 7 had anti-enterovirus 71 activity with MIC value of 17.8 μM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to product two quinone/hydroquinone meroterpenoids skeletons (linear skeleton and drimane skeleton) from the same fungal strain.

  7. Anticancer Effects of the Marine Sponge Lipastrotethya sp. Extract on Wild-Type and p53 Knockout HCT116 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiheon; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Oh, Sung Ryong; Chung, Woo-Hyun; Jung, Joohee

    2017-01-01

    Interest in marine bioresources is increasing in the drug development sector. In particular, marine sponges produce a wide range of unique metabolites that enable them to survive in challenging environments, which makes them attractive sources of candidate pharmaceuticals. In previous study, we investigated over 40 marine specimens collected in Micronesia and provided by the Korean Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, for their antiproliferative effects on various cancer cell lines, and...

  8. Isolation and biological activities of secondary metabolites from the sponges monanchora aff. arbuscula, aplysina sp. petromica ciocalyptoides and topsentia ophiraphidies, from the ascidian didemnum ligulum and from the octocoral carijoa riisei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossuga, Miriam H.; Lira, Simone P. de; Nascimento, Andrea M.; Gambardella, Maria Teresa P.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Torres, Yohandra R.; Nascimento, Gislene G.F.; Pimenta, Eli F.; Silva, Marcio; Thiemann, Otavio H.; Oliva, Glaucius; Tempone, Andre G.; Melhem, Marcia S.C.; Souza, Ana O. de; Galetti, Fabio C.S.; Silva, Celio L.; Cavalcanti, Bruno; Pessoa, Claudia O.; Moraes, Manoel O.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Peixinho, Solange; Rocha, Rosana M.

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of extracts from six species of marine invertebrates yielded one new and several known natural products. Isoptilocaulin from the sponge Monanchora aff. arbuscula displayed antimicrobial activity at 1.3 mg/mL against an oxacillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Five inactive known dibromotyrosine derivatives, 2 6, were isolated from a new species of marine sponge, Aplysina sp. The sponges Petromica ciocalyptoides and Topsentia ophiraphidites yielded the known halistanol sulfate A (7) as an inhibitor of the antileishmanial target adenosine phosphoribosyl transferase. The ascidian Didemnum ligulum yielded asterubin (10) and the new N,N-dimethyl-O-methylethanolamine (11). The octocoral Carijoa riisei yielded the known 18-acetoxypregna-1,4,20-trien-3-one (12), which displayed cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines SF295, MDA-MB435, HCT8 and HL60. (author)

  9. The CckA-ChpT-CtrA phosphorelay system is regulated by quorum sensing and controls flagellar motility in the marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindong Zan

    Full Text Available Bacteria respond to their environment via signal transduction pathways, often two-component type systems that function through phosphotransfer to control expression of specific genes. Phosphorelays are derived from two-component systems but are comprised of additional components. The essential cckA-chpT-ctrA phosphorelay in Caulobacter crescentus has been well studied and is important in orchestrating the cell cycle, polar development and flagellar biogenesis. Although cckA, chpT and ctrA homologues are widespread among the Alphaproteobacteria, relatively few is known about their function in the large and ecologically significant Roseobacter clade of the Rhodobacterales. In this study the cckA-chpT-ctrA system of the marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11 was investigated. Our results reveal that the cckA, chpT and ctrA genes positively control flagellar biosynthesis. In contrast to C. crescentus, the cckA, chpT and ctrA genes in Ruegeria sp. KLH11 are non-essential and do not affect bacterial growth. Gene fusion and transcript analyses provide evidence for ctrA autoregulation and the control of motility-related genes. In KLH11, flagellar motility is controlled by the SsaRI system and acylhomoserine lactone (AHL quorum sensing. SsaR and long chain AHLs are required for cckA, chpT and ctrA gene expression, providing a regulatory link between flagellar locomotion and population density in KLH11.

  10. The Skeleton Forming Proteome of an Early Branching Metazoan: A Molecular Survey of the Biomineralization Components Employed by the Coralline Sponge Vaceletia Sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Germer

    Full Text Available The ability to construct a mineralized skeleton was a major innovation for the Metazoa during their evolution in the late Precambrian/early Cambrian. Porifera (sponges hold an informative position for efforts aimed at unraveling the origins of this ability because they are widely regarded to be the earliest branching metazoans, and are among the first multi-cellular animals to display the ability to biomineralize in the fossil record. Very few biomineralization associated proteins have been identified in sponges so far, with no transcriptome or proteome scale surveys yet available. In order to understand what genetic repertoire may have been present in the last common ancestor of the Metazoa (LCAM, and that may have contributed to the evolution of the ability to biocalcify, we have studied the skeletal proteome of the coralline demosponge Vaceletia sp. and compare this to other metazoan biomineralizing proteomes. We bring some spatial resolution to this analysis by dividing Vaceletia's aragonitic calcium carbonate skeleton into "head" and "stalk" regions. With our approach we were able to identify 40 proteins from both the head and stalk regions, with many of these sharing some similarity to previously identified gene products from other organisms. Among these proteins are known biomineralization compounds, such as carbonic anhydrase, spherulin, extracellular matrix proteins and very acidic proteins. This report provides the first proteome scale analysis of a calcified poriferan skeletal proteome, and its composition clearly demonstrates that the LCAM contributed several key enzymes and matrix proteins to its descendants that supported the metazoan ability to biocalcify. However, lineage specific evolution is also likely to have contributed significantly to the ability of disparate metazoan lineages to biocalcify.

  11. Proliferative Activity of Mammary Carcinoma Cells by AgNOR Count in C3H mice Receiving Ethanol Extract of Sponge Haliclona sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijabat, Lanceria; Susilaningsih, Neni; Trianto, Agus; Murwani, Retno

    2018-02-01

    Quantification of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNORs) was considered as one of markers of proliferative activity of cancer cells. Sponge Haliclona sp extract contains anticancer bioactive compounds and our previous study showed that the extract was able to improve histological grade of induced mammary adenocarcinoma in mice. The following research was conducted to study the extract administration on the proliferative activity of the carcinoma cells represented by AgNOR count in mice. This experimental study applied post test only control group design. Twenty C3H mice were divided into four groups namely C (control), H1, H2 and H3. Each group was given 0, 0.15, 1.5, and 15 mg Haliclona sp extract respectively. After three weeks of extract administration, mice were inoculated with breast cancer cells from donor mice. The extract administration were continued for another three weeks. AgNOR count was performed on tumor sections and expressed as mean of AgNOR (mAgNOR) and percentage of AgNOR (pAgNOR). Means of mAgNOR in C, H1, H2 and H3 were 4.070, 3.195, 3.450, and 3.190 respectively. Means of pAgNOR in C, H1, H2 and H3 were 34,40, 25,40, 38,40 and 19,80 respectively. The lowest means of mAgNOR and pAgNOR which is an indication of lower proliferative activity of the cancer cells was found in H3. However no significant difference can be found among treatment groups (p>0.05). Using AgNOR count, the ethanol extract of Haliclona sp could not show significant reduction in proliferation of mammary carcinoma cells of C3H mice. This finding support the view that AgNOR alone could not be used to determine pathology of cancer cells.

  12. New Isocoumarin Derivatives and Meroterpenoids from the Marine Sponge-Associated Fungus Aspergillus similanensis sp. nov. KUFA 0013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadaporn Prompanya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new isocoumarin derivatives, including a new 5-hydroxy-8-methyl-2H, 6H-pyrano[3,4-g]chromen-2,6-dione (1 and 6,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethylisocoumarin (2b, a new chevalone derivative, named chevalone E (3, and a new natural product pyripyropene S (6 were isolated together with 6, 8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (2a, reticulol (2c, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, chevalone B, chevalone C, S14-95 (4, and pyripyropene E (5 from the ethyl acetate extract of the undescribed marine sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus similanensis KUFA 0013. The structures of the new compounds were established based on 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis, and in the case of compound 3, X-ray analysis was used to confirm its structure and the absolute configuration of its stereogenic carbons. Compounds 1, 2a–c and 3–6 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and multidrug-resistant isolates from the environment. Chevalone E (3 was found to show synergism with the antibiotic oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA.

  13. A dimeric urea of the bisabolene sesquiterpene from the Okinawan marine sponge Axinyssa sp. inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity in Huh-7 human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Kanno, Syu-Ichi; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-01-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays an important role as a negative regulator of the insulin and leptin signaling pathways. Therefore, this enzyme is regarded as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Our screening program for PTP1B inhibitors led to the isolation of four sesquiterpenes and sterol: N,N'-bis[(6R,7S)-7-amino-7,8-dihydro-α-bisabolen-7-yl]urea (1), (6R,7S)-7-amino-7,8-dihydro-α-bisabolene (2), (1R,6S,7S,10S)-10-isothiocyanato-4-amorphene (3), axinisothiocyanate J (4), and axinysterol (5) from the marine sponge Axinyssa sp. collected at Iriomote Island. Of these, compound 1 was the most potent inhibitor of PTP1B activity (IC50=1.9μM) without cytotoxicity at 50μM in two human cancer cell lines, hepatoma Huh-7 and bladder carcinoma EJ-1 cells. Compound 1 also moderately enhanced the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation levels of Akt in Huh-7 cells. Therefore, compound 1 has potential as a new type of anti-diabetic drug candidate possessing PTP1B inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation and biological activities of secondary metabolites from the sponges monanchora aff. arbuscula, aplysina sp. petromica ciocalyptoides and topsentia ophiraphidies, from the ascidian didemnum ligulum and from the octocoral carijoa riisei; Isolamento e atividades biologicas de produtos naturais das esponjas monanchora arbuscula, aplysina sp., petromica ciocalyptoides e topsentia ophiraphidites, da ascidia didemnum ligulum e do octocoral carijoa riisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossuga, Miriam H.; Lira, Simone P. de; Nascimento, Andrea M.; Gambardella, Maria Teresa P.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: rgsberlinck@iqsc.usp.br; Torres, Yohandra R. [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Nascimento, Gislene G.F. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude; Pimenta, Eli F.; Silva, Marcio; Thiemann, Otavio H.; Oliva, Glaucius [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Tempone, Andre G.; Melhem, Marcia S.C. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Biologia Medica; Souza, Ana O. de; Galetti, Fabio C.S.; Silva, Celio L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia; Cavalcanti, Bruno; Pessoa, Claudia O.; Moraes, Manoel O. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Fisiologia e Farmacologia; Hajdu, Eduardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Museu Nacional; Peixinho, Solange [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Rocha, Rosana M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia

    2007-09-15

    The investigation of extracts from six species of marine invertebrates yielded one new and several known natural products. Isoptilocaulin from the sponge Monanchora aff. arbuscula displayed antimicrobial activity at 1.3 mg/mL against an oxacillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Five inactive known dibromotyrosine derivatives, 2 6, were isolated from a new species of marine sponge, Aplysina sp. The sponges Petromica ciocalyptoides and Topsentia ophiraphidites yielded the known halistanol sulfate A (7) as an inhibitor of the antileishmanial target adenosine phosphoribosyl transferase. The ascidian Didemnum ligulum yielded asterubin (10) and the new N,N-dimethyl-O-methylethanolamine (11). The octocoral Carijoa riisei yielded the known 18-acetoxypregna-1,4,20-trien-3-one (12), which displayed cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines SF295, MDA-MB435, HCT8 and HL60. (author)

  15. Contraceptive Sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... strap. If you can't find the strap, bear down or grasp the contraceptive sponge between your ... Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "MayoClinic.org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are ...

  16. Competitive interactions between sponge-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Ana I S; Cullen, Alescia; Thomas, Torsten

    2017-03-01

    The diversity of the microbial communities associated with marine sponges has been extensively studied, but their functioning and interactions within the sponge holobiont are only recently being appreciated. Sponge-associated microorganisms are known for the production of a range of inhibitory metabolites with biotechnological application, but the ecological role that these compounds remains elusive. In this work, we explore the competitive interactions between cultivated sponge-associated bacteria to inspect whether bacteria that produce antimicrobial activities are able to inhibit potentially pathogenic bacteria. We isolated a Bacillus sp. bacterium with sponge-degrading activity, which likely has a negative impact on the host. This bacterium, along with other sponge isolates from the same genus, was found to be inhibited by a subpopulation of closely related sponge-derived Pseudovibrio spp. In some Pseudovibrio strains, these inhibitory activities were correlated with the genetic capacity to produce polyketides, such as erythronolide. Our observations suggest that antagonistic activities likely influence the composition of the sponge microbiome, including the abundance of bacteria that can be harmful to the host. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. sp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    adopted as the first line drug. SP has few untoward effects if used carefully in therapeutic doses. Nausea, vomiting, generalized body weakness; diarrhea, skin rashes and hematological reactions are some of the associated side effects. The drug can cause severe skin reactions such as Steven Johnson's syndrome. This.

  18. CHAMBERED HEXACTINELLID SPONGES FROM UPPER TRIASSIC(NORIAN-RHAETIAN? REEFS OF NAYBAND FORMATION IN CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. SENOWBARI-DARYAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes several chambered hexactinellid sponges, including Casearia iranica n.sp., C. vezvanensis n. sp., C. delijanensis n. sp., Esfahanella magna gen. n. n. sp., and E. parva gen. n. n. sp. from reefs of the Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian Nayband Formation exposed south of the town of Delijan in central Iran. The relative abundance of chambered and non-chambered hexactinellid sponges at this locality - as compared to hypercalcified representatives - highlight the importance of this group of sponges in reef and reefal limestones in central and east Tethys (China, Caucasia, Iran. 

  19. Association of thioautotrophic bacteria with deep-sea sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Miyuki; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Hata, Junko; Nakamura, Aoi; Kasai, Hiroaki; Ise, Yuji; Fisher, Charles R; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Kawato, Masaru; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2010-06-01

    We investigated microorganisms associated with a deep-sea sponge, Characella sp. (Pachastrellidae) collected at a hydrothermal vent site (686 m depth) in the Sumisu Caldera, Ogasawara Island chain, Japan, and with two sponges, Pachastrella sp. (Pachastrellidae) and an unidentified Poecilosclerida sponge, collected at an oil seep (572 m depth) in the Gulf of Mexico, using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) directed at bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. In the PCR-DGGE profiles, we detected a single clearly dominant band in each of the Characella sp. and the unidentified Poecilosclerida sponge. BLAST search of their sequences showed that they were most similar (>99% identity) to those of the gammaproteobacterial thioautotrophic symbionts of deep-sea bivalves from hydrothermal vents, Bathymodiolus spp. Phylogenetic analysis of the near-full length sequences of the 16S rRNA genes cloned from the unidentified Poecilosclerida sponge and Characella sp. confirmed that they were closely related to thioautotrophic symbionts. Although associations between sponges and methanotrophic bacteria have been reported previously, this is the first report of a possible stable association between sponges and thioautotrophic bacteria.

  20. Prevalence and Mechanisms of Dynamic Chemical Defenses in Tropical Sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Sven; Nietzer, Samuel; Schupp, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Sponges and other sessile invertebrates are lacking behavioural escape or defense mechanisms and rely therefore on morphological or chemical defenses. Studies from terrestrial systems and marine algae demonstrated facultative defenses like induction and activation to be common, suggesting that sessile marine organisms also evolved mechanisms to increase the efficiency of their chemical defense. However, inducible defenses in sponges have not been investigated so far and studies on activated defenses are rare. We investigated whether tropical sponge species induce defenses in response to artificial predation and whether wounding triggers defense activation. Additionally, we tested if these mechanisms are also used to boost antimicrobial activity to avoid bacterial infection. Laboratory experiments with eight pacific sponge species showed that 87% of the tested species were chemically defended. Two species, Stylissa massa and Melophlus sarasinorum, induced defenses in response to simulated predation, which is the first demonstration of induced antipredatory defenses in marine sponges. One species, M. sarasinorum, also showed activated defense in response to wounding. Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense. Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa. Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars. PMID:26154741

  1. A New Sponge, Antho (Acarnia seogwipoensis (Poecilosclerida: Microcionidae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Hyung June

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new marine sponge, Antho (Acarnia seogwipoensis n. sp., of the family Microcionidae, was collected from Seogwipo-si, Jeju-do, Korea, about 100 m in depth using a gill net on 1969. The genus Antho Gray, 1867 including Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Microcionidae, is a large group of sponges. About 100 species in Antho were reported from worldwide. The genus Antho contains five subgenera: Antho, Acarnia, Isopenectya, Jia, and Plocamia. Among them, about 30 species in Acarnia were described in world sponge. A new sponge's body shape is branching, size up to 124 mm wide, 213 mm high, 3-8 mm thick in branch and 7-9 mm thick in stalk. Antho (Acarnia seogwipoensis n. sp. is similar to A. (A. novizelanicum Ridley and Duncan, 1881 based on their spicules type and skeletal structure, but differs in the spicules dimension and growth form. This new species is branched growth form and have three kinds of toxa.

  2. Rare sponges from marine caves: discovery of Neophrissospongia nana nov. sp. (Demospongiae, Corallistidae from Sardinia with an annotated checklist of Mediterranean lithistids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Manconi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new record of lithistid demosponges is reported from a western Sardinian karstic cave. The new specimen matches the trait of the genus Neophrissospongia (Corallistidae for an ectosomal skeleton of radial dichotriaenes, a choanosomal skeleton as a network of dicranoclone desmas, and streptaster/amphiaster microscleres with short spiny rays bearing blunt tips. The cave-dwelling N. nana nov. sp. diverges from the other species of the genus in diagnostic characters such as the large irregular plate-like growth form, the topographic distribution of inhalant and exhalant apertures, and a smaller size of all spicular types. Moreover it displays an additional rare second type of dichotriaenes with smooth cladomes, shared with other genera of Corallistidae but never reported before for the genus Neophrissospongia. In addition N. nana nov. sp. bears style-like sub-ectosomal spicules shared with N. microstylifer from deep water of New Caledonia. As for the latter trait, a present in-depth analysis of N. nolitangere from the Atlantic Ocean contrasts with previous historical records reporting monaxial spicules as oxeas/anisoxeas. The diagnosis of the genus Neophrissospongia is therefore emended for the growth form and for the micro-traits of dichotriaenes and monaxial sub-ectosomal spicules. Morphological data indicate that the new species is allied to N. nolitangere and N. microstylifer from Eastern Atlantic and New Caledonian deep water, respectively, and confirm the highly disjunct geographic range of the genus Neophrissospongia in the Lusitanian-Macaronesian-Mediterranean area and the Pacific Ocean supporting the relic condition of the genus in the Mediterranean Sea. This discovery stresses the key status of Mediterranean palaeoendemics as possible remnants of an ancient Tethyan fauna and focuses the need to plan conservation measures for these rare cave-dwelling taxa.

  3. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tubes, inside a fetus’ kidneys. In a normal kidney , urine flows through these tubules as the kidney is being formed during a ... not fully understand the cause of medullary sponge kidney or why cysts form in the tubules during fetal development. Even though medullary sponge kidney ...

  4. Sponge cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine sponges are a rich source of bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical potential and are the most prolific source of newly discovered bioactive compounds with more than 7,000 novel molecules discovered in 40 years. Despite its enormous potential, only a few sponge-derived bioactive

  5. Unusual symbiotic cyanobacteria association in the genetically diverse intertidal marine sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis (Demospongiae, Halichondrida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Anoop; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Tamagnini, Paula; Santos, Arlete; Antunes, Agostinho

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria represent one of the most common members of the sponge-associated bacterial community and are abundant symbionts of coral reef ecosystems. In this study we used Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and molecular techniques (16S rRNA gene marker) to characterize the spatial distribution of cyanobionts in the widely dispersed marine intertidal sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis along the coast of Portugal (Atlantic Ocean). We described new sponge associated cyanobacterial morphotypes (Xenococcus-like) and we further observed Acaryochloris sp. as a sponge symbiont, previously only reported in association with ascidians. Besides these two unique cyanobacteria, H. perlevis predominantly harbored Synechococcus sp. and uncultured marine cyanobacteria. Our study supports the hypothesis that the community of sponge cyanobionts varies irrespective of the geographical location and is likely influenced by seasonal fluctuations. The observed multiple cyanobacterial association among sponges of the same host species over a large distance may be attributed to horizontal transfer of symbionts. This may explain the absence of a co-evolutionary pattern between the sponge host and its symbionts. Finally, in spite of the short geographic sampling distance covered, we observed an unexpected high intra-specific genetic diversity in H. perlevis using the mitochondrial genes ATP6 (π = 0.00177), COI (π = 0.00241) and intergenic spacer SP1 (π = 0.00277) relative to the levels of genetic variation of marine sponges elsewhere. Our study suggests that genotypic variation among the sponge host H. perlevis and the associated symbiotic cyanobacteria diversity may be larger than previously recognized.

  6. The Sponge Hologenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nicole S; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-04-21

    A paradigm shift has recently transformed the field of biological science; molecular advances have revealed how fundamentally important microorganisms are to many aspects of a host's phenotype and evolution. In the process, an era of "holobiont" research has emerged to investigate the intricate network of interactions between a host and its symbiotic microbial consortia. Marine sponges are early-diverging metazoa known for hosting dense, specific, and often highly diverse microbial communities. Here we synthesize current thoughts about the environmental and evolutionary forces that influence the diversity, specificity, and distribution of microbial symbionts within the sponge holobiont, explore the physiological pathways that contribute to holobiont function, and describe the molecular mechanisms that underpin the establishment and maintenance of these symbiotic partnerships. The collective genomes of the sponge holobiont form the sponge hologenome, and we highlight how the forces that define a sponge's phenotype in fact act on the genomic interplay between the different components of the holobiont. © Crown copyright 2016.

  7. Bacterial community analyses of two Red Sea sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Mona; Hanora, Amro; Zan, Jindong; Mohamed, Naglaa M; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Abou-El-Ela, Soad H; Hill, Russell T

    2010-06-01

    Red Sea sponges offer potential as sources of novel drugs and bioactive compounds. Sponges harbor diverse and abundant prokaryotic communities. The diversity of Egyptian sponge-associated bacterial communities has not yet been explored. Our study is the first culture-based and culture-independent investigation of the total bacterial assemblages associated with two Red Sea Demosponges, Hyrtios erectus and Amphimedon sp. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprint-based analysis revealed statistically different banding patterns of the bacterial communities of the studied sponges with H. erectus having the greater diversity. 16S rRNA clone libraries of both sponges revealed diverse and complex bacterial assemblages represented by ten phyla for H. erectus and five phyla for Amphimedon sp. The bacterial community associated with H. erectus was dominated by Deltaproteobacteria. Clones affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria were the major component of the clone library of Amphimedon sp. About a third of the 16S rRNA gene sequences in these communities were derived from bacteria that are novel at least at the species level. Although the overall bacterial communities were significantly different, some bacterial groups, including members of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, were found in both sponge species. The culture-based component of this study targeted Actinobacteria and resulted in the isolation of 35 sponge-associated microbes. The current study lays the groundwork for future studies of the role of these diverse microbes in the ecology, evolution, and development of marine sponges. In addition, our work provides an excellent resource of several candidate bacteria for production of novel pharmaceutically important compounds.

  8. Isolation of high molecular weight DNA from marine sponge bacteria for BAC library construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yongchang; Dai, Shikun; Xie, Lianwu; Ravi Kumar, M S; Sun, Wei; Sun, Huimin; Tang, Danling; Li, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Metagenomics is a powerful tool for mining the genetic repositories from environmental microorganisms. Bacteria associated with marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are rich sources of biologically active natural products. However, to date, few compounds are discovered from the sponge metagenomic libraries, and the main reason might be the difficulties in recovery of high molecular weight (HMW) DNA from sponge symbionts to construct large insert libraries. Here, we describe a method to recover HMW bacterial DNA from diverse sponges with high quality for bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library construction. Microorganisms concentrated from sponges by differential centrifugation were embedded in agarose plugs to lyse out the HMW DNA for recovery. DNA fragments over 436 kb size were recovered from three different types of sponges, Halichondria sp., Haliclona sp., and Xestospongia sp. To evaluate the recovered DNA quality, the diversity of bacterial DNA comprised in the HMW DNA derived from sponge Halichondria sp. was analyzed, and this HMW DNA sample was also cloned into a shuttle BAC vector between Escherichia coli and Streptomyces sp. The results showed that more than five types of bacterial DNA, i.e., Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, and unidentified bacteria, had been recovered by this method, and an average 100 kb size insert DNA in a constructed BAC library demonstrated that the recovered HMW DNA is suitable for metagenomic library construction.

  9. Growth inhibition of periphytic diatoms by methanol extracts of sponges and holothurians

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mokashe, S.S.; Garg, A; Anil, A; Wagh, A

    Crude methanol extracts of a holothurian Holothuria leucospilota, and two sponges Craniella sp. and Ircinia ramosa were tested for their inhibitory effects on the growth of two marine diatoms, Navicula subinflata and N. crucicula, by diatom plating...

  10. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masteria Yunovilsa Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial activities in methanolic extracts of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. Methods: The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts was tested against two Grampositive bacteria, viz. Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, and two Gram-negative bacteria, viz. Eschericia coli (ATCC 25922 and Vibrio anguillarum (ATCC 19264 using the disk diffusion assay. The antifungal activity was similarly tested against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 and Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of promising sponges extracts were determined by the microdilution technique. Results: All the sponge species in this study showed antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test strains. Antibacterial activities were observed in 66.7% of the sponges extracts, while 30.0% of the extracts exhibited antifungal activities. Among them, the extracts of the sponges Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. were the most active against four tested bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans. The sponge Theonella swinhoei and two species of Xestospongia also displayed significant activities against two fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities were demonstrated in extracts from various marine sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. The most promising sponges among them were Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. This is the first report of antimicrobial activity in extracts of marine sponges from the Indonesian Anambas Islands.

  11. The sponge microbiome project

    KAUST Repository

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas

    2017-08-16

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse, phylogenetically deep-branching clade known for forming intimate partnerships with complex communities of microorganisms. To date, 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have largely utilised different extraction and amplification methodologies to target the microbial communities of a limited number of sponge species, severely limiting comparative analyses of sponge microbial diversity and structure. Here, we provide an extensive and standardised dataset that will facilitate sponge microbiome comparisons across large spatial, temporal, and environmental scales. Samples from marine sponges (n = 3569 specimens), seawater (n = 370), marine sediments (n = 65) and other environments (n = 29) were collected from different locations across the globe. This dataset incorporates at least 268 different sponge species, including several yet unidentified taxa. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from extracted DNA using standardised procedures. Raw sequences (total of 1.1 billion sequences) were processed and clustered with (i) a standard protocol using QIIME closed-reference picking resulting in 39 543 operational taxonomic units (OTU) at 97% sequence identity, (ii) a de novo clustering using Mothur resulting in 518 246 OTUs, and (iii) a new high-resolution Deblur protocol resulting in 83 908 unique bacterial sequences. Abundance tables, representative sequences, taxonomic classifications, and metadata are provided. This dataset represents a comprehensive resource of sponge-associated microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequences that can be used to address overarching hypotheses regarding host-associated prokaryotes, including host specificity, convergent evolution, environmental drivers of microbiome structure, and the sponge-associated rare biosphere.

  12. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Antiplasmodial Activities of Three Sponges from Buton Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masteria Yunovilsa Putra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available GC-MS analysis of the crude extracts of three different species of Indonesian marine sponges has been carried out for identification of bioactive compounds. The GC-MS analysis from Haliclona (Gellius sp., Lamellodysidea herbacea, and Spheciospongia inconstans revealed the presence of 23, 21, 19 various compounds, respectively and mainly sterols and fatty acids. All the sponge species has been evaluated for antimicrobial activities, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and heme polymerization inhibitory activity assay for antiplasmodial activity. In this study, all the sponge species showed antimicrobial activities against at leastone of the test strains. Among them, the extract of sponge Lamellodysidea herbacea displayed activity against two Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and B. subtilis and the Gram-negative bacteria V. cholerae, with inhibition zones of 10.3, 9.2 and 9.5 mm, respectively. The sponge Haliclona (Gellius sp., showed significant activity against fungal pathogen C. albicans. The sponge Haliclona (Gellius sp., displayed the ability to inhibit heme polymerization indicating an anti-Plasmodium function and also showed potent cytotoxic activity against the brine shrimp Artemia sp.   Keywords: GC-MS analysis, antimicrobial, sponges,bioactive

  13. Bisabolane Type Sesquiterpenes from a Marine Didiscus Sponge

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞDEMİR, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Two bisabolane type sesquiterpene phenols, (+)-curcuphenol (1) and (+)-curcudiol (2), were isolated from a Philippine marine sponge, Didiscus sp., in addition to b -sitosterol (3) and phenethylamine (4). The structures of the metabolites were established on the basis of spectral evidence (1D- and 2D NMR, [a]D, EIMS). (+)-Curcuphenol (1) showed cytotoxicity, which is indicative of a p53 independent mechanism.

  14. Antifouling potential of seaweed, sponge and cashew nut oil extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seaweeds, Sargassum wightii, Ulva lactuca; sponge Desmopsongiae sp., and cashew nut oil extracts were tested in vitro against ten marine fouling bacteria isolated from test panels and the green mussel Perna viridis. The biofilm bacteria growth was inhibited by methanol extracts of the seaweeds S. wightii, U. lactuca, ...

  15. Marine sponges as microbial fermenters

    OpenAIRE

    Hentschel, Ute; Usher, Kayley M.; Taylor, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of phylogenetically complex, yet highly sponge-specific microbial communities in marine sponges, including novel lineages and even candidate phyla, came as a surprise. At the same time, unique research opportunities opened up, because the microorganisms of sponges are in many ways more accessible than those of seawater. Accordingly, we consider sponges as microbial fermenters that provide exciting new avenues in marine microbiology and biotechnology. This review covers recent fi...

  16. Growth and metabolism of sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are multi cellular filter-feeding invertebrate animals living attached to a substratum in mostly marine but also in freshwater habitats. The interest in sponges has increased rapidly since the discovery of potential new pharmaceutical compounds produced by many sponges. An

  17. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics.

  18. Marine sponges as microbial fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Ute; Usher, Kayley M; Taylor, Michael W

    2006-02-01

    The discovery of phylogenetically complex, yet highly sponge-specific microbial communities in marine sponges, including novel lineages and even candidate phyla, came as a surprise. At the same time, unique research opportunities opened up, because the microorganisms of sponges are in many ways more accessible than those of seawater. Accordingly, we consider sponges as microbial fermenters that provide exciting new avenues in marine microbiology and biotechnology. This review covers recent findings regarding diversity, biogeography and population dynamics of sponge-associated microbiota, and the data are discussed within the larger context of the microbiology of the ocean.

  19. The Sponge Hologenome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A paradigm shift has recently transformed the field of biological science; molecular advances have revealed how fundamentally important microorganisms are to many aspects of a host’s phenotype and evolution. In the process, an era of “holobiont” research has emerged to investigate the intricate network of interactions between a host and its symbiotic microbial consortia. Marine sponges are early-diverging metazoa known for hosting dense, specific, and often highly diverse microbial communities. Here we synthesize current thoughts about the environmental and evolutionary forces that influence the diversity, specificity, and distribution of microbial symbionts within the sponge holobiont, explore the physiological pathways that contribute to holobiont function, and describe the molecular mechanisms that underpin the establishment and maintenance of these symbiotic partnerships. The collective genomes of the sponge holobiont form the sponge hologenome, and we highlight how the forces that define a sponge’s phenotype in fact act on the genomic interplay between the different components of the holobiont. PMID:27103626

  20. Generalized Morphology using Sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gronde, Jasper J.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical morphology has traditionally been grounded in lattice theory. For non-scalar data lattices often prove too restrictive, however. In this paper we present a more general alternative, sponges, that still allows useful definitions of various properties and concepts from morphological

  1. The Sponge Hologenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole S. Webster

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm shift has recently transformed the field of biological science; molecular advances have revealed how fundamentally important microorganisms are to many aspects of a host’s phenotype and evolution. In the process, an era of “holobiont” research has emerged to investigate the intricate network of interactions between a host and its symbiotic microbial consortia. Marine sponges are early-diverging metazoa known for hosting dense, specific, and often highly diverse microbial communities. Here we synthesize current thoughts about the environmental and evolutionary forces that influence the diversity, specificity, and distribution of microbial symbionts within the sponge holobiont, explore the physiological pathways that contribute to holobiont function, and describe the molecular mechanisms that underpin the establishment and maintenance of these symbiotic partnerships. The collective genomes of the sponge holobiont form the sponge hologenome, and we highlight how the forces that define a sponge’s phenotype in fact act on the genomic interplay between the different components of the holobiont.

  2. The sponge microbiome project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Nielsen, Shaun; Amir, Amnon; Gonzalez, Antonio; Ackermann, Gail L.; Cerrano, Carlo; Astudillo-Garcia, Carmen; Easson, Cole; Sipkema, Detmer; Liu, Fang; Steinert, Georg; Kotoulas, Giorgos; McCormack, Grace P.; Feng, Guofang; Bell, James J.; Vicente, Jan; Björk, Johannes R.; Montoya, Jose M.; Olson, Julie B.; Reveillaud, Julie; Steindler, Laura; Pineda, Mari Carmen; Marra, Maria V.; Ilan, Micha; Taylor, Michael W.; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Erwin, Patrick M.; Schupp, Peter J.; Simister, Rachel L.; Knight, Rob; Thacker, Robert W.; Costa, Rodrigo; Hill, Russell T.; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna; Dailianis, Thanos; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute; Li, Zhiyong; Webster, Nicole S.; Thomas, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse, phylogenetically deep-branching clade known for forming intimate partnerships with complex communities of microorganisms. To date, 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have largely utilised different extraction and amplification methodologies to target the

  3. SOME INOZOID SPONGES FROM UPPER TRIASSIC (NORIAN-RHAETIAN NAYBAND FORMATION OF CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABA SENOWBARI-DARYAN

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Some small-scaled Norian-Rhaetian reefs and reef mounds are imbedded within the shales, siltstones and siliciclastic-carbonate deposits of the Nayband Formation in central Iran. These deposits belong to the central Iranian plate as part of the Cimmerian Continent. Most of the biogenic rocks have a biostromal geometry, biohermal constructions are rare. Inozoid, sphinctozoid, and chaetetid sponges are, beside of corals and other reef builders, the most important reef organisms within these bioconstructions. In some reefs a variety of hexactinellid sponges also occur. The following inozoid sponges are described in this paper: Radiofibra norica n. sp., Permocorynella maxima n. sp., ?Sestrostomella robusta, Marawandia iranica, n. gen., n. sp. and Enaulofungia? triassica n. sp. The first four taxa are among the most abundant sponges within the Nayband Formation where it is exposed in several localities in central Iran. Enaulofungia? triassica, however, is not an abundant sponge there. These inozoid sponges have never been reported from the Triassic deposits of this region. Radiofibra, until now known only from the Upper Permian of Djebel Tebaga (Tunisia, is reported here for the first time from Triassic rocks. The stratigraphic as well as the paleogeographic distribution of all the genera are discussed.   

  4. Sponge-associated marine bacteria as indicators of heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvin, Joseph; Shanmugha Priya, S; Seghal Kiran, G; Thangavelu, T; Sapna Bai, N

    2009-01-01

    Sponges invariably filter a large volume of seawater and potentially accumulate heavy metals and other contaminants from the environment. Sponges, being sessile marine invertebrates and modular in body organization, can live many years in the same location and therefore have the capability to accumulate anthropogenic pollutants such as metals over a long period. Almost all marine sponges harbor large number of microorganisms within their tissues where they reside in the extra- and intra-cellular spaces. Bacteria in seawater have already been established as biological indicators of contamination. The present study was intended to find out the heavy metal resistance pattern of sponge-associated bacteria so as to develop suitable biological indicators. The bacteria associated with a marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa were evaluated as potential indicator organisms. The associated bacteria including Streptomyces sp. (MSI01), Salinobacter sp. (MSI06), Roseobacter sp. (MSI09), Pseudomonas sp. (MSI016), Vibrio sp. (MSI23), Micromonospora sp. (MSI28), Saccharomonospora sp. (MSI36) and Alteromonas sp. (MSI42) showed resistance against tested heavy metals. Based on the present findings, Cd and Hg emerged as the highly resistant heavy metal pollutants in the Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve. Plasmids in varied numbers and molecular weights were found in all the isolates. Particularly the isolates MSI01 and MSI36 harbored as many as three plasmids each. The results envisaged that the plasmids might have carried the resistance factor. No correlation was observed in number of plasmids and level of resistance. The literature evidenced that the sponge-associated bacteria were seldom exploited for pollution monitoring though they have been extensively used for bioprospecting. In this background, the present findings come up with a new insight into the development of indicator models.

  5. Isolation, Identification And Screening Antibacterial Activity from Marine Sponge-Associated Fungi Against Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandala Sibero, Mada; Sabdaningsih, Aninditia; Cristianawati, Olvi; Nuryadi, Handung; Karna Radjasa, Ocky; Sabdono, Agus; Trianto, Agus

    2017-02-01

    Irrational used of antibiotic in several decades ago causing resistant in bacteria and decreasing the cure rate of infectious diseases. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli is known to cause various of infectious diseases such as urinary tract infection, nosocomial bloodstream infection, meningitis, bacteraemia, and gastrointestinal disease. Marine sponge-associated fungi have potential as source of new compound to combat MDR E. coli. The aims of this research were to isolate marine sponge-assosiated fungi, to screen potential fungi against MDR E. coli, to identify the potential fungi and its host sponge. There were 29 marine sponge-associated fungi successfully isolated from 9 sponges. Among 29 sponge-associated fungi screened, there were 7 isolates showed antibacterial activity against MDR E. coli. The best inhibition zone produced by MPS 14.1/MT 02 and MPS 14.3/MT 04 from sponge PP.SP.16.14. According to fungi identification result fungus MPS 14.1/MT 02 was identified as Trichoderma asperellum while MPS 14.3/MT 04 was identified as Trichoderma reesei. Sponge identification leaded the PP.SP.16.14 as Cinachyrella sp.

  6. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Antiplasmodial Activities of Three Sponges from Buton Islands, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Masteria Yunovilsa Putra; Tri Aryono Hadi

    2017-01-01

    GC-MS analysis of the crude extracts of three different species of Indonesian marine sponges has been carried out for identification of bioactive compounds. The GC-MS analysis from Haliclona (Gellius) sp., Lamellodysidea herbacea, and Spheciospongia inconstans revealed the presence of 23, 21, 19 various compounds, respectively and mainly sterols and fatty acids. All the sponge species has been evaluated for antimicrobial activities, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and heme ...

  7. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations of Bacterial Communities Associated with Marine Sponges from San Juan Island, Washington

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.

    2009-04-10

    This study attempted to assess whether conspecific or congeneric sponges around San Juan Island, Washington, harbor specific bacterial communities. We used a combination of culture-independent DNA fingerprinting techniques (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) and culture-dependent approaches. The results indicated that the bacterial communities in the water column consisted of more diverse bacterial ribotypes than and were drastically different from those associated with the sponges. High levels of similarity in sponge-associated bacterial communities were found only in Myxilla incrustans and Haliclona rufescens, while the bacterial communities in Halichondria panicea varied substantially among sites. Certain terminal restriction fragments or DGGE bands were consistently obtained for different individuals of M. incrustans and H. rufescens collected from different sites, suggesting that there are stable or even specific associations of certain bacteria in these two sponges. However, no specific bacterial associations were found for H. panicea or for any one sponge genus. Sequencing of nine DGGE bands resulted in recovery of seven sequences that best matched the sequences of uncultured Proteobacteria. Three of these sequences fell into the sponge-specific sequence clusters previously suggested. An uncultured alphaproteobacterium and a culturable Bacillus sp. were found exclusively in all M. incrustans sponges, while an uncultured gammaproteobacterium was unique to H. rufescens. In contrast, the cultivation approach indicated that sponges contained a large proportion of Firmicutes, especially Bacillus, and revealed large variations in the culturable bacterial communities associated with congeneric and conspecific sponges. This study revealed sponge species-specific but not genus- or site-specific associations between sponges and bacterial communities and emphasized the importance of using a combination

  8. Will the Increasing of Anthropogenic Pressures Reduce the Biopotential Value of Sponges?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi Indra Januar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of bioactive compounds from marine benthic organisms is suggested to relate ecologically with environment. However, anthropogenic pressures cause a considerable damage to coral reefs environment. This research aimed to define the pattern sponges biopotential values at the increasing of anthropogenic pressures to coral reef environment. Three representative sponges were selected (Theonella sp., Hyrtios sp., and Niphates sp. and study had been conducted in Hoga Island, Indonesia, to define the relationship between seawater variables (DO, pH, phosphate, and ammonia ions, sponges spatial competition, and their bioactivity level (Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. The study showed anthropogenic pressures affect the reef environment, as abiotic cover was increased and eutrophication was detected at the site closer to the run-off domesticated area. Statistical multivariate analyses revealed sponges spatial competition was significantly different (P<0.05 between groups of high, moderate, and low bioactivity level. Abiotic cover was detected as the major factor (36.19% contributed to the differences and also the most discriminant factor distinguishing sponges spatial competition in the groups of bioactivity level (93.91%. These results showed the increasing anthropogenic pressures may result in a higher abiotic area and may directly be a consequence to the lower production of bioactive compounds in sponges.

  9. Evidence of unique and generalist microbes in distantly related sympatric intertidal marine sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Anoop; Silva, Vitor; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    The diversity and specificity of microbial communities in marine environments is a key aspect of the ecology and evolution of both the eukaryotic hosts and their associated prokaryotes. Marine sponges harbor phylogenetically diverse and complex microbial lineages. Here, we investigated the sponge bacterial community and distribution patterns of microbes in three sympatric intertidal marine demosponges, Hymeniacidon perlevis, Ophlitaspongia papilla and Polymastia penicillus, from the Atlantic coast of Portugal using classical isolation techniques and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Microbial composition assessment, with nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences (ca. 1400 bp) from the isolates (n = 31) and partial sequences (ca. 280 bp) from clone libraries (n = 349), revealed diverse bacterial communities and other sponge-associated microbes. The majority of the bacterial isolates were members of the order Vibrionales and other symbiotic bacteria like Pseudovibrio ascidiaceiocola, Roseobacter sp., Hahellaceae sp. and Cobetia sp. Extended analyses using ecological metrics comprising 142 OTUs supported the clear differentiation of bacterial community profiles among the sponge hosts and their ambient seawater. Phylogenetic analyses were insightful in defining clades representing shared bacterial communities, particularly between H. perlevis and the geographically distantly-related H. heliophila, but also among other sponges. Furthermore, we also observed three distinct and unique bacterial groups, Betaproteobactria (~81%), Spirochaetes (~7%) and Chloroflexi (~3%), which are strictly maintained in low-microbial-abundance host species O. papilla and P. penicillus. Our study revealed the largely generalist nature of microbial associations among these co-occurring intertidal marine sponges.

