Moore, Robert C.; Cohen, Michael H.
Under this effort, SRI has developed spoken-language technology for interactive problem solving, featuring real-time performance for up to several thousand word vocabularies, high semantic accuracy, habitability within the domain, and robustness to many sources of variability. Although the technology is suitable for many applications, efforts to date have focused on developing an Air Travel Information System (ATIS) prototype application. SRI's ATIS system has been evaluated in four ARPA benchmark evaluations, and has consistently been at or near the top in performance. These achievements are the result of SRI's technical progress in speech recognition, natural-language processing, and speech and natural-language integration.
Houston, K. Todd; Perigoe, Christina B.
Determining the most effective methods and techniques to facilitate the spoken language development of individuals with hearing loss has been a focus of practitioners for centuries. Due to modern advances in hearing technology, earlier identification of hearing loss, and immediate enrollment in early intervention, children with hearing loss are…
Bates, Madeleine; Ellard, Dan; Peterson, Pat; Shaked, Varda
.... In an effort to demonstrate the relevance of SIS technology to real-world military applications, BBN has undertaken the task of providing a spoken language interface to DART, a system for military...
Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne
The purpose of this research was to investigate factors that influence professionals' guidance of parents of children with hearing loss regarding spoken language multilingualism and spoken language choice. Sixteen professionals who provide services to children and young people with hearing loss completed an online survey, rating the importance of…
This article addresses key issues and considerations for teachers wanting to incorporate spoken grammar activities into their own teaching and also focuses on six common features of spoken grammar, with practical activities and suggestions for teaching them in the language classroom. The hope is that this discussion of spoken grammar and its place…
Full Text Available A key problem in spoken language identification (LID is to design effective representations which are specific to language information. For example, in recent years, representations based on both phonotactic and acoustic features have proven their effectiveness for LID. Although advances in machine learning have led to significant improvements, LID performance is still lacking, especially for short duration speech utterances. With the hypothesis that language information is weak and represented only latently in speech, and is largely dependent on the statistical properties of the speech content, existing representations may be insufficient. Furthermore they may be susceptible to the variations caused by different speakers, specific content of the speech segments, and background noise. To address this, we propose using Deep Bottleneck Features (DBF for spoken LID, motivated by the success of Deep Neural Networks (DNN in speech recognition. We show that DBFs can form a low-dimensional compact representation of the original inputs with a powerful descriptive and discriminative capability. To evaluate the effectiveness of this, we design two acoustic models, termed DBF-TV and parallel DBF-TV (PDBF-TV, using a DBF based i-vector representation for each speech utterance. Results on NIST language recognition evaluation 2009 (LRE09 show significant improvements over state-of-the-art systems. By fusing the output of phonotactic and acoustic approaches, we achieve an EER of 1.08%, 1.89% and 7.01% for 30 s, 10 s and 3 s test utterances respectively. Furthermore, various DBF configurations have been extensively evaluated, and an optimal system proposed.
Spoken language understanding (SLU) is an emerging field in between speech and language processing, investigating human/ machine and human/ human communication by leveraging technologies from signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence. SLU systems are designed to extract the meaning from speech utterances and its applications are vast, from voice search in mobile devices to meeting summarization, attracting interest from both commercial and academic sectors. Both human/machine and human/human communications can benefit from the application of SLU, usin
Apr 12, 2018 ... languages and can be used for the purposes of spoken language identification. Keywords. SLID .... branch of linguistics to study the sound structure of human language. ... countries, work in the area of Indian language identification has not ...... English and speech database has been collected over tele-.
The objective of this effort was to develop a prototype, hand-held or body-mounted spoken language translator to assist military and law enforcement personnel in interacting with non-English-speaking people...
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Hamel, Candyce; Stevens, Adrienne; Pratt, Misty; Moher, David; Doucet, Suzanne P; Neuss, Deirdre; Bernstein, Anita; Na, Eunjung
Permanent hearing loss affects 1 to 3 per 1000 children and interferes with typical communication development. Early detection through newborn hearing screening and hearing technology provide most children with the option of spoken language acquisition. However, no consensus exists on optimal interventions for spoken language development. To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of early sign and oral language intervention compared with oral language intervention only for children with permanent hearing loss. An a priori protocol was developed. Electronic databases (eg, Medline, Embase, CINAHL) from 1995 to June 2013 and gray literature sources were searched. Studies in English and French were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were measures of auditory, vocabulary, language, and speech production skills. All data collection and risk of bias assessments were completed and then verified by a second person. Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to judge the strength of evidence. Eleven cohort studies met inclusion criteria, of which 8 included only children with severe to profound hearing loss with cochlear implants. Language development was the most frequently reported outcome. Other reported outcomes included speech and speech perception. Several measures and metrics were reported across studies, and descriptions of interventions were sometimes unclear. Very limited, and hence insufficient, high-quality evidence exists to determine whether sign language in combination with oral language is more effective than oral language therapy alone. More research is needed to supplement the evidence base. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Jelena Kuvač Kraljević
Full Text Available Interest in spoken-language corpora has increased over the past two decades leading to the development of new corpora and the discovery of new facets of spoken language. These types of corpora represent the most comprehensive data source about the language of ordinary speakers. Such corpora are based on spontaneous, unscripted speech defined by a variety of styles, registers and dialects. The aim of this paper is to present the Croatian Adult Spoken Language Corpus (HrAL, its structure and its possible applications in different linguistic subfields. HrAL was built by sampling spontaneous conversations among 617 speakers from all Croatian counties, and it comprises more than 250,000 tokens and more than 100,000 types. Data were collected during three time slots: from 2010 to 2012, from 2014 to 2015 and during 2016. HrAL is today available within TalkBank, a large database of spoken-language corpora covering different languages (https://talkbank.org, in the Conversational Analyses corpora within the subsection titled Conversational Banks. Data were transcribed, coded and segmented using the transcription format Codes for Human Analysis of Transcripts (CHAT and the Computerised Language Analysis (CLAN suite of programmes within the TalkBank toolkit. Speech streams were segmented into communication units (C-units based on syntactic criteria. Most transcripts were linked to their source audios. The TalkBank is public free, i.e. all data stored in it can be shared by the wider community in accordance with the basic rules of the TalkBank. HrAL provides information about spoken grammar and lexicon, discourse skills, error production and productivity in general. It may be useful for sociolinguistic research and studies of synchronic language changes in Croatian.