  10. Will the Increasing of Anthropogenic Pressures Reduce the Biopotential Value of Sponges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januar, Hedi Indra; Pratitis, Asri; Bramandito, Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds from marine benthic organisms is suggested to relate ecologically with environment. However, anthropogenic pressures cause a considerable damage to coral reefs environment. This research aimed to define the pattern sponges biopotential values at the increasing of anthropogenic pressures to coral reef environment. Three representative sponges were selected (Theonella sp., Hyrtios sp., and Niphates sp.) and study had been conducted in Hoga Island, Indonesia, to define the relationship between seawater variables (DO, pH, phosphate, and ammonia ions), sponges spatial competition, and their bioactivity level (Brine Shrimp Lethality Test). The study showed anthropogenic pressures affect the reef environment, as abiotic cover was increased and eutrophication was detected at the site closer to the run-off domesticated area. Statistical multivariate analyses revealed sponges spatial competition was significantly different (P sponges spatial competition in the groups of bioactivity level (93.91%). These results showed the increasing anthropogenic pressures may result in a higher abiotic area and may directly be a consequence to the lower production of bioactive compounds in sponges. PMID:26457226

  11. Process for purifying zirconium sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abodishish, H.A.M.; Kimball, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a Kroll reduction process wherein a zirconium sponge contaminated with unreacted magnesium and by-product magnesium chloride is produced as a regulus, a process for purifying the zirconium sponge. It comprises: distilling magnesium and magnesium chloride from: a regulus containing a zirconium sponge and magnesium and magnesium chloride at a temperature above about 800 degrees C and at an absolute pressure less than about 10 mmHg in a distillation vessel to purify the zirconium sponge; condensing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride distilled from the zirconium sponge in a condenser; and then backfilling the vessel containing the zirconium sponge and the condenser containing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride with a gas; recirculating the gas between the vessel and the condenser to cool the zirconium sponge from above about 800 degrees C to below about 300 degrees C; and cooling the recirculating gas in the condenser containing the condensed magnesium and the condensed magnesium chloride as the gas cools the zirconium sponge to below about 300 degrees C

  12. The pathology of sponge orange band disease affecting the Caribbean barrel sponge Xestospongia muta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Hilde; Kamke, Janine; Abdelmohsen, Usama R; Krohne, Georg; Pawlik, Joseph R; Lindquist, Niels L; Hentschel, Ute

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sponge orange band (SOB) disease affecting the prominent Caribbean sponge Xestospongia muta. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that SOB is accompanied by the massive destruction of the pinacoderm. Chlorophyll a content and the main secondary metabolites, tetrahydrofurans, characteristic of X. muta, were significantly lower in bleached than in healthy tissues. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using cyanobacteria-specific 16S rRNA gene primers revealed a distinct shift from the Synechococcus/Prochlorococcus clade of sponge symbionts towards several clades of unspecific cyanobacteria, including lineages associated with coral disease (i.e. Leptolyngbya sp.). Underwater infection experiments were conducted by transplanting bleached cores into healthy individuals, but revealed no signs of SOB development. This study provided no evidence for the involvement of a specific microbial pathogen as an etiologic agent of disease; hence, the cause of SOB disease in X. muta remains unidentified. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of the absolute configuration of (+)-xestoaminol C [(2S, 3R)-2-amino-3-tetradecanol], a metabolite of Fiji sponge, Xestospongia sp., by the synthesis of its N,O-diacetyl derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Miwako; Mori, Kenji

    2003-02-01

    The N,O-diacetyl derivative of (+)-xestoaminol C (2-amino-3-tetradecanol, 1), an inhibitor of reverse transcriptase isolated from Xestospongia sp., was synthesized from (S)-alanine, and its absolute configuration was determined as 2S, 3R.

  14. Pyrosequencing Reveals the Microbial Communities in the Red Sea Sponge Carteriospongia foliascens and Their Impressive Shifts in Abnormal Tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Zhaoming

    2014-04-24

    Abnormality and disease in sponges have been widely reported, yet how sponge-associated microbes respond correspondingly remains inconclusive. Here, individuals of the sponge Carteriospongia foliascens under abnormal status were collected from the Rabigh Bay along the Red Sea coast. Microbial communities in both healthy and abnormal sponge tissues and adjacent seawater were compared to check the influences of these abnormalities on sponge-associated microbes. In healthy tissues, we revealed low microbial diversity with less than 100 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample. Cyanobacteria, affiliated mainly with the sponge-specific species “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum,” were the dominant bacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Intraspecies dynamics of microbial communities in healthy tissues were observed among sponge individuals, and potential anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were found. In comparison with healthy tissues and the adjacent seawater, abnormal tissues showed dramatic increase in microbial diversity and decrease in the abundance of sponge-specific microbial clusters. The dominated cyanobacterial species Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum decreased and shifted to unspecific cyanobacterial clades. OTUs that showed high similarity to sequences derived from diseased corals, such as Leptolyngbya sp., were found to be abundant in abnormal tissues. Heterotrophic Planctomycetes were also specifically enriched in abnormal tissues. Overall, we revealed the microbial communities of the cyanobacteria-rich sponge, C. foliascens, and their impressive shifts under abnormality.

  15. Metagenomic Survey of Potential Symbiotic Bacteria and Polyketide Synthase Genes in an Indonesian Marine Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia M. Kurnia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been emerging evidence that the bacteria associated with marine sponges are the key producers of many complex bioactive compounds. The as-yet uncultured candidate bacterial genus “Candidatus Entotheonella” of the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei from Japan have recently been recognized as the source of numerous pharmacologically relevant polyketides and modified peptides, as previously reported by the Piel group (Wilson et al. 2014. This work reported the presence of “Candidatus Entotheonella sp.” in the highly complex microbiome of an Indonesian marine sponge from Kapoposang Island, South Sulawesi. We further identified the Kapoposang sponge specimen used in this work as Rhabdastrella sp. based on the integrated morphological, histological, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI gene analyses. To detect the polyketide biosynthetic machinery called type I polyketide synthase (PKS in this Indonesian Rhabdastrella sp., we amplified and cloned the ketosynthase-encoding DNA regions of approximately 700 bp from the uncultured sponge's microbiome. Further sequencing and analysis of several randomly chosen clones indicated that all of them are mostly likely involved in the biosynthesis of methyl-branched fatty acids. However, employing a PKS-targeting primer designed in this work led to the isolation of four positive clones. BlastX search and subsequent phylogenetic analysis showed that one of the positive clones, designed as RGK32, displayed high homology with ketosynthase domains of many type I PKS systems and may belong to the subclass cis-AT PKS group.

  16. Chemical ecology of marine sponges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N.L.; Singh, A.

    in competition for space, defence against predator and prevention of epibiosis have received little attention. Knowledge of the ecological roles of sponge metabolites will contribute significantly to plan effective and sustainable wild harvests to obtain novel...

  17. New reticulosan sponges from the middle Cambrian of Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Sylvia Beresi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A small assemblage of extremely well-preserved fragments of new sponges has been discovered in calcipelites of the middle Cambrian El Mogallón Formation in the Cerro El Mogallón section, near Arivechi in eastern Sonora, Mexico. The assemblage includes two new reticulosan species referred to Ratcliffespongia arivechensis sp. nov. and Valospongia sonorensis sp. nov., combined with disarticulated remains assigned to Kiwetinokia and additional, currently unidentifiable taxa. The new species represent the first records of these Cambrian genera from Mexico, although they are widely distributed at low latitudes, being previously best known from Utah but extending through Laurentia and South China. This middle Cambrian fauna indicates that there was considerable continuity of the deeper-water hexactinellid sponges between the warm peri-platform of Laurentia and the peri-continental Cambrian platform of Sonora. The new material supports the impression of extremely wide distribution of Cambrian sponge genera, with local diversification at species level within regions, in contrast to much greater generic-level endemism during the Ordovician Period.

  18. Colomastigids (Amphipoda: Gammaridea: Colomastigidae from the Veracruz Coral Reef System, SW Gulf of Mexico, with a description of two new species associated with sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Winfield

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Colomastix (Amphipoda: Colomastigidae associated with sponges from the Veracruz Coral Reef System, Mexico, SW Gulf of Mexico, are described. The specimens were collected from the sponges Amphimedon compressa and Desmapsamma anchorata at depths between 3 and 12 m. Colomastix sarae n. sp. and Colomastix escobarae n. sp. are compared to other, very similar species of the genus Colomastix. In addition, we provide ecological and distribution information of sponge-inhabiting Colomastix halichondriae, C. irciniae, and C. tridentata collected from this coral reef system.

  19. Distribution and covering percentage of sponge (Porifera in different coral reef condition and depth in Barranglompo Island, South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHARYANTO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, four specieses of sponge namely Auletta sp., Callyspongia pseudoreticulata, Callyspongia sp., and Halichondria sp. have been potentially identified as bacteriside for fishery commodities. Nevertheless, information on sponge distribution, its covering percentage, and its habitate are still very little. Observation on distribution and abundance of sponge was conducted in the Southeastern and the Northwestern part of Barranglompo Island, South Sulawesi, using scuba diving set and under water writting tools. At first, coral reef condition in 3 and 10 m depths up to 100 m length of shore line were observed in both stations, using “lifeform method”. Then distribution and covering percentage of sponge, biotic and abiotic factor in 3, 6, 9, and 12 m depths in both stations were examined using “square transect method”. The result showed that different coral reef condition qualitatively causes different of sponge species distribution, but quantitatively not significantly different (P>0,05 on its covering percentage. It was also found that generally sponge grows better at the dead coral where no other biotic organism around.

  20. Novel actinobacteria from marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Naomi F; Mohamed, Naglaa M; Enticknap, Julie J; Hill, Russell T

    2005-01-01

    Actinobacteria exclusively within the sub-class Acidimicrobidae were shown by 16S rDNA community analysis to be major components of the bacterial community associated with two sponge species in the genus Xestospongia. Four groups of Actinobacteria were identified in Xestospongia spp., with three of these four groups being found in both Xestospongia muta from Key Largo, Florida and Xestospongia testudinaria from Manado, Indonesia. This suggests that these groups are true symbionts in these sponges and may play a common role in both the Pacific and Atlantic sponge species. The fourth group was found only in X. testudinaria and was a novel assemblage distantly related to any previously sequenced actinobacterial clones. The only actinobacteria that were obtained in initial culturing attempts were Gordonia, Micrococcus and Brachybacterium spp., none of which were represented in the clone libraries. The closest cultured actinobacteria to all the Acidimicrobidae clones from Xestospongia spp. are 'Microthrix parvicella' and Acidimicrobium spp. Xestospongia spp. can now be targeted as source material from which to culture novel Acidimicrobidae to investigate their potential as producers of bioactive compounds. Isolation of sponge-associated Acidimicrobidae will also make it possible to elucidate their role as sponge symbionts.

  1. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented

  2. Status and perspective of sponge chemosystematics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erpenbeck, D.J.G.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to their pharmaceutical applications, sponges are an important source of compounds that are used to elucidate classification patterns and phylogenetic relationships. Here we present a review and outlook on chemosystematics in sponges in seven sections: Secondary metabolites in sponges;

  3. Retained surgical sponge: Medicolegal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualniera, Patrizia; Scurria, Serena

    2018-03-01

    Retained surgical sponge events continue to occur despite the implementation of preventive surgical count policies, procedures, and adjunct technologies to manual counting. Such intraoperative mistakes can cause chronic nonspecific symptoms during the early postoperative period. When discovered years after surgery, they raise thorny medicolegal questions. We describe two cases from our practice that illustrate the need to identify the responsibility of the surgical team, as delineated in ministerial directives and the current legal framework, as well as the difficulty in evaluating clinical actions taken at different times and in different settings, with regard to the permanent health damage incurred by sponge retention. Finally, we discuss prevention actions operating room staff should take to reduce the risk of retained surgical sponges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Micha

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial genome of Metazoa is usually a compact molecule without introns. Exceptions to this rule have been reported only in corals and sea anemones (Cnidaria, in which group I introns have been discovered in the cox1 and nad5 genes. Here we show several lines of evidence demonstrating that introns can also be found in the mitochondria of sponges (Porifera. Results A 2,349 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was sequenced from the sponge Tetilla sp. (Spirophorida. This fragment suggests the presence of a 1143 bp intron. Similar to all the cnidarian mitochondrial introns, the putative intron has group I intron characteristics. The intron is present in the cox1 gene and encodes a putative homing endonuclease. In order to establish the distribution of this intron in sponges, the cox1 gene was sequenced from several representatives of the demosponge diversity. The intron was found only in the sponge order Spirophorida. A phylogenetic analysis of the COI protein sequence and of the intron open reading frame suggests that the intron may have been transmitted horizontally from a fungus donor. Conclusion Little is known about sponge-associated fungi, although in the last few years the latter have been frequently isolated from sponges. We suggest that the horizontal gene transfer of a mitochondrial intron was facilitated by a symbiotic relationship between fungus and sponge. Ecological relationships are known to have implications at the genomic level. Here, an ecological relationship between sponge and fungus is suggested based on the genomic analysis.

  5. Genomic insights into the marine sponge microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Ute; Piel, Jörn; Degnan, Sandie M; Taylor, Michael W

    2012-09-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) often contain dense and diverse microbial communities, which can constitute up to 35% of the sponge biomass. The genome of one sponge, Amphimedon queenslandica, was recently sequenced, and this has provided new insights into the origins of animal evolution. Complementary efforts to sequence the genomes of uncultivated sponge symbionts have yielded the first glimpse of how these intimate partnerships are formed. The remarkable microbial and chemical diversity of the sponge-microorganism association, coupled with its postulated antiquity, makes sponges important model systems for the study of metazoan host-microorganism interactions, and their evolution, as well as for enabling access to biotechnologically important symbiont-derived natural products. In this Review, we discuss our current understanding of the interactions between marine sponges and their microbial symbiotic consortia, and highlight recent insights into these relationships from genomic studies.

  6. Why do dolphins carry sponges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Sargeant, Brooke L; Watson-Capps, Jana J; Gibson, Quincy A; Heithaus, Michael R; Connor, Richard C; Patterson, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Tool use is rare in wild animals, but of widespread interest because of its relationship to animal cognition, social learning and culture. Despite such attention, quantifying the costs and benefits of tool use has been difficult, largely because if tool use occurs, all population members typically exhibit the behavior. In Shark Bay, Australia, only a subset of the bottlenose dolphin population uses marine sponges as tools, providing an opportunity to assess both proximate and ultimate costs and benefits and document patterns of transmission. We compared sponge-carrying (sponger) females to non-sponge-carrying (non-sponger) females and show that spongers were more solitary, spent more time in deep water channel habitats, dived for longer durations, and devoted more time to foraging than non-spongers; and, even with these potential proximate costs, calving success of sponger females was not significantly different from non-spongers. We also show a clear female-bias in the ontogeny of sponging. With a solitary lifestyle, specialization, and high foraging demands, spongers used tools more than any non-human animal. We suggest that the ecological, social, and developmental mechanisms involved likely (1) help explain the high intrapopulation variation in female behaviour, (2) indicate tradeoffs (e.g., time allocation) between ecological and social factors and, (3) constrain the spread of this innovation to primarily vertical transmission.

  7. Why do dolphins carry sponges?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Mann

    Full Text Available Tool use is rare in wild animals, but of widespread interest because of its relationship to animal cognition, social learning and culture. Despite such attention, quantifying the costs and benefits of tool use has been difficult, largely because if tool use occurs, all population members typically exhibit the behavior. In Shark Bay, Australia, only a subset of the bottlenose dolphin population uses marine sponges as tools, providing an opportunity to assess both proximate and ultimate costs and benefits and document patterns of transmission. We compared sponge-carrying (sponger females to non-sponge-carrying (non-sponger females and show that spongers were more solitary, spent more time in deep water channel habitats, dived for longer durations, and devoted more time to foraging than non-spongers; and, even with these potential proximate costs, calving success of sponger females was not significantly different from non-spongers. We also show a clear female-bias in the ontogeny of sponging. With a solitary lifestyle, specialization, and high foraging demands, spongers used tools more than any non-human animal. We suggest that the ecological, social, and developmental mechanisms involved likely (1 help explain the high intrapopulation variation in female behaviour, (2 indicate tradeoffs (e.g., time allocation between ecological and social factors and, (3 constrain the spread of this innovation to primarily vertical transmission.

  8. Wnt signaling and polarity in freshwater sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor Reid, Pamela J; Matveev, Eugueni; McClymont, Alexandra; Posfai, Dora; Hill, April L; Leys, Sally P

    2018-02-02

    The Wnt signaling pathway is uniquely metazoan and used in many processes during development, including the formation of polarity and body axes. In sponges, one of the earliest diverging animal groups, Wnt pathway genes have diverse expression patterns in different groups including along the anterior-posterior axis of two sponge larvae, and in the osculum and ostia of others. We studied the function of Wnt signaling and body polarity formation through expression, knockdown, and larval manipulation in several freshwater sponge species. Sponge Wnts fall into sponge-specific and sponge-class specific subfamilies of Wnt proteins. Notably Wnt genes were not found in transcriptomes of the glass sponge Aphrocallistes vastus. Wnt and its signaling genes were expressed in archaeocytes of the mesohyl throughout developing freshwater sponges. Osculum formation was enhanced by GSK3 knockdown, and Wnt antagonists inhibited both osculum development and regeneration. Using dye tracking we found that the posterior poles of freshwater sponge larvae give rise to tissue that will form the osculum following metamorphosis. Together the data indicate that while components of canonical Wnt signaling may be used in development and maintenance of osculum tissue, it is likely that Wnt signaling itself occurs between individual cells rather than whole tissues or structures in freshwater sponges.

  9. Bacterial Communities of different Mediterranean Sponge Species - Basic investigations for biotechnological sponge cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Gerce, Berna

    2011-01-01

    The aim to use sponges and their associated microorganisms for the supply of natural compounds for their investigation in clinical trials for subsequent development of drugs was the motivation for the investigation of bacterial communities of sponges. The investigation revealed surface- and tissue-associated bacterial communities of free-living sponges were different from each other and microbial communities and secondary metabolites of sponges remain stable during biotechnological cultivation.

  10. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented only by small thin patches insufficient for proper characterization and could be only determined to genus. The new species may not be necessarily endemic to the island, as several show similarities ...

  11. In Vitro Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Some Marine Sponges Collected off Misamis Oriental Coast, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Rivera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phosphomolybdenum method for total antioxidant activity determination showed that the hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts of five marine sponge species collected off misamis oriental coast-Aaptos suberitoides, Dactylospongia elegans, Stylissa massa, Haliclona sp. and an unidentified species coded as KL-05, have varying degrees of antioxidant capacity. Expressed as ascorbic acid equivalents in μg/mL of extract, the hexane extract of Dactylospongia elegans (DeH and the ethyl acetate extract of Aaptos suberitoides (AsE showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Although the hexane extract of KL-05 (KL-05H has considerable antioxidant activity, the ethyl acetate extract (KL-05E showed no antioxidant activity. The brine shrimp assay for cytotoxicity indicated high bioactivity, with Haliclona sp., Dactylospongia elegans, Aaptos suberitoides and Stylissa massa exhibiting high % mortality and low LC50 values. The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the marine sponges may be attributed to the zoochemicals present. All sponge species contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Terpenoids are present only in Haliclona sp. and the cardiac glycosides, only in Aaptos suberitoides and Haliclona sp.

  12. Natural diet of coral-excavating sponges consists mainly of dissolved organic carbon (DOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Benjamin; de Goeij, Jasper M; Vermeij, Mark J A; Mulders, Yannick; van der Ent, Esther; Ribes, Marta; van Duyl, Fleur C

    2014-01-01

    Coral-excavating sponges are the most important bioeroders on Caribbean reefs and increase in abundance throughout the region. This increase is commonly attributed to a concomitant increase in food availability due to eutrophication and pollution. We therefore investigated the uptake of organic matter by the two coral-excavating sponges Siphonodictyon sp. and Cliona delitrix and tested whether they are capable of consuming dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as part of their diet. A device for simultaneous sampling of water inhaled and exhaled by the sponges was used to directly measure the removal of DOC and bacteria in situ. During a single passage through their filtration system 14% and 13% respectively of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the inhaled water was removed by the sponges. 82% (Siphonodictyon sp.; mean ± SD; 13 ± 17 μmol L(-1)) and 76% (C. delitrix; 10 ± 12 μmol L(-1)) of the carbon removed was taken up in form of DOC, whereas the remainder was taken up in the form of particulate organic carbon (POC; bacteria and phytoplankton) despite high bacteria retention efficiency (72 ± 15% and 87 ± 10%). Siphonodictyon sp. and C. delitrix removed DOC at a rate of 461 ± 773 and 354 ± 562 μmol C h(-1) respectively. Bacteria removal was 1.8 ± 0.9 × 10(10) and 1.7 ± 0.6 × 10(10) cells h(-1), which equals a carbon uptake of 46.0 ± 21.2 and 42.5 ± 14.0 μmol C h(-1) respectively. Therefore, DOC represents 83 and 81% of the TOC taken up by Siphonodictyon sp. and C. delitrix per hour. These findings suggest that similar to various reef sponges coral-excavating sponges also mainly rely on DOC to meet their carbon demand. We hypothesize that excavating sponges may also benefit from an increasing production of more labile algal-derived DOC (as compared to coral-derived DOC) on reefs as a result of the ongoing coral-algal phase shift.

  13. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Effects of the Organic Extract of the Red Sea Marine Sponge Xestospongia testudinaria against Carrageenan Induced Rat Paw Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shitany, Nagla A.; Shaala, Lamiaa A.; Abbas, Aymn T.; Abdel-dayem, Umama A.; Azhar, Esam I.; Ali, Soad S.; van Soest, Rob W. M.; Youssef, Diaa T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are found to be a rich source of bioactive compounds which show a wide range of biological activities including antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulator effects of the methanolic extract of the Red Sea marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria. The chemical composition of the Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract was determined using Gas chromatography-mass sp...

  14. Late Eocene siliceous sponge fauna of southern Australia: reconstruction based on loose spicules record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowiak, Magdalena

    2015-02-09

    An abundant and diversified assemblage of siliceous loose sponge spicules has been identified in the Late Eocene deposits cropping out along the southern coasts of Australia. Based on the comparison of the obtained spicules with those of living sponges, representatives of at least 43 species within 33 genera, 26 families, and 9 orders of "soft" Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha have been identified in the assemblage. Within the studied sediments, the spicules representing demosponge orders Poecilosclerida, Hadromerida, and Astrophorida were the most diverse. The rest of the five demosponge orders (Halichondrida, Agelasida, Haplosclerida, Spirophorida, and Chondrosida) are represented by single families. Also, a single family Plakinidae within the class Homoscleromorpha that includes two genera was present. The diversity of spicules is similar in all studied samples and areas, even distant geographically, and there are only minor differences between the sections. That indicates a homogenous character of this rich siliceous sponge assemblage. Most of the studied sponge spicules have Recent equivalents among present-day siliceous spicules. However, the fossil ones are bigger which is most likely due to different environmental conditions. Among the recognized sponge species, at least eleven (Agelas cf. axifera, Agelas cf. wiedenmayeri, Penares sclerobesa, Histodermella australis, Trikentrion flabelliforme, Cliona cf. mucronata, Tethya cf. omanensis, Terpios sp., Placinolopha cf. sarai, Dotona pulchella, and Sigmosceptrella quadrilobata) are noted for the first time in the fossil record.

  15. Micro- and nano-structural characterization of six marine sponges of the class Demospongiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Elif Hilal; Ide, Semra; Bayari, Sevgi Haman; Hill, Malcolm

    2016-12-01

    The sponges produce their skeletal elements and silicateins are the key enzymes in this process. The mechanism underlying the formation of their silica skeleton and its structural properties are of exceptional interest for applications in technology. Micro- and nano-scale structural analysis of the six marine sponges belonging to Demospongiae [Callyspongia (Cladochalia) plicifera (Lamarck, 1814), Cervicornia cuspidifera (Lamarck, 1815), Cinachyrela sp., Niphates erecta (Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1864), Xestospongia muta (Schmidt, 1870) and Amphimedon compressa (Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1864)] were carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) and Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) techniques. The nano-structural characterizations give some informative evidence about the manner in which silica/silicatein in spicule skeletons is produced by the sponges. The sponge species were successfully discriminated using cluster analysis (HCA) based on FTIR spectra. This study demonstrates and detection of structural differences among sponges and their spicules using combined techniques.

  16. Diversity and Biosynthetic Potential of Culturable Actinomycetes Associated with Marine Sponges in the China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Lijun; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The diversity and secondary metabolite potential of culturable actinomycetes associated with eight different marine sponges collected from the South China Sea and the Yellow sea were investigated. A total of 327 strains were isolated and 108 representative isolates were selected for phylogenetic analysis. Ten families and 13 genera of Actinomycetales were detected, among which five genera represent first records isolated from marine sponges. Oligotrophic medium M5 (water agar) proved to be efficient for selective isolation, and “Micromonospora–Streptomyces” was proposed as the major distribution group of sponge-associated actinomycetes from the China Seas. Ten isolates are likely to represent novel species. Sponge Hymeniacidon perleve was found to contain the highest genus diversity (seven genera) of actinomycetes. Housekeeping gene phylogenetic analyses of the isolates indicated one ubiquitous Micromonospora species, one unique Streptomyces species and one unique Verrucosispora phylogroup. Of the isolates, 27.5% displayed antimicrobial activity, and 91% contained polyketide synthase and/or nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes, indicating that these isolates had a high potential to produce secondary metabolites. The isolates from sponge Axinella sp. contained the highest presence of both antimicrobial activity and NRPS genes, while those from isolation medium DNBA showed the highest presence of antimicrobial activity and PKS I genes. PMID:22754340

  17. Ecology of antarctic marine sponges: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, James B; Amsler, Charles D; Baker, Bill J; van Soest, Rob W M

    2005-04-01

    Sponges are important components of marine benthic communities of Antarctica. Numbers of species are high, within the lower range for tropical latitudes, similar to those in the Arctic, and comparable or higher than those of temperate marine environments. Many have circumpolar distributions and in some habitats hexactinellids dominate benthic biomass. Antarctic sponge assemblages contribute considerable structural heterogeneity for colonizing epibionts. They also represent a significant source of nutrients to prospective predators, including a suite of spongivorous sea stars whose selective foraging behaviors have important ramifications upon community structure. The highly seasonal plankton blooms that typify the Antarctic continental shelf are paradoxical when considering the planktivorous diets of sponges. Throughout much of the year Antarctic sponges must either exploit alternate sources of nutrition such as dissolved organic carbon or be physiologically adapted to withstand resource constraints. In contrast to predictions that global patterns of predation should select for an inverse correlation between latitude and chemical defenses in marine sponges, such defenses are not uncommon in Antarctic sponges. Some species sequester their defensive metabolites in the outermost layers where they are optimally effective against sea star predation. Secondary metabolites have also been shown to short-circuit molting in sponge-feeding amphipods and prevent fouling by diatoms. Coloration in Antarctic sponges may be the result of relict pigments originally selected for aposematism or UV screens yet conserved because of their defensive properties. This hypothesis is supported by the bioactive properties of pigments examined to date in a suite of common Antarctic sponges.

  18. Bioactive alkaloids from marine sponges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Majik, M.S.

    lines while kuanoniamine C was less potent but showed high selectivity toward the estrogen dependent breast cancer cell line (Kijjoa et. al., 2007). Recently, Davis’s and coworkers, reported two new cytotoxici- ty peridoacridine alkaloids viz... 10 sponge, Trachycladus laevispirulifer. Excitingly, it displayed promising selective cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer cell lines. 12.3.1. BISINDOLE ALKALOIDS Bis-indole alkaloids, consisting of two indole moieties...

  19. Characterization of lignocellulolytic activities from fungi isolated from the deep-sea sponge Stelletta normani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-García, Ramón Alberto; Sutton, Thomas; Jackson, Stephen A; Tovar-Herrera, Omar Eduardo; Balcázar-López, Edgar; Sánchez-Carbente, María Del Rayo; Sánchez-Reyes, Ayixon; Dobson, Alan D W; Folch-Mallol, Jorge Luis

    2017-01-01

    Extreme habitats have usually been regarded as a source of microorganisms that possess robust proteins that help enable them to survive in such harsh conditions. The deep sea can be considered an extreme habitat due to low temperatures (sponges survive in these habitats. While bacteria derived from deep-sea marine sponges have been studied, much less information is available on fungal biodiversity associated with these sponges. Following screening of fourteen fungi isolated from the deep-sea sponge Stelletta normani sampled at a depth of 751 metres, three halotolerant strains (TS2, TS11 and TS12) were identified which displayed high CMCase and xylanase activities. Molecular based taxonomic approaches identified these strains as Cadophora sp. TS2, Emericellopsis sp. TS11 and Pseudogymnoascus sp. TS 12. These three fungi displayed psychrotolerance and halotolerant growth on CMC and xylan as sole carbon sources, with optimal growth rates at 20°C. They produced CMCase and xylanase activities, which displayed optimal temperature and pH values of between 50-70°C and pH 5-8 respectively, together with good thermostability and halotolerance. In solid-state fermentations TS2, TS11 and TS12 produced CMCases, xylanases and peroxidase/phenol oxidases when grown on corn stover and wheat straw. This is the first time that CMCase, xylanase and peroxidase/phenol oxidase activities have been reported in these three fungal genera isolated from a marine sponge. Given the biochemical characteristics of these ligninolytic enzymes it is likely that they may prove useful in future biomass conversion strategies involving lignocellulosic materials.

  20. Characterization of lignocellulolytic activities from fungi isolated from the deep-sea sponge Stelletta normani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Alberto Batista-García

    Full Text Available Extreme habitats have usually been regarded as a source of microorganisms that possess robust proteins that help enable them to survive in such harsh conditions. The deep sea can be considered an extreme habitat due to low temperatures (<5°C and high pressure, however marine sponges survive in these habitats. While bacteria derived from deep-sea marine sponges have been studied, much less information is available on fungal biodiversity associated with these sponges. Following screening of fourteen fungi isolated from the deep-sea sponge Stelletta normani sampled at a depth of 751 metres, three halotolerant strains (TS2, TS11 and TS12 were identified which displayed high CMCase and xylanase activities. Molecular based taxonomic approaches identified these strains as Cadophora sp. TS2, Emericellopsis sp. TS11 and Pseudogymnoascus sp. TS 12. These three fungi displayed psychrotolerance and halotolerant growth on CMC and xylan as sole carbon sources, with optimal growth rates at 20°C. They produced CMCase and xylanase activities, which displayed optimal temperature and pH values of between 50-70°C and pH 5-8 respectively, together with good thermostability and halotolerance. In solid-state fermentations TS2, TS11 and TS12 produced CMCases, xylanases and peroxidase/phenol oxidases when grown on corn stover and wheat straw. This is the first time that CMCase, xylanase and peroxidase/phenol oxidase activities have been reported in these three fungal genera isolated from a marine sponge. Given the biochemical characteristics of these ligninolytic enzymes it is likely that they may prove useful in future biomass conversion strategies involving lignocellulosic materials.

  1. Glass Sponges off the Newfoundland (Northwest Atlantic: Description of a New Species of Dictyaulus (Porifera: Hexactinellida: Euplectellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Murillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of hexactinellid sponges: Aphrocallistes beatrix beatrix Gray, Asconema foliata (Fristedt, and Dictyaulus romani sp. n. were collected off the Flemish Cap in the Flemish Pass and from the Grand Banks off the Newfoundland (northwest Atlantic during different surveys on board of Spanish RV Vizconde de Eza and RV Miguel Oliver.

  2. Sponge-specific clusters revisited: a comprehensive phylogeny of sponge-associated microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simister, Rachel L; Deines, Peter; Botté, Emmanuelle S; Webster, Nicole S; Taylor, Michael W

    2012-02-01

    Marine sponges often contain diverse and abundant communities of microorganisms including bacteria, archaea and eukaryotic microbes. Numerous 16S rRNA-based studies have identified putative 'sponge-specific' microbes that are apparently absent from seawater and other (non-sponge) marine habitats. With more than 7500 sponge-derived rRNA sequences (from clone, isolate and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis data) now publicly available, we sought to determine whether the current notion of sponge-specific sequence clusters remains valid. Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses were performed on the 7546 sponge-derived 16S and 18S rRNA sequences that were publicly available in early 2010. Overall, 27% of all sequences fell into monophyletic, sponge-specific sequence clusters. Such clusters were particularly well represented among the Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, 'Poribacteria', Betaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, and in total were identified in at least 14 bacterial phyla, as well as the Archaea and fungi. The largest sponge-specific cluster, representing the cyanobacterium 'Synechococcus spongiarum', contained 245 sequences from 40 sponge species. These results strongly support the existence of sponge-specific microbes and provide a suitable framework for future studies of rare and abundant sponge symbionts, both of which can now be studied using next-generation sequencing technologies. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. [Bioactive compounds from marine sponges and cell culture of marine sponges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Zhao, Quan-Yu; Xue, Song; Zhang, Wei

    2002-01-01

    Presented a survey of bioactive compounds discovered from marine sponges in the recent five years, including the classes, distribution and their potential pharmaceutical uses. In particular, the compounds with antitumor, antivirus and antibacteria activity were discussed with their originating marine sponge species. Whereas the "Supply Problems" were identified to hinder the clinical tests and commercial applications of most of the sponge bioactive compounds. In vitro cell culture of marine sponges is one of the most promising approaches to solve this problem. The state-of-the art of marine sponge cell culture and the challenging areas were discussed. A brief summary of the R&D status was also given on the bioactive compounds from marine sponges in Chinese oceans. It is crucial to invest more efforts on studying marine sponges and their bioactive compounds in our country in order to develop new marine drugs of independent intellectual property.

  4. Macrofauna Associated with the Sponge Neopetrosia exigua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamil Nadu, India. Keywords: Neopetrosia exigua, sponge, associated-fauna, species richness,. Mauritius, Indian Ocean. Abstract — The macrofaunal community associated with the sponge Neopetrosia exigua (Kirkpatrick, 1900) was studied across a ...

  5. Medullary Sponge Kidney on Retrograde Pyelography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsung-Yi; Lin, Jih-Pin

    2014-01-01

    A woman aged 31 had recurrent urinary tract infection with bloody urine. A series image of medullary sponge kidney presented by intravenous urography (IVU) was detected dynamically by retrograde pyelography (RP). Other than ultrasonography and IVU, RP is also a reliable method to detect medullary sponge kidney. PMID:24855603

  6. Medullary sponge kidney associated with congenital hemihypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indridason, O S; Thomas, L; Berkoben, M

    1996-08-01

    Medullary sponge kidney is a developmental disorder characterized by ectatic and cystic malformation of the collecting ducts and tubules. Clinical manifestations include urinary tract infections, renal stones, and hematuria. It can be associated with other developmental disorders. A case of medullary sponge kidney associated with congenital hemihypertrophy, complicated by nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis, is reported here.

  7. Generation of miRNA sponge constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluiver, Joost; Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; Smigielska-Czepiel, Katarzyna; Halsema, Nancy; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) sponges are RNA molecules with repeated miRNA antisense sequences that can sequester miRNAs from their endogenous targets and thus serve as a decoy. Stably expressed miRNA sponges are especially valuable for long-term loss-of-function studies and can be used in vitro and in vivo. We

  8. In Vitro Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Some Marine Sponges Collected off Misamis Oriental Coast, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. Rivera; M. M. Uy

    2012-01-01

    The phosphomolybdenum method for total antioxidant activity determination showed that the hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts of five marine sponge species collected off misamis oriental coast-Aaptos suberitoides, Dactylospongia elegans, Stylissa massa, Haliclona sp. and an unidentified species coded as KL-05, have varying degrees of antioxidant capacity. Expressed as ascorbic acid equivalents in μg/mL of extract, the hexane extract of Dactylospongia elegans (DeH) and the ethyl...

  9. Bacterial community profiles in low microbial abundance sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Emily C; Kamke, Janine; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Taylor, Michael W; Hentschel, Ute; Ravasi, Timothy; Schmitt, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    It has long been recognized that sponges differ in the abundance of associated microorganisms, and they are therefore termed either 'low microbial abundance' (LMA) or 'high microbial abundance' (HMA) sponges. Many previous studies concentrated on the dense microbial communities in HMA sponges, whereas little is known about microorganisms in LMA sponges. Here, two LMA sponges from the Red Sea, two from the Caribbean and one from the South Pacific were investigated. With up to only five bacterial phyla per sponge, all LMA sponges showed lower phylum-level diversity than typical HMA sponges. Interestingly, each LMA sponge was dominated by a large clade within either Cyanobacteria or different classes of Proteobacteria. The overall similarity of bacterial communities among LMA sponges determined by operational taxonomic unit and UniFrac analysis was low. Also the number of sponge-specific clusters, which indicate bacteria specifically associated with sponges and which are numerous in HMA sponges, was low. A biogeographical or host-dependent distribution pattern was not observed. In conclusion, bacterial community profiles of LMA sponges are clearly different from profiles of HMA sponges and, remarkably, each LMA sponge seems to harbour its own unique bacterial community. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacterial community profiles in low microbial abundance sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Giles, Emily

    2012-09-04

    It has long been recognized that sponges differ in the abundance of associated microorganisms, and they are therefore termed either \\'low microbial abundance\\' (LMA) or \\'high microbial abundance\\' (HMA) sponges. Many previous studies concentrated on the dense microbial communities in HMA sponges, whereas little is known about microorganisms in LMA sponges. Here, two LMA sponges from the Red Sea, two from the Caribbean and one from the South Pacific were investigated. With up to only five bacterial phyla per sponge, all LMA sponges showed lower phylum-level diversity than typical HMA sponges. Interestingly, each LMA sponge was dominated by a large clade within either Cyanobacteria or different classes of Proteobacteria. The overall similarity of bacterial communities among LMA sponges determined by operational taxonomic unit and UniFrac analysis was low. Also the number of sponge-specific clusters, which indicate bacteria specifically associated with sponges and which are numerous in HMA sponges, was low. A biogeographical or host-dependent distribution pattern was not observed. In conclusion, bacterial community profiles of LMA sponges are clearly different from profiles of HMA sponges and, remarkably, each LMA sponge seems to harbour its own unique bacterial community. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  11. Cultivation of sponges, sponge cells and symbionts: achievements and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, Klaske J; Sipkema, Detmer; Osinga, Ronald; Smidt, Hauke; Pomponi, Shirley A; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H

    2012-01-01

    Marine sponges are a rich source of bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical potential. Since biological production is one option to supply materials for early drug development, the main challenge is to establish generic techniques for small-scale production of marine organisms. We analysed the state of the art for cultivation of whole sponges, sponge cells and sponge symbionts. To date, cultivation of whole sponges has been most successful in situ; however, optimal conditions are species specific. The establishment of sponge cell lines has been limited by the inability to obtain an axenic inoculum as well as the lack of knowledge on nutritional requirements in vitro. Approaches to overcome these bottlenecks, including transformation of sponge cells and using media based on yolk, are elaborated. Although a number of bioactive metabolite-producing microorganisms have been isolated from sponges, and it has been suggested that the source of most sponge-derived bioactive compounds is microbial symbionts, cultivation of sponge-specific microorganisms has had limited success. The current genomics revolution provides novel approaches to cultivate these microorganisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sponge-associated bacteria are strictly maintained in two closely related but geographically distant sponge hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Naomi F; Hill, Russell T

    2011-10-01

    The giant barrel sponges Xestospongia muta and Xestospongia testudinaria are ubiquitous in tropical reefs of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, respectively. They are key species in their respective environments and are hosts to diverse assemblages of bacteria. These two closely related sponges from different oceans provide a unique opportunity to examine the evolution of sponge-associated bacterial communities. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene sequences from X. muta and X. testudinaria showed little divergence between the two species. A detailed analysis of the bacterial communities associated with these sponges, comprising over 900 full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed remarkable similarity in the bacterial communities of the two species. Both sponge-associated communities include sequences found only in the two Xestospongia species, as well as sequences found also in other sponge species and are dominated by three bacterial groups, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. While these groups consistently dominate the bacterial communities revealed by 16S rRNA gene-based analysis of sponge-associated bacteria, the depth of sequencing undertaken in this study revealed clades of bacteria specifically associated with each of the two Xestospongia species, and also with the genus Xestospongia, that have not been found associated with other sponge species or other ecosystems. This study, comparing the bacterial communities associated with closely related but geographically distant sponge hosts, gives new insight into the intimate relationships between marine sponges and some of their bacterial symbionts.

  13. Anti-bacterial compounds from the sponge Haliclona sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Kamat, S.Y.; Chandramohan, D.; Nair, S.; Das, B.

    located the active principles in petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions Further purification of these active fractions on silica gel columns and subsequently on HPLC yielded several active compounds two of which have been identified as demethyl...

  14. Brine Shrimp Lethality Test of Marine Sponge Jaspis sp Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti, Puji; Alam, Gemini; Tahir, Akbar; Wahyuono, Subagus

    2002-01-01

    Research Collaboration Unhas-UGM this study was aimed at the separation of compounds responsible for the Artemia salina larvae mortality. samples were prepared at the concentrations of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 ug/ml. LC50 (ug/ml) of the extracts were calculated by menas of probit analysis.

  15. Bacterial community profiles in low microbial abundance sponges

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Emily C.; Kamke, Janine; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Taylor, Michael W.; Hentschel, Ute; Ravasi, Timothy; Schmitt, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    It has long been recognized that sponges differ in the abundance of associated microorganisms, and they are therefore termed either 'low microbial abundance' (LMA) or 'high microbial abundance' (HMA) sponges. Many previous studies concentrated on the dense microbial communities in HMA sponges, whereas little is known about microorganisms in LMA sponges. Here, two LMA sponges from the Red Sea, two from the Caribbean and one from the South Pacific were investigated. With up to only five bacteri...

  16. Biotechnological potential of sponge-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Gandelman, Juliana F; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia; Oelemann, Walter M R; Laport, Marinella S

    2014-01-01

    As sessile and filter-feeding metazoans, marine sponges represent an ecologically important and highly diverse component of marine benthic communities throughout the world. It has been suggested that marine sponges are hosts to many microorganisms which can constitute up to 40-60% of its biomass. Recently, sponges have attracted a high interest from scientific community because two important factors. First there is the fact that sponges have a wide range of associated bacteria; and, second, they are a rich source of bioactive substances. Since 1950, a number of bioactive substances with various pharmacological functions have been isolated from marine sponges. However, many of these substances were subsequently shown to be actually synthesized by sponge-associated bacteria. Bacteria associated with marine sponges constitute an interesting source of novel bioactive compounds with biotechnological potential such as antimicrobial substances, enzymes and surfactants. In addition, these bacteria may be biofilm forming and can act as bioindicators in bioremediation processes of environmental pollution caused by oil and heavy metals. This review focuses on the biotechnological applications of these microorganisms.

  17. The boron geochemistry of siliceous sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, A.; Wille, M.; Eggins, S. M.; Ellwood, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    The boron content and isotopic composition (δ11B) of marine carbonate organisms can be linked to the pH of the seawater in which they have grown, making carbonates a useful tool for palaeo-seawater pH reconstruction. A study by Furst (1981) documented unusually high boron concentrations in siliceous sponge spicules, in range from hundreds to a thousand ppm. This observation and the potential for preferential incorporation of the tetrahedral borate species into biogenic silica raises the question as to whether the boron chemistry of biogenic silica might also be influenced by seawater pH. We have measured the boron concentration and isotopic composition of siliceous sponges from the Southern Ocean region, with a view to (1) confirming the observations of Furst (1981), (2) assessing the factors that control boron incorporation and isotopic compositions of sponge silica, and (3) investigating the potentially significant role of siliceous sponges in the marine boron cycle. The measured boron concentrations in a diverse range of both demosponge and hexactinellid sponges confirm the high boron concentrations previously reported. The boron isotope compositions of these sponges vary from around +2‰ to +25‰ and greatly exceed the range in marine carbonates. This isotopic variation is inconsistent with seawater pH control but is correlated with ambient seawater silicon concentration, in a manner that suggests a link to silicon uptake kinetics and demand by sponges.

  18. Cytotoxic Phyllactone Analogs from the Marine Sponge Phyllospongia papyrecea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huawei; Crews, Phillip; Tenney, Karen; Valeriote, Frederick A

    2017-01-01

    A growing evidence indicates that marine sponge Phyllospongia sp. is one of rich sources of 20, 24-bishomoscalarane sesterterpenes with potent biological activities. In order to search more bioactive 20, 24-bishomoscalarane sesterterpenes for new drug discovery, chemical investigation was carried out on an Indonesian marine sponge P. papyrecea. Bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out on its dichloromethane extract. And nine compounds were purified and isolated using HPLC. Their chemical structures were determined by a combination of spectroscopic and spectrometric data, including 1D-, 2D-NMR and HRESI-MS. Their cytotoxic activities were performed on three human tumor cell lines A549, MCF-7 and HeLa using the CCK-8 method. One new 20, 24-bishomoscalarane sesterterpene, phyllactone H (9), was isolated and elucidated together with phyllactones A-B (1-2) and D-G (3-6), 12α, 24-dihydroxy-20, 24-dimethyl-15, 17- scalaradien-25, 24-olides (7-8). Compounds 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6, 7 and 8 were C-24 anomers and inseparable mixtures, respectively. The 1H and 13C-NMR data for 7/8 were firstly reported in this paper. Compounds 1-9 possessed in vitro moderate cytotoxicities against A549, MCF-7 and HeLa cells with IC50 values of less than 25 μM. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Hexactinellid sponges reported from shallow waters in the Oligo-Miocene Pirabas Formation (N Brazil) are in fact cheilostome bryozoans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muricy, Guilherme; Domingos, Celso; Távora, Vladimir A.; Ramalho, Laís V.; Pisera, Andrzej; Taylor, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Although hexactinellid sponges occur exclusively in deep and/or cold waters, three species of hexactinellids have been reported from shallow and warm waters in Oligo-Miocene deposits of the Pirabas Formation in northern Brazil: Aphrocallistes estevoui, A. lobata and Manzonia aprutina. Here we re-examine these fossils and show that they are not hexactinellid sponges but instead comprise three species of cheilostome bryozoans of the genus Celleporaria (Family Lepraliellidae). Two of these are new to science, viz., Celleporaria pirabasensis sp. nov. and Celleporaria triangulavicularis sp. nov., and the third could not be identified to species level due to poor preservation. Colonies of all three species are massive and multilaminar, with irregular layers of zooids produced by frontal budding. Autozooids have marginal areolar pores and a rounded, asinuate primary orifice. All colonies also have suboral adventitious avicularia and interzooidal avicularia, although of different shapes and sizes. Celleporaria triangulavicularis sp. nov. has distinctive triangular interzooidal avicularia. The underside of the frontal shield was seen only in Celleporaria pirabasensis sp. nov. and Celleporaria sp., in which it is umbonuloid. Ovicells were only seen in Celleporaria pirabasensis sp. nov. and are cap-shaped. The three species differ among themselves mainly in the shape and position of the adventitious and interzooidal avicularia. The presence of several typical bryozoan traits and the absence of spicule traces or any other sponge features clearly demonstrate that these fossils are bryozoans, not sponges. The change in the classification of these fossils from hexactinellids to bryozoans of the genus Celleporaria eliminates the incongruence of the occurrence of deep-water species in the warm shallow water depositional environment of the Pirabas Formation.

  20. Can a sponge fractionate isotopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Patel, S; Balani, M C

    1985-03-22

    The study has unequivocally demonstrated that siliceous sponges Spirastrella cuspidifera and Prostylyssa foetida from the same microecological niche exhibit a high degree of species specificity, while accumulating a host of heavy metal ions (Ni, Cr, Cd, Sn, Ti, Mo, Zr). S. cuspidifera accumulated, in addition, 60Co and 63Ni, showing discrimination against other radionuclides, 137Cs and 131I, present in the ambient waters receiving controlled low level waste discharges from a B.W.R. nuclear power station. P. foetida, on the other hand, accumulated only 131I and showed discrimination against other radionuclides including 60Co, although the stable iodine concentrations in both the sponges were the same. The specific activity of 60Co (in becquerels per gram of 59Co) in S. cuspidifera and 131I (in becquerels per gram of 127I) in P. foetida were at least two orders of magnitude greater than in the ambient sea water. That of 63Ni (in becquerels per gram of 62Ni) in S. cuspidifera, on the other hand, was lower by two orders of magnitude than in either abiotic matrices from the same environment. Thus, not only did both the species show bioaccumulation of a specific element, but also preferential uptake of isotopes of the same element, though they were equally available for intake. Such differential uptake of isotopes can possibly be explained in terms of two quite different mechanisms operating, each applicable in a particular case. One is that the xenobiotic isotope enters the environment in a physicochemical form or as a complex different from that of its natural counterpart. If equilibration with the latter is slow, so that the organism acquires the xenobiotic in an unfamiliar chemical context, it may treat it as a chemically distinct entity so that its concentration factor differs from that of stable isotope, thus changing the specific activity. Alternatively, if the xenobiotic is present in the same chemical form as the stable isotope, the only way in which specific

  1. Biotechnological Potential of Cold Adapted Pseudoalteromonas spp. Isolated from ‘Deep Sea’ Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Borchert

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine genus Pseudoalteromonas is known for its versatile biotechnological potential with respect to the production of antimicrobials and enzymes of industrial interest. We have sequenced the genomes of three Pseudoalteromonas sp. strains isolated from different deep sea sponges on the Illumina MiSeq platform. The isolates have been screened for various industrially important enzymes and comparative genomics has been applied to investigate potential relationships between the isolates and their host organisms, while comparing them to free-living Pseudoalteromonas spp. from shallow and deep sea environments. The genomes of the sponge associated Pseudoalteromonas strains contained much lower levels of potential eukaryotic-like proteins which are known to be enriched in symbiotic sponge associated microorganisms, than might be expected for true sponge symbionts. While all the Pseudoalteromonas shared a large distinct subset of genes, nonetheless the number of unique and accessory genes is quite large and defines the pan-genome as open. Enzymatic screens indicate that a vast array of enzyme activities is expressed by the isolates, including β-galactosidase, β-glucosidase, and protease activities. A β-glucosidase gene from one of the Pseudoalteromonas isolates, strain EB27 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and, following biochemical characterization, the recombinant enzyme was found to be cold-adapted, thermolabile, halotolerant, and alkaline active.

  2. Biotechnological Potential of Cold Adapted Pseudoalteromonas spp. Isolated from 'Deep Sea' Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Erik; Knobloch, Stephen; Dwyer, Emilie; Flynn, Sinéad; Jackson, Stephen A; Jóhannsson, Ragnar; Marteinsson, Viggó T; O'Gara, Fergal; Dobson, Alan D W

    2017-06-19

    The marine genus Pseudoalteromonas is known for its versatile biotechnological potential with respect to the production of antimicrobials and enzymes of industrial interest. We have sequenced the genomes of three Pseudoalteromonas sp. strains isolated from different deep sea sponges on the Illumina MiSeq platform. The isolates have been screened for various industrially important enzymes and comparative genomics has been applied to investigate potential relationships between the isolates and their host organisms, while comparing them to free-living Pseudoalteromonas spp. from shallow and deep sea environments. The genomes of the sponge associated Pseudoalteromonas strains contained much lower levels of potential eukaryotic-like proteins which are known to be enriched in symbiotic sponge associated microorganisms, than might be expected for true sponge symbionts. While all the Pseudoalteromonas shared a large distinct subset of genes, nonetheless the number of unique and accessory genes is quite large and defines the pan-genome as open. Enzymatic screens indicate that a vast array of enzyme activities is expressed by the isolates, including β-galactosidase, β-glucosidase, and protease activities. A β-glucosidase gene from one of the Pseudoalteromonas isolates, strain EB27 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and, following biochemical characterization, the recombinant enzyme was found to be cold-adapted, thermolabile, halotolerant, and alkaline active.

  3. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria inhibited by extracts and fractions from Brazilian marine sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palloma R. Marinho

    Full Text Available The growing number of bacterial strains resistant to conventional antibiotics has become a serious medical problem in recent years. Marine sponges are a rich source of bioactive compounds, and many species can be useful for the development of new antimicrobial drugs. This study reports the in vitro screening of marine sponges in the search for novel substances against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Sponge extracts were tested against 44 bacterial strains, including fourteen antibiotic-resistant strains. Ten out of the twelve sponge species studied showed activity in one or more of the bioassays. Aqueous extracts of Cinachyrella sp. and Petromica citrina showed a large action spectrum over resistant-bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Enterococcus faecalis. Aqueous extract of P. citrina was fractioned and aqueous fraction showed a greatest inhibitory activity on Staphylococcus strains. In addition, this fraction demonstrated a bactericidal effect on exponentially growing S. aureus cells at the MIC (16 µg/mL. The mechanism of action of bioactive fraction is still unclear, but we showed that it affect protein biosynthesis of Staphylococcus. Our results demonstrated for the first time that P. citrina is a potential source of new drugs for the treatment of infections by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  4. Unexpected diversity and new species in the sponge-Parazoanthidae association in southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Javier; Sinniger, Frederic; Reimer, James Davis

    2015-08-01

    Currently the genera Parazoanthus (family Parazoanthidae) and Epizoanthus (family Epizoanthidae) are the only sponge-associated zoantharians (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). The Parazoanthidae-sponge associations are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical waters from the intertidal to the deep sea in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. However, the taxonomic identification of both parties is often confused due to variable morphology and wide ecological ranges. In particular, Parazoanthidae species diversity remains poorly understood in the Indo-Pacific. In the present study, the diversity of the sponge-zoanthid association in the Indo-Pacific was investigated with 71 Parazoanthidae specimens collected from 29 different locations in Japan (n=22), Australia (n=6) and Florida, USA (n=1). For all specimens morphological analyses were performed and total DNA was extracted and amplified for four DNA markers (COI-mtDNA, mt 16S-rDNA, ITS-rDNA and ALG11-nuDNA). The combined data demonstrate that the specimens of this study are clearly different from those of all described Parazoanthus species, and lead us to erect Umimayanthus gen. n., within family Parazoanthidae, containing the three newly described species U. chanpuru sp. n., U. miyabi sp. n., U. nakama sp. n. The new genus also includes the previously described species U. parasiticus (Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1860; comb. nov.), previously belonging to the genus Parazoanthus. Neighbor joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian posterior probability phylogenetic trees clearly demonstrate the monophyly of Umimayanthus gen. n. to the exclusion of all outgroup sequences. The phylogenetic results were also compared to morphological features, and polyp sizes, amount of sand content in tissues, types of connections between polyps, and cnidae data, in particular holotrichs-1, were useful in distinguishing the different species within this new genus. This new genus can be distinguished from all other Zoantharia by a unique and

  5. Unexpected diversity and new species in the sponge-Parazoanthidae association in southern Japan

    KAUST Repository

    Montenegro, Javier

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Currently the genera Parazoanthus (family Parazoanthidae) and Epizoanthus (family Epizoanthidae) are the only sponge-associated zoantharians (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). The Parazoanthidae-sponge associations are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical waters from the intertidal to the deep sea in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. However, the taxonomic identification of both parties is often confused due to variable morphology and wide ecological ranges. In particular, Parazoanthidae species diversity remains poorly understood in the Indo-Pacific. In the present study, the diversity of the sponge-zoanthid association in the Indo-Pacific was investigated with 71 Parazoanthidae specimens collected from 29 different locations in Japan (n= 22), Australia (n= 6) and Florida, USA (n= 1). For all specimens morphological analyses were performed and total DNA was extracted and amplified for four DNA markers (COI-mtDNA, mt 16S-rDNA, ITS-rDNA and ALG11-nuDNA). The combined data demonstrate that the specimens of this study are clearly different from those of all described Parazoanthus species, and lead us to erect Umimayanthus gen. n., within family Parazoanthidae, containing the three newly described species U. chanpuru sp. n., U. miyabi sp. n., U. nakama sp. n. The new genus also includes the previously described species U. parasiticus (Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1860; comb. nov.), previously belonging to the genus Parazoanthus. Neighbor joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian posterior probability phylogenetic trees clearly demonstrate the monophyly of Umimayanthus gen. n. to the exclusion of all outgroup sequences. The phylogenetic results were also compared to morphological features, and polyp sizes, amount of sand content in tissues, types of connections between polyps, and cnidae data, in particular holotrichs-1, were useful in distinguishing the different species within this new genus. This new genus can be distinguished from all other

  6. Chitosan: collagen sponges. In vitro mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Virginia da C.A.; Silva, Gustavo M.; Plepis, Ana Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    The regeneration of bone tissue is a problem that affects many people and scaffolds for bone tissue growth has been widely studied. The aim of this study was the in vitro mineralization of chitosan, chitosan:native collagen and chitosan:anionic collagen sponges. The sponges were obtained by lyophilization and mineralization was made by soaking the sponges in alternating solutions containing Ca 2+ and PO 4 3- . The mineralization was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction observing the formation of phosphate salts, possibly a carbonated hydroxyapatite since Ca/P=1.80. The degree of mineralization was obtained by thermogravimetry calculating the amount of residue at 750 deg C. The chitosan:anionic collagen sponge showed the highest degree of mineralization probably due to the fact that anionic collagen provides additional sites for interaction with the inorganic phase. (author)

  7. Silicon isotope fractionation by marine siliceous sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, K. R.; Maldonado, M.

    2016-02-01

    The stable isotope composition of benthic sponge spicule silica is a potential source of palaeoceanographic information about past deep seawater chemistry. The silicon isotope composition of spicules has been shown to relate to the silicic acid concentration of ambient water. However, existing calibrations do exhibit a degree of scatter in the relationship, and there are many open questions surrounding the mechanism behind isotopic fractionation during biosilicification. Here, we present a new study of silicon isotopes in siliceous sponges, covering a range of ancestral lineages, marine environments and geographical locations, and the impact of cleaning methods of silicon isotope compositions. We show that the cleaning method has minimal impact on silicon isotope composition of sponge spicules. Our results highlight the importance of environmental and biological factors on silicon isotope fractionation, and we discuss the implications of these results on the use of palaeoceanographic applications of sponge spicules.

  8. Biodiversity, zoogeography and affinity of Orissa sponges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thomas, P.A.; Sree, A.; Bapuji, M.; Rao, K.M.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    from these reefs. The diversity, bio-zeo-distribution and affinity of these sponges are discussed. The analysis of data is mainly arrived at by quasi-quantitative sampling supported by observations and video documentation. Community structure...

  9. AFSC/ABL: Salisbury Sound sponge recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1995, an area of the seafloor near Salisbury Sound was trawled to identify immediate effects on large, erect sponges and sea whips. Video transects were made in...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: white sponge nevus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 gene causing white sponge nevus in a Japanese family. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013 May; ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  11. Sound absorption by Menger sponge fractal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Tetsuji; Miyazaki, Takatsuna; Oka, Daisuke; Koyanagi, Sin'ichiro; Hinokidani, Atsushi

    2009-05-01

    For the purpose of investigation on acoustic properties of fractals, the sound absorption coefficients are experimentally measured by using the Menger sponge which is one of typical three-dimensional fractals. From the two-microphone measurement, the frequency range of effectively absorbing sound waves is shown to broaden with degree of fractality, which comes from the fractal property of the homothetic character. It is shown that experimental features are qualitatively explained by an electrical equivalent circuit model for the Menger sponge.

  12. Isolation, Phylogenetic Analysis and Antibiotic Activity Screening of Red Sea Sponge-Associated Actinobacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Chen

    2013-06-01

    Infectious disease has always been and will continue to be a heavy burden on human society worldwide. Terrestrial actinobacteria, notable as a source of antibiotics, have been well investigated in the past. In constrast, marine actinobacteria, especially sponge-associated species, have received much less attention and isolates are sparse. With the aim of studying and discovering novel marine actinobacteria, 11 different species of sponges were collected from the Central Red Sea in Saudi Arabia and cultured with three different types of media. 16S rRNA gene-sequencing revealed that among all 75 isolated bacterial strains 13 belonged to the order actinomycetales. These 13 actinomycetes fall into four different families and can be assigned to six different genera. Antibiotic activity tests using disc diffusion assay were performed against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus sp.), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), fungi (Fusarium sp.) and West Nile virus NS3 protease. Nine strains presented different level of bioactivity against these pathogens. These findings provide evidence that actinomycetes are presented in marine sponges and that they have the potential to be good candidates in the search for new effective antibiotic, antifungal, and antiviral compounds.

  13. The different potential of sponge bacterial symbionts in N₂ release indicated by the phylogenetic diversity and abundance analyses of denitrification genes, nirK and nosZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; He, Liming; Zhang, Fengli; Sun, Wei; Li, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen cycle is a critical biogeochemical process of the oceans. The nitrogen fixation by sponge cyanobacteria was early observed. Until recently, sponges were found to be able to release nitrogen gas. However the gene-level evidence for the role of bacterial symbionts from different species sponges in nitrogen gas release is limited. And meanwhile, the quanitative analysis of nitrogen cycle-related genes of sponge microbial symbionts is relatively lacking. The nirK gene encoding nitrite reductase which catalyzes soluble nitrite into gas NO and nosZ gene encoding nitrous oxide reductase which catalyzes N₂O into N₂ are two key functional genes in the complete denitrification pathway. In this study, using nirK and nosZ genes as markers, the potential of bacterial symbionts in six species of sponges in the release of N2 was investigated by phylogenetic analysis and real-time qPCR. As a result, totally, 2 OTUs of nirK and 5 OTUs of nosZ genes were detected by gene library-based saturated sequencing. Difference phylogenetic diversity of nirK and nosZ genes were observed at OTU level in sponges. Meanwhile, real-time qPCR analysis showed that Xestospongia testudinaria had the highest abundance of nosZ gene, while Cinachyrella sp. had the greatest abundance of nirK gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the nirK and nosZ genes were probably of Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria origin. The results from this study suggest that the denitrification potential of bacteria varies among sponges because of the different phylogenetic diversity and relative abundance of nosZ and nirK genes in sponges. Totally, both the qualitative and quantitative analyses of nirK and nosZ genes indicated the different potential of sponge bacterial symbionts in the release of nitrogen gas.

  14. The different potential of sponge bacterial symbionts in N₂ release indicated by the phylogenetic diversity and abundance analyses of denitrification genes, nirK and nosZ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhang

    Full Text Available Nitrogen cycle is a critical biogeochemical process of the oceans. The nitrogen fixation by sponge cyanobacteria was early observed. Until recently, sponges were found to be able to release nitrogen gas. However the gene-level evidence for the role of bacterial symbionts from different species sponges in nitrogen gas release is limited. And meanwhile, the quanitative analysis of nitrogen cycle-related genes of sponge microbial symbionts is relatively lacking. The nirK gene encoding nitrite reductase which catalyzes soluble nitrite into gas NO and nosZ gene encoding nitrous oxide reductase which catalyzes N₂O into N₂ are two key functional genes in the complete denitrification pathway. In this study, using nirK and nosZ genes as markers, the potential of bacterial symbionts in six species of sponges in the release of N2 was investigated by phylogenetic analysis and real-time qPCR. As a result, totally, 2 OTUs of nirK and 5 OTUs of nosZ genes were detected by gene library-based saturated sequencing. Difference phylogenetic diversity of nirK and nosZ genes were observed at OTU level in sponges. Meanwhile, real-time qPCR analysis showed that Xestospongia testudinaria had the highest abundance of nosZ gene, while Cinachyrella sp. had the greatest abundance of nirK gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the nirK and nosZ genes were probably of Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria origin. The results from this study suggest that the denitrification potential of bacteria varies among sponges because of the different phylogenetic diversity and relative abundance of nosZ and nirK genes in sponges. Totally, both the qualitative and quantitative analyses of nirK and nosZ genes indicated the different potential of sponge bacterial symbionts in the release of nitrogen gas.

  15. Sponge-Associated Bacteria Produce Non-cytotoxic Melanin Which Protects Animal Cells from Photo-Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vijitha; Jasmin, Chekidhenkuzhiyil; Anas, Abdulaziz; Parakkaparambil Kuttan, Sreelakshmi; Vinothkumar, Saradavey; Perunninakulath Subrayan, Parameswaran; Nair, Shanta

    2017-09-01

    Melanin is a photo-protective polymer found in many organisms. Our research shows that the bacteria associated with darkly pigmented sponges (Haliclona pigmentifera, Sigmadocia pumila, Fasciospongia cavernosa, Spongia officinalis, and Callyspongia diffusa) secrete non-cytotoxic melanin, with antioxidant activity that protects animal cells from photo-toxicity. Out of 156 bacterial strains screened, 22 produced melanin and these melanin-producing bacteria (MPB) were identified as Vibrio spp., Providencia sp., Bacillus sp., Shewanella sp., Staphylococcus sp., Planococcus sp., Salinococcus sp., and Glutamicibacter sp. Maximum melanin production was exhibited by Vibrio alginolyticus Marine Microbial Reference Facility (MMRF) 534 (50 mg ml -1 ), followed by two isolates of Vibrio harveyi MMRF 535 (40 mg ml -1 ) and MMRF 546 (30 mg ml -1 ). Using pathway inhibition assay and FT-IR spectral analysis, we identified the melanin secreted into the culture medium of MPB as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin. The bacterial melanin was non-cytotoxic to mouse fibroblast L929 cells and brine shrimps up to a concentration of 200 and 500 ppm, respectively. Bacterial melanin showed antioxidant activity at very low concentration (IC 50 -9.0 ppm) and at 50 ppm, melanin protected L929 cells from UV-induced intracellular reactive oxygen stress. Our study proposes sponge-associated bacteria as a potential source of non-cytotoxic melanin with antioxidant potentials.

  16. Sponge-specific unknown bacterial groups detected in marine sponges collected from Korea through barcoded pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong-Bin; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Jin-Sook

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial diversity of 10 marine sponges belonging to the species Cliona celata, an unidentified Cliona species, Haliclona cinerea, Halichondria okadai, Hymeniacidon sinapium, Lissodendoryx isodictyalis, Penares incrustans, Spirastrella abata, and Spirastrella panis collected from Jeju Island and Chuja Island was investigated using amplicon pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. The microbial diversity of these sponges has as of yet rarely or never been investigated. All sponges, except Cliona celata, Lissodendoryx isodictyalis, and Penares incrustans, showed simple bacterial diversity, in which one or two bacterial OTUs occupied more than 50% of the pyrosequencing reads and their OTU rank abundance curves saturated quickly. Most of the predominant OTUs belonged to Alpha-, Beta-, or Gammaproteobacteria. Some of the OTUs from the sponges with low diversity were distantly (88%~89%) or moderately (93%~97%) related to known sequences in the GenBank nucleotide database. Phylogenetic analysis showed that many of the representative sequences of the OTUs were related to the sequences originating from sponges and corals, and formed sponge-specific or -related clades. The marine sponges investigated herein harbored unexplored bacterial diversity, and further studies should be done to understand the microbes present in sponges.

  17. Silicon isotopic fractionation in marine sponges: A new model for understanding silicon isotopic variations in sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Martin; Sutton, Jill; Ellwood, Michael J.; Sambridge, Malcolm; Maher, William; Eggins, Stephen; Kelly, Michelle

    2010-04-01

    The silicon (Si) isotope ( δ30Si) composition of deep-sea sponges from near Antarctica, subantarctic waters (Tasmania Seamounts) and subtropical waters north of New Zealand vary widely between + 0.87‰ and - 3.40‰ (vs. NBS28). Depth profiles show that sponge δ30Si compositions trend to lower values with increasing depth. This is exemplified by sponges from the Tasmania Seamounts where δ30Si varies from + 0.87‰ to - 3.13‰ over a depth range from 100 m to 1200 m. These changes in δ30Si of sponges are inconsistent with a Rayleigh type isotope fractionation model requiring constant δ30Si fractionation between sponge and seawater. We conclude that overall Si isotope fractionation Δ30Si ( δ30Si sponge - δ30Si seawater) is influenced by seawater Si concentration, with more fractionated (lower) isotope values being associated with sponges collected from waters high in Si. We invoke and fit a model whereby the Δ30Si fractionation varies as a function Si influx and efflux. Using this model it appears that Δ30Si fractionation during transport into the sponge is constant at - 1.34‰. The model also shows asymptotic behaviour with Δ30Si trending towards a maximum of - 6.02‰ at very high Si concentrations. These results suggest that the δ30Si composition of fossil spicules may be useful for reconstruction paleo-Si concentrations during the past.

  18. Spatial distribution of sponge-associated bacteria in the Mediterranean sponge Tethya aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Vera; Neulinger, Sven C; Staufenberger, Tim; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2007-01-01

    The local distribution of the bacterial community associated with the marine sponge Tethya aurantium Pallas 1766 was studied. Distinct bacterial communities were found to inhabit the endosome and cortex. Clear differences in the associated bacterial populations were demonstrated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Specifically associated phylotypes were identified for both regions: a new phylotype of Flexibacteria was recovered only from the sponge cortex, while Synechococcus species were present mainly in the sponge endosome. Light conduction via radiate spicule bundles conceivably facilitates the unusual association of Cyanobacteria with the sponge endosome. Furthermore, a new monophyletic cluster of sponge-derived 16S rRNA gene sequences related to the Betaproteobacteria was identified using analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Members of this cluster were specifically associated with both cortex and endosome of T. aurantium.

  19. Environmental shaping of sponge associated archaeal communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S Turque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaea are ubiquitous symbionts of marine sponges but their ecological roles and the influence of environmental factors on these associations are still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the diversity and composition of archaea associated with seawater and with the sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila, Paraleucilla magna and Petromica citrina in two distinct environments: Guanabara Bay, a highly impacted estuary in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the nearby Cagarras Archipelago. For this we used metagenomic analyses of 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase (amoA gene libraries. Hymeniacidon heliophila was more abundant inside the bay, while P. magna was more abundant outside and P. citrina was only recorded at the Cagarras Archipelago. Principal Component Analysis plots (PCA generated using pairwise unweighted UniFrac distances showed that the archaeal community structure of inner bay seawater and sponges was different from that of coastal Cagarras Archipelago. Rarefaction analyses showed that inner bay archaeaoplankton were more diverse than those from the Cagarras Archipelago. Only members of Crenarchaeota were found in sponge libraries, while in seawater both Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were observed. Although most amoA archaeal genes detected in this study seem to be novel, some clones were affiliated to known ammonia oxidizers such as Nitrosopumilus maritimus and Cenarchaeum symbiosum. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The composition and diversity of archaeal communities associated with pollution-tolerant sponge species can change in a range of few kilometers, probably influenced by eutrophication. The presence of archaeal amoA genes in Porifera suggests that Archaea are involved in the nitrogen cycle within the sponge holobiont, possibly increasing its resistance to anthropogenic impacts. The higher diversity of Crenarchaeota in the polluted area suggests that some marine sponges are able to change the composition

  20. Antagonistic activity of marine sponges associated Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvakumar Dharmaraj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To focus on the isolation and preliminary characterization of marine sponges associated Actinobacteria particularly Streptomyces species and also their antagonistic activities against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Methods: The sponges were collected from Kovalam and Vizhinjam port of south-west coast of Kerala, India. Isolation of strains was carried out from sponge extracts using international Streptomyces project media. For preliminary identification of the strains, morphological (mycelial colouration, soluble pigments, melanoid pigmentation, spore morphology, nutritional uptake (carbon utilisation, amonoacids influence, sodium chloride tolerance, physiological (pH, temperature and chemotaxonomical characterization were done. Antimicrobial studies were also carried out for the selected strains. Results: With the help of the spicule structures, the collected marine sponges were identified as Callyspongia diffusa, Mycale mytilorum, Tedania anhelans and Dysidea fragilis. Nearly 94 strains were primarily isolated from these sponges and further they were sub-cultured using international Streptomyces project media. The strains exhibited different mycelial colouration (aerial and substrate, soluble and melanoid pigmentations. The strains possessed three types of sporophore morphology namely rectus flexibilis, spiral and retinaculiaperti. Among the 94 isolates, seven exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities with maximal zone of inhibition of 30 mm. The nutritional, physiological and chemotaxonomical characteristic study helped in the conventional identification of the seven strains and they all suggest that the strains to be grouped under the genus Streptomyces. Conclusions: The present study clearly helps in the preliminary identification of the isolates associated with marine sponges. Antagonistic activities prove the production of antimicrobial metabolites against the pathogens. Marine sponges associated Streptomyces are

  1. Chemistry of renieramycins. Part 5. Structure elucidation of renieramycin-type derivatives O, Q, R, and S from thai marine sponge Xestospongia species pretreated with potassium cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amnuoypol, Surattana; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Pummangura, Sunibhond; Kubo, Akinori; Tanaka, Chieko; Saito, Naoki

    2004-06-01

    Four minor renieramycin-type derivatives, including renieramycins O (1o) and Q-S (1q-s), were isolated from the sponge Xestospongia sp. pretreated with potassium cyanide. Their structures were elucidated by comparison of spectral data with those of recently reported renieramycins M (1m) and N (1n). The results of transformation and cytotoxicity measurements are also described.

  2. First records of sponge-associated Actinomycetes from two coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First records of sponge-associated Actinomycetes from two coastal sponges from Mauritius. Sandeep Shivram Beepat, Chandani Appadoo, Daniel Edgard Pierre Marie, Shamimtaz Bibi Sadally, Jose Pavao Mendes Paula, Kannan Sivakumar, Rashmi Ragothama Rao, Maryam Salah ...

  3. Oestrus induction using fluorogestone acetate sponges and equine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fluorogestone acetate sponge) alone or in combination with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) on oestrus response in Red Sokoto (RS) goats. One hundred RS does were treated with 30 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponges for 14 ...

  4. Substrate as driver of sponge distributions in mangrove ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; Franken, O.; Knopperts, F.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Vargas, R.; Rölling, W.F.M.; van der Geest, H.G.

    2013-01-01

    Caribbean mangrove-associated sponge communities are very distinct from sponge communities living on nearby reefs, but the mechanisms that underlie this distinction remain uncertain. This study aimed to elucidate the relative importance of substrate and habitat in determining the ability of sponges

  5. Distribution, abundance and ecology of the sponge Spheciospongia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution, abundance and physico-chemical parameters affecting the sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda were studied in a shallow lagoon (Albion) of Mauritius. Visual censuses were conducted along the 2 Km lagoon and GPS coordinates around sponge assemblages (patches) were noted. Sponge abundance ...

  6. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  7. 21 CFR 880.2740 - Surgical sponge scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical sponge scale. 880.2740 Section 880.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.2740 Surgical sponge scale. (a) Identification. A surgical sponge scale is a nonelectrically...

  8. Draft genome sequences of three chemically rich actinomycetes isolated from Mediterranean sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Hannes; Cheng, Cheng; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Hentschel, Ute; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan

    2015-12-01

    Metabolomic analysis has shown the chemical richness of the sponge-associated actinomycetes Streptomyces sp. SBT349, Nonomureae sp. SBT364, and Nocardiopsis sp. SBT366. The genomes of these actinomycetes were sequenced and the genomic potential for secondary metabolism was evaluated. Their draft genomes have sizes of 8.0, 10, and 5.8 Mb having 687, 367, and 179 contigs with a GC content of 71.6, 70.7, and 72.7%, respectively. Moreover, antiSMASH 3.0 predicted 108, 149, and 75 secondary metabolite gene clusters, respectively which highlight the metabolic capacity of the three actinomycete species to produce diverse classes of natural products. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Middle ear packing materials: comparison between absorbable hemostatic gelatine sponge and sugarcane biopolymer sponge in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Lopes Bunzen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several biomaterials can be used in ear surgery to pack the middle ear or support the graft. The absorbable gelatin sponge is the most widely used, but it may produce fibrosis and impair ventilation of the middle ear. OBJECTIVE: This experimental study aimed to investigate the inflammatory effects of the sugarcane biopolymer sponge (BP in the rat middle ear compared with absorbable gelatin sponge (AGS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective experimental study design. Thirty adult female Wistar rats were allocated to receive the BP sponge into the right ear and AGS into the left ear. Animals were randomly killed at 4 and 12 weeks post-procedure. Qualitative histological assessments were performed to evaluate the inflammatory reaction in the tympanic bullae. RESULTS: The BP sponge caused inflammation more intense and persistent than AGS. The BP was not absorbed during the experiment. Fibrosis was observed only in the ears with AGS. There were thickening of the mucosa and neoangiogenesis in the group of AGS. CONCLUSION: Despite inflammation, the BP sponge produced less fibrosis and neoangiogenesis compared to AGS. The sponge BP appeared to be a non-absorbable biomaterial in the middle ear.

  10. Think like a sponge: The genetic signal of sensory cells in sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Jasmine L; Leys, Sally P

    2017-11-01

    A complex genetic repertoire underlies the apparently simple body plan of sponges. Among the genes present in poriferans are those fundamental to the sensory and nervous systems of other animals. Sponges are dynamic and sensitive animals and it is intuitive to link these genes to behaviour. The proposal that ctenophores are the earliest diverging metazoan has led to the question of whether sponges possess a 'pre-nervous' system or have undergone nervous system loss. Both lines of thought generally assume that the last common ancestor of sponges and eumetazoans possessed the genetic modules that underlie sensory abilities. By corollary extant sponges may possess a sensory cell homologous to one present in the last common ancestor, a hypothesis that has been studied by gene expression. We have performed a meta-analysis of all gene expression studies published to date to explore whether gene expression is indicative of a feature's sensory function. In sponges we find that eumetazoan sensory-neural markers are not particularly expressed in structures with known sensory functions. Instead it is common for these genes to be expressed in cells with no known or uncharacterized sensory function. Indeed, many sensory-neural markers so far studied are expressed during development, perhaps because many are transcription factors. This suggests that the genetic signal of a sponge sensory cell is dissimilar enough to be unrecognizable when compared to a bilaterian sensory or neural cell. It is possible that sensory-neural markers have as yet unknown functions in sponge cells, such as assembling an immunological synapse in the larval globular cell. Furthermore, the expression of sensory-neural markers in non-sensory cells, such as adult and larval epithelial cells, suggest that these cells may have uncharacterized sensory functions. While this does not rule out the co-option of ancestral sensory modules in later evolving groups, a distinct genetic foundation may underlie the

  11. Antioxidant and Anti-Protease Activities of Diazepinomicin from the Sponge-Associated Micromonospora Strain RV115

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Szesny, Matthias; Othman, Eman Maher; Schirmeister, Tanja; Grond, Stephanie; Stopper, Helga; Hentschel, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Diazepinomicin is a dibenzodiazepine alkaloid with an unusual structure among the known microbial metabolites discovered so far. Diazepinomicin was isolated from the marine sponge-associated strain Micromonospora sp. RV115 and was identified by spectroscopic analysis and by comparison to literature data. In addition to its interesting preclinical broad-spectrum antitumor potential, we report here new antioxidant and anti-protease activities for this compound. Using the ferric reducing antioxi...

  12. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brümmer Franz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide

  13. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen patients with medullary sponge kidney underwent a short ammonium chloride loading test to investigate their renal acidification capacity. All but 1 presented with a history of recurrent renal calculi and showed bilateral widespread renal medullary calcification on X-ray examination. Nine...... patients had some form of renal acidification defect; 8 had the distal type of renal tubular acidosis, 2 the complete and 6 the incomplete form. One patient had proximal renal tubular acidosis. These findings, which suggest that renal acidification defects play an important role in the pathogenesis...... of renal calculi in medullary sponge kidney, have considerable therapeutic implications....

  14. Sponge-microbial interactions: Ecological implications and bioprospecting avenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvin, Joseph; Ninawe, A S; Kiran, G Seghal; Lipton, A P

    2010-01-01

    Sponges are closely associated with microorganisms that occur either intracellularly and extracellularly. Sponges are soft-bodied sessile organisms appear to be defenseless in facing predation. Microbial symbionts supposed to have a functional role in the host defense against pathogens, predation and microfouling processes. Recently, the ubiquitous defense enzyme, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) detected in the sponge associated bacterium envisaged the possible functional role in the ecological succession of host sponge against predatory / fouling pressure in the habitat. In present review, we highlighted the possible functional interactions between associated microbes and host sponges and its potentials in bioprospecting approaches.

  15. Resilience to disturbance despite limited dispersal and self-recruitment in tropical barrel sponges: implications for conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James J; Smith, David; Hannan, Danielle; Haris, Abdul; Jompa, Jamaludin; Thomas, Luke

    2014-01-01

    While estimates of connectivity are important for effective management, few such estimates are available for reef invertebrates other than for corals. Barrel sponges are one of the largest and most conspicuous members of the coral reef fauna across the Indo-Pacific and given their large size, longevity and ability to process large volumes of water, they have a major role in reef functioning. Here we used a panel of microsatellite markers to characterise the genetic structure of two barrel sponge species, Xestospongia testudinaria and a currently undescribed Xestospongia species. We sampled across seven populations in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, SE Sulawesi (Indonesia) spanning a spatial scale of approximately 2 to 70 km, and present the first estimates of demographic connectivity for coral reef sponges. Genetic analyses showed high levels of genetic differentiation between all populations for both species, but contrasting patterns of genetic structuring for the two species. Autocorrelation analyses showed the likely dispersal distances of both species to be in the order of 60 and 140 m for Xestopongia sp. and Xestospongia testudinaria, respectively, which was supported by assignment tests that showed high levels of self-recruitment (>80%). We also found consistently high inbreeding coefficients across all populations for both species. Our study highlights the potential susceptibility of barrel sponges to environmental perturbations because they are generally long-lived, slow growing, have small population sizes and are likely to be reliant on self-recruitment. Surprisingly, despite these features we actually found the highest abundance of both barrel sponge species (although they were generally smaller) at a site that has been severely impacted by humans over the last fifty years. This suggests that barrel sponges exhibit environmental adaptation to declining environmental quality and has important implications for the management and conservation of these

  16. Resilience to disturbance despite limited dispersal and self-recruitment in tropical barrel sponges: implications for conservation and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Bell

    Full Text Available While estimates of connectivity are important for effective management, few such estimates are available for reef invertebrates other than for corals. Barrel sponges are one of the largest and most conspicuous members of the coral reef fauna across the Indo-Pacific and given their large size, longevity and ability to process large volumes of water, they have a major role in reef functioning. Here we used a panel of microsatellite markers to characterise the genetic structure of two barrel sponge species, Xestospongia testudinaria and a currently undescribed Xestospongia species. We sampled across seven populations in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, SE Sulawesi (Indonesia spanning a spatial scale of approximately 2 to 70 km, and present the first estimates of demographic connectivity for coral reef sponges. Genetic analyses showed high levels of genetic differentiation between all populations for both species, but contrasting patterns of genetic structuring for the two species. Autocorrelation analyses showed the likely dispersal distances of both species to be in the order of 60 and 140 m for Xestopongia sp. and Xestospongia testudinaria, respectively, which was supported by assignment tests that showed high levels of self-recruitment (>80%. We also found consistently high inbreeding coefficients across all populations for both species. Our study highlights the potential susceptibility of barrel sponges to environmental perturbations because they are generally long-lived, slow growing, have small population sizes and are likely to be reliant on self-recruitment. Surprisingly, despite these features we actually found the highest abundance of both barrel sponge species (although they were generally smaller at a site that has been severely impacted by humans over the last fifty years. This suggests that barrel sponges exhibit environmental adaptation to declining environmental quality and has important implications for the management and

  17. Sterilization of rotary NiTi instruments within endodontic sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H W A; Tan, K H; Dashper, S G; Reynolds, E C; Parashos, P

    2015-08-17

    To determine whether the following can be sterilized by autoclaving - endodontic sponges, rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments within endodontic sponges, and rotary NiTi instruments with rubber stoppers. Sixty-four samples of eight different endodontic sponges (n = 512) were placed into brain heart infusion broth (BHI) for 72 h. An aliquot of this was then spread onto horse blood agar and cultured aerobically and anaerobically to test sterility at purchase. Bacterial suspensions of Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus in BHI were used to contaminate sterile sponges and rotary NiTi instruments (with and without rubber stoppers) inserted into sponges. The various samples were autoclaved and then cultured aerobically and anaerobically. Success of sterilization was measured qualitatively as no growth. The experiment was repeated with clinically used rotary NiTi instruments (n = 512). All experiments were conducted in quadruplicate. No sponges on purchase had microbial growth when anaerobically cultured but some did when aerobically cultured. All autoclaved sponges and instruments (within or without sponges, and with or without rubber stoppers) were associated with no microbial growth. All nonautoclaved positive control samples showed microbial growth. Autoclaving was effective in the sterilization of sponges and endodontic instruments. Endodontic sponges should be autoclaved before clinical use. For clinical efficiency and cost-effectiveness, rotary NiTi instruments can be sterilized in endodontic sponges without removal of rubber stoppers. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Negombins A-I, new chlorinated polyfunctional diterpenoids from the marine sponge Negombata species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudi, Amira; Benayahu, Yehuda; Kashman, Yoel

    2007-06-07

    Nine novel compounds designated negombins A-I (1-9) were isolated, together with latrunculin, from the Tanzanian sponge Negombata sp. The nine are sacculatane type diterpenes, previously only known from liverworts. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by interpretation of MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectra. A possible biogenesis initiated by the naturally rare chloronium ion is suggested, possibly hinting to a guest microorganism as the source of the compounds. Compound 4 is toxic to brine shrimp larvae.