Lee, Sungjin; Noh, Hyungjong; Lee, Jonghoon; Lee, Kyusong; Lee, Gary Geunbae
Although there have been enormous investments into English education all around the world, not many differences have been made to change the English instruction style. Considering the shortcomings for the current teaching-learning methodology, we have been investigating advanced computer-assisted language learning (CALL) systems. This paper aims at summarizing a set of POSTECH approaches including theories, technologies, systems, and field studies and providing relevant pointers. On top of the state-of-the-art technologies of spoken dialog system, a variety of adaptations have been applied to overcome some problems caused by numerous errors and variations naturally produced by non-native speakers. Furthermore, a number of methods have been developed for generating educational feedback that help learners develop to be proficient. Integrating these efforts resulted in intelligent educational robots — Mero and Engkey — and virtual 3D language learning games, Pomy. To verify the effects of our approaches on students' communicative abilities, we have conducted a field study at an elementary school in Korea. The results showed that our CALL approaches can be enjoyable and fruitful activities for students. Although the results of this study bring us a step closer to understanding computer-based education, more studies are needed to consolidate the findings.
Curtiss, S; de Bode, S; Mathern, G W
We analyzed postsurgery linguistic outcomes of 43 hemispherectomy patients operated on at UCLA. We rated spoken language (Spoken Language Rank, SLR) on a scale from 0 (no language) to 6 (mature grammar) and examined the effects of side of resection/damage, age at surgery/seizure onset, seizure control postsurgery, and etiology on language development. Etiology was defined as developmental (cortical dysplasia and prenatal stroke) and acquired pathology (Rasmussen's encephalitis and postnatal stroke). We found that clinical variables were predictive of language outcomes only when they were considered within distinct etiology groups. Specifically, children with developmental etiologies had lower SLRs than those with acquired pathologies (p =.0006); age factors correlated positively with higher SLRs only for children with acquired etiologies (p =.0006); right-sided resections led to higher SLRs only for the acquired group (p =.0008); and postsurgery seizure control correlated positively with SLR only for those with developmental etiologies (p =.0047). We argue that the variables considered are not independent predictors of spoken language outcome posthemispherectomy but should be viewed instead as characteristics of etiology. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science.
Full Text Available The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis claims adjacent prosodic categories to prefer identical branching of internal adjacent constituents. According to Wiese and Speyer (2015, this preference implies feet contained in the same phonological phrase to display either binary or unary branching, but not different types of branching. The seemingly free schwa-zero alternations at the end of some words in German make it possible to test this hypothesis. The hypothesis was successfully tested by conducting a corpus study which used large-scale bodies of written German. As some open questions remain, and as it is unclear whether Prosodic Parallelism is valid for the spoken modality as well, the present study extends this inquiry to spoken German. As in the previous study, the results of a corpus analysis recruiting a variety of linguistic constructions are presented. The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis can be demonstrated to be valid for spoken German as well as for written German. The paper thus contributes to the question whether prosodic preferences are similar between the spoken and written modes of a language. Some consequences of the results for the production of language are discussed.
Pon-Barry, Heather Roberta
The ﬁeld of spoken language processing is concerned with creating computer programs that can understand human speech and produce human-like speech. Regarding the problem of understanding human speech, there is currently growing interest in moving beyond speech recognition (the task of transcribing the words in an audio stream) and towards machine listening—interpreting the full spectrum of information in an audio stream. One part of machine listening, the problem that this thesis focuses on, ...