  19. Same, same but different: symbiotic bacterial associations in GBR sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole S Webster

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbioses in marine sponges involve diverse consortia of microorganisms that contribute to the health and ecology of their hosts. The microbial communities of 13 taxonomically diverse Great Barrier Reef (GBR sponge species were assessed by DGGE and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine intra and inter species variation in bacterial symbiont composition. Microbial profiling revealed communities that were largely conserved within different individuals of each species with intra species similarity ranging from 65-100%. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Nitrospira and Cyanobacteria. Sponge-associated microbes were also highly host-specific with no operational taxonomic units (OTUs common to all species and the most ubiquitous OTU found in only 5 of the 13 sponge species. In total, 91% of the OTUs were restricted to a single sponge species. However, GBR sponge microbes were more closely related to other sponge-derived bacteria than they were to environmental communities with sequences falling within 50 of the 173 previously defined sponge-(or sponge-coral specific sequence clusters. These sequence clusters spanned the Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospira and the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae superphylum. The number of sequences assigned to these sponge-specific clusters across all species ranged from 0% to 92%. No relationship between host phylogeny and symbiont communities were observed across the different sponge orders, although the highest level of similarity was detected in two closely related Xestospongia species. This study identifies the core microbial inhabitants in a range of GBR sponges thereby providing the basis for future studies on sponge symbiotic function and research aiming to predict how sponge holobionts will respond to environmental

  20. Same, same but different: symbiotic bacterial associations in GBR sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, N S; Luter, H M; Soo, R M; Botté, E S; Simister, R L; Abdo, D; Whalan, S

    2012-01-01

    Symbioses in marine sponges involve diverse consortia of microorganisms that contribute to the health and ecology of their hosts. The microbial communities of 13 taxonomically diverse Great Barrier Reef (GBR) sponge species were assessed by DGGE and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine intra and inter species variation in bacterial symbiont composition. Microbial profiling revealed communities that were largely conserved within different individuals of each species with intra species similarity ranging from 65-100%. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Nitrospira, and Cyanobacteria. Sponge-associated microbes were also highly host-specific with no operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all species and the most ubiquitous OTU found in only 5 of the 13 sponge species. In total, 91% of the OTUs were restricted to a single sponge species. However, GBR sponge microbes were more closely related to other sponge-derived bacteria than they were to environmental communities with sequences falling within 50 of the 173 previously defined sponge-(or sponge-coral) specific sequence clusters (SC). These SC spanned the Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospira, and the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae superphylum. The number of sequences assigned to these sponge-specific clusters across all species ranged from 0 to 92%. No relationship between host phylogeny and symbiont communities were observed across the different sponge orders, although the highest level of similarity was detected in two closely related Xestospongia species. This study identifies the core microbial inhabitants in a range of GBR sponges thereby providing the basis for future studies on sponge symbiotic function and research aiming to predict how sponge holobionts will respond to environmental perturbation.

  1. Same, same but different: symbiotic bacterial associations in GBR sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, N. S.; Luter, H. M.; Soo, R. M.; Botté, E. S.; Simister, R. L.; Abdo, D.; Whalan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Symbioses in marine sponges involve diverse consortia of microorganisms that contribute to the health and ecology of their hosts. The microbial communities of 13 taxonomically diverse Great Barrier Reef (GBR) sponge species were assessed by DGGE and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine intra and inter species variation in bacterial symbiont composition. Microbial profiling revealed communities that were largely conserved within different individuals of each species with intra species similarity ranging from 65–100%. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Nitrospira, and Cyanobacteria. Sponge-associated microbes were also highly host-specific with no operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all species and the most ubiquitous OTU found in only 5 of the 13 sponge species. In total, 91% of the OTUs were restricted to a single sponge species. However, GBR sponge microbes were more closely related to other sponge-derived bacteria than they were to environmental communities with sequences falling within 50 of the 173 previously defined sponge-(or sponge-coral) specific sequence clusters (SC). These SC spanned the Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospira, and the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae superphylum. The number of sequences assigned to these sponge-specific clusters across all species ranged from 0 to 92%. No relationship between host phylogeny and symbiont communities were observed across the different sponge orders, although the highest level of similarity was detected in two closely related Xestospongia species. This study identifies the core microbial inhabitants in a range of GBR sponges thereby providing the basis for future studies on sponge symbiotic function and research aiming to predict how sponge holobionts will respond to environmental perturbation. PMID:23346080

  2. Sponging up metals: bacteria associated with the marine sponge Spongia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauvais, Cléa; Zirah, Séverine; Piette, Laurie; Chaspoul, Florence; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Chapon, Virginie; Gallice, Philippe; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Pérez, Thierry; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2015-03-01

    The present study explored the bacteria of the sponge Spongia officinalis in a metal-polluted environment, using PCR-DGGE fingerprinting, culture-dependent approaches and in situ hybridization. The sponge samples collected over three consecutive years in the Western Mediterranean Sea contained high concentrations of zinc, nickel, lead and copper determined by ICP-MS. DGGE signatures indicated a sponge specific bacterial association and suggested spatial and temporal variations. The bacterial culturable fraction associated with S. officinalis and tolerant to heavy metals was isolated using metal-enriched microbiological media. The obtained 63 aerobic strains were phylogenetically affiliated to the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. All isolates showed high tolerances to the selected heavy metals. The predominant genus Pseudovibrio was localized via CARD-FISH in the sponge surface tissue and validated as a sponge-associated epibiont. This study is the first step in understanding the potential involvement of the associated bacteria in sponge's tolerance to heavy metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Two New Marine Sponges of the Genus Haliclona (Haplosclerida: Chalinidae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Won Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new marine sponges, Haliclona (Haliclona tonggumiensis n. sp. and H. (Reniera sinyeoensis n. sp., in the family Chalinidae were collected from Ulleungdo Island and Gageodo Island, Korea from 2007 to 2009. Haliclona (Haliclona tonggumiensis n. sp. is similar to H. (H. simulans (Johnston, 1842 in shape, but the former differs in its ectosomal skeleton structure and spicules’ shape and size. The ectosomal skeleton of H. (H. tonggumiensis n. sp. is absent, but that of H. (H. simulans is very regularly arranged, and has tangential reticulation with oxea. The spicule shape of H. (H. tonggumiensis n. sp. is slender, but that of H. (H. simulans is short and cigar-shape. The new species have two sizes of oxea, but H. (H. simulans has one size of oxea. Haliclona (Reniera sinyeoensis n. sp. resembles H. (R. tubifera (George and Wilson, 1919 in the growth form and choanosomal skeleton structure. However, the new species has two kinds of oxea in size, but H. (R. tubifera has only one size.

  4. Wool fibril sponges with perspective biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrucco, A., E-mail: a.patrucco@bi.ismac.cnr.it [CNR-ISMAC, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Macromolecular Studies, Corso G. Pella 16, 13900, Biella (Italy); Cristofaro, F., E-mail: francesco.cristofaro01@universitadipavia.it [Department of Molecular Medicine, INSTM UdR of Pavia, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 3/B, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Simionati, M., E-mail: m.simionati@bi.ismac.cnr.it [CNR-ISMAC, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Macromolecular Studies, Corso G. Pella 16, 13900, Biella (Italy); Zoccola, M., E-mail: m.zoccola@bi.ismac.cnr.it [CNR-ISMAC, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Macromolecular Studies, Corso G. Pella 16, 13900, Biella (Italy); Bruni, G., E-mail: giovanna.bruni@unipv.it [Department of Chemistry, — Physical-Chemistry Section, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 16, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Fassina, L., E-mail: lorenzo.fassina@unipv.it [Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Visai, L., E-mail: livia.visai@unipv.it [Department of Molecular Medicine, INSTM UdR of Pavia, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 3/B, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Department of Occupational Medicine, Toxicology and Environmental Risks, S. Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Via S. Boezio, 28, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Magenes, G., E-mail: giovanni.magenes@unipv.it [Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); and others

    2016-04-01

    Sheep's wool was used as a natural source to prepare keratin microfibril sponges for scaffolding, by disruption of the histological structure of the fibres through mild alkali treatment, followed by ultrasonication, casting and salt-leaching. The wool sponges showed highly interconnected porosity (93%) and contain intrinsic sites of cellular recognition that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM). They displayed good thermal and water stability due to the conversion of disulphide cystine bonds into shorter monosulphide lanthionine intermolecular bonds, but significantly swelled in water, because of the high hydrophilicity and porosity, with a volume increasing up to 38%. Nevertheless, sponges were stable in water without structural changes, with a neutral pH in aqueous media, and showed excellent resilience to repeated compression stresses. According to in vitro biocompatibility assays, wool fibril sponges showed a good cell adhesion and proliferation as proved by MTT, FDA assays and SEM observations. The unique structure of the cortical cell network made by wool keratin proteins with controlled-size macro-porosity suitable for cell guesting, and nutrient feeding, provides an excellent scaffold for future tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Scaffolds were prepared from wool exploiting the fibres' histology structure. • The scaffold showed high interconnected micro- and macro-porosity. • The microscopic structure is very similar to the extracellular bone matrix. • Scaffolds reversibly swell in water with high resilience to repeated compression. • Composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of SAOS-2 cell line.

  5. EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN TELUR DALAM PEMBUATAN SPONGE CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Putu Hemy Ekayani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat kue berpori (spong cake dengan kualitas baik  dengan menggunakan jumlah telur minimal yang dibantu dengan penggunaan baking powder secara optimal untuk menurunkan biaya produksi yang disebabkan oleh mahalnya harga telur. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian laboratorium (eksperimen. Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas sponge cake terbaik dihasilkan dari dua variasi rancangan variasi kadar baking powder dan telur yakni resep pertama dengan formulasi tepung terigu 100 gram, baking powder 6 gram, telur 100 gram, lemak 75 gram, dan tanpa penambahaan air; dan resep ke dua dengan formulasi tepung terigu 100 gram, baking powder 2 gram, telur 80 gram, lemak 75 gram, dan air 16 gram. Jumlah telur yang digunakaan dalam kedua resep tersebut cukup jauh berkurang dari resep umum yang menggunakan 180 gram telur untuk 100 gram tepung terigu. Temuan penelitian ini akan berimplikasi pada sponge cake dengan harga yang lebih murah, tetapi dengan kualitas yang tetap relatif baik dapat dihadirkan ke pasar.   Kata-kata kunci: spong cake,  kualitas, baking powder, biaya produksi

  6. Isolating bacteria from sponges: Why and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laport, Marinella Silva

    2018-03-28

    It is known that sponge-associated bacteria are an attractive source of new bioactive substances with biotechnological potential. These include antimicrobials, enzymes and surfactants. However, the potential of these microorganisms remains little investigated due to the difficulty of isolating new bacterial groups that produce original bioactive metabolites and enzymes. Cultivation methods are still playing crucial functions in many studies involving bacteria isolated from sponges, and in the traditional approach for biodiscovery by screening culture collections. For instance, culture media which are rich in nutrients favor the fast cultivation in comparison with slower growing bacteria, and diluted and/or poor culture media increase the possibility of growing previously uncultured bacteria. The ability to grow bacteria in culture and to characterize their secondary metabolites are a crucial approach to new biotechnology products of potential value. Many microbial biotechnology compounds used nowadays were extracted from cultured bacteria. This review presents and discusses some strategies to isolate and culture bacteria from sponges for biotechnological exploration. Finally, whole genome sequencing of sponge-associated bacteria is proposed as a novel strategy for biodiscovery. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Antiviral Lead Compounds from Marine Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth P. Minneman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and herpes simplex virus (HSV. The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed.

  8. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Minneman, Kenneth P

    2010-10-11

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hoped to be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed.

  9. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2010-10-11

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  10. Habitat preference of Zoantharia genera depends on host sponge morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Acosta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies about sponge-zoanthid symbioses have been focused on understanding the specificity of the association, rather thantesting what are the characteristics that make the host suitable to be colonized. For the first time it is investigated whether the ZoanthariaParazoanthus and Epizoanthus preference is related to the host sponge morphology (shape and mechanical resistance. Materials andmethods. Sponges were categorized according to their shape and mechanical resistance. The presence/absence of zoanthids was recordedin 1,068 sponges at San Andres Island, and their habitat preference was evaluated using indices and confidence intervals. Results. 85Parazoanthus colonies (78% of the total associations and 24 Epizoanthus colonies (22% were associated to sponges (10.2% in total.Parazoanthus uses branched and compressible sponges although prefers encrusting and fragile sponges, while Epizoanthus showes theopposite pattern, it can inhabit encrusting and fragile sponges but prefers branched and compressible sponges. Conclusion. These resultsindicated that sponge morphology is an important trait in zoanthid habitat selection. On the other hand, the similarity in the habitat used byzoanthids suggests the possibility of inter-generic competition if common resources are limited in time and space, while the differentialhabitat preference allows the competitive coexistence of both genera.

  11. Sponge-associated microorganisms: evolution, ecology, and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael W; Radax, Regina; Steger, Doris; Wagner, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Marine sponges often contain diverse and abundant microbial communities, including bacteria, archaea, microalgae, and fungi. In some cases, these microbial associates comprise as much as 40% of the sponge volume and can contribute significantly to host metabolism (e.g., via photosynthesis or nitrogen fixation). We review in detail the diversity of microbes associated with sponges, including extensive 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic analyses which support the previously suggested existence of a sponge-specific microbiota. These analyses provide a suitable vantage point from which to consider the potential evolutionary and ecological ramifications of these widespread, sponge-specific microorganisms. Subsequently, we examine the ecology of sponge-microbe associations, including the establishment and maintenance of these sometimes intimate partnerships, the varied nature of the interactions (ranging from mutualism to host-pathogen relationships), and the broad-scale patterns of symbiont distribution. The ecological and evolutionary importance of sponge-microbe associations is mirrored by their enormous biotechnological potential: marine sponges are among the animal kingdom's most prolific producers of bioactive metabolites, and in at least some cases, the compounds are of microbial rather than sponge origin. We review the status of this important field, outlining the various approaches (e.g., cultivation, cell separation, and metagenomics) which have been employed to access the chemical wealth of sponge-microbe associations.

  12. Sponge-Associated Microorganisms: Evolution, Ecology, and Biotechnological Potential†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael W.; Radax, Regina; Steger, Doris; Wagner, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Summary: Marine sponges often contain diverse and abundant microbial communities, including bacteria, archaea, microalgae, and fungi. In some cases, these microbial associates comprise as much as 40% of the sponge volume and can contribute significantly to host metabolism (e.g., via photosynthesis or nitrogen fixation). We review in detail the diversity of microbes associated with sponges, including extensive 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic analyses which support the previously suggested existence of a sponge-specific microbiota. These analyses provide a suitable vantage point from which to consider the potential evolutionary and ecological ramifications of these widespread, sponge-specific microorganisms. Subsequently, we examine the ecology of sponge-microbe associations, including the establishment and maintenance of these sometimes intimate partnerships, the varied nature of the interactions (ranging from mutualism to host-pathogen relationships), and the broad-scale patterns of symbiont distribution. The ecological and evolutionary importance of sponge-microbe associations is mirrored by their enormous biotechnological potential: marine sponges are among the animal kingdom's most prolific producers of bioactive metabolites, and in at least some cases, the compounds are of microbial rather than sponge origin. We review the status of this important field, outlining the various approaches (e.g., cultivation, cell separation, and metagenomics) which have been employed to access the chemical wealth of sponge-microbe associations. PMID:17554047

  13. Diversity of cultivable fungi associated with Antarctic marine sponges and screening for their antimicrobial, antitumoral and antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez, Marlene; Vergara, Karen; Norambuena, Javiera; Beiza, Andrea; Maza, Felipe; Ubilla, Pamela; Araya, Ivanna; Chávez, Renato; San-Martín, Aurelio; Darias, José; Darias, María J; Vaca, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of sponge-associated fungi has been poorly investigated in remote geographical areas like Antarctica. In this study, 101 phenotypically different fungal isolates were obtained from 11 sponge samples collected in King George Island, Antarctica. The analysis of ITS sequences revealed that they belong to the phylum Ascomycota. Sixty-five isolates belong to the genera Geomyces, Penicillium, Epicoccum, Pseudeurotium, Thelebolus, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, Phoma, and Trichocladium but 36 isolates could not be identified at genus level. In order to estimate the potential of these isolates as producers of interesting bioactivities, antimicrobial, antitumoral and antioxidant activities of fungal culture extracts were assayed. Around 51% of the extracts, mainly from the genus Geomyces and non identified relatives, showed antimicrobial activity against some of the bacteria tested. On the other hand, around 42% of the extracts showed potent antitumoral activity, Geomyces sp. having the best performance. Finally, the potential of the isolated fungi as producers of antioxidant activity seems to be moderate. Our results suggest that fungi associated with Antarctic sponges, particularly Geomyces, would be valuable sources of antimicrobial and antitumoral compounds. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the biodiversity and the metabolic potential of fungi associated with Antarctic marine sponges.

  14. Epizoic zoanthids reduce pumping in two Caribbean vase sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T. B.; Finelli, C. M.

    2015-03-01

    Sponges are common sessile benthic suspension feeders that play a critical role in carbon and nitrogen cycling within reef ecosystems via their filtration capabilities. Due to the contribution of sponges in benthic-pelagic coupling, it is critical to assess factors that may affect their role in the healthy function of coral reefs. Several factors can influence the rate at which an individual sponge pumps water, including body size, environmental conditions, mechanical blockage, and reduction of inhalant pores (ostia). Symbiotic zoanthid colonization is a common occurrence on Caribbean sponges, and the presence of zoanthids on the surface of a sponge may occlude or displace the inhalant ostia. We quantified pumping rates of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta ( N = 22 uncolonized, 37 colonized) and the common vase sponge, Niphates digitalis ( N = 21 uncolonized, 17 colonized), with and without zoanthid symbionts, Parazoanthus catenularis and Parazoanthus parasiticus, respectively. For X. muta, biovolume-normalized pumping rates of individuals colonized by zoanthids were approximately 75 % lower than those of uncolonized sponges. Moreover, colonization with zoanthids was related to a difference in morphology relative to uncolonized individuals: Colonized sponges exhibited an osculum area to biovolume ratio that was nearly 65 % less than uncolonized sponges. In contrast, the presence of zoanthids on N. digitalis resulted in only a marginal decrease in pumping rates and no detectable difference in morphology. The difference in zoanthid effects between X. muta and N. digitalis is likely due to the differences in wall thickness and architecture between the two species. The probable cause of reduced pumping in affected sponges is occupation of the sponge surface that leads to blockage or displacement of inhalant ostia. To partially test this hypothesis, zoanthid colonization on specimens of X. muta was simulated by wrapping sponges with plastic mesh of varying

  15. SUSPENSION-FEEDING IN MARINE SPONGES HALICHONDRIA-PANICEA AND HALICLONA-URCEOLUS - EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON FILTRATION-RATE AND ENERGY-COST OF PUMPING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H.U.; Thomassen, S.; Jakobsen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Filtration rate (measured as clearance of algal cells) was measured at different temperatures in the sponge Halichondria panicea. An increase in water temperature from 6 to 12-degrees-C caused the mean filtration rate to increase 4.3 +/- 2.3 times. This value was higher than previously found...... for other marine ciliary suspension-feeding animals. Filtration rate at 12-degrees-C was also measured in Haliclona urceolus by means of an indirect clearance method in addition to a direct technique for measuring pumping rate. It was found that the 2 sponge species had near-identical filtration rates......, with maximum rates of approximately 60 ml min-1 (g dry weight)-1 at 12-degrees-C. The normal pump pressure, or operating point O(p), of a standard sponge (based on our own measurements and calculations from literature data for a 0.1 g dry weight Haliclona sp.) was estimated as the sum of main contributions...

  16. Sponge-Associated Bacteria Are Strictly Maintained in Two Closely Related but Geographically Distant Sponge Hosts ▿ † ‡ §

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Naomi F.; Hill, Russell T.

    2011-01-01

    The giant barrel sponges Xestospongia muta and Xestospongia testudinaria are ubiquitous in tropical reefs of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, respectively. They are key species in their respective environments and are hosts to diverse assemblages of bacteria. These two closely related sponges from different oceans provide a unique opportunity to examine the evolution of sponge-associated bacterial communities. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene sequences from X. muta and X. testudinaria showed little divergence between the two species. A detailed analysis of the bacterial communities associated with these sponges, comprising over 900 full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed remarkable similarity in the bacterial communities of the two species. Both sponge-associated communities include sequences found only in the two Xestospongia species, as well as sequences found also in other sponge species and are dominated by three bacterial groups, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. While these groups consistently dominate the bacterial communities revealed by 16S rRNA gene-based analysis of sponge-associated bacteria, the depth of sequencing undertaken in this study revealed clades of bacteria specifically associated with each of the two Xestospongia species, and also with the genus Xestospongia, that have not been found associated with other sponge species or other ecosystems. This study, comparing the bacterial communities associated with closely related but geographically distant sponge hosts, gives new insight into the intimate relationships between marine sponges and some of their bacterial symbionts. PMID:21856832

  17. The Different Potential of Sponge Bacterial Symbionts in N2 Release Indicated by the Phylogenetic Diversity and Abundance Analyses of Denitrification Genes, nirK and nosZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; He, Liming; Zhang, Fengli; Sun, Wei; Li, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen cycle is a critical biogeochemical process of the oceans. The nitrogen fixation by sponge cyanobacteria was early observed. Until recently, sponges were found to be able to release nitrogen gas. However the gene-level evidence for the role of bacterial symbionts from different species sponges in nitrogen gas release is limited. And meanwhile, the quanitative analysis of nitrogen cycle-related genes of sponge microbial symbionts is relatively lacking. The nirK gene encoding nitrite reductase which catalyzes soluble nitrite into gas NO and nosZ gene encoding nitrous oxide reductase which catalyzes N2O into N2 are two key functional genes in the complete denitrification pathway. In this study, using nirK and nosZ genes as markers, the potential of bacterial symbionts in six species of sponges in the release of N2 was investigated by phylogenetic analysis and real-time qPCR. As a result, totally, 2 OTUs of nirK and 5 OTUs of nosZ genes were detected by gene library-based saturated sequencing. Difference phylogenetic diversity of nirK and nosZ genes were observed at OTU level in sponges. Meanwhile, real-time qPCR analysis showed that Xestospongia testudinaria had the highest abundance of nosZ gene, while Cinachyrella sp. had the greatest abundance of nirK gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the nirK and nosZ genes were probably of Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria origin. The results from this study suggest that the denitrification potential of bacteria varies among sponges because of the different phylogenetic diversity and relative abundance of nosZ and nirK genes in sponges. Totally, both the qualitative and quantitative analyses of nirK and nosZ genes indicated the different potential of sponge bacterial symbionts in the release of nitrogen gas. PMID:23762300

  18. Sponge-rhodolith interactions in a subtropical estuarine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Enrique; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Hinojosa-Arango, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    The interactions between sponges and red macroalgae have been widely documented in tropical and subtropical environments worldwide, and many of them have been documented as mutualistic associations. Sponges, however, have also been frequently described as part of the associated fauna of rhodolith habitats (aggregations of free-living non-geniculated coralline macroalgae). Nonetheless, the types of interaction they establish as well as the role of sponges in these habitats remain unknown. In this study, the associations between sponges and rhodoliths were investigated in an estuarine ecosystem of the Mexican Pacific based on qualitative and quantitative data. A total of 13 sponge species were identified in five newly discovered rhodolith beds dominated by the non-geniculate coralline macroalga Lithophyllum margaritae. The sponge assemblages were strongly restricted to rhodolith habitats. The best predictor of sponge abundance (from 5.1 to 51.7 ind m-2) and species richness (from 2.6 to 6.1 sponge species m-2) was the rhodolith density rather than other population descriptors assessed (e.g., average size, branch density and sphericity). The identified sponges included a variety of forms: massive (46 %), encrusting (23 %), excavating (15 %), cushion-shape (8 %) and digitate (8 %). Moreover, more than 50 % of sponge species recorded (mainly massive and encrusting forms) were frequently found overgrowing and binding rhodoliths. Halichondria cf. semitubulosa and Mycale cecilia were the most common binding agents; these species bind an average of 3.1 and 6.6 rhodoliths per sponge individual, respectively. These findings reveal the importance of rhodoliths as habitat forming species, since these seaweed beds notably increased the substrate complexity in soft bottom environments. In addition, the relatively high abundance of sponges and their capability to bind rhodoliths suggest that these associated organisms could have an important contribution to rhodolith bed stability.

  19. Screening of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Sea Sponge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The marine sponge Clathria indica, collected from Thondi-Palk Strait region of Tamil Nadu, was studied for bacterial antagonistic activity. Sponge species were identified based on specula morphology. Ethyl Acetate extracts yielded a total of 0.8g, 0.12g, 0.01g, 0.13g and 0.17g from 1.5g of sponge crude extracts respectively ...

  20. Bacterial uptake by the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrl, Markus; Steinert, Michael; Hentschel, Ute

    2007-02-01

    Sponges (Porifera) are filter feeders that take up microorganisms from seawater and digest them by phagocytosis. At the same time, many sponges are known to harbor massive consortia of symbiotic microorganisms, which are phylogenetically distinct from those in seawater, within the mesohyl matrix. In the present study, feeding experiments were performed to investigate whether phylogenetically different bacterial isolates, hereafter termed "food bacteria," microbial seawater consortia, and sponge symbiont consortia are taken up and processed differently by the host sponge. Aplysina aerophoba retained high numbers of bacterial isolates and microbial seawater consortia with rates of up to 2.76 x 10(6) bacteria (g sponge wet weight)(-1) h(-1), whereas the retention of sponge symbionts was lower by nearly two orders of magnitude [5.37 x 10(4) bacteria (g sponge wet weight)(-1) h(-1)]. In order to visualize the processing of a food bacterium within sponge tissues, the green fluorescent protein-labeled Vibrio strain MMW1, which had originally been isolated from A. aerophoba, was constructed. Incubation of this strain with A. aerophoba and subsequent visualization in tissue cryosections showed its presence in the choanocytes and/or endopinacocytes lining the canals but, unlike latex beads, not in deeper regions of the mesohyl, which suggests digestion of the bacteria upon contact with the host. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed on the incubation seawater to monitor the changes in phylogenetic composition after incubation of the sponge with either seawater or sponge symbiont consortia. However, the DGGE experiment provided no evidence for selective processing of individual lineages by the host sponge. In conclusion, this study extends early studies by Wilkinson et al. (Proc R Soc London B 220:519-528, 1984) that sponges, here A. aerophoba, are able to differentiate between food bacteria and their own bacterial symbionts.

  1. Exploration, Isolation, and Identification of Carotenoid from Bacterial Symbiont of Sponge Callyspongia vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqna Kamila Abfa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades research on marine bacteria has highlighted the tremendous potential of symbiotic-microorganisms as a source of bioactive secondary. One of the potential of the bacterial symbionts is producing a natural pigment, and these organisms can be used as a sustainable source of natural pigments. Carotenoid is one of the most important pigments that has important roles in physiological and molecular processes of microorganisms, as well as for human health. The objective of this study is to analyze carotenoid pigments from marine bacterial symbionts from sponge and to identify bacterial symbionts that produce carotenoid pigments. Pigment analysis was performed by a UV-VIS spectrophotometer and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Molecular bacterial identification was performed based on 16S rDNA sequence. The isolation of bacterial symbionts from C. vaginalison Zobell 2216E medium resulted in one bacterium, CB-SP5, positively synthesized carotenoids. By reverse phase HPLC analysis, the carotenoid pigments in the bacterial symbionts were identified as diadinoxanthin, fucoxanthin, neoxanthin, dinoxanthin, anddiadinochrome. CB-SP5 shared the highest level of 16S rDNA gene sequence similarity with Psychrobacter celer (99%.   Keywords : carotenoid, sponge, bacterial symbiont, 16S rDNA.

  2. Capillary rise and swelling in cellulose sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jonghyun; Kim, Jungchul; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    A cellulose sponge, which is a mundane example of a porous hydrophilic structure, can absorb and hold a significant amount of liquid. We present the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of the dynamics of the capillary imbibition of various aqueous solutions in the sponge that swells at the same time. We find that the rate of water rise against the resistance caused by gravitational and viscous effects deviates from Washburn's rule beyond a certain threshold height. We rationalize the novel power law of the rise height versus time by combining Darcy's law with hygroscopic swelling equation and also predict the threshold height. The scaling law constructed through this work agrees well with the experimental results, shedding light on the physics of capillary flow in deforming porous media.

  3. Sponge-seaweed associations in species of Ptilophora (Gelidiaceae, Rhodophyta)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tronchin, E

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available by water movement. This was suggested as the reason for sponge growth on Codiophyllum and Tham- noclonium by Scott et al. (1984) and could also be true for the associations in C. spongiosum (Price & Kraft 1991), E. smithae and O.prolifera (Phillips 2002... that sponge encrusted specimens generally retained the usual overall appear- ance of un-encrusted specimens, disadvantages caused by sponge epiphytism to growth in the seaweed, were not obvious. Table 3. List of sponge epiphytes on four species...

  4. Bacteria From Marine Sponges: A Source of New Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Fehmida; Faheem, Muhammad; Azhar, Esam I; Yasir, Muhammad; Alvi, Sana A; Kamal, Mohammad A; Ullah, Ikram; Naseer, Muhammad I

    2017-01-01

    Sponges are rich source of bioactive natural products synthesized by the symbiotic bacteria belonging to different phyla. Due to a competition for space and nutrients the marine bacteria associated with sponges could produce more antibiotic substances. To explore the proactive potential of marine microbes extensive research has been done. These bioactive metabolites have some unique properties that are pharmaceutically important. For this review, we have performed a non-systematic search of the available literature though various online search engines. This review provides an insight that how majority of active metabolites have been identified from marine invertebrates of which sponges predominate. Sponges harbor abundant and diverse microorganisms, which are the sources of a range of marine bioactive metabolites. From sponges and their associated microorganisms, approximately 5,300 different natural compounds are known. Current research on sponge-microbe interaction and their active metabolites has become a focal point for many researchers. Various active metabolites derived from sponges are now known to be produced by their symbiotic microflora. In this review, we attempt to report the latest studies regarding capability of bacteria from sponges as producers of bioactive metabolite. Moreover, these sponge associated bacteria are an important source of different enzymes of industrial significance. In present review, we will address some novel approaches for discovering marine metabolites from bacteria that have the greatest potential to be used in clinical treatments. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Two Furanosesterterpenoids from the Sponge Luffariella variabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peni Ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new sesterterpenoids, 1 and 2, were isolated from the sponge Luffariella variabilis. Their planar structures were characterized with spectroscopic analyses. The sole chiral center of compound 1 was elucidated as 12R by comparing observed and calculated optical rotation values. The configurations of compound 2 were determined by NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD studies. Furthermore, compound 2 showed cytotoxicity at IC50 1.0 µM against NBT-T2 cells.

  6. Polyketides from the marine sponge Plakortis angulospiculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epifanio, Rosangela de A.; Pinheiro, Leandro S.; Alves, Natalia C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica]. E-mail: rosangela@rmn.uff.br

    2005-11-15

    Organic extracts of the marine sponge Plakortis angulospiculatus were studied from two different collections from Pernambuco State, Brazil. Bioautography with opportunistic marine pathogens, with results from the brine shrimp lethality assay, were used to guide the purification of the known furanylidenic methyl ester 1 and two new derivatives 2 and 3. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by selective reduction of 3 into 2. (author)

  7. Polyketides from the marine sponge Plakortis angulospiculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Epifanio,Rosângela de A.; Pinheiro,Leandro S.; Alves,Natalia C.

    2005-01-01

    Organic extracts of the marine sponge Plakortis angulospiculatus were studied from two different collections from Pernambuco State, Brazil. Bioautography with opportunistic marine pathogens, with results from the brine shrimp lethality assay, were used to guide the purification of the known furanylidenic methyl ester 1 and two new derivatives 2 and 3. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by selective reduction of 3 into 2. Este trabalho relata o estudo da composição ...

  8. Deciphering Galactic Hydrogen with 21-SPONGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Claire; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Goss, Miller; Heiles, Carl E.; Miller Dickey, John; Lindner, Robert; Babler, Brian L.

    2017-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen (HI) in the interstellar medium (ISM) is crucial to the life cycles of galaxies. The balance between disparate phases of HI -- including the cold neutral (CNM) and warm neutral (WNM) medium -- governs the formation of dense, star-forming material, and reflects the nature of feedback in galaxies. To probe the multi-phase structure of HI, we present results from 21-SPONGE: the largest and most sensitive survey for Galactic HI absorption ever at the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). Complemented by HI emission from the Arecibo Observatory, 21-SPONGE is uniquely sensitive to CNM and WNM temperatures from 10-104 K and column densities from 1018-1022 cm-2. Despite our unprecedented sensitivity, the maximum temperature we detect for individual spectral lines is Ts~1500 K, although stacking analysis of 21-SPONGE absorption lines indicates the presence of pervasive, high-Ts WNM population with Ts~7000 K. To understand the physics underlying these results, we developed Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), a Python-based tool for efficiently and objectively analyzing spectral lines. By applying AGD to 21-SPONGE and 1000s of synthetic HI spectra from 3D numerical simulations, we correct our measurements for completeness and observational biases. We further prove that we can successfully recover the temperatures and densities of real clouds along simulated lines of sight. In addition, we show that absorption line shapes are sensitive to the strength and topology of the Lyman alpha radiation field and its role in HI excitation, which are poorly-constrained yet important for understanding the energy balance of the ISM. Our results are among the first to statistically quantify the success of observational methods at reproducing true HI properties, and represent crucial steps towards understanding the role of HI in star formation.

  9. Optimization of biodegradable sponges as controlled release drug matrices. I. Effect of moisture level on chitosan sponge mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Nagwa H; El-laithy, Hanan M; Tadros, Mina I

    2004-04-01

    Cross-linked chitosan sponges as controlled release drug carrier systems were developed. Tramadol hydrochloride, a centrally acting analgesic, was used as a model drug. The sponges were prepared by freeze-drying 1.25% and 2.5% (w/w) high and low M.wt. chitosan solutions, respectively, using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The hardness of the prepared sponges was a function of glutaraldehyde concentration and volume where the optimum concentration that offered accepted sponge consistency was 5%. Below or above 5%, very soft or very hard and brittle sponges were obtained, respectively. The determined drug content in the prepared sponges was uniform and did not deviate markedly from the calculated amount. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the internal structures of the sponges. The SEM photos revealed that cross-linked high M.wt. chitosan sponges have larger size surface pores that form connections (channels) with the interior of the sponge than cross-linked low M.wt. ones. Moreover, crystals of the incorporated Tramadol hydrochloride were detected on the lamellae and within pores in both chitosan sponges. Differences in pore size and dissolution medium uptake capacity were crucial factors for the more delayed drug release from cross-linked low M.wt. chitosan sponges over high M.wt. ones at pH 7.4. Kinetic analysis of the release data using linear regression followed the Higuchi diffusion model over 12 hours. Setting storage conditions at room temperature under 80-92% relative humidity resulted in soft, elastic, and compressible sponges.

  10. Sponge-Associated Bacteria Are Strictly Maintained in Two Closely Related but Geographically Distant Sponge Hosts ▿ † ‡ §

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo, Naomi F.; Hill, Russell T.

    2011-01-01

    The giant barrel sponges Xestospongia muta and Xestospongia testudinaria are ubiquitous in tropical reefs of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, respectively. They are key species in their respective environments and are hosts to diverse assemblages of bacteria. These two closely related sponges from different oceans provide a unique opportunity to examine the evolution of sponge-associated bacterial communities. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene sequences from X. muta and X. testu...

  11. Skeletons in confusion: a review of astrophorid sponges with (dicho–calthrops as structural megascleres (Porifera, Demospongiae, Astrophorida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob van Soest

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of astrophorid species possessing calthrops megascleres as structural megascleres (including species with dichotriaene modifications, but excluding mesotriaene and trichotriaene bearing species. Radiating oxeas characteristic of most astrophorids are lacking in such sponges, but auxiliary oxeas are apparently present in some species. These sponges are currently assigned to two families, Pachastrellidae with four nominal genera Dercitus, Stoeba, Dercitancorina, Halinastra (the latter two generally considered junior synonyms of Stoeba, and Calthropellidae with nominal genera Calthropella, Corticellopsis (usually considered a junior synonym, Pachataxa and Pachastrissa. Our review of many original specimens and extensive new material demonstrates the existence of considerable morphological similarity in megasclere shape and arrangement, and possible overlap of some microscleres of these sponges: pseudasters in Dercitus resembling euasters in Calthropella, ataxasters and other modified types in Calthropellidae resembling rhabds in a species of Dercitus. Pachastrellid representatives are proposed to be united in a single genus Dercitus, recognizable as (dicho–calthrops bearing sponges with sanidaster–like microrhabds. Three subgenera, Dercitus s.s., Stoeba and the revived Halinastra are distinguished to accommodate species groups sharing additional characters. Dercitancorina is merged with Dercitus (Stoeba, because the type species, D. lesinensis was found to be barely distinct from D. (S. plicatus. Similarly, the calthropellid representatives are proposed to be united in a single genus Calthropella recognizable as calthrops bearing sponges with oxyasters. Three subgenera, Calthropella s.s., Pachataxa and Corticellopsis are distinguished to accommodate species groups sharing additional characters. The calthropellid genus Pachastrissa is considered a junior synonym of Calthropella s.s. because its type species, Pachastrella

  12. Phylogenetically and Spatially Close Marine Sponges Harbour Divergent Bacterial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; Esteves, Ana I. S.; Pires, Francisco R.; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Cox, Cymon J.; Xavier, Joana R.; Costa, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have unravelled the diversity of sponge-associated bacteria that may play essential roles in sponge health and metabolism. Nevertheless, our understanding of this microbiota remains limited to a few host species found in restricted geographical localities, and the extent to which the sponge host determines the composition of its own microbiome remains a matter of debate. We address bacterial abundance and diversity of two temperate marine sponges belonging to the Irciniidae family - Sarcotragus spinosulus and Ircinia variabilis – in the Northeast Atlantic. Epifluorescence microscopy revealed that S. spinosulus hosted significantly more prokaryotic cells than I. variabilis and that prokaryotic abundance in both species was about 4 orders of magnitude higher than in seawater. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of S. spinosulus and I. variabilis differed markedly from each other – with higher number of ribotypes observed in S. spinosulus – and from those of seawater. Four PCR-DGGE bands, two specific to S. spinosulus, one specific to I. variabilis, and one present in both sponge species, affiliated with an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the order Acidimicrobiales (Actinobacteria). Two PCR-DGGE bands present exclusively in S. spinosulus fingerprints affiliated with one sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the phylum Chloroflexi and with sponge-derived sequences in the order Chromatiales (Gammaproteobacteria), respectively. One Alphaproteobacteria band specific to S. spinosulus was placed in an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster with a close relationship to the genus Rhodovulum. Our results confirm the hypothesized host-specific composition of bacterial communities between phylogenetically and spatially close sponge species in the Irciniidae family, with S. spinosulus displaying higher bacterial community diversity and distinctiveness than I. variabilis. These

  13. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, Marie L.; Blake, Emily; Mulheron, Rebecca; McCarthy, Peter J.; Blackwelder, Patricia; Thurber, Rebecca L. Vega; Lopez, Jose V.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes), which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial) belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1) with lower diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22) and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25). Hosts' 28S rRNA gene sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences) present in low abundance or below detection limits (sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters. PMID:25408689

  14. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, On On; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jiangke; Lafi, Feras F; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2011-04-01

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus, Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria. We revealed highly diverse sponge-associated bacterial communities with up to 1000 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and richness estimates of up to 2000 species. Altogether, 26 bacterial phyla were detected from the Red Sea sponges, 11 of which were absent from the surrounding sea water and 4 were recorded in sponges for the first time. Up to 100 OTUs with richness estimates of up to 300 archaeal species were revealed from a single sponge species. This is by far the highest archaeal diversity ever recorded for sponges. A non-negligible proportion of unclassified reads was observed in sponges. Our results demonstrated that the sponge-associated microbial communities remained highly consistent in the same sponge species from different locations, although they varied at different degrees among different sponge species. A significant proportion of the tag sequences from the sponges could be assigned to one of the sponge-specific clusters previously defined. In addition, the sponge-associated microbial communities were consistently divergent from those present in the surrounding sea water. Our results suggest that the Red Sea sponges possess highly sponge-specific or even sponge-species-specific microbial communities that are resistant to environmental disturbance, and much of their microbial diversity remains to be explored.

  15. Chloroflexi bacteria are more diverse, abundant, and similar in high than in low microbial abundance sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Susanne; Deines, Peter; Behnam, Faris; Wagner, Michael; Taylor, Michael W

    2011-12-01

    Some marine sponges harbor dense and phylogenetically complex microbial communities [high microbial abundance (HMA) sponges] whereas others contain only few and less diverse microorganisms [low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges]. We focused on the phylum Chloroflexi that frequently occurs in sponges to investigate the different associations with three HMA and three LMA sponges from New Zealand. By applying a range of microscopical and molecular techniques a clear dichotomy between HMA and LMA sponges was observed: Chloroflexi bacteria were more abundant and diverse in HMA than in LMA sponges. Moreover, different HMA sponges contain similar Chloroflexi communities whereas LMA sponges harbor different and more variable communities which partly resemble Chloroflexi seawater communities. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of our own and publicly available sponge-derived Chloroflexi 16S rRNA gene sequences (> 780 sequences) revealed the enormous diversity of this phylum within sponges including 29 sponge-specific and sponge-coral clusters (SSC/SCC) as well as a 'supercluster' consisting of > 250 sponge-derived and a single nonsponge-derived 16S rRNA gene sequence. Interestingly, the majority of sequences obtained from HMA sponges, but only a few from LMA sponges, fell into SSC/SCC clusters. This indicates a much more specific association of Chloroflexi bacteria with HMA sponges and suggests an ecologically important role for these prominent bacteria. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Sponge Genus Agelas

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huawei; Dong, Menglian; Chen, Jianwei; Wang, Hong; Tenney, Karen; Crews, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    The marine sponge genus Agelas comprises a rich reservoir of species and natural products with diverse chemical structures and biological properties with potential application in new drug development. This review for the first time summarized secondary metabolites from Agelas sponges discovered in the past 47 years together with their bioactive effects.

  17. Retained sponge after abdominal surgery: experience from a third ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of our cases ended in a medico-legal claim despite proper counseling. Conclusion: The incidence of retained sponge might be significantly higher in an environment with reduced medico-legal threat; most cases of retained sponges are still related to human errors; the incidence will probably be reduced by a greater ...

  18. Screening of marine sponge-associated bacteria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the evaluation of bacterial strain (MB2) bioactivity isolated from marine sponge. The sponge Echinodictyum gorgonoides associated bacterial strain MB2 was tested for its action against various human pathogenic bacterial isolates. The biochemical tests were done to determine the characterization of ...

  19. Mangrove-sponge associations: a possible role for tannins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; van der Geest, H.G.; Krieg, A.J.; van Mierlo, M.B.L.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    A positive correlation between sponge coverage and tannin concentrations in prop roots of Rhizophora mangle L. has previously been reported. However, the ecological role of tannins within the mangrove sponge association remains speculative. This study investigated whether tannins play a role in

  20. Marine sponges: potential sources of new antimicrobial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laport, M S; Santos, O C S; Muricy, G

    2009-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are sessile marine filter feeders that have developed efficient defense mechanisms against foreign attackers such as viruses, bacteria, or eukaryotic organisms. Marine sponges are among the richest sources of pharmacologically-active chemicals from marine organisms. It is suggested that (at least) some of the bioactive secondary metabolites isolated from sponges are produced by functional enzyme clusters, which originated from the sponges and their associated microorganisms. More than 5,300 different products are known from sponges and their associated microorganisms, and more than 200 new metabolites from sponges are reported each year. As infectious microorganisms evolve and develop resistance to existing pharmaceuticals, the marine sponge provides novel leads against bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic diseases. Many marine natural products have successfully advanced to the late stages of clinical trials, as for example ara-A (vidarabine), an anti-viral drug used against the herpes simplex encephalitis virus. This substance is in clinical use for many years. Moreover, a growing number of candidates have been selected as promising leads for extended preclinical assessment, including manzamine A (activity against malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, and others), lasonolides (antifungal activity) and psammaplin A (antibacterial activity). In this review we have surveyed the discoveries of products derived from marine sponges and associated bacteria that have shown in vivo efficacy or potent in vitro activity against infectious and parasitic diseases, including bacterial, viral, fungal and protozoan infections. Our objective was to highlight the substances that have the greatest potential to lead to clinically useful treatments.

  1. Bioprospecting sponge-associated microbes for antimicrobial compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review

  2. Characterization of cellulose based sponges for wound dressings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustaite, S.; Kazlauske, J.; Bobokalonov, J.; Perni, S.; Dutschk, Victoria; Liesiene, J.; Prokopovich, P.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose based sponges were developed by freeze-drying of regenerated cellulose gels and characterizedas a potential wound dressing. Morphological characteristics were analyzed by means of micro-computedtomography. The results showed that the porosity of the sponges reached 75%, the pores were

  3. Stimulatory activity of four green freshwater sponges on aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMG

    Mean value of 14C fixation (primary production) in symbiotic algae of Spogilla fluviatilis was 5.67 mg C g-1 dry weight sponge per hour. The effect of green sponges on the abundance of aquatic mycotal species is caused by dissolved organic matter produced during photosynthesis by symbiotic zoochlorellae, a symbionts of ...

  4. Growth Efficiency and Carbon Balance for the Sponge Haliclona oculata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, M.; Martens, D.E.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    To obtain more knowledge about carbon requirements for growth by sponges, the growth rate, respiration rate, and clearance rate was measured in situ in Haliclona oculata. We found that only 34% of the particulate carbon pumped through the sponge was used for both respiration and growth. The net

  5. Globally intertwined evolutionary history of giant barrel sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swierts, Thomas; Peijnenburg, Katja T.C.A.; Leeuw, de Christiaan A.; Breeuwer, Johannes A.J.; Cleary, Daniel F.R.; Voogd, de Nicole J.

    2017-01-01

    Three species of giant barrel sponge are currently recognized in two distinct geographic regions, the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific. In this study, we used molecular techniques to study populations of giant barrel sponges across the globe and assessed whether the genetic structure of these

  6. Stimulatory activity of four green freshwater sponges on aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... For the measurement of the primary and extracellular production by symbiotic algae of green sponges and assimilation of those products by mycota, ... Mean value of 14C fixation (primary production) in symbiotic algae of Spogilla fluviatilis was 5.67 mg C g-1 dry weight sponge per hour.

  7. Fossil freshwater sponges: Taxonomy, geographic distribution, and critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Pronzato; Andrzej Pisera; Renata Manconi

    2017-01-01

    Sponges are one of the most ancient animal phyla with about 8850 living species and about 5000 described fossil taxa. Most sponges are marine and live at all depths of all oceans. Freshwater bodies (lakes, rivers) are inhabited only by a small minority of species, ca. 240 (

  8. Cultivation of Sponges, Sponge Cells and Symbionts: Achievements and Future Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, K.J.; Sipkema, D.; Osinga, R.; Smidt, H.; Pomponi, S.A.; Martens, D.E.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Marine sponges are a rich source of bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical potential. Since biological production is one option to supply materials for early drug development, the main challenge is to establish generic techniques for small-scale production of marine organisms. We analysed the state

  9. Ecological interactions and the distribution, abundance, and diversity of sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Janie

    2012-01-01

    Although abiotic factors may be important first-order filters dictating which sponge species can thrive at a particular site, ecological interactions can play substantial roles influencing distribution and abundance, and thus diversity. Ecological interactions can modify the influences of abiotic factors both by further constraining distribution and abundance due to competitive or predatory interactions and by expanding habitat distribution or abundance due to beneficial interactions that ameliorate otherwise limiting circumstances. It is likely that the importance of ecological interactions has been greatly underestimated because they tend to only be revealed by experiments and time-series observations in the field. Experiments have revealed opportunistic predation to be a primary enforcer of sponge distribution boundaries that coincide with habitat boundaries in several systems. Within habitats, by contrast, dramatic effects of predators on sponge populations seem to occur primarily in cases of unusually high recruitment rates or unusually low mortality rates for the predators, which are often specialists on the sponge species affected. Competitive interactions have been demonstrated to diminish populations or exclude sponge species from a habitat in only a few cases. Cases in which competitive interactions have appeared obvious have often turned out to be neutral or even beneficial interactions when observed over time. Especially striking in this regard are sponge-sponge interactions in dense sponge-dominated communities, which may promote the continued coexistence of all participating species. Mutualistic symbioses of sponges with other animals, plants, or macroalgae have been demonstrated to increase abundance, habitat distribution, and diversity of all participants. Symbiotic microbes can enhance sponge distribution and abundance but also render their hosts more vulnerable to environmental changes. And while photosynthetic symbionts can boost growth and

  10. Chemistry of renieramycins. Part 3.(1) isolation and structure of stabilized renieramycin type derivatives possessing antitumor activity from Thai sponge Xestospongia species, pretreated with potassium cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanborirux, Khanit; Amnuoypol, Surattana; Plubrukarn, Anuchit; Pummangura, Sunibhond; Kubo, Akinori; Tanaka, Chieko; Saito, Naoki

    2003-11-01

    Renieramycins M (1m) and N (1n) were isolated from the Thai sponge Xestospongia sp., pretreated with potassium cyanide in methanolic buffer solution, and their structures and relative stereochemistries were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. This strategy is the first example of the gram-scale preparation of this series of compounds and presents a potential solution for increasing the gram-scale supply of novel natural products from marine sources.

  11. Diversity of Bacterial Photosymbionts in Lubomirskiidae Sponges from Lake Baikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V. Kulakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are permanent benthos residents which establish complex associations with a variety of microorganisms that raise interest in the nature of sponge-symbionts interactions. A molecular approach, based on the identification of the 16S rRNA and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit genes, was applied to investigate diversity and phylogeny of bacterial phototrophs associated with four species of Lubomirskiidae in Lake Baikal. The phylogeny inferred from both genes showed three main clusters of Synechococcus associated with Baikalian sponges. One of the clusters belonged to the cosmopolitan Synechococcus rubescens group and the two other were not related to any of the assigned phylogenetic groups but placed as sister clusters to S. rubescens. These results expanded the understanding of freshwater sponge-associated photoautotroph diversity and suggested that the three phylogenetic groups of Synechococcus are common photosynthetic symbionts in Lubomirskiidae sponges.

  12. Potential of sponges and microalgae for marine biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijffels, René H

    2008-01-01

    Marine organisms can be used to produce several novel products that have applications in new medical technologies, in food and feed ingredients and as biofuels. In this paper two examples are described: the development of marine drugs from sponges and the use of microalgae to produce bulk chemicals and biofuels. Many sponges produce bioactive compounds with important potential applications as medical drugs. Recent developments in metagenomics, in the culturing of associated microorganisms from sponges and in the development of sponge cell-lines have the potential to solve the issue of supply, which is the main limitation for sponge exploitation. For the production of microalgal products at larger scales and the production of biofuels, major technological breakthroughs need to be realized to increase the product yield.

  13. The sponge pump: the role of current induced flow in the design of the sponge body plan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally P Leys

    Full Text Available Sponges are suspension feeders that use flagellated collar-cells (choanocytes to actively filter a volume of water equivalent to many times their body volume each hour. Flow through sponges is thought to be enhanced by ambient current, which induces a pressure gradient across the sponge wall, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Studies of sponge filtration have estimated the energetic cost of pumping to be 0.75 with the ambient current velocity. During short bursts of high ambient current the sponges filtered two-thirds of the total volume of water they processed daily. Our model indicates that the head loss across the sponge collar filter is 10 times higher than previously estimated. The difference is due to the resistance created by a fine protein mesh that lines the collar, which demosponges also have, but was so far overlooked. Applying our model to the in situ measurements indicates that even modest pumping rates require an energetic expenditure of at least 28% of the total in situ respiration. We suggest that due to the high cost of pumping, current-induced flow is highly beneficial but may occur only in thin walled sponges living in high flow environments. Our results call for a new look at the mechanisms underlying current-induced flow and for reevaluation of the cost of biological pumping and its evolutionary role, especially in sponges.

  14. Oxygen as a morphogenic factor in sponges: expression of a tyrosinase gene in the sponge Suberites domuncula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E G; Perović, Sanja; Schröder, Heinz C; Breter, Hans J

    2004-01-01

    Sponges live in a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms, especially bacteria. Here we show, using the demosponge Suberites domuncula as a model, that the sponge expresses the enzyme tyrosinase which synthesizes diphenols from monophenolic compounds. It is assumed that these products serve as carbon source for symbiotic bacteria to grow.

  15. Recovery of the commercial sponges in the central and southeastern Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean after an outbreak of sponge disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. CASTRITSI-CATHARIOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and biometry of commercial sponges (Porifera in coastal areas of the central and southeastern Aegean Sea was investigated to estimate the recovery progress of the populations eight years after the first appearance of sponge disease. Signs of the disease were detected only in 1.6% of the harvested sponges. Multivariate analysis on the percentage abundance of sponges showed two distinct groups among the sixteen fishing grounds studied: the eight deep (50-110 m and the eight shallow ones (<40 m. The group from the deep depths consisted of Spongia officinalis adriatica, S. agaricina and S. zimocca. The infralittoral zone was characterized by the presence of Hippospongia communis, S. officinalis adriatica and S. officinalis mollissima. These bath sponges showed an enhanced abundance in the eastern Cretan Sea (S. Aegean Sea. In addition, their dimensions, particularly height, increased with increasing depth. It is indicated that the hydrographic conditions prevailing in the eastern Cretan Sea affected the repopulating processes of sponge banks. In each species, the biometric characteristics of the experimental specimens were similar to those of the sponges found in the market and harvested at respective depths prior to the appearance of sponge disease.

  16. SPONGE ROBOTIC HAND DESIGN FOR PROSTHESES

    OpenAIRE

    Mine Seçkin

    2016-01-01

    In this study robotic hands and fingers’ materials are investigated from past to present and a sponge robotic hand is designed for biomedical applications. Emergence and necessity of soft robotic technology are explained and description of soft robot is made. Because of the importance of hand in a person’s body, researchers have dealt with robotic hand prostheses for many centuries and developed many hand types. To mimic the best for the human limbs, softness of the hand is one of the importa...

  17. Silica Synthesis by Sponges: Unanticipated Molecular Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D. E.; Weaver, J. C.

    2001-12-01

    Oceanic diatoms, sponges and other organisms synthesize gigatons per year of silica from silicic acid, ultimately obtained from the weathering of rock. This biogenic silica exhibits a remarkable diversity of structures, many of which reveal a precision of nanoarchitectural control that exceeds the capabilities of human engineering. In contrast to the conditions of anthropogenic and industrial manufacture, the biological synthesis of silica occurs under mild physiological conditions of low temperatures and pressures and near-neutral pH. In addition to the differentiation between biological and abiotic processes governing silica formation, the biomolecular mechanisms controlling synthesis of these materials may offer insights for the development of new, environmentally benign routes for synthesis of nanostructurally controlled silicas and high-performance polysiloxane composites. We found that the needle-like silica spicules made by the marine sponge, Tethya aurantia, each contain an occluded axial filament of protein composed predominantly of repeating assemblies of three similar subunits we named "silicateins." To our surprise, analysis of the purified protein subunits and the cloned silicatein DNAs revealed that the silicateins are highly homologous to a family of hydrolytic enzymes. As predicted from this finding, we discovered that the silicatein filaments are more than simple, passive templates; they actively catalyze and spatially direct polycondensation to form silica, (as well as the phenyl- and methyl-silsesquioxane) from the corresponding silicon alkoxides at neutral pH and low temperature. Catalytic activity also is exhibited by the silicatein subunits obtained by disaggregation of the protein filaments and those produced from recombinant DNA templates cloned in bacteria. This catalytic activity accelerates the rate-limiting hydrolysis of the silicon alkoxide precursors. Genetic engineering, used to produce variants of the silicatein molecule with

  18. Evidence of nitrification and denitrification in high and low microbial abundance sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schläppy, Marie-Lise; Schöttner, Sandra I; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M M; de Beer, Dirk; Hoffmann, Friederike

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic microbial key processes were quantified and compared to microbial numbers and morphological structure in Mediterranean sponges. Direct counts on histological sections stained with DAPI showed that sponges with high microbial abundances (HMA sponges) have a denser morphological structure with a reduced aquiferous system compared to low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges. In Dysidea avara , the LMA sponge, rates of nitrification and denitrification were higher than in the HMA sponge Chondrosia reniformis , while anaerobic ammonium oxidation and sulfate reduction were below detection in both species. This study shows that LMA sponges may host physiologically similar microbes with comparable or even higher metabolic rates than HMA sponges, and that anaerobic processes such as denitrification can be found both in HMA and LMA sponges. A higher concentration of microorganisms in the mesohyl of HMA compared to LMA sponges may indicate a stronger retention of and, hence, a possible benefit from associated microbes.

  19. A marine sponge associated strain of Bacillus subtilis and other marine bacteria can produce anticholinesterase compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sony; Sree, Ayinampudi; Sethi, Dipti Priya; Kumar, Chityal Ganesh; Kakollu, Sudha; Chowdhury, Lipsa; Dash, Soumya Suchismita

    2014-02-15

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors or anticholinesterases reduce the activity of enzyme acetylcholinesterase that degrades the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain. The inhibitors have a significant pharmacological role in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's etc. Although plants have been a significant source of these compounds, there are very few sporadic reports of microorganisms producing such inhibitors. Anticholinesterase activity in bacterial associates of marine soft corals and sponges were not previously reported. We screened 887 marine bacteria for the presence of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, in a microplate based assay, and found that 140 (15.8%) of them inhibit the electric eel enzyme, acetylcholinesterase. Majority of the active isolates were bacterial associates of soft corals followed by sediment isolates while most of the potent inhibitors belonged to the bacterial associates of marine sponges. Maximum inhibition (54%) was exhibited by a bacterial strain M18SP4P (ii), isolated from the marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa. Based on phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA sequencing, the strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis - revealing yet another activity in a strain of the model organism that is considered to be a cell factory. TLC bioautography of the methanol extract of this culture, showed the presence of two major components having this activity, when compared to Galanthamine, the positive control. From the results of our study, we conclude that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are quite prevalent in marine bacteria, particularly the bacterial associates of marine invertebrates. Several potential AChE inhibitors in marine bacteria are waiting to be discovered to provide easily manipulable natural sources for the mass production of these therapeutic compounds.

  20. A marine sponge associated strain of Bacillus subtilis and other marine bacteria can produce anticholinesterase compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors or anticholinesterases reduce the activity of enzyme acetylcholinesterase that degrades the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain. The inhibitors have a significant pharmacological role in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s etc. Although plants have been a significant source of these compounds, there are very few sporadic reports of microorganisms producing such inhibitors. Anticholinesterase activity in bacterial associates of marine soft corals and sponges were not previously reported. Results We screened 887 marine bacteria for the presence of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, in a microplate based assay, and found that 140 (15.8%) of them inhibit the electric eel enzyme, acetylcholinesterase. Majority of the active isolates were bacterial associates of soft corals followed by sediment isolates while most of the potent inhibitors belonged to the bacterial associates of marine sponges. Maximum inhibition (54%) was exhibited by a bacterial strain M18SP4P (ii), isolated from the marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa. Based on phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA sequencing, the strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis - revealing yet another activity in a strain of the model organism that is considered to be a cell factory. TLC bioautography of the methanol extract of this culture, showed the presence of two major components having this activity, when compared to Galanthamine, the positive control. Conclusion From the results of our study, we conclude that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are quite prevalent in marine bacteria, particularly the bacterial associates of marine invertebrates. Several potential AChE inhibitors in marine bacteria are waiting to be discovered to provide easily manipulable natural sources for the mass production of these therapeutic compounds. PMID:24528673

  1. Evidence of nitrification and denitrification in high and low microbial abundance sponges

    OpenAIRE

    Schläppy, Marie-Lise; Schöttner, Sandra I.; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; de Beer, Dirk; Hoffmann, Friederike

    2009-01-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic microbial key processes were quantified and compared to microbial numbers and morphological structure in Mediterranean sponges. Direct counts on histological sections stained with DAPI showed that sponges with high microbial abundances (HMA sponges) have a denser morphological structure with a reduced aquiferous system compared to low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges. In Dysidea avara, the LMA sponge, rates of nitrification and denitrification were higher than in the HM...

  2. Mesoscale elastic properties of marine sponge spicules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqi; Reed, Bryan W; Chung, Frank R; Koski, Kristie J

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponge spicules are silicate fibers with an unusual combination of fracture toughness and optical light propagation properties due to their micro- and nano-scale hierarchical structure. We present optical measurements of the elastic properties of Tethya aurantia and Euplectella aspergillum marine sponge spicules using non-invasive Brillouin and Raman laser light scattering, thus probing the hierarchical structure on two very different scales. On the scale of single bonds, as probed by Raman scattering, the spicules resemble a combination of pure silica and mixed organic content. On the mesoscopic scale probed by Brillouin scattering, we show that while some properties (Young's moduli, shear moduli, one of the anisotropic Poisson ratios and refractive index) are nearly the same as those of artificial optical fiber, other properties (uniaxial moduli, bulk modulus and a distinctive anisotropic Poisson ratio) are significantly smaller. Thus this natural composite of largely isotropic materials yields anisotropic elastic properties on the mesoscale. We show that the spicules' optical waveguide properties lead to pronounced spontaneous Brillouin backscattering, a process related to the stimulated Brillouin backscattering process well known in artificial glass fibers. These measurements provide a clearer picture of the interplay of flexibility, strength, and material microstructure for future functional biomimicry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Melamine Sponge on Tooth Stain Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Takero; Kawata, Toshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the stain removal ability of melamine sponge before aesthetic tooth whitening in extracted teeth. Melamine sponge of thickness 40 mm was compressed and the destruction of the partition wall structure during the compression process was examined under a stereoscopic microscope. An extracted human tooth was cleaned by normal polishing or with melamine sponge for 90 s. To evaluate the stain level, the tooth surfaces were photographed under a stereoscopic microscope at 0, 30, 60 and 90 s. The residual stained region was traced in a high-magnification photograph, and the stain intensity was presented as a change, relative to the intensity before the experiment (0 s). Mechanical cleaning by toothbrushing produced polishing scratches on the tooth surface, whereas use of the melamine sponge resulted in only minimal scratches. As the compression level increased, the stain-removing effect tended to become stronger. Melamine sponge can remove stains from the tooth surface more effectively and less invasively compared to a conventional toothbrush. As no new scratches are made on the tooth surface when using a melamine sponge brush, the risk of re-staining is reduced. Cleaning using a melamine sponge brush can be easily and effectively performed at home and in a dental office.

  4. Ultralight, Thermally Insulating, Compressible Polyimide Fiber Assembled Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shaohua; Uch, Bianca; Agarwal, Seema; Greiner, Andreas

    2017-09-20

    Tunable density, thermally and mechanically stable, elastic, and thermally insulating sponges are required for demanding applications. Hierarchically structured sponges with bimodal interconnected pores, porosity more than 99%, and tunable densities (between 7.6 and 10.1 mg/cm 3 ) are reported using polyimide (PI) as high temperature stable polymer. The sponges are made by freeze-drying a dispersion of short PI fibers and precursor polymer, poly(amic acid) (PAA). The concept of "self-gluing" the fibrous network skeleton of PI during sponge formation was applied to achieve mechanical stability without sacrificing the thermal properties. The sponges showed initial degradation above 400 and 500 °C in air and nitrogen, respectively. They have low thermal conductivity of 0.026 W/mK and thermal diffusivity of 1.009 mm 2 /s for a density of 10.1 mg/cm 3 . The sponges are compressible for at least 10 000 cycles and good thermal insulators even at high compressions. These fibrous PI sponges are promising candidates for potential applications in thermal insulation, lightweight construction, high-temperature filtration, sensors, and catalyst carrier for high-temperature reactions.

  5. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-05-02

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B); influenza A (H1N1) virus (truncateol M); nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin); Escherichia coli (sydonic acid), Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2); Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1); Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin); Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine); Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204). Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed.

  6. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Gede Indraningrat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B; influenza A (H1N1 virus (truncateol M; nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin; Escherichia coli (sydonic acid, Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2; Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1; Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin; Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine; Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204. Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed.

  7. Marine sponges and their microbial symbionts: love and other relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nicole S; Taylor, Michael W

    2012-02-01

    Many marine sponges harbour dense and diverse microbial communities of considerable ecological and biotechnological importance. While the past decade has seen tremendous advances in our understanding of the phylogenetic diversity of sponge-associated microorganisms (more than 25 bacterial phyla have now been reported from sponges), it is only in the past 3-4 years that the in situ activity and function of these microbes has become a major research focus. Already the rewards of this new emphasis are evident, with genomics and experimental approaches yielding novel insights into symbiont function. Key steps in the nitrogen cycle [denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox)] have recently been demonstrated in sponges for the first time, with diverse bacteria - including the sponge-associated candidate phylum 'Poribacteria'- being implicated in these processes. In this minireview we examine recent major developments in the microbiology of sponges, and identify several research areas (e.g. biology of viruses in sponges, effects of environmental stress) that we believe are deserving of increased attention. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. First report on chitinous holdfast in sponges (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Kaluzhnaya, Oksana V; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Tabachnick, Konstantin R; Ilan, Micha; Stelling, Allison; Galli, Roberta; Petrova, Olga V; Nekipelov, Serguei V; Sivkov, Victor N; Vyalikh, Denis; Born, René; Behm, Thomas; Ehrlich, Andre; Chernogor, Lubov I; Belikov, Sergei; Janussen, Dorte; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-07-07

    A holdfast is a root- or basal plate-like structure of principal importance that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, including sponges, to hard substrates. There is to date little information about the nature and origin of sponges' holdfasts in both marine and freshwater environments. This work, to our knowledge, demonstrates for the first time that chitin is an important structural component within holdfasts of the endemic freshwater demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. Using a variety of techniques (near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, Raman, electrospray ionization mas spectrometry, Morgan-Elson assay and Calcofluor White staining), we show that chitin from the sponge holdfast is much closer to α-chitin than to β-chitin. Most of the three-dimensional fibrous skeleton of this sponge consists of spicule-containing proteinaceous spongin. Intriguingly, the chitinous holdfast is not spongin-based, and is ontogenetically the oldest part of the sponge body. Sequencing revealed the presence of four previously undescribed genes encoding chitin synthases in the L. baicalensis sponge. This discovery of chitin within freshwater sponge holdfasts highlights the novel and specific functions of this biopolymer within these ancient sessile invertebrates.

  9. Preliminary assessment of sponge biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Thacker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity.

  10. Preliminary assessment of sponge biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Robert W; Díaz, M Cristina; de Voogd, Nicole J; van Soest, Rob W M; Freeman, Christopher J; Mobley, Andrew S; LaPietra, Jessica; Cope, Kevin; McKenna, Sheila

    2010-05-21

    Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity.

  11. An analysis of the sponge Acanthostrongylophora igens’ microbiome yields an actinomycete that produces the natural product manzamine A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Leigh Waters

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sponges have generated significant interest as a source of bioactive and elaborate secondary metabolites that hold promise for the development of novel therapeutics for the control of an array of human diseases. However, research and development of marine natural products can often be hampered by the difficulty associated with obtaining a stable and sustainable production source. Herein we report the first successful characterization and utilization of the microbiome of a marine invertebrate to identify a sustainable production source for an important natural product scaffold. Through molecular-microbial community analysis, optimization of fermentation conditions and MALDI-MS imaging, we provide the first report of a sponge-associated bacterium (Micromonospora sp. that produces the manzamine class of antimalarials from the Indo-Pacific sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens (Thiele, 1899 (Class Demospongiae, Order Haplosclerida, Family Petrosiidae. These findings suggest that a general strategy of analysis of the macroorganism’s microbiome could significantly transform the field of natural products drug discovery by gaining access to not only novel drug leads, but the potential for sustainable production sources and biosynthetic genes at the same time.

  12. An analysis of the spongeAcanthostrongylophora igens'microbiome yields an actinomycete that produces the natural product manzamine A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Amanda L; Peraud, Olivier; Kasanah, Noer; Sims, James W; Kothalawala, Nuwan; Anderson, Matthew A; Abbas, Samuel H; Rao, Karumanchi V; Jupally, Vijay R; Kelly, Michelle; Dass, Amala; Hill, Russell T; Hamann, Mark T

    2014-10-01

    Sponges have generated significant interest as a source of bioactive and elaborate secondary metabolites that hold promise for the development of novel therapeutics for the control of an array of human diseases. However, research and development of marine natural products can often be hampered by the difficulty associated with obtaining a stable and sustainable production source. Herein we report the first successful characterization and utilization of the microbiome of a marine invertebrate to identify a sustainable production source for an important natural product scaffold. Through molecular-microbial community analysis, optimization of fermentation conditions and MALDI-MS imaging, we provide the first report of a sponge-associated bacterium ( Micromonospora sp.) that produces the manzamine class of antimalarials from the Indo-Pacific sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens (Thiele, 1899) (Class Demospongiae, Order Haplosclerida, Family Petrosiidae). These findings suggest that a general strategy of analysis of the macroorganism's microbiome could significantly transform the field of natural products drug discovery by gaining access to not only novel drug leads, but the potential for sustainable production sources and biosynthetic genes at the same time.

  13. An analysis of the sponge Acanthostrongylophora igens’ microbiome yields an actinomycete that produces the natural product manzamine A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Amanda L.; Peraud, Olivier; Kasanah, Noer; Sims, James W.; Kothalawala, Nuwan; Anderson, Matthew A.; Abbas, Samuel H.; Rao, Karumanchi V.; Jupally, Vijay R.; Kelly, Michelle; Dass, Amala; Hill, Russell T.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Sponges have generated significant interest as a source of bioactive and elaborate secondary metabolites that hold promise for the development of novel therapeutics for the control of an array of human diseases. However, research and development of marine natural products can often be hampered by the difficulty associated with obtaining a stable and sustainable production source. Herein we report the first successful characterization and utilization of the microbiome of a marine invertebrate to identify a sustainable production source for an important natural product scaffold. Through molecular-microbial community analysis, optimization of fermentation conditions and MALDI-MS imaging, we provide the first report of a sponge-associated bacterium (Micromonospora sp.) that produces the manzamine class of antimalarials from the Indo-Pacific sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens (Thiele, 1899) (Class Demospongiae, Order Haplosclerida, Family Petrosiidae). These findings suggest that a general strategy of analysis of the macroorganism’s microbiome could significantly transform the field of natural products drug discovery by gaining access to not only novel drug leads, but the potential for sustainable production sources and biosynthetic genes at the same time. PMID:27785452

  14. The first animals: ca. 760-million-year-old sponge-like fossils from Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Young

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most profound events in biospheric evolution was the emergence of animals, which is thought to have occurred some 600–650 Ma. Here we report on the discovery of phosphatised body fossils that we interpret as ancient sponge-like fossils and term them Otavia antiqua gen. et sp. nov. The fossils are found in Namibia in rocks that range in age between about 760 Ma and 550 Ma. This age places the advent of animals some 100 to 150 million years earlier than proposed, and prior to the extreme climatic changes and postulated stepwise increases in oxygen levels of Ediacaran time. These findings support the predictions based on genetic sequencing and inferences drawn from biomarkers that the first animals were sponges. Further, the deposition and burial of Otavia as sedimentary particles may have driven the large positive C-isotopic excursions and increases in oxygen levels that have been inferred for Neoproterozoic time.

  15. Sponge phase behaviour in concentrated surfactant-alcohol-brine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomati, R.; Daoud, M.; Gharbi, A.

    1997-02-01

    The sponge phase monodomain extending from the brine corner to the alcohol corner of an ionic surfactant-alcohol-brine phase diagram is first detailed and then investigated by electrolytic conductivity and refractive index measurements. Upon progressive dimunition of the brine fraction of the sponge phase, the ionic conductivity suffers from two gumps corresponding to two respective critical concentrations, while the variation of the refractive index remains linear but exhibits two slope changes. According to the phase diagram observations we propose one scenario, in agreement with theoretical predictions, to explain these results in terms of continuous structural transformations of the amphiphilic membrane from the swollen sponge phase to the inverse micellar phase.

  16. Orthodontic therapy in a patient with white sponge nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintella, Claudia; Janson, Guilherme; Azevedo, Luciana Reis; Damante, José Humberto

    2004-04-01

    An undesirable effect of fixed orthodontic appliances is irritation of the oral mucosa. Lesions are common, but they usually heal quickly because of the fast metabolism of oral mucosa cells. Alterations accompanying some injuries are temporary, but some are irreversible because of attrition. White sponge nevus constitutes a special situation, and little information about it is available in the orthodontic literature. This report presents a patient with white sponge nevus who received orthodontic treatment over a 40-month period. The condition was also noted in a sibling. Because of the similarity between white sponge nevus and other diseases, including some that are malignant, a thorough clinical history and differential diagnosis are essential.

  17. Fossil and modern sponge fauna of southern Australia and adjacent regions compared: interpretation, evolutionary and biogeographic significance of the late Eocene ‘soft’ sponges

    OpenAIRE

    Łukowiak, M.

    2016-01-01

    The late Eocene ‘soft’ sponge fauna of southern Australia is reconstructed based on disassociated spicules and is used to interpret the paleoecology and environmental context of shallow marine communities in this region. The reconstructed sponge association was compared with coeval sponge assemblages from the Oamaru Diatomite, New Zealand, and with the modern ‘soft’ sponge fauna of southern coastal of Australia. Based on the predominance of shallow- and moderately shallow-water species, the l...

  18. Managing and sharing the escalating number of sponge "unknowns": the SpongeMaps project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, J N A; Hall, K A; Ekins, M; Erpenbeck, D; Wörheide, G; Jolley-Rogers, G

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary collections of sponges in the Indo-west Pacific have escalated substantially due to pharmaceutical discovery, national bioregional planning, and compliance with international conventions on the seabed and its marine genetic resources beyond national jurisdictions. These partially processed operational taxonomic unit (OTU) collections now vastly outweigh the expertise available to make them better "known" via complete taxonomy, yet for many bioregions they represent the most significant body of currently available knowledge. Increasing numbers of cryptic species, previously undetected morphologically, are now being discovered by molecular and chemical analyses. The uncoordinated and fragmented nature of many previous collections, however, means that knowledge and expertise gained from a particular project are often lost to future projects without a biodiversity informatics legacy. Integrating these diverse data (GIS; OTUs; images; molecular, chemical, and other datasets) required a two-way iterative process so far unavailable for sponges with existing biodiversity informatics tools. SpongeMaps arose from the initial need for online collaboration to integrate morphometric data with molecular barcodes, including the Porifera Tree of Life (PorTol) project. It provides interrogation of existing data to better process new collections; capacity to create new OTUs; publication of online pages for individual species, so as to interpret GIS and other data for online biodiversity databases and services; and automatic links to external datasets for taxonomic hierarchy, specimen GIS and mapping, DNA sequence data, chemical structures, and images.

  19. A New 1,4-Diazepine from South China Sea Marine Sponge Callyspongia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Hai Xu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new 1,4-diazepine, callysponine (1, was isolated from a South China Sea Callyspongia sp. marine sponge, together with four known proline-based diketopiperazines: cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Leu (2, cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Val (3, cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Ala (4, andcyclo-(S-Pro-R-Tyr (5. The new structure was determined on the basis of NMR and MS analysis, and the absolute stereochemistry was defined by NOESY spectroscopy and optical rotation. The structures of the known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Callysponine (1 did not inhibit the growth of HepG2 (hepatoma carcinoma cell, A549 (lung carcinoma cell, and HeLa (cervical cancer cell cell lines.

  20. The mitochondrial genomes of sponges provide evidence for multiple invasions by Repetitive Hairpin-forming Elements (RHE

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    Lavrov Dennis V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial (mt genomes of sponges possess a variety of features, which appear to be intermediate between those of Eumetazoa and non-metazoan opisthokonts. Among these features is the presence of long intergenic regions, which are common in other eukaryotes, but generally absent in Eumetazoa. Here we analyse poriferan mitochondrial intergenic regions, paying particular attention to repetitive sequences within them. In this context we introduce the mitochondrial genome of Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816; Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida and compare it with mtDNA of other sponges. Results Mt genomes of dictyoceratid sponges are identical in gene order and content but display major differences in size and organization of intergenic regions. An even higher degree of diversity in the structure of intergenic regions was found among different orders of demosponges. One interesting observation made from such comparisons was of what appears to be recurrent invasions of sponge mitochondrial genomes by repetitive hairpin-forming elements, which cause large genome size differences even among closely related taxa. These repetitive hairpin-forming elements are structurally and compositionally divergent and display a scattered distribution throughout various groups of demosponges. Conclusion Large intergenic regions of poriferan mt genomes are targets for insertions of repetitive hairpin- forming elements, similar to the ones found in non-metazoan opisthokonts. Such elements were likely present in some lineages early in animal mitochondrial genome evolution but were subsequently lost during the reduction of intergenic regions, which occurred in the Eumetazoa lineage after the split of Porifera. Porifera acquired their elements in several independent events. Patterns of their intra-genomic dispersal can be seen in the mt genome of Vaceletia sp.

  1. Fossil and modern sponge fauna of southern Australia and adjacent regions compared: interpretation, evolutionary and biogeographic significance of the late Eocene ‘soft’ sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Łukowiak, M.

    2016-01-01

    The late Eocene ‘soft’ sponge fauna of southern Australia is reconstructed based on disassociated spicules and is used to interpret the paleoecology and environmental context of shallow marine communities in this region. The reconstructed sponge association was compared with coeval sponge

  2. The Sponge-associated Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis SAB1: A Source of Antimicrobial Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Devi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Several bacterial cultures were isolated from sponge Halichondria sp., collected from the Gujarat coast of the Indo Pacific region. These bacterial cultures were fermented in the laboratory (100 mL and the culture filtrate was assayed for antibiotic activity against 16 strains of clinical pathogens. Bacillus sp. (SAB1, the most potent of them and antagonistic to several clinically pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus was chosen for further investigation. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA gene of Bacillus sp. SAB1 showed a strong similarity (100% with the 16S rDNA gene of Bacillus licheniformis HNL09. The bioactive compounds produced by Bacillus licheniformis SAB1 (GenBank accession number: DQ071568 were identified as indole (1, 3-phenylpropionic acid (2 and a dimer 4,4′-oxybis[3-phenylpropionic acid] (3 on the basis of their Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometer (ESI-MS data. There is a single reference on the natural occurrence of compound 3 from the leaves of a terrestrial herb Aptenia cordifolia in the literature, so to the best of our knowledge, this is a first report of its natural occurrence from a marine source. The recovery of bacterial strains with antimicrobial activity suggests that marine-invertebrates remain a rich source for the isolation of culturable isolates capable of producing novel bioactive secondary metabolites.

  3. Antifouling 26,27-cyclosterols from the Vietnamese marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Xuan Cuong; Longeon, Arlette; Pham, Van Cuong; Urvois, Félix; Bressy, Christine; Trinh, Thi Thanh Van; Nguyen, Hoai Nam; Phan, Van Kiem; Chau, Van Minh; Briand, Jean-François; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2013-07-26

    Three new C29 sterols with a cyclopropane ring cyclized between C-26 and C-27 of the side chain, aragusterol I (1), 21-O-octadecanoyl-xestokerol A (4), and 7β-hydroxypetrosterol (5b), were isolated from the Vietnamese marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria, along with the known compounds, aragusterol B (2), xestokerol A (3), 7α-hydroxypetrosterol (5a), 7-oxopetrosterol (6), and petrosterol (7). The structures of the new compounds were established by analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR, and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS). Their capacity to inhibit the adhesion of isolated bacteria from marine biofilms was evaluated against the bacterial strains Pseudoalteromonas sp. D41, Pseudoalteromonas sp. TC8, and Polaribacter sp. TC5. Aragusterol B (2) and 21-O-octadecanoyl-xestokerol A (4) exhibited the most potent antifouling activity with EC50 values close to these reported in the literature for tributyltin oxide, a marine anti-biofouling agent now considered to be a severe marine pollutant. Due to its comparable activity to tributyltin oxide and its absence of toxicity, the new 26,27-cyclosterol, 21-O-octadecanoyl-xestokerol A (4) constitutes a promising scaffold for further investigations.

  4. Two bromotyrosine alkaloids from the sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.

    The sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea (Order: Verongidae, Family: Aplysinellidae) is a well known source for several bromotyrosine alkaloids of unique structural features and exhibiting promising biological activities such as cytotoxicity...

  5. Primmorphs from seven marine sponges : formation and structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Wielink, van R.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.; Tramper, J.; Osinga, R.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Primmorphs were obtained from seven different marine sponges: Stylissa massa, Suberites domuncula, Pseudosuberites aff. andrewsi, Geodia cydonium, Axinella polypoides, Halichondria panicea and Haliclona oculata. The formation process and the ultra structure of primmorphs were studied. A positive

  6. New cyclitol derivative from a sponge Sarcotragus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonghong; Jung, Jee H; Xu, Tunhai; Long, Lijuan; Lin, Xiuping; Yin, Hao; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Xue-Feng; Yang, Xianwen

    2011-03-01

    Guided by the brine shrimp lethality assay, a new cyclitol derivative, sarcotride D (1), was isolated from a marine sponge Sarcotragus species. The structure was established based on NMR and MS analyses.

  7. Cultivation of Marine Sponges: From Sea to Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.

    2004-01-01

    Marine sponges are one of the richest natural sources of secondary metabolites with a potential pharmaceutical application. A plethora of chemical compounds, with widely varying carbon skeletons, possessing among other anticancer, antiviral, antibiotic, antiinflammatory and antimalaria activity has

  8. Functional Insights into Sponge Microbiology by Single Cell Genomics

    KAUST Repository

    Hentschel, Ute

    2011-04-09

    Marine Sponges (Porifera) are known to harbor enormous amounts of microorganisms with members belonging to at least 30 different bacterial phyla including several candidate phyla and both archaeal lineages. Here, we applied single cell genomics to the mic

  9. Medullary sponge kidney and isolated hemihyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Priyamvada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The term hemihyperplasia refers to an enlargement of body parts beyond the normal asymmetry. Hemihyperplasia can be isolated or associated with various well-described malformation syndromes. Medullary sponge kidney (MSK has been described with isolated and syndromic hemihyperplasia; the actual prevalence is not known The hemi hypertrophy can be so subtle that it may be easily overlooked. MSK need not be limited to the side of hemihyperplasia - most often it is bilateral. Around 33 cases has been reported from different parts of the world of which 15 cases are isolated hemi hyperplasia (IHH, the remaining occurring in the context of various malformation syndromes So far only one case has been reported from India. We report a case of IHH involving right side of the body, recurrent renal stones, incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis hypercalciuria and imaging showing bilateral MSKs.

  10. Diversity and biotechnological potential of microorganisms associated with marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, John A

    2014-09-01

    Marine sponges harbor diverse microbial communities, encompassing not only three domains of life including Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotes, but also many different phyla within Bacteria. This diversity implies a rich source for biodiscovery of new natural products. Here, we review recent progress in our understanding of this genetic diversity, its retrieval via culture and genomic approaches, and its implications for chemical diversity and other biotechnology applications of sponge microorganisms and their genes.

  11. Diversity of Bacterial Photosymbionts in Lubomirskiidae Sponges from Lake Baikal

    OpenAIRE

    Kulakova, Nina V.; Denikina, Natalia N.; Belikov, Sergei I.

    2014-01-01

    Sponges are permanent benthos residents which establish complex associations with a variety of microorganisms that raise interest in the nature of sponge-symbionts interactions. A molecular approach, based on the identification of the 16S rRNA and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit genes, was applied to investigate diversity and phylogeny of bacterial phototrophs associated with four species of Lubomirskiidae in Lake Baikal. The phylogeny inferred from both genes sh...

  12. Genomics of "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarium", a Cyanobacterial Sponge Symbiont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, Beate M. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany); Copeland, Alex [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Woyke, Tanja [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hentschel, Ute [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2014-03-21

    Marine sponges (Porifera): ancient metazoans of ecological importance, that produce bioactive secondary metabolites and interact with various microorganisms including cyanobacteria1: Marine Synechococcus spp.: cyanobacteria, important contributors to the global carbon cycle and major primary producers in the oceans2 Ca. S. spongiarum: an ecotype of this genus, widespread and abundant symbiont of various marine sponges around the world3, e.g. Aplysina aerophoba

  13. Identification Sponges-Associated Fungi From Karimunjawa National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, Agus; Sabdono, Agus; Rochaddi, Baskoro; Wulan Triningsih, Desy; Seswita Zilda, Dewi

    2018-02-01

    Marine sponges are rich sources of bioactive substances with various pharmacological activities. Previous studies have shown that most bioactive compounds were originally produced by associated-microorganisms. Fungi associated with the marine sponges collected off Karimunjawa National Park were isolated and identified by morphological characteristics and molecular level analyses based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. A total of 2 isolates which were characterized, the fungi Penicillium spinulosum and Trichoderma virens have been revealed.

  14. Bioactive Natural Products of Marine Sponges from the Genus Hyrtios

    OpenAIRE

    Nourhan Hisham Shady; Ebaa M. El-Hossary; Mostafa A. Fouad; Tobias A. M. Gulder; Mohamed Salah Kamel; Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen

    2017-01-01

    Marine sponges are known as a rich source for novel bioactive compounds with valuable pharmacological potential. One of the most predominant sponge genera is Hyrtios, reported to have various species such as Hyrtios erectus, Hyrtios reticulatus, Hyrtios gumminae, Hyrtios communis, and Hyrtios tubulatus and a number of undescribed species. Members of the genus Hyrtios are a rich source of natural products with diverse and valuable biological activities, represented by different chemical classe...