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Stevens, Adrienne; Garritty, Chantelle; Moher, David
Permanent childhood hearing loss affects 1 to 3 per 1000 children and frequently disrupts typical spoken language acquisition. Early identification of hearing loss through universal newborn hearing screening and the use of new hearing technologies including cochlear implants make spoken language an option for most children. However, there is no consensus on what constitutes optimal interventions for children when spoken language is the desired outcome. Intervention and educational approaches ranging from oral language only to oral language combined with various forms of sign language have evolved. Parents are therefore faced with important decisions in the first months of their child's life. This article presents the protocol for a systematic review of the effects of using sign language in combination with oral language intervention on spoken language acquisition. Studies addressing early intervention will be selected in which therapy involving oral language intervention and any form of sign language or sign support is used. Comparison groups will include children in early oral language intervention programs without sign support. The primary outcomes of interest to be examined include all measures of auditory, vocabulary, language, speech production, and speech intelligibility skills. We will include randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and other quasi-experimental designs that include comparator groups as well as prospective and retrospective cohort studies. Case-control, cross-sectional, case series, and case studies will be excluded. Several electronic databases will be searched (for example, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO) as well as grey literature and key websites. We anticipate that a narrative synthesis of the evidence will be required. We will carry out meta-analysis for outcomes if clinical similarity, quantity and quality permit quantitative pooling of data. We will conduct subgroup analyses if possible according to severity
Moeller, Aleidine J.; Theiler, Janine
Communicative approaches to teaching language have emphasized the centrality of oral proficiency in the language acquisition process, but research investigating oral proficiency has been surprisingly limited, yielding an incomplete understanding of spoken language development. This study investigated the development of spoken language at the high…
Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015
The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on Asian/Pacific Islander languages spoken by English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Top 10 Most Common Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs:…
Carson, J; Walker, L A; Sanders, B J; Jones, J E; Weddell, J A; Tomlin, A M
The purpose of this study was to assess dmft, the number of decayed, missing (due to caries), and/ or filled primary teeth, of English-speaking and non-English speaking patients of a hospital based pediatric dental clinic under the age of 72 months to determine if native language is a risk marker for tooth decay. Records from an outpatient dental clinic which met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Patient demographics and dmft score were recorded, and the patients were separated into three groups by the native language spoken by their parents: English, Spanish and all other languages. A total of 419 charts were assessed: 253 English-speaking, 126 Spanish-speaking, and 40 other native languages. After accounting for patient characteristics, dmft was significantly higher for the other language group than for the English-speaking (p0.05). Those patients under 72 months of age whose parents' native language is not English or Spanish, have the highest risk for increased dmft when compared to English and Spanish speaking patients. Providers should consider taking additional time to educate patients and their parents, in their native language, on the importance of routine dental care and oral hygiene.
Barberà, Gemma; Zwets, Martine
In both signed and spoken languages, pointing serves to direct an addressee's attention to a particular entity. This entity may be either present or absent in the physical context of the conversation. In this article we focus on pointing directed to nonspeaker/nonaddressee referents in Sign Language of the Netherlands (Nederlandse Gebarentaal,…
Bradham, Tamala S.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher; Toll, Alice; Hecht, Barbara F.
Purpose: The purpose of the Listening and Spoken Language Data Repository (LSL-DR) was to address a critical need for a systemwide outcome data-monitoring program for the development of listening and spoken language skills in highly specialized educational programs for children with hearing loss highlighted in Goal 3b of the 2007 Joint Committee…
Li, Bei; Soli, Sigfrid D; Zheng, Yun; Li, Gang; Meng, Zhaoli
The purpose of this study was to evaluate early spoken language development in young Mandarin-speaking children during the first 24 months after cochlear implantation, as measured by receptive and expressive vocabulary growth rates. Growth rates were compared with those of normally hearing children and with growth rates for English-speaking children with cochlear implants. Receptive and expressive vocabularies were measured with the simplified short form (SSF) version of the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventory (MCDI) in a sample of 112 pediatric implant recipients at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after implantation. Implant ages ranged from 1 to 5 years. Scores were expressed in terms of normal equivalent ages, allowing normalized vocabulary growth rates to be determined. Scores for English-speaking children were re-expressed in these terms, allowing direct comparisons of Mandarin and English early spoken language development. Vocabulary growth rates during the first 12 months after implantation were similar to those for normally hearing children less than 16 months of age. Comparisons with growth rates for normally hearing children 16-30 months of age showed that the youngest implant age group (1-2 years) had an average growth rate of 0.68 that of normally hearing children; while the middle implant age group (2-3 years) had an average growth rate of 0.65; and the oldest implant age group (>3 years) had an average growth rate of 0.56, significantly less than the other two rates. Growth rates for English-speaking children with cochlear implants were 0.68 in the youngest group, 0.54 in the middle group, and 0.57 in the oldest group. Growth rates in the middle implant age groups for the two languages differed significantly. The SSF version of the MCDI is suitable for assessment of Mandarin language development during the first 24 months after cochlear implantation. Effects of implant age and duration of implantation can be compared directly across
Matluck, Joseph H.; Mace-Matluck, Betty J.
This paper discusses the sociolinguistic problems inherent in multilingual testing, and the accompanying dangers of cultural bias in either the visuals or the language used in a given test. The first section discusses English-speaking Americans' perception of foreign speakers in terms of: (1) physical features; (2) speech, specifically vocabulary,…
Hoog, B.E. de; Langereis, M.C.; Weerdenburg, M. van; Keuning, J.; Knoors, H.; Verhoeven, L.
BACKGROUND: Large variability in individual spoken language outcomes remains a persistent finding in the group of children with cochlear implants (CIs), particularly in their grammatical development. AIMS: In the present study, we examined the extent of delay in lexical and morphosyntactic spoken
Hoog, B.E. de; Langereis, M.C.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Keuning, J.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
Background: Large variability in individual spoken language outcomes remains a persistent finding in the group of children with cochlear implants (CIs), particularly in their grammatical development. Aims: In the present study, we examined the extent of delay in lexical and morphosyntactic spoken
Salverda, Anne Pier; Altmann, Gerry T. M.
Participants saw a small number of objects in a visual display and performed a visual detection or visual-discrimination task in the context of task-irrelevant spoken distractors. In each experiment, a visual cue was presented 400 ms after the onset of a spoken word. In experiments 1 and 2, the cue was an isoluminant color change and participants…
Laveson, J. I.; Silver, C. A.
Assessment of the merits of a limited spoken language (56 words) computer in a simulated air traffic control (ATC) task. An airport zone approximately 60 miles in diameter with a traffic flow simulation ranging from single-engine to commercial jet aircraft provided the workload for the controllers. This research determined that, under the circumstances of the experiments carried out, the use of a spoken-language computer would not improve the controller performance.
Full Text Available Current views about language are dominated by the idea of arbitrary connections between linguistic form and meaning. However, if we look beyond the more familiar Indo-European languages and also include both spoken and signed language modalities, we find that motivated, iconic form-meaning mappings are, in fact, pervasive in language. In this paper, we review the different types of iconic mappings that characterize languages in both modalities, including the predominantly visually iconic mappings in signed languages. Having shown that iconic mapping are present across languages, we then proceed to review evidence showing that language users (signers and speakers exploit iconicity in language processing and language acquisition. While not discounting the presence and importance of arbitrariness in language, we put forward the idea that iconicity need also be recognized as a general property of language, which may serve the function of reducing the gap between linguistic form and conceptual representation to allow the language system to hook up to motor and perceptual experience.
Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony
Spoken word recognition, during gating, appears intact in specific language impairment (SLI). This study used gating to investigate the process in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders plus language impairment (ALI). Adolescents with ALI, SLI, and typical language development (TLD), matched on nonverbal IQ listened to gated words that varied…
Marshall, C. R.; Jones, A.; Fastelli, A.; Atkinson, J.; Botting, N.; Morgan, G.
Background: Deafness has an adverse impact on children's ability to acquire spoken languages. Signed languages offer a more accessible input for deaf children, but because the vast majority are born to hearing parents who do not sign, their early exposure to sign language is limited. Deaf children as a whole are therefore at high risk of language…
To assess the effects of data-driven instruction (DDI) on spoken language outcomes of children with cochlear implants and hearing aids. Retrospective, matched-pairs comparison of post-treatment speech/language data of children who did and did not receive DDI. Private, spoken-language preschool for children with hearing loss. Eleven matched pairs of children with cochlear implants who attended the same spoken language preschool. Groups were matched for age of hearing device fitting, time in the program, degree of predevice fitting hearing loss, sex, and age at testing. Daily informal language samples were collected and analyzed over a 2-year period, per preschool protocol. Annual informal and formal spoken language assessments in articulation, vocabulary, and omnibus language were administered at the end of three time intervals: baseline, end of year one, and end of year two. The primary outcome measures were total raw score performance of spontaneous utterance sentence types and syntax element use as measured by the Teacher Assessment of Spoken Language (TASL). In addition, standardized assessments (the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals--Preschool Version 2 (CELF-P2), the Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT), the Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT), and the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation 2 (GFTA2)) were also administered and compared with the control group. The DDI group demonstrated significantly higher raw scores on the TASL each year of the study. The DDI group also achieved statistically significant higher scores for total language on the CELF-P and expressive vocabulary on the EOWPVT, but not for articulation nor receptive vocabulary. Post-hoc assessment revealed that 78% of the students in the DDI group achieved scores in the average range compared with 59% in the control group. The preliminary results of this study support further investigation regarding DDI to investigate whether this method can consistently
Stevens, Catherine J.; Keller, Peter E.; Tyler, Michael D.