  15. Sound absorption properties of aluminum sponges manufactured by infiltration process

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Patricia; Cruz, Luis J.; García Cambronero, Luis Enrique; Diaz Sanchidrian, Cesar; Navacerrada Saturio, Maria Angeles

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the sound absorption properties of aluminum sponges manufactured by infiltration process have been studied. The results show that the sound absorption factor α changes in function of pore size. Additionally, the sound absorption factor α was sensitive to the frequency range measured and it was depending of the thickness sample. It was found that the interconnected porosity plays an important role increasing the sound absorption properties of the aluminum sponges studied

  16. Arc melting in inert gas atmosphere of zirconium sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julio Junior, O.; Andrade, A.H.P. de

    1991-01-01

    The obtainment of metallic zirconium in laboratory scale with commercial and nuclear quality is the objective of the Metallurgy Department of IEN/CNEN - Brazil, so a melting procedure of zirconium sponge in laboratory scale using an arc furnace in inert atmosphere is developed. The effects of atmosphere operation, and the use of gas absorber and the sponge characteristics over the quality of button in as-cast reporting with hardness measures are described. (C.G.C.)

  17. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cao, Zhangjun [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Gao, Pin, E-mail: gaopin@mail.dhu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170 °C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM{sub 10} was 98.3%. - Graphical abstract: The reduction residues were made into a smooth, elastic, porous and flexible sponge film through freeze drying, no pretreatment and no cross-linking agent added. - Highlights: • The residue from feather waste reduction was turned into a sponge film. • A glycerol content of 5% produced a sponge with the optimum characteristics. • The sponge was uniform, stable up to 160 °C, and had an air permeability of 368 mm/s. • Feather-derived sponge film has potential applications in medicine and technology.

  18. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian; Cao, Zhangjun; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua; Gao, Pin

    2013-01-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170 °C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM 10 was 98.3%. - Graphical abstract: The reduction residues were made into a smooth, elastic, porous and flexible sponge film through freeze drying, no pretreatment and no cross-linking agent added. - Highlights: • The residue from feather waste reduction was turned into a sponge film. • A glycerol content of 5% produced a sponge with the optimum characteristics. • The sponge was uniform, stable up to 160 °C, and had an air permeability of 368 mm/s. • Feather-derived sponge film has potential applications in medicine and technology

  19. Gene Expression Dynamics Accompanying the Sponge Thermal Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Christine; Conaco, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges are important members of coral reef ecosystems. Thus, their responses to changes in ocean chemistry and environmental conditions, particularly to higher seawater temperatures, will have potential impacts on the future of these reefs. To better understand the sponge thermal stress response, we investigated gene expression dynamics in the shallow water sponge, Haliclona tubifera (order Haplosclerida, class Demospongiae), subjected to elevated temperature. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we show that these conditions result in the activation of various processes that interact to maintain cellular homeostasis. Short-term thermal stress resulted in the induction of heat shock proteins, antioxidants, and genes involved in signal transduction and innate immunity pathways. Prolonged exposure to thermal stress affected the expression of genes involved in cellular damage repair, apoptosis, signaling and transcription. Interestingly, exposure to sublethal temperatures may improve the ability of the sponge to mitigate cellular damage under more extreme stress conditions. These insights into the potential mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of sponges contribute to a better understanding of sponge conservation status and the prediction of ecosystem trajectories under future climate conditions. PMID:27788197

  20. Gene Expression Dynamics Accompanying the Sponge Thermal Stress Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Guzman

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are important members of coral reef ecosystems. Thus, their responses to changes in ocean chemistry and environmental conditions, particularly to higher seawater temperatures, will have potential impacts on the future of these reefs. To better understand the sponge thermal stress response, we investigated gene expression dynamics in the shallow water sponge, Haliclona tubifera (order Haplosclerida, class Demospongiae, subjected to elevated temperature. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we show that these conditions result in the activation of various processes that interact to maintain cellular homeostasis. Short-term thermal stress resulted in the induction of heat shock proteins, antioxidants, and genes involved in signal transduction and innate immunity pathways. Prolonged exposure to thermal stress affected the expression of genes involved in cellular damage repair, apoptosis, signaling and transcription. Interestingly, exposure to sublethal temperatures may improve the ability of the sponge to mitigate cellular damage under more extreme stress conditions. These insights into the potential mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of sponges contribute to a better understanding of sponge conservation status and the prediction of ecosystem trajectories under future climate conditions.

  1. Trophic transfer of radioisotopes in Mediterranean sponges through bacteria consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Warnau, Michel; Beaugeard, Laureen; Pascal, Pierre-Yves

    2016-02-01

    Numerous field studies highlighted the capacities of marine sponges to bioaccumulate trace elements and assessed their potential as biomonitors of the marine environment. Experimental works demonstrated that dissolved metals and radionuclides can be taken up directly by sponge tissues but, to the best of our knowledge, little is known on the contribution of the dietary pathway through the consumption of contaminated bacteria considered as one of the trophic source in sponge diet. Objectives of this work are to study trophic transfer of radiotracers (110m)Ag, (241)Am, (109)Cd, (57)Co, (134)Cs, (54)Mn and (65)Zn from the marine bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri to the Mediterranean sponges Aplysina cavernicola and Ircinia oros. P. stutzeri efficiently bioaccumulated trace elements in our culture experimental conditions with CF comprised between 10(5) and 10(7) after 48 h of growth in radiolabeled medium. When fed with these radiolabelled bacteria, A. cavernicola took up around 60% of radiotracers accumulated in trophic source except (134)Cs for which only 8% has been transferred from bacteria to sponge. Contrasting to this, I. oros retained only 7% of (110m)Ag, (109)Cd and (65)Zn counted in bacteria, but retained 2-fold longer accumulated metals in its tissues. The sponge inter-specific differences of accumulation and depuration following a trophic exposure are discussed with respect to the structure and the clearance capacities of each species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intact collagen and atelocollagen sponges: Characterization and ESEM observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruozi, Barbara; Tosi, Giovanni; Leo, Eliana; Parma, Bruna; Vismara, Susanna; Forni, Flavio; Vandelli, Maria Angela

    2007-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the chemical-physical and morphological properties of intact and atelocollagen sponges used for tissue engineering. The porous sponges were prepared by lyophilization and their physico-chemical characteristics (water binding capacity, denaturing temperature, amino group content) were investigated. Considering the importance of the 'in vivo' interactions between these sponges and the tissue, our attention was addressed (a) to clarify the relationships between the morphology and the amount of water absorbed and (b) to evaluate the influence of pepsin-alkaline treatment on the reorganization of the atelocollagen fibres. Conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) were employed to study the morphology and wetting behaviour of the intact and atelocollagen sponges. The observations by SEM indicated remarkable differences both in the structure and dimension of the pores between intact and atelocollagen sponges. At the data are related to a different water binding capacity. However, the ESEM observations, achieved by changing the relative humidity in the operative chamber, demonstrated that the water adsorbed can be removed with major difficulty from atelocollagen sponges than from intact ones

  3. High-performance nanostructured supercapacitors on a sponge

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2011-12-14

    A simple and scalable method has been developed to fabricate nanostructured MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge hybrid electrodes. A novel supercapacitor, henceforth referred to as "sponge supercapacitor", has been fabricated using these hybrid electrodes with remarkable performance. A specific capacitance of 1230 F/g (based on the mass of MnO 2) can be reached. Capacitors based on CNT-sponge substrates (without MnO 2) can be operated even under a high scan rate of 200 V/s, and they exhibit outstanding cycle performance with only 2% degradation after 100000 cycles under a scan rate of 10 V/s. The MnO 2-CNT-sponge supercapacitors show only 4% of degradation after 10000 cycles at a charge-discharge specific current of 5 A/g. The specific power and energy of the MnO 2-CNT-sponge supercapacitors are high with values of 63 kW/kg and 31 Wh/kg, respectively. The attractive performances exhibited by these sponge supercapacitors make them potentially promising candidates for future energy storage systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Lipopolysaccharides from Commensal and Opportunistic Bacteria: Characterization and Response of the Immune System of the Host Sponge Suberites domuncula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Gardères

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges harbor a rich bacterioflora with which they maintain close relationships. However, the way these animals make the distinction between bacteria which are consumed to meet their metabolic needs and opportunistic and commensal bacteria which are hosted is not elucidated. Among the elements participating in this discrimination, bacterial cell wall components such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS could play a role. In the present study, we investigated the LPS chemical structure of two bacteria associated with the sponge Suberites domuncula: a commensal Endozoicomonas sp. and an opportunistic Pseudoalteromonas sp. Electrophoretic patterns indicated different LPS structures for these bacteria. The immunomodulatory lipid A was isolated after mild acetic acid hydrolysis. The electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectra revealed monophosphorylated molecules corresponding to tetra- and pentaacylated structures with common structural features between the two strains. Despite peculiar structural characteristics, none of these two LPS influenced the expression of the macrophage-expressed gene S. domuncula unlike the Escherichia coli ones. Further research will have to include a larger number of genes to understand how this animal can distinguish between LPS with resembling structures and discriminate between bacteria associated with it.

  5. Investigating on the Correlation Between Some Biological Activities of Marine Sponge-Associated Bacteria Extracts and Isolated Diketopiperazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hady, Faten K; Fayad, Walid; Iodice, Carmine; El-Shahid, Zeinab A; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S; Crudele, Egle; Tommonaro, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Marine organisms have been considered as the richest sources of novel bioactive metabolites, which can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. In the last years, the interest for marine microorganisms has grown for their enormous biodiversity and for the evidence that many novel compounds isolated from marine invertebrates are really synthesized by their associated bacteria. Nevertheless, the discovery of a chemical communication Quorum sensing (QS) between bacterial cells and between bacteria and host has gained the researchers to expand the aim of their study toward the role of bacteria associated with marine invertebrates, such as marine sponge. In the present paper, we report the evaluation of biological activities of different extracts of bacteria Vibrio sp. and Bacillus sp. associated with marine sponges Dysidea avara and Ircinia variabilis, respectively. Moreover, we evaluated the biological activities of some diketopiperazines (DKPs), previously isolated, and able to activate QS mechanism. The results showed that all extracts, fractions, and DKPs showed low scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide anion, low cytotoxic and anti-tyrosinase activities, but no antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. One DKP [cyclo-(trans-4-hydroxy-L-prolyl-L-leucine)] has the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity even than the standard acarbose.

  6. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Onon

    2010-11-18

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus, Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria. We revealed highly diverse sponge-associated bacterial communities with up to 1000 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and richness estimates of up to 2000 species. Altogether, 26 bacterial phyla were detected from the Red Sea sponges, 11 of which were absent from the surrounding sea water and 4 were recorded in sponges for the first time. Up to 100 OTUs with richness estimates of up to 300 archaeal species were revealed from a single sponge species. This is by far the highest archaeal diversity ever recorded for sponges. A non-negligible proportion of unclassified reads was observed in sponges. Our results demonstrated that the sponge-associated microbial communities remained highly consistent in the same sponge species from different locations, although they varied at different degrees among different sponge species. A significant proportion of the tag sequences from the sponges could be assigned to one of the sponge-specific clusters previously defined. In addition, the sponge-associated microbial communities were consistently divergent from those present in the surrounding sea water. Our results suggest that the Red Sea sponges possess highly sponge-specific or even sponge-species-specific microbial communities that are resistant to environmental disturbance, and much of their microbial diversity remains to be explored. © 2011 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

  7. Bone regeneration of osteoporotic vertevral body defects using PRP and gelatin β-TCP sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Munehiro; Tonomura, Hitoshi; Itsuji, Tomonori; Ishibashi, Hidenobu; Takatori, Ryota; Mikami, Yasuo; Nagae, Masateru; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Masaki; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2017-12-22

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combined with gelatin β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) sponge on bone generation in a lumbar vertebral body defect of ovariectomized rat. After creating critical size defects in the center of the anterior vertebral body, the defects were filled with the following materials: (1) no material (control group), (2) gelatin β-TCP sponge with PRP (PRP sponge group), and (3) gelatin β-TCP sponge with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS sponge group). Microcomputed tomography and histological evaluation were performed immediately after surgery and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks to assess bone regeneration. Biomechanical test was also performed at postoperative week 12. In the PRP sponge group, both imaging and histological examination showed that visible osteogenesis was first induced and additional growth of bone tissue was observed in the transplanted sponge, compared with the PBS sponge group. There was no negative effect of either PRP sponge or PBS sponge transplantation on bone tissue generation around the periphery of the defect. Biomechanical test showed increased stiffness of the affected vertebral bodies in the PRP sponge group. These results indicate that PRP-impregnated gelatin β-TCP sponge is effective for facilitating bone regeneration in lumbar vertebral bone defect under osteoporotic condition. PRP combined with gelatin β-TCP sponges could be potentially useful for developing a new approach to vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral fracture.

  8. Pezizomycotina dominates the fungal communities of South China Sea sponges Theonella swinhoei and Xestospongia testudinaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liling; Liu, Fang; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-12-01

    Compared with the knowledge of sponge-associated bacterial diversity and ecological roles, the fungal diversity and ecological roles of sponges remain largely unknown. In this study, the fungal diversity and protein synthesis potential in two South China Sea sponges Theonella swinhoei and Xestospongia testudinaria were investigated by rRNA vs. rRNA gene analysis. EF4/fung5 was chosen after a series of PCR tests to target fungal 18S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene. Altogether, 283 high-quality sequences were obtained, which resulted in 26 Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were assigned to Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Blastocladiomycota. At subphylum level, 77.3% of sponge-derived sequences were affiliated with Pezizomycotina. The fungal compositions of T. swinhoei and X. testudinaria were different from that of ambient seawater. The predominant OTU shared between two sponges was rare in seawater, whereas the most abundant OTUs in seawater were not found in sponges. Additionally, the major OTUs of sponge cDNA datasets were shared in two sponges. The fungal diversity illustrated by sponge cDNA datasets correlated well with that derived from sponge DNA datasets, indicating that the major members of sponge-associated fungi had protein synthesis potential. This study highlighted the diversity of Pezizomycotina in marine sponge-fungi symbioses and the necessity of investigating ecological roles of sponge-associated fungi. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibacterial and antibiotic potentiating activities of tropical marine sponge extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesoo, Rima; Bhagooli, Ranjeet; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Li, Wen-Wu; Kagansky, Alexander; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2017-06-01

    Increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has led research to focus on discovering new antimicrobial agents derived from the marine biome. Although ample studies have investigated sponges for their bioactive metabolites with promising prospects in drug discovery, the potentiating effects of sponge extracts on antibiotics still remains to be expounded. The present study aimed to investigate the antibacterial capacity of seven tropical sponges collected from Mauritian waters and their modulatory effect in association with three conventional antibiotics namely chloramphenicol, ampicillin and tetracycline. Disc diffusion assay was used to determine the inhibition zone diameter (IZD) of the sponge total crude extracts (CE), hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AF) fractions against nine standard bacterial isolates whereas broth microdilution method was used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) and antibiotic potentiating activity of the most active sponge extract. MIC values of the sponge extracts ranged from 0.039 to 1.25mg/mL. Extracts from Neopetrosia exigua rich in beta-sitosterol and cholesterol displayed the widest activity spectrum against the 9 tested bacterial isolates whilst the best antibacterial profile was observed by its EAF particularly against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus with MIC and MBC values of 0.039mg/mL and 0.078mg/mL, respectively. The greatest antibiotic potentiating effect was obtained with the EAF of N. exigua (MIC/2) and ampicillin combination against S. aureus. These findings suggest that the antibacterial properties of the tested marine sponge extracts may provide an alternative and complementary strategy to manage bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diversity of the candidate phylum Poribacteria in the marine sponge Aplysina fulva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardoim, C.C.P.; Cox, C. J.; Peixoto, R. S.; Rosado, A. S.; Costa, R.; van Elsas, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Poribacterial clone libraries constructed for Aplysina fulva sponge specimens were analysed with respect to diversity and phylogeny. Results imply the coexistence of several, prevalently "intra-specific" poribacterial genotypes in a single sponge host, and suggest quantitative analysis as a

  11. Antibacterial activity of the sponge Ircinia ramosa: Importance of its surface-associated bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N.L.; Anil, A.C.

    fractions were more useful for the sponge when threatened with increased bacterial density. Thus, the chemical nature and production of antibacterial compounds produced by sponge or its associated bacteria appears to be governed by the environment...

  12. SP. Pescado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Gendre

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nell'occhiello di un articolo dal titolo Il Peru dei de[Jini rosa e de/la grande pioggia si legge: "da una partenza  in aereo al «pescado»  che ti  sfamera."1 Questa parola spagnola, giustamente chiusa tra caporali, a noi pare molto interes­ sante, perche, nonostante l'apparenza, non ha nulla da spartire sotto i1 profilo se­ mantico con l'it. pescato. lnfatti, tutti i piu importanti dizionari della lingua italiana, di ieri e di oggi, etimologici e non 2, registrano  accanto a pescata,  ii lemma pescato, 3 ma lo spiegano come "quantita di pesce catturato nel corso di una battuta o di una stagione di pesca",4 mentre lo sp. pescado  indica i1 "pesce (solo nel senso di: pesGe pescato da mangiare [...]".s

  13. Sponge epizoism in the Caribbean and the discovery of new Plakortis and Haliclona species, and polymorphism of Xestospongia deweerdtae (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Jan; Zea, Sven; Hill, Russell T

    2016-10-24

    The new discovery by Vicente et al. (2014) of specialized epizoic symbioses between sponges of the genera Plakortis and Xestospongia revealed the obligate interaction of two new Plakortis spp. associating with Xestospongia deweerdtae and a new Xestospongia sp. In this study we formally describe the two new Plakortis spp. as Plakortis deweerdtaephila sp. nov. (previously reported as Plakortis sp. 1), Plakortis symbiotica sp. nov. (previously reported as Plakortis sp. 2) and describe the new Xestospongia sp. epibiont as Haliclona (Halichoclona) plakophila sp. nov.  Plakortis deweerdtaephila associates only with X. deweerdtae, and has very small to large straight diods (24.2-233.7 μm long) and triods (26.4-102.6 μm long) that form large ectosomal circular meshes (114-329 μm diameter). P. symbiotica associates with both X. deweerdtae and H. plakophila, has larger curved diods (71.9-141.8 μm long) and triods (20.4-70.6 μm long) that form smaller ectosomal circular meshes (43-121 μm diameter) than P. deweerdtaephila. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 and cob gene fragments revealed a strongly supported clade that grouped both Plakortis spp. nov. distantly from any other known Plakortis spp. H. plakophila is described as a thin encrusting veneer of tissue with occasional papillae, so far only found associated with P. symbiotica in La Parguera, Puerto Rico. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and cox1 gene fragments place it distantly from any known clade of Haplosclerida. We found a new associated morphotype of X. deweerdtae from Bocas del Toro Panama, which completely overgrew P. deweerdtaephila. In addition, free-living morphotypes from Panama produce larger S-shaped and round bracket shaped strongyles never before observed for this species, leading us to redescribe X. deweerdtae. All X. deweerdtae morphotypes shared >99% sequence homology of cox1, 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes with the holotype of X. deweerdtae. This study highlights the highly variable morphological

  14. Archaea appear to dominate the microbiome of Inflatella pellicula deep sea sponges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Jackson

    Full Text Available Microbes associated with marine sponges play significant roles in host physiology. Remarkable levels of microbial diversity have been observed in sponges worldwide through both culture-dependent and culture-independent studies. Most studies have focused on the structure of the bacterial communities in sponges and have involved sponges sampled from shallow waters. Here, we used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to compare the bacterial and archaeal communities associated with two individuals of the marine sponge Inflatella pellicula from the deep-sea, sampled from a depth of 2,900 m, a depth which far exceeds any previous sequence-based report of sponge-associated microbial communities. Sponge-microbial communities were also compared to the microbial community in the surrounding seawater. Sponge-associated microbial communities were dominated by archaeal sequencing reads with a single archaeal OTU, comprising ~60% and ~72% of sequences, being observed from Inflatella pellicula. Archaeal sequencing reads were less abundant in seawater (~11% of sequences. Sponge-associated microbial communities were less diverse and less even than any other sponge-microbial community investigated to date with just 210 and 273 OTUs (97% sequence identity identified in sponges, with 4 and 6 dominant OTUs comprising ~88% and ~89% of sequences, respectively. Members of the candidate phyla, SAR406, NC10 and ZB3 are reported here from sponges for the first time, increasing the number of bacterial phyla or candidate divisions associated with sponges to 43. A minor cohort from both sponge samples (~0.2% and ~0.3% of sequences were not classified to phylum level. A single OTU, common to both sponge individuals, dominates these unclassified reads and shares sequence homology with a sponge associated clone which itself has no known close relative and may represent a novel taxon.

  15. Morphological and molecular analyses of microorganisms in Caribbean reef adult sponges and in corresponding reproductive material

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Susanne; Wehrl, M.; Lindquist, N.; Weisz, J. B.; Hentschel, Ute

    2008-01-01

    Caribbean reef sponges were surveyed for the presence of microorganisms in the mesohyl tissue of adult sponges and the respective reproductive material (embryos, larvae). A clear correlation was found in that high microbial abundance (HMA) sponges always contained microorganisms in their reproductive stages. In contrast, low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges did not contain microorganisms in their reproductive stages. Based on these data, Ircinia felix Duchassaing and Michelotti, ...

  16. Macrofauna associated with the sponge Neopetrosia exigua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Echinodermata (6%, 1 sp.). However, the most dominant species was the polychaete Haplosyllis djibouitensis (Gravier, 1900) representing 71% of total number of specimens collected. The number of species and individuals and the diversity index values were positively, but the evenness index values were negatively ...

  17. The Microbiome and Occurrence of Methanotrophy in Carnivorous Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Thomassen Hestetun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As shown by recent studies, filter-feeding sponges are known to host a wide variety of microorganisms. However, the microbial community of the non-filtering carnivorous sponges (Porifera, Cladorhizidae has been the subject of less scrutiny. Here, we present the results from a comparative study of the methanotrophic carnivorous sponge Cladorhiza methanophila from a mud volcano-rich area at the Barbados Accretionary Prism (BAP, and five carnivorous species from the Jan Mayen Vent Field (JMVF at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. Results from 16S rRNA microbiome data indicate the presence of a diverse assemblage of associated microorganisms in carnivorous sponges mainly from the Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriaceae and Thaumarchaeota. While the abundance of particular groups varied throughout the dataset, we found interesting similarities to previous microbiome results from non-carnivorous deep sea sponges, suggesting that the carnivorous sponges share characteristics of a previously hypothesized putative deep-sea sponge microbial community. Chemolithoautotrophic symbiosis was confirmed for C. methanophila through a microbial community with a high abundance of Methylococcales and very light isotopic δ13C and δ15N ratios (-60 to -66‰/3.5 to 5.2‰ compared to the other cladorhizid species (-22 to -24‰/8.5-10.5‰. We provide evidence for the presence of putative sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria in the arctic cladorhizids; however, δ13C and δ15N signatures did not provide evidence for significant chemoautotrophic symbiosis in this case, and the slightly higher abundance of cladorhizids at the JMVF site compared to the nearby deep sea likely stem from an increased abundance of prey rather than a more direct vent association. The phylogenetic position of C. methanophila in relation to other carnivorous sponges was established using a three-gene phylogenetic analysis, and it was found to be closely related to other non

  18. The Microbiome and Occurrence of Methanotrophy in Carnivorous Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestetun, Jon T; Dahle, Håkon; Jørgensen, Steffen L; Olsen, Bernt R; Rapp, Hans T

    2016-01-01

    As shown by recent studies, filter-feeding sponges are known to host a wide variety of microorganisms. However, the microbial community of the non-filtering carnivorous sponges (Porifera, Cladorhizidae) has been the subject of less scrutiny. Here, we present the results from a comparative study of the methanotrophic carnivorous sponge Cladorhiza methanophila from a mud volcano-rich area at the Barbados Accretionary Prism, and five carnivorous species from the Jan Mayen Vent Field (JMVF) at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. Results from 16S rRNA microbiome data indicate the presence of a diverse assemblage of associated microorganisms in carnivorous sponges mainly from the Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriaceae, and Thaumarchaeota. While the abundance of particular groups varied throughout the dataset, we found interesting similarities to previous microbiome results from non-carnivorous deep sea sponges, suggesting that the carnivorous sponges share characteristics of a previously hypothesized putative deep-sea sponge microbial community. Chemolithoautotrophic symbiosis was confirmed for C. methanophila through a microbial community with a high abundance of Methylococcales and very light isotopic δ 13 C and δ 15 N ratios (-60 to -66‰/3.5 to 5.2‰) compared to the other cladorhizid species (-22 to -24‰/8.5 to 10.5‰). We provide evidence for the presence of putative sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria in the arctic cladorhizids; however, δ 13 C and δ 15 N signatures did not provide evidence for significant chemoautotrophic symbiosis in this case, and the slightly higher abundance of cladorhizids at the JMVF site compared to the nearby deep sea likely stem from an increased abundance of prey rather than a more direct vent association. The phylogenetic position of C. methanophila in relation to other carnivorous sponges was established using a three-gene phylogenetic analysis, and it was found to be closely related to other non-methanotrophic Cladorhiza

  19. Production and characterization of cast aluminum sponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivarola, M.E; Marmo Lupano, J.M; Malachevsky, M.T

    2004-01-01

    Cellular materials have unique physical features that make them particularly appropriate for applications that require high mechanical resistance and low weight. They can be produced in different ways: by powder metallurgy, by infiltration over plastic foams, adding a releasing agent of gas to a fused metal or simply injecting gas into it. Cellular structures can also be formed by casting onto a pore forming material. This work proposes a method that is basically similar to the last one mentioned but that allows the resulting material's porosity and topology to be controlled. Thus, the mechanical or thermal features of the material that is being manufactured can be predicted and/or designed. First the three dimensional print of a mold is made in a 3D printer, which is the negative of the piece that will be produced. Then a vacuum assisted aluminum cast is made. A preliminary study is presented for the applicability of this method and the mechanical properties of the resulting sponges (CW)

  20. Medullary sponge kidney on axial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginalski, J.-M.; Schnyder, Pierre; Portmann, Luc; Jaeger, Philippe

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate features of medullary sponge kidney (MSK) on computed tomography (CT), 4-mm-thick axial slices without intravenous contrast material were 1st made in 13 patients through 24 kidneys which showed images of MSK on excretory urograms. On CT, papillary calcifications were found in 11 kidneys. In 5 of these, the calcifications were not detectable on plain films. Some hyperdense papillae (attenuation value 55-70 Hounsfield units) without calcification were found in 4 other kidneys. 9 kidneys appeared normal. 10 of the 14 kidneys were reexamined by a 2nd series of 4-mm-thick axial slices, 5 min after intravenous injection of 50 ml of Urografin. Images suggesting possible ectasia of precaliceal tubules were found in only 4 kidneys. These images appear much less obvious and characteristic on CT than on excretory urogram and do nothing more than suggest the possibility of MSK. In conclusion, the sensitivity of CT in the detection of MSK is markedly lower than that of excretory urography. In the most florid cases of the disease, CT can only show images suggesting the possibility of MSK. On the other hand, CT appears much more sensitive than plain films and tomograms of excretory in the detection of papillary calcifications, the most frequent complication of MSK. (author). 13 refs.; 3 figs

  1. Sediment tolerance mechanisms identified in sponges using advanced imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Strehlow

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial runoff, resuspension events and dredging can affect filter-feeding sponges by elevating the concentration of suspended sediments, reducing light intensity, and smothering sponges with sediments. To investigate how sponges respond to pressures associated with increased sediment loads, the abundant and widely distributed Indo-Pacific species Ianthella basta was exposed to elevated suspended sediment concentrations, sediment deposition, and light attenuation for 48 h (acute exposure and 4 weeks (chronic exposure. In order to visualise the response mechanisms, sponge tissue was examined by 3D X-ray microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Acute exposures resulted in sediment rapidly accumulating in the aquiferous system of I. basta, although this sediment was fully removed within three days. Sediment removal took longer (>2 weeks following chronic exposures, and I. basta also exhibited tissue regression and a smaller aquiferous system. The application of advanced imaging approaches revealed that I. basta employs a multilevel system for sediment rejection and elimination, containing both active and passive components. Sponges responded to sediment stress through (i mucus production, (ii exclusion of particles by incurrent pores, (iii closure of oscula and pumping cessation, (iv expulsion of particles from the aquiferous system, and (v tissue regression to reduce the volume of the aquiferous system, thereby entering a dormant state. These mechanisms would result in tolerance and resilience to exposure to variable and high sediment loads associated with both anthropogenic impacts like dredging programs and natural pressures like flood events.

  2. Fossil freshwater sponges: Taxonomy, geographic distribution, and critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pronzato

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are one of the most ancient animal phyla with about 8850 living species and about 5000 described fossil taxa. Most sponges are marine and live at all depths of all oceans. Freshwater bodies (lakes, rivers are inhabited only by a small minority of species, ca. 240 (<3% comprising the order Spongillida (Demospongiae most of which are able to produce specialized resting bodies to survive harsh terrestrial environmental conditions. This highly disproportionate ratio of marine and freshwater sponges is even more accentuated in the field of palaeontology with rare records reported up to the Miocene (<0.4% of all known fossil sponges. Only a few fossil taxa were correctly supported by strong and convincing taxonomic morphotraits at genus and species level, thus we provide here an overview of fossil freshwater sponges focusing on their morphotraits and distribution in time and space. Each recorded taxon is described in detail following the modern taxonomy and nomenclature. All fossil data suggest a clear trend of long term conservative morphology in the evolutionary history of Spongillida, although some traits of Recent gemmules evolved in a wide array of adaptive morpho-functional novelties. The majority of accepted fossil species belongs to the cosmopolitan family Spongillidae. The genera Oncosclera and Potamophloios of the family Potamolepidae seem to have had, in the past, a much larger geographic range than today. A synthesis of fossil taxa morphotraits is also provided in an Appendix 1.

  3. Microbiological Safety of Kitchen Sponges Used in Food Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Wolde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kitchen sponges are among the possible sources of contaminants in food establishments. The main purpose of the current study was, therefore, to assess the microbiological safety of sponges as it has been used in selected food establishments of Jimma town. Accordingly, the microbiological safety of a total of 201 kitchen sponges randomly collected from food establishments was evaluated against the total counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and yeast and molds. The mean counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 7.43 to 12.44 log CFU/mm3. The isolated genera were dominated by Pseudomonas (16.9%, Bacillus (11.1%, Micrococcus (10.6%, Streptococcus (7.8%, and Lactobacillus (6% excluding the unidentified Gram positive rods (4.9% and Gram negative rods (9.9%. The high microbial counts (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and molds reveal the existence of poor kitchen sponge sanitization practice. Awareness creation training on basic hygienic practices to food handlers and periodic change of kitchen sponges are recommended.

  4. Marine Sponge Natural Products with Anticancer Potential: An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcabrini, Cinzia; Catanzaro, Elena; Bishayee, Anupam; Turrini, Eleonora; Fimognari, Carmela

    2017-10-13

    Despite the huge investment into research and the significant effort and advances made in the search for new anticancer drugs in recent decades, cancer cure and treatment continue to be a formidable challenge. Many sources, including plants, animals, and minerals, have been explored in the oncological field because of the possibility of identifying novel molecular therapeutics. Marine sponges are a prolific source of secondary metabolites, a number of which showed intriguing tumor chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties. Recently, Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs derived from marine sponges have been shown to reduce metastatic breast cancer, malignant lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease. The chemopreventive and potential anticancer activity of marine sponge-derived compounds could be explained by multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms, including DNA protection, cell-cycle modulation, apoptosis, and anti-inflammatory activities as well as their ability to chemosensitize cancer cells to traditional antiblastic chemotherapy. The present article aims to depict the multiple mechanisms involved in the chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of marine sponges and critically explore the limitations and challenges associated with the development of marine sponge-based anticancer strategy.

  5. High energy density supercapacitors using macroporous kitchen sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Macroporous, low-cost and recyclable kitchen sponges are explored as effective electrode platforms for supercapacitor devices. A simple and scalable process has been developed to fabricate MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge supercapacitor electrodes using ordinary kitchen sponges. Two organic electrolytes (1 M of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (Et 4NBF 4) in propylene carbonate (PC), 1 M of LiClO 4 in PC) are utilized with the sponge-based electrodes to improve the energy density of the symmetrical supercapacitors. Compared to aqueous electrolyte (1 M of Na 2SO 4 in H 2O), the energy density of supercapacitors tripled in Et 4NBF 4 electrolyte, and further increased by six times in LiClO 4 electrolyte. The long-term cycling performance in different electrolytes was examined and the morphology changes of the electrode materials were also studied. The good electrochemical performance in both aqueous and organic electrolytes indicates that the MnO 2-CNT-sponge is a promising low-cost electrode for energy storage systems. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Degradation of mangrove-derived organic matter in mangrove associated sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; de Goeij, J.M.; Asselman, M.; van Soest, R.W.M.; van der Geest, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Sponge communities found in Caribbean mangroves are typical to this habitat: partly endemic and very distinct from sponge communities on nearby reefs. A trade-off between resistance to competitors and predators appears to influence success of individual sponge species in mangrove habitats. We

  7. Sponge Aquaculture Trials in the East-Mediterranean Sea: New Approaches to Earlier Ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, R.; Sidri, M.; Cerig, E.; Gokalp, S.Z.; Gokalp, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aquaculture trials were conducted in the East Aegean Sea with Dysidea avara and Chondrosia reniformis to test the possibility of growing these sponges in the vicinity of sea-based fish farms. Culturing sponges in the vicinity of fish farms may have two benefits: the sponges may grow faster due to an

  8. Long-term culture of sponge explants: conditions enhancing survival and growth, and assessment of bioactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caralt, de S.; Agell, G.; Uriz, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Sponges are an important source of secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical interest. This is the main reason for the increasing interest of sponge culture recent years. The optimal culture system depends on the species to be cultured: while some species easily produce sponge aggregates after

  9. Sulfated Polysaccharides in Marine Sponges: Extraction Methods and Anti-HIV Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. S. Esteves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition. Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5% and almost no anti-HIV activity (<10% inhibition. Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%, showed only modest bioactivity (<36% HIV-1 inhibition. Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98% and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition. Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161 yielded only modestly active fractions. However, we could infer that the active molecule is most probably a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (>2000 kDa, whose mechanism is possibly preventing viral attachment and entry (fusion inhibitor.

  10. Sponge bioerosion on changing reefs: ocean warming poses physiological constraints to the success of a photosymbiotic excavating sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achlatis, Michelle; van der Zande, Rene M; Schönberg, Christine H L; Fang, James K H; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2017-09-06

    Excavating sponges are prominent bioeroders on coral reefs that in comparison to other benthic organisms may suffer less or may even benefit from warmer, more acidic and more eutrophic waters. Here, the photosymbiotic excavating sponge Cliona orientalis from the Great Barrier Reef was subjected to a prolonged simulation of both global and local environmental change: future seawater temperature, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (as for 2100 summer conditions under "business-as-usual" emissions), and diet supplementation with particulate organics. The individual and combined effects of the three factors on the bioerosion rates, metabolic oxygen and carbon flux, biomass change and survival of the sponge were monitored over the height of summer. Diet supplementation accelerated bioerosion rates. Acidification alone did not have a strong effect on total bioerosion or survival rates, yet it co-occurred with reduced heterotrophy. Warming above 30 °C (+2.7 °C above the local maximum monthly mean) caused extensive bleaching, lower bioerosion, and prevailing mortality, overriding the other factors and suggesting a strong metabolic dependence of the sponge on its resident symbionts. The growth, bioerosion capacity and likelihood of survival of C. orientalis and similar photosymbiotic excavating sponges could be substantially reduced rather than increased on end-of-the-century reefs under "business-as-usual" emission profiles.

  11. Ferroelectric nanoparticle-embedded sponge structure triboelectric generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daehoon; Shin, Sung-Ho; Yoon, Ick-Jae; Nah, Junghyo

    2018-05-01

    We report high-performance triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) employing ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a sponge structure. The ferroelectric BaTiO3 NPs inside the sponge structure play an important role in increasing surface charge density by polarized spontaneous dipoles, enabling the packaging of TENGs even with a minimal separation gap. Since the friction surfaces are encapsulated in the packaged device structure, it suffers negligible performance degradation even at a high relative humidity of 80%. The TENGs also demonstrated excellent mechanical durability due to the elasticity and flexibility of the sponge structure. Consequently, the TENGs can reliably harvest energy even under harsh conditions. The approach introduced here is a simple, effective, and reliable way to fabricate compact and packaged TENGs for potential applications in wearable energy-harvesting devices.

  12. Marine Sponge Lectins: Actual Status on Properties and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Mascena Gomes Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are primitive metazoans that produce a wide variety of molecules that protect them against predators. In studies that search for bioactive molecules, these marine invertebrates stand out as promising sources of new biologically-active molecules, many of which are still unknown or little studied; thus being an unexplored biotechnological resource of high added value. Among these molecules, lectins are proteins that reversibly bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. In this review, various structural features and biological activities of lectins derived from marine sponges so far described in the scientific literature are discussed. From the results found in the literature, it could be concluded that lectins derived from marine sponges are structurally diverse proteins with great potential for application in the production of biopharmaceuticals, especially as antibacterial and antitumor agents.

  13. Metagenomic discovery of polybrominated diphenyl ether biosynthesis by marine sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Sheila; Taton, Arnaud; Schorn, Michelle A.; Busch, Julia; Lin, Zhenjian; Schmidt, Eric W.; Jensen, Paul R.; Paul, Valerie J.; Biggs, Jason S.; Golden, James W.; Allen, Eric E.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2017-01-01

    Naturally produced polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) pervade the marine environment and structurally resemble toxic man-made brominated flame retardants. PBDEs bioaccumulate in marine animals and are likely transferred to the human food chain. However, the biogenic basis for PBDE production in one of their most prolific sources, marine sponges of the order Dysideidae, remains unidentified. Here, we report the discovery of PBDE biosynthetic gene clusters within sponge microbiome-associated cyanobacterial endosymbionts by employing an unbiased metagenome mining approach. By expression of PBDE biosynthetic genes in heterologous cyanobacterial hosts, we correlate the structural diversity of naturally produced PBDEs to modifications within PBDE biosynthetic gene clusters in multiple sponge holobionts. Our results establish the genetic and molecular foundation for the production of PBDEs in one of the most abundant natural sources of these molecules, further setting the stage for a metagenomic-based inventory of other PBDE sources in the marine environment. PMID:28319100

  14. In situ natural product discovery via an artificial marine sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Clair, James J; Loveridge, Steven T; Tenney, Karen; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Chapman, Eli; Crews, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    There is continuing international interest in exploring and developing the therapeutic potential of marine-derived small molecules. Balancing the strategies for ocean based sampling of source organisms versus the potential to endanger fragile ecosystems poses a substantial challenge. In order to mitigate such environmental impacts, we have developed a deployable artificial sponge. This report provides details on its design followed by evidence that it faithfully recapitulates traditional natural product collection protocols. Retrieving this artificial sponge from a tropical ecosystem after deployment for 320 hours afforded three actin-targeting jasplakinolide depsipeptides that had been discovered two decades earlier using traditional sponge specimen collection and isolation procedures. The successful outcome achieved here could reinvigorate marine natural products research, by producing new environmentally innocuous sources of natural products and providing a means to probe the true biosynthetic origins of complex marine-derived scaffolds.

  15. Antiangiogenic effects of marine sponge derived compounds on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-11-01

    The term "angiogenic switch" refers to a time-restricted event during tumor progression where the balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, resulting in the transition from dormant avascularized hyperplasia to outgrowing vascularized tumor and eventually to malignant tumor progression. Targeting angiogenesis and its mechanistic pathways are critical target for cancer therapy. Recently, marine derived compounds, plays major role in cancer research. Several sponge derived compounds such as alkaloids, terpenes, macrocylic lactone and polyketide are leading drugs in the treatment of different types of diseases including cancer. Those marine sponge compounds inhibit cancer cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Hence, this review sheds light on angiogenic regulators and marine sponge derived antiangiogenic compounds for cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. LED Phototherapy with Gelatin Sponge Promotes Wound Healing in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Shupeng; Yang, Xiangfei; Chen, Na; Pang, Fufei; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun; Zhou, Jianshe; Ren, Fuji; Xu, Xiaoyin; Li, Taihao

    2018-01-01

    Tiny but highly efficient, a light-emitting diode (LED) can power a therapy device, such as a phototherapy device, and, at the same time, decrease the device's size requirements. In this study, a LED phototherapy device was designed to investigate the possible impact on wound healing using a mouse model and a cell line exposed to red and blue light. To enhance wound phototherapy, a gelatin sponge was fabricated. Results showed that the red and blue lights promoted cell growth and wound healing, while the blue light with a gelatin sponge protected the wound from infection in the early stages of wound healing. The LED phototherapy device combined with the gelatin sponge, therefore, has potential significance in clinical application for wound healing. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  17. Diversity and distribution patterns in high southern latitude sponges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel V Downey

    Full Text Available Sponges play a key role in Antarctic marine benthic community structure and dynamics and are often a dominant component of many Southern Ocean benthic communities. Understanding the drivers of sponge distribution in Antarctica enables us to understand many of general benthic biodiversity patterns in the region. The sponges of the Antarctic and neighbouring oceanographic regions were assessed for species richness and biogeographic patterns using over 8,800 distribution records. Species-rich regions include the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Georgia, Eastern Weddell Sea, Kerguelen Plateau, Falkland Islands and north New Zealand. Sampling intensity varied greatly within the study area, with sampling hotspots found at the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, north New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego, with limited sampling in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to previous studies we found that eurybathy and circumpolar distributions are important but not dominant characteristics in Antarctic sponges. Overall Antarctic sponge species endemism is ∼43%, with a higher level for the class Hexactinellida (68%. Endemism levels are lower than previous estimates, but still indicate the importance of the Polar Front in isolating the Southern Ocean fauna. Nineteen distinct sponge distribution patterns were found, ranging from regional endemics to cosmopolitan species. A single, distinct Antarctic demosponge fauna is found to encompass all areas within the Polar Front, and the sub-Antarctic regions of the Kerguelen Plateau and Macquarie Island. Biogeographical analyses indicate stronger faunal links between Antarctica and South America, with little evidence of links between Antarctica and South Africa, Southern Australia or New Zealand. We conclude that the biogeographic and species distribution patterns observed are largely driven by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the timing of past continent

  18. Bioactive Natural Products of Marine Sponges from the Genus Hyrtios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourhan Hisham Shady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are known as a rich source for novel bioactive compounds with valuable pharmacological potential. One of the most predominant sponge genera is Hyrtios, reported to have various species such as Hyrtios erectus, Hyrtios reticulatus, Hyrtios gumminae, Hyrtios communis, and Hyrtios tubulatus and a number of undescribed species. Members of the genus Hyrtios are a rich source of natural products with diverse and valuable biological activities, represented by different chemical classes including alkaloids, sesterterpenes and sesquiterpenes. This review covers the literature until June 2016, providing a complete survey of all compounds isolated from the genus Hyrtios with their corresponding biological activities whenever applicable.