An experiment investigated the effect of tonal language background on discrimination of pitch contour in short spoken and musical items. It was hypothesized that extensive exposure to a tonal language attunes perception of pitch contour. Accuracy and reaction times of adult participants from tonal (Thai) and non-tonal (Australian English) language…
de Hoog, Brigitte E; Langereis, Margreet C; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Keuning, Jos; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo
Large variability in individual spoken language outcomes remains a persistent finding in the group of children with cochlear implants (CIs), particularly in their grammatical development. In the present study, we examined the extent of delay in lexical and morphosyntactic spoken language levels of children with CIs as compared to those of a normative sample of age-matched children with normal hearing. Furthermore, the predictive value of auditory and verbal memory factors in the spoken language performance of implanted children was analyzed. Thirty-nine profoundly deaf children with CIs were assessed using a test battery including measures of lexical, grammatical, auditory and verbal memory tests. Furthermore, child-related demographic characteristics were taken into account. The majority of the children with CIs did not reach age-equivalent lexical and morphosyntactic language skills. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that lexical spoken language performance in children with CIs was best predicted by age at testing, phoneme perception, and auditory word closure. The morphosyntactic language outcomes of the CI group were best predicted by lexicon, auditory word closure, and auditory memory for words. Qualitatively good speech perception skills appear to be crucial for lexical and grammatical development in children with CIs. Furthermore, strongly developed vocabulary skills and verbal memory abilities predict morphosyntactic language skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huettig, Falk; Brouwer, Susanne
It is now well established that anticipation of upcoming input is a key characteristic of spoken language comprehension. It has also frequently been observed that literacy influences spoken language processing. Here, we investigated whether anticipatory spoken language processing is related to individuals' word reading abilities. Dutch adults with dyslexia and a control group participated in two eye-tracking experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to assess whether adults with dyslexia show the typical language-mediated eye gaze patterns. Eye movements of both adults with and without dyslexia closely replicated earlier research: spoken language is used to direct attention to relevant objects in the environment in a closely time-locked manner. In Experiment 2, participants received instructions (e.g., 'Kijk naar de(COM) afgebeelde piano(COM)', look at the displayed piano) while viewing four objects. Articles (Dutch 'het' or 'de') were gender marked such that the article agreed in gender only with the target, and thus, participants could use gender information from the article to predict the target object. The adults with dyslexia anticipated the target objects but much later than the controls. Moreover, participants' word reading scores correlated positively with their anticipatory eye movements. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms by which reading abilities may influence predictive language processing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Spoken text differs from written one in its features of context dependency, turn-taking organization, and dynamic structure. EFL learners; however, sometime find it difficult to produce typical characteristics of spoken language, particularly in casual talk. When they are asked to conduct a conversation, some of them tend to be script-based which is considered unnatural. Using the theory of Thornburry (2005, this paper aims to analyze characteristics of spoken language in casual conversation which cover spontaneity, interactivity, interpersonality, and coherence. This study used discourse analysis to reveal four features in turns and moves of three casual conversations. The findings indicate that not all sub-features used in the conversation. In this case, the spontaneity features were used 132 times; the interactivity features were used 1081 times; the interpersonality features were used 257 times; while the coherence features (negotiation features were used 526 times. Besides, the results also present that some participants seem to dominantly produce some sub-features naturally and vice versa. Therefore, this finding is expected to be beneficial to provide a model of how spoken interaction should be carried out. More importantly, it could raise English teachers or lecturers‘ awareness in teaching features of spoken language, so that, the students could develop their communicative competence as the native speakers of English do.
Hampton, L. H.; Kaiser, A. P.
Background: Although spoken-language deficits are not core to an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, many children with ASD do present with delays in this area. Previous meta-analyses have assessed the effects of intervention on reducing autism symptomatology, but have not determined if intervention improves spoken language. This analysis…
Mani, Nivedita; Huettig, Falk
Despite the efficiency with which language users typically process spoken language, a growing body of research finds substantial individual differences in both the speed and accuracy of spoken language processing potentially attributable to participants' literacy skills. Against this background, the current study took a look at the role of word reading skill in listeners' anticipation of upcoming spoken language input in children at the cusp of learning to read; if reading skills affect predictive language processing, then children at this stage of literacy acquisition should be most susceptible to the effects of reading skills on spoken language processing. We tested 8-year-olds on their prediction of upcoming spoken language input in an eye-tracking task. Although children, like in previous studies to date, were successfully able to anticipate upcoming spoken language input, there was a strong positive correlation between children's word reading skills (but not their pseudo-word reading and meta-phonological awareness or their spoken word recognition skills) and their prediction skills. We suggest that these findings are most compatible with the notion that the process of learning orthographic representations during reading acquisition sharpens pre-existing lexical representations, which in turn also supports anticipation of upcoming spoken words. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tur-Kaspa, Hana; Dromi, Esther
The present study reports a detailed analysis of written and spoken language samples of Hebrew-speaking children aged 11-13 years who are deaf. It focuses on the description of various grammatical deviations in the two modalities. Participants were 13 students with hearing impairments (HI) attending special classrooms integrated into two elementary schools in Tel Aviv, Israel, and 9 students with normal hearing (NH) in regular classes in these same schools. Spoken and written language samples were collected from all participants using the same five preplanned elicitation probes. Students with HI were found to display significantly more grammatical deviations than their NH peers in both their spoken and written language samples. Most importantly, between-modality differences were noted. The participants with HI exhibited significantly more grammatical deviations in their written language samples than in their spoken samples. However, the distribution of grammatical deviations across categories was similar in the two modalities. The most common grammatical deviations in order of their frequency were failure to supply obligatory morphological markers, failure to mark grammatical agreement, and the omission of a major syntactic constituent in a sentence. Word order violations were rarely recorded in the Hebrew samples. Performance differences in the two modalities encourage clinicians and teachers to facilitate target linguistic forms in diverse communication contexts. Furthermore, the identification of linguistic targets for intervention must be based on the unique grammatical structure of the target language.
Full Text Available The paper explores similarities and differences in the strategies of structuring information at sentence level in spoken and written language, respectively. In particular, it is concerned with the position of the rheme in the sentence in the two different modalities of language, and with the application and correlation of the end-focus and the end-weight principles. The assumption is that while there is a general tendency in both written and spoken language to place the focus in or close to the final position, owing to the limitations imposed by short-term memory capacity (and possibly by other factors, for the sake of easy processibility, it may occasionally be more felicitous in spoken language to place the rhematic element in the initial position or at least close to the beginning of the sentence. The paper aims to identify differences in the function of selected grammatical structures in written and spoken language, respectively, and to point out circumstances under which initial focus is a convenient alternative to the usual end-focus principle.
Evans, Julia L; Gillam, Ronald B; Montgomery, James W
This study examined the influence of cognitive factors on spoken word recognition in children with developmental language disorder (DLD) and typically developing (TD) children. Participants included 234 children (aged 7;0-11;11 years;months), 117 with DLD and 117 TD children, propensity matched for age, gender, socioeconomic status, and maternal education. Children completed a series of standardized assessment measures, a forward gating task, a rapid automatic naming task, and a series of tasks designed to examine cognitive factors hypothesized to influence spoken word recognition including phonological working memory, updating, attention shifting, and interference inhibition. Spoken word recognition for both initial and final accept gate points did not differ for children with DLD and TD controls after controlling target word knowledge in both groups. The 2 groups also did not differ on measures of updating, attention switching, and interference inhibition. Despite the lack of difference on these measures, for children with DLD, attention shifting and interference inhibition were significant predictors of spoken word recognition, whereas updating and receptive vocabulary were significant predictors of speed of spoken word recognition for the children in the TD group. Contrary to expectations, after controlling for target word knowledge, spoken word recognition did not differ for children with DLD and TD controls; however, the cognitive processing factors that influenced children's ability to recognize the target word in a stream of speech differed qualitatively for children with and without DLDs.
Considerable progress has been made in recent years in the development of dialogue systems that support robust and efficient human-machine interaction using spoken language. Spoken dialogue technology allows various interactive applications to be built and used for practical purposes, and research focuses on issues that aim to increase the system's communicative competence by including aspects of error correction, cooperation, multimodality, and adaptation in context. This book gives a comprehensive view of state-of-the-art techniques that are used to build spoken dialogue systems. It provides
Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menggambarkan penerapan metode Communicative Language Teaching/CLT untuk pembelajaran spoken recount. Penelitian ini menelaah data yang kualitatif. Penelitian ini mengambarkan fenomena yang terjadi di dalam kelas. Data studi ini adalah perilaku dan respon para siswa dalam pembelajaran spoken recount dengan menggunakan metode CLT. Subjek penelitian ini adalah para siswa kelas X SMA Negeri 1 Kuaro yang terdiri dari 34 siswa. Observasi dan wawancara dilakukan dalam rangka untuk mengumpulkan data dalam mengajarkan spoken recount melalui tiga aktivitas (presentasi, bermain-peran, serta melakukan prosedur. Dalam penelitian ini ditemukan beberapa hal antara lain bahwa CLT meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara siswa dalam pembelajaran recount. Berdasarkan pada grafik peningkatan, disimpulkan bahwa tata bahasa, kosakata, pengucapan, kefasihan, serta performa siswa mengalami peningkatan. Ini berarti bahwa performa spoken recount dari para siswa meningkat. Andaikata presentasi ditempatkan di bagian akhir dari langkah-langkah aktivitas, peforma spoken recount para siswa bahkan akan lebih baik lagi. Kesimpulannya adalah bahwa implementasi metode CLT beserta tiga praktiknya berkontribusi pada peningkatan kemampuan berbicara para siswa dalam pembelajaran recount dan bahkan metode CLT mengarahkan mereka untuk memiliki keberanian dalam mengonstruksi komunikasi yang bermakna dengan percaya diri. Kata kunci: Communicative Language Teaching (CLT, recount, berbicara, respon siswa
One fundamental difference between spoken and written language has to do with the "linearity" of speaking in time, in that the temporal structure of speaking is inherently the outcome of an interactive process between speaker and listener. But despite the status of "linearity" as one of Saussure's fundamental principles, in practice little more…
von Tetzchner, S; Øvreeide, K D; Jørgensen, K K; Ormhaug, B M; Oxholm, B; Warme, R
To describe a graphic-mode communication intervention involving a girl with intellectual impairment and autism who did not develop comprehension of spoken language. The aim was to teach graphic-mode vocabulary that reflected her interests, preferences, and the activities and routines of her daily life, by providing sufficient cues to the meanings of the graphic representations so that she would not need to comprehend spoken instructions. An individual case study design was selected, including the use of written records, participant observation, and registration of the girl's graphic vocabulary and use of graphic signs and other communicative expressions. While the girl's comprehension (and hence use) of spoken language remained lacking over a 3-year period, she acquired an active use of over 80 photographs and pictograms. The girl was able to cope better with the cognitive and attentional requirements of graphic communication than those of spoken language and manual signs, which had been focused in earlier interventions. Her achievements demonstrate that it is possible for communication-impaired children to learn to use an augmentative and alternative communication system without speech comprehension, provided the intervention utilizes functional strategies and non-language cues to the meaning of the graphic representations that are taught.