  19. BORING SPONGES (ICHNOGENUS ENTOBIA IN MESOZOIC LITHOCODIUM CALCIMICROBIAL CRUSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIETTA CHERCHI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Globular cavities in calcimicrobial Lithocodium crusts are interpreted as trace fossils of boring sponges belonging to the ichnogenus Entobia. Two informal groups can be differentiated: a Norian-Rhaetian group from Tabas area(NE Iran and Adnet (near Salzburg, Austria, characterized by large chambers and broad bifurcating apertural canals, and a second group from the Aptian of central Italy presenting smaller chambers and canals. The distal ends of these canals are closed by alveolar structures, preventing water circulation and leading to the death of the sponge

  20. Fabrication and mechanical characterization of a polyvinyl alcohol sponge for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M; Faghihi, S

    2014-05-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges are widely used for clinical applications, including ophthalmic surgical treatments, wound healing and tissue engineering. There is, however, a lack of sufficient data on the mechanical properties of PVA sponges. In this study, a biomechanical method is used to characterize the elastic modulus, maximum stress and strain as well as the swelling ratio of a fabricated PVA sponge (P-sponge) and it is compared with two commercially available PVA sponges (CENEFOM and EYETEC). The results indicate that the elastic modulus of the P-sponge is 5.32% and 13.45% lower than that of the CENEFOM and EYETEC sponges, while it bears 4.11% more and 10.37% less stress compared to the CENEFOM and EYETEC sponges, respectively. The P-sponge shows a maximum strain of 32% more than the EYETEC sponge as well as a 26.78% higher swelling ratio, which is a significantly higher absorbency compared to the CENEFOM. It is believed that the results of this study would help for a better understanding of the extension, rupture and swelling mechanism of PVA sponges, which could lead to crucial improvement in the design and application of PVA-based materials in ophthalmic and plastic surgeries as well as wound healing and tissue engineering.

  1. Optimization of preparation process and characterization of carboxymethyl chitosan/sodium alginate hemostatic sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z.; Ouyang, Q. Q.; Cheng, Y.; Hong, P. Z.; Liao, M. N.; Chen, F. J.; Li, S. D.

    2017-06-01

    Composite hemostatic sponge was prepared by vacuum freeze-drying using carboxymethyl chitosan and sodium alginate as the main materials and CaCl2 as a crosslinking agent. On the basis of single factor experiments, an orthogonal experiment was carried out to optimize the preparation process of hemostatic sponge. The appearance, water absorption, porosity ratio, and in vitro hemostasis of the sponge were evaluated. The optimum conditions to prepare hemostatic sponge were obtained as follows: mass ratio of sodium alginate to carboxymethyl chitosan 4: 1, mass fraction of CaCl2 2%, and crosslinking temperature 30°C. The hemostatic sponge prepared under such conditions was off-white and porous. Its water absorption and porosity ratio were 3050% and 67.23%, respectively. Meanwhile, the hemostatic sponges had significant in vitro procoagulant activity. Therefore, the hemostatic sponge is expected to be developed as a novel medical material.

  2. Phosphorus sequestration in the form of polyphosphate by microbial symbionts in marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Blasiak, Leah C; Karolin, Jan O; Powell, Ryan J; Geddes, Chris D; Hill, Russell T

    2015-04-07

    Marine sponges are major habitat-forming organisms in coastal benthic communities and have an ancient origin in evolution history. Here, we report significant accumulation of polyphosphate (polyP) granules in three common sponge species of the Caribbean coral reef. The identity of the polyP granules was confirmed by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and by the fluorescence properties of the granules. Microscopy images revealed that a large proportion of microbial cells associated with sponge hosts contained intracellular polyP granules. Cyanobacterial symbionts cultured from sponges were shown to accumulate polyP. We also amplified polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes from sponge DNA and confirmed that the gene was expressed. Based on these findings, we propose here a potentially important phosphorus (P) sequestration pathway through symbiotic microorganisms of marine sponges. Considering the widespread sponge population and abundant microbial cells associated with them, this pathway is likely to have a significant impact on the P cycle in benthic ecosystems.

  3. Radio-frequency surgical sponge detection: a new way to lower the odds of leaving sponges (and similar items) in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) tags are now being embedded in items such as surgical sponges, towels, and pads to reduce the chances that these objects will be left in patients after a procedure. Find out how--and how well--RF sponge-detection systems work, including our view of the two systems currently on the market: ClearCount Medical's SmartSponge System, which counts sponges in addition to detecting them. RF Surgical's RF Surgical Detection System, which is a detect-only system.

  4. Effects of sponge bleaching on ammonia-oxidizing Archaea: distribution and relative expression of ammonia monooxygenase genes associated with the barrel sponge Xestospongia muta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Legentil, Susanna; Erwin, Patrick M; Pawlik, Joseph R; Song, Bongkeun

    2010-10-01

    Sponge-mediated nitrification is an important process in the nitrogen cycle, however, nothing is known about how nitrification and symbiotic Archaea may be affected by sponge disease and bleaching events. The giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta is a prominent species on Caribbean reefs that contains cyanobacterial symbionts, the loss of which results in two types of bleaching: cyclic, a recoverable condition; and fatal, a condition associated with the disease-like sponge orange band (SOB) syndrome and sponge death. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analyses, clone libraries, and relative mRNA quantification of ammonia monooxygenase genes (amoA) were performed using a RNA transcript-based approach to characterize the active ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) community present in bleached, non-bleached, and SOB tissues of cyclically and fatally bleached sponges. We found that non-bleached and cyclically bleached tissues of X. muta harbored a unique Crenarchaeota community closely related to those reported for other sponges. In contrast, bleached tissue from the most degraded sponge contained a Crenarchaeota community that was more similar to those found in sediment and sand. Although there were no significant differences in amoA expression among the different tissues, amoA expression was higher in the most deteriorated tissues. Results suggest that a shift in the Crenarchaeota community precedes an increase in amoA gene expression in fatally bleached sponges, while cyclic bleaching did not alter the AOA community structure and its amoA gene expression.

  5. Draft genome sequences of six neonatal meningitis-causing escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65) were recovered from infants in the Netherlands from 1989 to 1997. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for these six E. coli isolates, which are currently being used to validate food safety processing te...

  6. Inducible ASABF-Type Antimicrobial Peptide from the Sponge Suberites domuncula: Microbicidal and Hemolytic Activity in Vitro and Toxic Effect on Molluscs in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner E. G. Müller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since sponges, as typical filter-feeders, are exposed to a high load of attacking prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, they are armed with a wide arsenal of antimicrobial/cytostatic low-molecular-weight, non-proteinaceous bioactive compounds. Here we present the first sponge agent belonging to the group of ASABF-type antimicrobial peptides. The ASABF gene was identified and cloned from the demospongeSuberites domuncula. The mature peptide, with a length of 64 aa residues has a predicted pI of 9.24, and comprises the characteristic CSαβ structural motif. Consequently, the S. domuncula ASABF shares high similarity with the nematode ASABFs; it is distantly related to the defensins. The recombinant peptide was found to display besides microbicidal activity, anti-fungal activity. In addition, the peptide lyses human erythrocytes. The expression ofASABF is upregulated after exposure to the apoptosis-inducing agent 2,2'-dipyridyl. During the process of apoptosis of surface tissue of S. domuncula, grazing gastropods (Bittium sp. are attracted by quinolinic acid which is synthesized through the kynurenine pathway by the enzyme 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (HAD. Finally, the gastropods are repelled from the sponge tissue by the ASABF. It is shown that the effector peptide ASABF is sequentially expressed after the induction of the HAD gene and a caspase, as a central enzyme executing apoptosis.

  7. Superoxide dismutase in the marine sponge Cliona celata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, D.; Esteves, A.I.; Almeida, M.; Xavier, J.; Humanes, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase in the cosmopolitan sponge Cliona celata (Grant, 1826), since this enzyme has been described as a useful biomarker for marine pollution in other marine invertebrates. The quantification of the

  8. Oxygen dynamics and transport in the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, F.; Røy, Hans; Bayer, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba kept in aquaria or cultivation tanks can stop pumping for several hours or even days. To investigate changes in the chemical microenvironments, we measured oxygen profiles over the surface and into the tissue of pumping and non-pumping A. aerophoba...

  9. Carbohydrate self-recognition mediates marine sponge cellular adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Haseley, S.R.; Vermeer, H.J.; Kamerling, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Sponges (Porifera), the simplest and earliest multicellular organisms, are thought to have evolved from their unicellular ancestors about 1 billion years ago by developing cell-recognition and adhesion mechanisms to discriminate against 'non-self.' Consequently, they are used as models for

  10. Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Sponge Genus Phyllospongia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huawei; Dong, Menglian; Wang, Hong; Crews, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    Phyllospongia, one of the most common marine sponges in tropical and subtropical oceans, has been shown to be a prolific producer of natural products with a broad spectrum of biological activities. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of secondary metabolites produced by Phyllospongia spp. over the 37 years from 1980 to 2016.

  11. Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Sponge Genus Phyllospongia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huawei; Dong, Menglian; Wang, Hong; Crews, Phillip

    2017-01-06

    Phyllospongia , one of the most common marine sponges in tropical and subtropical oceans, has been shown to be a prolific producer of natural products with a broad spectrum of biological activities. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of secondary metabolites produced by Phyllospongia spp. over the 37 years from 1980 to 2016.

  12. Larvicidal and insecticidal properties of some marine sponges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... biodiversity of the marine environment around the seas of. Palk Bay and the Gulf of Mannar, to isolate and ... Mosquito larvae lethality test (Larvicidal activity): The larvicidal activities of sponge extracts were ... and IGR activities against mosquitoes and agricultural pests (Venkateswara Rao et al., 2003).

  13. Potential of sponges and microalgae for marine biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Marine organisms can be used to produce several novel products that have applications in new medical technologies, in food and feed ingredients and as biofuels. In this paper two examples are described: the development of marine drugs from sponges and the use of microalgae to produce bulk chemicals

  14. Oestrus induction using fluorogestone acetate sponges and equine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CARMIE

    2013-03-31

    Mar 31, 2013 ... Abstract. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a progestagen treatment (fluorogestone acetate sponge) alone or in combination with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) on oestrus response in Red. Sokoto (RS) goats. One hundred RS does were treated with 30 mg fluorogestone ...

  15. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  16. Dinoflagellates associated with freshwater sponges from the ancient lake baikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenkova, Natalia V; Lavrov, Dennis V; Belikov, Sergey I

    2011-04-01

    Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of protists that are common in both marine and freshwater environments. While the biology of marine dinoflagellates has been the focus of several recent studies, their freshwater relatives remain little-investigated. In the present study we explore the diversity of dinoflagellates in Lake Baikal by identifying and analyzing dinoflagellate sequences for 18S rDNA and ITS-2 from total DNA extracted from three species of endemic Baikalian sponges (Baikalospongia intermedia,Baikalospongia rectaand Lubomirskia incrustans). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed extensive dinoflagellate diversity in Lake Baikal. We found two groups of sequences clustering within the order Suessiales, known for its symbiotic relationships with various invertebrates. Thus they may be regarded as potential symbionts of Baikalian sponges. In addition,Gyrodinium helveticum, representatives from the genus Gymnodinium, dinoflagellates close to the family Pfiesteriaceae, and a few dinoflagellates without definite affiliation were detected. No pronounced difference in the distribution of dinoflagellates among the studied sponges was found, except for the absence of the Piscinoodinium-like dinoflagellates inL. incrustans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the diversity of dinoflagellates in freshwater sponges, the first systematic investigation of dinoflagellate molecular diversity in Lake Baikal and the first finding of members of the order Suessiales as symbionts of freshwater invertebrates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Stable soap and water sponges doped with metal nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaikwad, A.V.; Verschuren, P.; van der Loop, T.; Rothenberg, G.; Eiser, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents various aspects of surfactant/oil/water L3 phases. Although these so-called sponge phases are usually stable only within a narrow temperature range, we show here that they can be stabilized over a larger phase space by doping with metal nanoparticle suspensions. We make and study

  18. Minor sterols from the sponge Ircinia ramosa (Killer)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Three sterols, isolated from the lipid fraction of the sponge Ircinia ramosa were characterised as cholest-5-en-3 beta-ol-7-one (7-oxo cholesterol, 1), cholest 5-23-dien-b beta ol-7-one (7-oxo demosterol, 2) and 24E-ethyl cholest-5-en-3 beta -ol-7...

  19. Animals of the Sea: Coelenterates, Protozoa, and Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    These three units are designed for use with standard science curricula. These publications, relating to animals of the sea, are: Protozoa, Sponges, and Coelenterates. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. Objectives to be attained from the unit on…

  20. Tactile device utilizing a single magnetorheological sponge: experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soomin; Kim, Pyunghwa; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-04-01

    In the field of medicine, several new areas have been currently introduced such as robot-assisted surgery. However, the major drawback of these systems is that there is no tactile communication between doctors and surgical sites. When the tactile system is brought up, telemedicine including telerobotic surgery can be enhanced much more than now. In this study, a new tactile device is designed using a single magnetorhological (MR) sponge cell to realize the sensation of human organs. MR fluids and an open celled polyurethane foam are used to propose the MR sponge cell. The viscous and elastic sensational behaviors of human organs are realized by the MR sponge cell. Before developing the tactile device, tactile sensation according to touch of human fingers are quantified in advance. The finger is then treated as a reduced beam bundle model (BBM) in which the fingertip is comprised of an elastic beam virtually. Under the reduced BBM, when people want to sense an object, the fingertip is investigated by pushing and sliding. Accordingly, while several magnitudes of magnetic fields are applied to the tactile device, normal and tangential reaction forces and bending moment are measured by 6-axis force/torque sensor instead of the fingertip. These measured data are used to compare with soft tissues. It is demonstrated that the proposed MR sponge cell can realize any part of the organ based on the obtained data.

  1. First record of chambered hexactinellid sponges from the Palaeozoic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nose, M.; Vodrážka, Radek; Fernández, L.-P.; Méndez-Bedia, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2014), s. 985-996 ISSN 0567-7920 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Hexactinellida * Hexactinosida * chambered sponges * mud mounds * Devonian * Northern Spain Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.866, year: 2014

  2. Organization and polysaccharides of sponge aggregation factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, S; Humphreys, T; Sano, J

    1977-01-01

    Aggregation factor, the macromolecular complex which mediates species-specific aggregation of dissociated sponge cells, was isolated from several species, partially characterized, and visualized by electron microscopy. All factors were large fibrous complexes with a backbone and side chains or arms. In some factors, the backbone is linear. In others it is circular and the complex appears as a sunburst with arms extending like rays from the circle. The size and location of the polysaccharide chains have been studied using purified preparations of Microciona prolifera. "Sunbursts" treated with ethylenediaminetraacetate (EDTA) for 4 weeks at 0 degrees C dissociate into 3 protein- and polysaccharide-containing components. Sodium dodecyl sulfate does not cause the sunburst to dissociate nor does it inhibit dissociation in the presence of EDTA suggesting that dissociation is not due to hydrolytic enzymes. The dissociation products were fractionated on a 977-A pore size micropore glass column. Fifteen percent of the material is excluded and appears in the electron microscope as the central circle of the sunburst. Digestion of the circles with 10(-3) M dithiothreitol (DTT) and 0.5 mg/ml proteinase K for 72 h at 37 degrees C produces 2 polysaccharide chains of 65,000 and 6,000 daltons as fractionated and sized on a 233-A pore size micropore glass column using Pharmacia dextrans as standards. The included fractions of the EDTA-treated material are subunits of the arms which contain 70% of the polysaccharide. A single polysaccharide of 6,000 daltons as measured on 233-A size glass beads and Sephadex G-75 is released from these subunits by proteinase digestion. Pharmacia dextrans are used as standard on both columns. We calculate that there would be four 65,000-dalton chains and one hundred 6,000-dalton chains per circle and fifty 6,000-dalton chains per arm. The third component of the EDTA-treated preparation is partially included on the column. It appears as linear fibrils

  3. The Role of Radio Frequency Detection System Embedded Surgical Sponges in Preventing Retained Surgical Sponges: A Prospective Evaluation in Patients Undergoing Emergency Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Kenji; Okoye, Obi; Aksoy, Hande; Skiada, Dimitra; Ault, Glenn; Sener, Stephen; Lam, Lydia; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2016-10-01

    To prospectively evaluate the ability of radio frequency detection (RFD) system-embedded sponges to mitigate the incidence of retained surgical sponges (RSS) after emergency surgery. Emergency surgery patients are at high risk for retained foreign bodies. All emergent trauma and nontrauma cavitary operations over a 5-year period (January 2010-December 2014) were prospectively enrolled. For damage-control procedures, only the definitive closure was included. RFD sponges were used exclusively throughout the study period. Before closure, the sponge and instrument count was followed by RFD scanning and x-ray evaluation for retained sponges. RSS and near-misses averted using the RFD system were analyzed. In all, 2051 patients [median (range)], aged 41 (1-101) years, 72.2% male, 46.8% trauma patients, underwent 2148 operations (1824 laparotomy, 100 thoracotomy, 30 sternotomy, and 97 combined). RFD detected retained sponges in 11 (0.5%) patients (81.8%laparotomy, 18.2% sternotomy) before cavitary closure. All postclosure x-rays were negative. No retained sponges were missed by the RFD system. Body mass index was 29 (23-43), estimated blood loss 1.0 L (0-23), and operating room time 160 minutes (71-869). Procedures started after 18:00 to 06:00 hours in 45.5% of the patients. The sponge count was incorrect in 36.4%, not performed due to time constraints in 45.5%, and correct in 18.2%. The additional cost of using RFD-embedded disposables was $0.17 for a 4X18 laparotomy sponge and $0.46 for a 10 pack of 12ply, 4X8. Emergent surgical procedures are high-risk for retained sponges, even when sponge counts are performed and found to be correct. Implementation of a RFD system was effective in preventing this complication and should be considered for emergent operations in an effort to improve patient safety.

  4. Giving the early fossil record of sponges a squeeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcliffe, Jonathan B; Callow, Richard H T; Brasier, Martin D

    2014-11-01

    Twenty candidate fossils with claim to be the oldest representative of the Phylum Porifera have been re-analysed. Three criteria are used to assess each candidate: (i) the diagnostic criteria needed to categorize sponges in the fossil record; (ii) the presence, or absence, of such diagnostic features in the putative poriferan fossils; and (iii) the age constraints for the candidate fossils. All three criteria are critical to the correct interpretation of any fossil and its placement within an evolutionary context. Our analysis shows that no Precambrian fossil candidate yet satisfies all three of these criteria to be a reliable sponge fossil. The oldest widely accepted candidate, Mongolian silica hexacts from c. 545 million years ago (Ma), are here shown to be cruciform arsenopyrite crystals. The oldest reliable sponge remains are siliceous spicules from the basal Cambrian (Protohertzina anabarica Zone) Soltanieh Formation, Iran, which are described and analysed here in detail for the first time. Extensive archaeocyathan sponge reefs emerge and radiate as late as the middle of the Fortunian Stage of the Cambrian and demonstrate a gradual assembly of their skeletal structure through this time coincident with the evolution of other metazoan groups. Since the Porifera are basal in the Metazoa, their presence within the late Proterozoic has been widely anticipated. Molecular clock calibration for the earliest Porifera and Metazoa should now be based on the Iranian hexactinellid material dated to c. 535 Ma. The earliest convincing fossil sponge remains appeared at around the time of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary, associated with the great radiation events of that interval. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  5. Magnetic graphene sponge for the removal of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Baowei; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Jingru; Wu, Ruihan; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongliang; Chen, Fang; Yang, Hua; Ming, Zhu; Yang, Sheng-Tao, E-mail: yangst@pku.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnetic graphene sponge is prepared for dye removal in aqueous solution. • Magnetic graphene sponge has an adsorption capacity of 526 mg/g for methylene blue. • Adsorption behaviors of methylene blue on magnetic graphene sponge are investigated. • Magnetic graphene sponge could be partially regenerated by washing with acidic ethanol. - Abstract: Magnetic carbon nanomaterials have been widely adopted as adsorbents in water treatment, but the low adsorption capacities largely limit their practical applications. In this study, magnetic graphene sponge (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS) was prepared by lyophilization for the adsorption of dye pollutant. The incorporation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} enabled the magnetic separation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS after the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). The adsorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS for MB was 526 mg/g, much higher than those of the magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents in the literature. The adsorption kinetics of MB on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS was moderately fast, which could be analyzed by the pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model. The thermodynamics study revealed that the adsorption was driven by the increased randomness on the interface. The pH and ionic strength had meaningful influences on the adsorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS. The facile regeneration of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS would definitely reduce its operating cost. The implications to the environmental applications of magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents are discussed.

  6. Sponge-microbe associations survive high nutrients and temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Simister

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are under considerable pressure from global stressors such as elevated sea surface temperature and ocean acidification, as well as local factors including eutrophication and poor water quality. Marine sponges are diverse, abundant and ecologically important components of coral reefs in both coastal and offshore environments. Due to their exceptionally high filtration rates, sponges also form a crucial coupling point between benthic and pelagic habitats. Sponges harbor extensive microbial communities, with many microbial phylotypes found exclusively in sponges and thought to contribute to the health and survival of their hosts. Manipulative experiments were undertaken to ascertain the impact of elevated nutrients and seawater temperature on health and microbial community dynamics in the Great Barrier Reef sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. R. odorabile exposed to elevated nutrient levels including 10 µmol/L total nitrogen at 31°C appeared visually similar to those maintained under ambient seawater conditions after 7 days. The symbiotic microbial community, analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing, was highly conserved for the duration of the experiment at both phylum and operational taxonomic unit (OTU (97% sequence similarity levels with 19 bacterial phyla and 1743 OTUs identified across all samples. Additionally, elevated nutrients and temperatures did not alter the archaeal associations in R. odorabile, with sequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealing similar Thaumarchaeota diversity and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE revealing consistent amoA gene patterns, across all experimental treatments. A conserved eukaryotic community was also identified across all nutrient and temperature treatments by DGGE. The highly stable microbial associations indicate that R. odorabile symbionts are capable of withstanding short-term exposure to elevated nutrient concentrations and sub-lethal temperatures.

  7. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M; Mueller, Christina E; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J; van Duyl, Fleur C; Al-Horani, Fuad A; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-07

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges. Furthermore, 21-40% of the mucus carbon and 32-39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water coral reefs. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different reef environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of reef ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable coral reefs to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments.

  8. Preparation of composite hydroxybutyl chitosan sponge and its role in promoting wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shihao; Bi, Shichao; Yan, Dong; Zhou, Zhongzheng; Sun, Guohui; Cheng, Xiaojie; Chen, Xiguang

    2018-03-15

    In this work, a composite sponge was produced by physically mixing hydroxybutyl chitosan with chitosan to form a porous spongy material through vacuum freeze-drying. Hydrophilic and macroporous composite hydroxybutyl chitosan sponge was developed via the incorporation of chitosan into hydroxybutyl chitosan. The composite sponge showed higher porosity (about 85%), greater water absorption (about 25 times), better softness and lower blood-clotting index (BCI) than those of chitosan sponge and hydroxybutyl chitosan sponge. The composite sponge with good hydrophilic could absorb the moisture in the blood to increase blood concentration and viscosity, and become a semi-swelling viscous colloid to clog the capillaries. Cytocompatibility tests with L929 cells and HUVEC cells demonstrated that composite sponge were no cytotoxicity, and could promote the growth of fibroblasts. It made up for the shortcomings of hydroxybutyl chitosan with unfavorable antibacterial effect to achieve a higher level of antibacterial (>99.99% reduction). Eventually, the vivo evaluations in Sprague-Dawley rats revealed that epithelial cells attached to the composite sponge and penetrated into the interior, in addition to this, it was also proved that the composite sponge (HC-1) had a better ability to promote wound healing and helped for faster formation of skin glands and re-epithelialization. The obtained data encourage the use of this composite sponge for wound dressings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Isolation and x-ray structure of deoxycholic acid from the sponge Ircinia sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Kaminsky, W.

    in terrestrial life. In view of this, we are interested to distract those compounds from marine life forms which could be of medicinal importance, see also [1]. Here, we present the spectroscopic characterization of a compound from the ethyl acetate extract...

  10. Rich plasma platelets employed with surgical sponge in skin grafts in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Morais Pazzini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Pazzini J.M., Serafim E.L., Uscategui R.R.A., de Almeida V.T., Oliva C.A.C., Gartner F., de Carvalho M.F.F., Reis N. de P., Ferreira M.G.P.A., Moraes P.C., de Oliveira J.A. & De Nardi A.B. [Rich plasma platelets employed with surgical sponge in skin grafts in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus.] Emprego de plasma rico em plaquetas associado à esponja cirúrgica em enxertos cutâneos em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:397-405, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Cirurgia Veterinária, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Jaboticabal, Via de Acesso Paulo Donatto Castellane s/n, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil. E-mail: josipazzini@hotmail.com This work had the purpose to evaluate the effectiveness of PRP gel use associated with surgical sponges improve the integration of skin graft to receptor site. Was conducted a study of 16 rabbits, New Zealand white, female, 60 days old. They were divided into two groups with eight animals each, all of which was undergoing reconstructive surgery technique for making mesh graft. The groups were constituted in Gprpme received PRP gel and Gcme who received 0.9% saline solution combining both surgical sponge as a way of curative. The blood samples the Gprpme group that was done PRP, the mean platelet count after centrifugation was 1,288,750 platelets/uL. The results obtained in the PRP final sample when compared to the inicial were significantly greater. Thus, the double centrifugation protocol for obtaining PRP which was performed in this trial was appropriate, because the platelet concentration after double centrifugation increased three times as compared with the initial count of the blood sample, and it was possible to achieve good therapeutic results. In the macroscopic evaluation of the 3rd day, exudate showed significant differences in Gprpme compared to Gcme. In the evaluations of the 7th and the

  11. Rich plasma platelets employed with surgical sponge in skin grafts in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Morais Pazzini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Pazzini J.M., Serafim E.L., Uscategui R.R.A., de Almeida V.T., Oliva C.A.C., Gartner F., de Carvalho M.F.F., Reis N. de P., Ferreira M.G.P.A., Moraes P.C., de Oliveira J.A. & De Nardi A.B. [Rich plasma platelets employed with surgical sponge in skin grafts in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus.] Emprego de plasma rico em plaquetas associado à esponja cirúrgica em enxertos cutâneos em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:397-405, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Cirurgia Veterinária, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Jaboticabal, Via de Acesso Paulo Donatto Castellane s/n, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil. E-mail: josipazzini@hotmail.com This work had the purpose to evaluate the effectiveness of PRP gel use associated with surgical sponges improve the integration of skin graft to receptor site. Was conducted a study of 16 rabbits, New Zealand white, female, 60 days old. They were divided into two groups with eight animals each, all of which was undergoing reconstructive surgery technique for making mesh graft. The groups were constituted in Gprpme received PRP gel and Gcme who received 0.9% saline solution combining both surgical sponge as a way of curative. The blood samples the Gprpme group that was done PRP, the mean platelet count after centrifugation was 1,288,750 platelets/uL. The results obtained in the PRP final sample when compared to the inicial were significantly greater. Thus, the double centrifugation protocol for obtaining PRP which was performed in this trial was appropriate, because the platelet concentration after double centrifugation increased three times as compared with the initial count of the blood sample, and it was possible to achieve good therapeutic results. In the macroscopic evaluation of the 3rd day, exudate showed significant differences in Gprpme compared to Gcme. In the evaluations of the 7th and the

  12. Relationships between Host Phylogeny, Host Type and Bacterial Community Diversity in Cold-Water Coral Reef Sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöttner, Sandra; Hoffmann, Friederike; Cárdenas, Paco; Rapp, Hans Tore; Boetius, Antje; Ramette, Alban

    2013-01-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are known to locally enhance the diversity of deep-sea fauna as well as of microbes. Sponges are among the most diverse faunal groups in these ecosystems, and many of them host large abundances of microbes in their tissues. In this study, twelve sponge species from three cold-water coral reefs off Norway were investigated for the relationship between sponge phylogenetic classification (species and family level), as well as sponge type (high versus low microbial abundance), and the diversity of sponge-associated bacterial communities, taking also geographic location and water depth into account. Community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that as many as 345 (79%) of the 437 different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in the dataset were shared between sponges and sediments, while only 70 (16%) appeared purely sponge-associated. Furthermore, changes in bacterial community structure were significantly related to sponge species (63% of explained community variation), sponge family (52%) or sponge type (30%), whereas mesoscale geographic distances and water depth showed comparatively small effects (sponge phylogenetic distance was observed within the ancient family of the Geodiidae. Overall, the high diversity of sponges in cold-water coral reefs, combined with the observed sponge-related variation in bacterial community structure, support the idea that sponges represent heterogeneous, yet structured microbial habitats that contribute significantly to enhancing bacterial diversity in deep-sea ecosystems. PMID:23393586

  13. Thermal asymmetry model of single slope single basin solar still with sponge liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugan Sengottain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to propose a thermal asymmetry model for single slope basin type solar still with sponge liner of different thickness (3cm, 5cm, and 10cm in the basin. Two different color sponge liners have been used i.e., yellow and black. In the proposed design, a suitable dripping arrangement has been designed and used to pour water drop by drop over the sponge liner instead of sponge liner in stagnant saline water in the basin. The special arrangement overcomes the dryness of the sponge during peak sunny hours. The performance of the system with black color sponge of 3cm thickness shows better result with an output of 5.3 kg/m2 day and the proposed model have used to find the thermal asymmetries during the working hours of the still.

  14. Preliminary discussion on “Internet +” sponge city modular construction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinhui; Kang, Sijun; Luo, Weizu; Dai, Yanghong; Yang, Bing

    2017-08-01

    To promote the construction of ecological civilization and the process of urbanization in China, in 2013, the government propose to build an innovative rainwater system, which is characterized by nature accumulation, natural penetration and natural purification——low impact development of rainwater. This article Summarizes the research status of sponge city. It can be help the sponge city to become intelli-gent and modular creatively by adding the intelligent concept of “internet+” and the modular concept into the sponge city. This article first introduces the “internet+” concept of sponge city, and then discussed the application of the “internet+” and modular concept in sponge city from the three stage of construction, management and performance evaluation, in order to provide some reference and revelation for the development of modular of “internet+” sponge city.

  15. Sample Processing Impacts the Viability and Cultivability of the Sponge Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, Ana I. S.; Amer, Nimra; Nguyen, Mary; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Sponges host complex microbial communities of recognized ecological and biotechnological importance. Extensive cultivation efforts have been made to isolate sponge bacteria, but most still elude cultivation. To identify the bottlenecks of sponge bacterial cultivation, we combined high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing with a variety of cultivation media and incubation conditions. We aimed to determine the extent to which sample processing and cultivation conditions can impact bacterial viab...

  16. Study on the development trend and practice of sponge cities with Chinese Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baihao; Zhang, Cunkuan; Lin, Hua

    2018-03-01

    The design of sponge city is the innovation and development of theory of rainwater utilization, which provides a new idea for the city to solve the problem of waterlogging and water shortage. The paper expounds the “sponge city” concept of the origins, development and application in engineering construction, and puts forward some suggestions for future research of “sponge city” for our city construction.

  17. Sponges in Qatari waters A new source of marine natural products for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel

    1999-01-01

    Sponges are the most primitive multicellular organisms belonging to Animalia kingdom. They lack symetry and do not have differentiated tissues or organs. However, as a consequence of this primitive organization it is very likely that sponges are the richest source of marine organisms for biological properties and pharmaceutical applications. Attached for life on their substrate and devoid of mecanical protection against predators sponges have elaborated a lot of sophisticated means of chemica...

  18. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, On On; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jiangke; Lafi, Feras F; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus, Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria. We revealed highly diverse sponge-associated bacterial communities with up to 1000 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and richness estimates of up to 2000 species. Altogether, 26 bacterial phyla w...

  19. Comparative sequence analysis of bacterial symbionts from the marine sponges Geodia cydonium and Ircinia muscarum

    OpenAIRE

    Zuppa, Antonio; Costantini, Susan; Costantini, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges (Porifera) live in a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms, primarily bacteria. Recently, several studies indicated that sponges are the most prolific source of biologically-active compounds produced by symbiotic microorganisms rather than by the sponges themselves. In the present study we characterized the bacterial symbionts from two Demospongiae, Ircinia muscarum and Geodia cydonium. We amplified 16S rRNA by PCR, using specific bacterial-primers. The phylogenetic analys...

  20. Elucidating the sponge stress response; lipids and fatty acids can facilitate survival under future climate scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Holly; Bell, James J; Davy, Simon K; Webster, Nicole S; Francis, David S

    2018-03-05

    Ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA) are threatening coral reef ecosystems, with a bleak future forecast for reef-building corals, which are already experiencing global declines in abundance. In contrast, many coral reef sponge species are able to tolerate climate change conditions projected for 2100. To increase our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning this tolerance, we explored the lipid and fatty acid (FA) composition of four sponge species with differing sensitivities to climate change, experimentally exposed to OW and OA levels predicted for 2100, under two CO 2 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Sponges with greater concentrations of storage lipid, phospholipids, sterols and elevated concentrations of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated FA (LC PUFA), were more resistant to OW. Such biochemical constituents likely contribute to the ability of these sponges to maintain membrane function and cell homeostasis in the face of environmental change. Our results suggest that n-3 and n-6 LC PUFA are important components of the sponge stress response potentially via chain elongation and the eicosanoid stress-signalling pathways. The capacity for sponges to compositionally alter their membrane lipids in response to stress was also explored using a number of specific homeoviscous adaptation (HVA) indicators. This revealed a potential mechanism via which additional CO 2 could facilitate the resistance of phototrophic sponges to thermal stress through an increased synthesis of membrane-stabilising sterols. Finally, OW induced an increase in FA unsaturation in phototrophic sponges but a decrease in heterotrophic species, providing support for a difference in the thermal response pathway between the sponge host and the associated photosymbionts. Here we have shown that sponge lipids and FA are likely to be an important component of the sponge stress response and may play a role in facilitating sponge survival under future climate conditions

  1. Nile tilapia skin collagen sponge modified with chemical cross-linkers as a biomedical hemostatic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Leilei; Li, Bafang; Jiang, Dandan; Hou, Hu

    2017-11-01

    Nile tilapia skin collagen sponges were fabricated by freeze-drying technology and modified with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS), genipin+PBS, genipin+ethanol, tea polyphenol (TP), nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and diphenyl phosphoryl azide (DPPA). Physicochemical and biological properties, micromorphology and compatibility before and after modification were investigated to evaluate collagen sponge as a hemostatic biomedical material. The mechanical property of collagen sponges strengthened after cross-linking. The elongation at break of cross-linked collagen sponges decreased except for EDC/NHS, which was close to that of non-crosslinked. The collagen sponge cross-linked with EDC/NHS exhibited the highest hygroscopicity in comparison with other cross-linkers. The resistance to collagenase biodegradation of collagen sponges after cross-linking strengthened significantly except for NDGA. Collagen sponges cross-linked with EDC/NHS, TP and NDGA maintained high porosity (97-98%), similar to non-crosslinked (98.42%). Collagen sponges could shorten the blood coagulation time. From the variations of the FTIR spectrum pattern and SEM, DPPA could change the secondary structure of collagen and destroy the spongy structure of collagen sponge, which was not suitable for the cross-linking of collagen sponge. Whereas, EDC/NHS was recognized as a perfect cross-linker owing to its excellent properties and porous microstructure. All fabricated collagen sponges were recognized to be biocompatible by the hemolysis assay in vitro. Therefore, collagen sponge modified with EDC/NHS could be used as a perfect biomedical hemostatic material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ascidia subterranea sp. nov. (Phlebobranchia: Ascidiidae), a new tunicate belonging to the A. sydneiensis Stimpson, 1855 group, found as burrow associate of Axiopsis serratifrons A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 (Decapoda: Axiidae) on Derawan Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, Dominik; Monniot, Francoise; Stach, Thomas; Christianen, Marjolijn J A

    2013-02-22

    A new tunicate, Ascidia subterranea sp. nov., was found in burrows of the axiid crustacean Axiopsis serratifrons on Derawan Island, Indonesia. It differs from other ascidians in its habitat as well as numerous morphological peculiarities which are described in detail. The shrimp Rostronia stylirostris Holthuis, 1952 was found inside A. subterranea sp. nov., and 4 species of bivalves, 3 species of polychaetes, 1 gastropod, 1 polyplacophoran and 1 sponge species were found as burrow associates besides the ascidian.

  3. Bioleaching of electronic waste using bacteria isolated from the marine sponge Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, Enrique E; Mendes, Maria A; Nascimento, Claudio A O; Espinosa, Denise C R; Oliveira, Renato; Oliveira, Guilherme; Custodio, Marcio R

    2017-05-05

    The bacteria isolated from Hymeniacidon heliophila sponge cells showed bioleaching activity. The most active strain, Hyhel-1, identified as Bacillus sp., was selected for bioleaching tests under two different temperatures, 30°C and 40°C, showing rod-shaped cells and filamentous growth, respectively. At 30°C, the bacteria secreted substances which linked to the leached copper, and at 40°C metallic nanoparticles were produced inside the cells. In addition, infrared analysis detected COOH groups and linear peptides in the tested bacteria at both temperatures. The Hyhel-1 strain in presence of electronic waste (e-waste) induced the formation of crust, which could be observed due to bacteria growing on the e-waste fragment. SEM-EDS measurements showed that the bacterial net surface was composed mostly of iron (16.1% w/w), while a higher concentration of copper was observed in the supernatant (1.7% w/w) and in the precipitated (49.8% w/w). The substances linked to copper in the supernatant were sequenced by MALDI-TOF-ms/ms and identified as macrocyclic surfactin-like peptides, similar to the basic sequence of Iturin, a lipopeptide from Bacillus subtilis. Finally, the results showed that Hyhel-1 is a bioleaching bacteria and cooper nanoparticles producer and that this bacteria could be used as a copper recovery tool from electronic waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sulfated Polysaccharides in Marine Sponges: Extraction Methods and Anti-HIV Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Ana I. S.; Nicolai, Marisa; Humanes, Madalena; Goncalves, Joao

    2011-01-01

    The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition). Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5%) and almost no anti-HIV activity (polysaccharide (up to 97.3%), showed only modest bioactivity (polysaccharide content (up to 98%) and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition). Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161) yielded only modestly active fractions. However, we could infer that the active molecule is most probably a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (>2000 kDa), whose mechanism is possibly preventing viral attachment and entry (fusion inhibitor). PMID:21339952

  5. Synthesis and Bioactivity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Sponges Containing Dibrominated Indolic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Stefanucci

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges. (e.g., Hyrtios sp., Dragmacidin sp., Aglophenia pleuma, Aplidium cyaneum, Aplidium meridianum. produce bioactive secondary metabolites involved in their defence mechanisms. Recently it was demonstrated that several of those compounds show a large variety of biological activities against different human diseases with possible applications in medicinal chemistry and in pharmaceutical fields, especially related to the new drug development process. Researchers have focused their attention principally on secondary metabolites with anti-cancer and cytotoxic activities. A common target for these molecules is the cytoskeleton, which has a central role in cellular proliferation, motility, and profusion involved in the metastatic process associate with tumors. In particular, many substances containing brominated indolic rings such as 5,6-dibromotryptamine, 5,6-dibromo-N-methyltryptamine, 5,6-dibromo-N-methyltryptophan (dibromoabrine, 5,6-dibromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5,6-dibromo-L-hypaphorine isolated from different marine sources, have shown anti-cancer activity, as well as antibiotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Considering the structural correlation between endogenous monoamine serotonin with marine indolic alkaloids 5,6-dibromoabrine and 5,6-dibromotryptamine, a potential use of some dibrominated indolic metabolites in the treatment of depression-related pathologies has also been hypothesized. Due to the potential applications in the treatment of various diseases and the increasing demand of these compounds for biological assays and the difficult of their isolation from marine sources, we report in this review a series of recent syntheses of marine dibrominated indole-containing products.

  6. Antiparasitic bromotyrosine derivatives from the Caribbean marine Sponge Aiolochroia crassa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeano, Elkin; Martinez, Alejandro; Thomas, Olivier P.; Robledo, Sara; Munoz, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Six bromotyrosine-derived compounds were isolated from the Caribbean marine sponge Aiolochroia crassa: 3-bromo-5-hydroxy Ο-methyltyrosine (1), 3-bromo-N,N,N-trimethyltyrosinium (2), 3-bromo-N,N,N,ο-tetramethyltyrosinium (3), 3,5-dibromo-N,N,Ntrimethyltyrosinium (4), 3,5-dibromo-N,N,N,O-tetramethyltyrosinium (5), and aeroplysinin-1 (6). Structural determination was performed using NMR, MS and comparison with literature data. All isolated compounds were screened for their in vitro activity against Leishmania panamensis, Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma cruzi. Compound 4 showed selective antiparasitic activity against Leishmania and Plasmodium parasites. This is the first report of compounds 1, 4 and 5 in the sponge A. crassa and the first biological activity reports for compounds 2-4. This work shows that bromotyrosines are potential antiparasitic agents. (author)

  7. Sulfoureido Lipopeptides from the Marine Sponge Discodermia kiiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Karen Co; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2016-09-23

    New N-sulfoureidylated lipopeptides, sulfolipodiscamides A-C (1-3), were isolated by gel filtration chromatography of the n-butanol fraction of the marine sponge Discodermia kiiensis. By extensive NMR analyses and high-resolution mass spectrometry, the structures of 1-3 were elucidated as having an unprecedented N-sulfoureidyl group on the d-citrulline residue, a distinct feature that was not found in the structurally related lipodiscamides A-C (4-6), derived from the ether fraction of the same sponge. Furthermore, the absolute configurations of 1-3 were confirmed by comparisons of the HPLC retention times of the hydrolytic products and the corresponding authentic lipodiscamides. Interestingly, sulfolipodiscamide A displayed a 2.3-fold increase in cytotoxicity against murine leukemia (P388) cells, compared to the unconjugated parent compound.

  8. CT and sonographic diagnosis of retained surgical sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Syunro; Aikawa, Hisayuki; Miyake, Hidetoshi; Mori, Hiromu; Maeda, Tohru; Nishimura, Hiro; Monzen, Yoshio; Ashizawa, Akira; Isomoto, Ichiro.