Nicholas, Johanna G.; Geers, Ann E.
Purpose: The major purpose of this study was to provide information about expected spoken language skills of preschool-age children who are deaf and who use a cochlear implant. A goal was to provide "benchmarks" against which those skills could be compared, for a given age at implantation. We also examined whether parent-completed…
Singh, Jitendra K.; Misra, Girishwar; De Raad, Boele
The psycho-lexical approach is extended to Hindi, a major language spoken in India. From both the dictionary and from Hindi novels, a huge set of personality descriptors was put together, ultimately reduced to a manageable set of 295 trait terms. Both self and peer ratings were collected on those
Gràcia, Marta; Vega, Fàtima; Galván-Bovaira, Maria José
Broadly speaking, the teaching of spoken language in Spanish schools has not been approached in a systematic way. Changes in school practices are needed in order to allow all children to become competent speakers and to understand and construct oral texts that are appropriate in different contexts and for different audiences both inside and…
McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Bullard, Lauren; Nelson, Sarah; Mello, Melissa; Tempero-Feigles, Robyn; Castignetti, Nancy; Abbeduto, Leonard
Using a single case design, a parent-mediated spoken-language intervention was delivered to three mothers and their school-aged sons with fragile X syndrome, the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. The intervention was embedded in the context of shared storytelling using wordless picture books and targeted three empirically derived…
Full Text Available The authors investigate the addition of a new language, for which limited resources are available, to a phonotactic language identification system. Two classes of approaches are studied: in the first class, only existing phonetic recognizers...
Soleymani, Zahra; Keramati, Nasrin; Rohani, Farzaneh; Jalaei, Shohre
To determine verbal intelligence and spoken language of children with phenylketonuria and to study the effect of age at diagnosis and phenylalanine plasma level on these abilities. Cross-sectional. Children with phenylketonuria were recruited from pediatric hospitals in 2012. Normal control subjects were recruited from kindergartens in Tehran. 30 phenylketonuria and 42 control subjects aged 4-6.5 years. Skills were compared between 3 phenylketonuria groups categorized by age at diagnosis/treatment, and between the phenylketonuria and control groups. Scores on Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence for verbal and total intelligence, and Test of Language Development-Primary, third edition for spoken language, listening, speaking, semantics, syntax, and organization. The performance of control subjects was significantly better than that of early-treated subjects for all composite quotients from Test of Language Development and verbal intelligence (Pphenylketonuria subjects.
Peterson, Nathaniel R.; Pisoni, David B.; Miyamoto, Richard T.
Cochlear implants (CIs) process sounds electronically and then transmit electric stimulation to the cochlea of individuals with sensorineural deafness, restoring some sensation of auditory perception. Many congenitally deaf CI recipients achieve a high degree of accuracy in speech perception and develop near-normal language skills. Post-lingually deafened implant recipients often regain the ability to understand and use spoken language with or without the aid of visual input (i.e. lip reading...
Jon-Ruben eVan Rhijn
Full Text Available Speech requires precise motor control and rapid sequencing of highly complex vocal musculature. Despite its complexity, most people produce spoken language effortlessly. This is due to activity in distributed neuronal circuitry including cortico-striato-thalamic loops that control speech-motor output. Understanding the neuro-genetic mechanisms that encode these pathways will shed light on how humans can effortlessly and innately use spoken language and could elucidate what goes wrong in speech-language disorders.FOXP2 was the first single gene identified to cause speech and language disorder. Individuals with FOXP2 mutations display a severe speech deficit that also includes receptive and expressive language impairments. The underlying neuro-molecular mechanisms controlled by FOXP2, which will give insight into our capacity for speech-motor control, are only beginning to be unraveled. Recently FOXP2 was found to regulate genes involved in retinoic acid signaling and to modify the cellular response to retinoic acid, a key regulator of brain development. Herein we explore the evidence that FOXP2 and retinoic acid signaling function in the same pathways. We present evidence at molecular, cellular and behavioral levels that suggest an interplay between FOXP2 and retinoic acid that may be important for fine motor control and speech-motor output. We propose that retinoic acid signaling is an exciting new angle from which to investigate how neurogenetic mechanisms can contribute to the (spoken language ready brain.
Boons, Tinne; Brokx, Jan P L; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Frijns, Johan H M; Peeraer, Louis; Vermeulen, Anneke; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid
Although deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) are able to develop good language skills, the large variability in outcomes remains a significant concern. The first aim of this study was to evaluate language skills in children with CIs to establish benchmarks. The second aim was to make an estimation of the optimal age at implantation to provide maximal opportunities for the child to achieve good language skills afterward. The third aim was to gain more insight into the causes of variability to set recommendations for optimizing the rehabilitation process of prelingually deaf children with CIs. Receptive and expressive language development of 288 children who received CIs by age five was analyzed in a retrospective multicenter study. Outcome measures were language quotients (LQs) on the Reynell Developmental Language Scales and Schlichting Expressive Language Test at 1, 2, and 3 years after implantation. Independent predictive variables were nine child-related, environmental, and auditory factors. A series of multiple regression analyses determined the amount of variance in expressive and receptive language outcomes attributable to each predictor when controlling for the other variables. Simple linear regressions with age at first fitting and independent samples t tests demonstrated that children implanted before the age of two performed significantly better on all tests than children who were implanted at an older age. The mean LQ was 0.78 with an SD of 0.18. A child with an LQ lower than 0.60 (= 0.78-0.18) within 3 years after implantation was labeled as a weak performer compared with other deaf children implanted before the age of two. Contralateral stimulation with a second CI or a hearing aid and the absence of additional disabilities were related to better language outcomes. The effect of environmental factors, comprising multilingualism, parental involvement, and communication mode increased over time. Three years after implantation, the total multiple
Jul 1, 2009 ... and cultural metaphors of illness as part of language learning. The theory of .... role.21 Even in a military setting, where soldiers learnt Korean or Spanish as part of ... own language – a cross-cultural survey. Brit J Gen Pract ...