    1990-01-01

    Seven cases of pathologically proven retained surgical sponge were reviewed and classified into four types, depending on CT and US findings. CT showed a mass with tiny gas bubbles, and sonogram showed an echogenic area with strong posterior shadow (Type I). CT showed an irregular high density mass with no gas bubble, and sonogram showed an echogenic area with strong posterior shadow (Type II). CT showed a low density mass with irregular internal high density areas, and somogram showed a cystic mass with zigzag internal components (Type III). CT showed an eliptic high density mass with low density area internally. Judging from the experiment and operative findings, these patterns were decided by the number and status of the gauze, volume of the exudate and hematoma, and status of the granulation. The author concludes that these characteristic CT and US findings, together with a history of surgery, permit the correct diagnosis of retained surgical sponge. (author)

  9. Silica structure in the spicules of the sponge Suberites domuncula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhüter, Gerd; Lakshminarayanan, Kamatchi; Gerber, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    Accumulation of silica in marine organisms such as diatoms and sponges has been widely reported. The proteins depositing silica in these organisms have been identified and its structure has also been described. The ultrastructure of silica has not been studied in detail, however. Herein we describe the structure of silica in the spicules of the sponge Suberites domuncula. Peroxide treatment was performed to remove the organic compounds, thereby enabling a better study of the silica. Methods used for the study included scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Electron diffraction enabled structural comparison with silica glass at the atomic level. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of the spicules was also conducted and structure correlation between these methods attempted. At a lower magnification, spicule needles with a smooth outer surface were visible. Diffraction results suggested a network-like structure in the spicules. Silica particles of 3 nm diameter could be measured by SAXS.

  10. Sponge Microbiota are a Reservoir of Functional Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versluis, Dennis; de Evgrafov, Mari Cristina Rodriguez; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically...... examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional......). Fifteen of 37 inserts harbored resistance genes that shared resistance gene could be identified with high confidence, in which case we predicted resistance to be mainly mediated by antibiotic efflux. One marine-specific ampicillin-resistance...

  11. Primary cultures from the marine sponge Xestospongia muta (Petrosiidae, Haplosclerida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richelle-Maurer, Evelyn; Gomez, Raquel; Braekman, Jean-Claude; Van de Vyver, Gisèle; Van Soest, Rob W M; Devijver, Christine

    2003-01-23

    In the context of the investigations on the origin and in vitro production of bioactive compounds, primary cultures were developed from ectosomal and choanosomal cell suspensions from the sponge Xestospongia muta. Dissociated cells aggregated and reorganized into a striking reticulated network of cells, typical for X. muta. Moreover, in some cultures an isotropic reticulation of small spicules, very similar to that found in the ectosome of adult sponges, was observed. Phytohaemagglutinin promoted aggregation and the reorganization of the cells. HPLC analyses revealed that straight-chain acetylenic compounds were recovered from short-term cultures and that they were synthesized during culture. Heterotrophic bacteria were assumed to be involved in the process. Together our results established that X. muta would be an excellent experimental model to study, in laboratory conditions, the differentiation of the skeleton and the in vitro biosynthesis of straight-chain acetylenic compounds.

  12. Transmural Migration of a Retained Sponge Through the Rectum: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Veli Özkan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Retained surgical sponge in the abdomen following abdominal and pelvic surgery is an uncommon condition. Here we present a case of retained surgical sponge with unusual presenting symptoms. A 27-year old female patient presented to our department with a foreign body localized in the anal region. She had a past history of a myomectomy 1 year earlier. Clinical examination and radiographic workout revealaed a sponge migrating towards the rectum. The sponge was removed under visual guidance of rectoscopy without laparotomy. The patient was discharged without complications.

  13. Supra-aural gossypiboma: case report of a retained textile surgical sponge in an unusual location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, N; Gupta, N; Dhawan, N

    2016-11-01

    Gossypiboma or retained surgical sponge is an infrequently encountered surgical complication, more so in the head and neck region. A literature search did not reveal a previously reported case of retained or concealed surgical sponge after microscopic ear surgery. We present a unique and previously unreported case of a 25-year-old male who presented with a cystic swelling in the right supra-aural region 5 months post-modified radical mastoidectomy of the right ear. Surgical excision of the swelling revealed a retained surgical sponge. We emphasise the importance of counting surgical sponges after every surgical step to minimise the incidence of such retained surgical items.

  14. Curcumin-Loaded Chitosan/Gelatin Composite Sponge for Wound Healing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cuong Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three composite sponges were made with 10% of curcumin and by using polymers, namely, chitosan and gelatin with various ratios. The chemical structure and morphology were evaluated by FTIR and SEM. These sponges were evaluated for water absorption capacity, antibacterial activity, in vitro drug release, and in vivo wound healing studies by excision wound model using rabbits. The in vivo study presented a greater wound closure in wounds treated with curcumin-composite sponge than those with composite sponge without curcumin and untreated group. These obtained results showed that combination of curcumin, chitosan and gelatin could improve the wound healing activity in comparison to chitosan, and gelatin without curcumin.

  15. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Ivanchina, Natalia V.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Stonik, Valentin A.

    2012-01-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

  16. Comparisons of the fungal and protistan communities among different marine sponge holobionts by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liming; Liu, Fang; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Ren, Yi; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    To date, the knowledge of eukaryotic communities associated with sponges remains limited compared with prokaryotic communities. In a manner similar to prokaryotes, it could be hypothesized that sponge holobionts have phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic symbionts, and the eukaryotic community structures in different sponge holobionts were probably different. In order to test this hypothesis, the communities of eukaryota associated with 11 species of South China Sea sponges were compared with the V4 region of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Consequently, 135 and 721 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi and protists were obtained at 97 % sequence similarity, respectively. These sequences were assigned to 2 phyla of fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and 9 phyla of protists including 5 algal phyla (Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Streptophyta, Rhodophyta, and Stramenopiles) and 4 protozoal phyla (Alveolata, Cercozoa, Haplosporidia, and Radiolaria) including 47 orders (12 fungi, 35 protists). Entorrhizales of fungi and 18 orders of protists were detected in marine sponges for the first time. Particularly, Tilletiales of fungi and Chlorocystidales of protists were detected for the first time in marine habitats. Though Ascomycota, Alveolata, and Radiolaria were detected in all the 11 sponge species, sponge holobionts have different fungi and protistan communities according to OTU comparison and principal component analysis at the order level. This study provided the first insights into the fungal and protistan communities associated with different marine sponge holobionts using pyrosequencing, thus further extending the knowledge on sponge-associated eukaryotic diversity.

  17. Phylogeny and genomics of SAUL, an enigmatic bacterial lineage frequently associated with marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-García, Carmen; Slaby, Beate M; Waite, David W; Bayer, Kristina; Hentschel, Ute; Taylor, Michael W

    2018-02-01

    Many marine sponges contain dense and diverse communities of associated microorganisms. Members of the 'sponge-associated unclassified lineage' (SAUL) are frequently recorded from sponges, yet little is known about these bacteria. Here we investigated the distribution and phylogenetic status of SAUL. A meta-analysis of the available literature revealed the widespread distribution of this clade and its association with taxonomically varied sponge hosts. Phylogenetic analyses, conducted using both 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny and concatenated marker protein sequences, revealed that SAUL is a sister clade of the candidate phylum 'Latescibacteria'. Furthermore, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of two draft genomes assembled from sponge metagenomes, revealing novel insights into the physiology of this symbiont. Metabolic reconstruction suggested that SAUL members are aerobic bacteria with facultative anaerobic metabolism, with the capacity to degrade multiple sponge- and algae-derived carbohydrates. We described for the first time in a sponge symbiont the putative genomic capacity to transport phosphate into the cell and to produce and store polyphosphate granules, presumably constituting a phosphate reservoir for the sponge host in deprivation periods. Our findings suggest that the lifestyle of SAUL is symbiotic with the host sponge, and identify symbiont factors which may facilitate the establishment and maintenance of this relationship. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Symbiotic prokaryotic communities from different populations of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Cara L; Jarett, Jessica K; Lesser, Michael P

    2013-12-01

    The prokaryotic community composition of the ecologically dominant sponge, Xestospongia muta, and the variability of this community across in different populations of sponges from the Caribbean and Bahamas were quantified using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The symbiotic prokaryotic communities of X. muta were significantly different than the surrounding bacterioplankton communities while an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) of the sponge prokaryotic symbionts from three geographically distant sites showed that both symbiont and bacterioplankton populations were significantly different between locations. Comparisons of individual sponges based on the UniFrac P-test also revealed significant differences in community composition between individual sponges. The sponges harbored a variety of phylum level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to many sponges, including Cyanobacteria, Poribacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Gemmatimonadetes, but four additional symbiotic phyla, previously not reported for this sponge, were observed. Additionally, a diverse archaeal community was also recovered from X. muta including sequences representing the phyla Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. These results have important ecological implications for the understanding of host-microbe associations, and provide a foundation for future studies addressing the functional roles these symbiotic prokaryotes have in the biology of the host sponge and the nutrient biogeochemistry of coral reefs. © 2013 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Composition of Archaea in seawater, sediment, and sponges in the Kepulauan Seribu reef system, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polónia, Ana R M; Cleary, Daniel F R; Duarte, Leticia N; de Voogd, Nicole J; Gomes, Newton C M

    2014-04-01

    Coral reefs are among the most diverse and productive ecosystems in the world. Most research has, however, focused on eukaryotes such as corals and fishes. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the composition of prokaryotes, particularly those inhabiting corals and sponges, but these have mainly focused on bacteria. There have been very few studies of coral reef Archaea, despite the fact that Archaea have been shown to play crucial roles in nutrient dynamics, including nitrification and methanogenesis, of oligotrophic environments such as coral reefs. Here, we present the first study to assess Archaea in four different coral reef biotopes (seawater, sediment, and two sponge species, Stylissa massa and Xestospongia testudinaria). The archaeal community of both sponge species and sediment was dominated by Crenarchaeota, while the seawater community was dominated by Euryarchaeota. The biotope explained more than 72% of the variation in archaeal composition. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was highest in sediment and seawater biotopes and substantially lower in both sponge hosts. No "sponge-specific" archaeal OTUs were found, i.e., OTUs found in both sponge species but absent from nonhost biotopes. Despite both sponge species hosting phylogenetically distinct microbial assemblages, there were only minor differences in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional pathways. In contrast, most functional pathways differed significantly between microbiomes from sponges and nonhost biotopes including all energy metabolic pathways. With the exception of the methane and nitrogen metabolic pathway, all energy metabolic pathways were enriched in sponges when compared to nonhost biotopes.

  20. Drivers of epibenthic megafaunal composition in the sponge grounds of the Sackville Spur, northwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley, Lindsay; Kenchington, Ellen; Yashayaev, Igor; Murillo, Francisco Javier

    2015-04-01

    Deep-water sponges are considered ecosystem engineers, and the presence of large aggregations of these organisms, commonly referred to as sponge grounds, is associated with enhanced biodiversity and abundance of epibenthic fauna compared to non-sponge habitat. However, the degree and magnitude to which the presence of these sponge grounds elicits large changes in composition of the associated megafaunal community remains unknown. Here we identify the external drivers of epibenthic megafaunal community composition and explore the patterns and magnitude of compositional change in the megafaunal community within the sponge grounds of the Sackville Spur, northwest Atlantic. Epibenthic megafauna were quantified from five image transects collected on the Sackville Spur in 2009 between 1080 and 1723 m depth. Using Gradient Forest Modelling we found that the abundance of structure-forming sponges was the most important variable for predicting compositional patterns in the Sackville Spur megafaunal community, followed by depth, range in bottom current speed, in situ salinity, and longitude. Along the gradient in structure-forming sponge abundance, the largest turnover in megafaunal community composition occurred when the sponges reached 15 individuals m-2. Examination of the regional hydrographic conditions suggests that the dense sponge grounds of the Sackville Spur are associated with a warm, salty water mass that occurs between ~1300 and 1800 m.

  1. Radiofrequency-Based Identification Medical Device: An Evaluable Solution for Surgical Sponge Retrieval?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Alessandra; Corona, Arianna; Iezzi, Luca; Quaresima, Silvia; Armisi, Luca; Piccolo, Ilaria; Medaglia, Carlo Maria; Sbrenni, Sergio; Sileri, Pierpaolo; Rosato, Nicola; Gaspari, Achille Lucio; Di Lorenzo, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    A retained surgical item in patients (gossypiboma) is a persisting problem, despite consistent improvements and existing guidelines in counting instruments and sponges. Previous experiences with radiofrequency identification technology (RFID) tracking sponges show that it could represent an innovation, in order to reduce the criticism and increase the effectiveness during surgical procedures. We present an automated system that allows reduction of errors and improves safety in the operating room. The system consists of 3 antennas, surgical sponges containing RFID tags, and dedicated software applications, with Wi-Fi real-time communication between devices. The first antenna provides the initial count of gauzes; the second a real-time counting during surgery, including the sponges thrown into the kick-bucket; and the third can be used in the event of uneven sponge count. The software allows management at all stages of the process. In vitro and in vivo tests were performed: the system provided excellent results in detecting sponges in patients' body. Hundred percent retained sponges were detected correctly, even when they were overlapped. No false positive or false negative was recorded. The counting procedure turned out to be more streamlined and efficient and it could save time in a standard procedure. The RFID system for sponge tracking was shown to be experimentally a reliable and feasible method to track sponges with a full detection accuracy in the operating room. The results indicate the system to be safe and effective with acceptable cost-effective parameters.

  2. New meroterpenoids from the marine sponge Aka coralliphaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina, Larisa K; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Fedorov, Sergey N; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Kapustina, Irina I; Mollo, Ernesto; Utkina, Natalia K; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Denisenko, Vladimir A; Stonik, Valentin A

    2012-04-01

    Three new sulfated meroterpenoids containing sesquiterpene and hydroquinone moieties, namely siphonodictyal A sulfate (1), akadisulfate A (2) and akadisulfate B (3), along with the known siphonodictyal B3 and bis(sulfato)-cyclosiphonodictyol A were isolated from the sponge Aka coralliphaga. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Akadisulfate B and siphonodictyal B3 showed a radical-scavenging activity comparable with that of the known lipophylic antioxidant BHT.

  3. Biopotential of secondary metabolites isolated from marine sponge Dendrilla nigra

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Bhimba B; V Vinod; M Cindhu Beulah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biopotential activity of secondary metabolites from marine sponge Dendrilla nigra (D. nigra) collected from the Gulf of Mannar. Objective: Soxhlet extraction method was used to extract the secondary metabolites and various assays were carried out. Results: D. nigra showed potent antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities and it was also subjected for brine shrimp lethality and cytotoxicity assays. The secondary metabolites...

  4. Flood Mitigation by Permeable Pavements in Chinese Sponge City Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Maochuan Hu; Xingqi Zhang; Yim Ling Siu; Yu Li; Kenji Tanaka; Hong Yang; Youpeng Xu

    2018-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of permeable pavements on flood mitigation at different spatial scales for their effective application, for example, sponge city construction in China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of three types of permeable pavements (i.e., permeable asphalts (PA), permeable concretes (PC), and permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP)) on flood mitigation at a community scale in China using a hydrological model. In addition, the effects of cloggin...

  5. Page 1 2 ; Indigenous technology development for titanium sponge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Excess magnesium 30-40%. Temperature 830-860°C. Reaction time 24 to 30 h. TiCl4 feed rate 300 kg/h (max) t No. of tappings of MgCl2 12-16. Vacuum distillation. Temperature Soak time. 300C 6h. 700°C 8-10 h. 97.5°C 40-45 h. Ultimate vacuum 10 mm Hg (abs). Table 3. Typical quality analysis of titanium sponge cake.

  6. Cytotoxic Natural Products from Marine Sponge-Derived Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huawei; Zhao, Ziping; Wang, Hong

    2017-03-10

    A growing body of evidence indicates that marine sponge-derived microbes possess the potential ability to make prolific natural products with therapeutic effects. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of new cytotoxic agents from these marine microbes over the last 62 years from 1955 to 2016, which are assorted into seven types: terpenes, alkaloids, peptides, aromatics, lactones, steroids, and miscellaneous compounds.

  7. First report on chitinous holdfast in sponges (Porifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Kaluzhnaya, Oksana V.; Tsurkan, Mikhail V.; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Ilan, Micha; Stelling, Allison; Galli, Roberta; Petrova, Olga V.; Nekipelov, Serguei V.; Sivkov, Victor N.; Vyalikh, Denis; Born, René; Behm, Thomas; Ehrlich, Andre

    2013-01-01

    A holdfast is a root- or basal plate-like structure of principal importance that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, including sponges, to hard substrates. There is to date little information about the nature and origin of sponges’ holdfasts in both marine and freshwater environments. This work, to our knowledge, demonstrates for the first time that chitin is an important structural component within holdfasts of the endemic freshwater demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. Using a variety of tech...

  8. Redescritions of some rare sponge species in the western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Uriz, María Jesús; Maldonado, Manuel

    1993-01-01

    Five poorly known sponge species from the southwestern Mediterranean are described and their taxonomic status discussed. The species Raspailia agnata and Axinella egregia are recorded for the first time outside the Atlantic. The skeletal arrangement of R. agnata, currently considered an Axinella, justifies placing it in the genus Raspailia alongside other species without acanthostyles (subgenus Syringella). The spicule complement of the Mediterranean specimens of R. agnata perfectly matches t...

  9. LCAO approximation for scaling properties of the Menger sponge fractal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Kazuaki

    2006-11-13

    The electromagnetic eigenmodes of a three-dimensional fractal called the Menger sponge were analyzed by the LCAO (linear combination of atomic orbitals) approximation and a first-principle calculation based on the FDTD (finite-difference time-domain) method. Due to the localized nature of the eigenmodes, the LCAO approximation gives a good guiding principle to find scaled eigenfunctions and to observe the approximate self-similarity in the spectrum of the localized eigenmodes.

  10. IMAGE PROCESSING FOR DETECTION OF ORAL WHITE SPONGE NEVUS LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajdeep Mitra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available White Sponge Nevus is a rear hereditary disease in human causes incurable white lesions in oral mucosa. Appropriate history, clinical examination along with biopsy and cytological studies are helpful for diagnosis of this disorder. Identification can also be made in alternative way by applying image processing technique using Watershed segmentation with MATLAB software. The applied techniques are effective and reliable for early accurate detection of the disease as alternative of expertise clinical and time taking laboratory investigations.

  11. Recent brachiopod-coralline sponge communities and their paleoecological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J B; Goreau, T F; Hartman, W D

    1971-08-13

    Brachiopods and coralline sponges are the dominant taxa of a series of parallel pantropical communities found in cryptic habitats of Recent coral reefs, where these organisms may cover almost the entire available surface area. It is suggested that the continued survival and success of these and other groups of considerable paleontological importance resulted from their occupation of cryptic reef habitats after competition with more rapidly growing hermatypic corals in the Middle Jurassic when scleractinian reefs first appeared.

  12. New Alkaloids from the Mediterranean Sponge Hamigera hamigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Hassan

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Mediterranean sponge Hamigera hamigera (family Anchinoideae was studied since its total extract showed deterrent activity in a fish feeding assay. Eight compounds were isolated from the biologically active fractions and four of these proved to be new natural products, hamigeroxalamic acid (1, hamigeramine (2, hamigeramide (3 and hamiguanosinol (5. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry .

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Marine Sponge Clathria indica (Dendy, 1889)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravichandran, S.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Anbuchezhian, R.M.

    to combat such infections is becoming critically important. The marine environment with its vast resources comprising approximately a half of the total global diversity, is a good source for structurally novel molecules. In particular, sponges (Porifera... the microorganisms chosen were S. aureus, a pyogenic bacterium known to play a significant role in invasive skin diseases, including superficial and deep follicular lesions, and C. albicans, a fungal microorganism which causes serious systemic infections...

  14. Nonwoven surgical sponge with x-ray detectable element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elves, J.

    1988-01-01

    A surgical sponge constructed of a nonwoven fabric is provided with an integral x-ray detectable element in the form of an entangled roving which is positioned on one surface of the non-woven fabric. The fabric is produced by placing the x-ray detectable element atop a fibrous web and subjecting the roving and web to hydraulic entanglement to produce a patterned nonwoven fabric

  15. Natural RNA circles function as efficient microRNA sponges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas B; Jensen, Trine I; Clausen, Bettina H

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so......-called competing endogenous RNA in humans and target mimicry in plants. We previously identified a highly expressed circular RNA (circRNA) in human and mouse brain. Here we show that this circRNA acts as a miR-7 sponge; we term this circular transcript ciRS-7 (circular RNA sponge for miR-7). ciRS-7 contains more...... of miR-7 targets. In the mouse brain, we observe overlapping co-expression of ciRS-7 and miR-7, particularly in neocortical and hippocampal neurons, suggesting a high degree of endogenous interaction. We further show that the testis-specific circRNA, sex-determining region Y (Sry), serves as a miR-138...

  16. Sponge-supported synthesis of colloidal selenium nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Snober; Brockgreitens, John; Xu, Ke; Abbas, Abdennour

    2016-11-01

    With increasing biomedical and engineering applications of selenium nanospheres (SeNS), new efficient methods are needed for the synthesis and long-term preservation of these nanomaterials. Currently, SeNS are mostly produced through the biosynthesis route using microorganisms or by using wet chemical reduction, both of which have several limitations in terms of nanoparticle size, yield, production time and long-term stability of the nanoparticles. Here, we introduce a novel approach for rapid synthesis and long-term preservation of SeNS on a solid microporous support by combining a mild hydrothermal process with chemical reduction. By using a natural sponge as a solid three-dimensional matrix for nanoparticle growth, we have synthesized highly monodisperse spherical nanoparticles with a wide size range (10-1000 nm) and extremely high yield in a relatively short period of time (1 h). Additionally, the synthesized SeNS can be stored and retrieved whenever needed by simply washing the sponge in water. Keeping the nanospheres in the support offers remarkable long-term stability as particles left on the sponge preserve their morphological and colloidal characteristics even after eight months of storage. Furthermore, this work reveals that SeNS can be used for efficient mercury capture from contaminated waters with a record-breaking mercury removal capacity of 1900 mg g-1.

  17. Phenotypic plasticity in the Caribbean sponge Callyspongia vaginalis (Porifera: Haplosclerida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna López-Legentil

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sponge morphological plasticity has been a long-standing source of taxonomic difficulty. In the Caribbean, several morphotypes of the sponge Callyspongia vaginalis have been observed. To determine the taxonomic status of three of these morphotypes and their relationship with the congeneric species C. plicifera and C. fallax, we compared the spicule composition, spongin fiber skeleton and sequenced fragments of the mitochondrial genes 16S and COI and nuclear genes 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA. Phylogenetic analyses with ribosomal markers 18S and 28S rRNA confirmed the position of our sequences within the Callyspongiidae. None of the genetic markers provided evidence for consistent differentiation among the three morphotypes of C. vaginalis and C. fallax, and only C. plicifera stood as a distinct species. The 16S mtDNA gene was the most variable molecular marker for this group, presenting a nucleotide variability (π = 0.024 higher than that reported for COI. Unlike recent studies for other sponge genera, our results indicate that species in the genus Callyspongia maintain a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, and that morphological characteristics may not reflect reproductive boundaries in C. vaginalis.

  18. Periodontal tissue regeneration with PRP incorporated gelatin hydrogel sponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Dai; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sato, Soh

    2015-01-01

    Gelatin hydrogels have been designed and prepared for the controlled release of the transforming growth factor (TGF-b1) and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). PRP (Platelet rich plasma) contains many growth factors including the PDGF and TGF-b1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of periodontal tissue following the controlled release of growth factors in PRP. For the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, PRP of different concentrations was added. The assessment of DNA, mitochondrial activity and ALP activity were measured. To evaluate the TGF-β1 release from PRP incorporated gelatin sponge, amounts of TGF-β1 in each supernatant sample were determined by the ELISA. Transplantation experiments to prepare a bone defect in a rat alveolar bone were an implanted gelatin sponge incorporated with different concentration PRP. In DNA assay and MTT assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, the cell count and mitochondrial activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 5  ×  PRP. In the ALP assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells, the cell activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 3  ×  PRP. In the transplantation, the size of the bone regenerated in the defect with 3  ×  PRP incorporated gelatin sponge was larger than that of the other group. (paper)

  19. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian; Cao, Zhangjun; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua; Gao, Pin

    2013-12-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170°C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM10 was 98.3%. © 2013.

  20. PRIMARY CHARACTERIZATION OF SPONGE ASSOCIATED BACTERIA OF MARINE SPONGES- HALICHONDRIA GLABRATA, CLIONA LOBATA, SPIRASTRELLA PACHYSPIRA AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maushmi Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponge associated bacterias have been recognized as an important and untapped resource for novel bioactive compounds. In the present study four strains of microorganisms were isolated from three different varieties of marine sponge viz. Halichondria glabrata, Cliona lobata and Spirastrella pachyspira. They showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative indicator organisms. From the biochemical tests and cetrimide agar test, it was concluded that the Strain B isolated from Cliona lobata is a Pseudomonas species. Strain A (gram negative culture product isolated from Halichondria glabrata showed the antibiotic activity against Gram positive (B. subtillis and Gram negative (S. typhi, P. vulgaris, E.coli organisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for showing antibacterial activity on all the standard strain was found to be 40 µL of culture broth supernatant. This strain was further identified by ABIS software based on biochemical tests and confirmation of the strain was done after 16S r RNA gene sequencing. The strain showed close similarity with E. coli and Enterobacteria strains and most of the uncultured bacterium from different hosts, which confirmed its nature of being it a symbiont from sponge Halichondria glabrata with antimicrobial activity.

  1. Biodiversity of Macrofauna Associated with Sponges across Ecological Gradients in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kandler, Nora

    2015-12-01

    Between 33 and 91 percent of marine species are currently undescribed, with the majority occurring in tropical and offshore environments. Sponges act as important microhabitats and promote biodiversity by harboring a wide variety of macrofauna and microbiota, but little is known about the relationships between the sponges and their symbionts. This study uses DNA barcoding to examine the macrofaunal communities associated with sponges of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea, a drastically understudied ecosystem with high biodiversity and endemism. In total, 185 epifaunal and infaunal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were distinguished from the 1399 successfully-sequenced macrofauna individuals from 129 sponges representing seven sponge species, one of which (Stylissa carteri) was intensively studied. A significant difference was found in the macrofaunal community composition of Stylissa carteri along a cross-shelf gradient using relative OTU abundance (Bray-Curtis diversity index). The abundance of S. carteri also follows a cross-shelf gradient, increasing with proximity to shore. The difference in macrofaunal communities of several species of sponges at one location was found to be significant as well, using OTU presence (binary Jaccard diversity index). Four of the seven sponge species collected were dominated by a single annelid OTU, each unique to one sponge species. A fifth was dominated by four arthropod OTUs, all species-specific as well. Region-based diversity differences may be attributed to environmental factors such as reef morphology, water flow, and sedimentation, whereas species-based differences may be caused by sponge morphology, microbial abundances, and chemical defenses. As climate change and ocean acidification continue to modify coral reef ecosystems, understanding the ecology of sponges and their role as microhabitats may become more important. This thesis also includes a supplemental document in the form of a spreadsheet showing the number of

  2. Indirect effects of overfishing on Caribbean reefs: sponges overgrow reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tse-Lynn; McMurray, Steven E; Henkel, Timothy P; Vicente, Jan; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    Consumer-mediated indirect effects at the community level are difficult to demonstrate empirically. Here, we show an explicit indirect effect of overfishing on competition between sponges and reef-building corals from surveys of 69 sites across the Caribbean. Leveraging the large-scale, long-term removal of sponge predators, we selected overfished sites where intensive methods, primarily fish-trapping, have been employed for decades or more, and compared them to sites in remote or marine protected areas (MPAs) with variable levels of enforcement. Sponge-eating fishes (angelfishes and parrotfishes) were counted at each site, and the benthos surveyed, with coral colonies scored for interaction with sponges. Overfished sites had >3 fold more overgrowth of corals by sponges, and mean coral contact with sponges was 25.6%, compared with 12.0% at less-fished sites. Greater contact with corals by sponges at overfished sites was mostly by sponge species palatable to sponge predators. Palatable species have faster rates of growth or reproduction than defended sponge species, which instead make metabolically expensive chemical defenses. These results validate the top-down conceptual model of sponge community ecology for Caribbean reefs, as well as provide an unambiguous justification for MPAs to protect threatened reef-building corals. An unanticipated outcome of the benthic survey component of this study was that overfished sites had lower mean macroalgal cover (23.1% vs. 38.1% for less-fished sites), a result that is contrary to prevailing assumptions about seaweed control by herbivorous fishes. Because we did not quantify herbivores for this study, we interpret this result with caution, but suggest that additional large-scale studies comparing intensively overfished and MPA sites are warranted to examine the relative impacts of herbivorous fishes and urchins on Caribbean reefs.

  3. Sponge symbioses between Xestospongia deweerdtae and Plakortis spp. are not motivated by shared chemical defense against predators

    OpenAIRE

    Marty, Micah Jaarsma; Vicente, Jan; Oyler, Benjamin L.; Place, Allen; Hill, Russell T.

    2017-01-01

    The recently described epizoic sponge-sponge symbioses between Xestospongia deweerdtae and two species of Plakortis present an unusual series of sponge interactions. Sponges from the genus Plakortis are fierce allelopathic competitors, rich in cytotoxic secondary metabolites, and yet X. deweerdtae flourishes as an epizoic encrustation on Plakortis deweerdtaephila and Plakortis symbiotica. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that X. deweerdtae grows epizoic to these two ...

  4. Time-dose relationships of PMSG and map-intravaginal sponges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different dosage levels of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) were applied in conjunction with medroxyprogesterone acetate impregnated intravaginal sponges at different times in relation to sponge removal the object of the study was to find the most economical dose level and the correct time of application ...

  5. Root-derived organic matter confines sponge community composition in mangrove ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; Ubels, S.M.; Kraak, M.H.S.; van der Geest, H.G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Caribbean mangrove-associated sponge communities are very distinct from sponge communities living on nearby reefs, but the mechanisms that underlie this distinction remain uncertain. It has been hypothesized that dissolved organic matter (DOM) leaching from mangrove roots and the

  6. Fungi found in Mediterranean and North Sea sponges: how specific are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azrul Naim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungi and other eukaryotes represent one of the last frontiers of microbial diversity in the sponge holobiont. In this study we employed pyrosequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons containing the V7 and V8 hypervariable regions to explore the fungal diversity of seven sponge species from the North Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. For most sponges, fungi were present at a low relative abundance averaging 0.75% of the 18S rRNA gene reads. In total, 44 fungal OTUs (operational taxonomic units were detected in sponges, and 28 of these OTUs were also found in seawater. Twenty-two of the sponge-associated OTUs were identified as yeasts (mainly Malasseziales, representing 84% of the fungal reads. Several OTUs were related to fungal sequences previously retrieved from other sponges, but all OTUs were also related to fungi from other biological sources, such as seawater, sediments, lakes and anaerobic digesters. Therefore our data, supported by currently available data, point in the direction of mostly accidental presence of fungi in sponges and do not support the existence of a sponge-specific fungal community.

  7. The HMA-LMA dichotomy revisited: an electron microscopical survey of 56 sponge species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckner, Volker; Wehrl, Markus; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Gernert, Christine; Schupp, Peter; Pawlik, Joseph R; Lindquist, Niels L; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-08-01

    The dichotomy between high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges has been long recognized. In the present study, 56 sponge species from three geographic regions (greater Caribbean, Mediterranean, Red Sea) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy for the presence of microorganisms in the mesohyl matrix. Additionally, bacterial enumeration by DAPI-counting was performed on a subset of samples. Of the 56 species investigated, 28 were identified as belonging to the HMA and 28 to the LMA category. The sponge orders Agelasida and Verongida consisted exclusively of HMA species, and the Poecilosclerida were composed only of LMA sponges. Other taxa contained both types of microbial associations (e.g., marine Haplosclerida, Homoscleromorpha, Dictyoceratida), and a clear phylogenetic pattern could not be identified. For a few sponge species, an intermediate microbial load was determined, and the microscopy data did not suffice to reliably determine HMA or LMA status. To experimentally determine the HMA or LMA status of a sponge species, we therefore recommend a combination of transmission electron microscopy and 16S rRNA gene sequence data. This study significantly expands previous reports on microbial abundances in sponge tissues and contributes to a better understanding of the HMA-LMA dichotomy in sponge-microbe symbioses. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  8. Similar sponge-associated bacteria can be acquired via both vertical and horizontal transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Caralt, de S.; Morillo, J.A.; Al-Soud, W.A.; Sørensen, S.J.; Smidt, H.; Uriz, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges host diverse communities of microorganisms that are often vertically transmitted from mother to oocyte or embryo. Horizontal transmission has often been proposed to co-occur in marine sponges, but the mechanism is poorly understood. To assess the impact of the mode of transmission on

  9. Marine sponge-associated bacteria as a potential source for polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Saibaba, Ganesan; Kiran, George Seghal; Yang, Yung-Hun; Selvin, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Marine sponges are filter feeding porous animals and usually harbor a remarkable array of microorganisms in their mesohyl tissues as transient and resident endosymbionts. The marine sponge-microbial interactions are highly complex and, in some cases, the relationships are thought to be truly symbiotic or mutualistic rather than temporary associations resulting from sponge filter-feeding activity. The marine sponge-associated bacteria are fascinating source for various biomolecules that are of potential interest to several biotechnological industries. In recent times, a particular attention has been devoted to bacterial biopolymer (polyesters) such as intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) produced by sponge-associated bacteria. Bacterial PHAs act as an internal reserve for carbon and energy and also are a tremendous alternative for fossil fuel-based polymers mainly due to their eco-friendliness. In addition, PHAs are produced when the microorganisms are under stressful conditions and this biopolymer synthesis might be exhibited as one of the survival mechanisms of sponge-associated or endosymbiotic bacteria which exist in a highly competitive and stressful sponge-mesohyl microenvironment. In this review, we have emphasized the industrial prospects of marine bacteria for the commercial production of PHAs and special importance has been given to marine sponge-associated bacteria as a potential resource for PHAs.

  10. Diversity of aerobic and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Naglaa M; Saito, Keiko; Tal, Yossi; Hill, Russell T

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) are known to have an important function in the marine nitrogen cycle. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) carried out by some members of Planctomycetales is also an important process in marine ecosystems. Ammonia-monooxygenase gene (amoA) fragments were amplified to investigate the potential for nitrification and the diversity of the AAOB in two marine sponges Ircinia strobilina and Mycale laxissima. All of the AmoA sequences obtained from the two sponges clustered with the AmoA sequences of the Betaproteobacteria Nitrosospira spp. To investigate the anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) in sponges, 16S rRNA gene fragments of Planctomycetales and anammox bacteria were also amplified with specific primers, and clone libraries were constructed. The Planctomycetales diversity detected in the two sponges was different. The Planctomycetales community in M. laxissima was affiliated with Pirellula, Planctomyces and anammox bacteria, while all of the I. strobilina Planctomycetales clones were solely affiliated with the candidate phylum 'Poribacteria'. Interestingly, sequences related to anammox genera were recovered only from M. laxissima. This is the first report of anammox bacteria in marine sponges. It is intriguing to find AAOB and AnAOB in M. laxissima, but the nature of their interaction with the sponge host and with each other remains unclear. This work further supports the potential of sponge-associated microorganisms for nitrification and sheds light on anammox as a new aspect of the nitrogen cycle in marine sponges.

  11. Influence of environmental variation on symbiotic bacterial communities of two temperate sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, César A; Bell, James J; Davy, Simon K; Hoggard, Michael; Taylor, Michael W

    2014-06-01

    Sponges are an important component of temperate subtidal marine ecosystems, with a range of important functional roles and extensive symbiotic relationships with microorganisms. However, much remains unknown about their relationships with these symbiotic microorganisms, and specifically, the role that these symbionts play in sponge physiology, feeding and adaptation to local environmental conditions. Changes in environmental factors may alter relationships between sponges and their symbionts, which could conceivably influence the abundance and distribution patterns of some temperate sponge species. Here, we analyzed the effect of transplantation of sponges between different habitats to test the effect of changes in environmental conditions on the stability of the bacterial communities in specimens of Tethya bergquistae and Ecionemia alata, based on pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial communities differed markedly between the two host species. While some morphological changes were observed in transplanted sponges, transplantation had little overall effect on sponge-associated bacterial communities at either phylum or 97%-OTU level. Our results show the importance of host species and also the stability of sponge-associated bacterial communities under environmental variation. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring microbial diversity of marine sponges by culture-dependent and molecular approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naim, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Discovery of sponge-grade metazoans dated 650 million years ago proved that sponges have been around since the Precambrian era. Their resilience to ever-changing environmental conditions and their global distribution is one of the features attributed to the symbionts in

  13. 2'-phosphodiesterase and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activities in the lowest metazoans, sponge [porifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saby, Emilie; Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave; Justesen, Just

    2009-01-01

    not all been identified in sponges. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that in addition to the OAS activity, sponges possess a 2′-PDE activity, which highlights the probable existence of a premature 2–5A system. Indeed, Suberites domuncula and Crella elegans exhibited this 2–5A degrading activity...

  14. Diversity of bacteria in the marine sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardoim, C.C.P.; Costa, R.; Araujo, F. V.; Hajdu, E.; Peixoto, R.; Lins, U.; Rosado, A. S.; van Elsas, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To

  15. Immune response of bovine sourced cross-linked collagen sponge for hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Niu, Xufeng; Sun, Lei; She, Zhending; Tan, Rongwei; Wang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    A comprehensive immunogenicity scheme is proposed to examine immune response of bovine sourced hemostasis collagen sponge to establish foundation for further researches and decrease the incidence of adverse reaction in clinical trials. Compared with negative control group without any implant, spleen and lymph nodes morphology show no apparent swelling in mice with different doses of collagen sponge implants. Immune cells population, especially lymph nodes cells population, is practically coincident with organs. However, splenic cells display slight proliferation in early phase following collagen sponge implantation. Splenic cells apoptosis also demonstrates no significant difference among all groups. T lymphocytes subsets, CD4/CD8 cells ratio, in spleen and lymph nodes are practically normal. Splenic cells Ki67 + proportions do not exhibit significant difference between collagen sponge groups and negative control group. Humoral response is determined by detection of IgG and IgM concentration in serum, not exhibiting remarkable increase with collagen sponge implantation, compared to the drastic increase in positive control group with bovine tendon implantation. Local analysis around implants by hematoxylin-eosin staining discovers slight cell infiltration around collagen sponge. Tumour necrosis factor-α immunostaining indicates slight inflammation in early phase following collagen sponge implantation, but interferon-γ immunostaining is negligible even in positive control group. Collagen sponge, especially in high dose, may have evoked benign immune response in BALB/c mice, but this response is transient. The present evaluation scheme for immune response is integrated and comprehensive, suitable for various biomaterials.

  16. Bromine and iodine content in sponges and algae of the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Solimabi; Das, B.; Mittal, P.K.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Br and I contents were determined spectrophotometrically in 12 species of sponges and 16 species of algae(red, brown and green). These elements on dry weight basis varied from 0.025 to 1.29% for Br and from 0.001 to 0.085% for I in sponges. I...

  17. Phylogenetic diversity and community structure of sponge-associated bacteria from mangroves of the Caribbean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Jiangke

    2011-02-08

    To gain insight into the species richness and phylogeny of the microbial communities associated with sponges in mangroves, we performed an extensive phylogenetic analysis, based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, of the 4 sponge species Aplysina fulva, Haliclona hogarthi, Tedania ignis and Ircinia strobilina as well as of ambient seawater. The sponge-associated bacterial communities contained 13 phyla, including Poribacteria and an unclassified group not found in the ambient seawater community, 98% of which comprised Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Although the sponges themselves were phylogenetically distant and bacterial community variation within the host species was observed, microbial phyla such as Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and the unclassified group were consistently observed as the dominant populations within the communities. The sponge-associated bacterial communities resident in the Caribbean Sea mangroves are phylogenetically similar but significantly distinct from communities found in other biogeographical sites such as the deep-water environments of the Caribbean Sea, the South China Sea and Australia. The interspecific variation within the host species and the distinct biogeographical characteristics that the sponge-associated bacteria exhibited indicate that the acquisition, establishment and formation of functional sponge-associated bacterial communities may initially be the product of both vertical and horizontal transmission, and is then shaped by the internal environment created by the sponge species and certain external environmental factors. © Inter-Research 2011.

  18. Facile synthesis of flexible macroporous polypropylene sponges for separation of oil and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guowei; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Oil spill disasters always occur accidentally, accompanied by the release of plenty of crude oil that could spread quickly over a wide area, creating enormous damage to the fragile marine ecological system. Therefore, the facile large-scale synthesis of hydrophobic three-dimensional (3-D) porous sorbents from low cost raw materials is in urgent demand. In this study, we report the facile template-free synthesis of polypropylene (PP) sponge by using a thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS) technique. The obtained sponge showed macroporous structure, excellent mechanical property, high hydrophobicity, and superoleophilicity. Oil could be separated from an oil/water mixture by simple immersing the sponge into the mixture and subsequent squeezing the sponge. All of these features make this sponge the most promising oil sorbent that will replace commercial non-woven PP fabrics.

  19. Investigations on abundance and activity of microbial sponge symbionts using quantitative real - time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumala, Lars; Hentschel, Ute; Bayer, Kristina

    Marine sponges are hosts to dense and diverse microbial consortia that are likely to play a key role in the metabolic processes of the host sponge due to their enormous abundance. Common symbioses between nitrogen transforming microorganisms and sponges indicate complex nitrogen cycling within...... the host. Of particular interest is determining the community structure and function of microbial symbionts in order to gain deeper insight into host-symbiont interactions. We investigated the abundance and activity of microbial symbionts in two Mediterranean sponge species using quantitative real-time PCR....... An absolute quantification of functional genes and transcripts in archaeal and bacterial symbionts was conducted to determine their involvement in nitrification and denitrification, comparing the low microbial abundance (LMA) sponge Dysidea avara with the high microbial abundance (HMA) representative Aplysina...

  20. Host-specific microbial communities in three sympatric North Sea sponges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naim, Mohd Azrul; Morillo, Jose A.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of next generation technology sequencing has deepened our knowledge of marine sponge-associated microbiota with the identification of at least 32 phyla of bacteria and archaea from a large number of sponge species. In this study we assessed the diversity of the microbial communi...... in North Sea sponges. These Chlamydiae-affiliated OTUs may represent novel lineages at least at the genus level as they are only 86-92% similar to known sequences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....... communities hosted by three sympatric sponges living in a semi-enclosed North-Sea environment using pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments. The three sponges harbour species-specific communities each dominated by a different class of Proteobacteria. An α...