Johan Frijns; prof. Dr. Louis Peeraer; van Wieringen; Ingeborg Dhooge; Vermeulen; Jan Brokx; Tinne Boons; Wouters
Objectives: Although deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) are able to develop good language skills, the large variability in outcomes remains a significant concern. The first aim of this study was to evaluate language skills in children with CIs to establish benchmarks. The second aim was to
Kovelman, Ioulia; Norton, Elizabeth S; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Gaab, Nadine; Lieberman, Daniel A; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wolf, Maryanne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E
Phonological awareness, knowledge that speech is composed of syllables and phonemes, is critical for learning to read. Phonological awareness precedes and predicts successful transition from language to literacy, and weakness in phonological awareness is a leading cause of dyslexia, but the brain basis of phonological awareness for spoken language in children is unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of phonological awareness using an auditory word-rhyming task in children who were typical readers or who had dyslexia (ages 7-13) and a younger group of kindergarteners (ages 5-6). Typically developing children, but not children with dyslexia, recruited left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when making explicit phonological judgments. Kindergarteners, who were matched to the older children with dyslexia on standardized tests of phonological awareness, also recruited left DLPFC. Left DLPFC may play a critical role in the development of phonological awareness for spoken language critical for reading and in the etiology of dyslexia.
Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas J.
To investigate the impact of sensory-motor systems on the neural organization for language, we conducted an H215O-PET study of sign and spoken word production (picture-naming) and an fMRI study of sign and audio-visual spoken language comprehension (detection of a semantically anomalous sentence) with hearing bilinguals who are native users of American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Directly contrasting speech and sign production revealed greater activation in bilateral parietal cortex for signing, while speaking resulted in greater activation in bilateral superior temporal cortex (STC) and right frontal cortex, likely reflecting auditory feedback control. Surprisingly, the language production contrast revealed a relative increase in activation in bilateral occipital cortex for speaking. We speculate that greater activation in visual cortex for speaking may actually reflect cortical attenuation when signing, which functions to distinguish self-produced from externally generated visual input. Directly contrasting speech and sign comprehension revealed greater activation in bilateral STC for speech and greater activation in bilateral occipital-temporal cortex for sign. Sign comprehension, like sign production, engaged bilateral parietal cortex to a greater extent than spoken language. We hypothesize that posterior parietal activation in part reflects processing related to spatial classifier constructions in ASL and that anterior parietal activation may reflect covert imitation that functions as a predictive model during sign comprehension. The conjunction analysis for comprehension revealed that both speech and sign bilaterally engaged the inferior frontal gyrus (with more extensive activation on the left) and the superior temporal sulcus, suggesting an invariant bilateral perisylvian language system. We conclude that surface level differences between sign and spoken languages should not be dismissed and are critical for understanding the neurobiology of language
Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J
We review current knowledge about reading development and the origins of difficulties in learning to read. We distinguish between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading for meaning (reading comprehension). At a cognitive level, difficulties in learning to read appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. The development of decoding skills appears to depend critically upon phonological language skills, and variations in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming each appear to be causally related to problems in learning to read. Reading comprehension difficulties in contrast appear to be critically dependent on a range of oral language comprehension skills (including vocabulary knowledge and grammatical, morphological and pragmatic skills).
le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne
The tempo of Danish television news broadcasts has changed markedly over the past 40 years, while the language has essentially always been conservative, and remains so today. The development in the tempo of the broadcasts has gone through a number of phases from a newsreader in a rigid structure...
In the face of globalisation, the scale of communication is increasing from being merely .... capital goods and services across national frontiers involving too, political contexts of ... auditory and audiovisual entertainment, the use of English dominates. The language .... manners, entertainment, sports, the legal system, etc.
Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Mostowski, Piotr; Szwed, Marcin; Boguszewski, Paweł M; Marchewka, Artur; Rutkowski, Paweł
In several countries natural sign languages were considered inadequate for education. Instead, new sign-supported systems were created, based on the belief that spoken/written language is grammatically superior. One such system called SJM (system językowo-migowy) preserves the grammatical and lexical structure of spoken Polish and since 1960s has been extensively employed in schools and on TV. Nevertheless, the Deaf community avoids using SJM for everyday communication, its preferred language being PJM (polski język migowy), a natural sign language, structurally and grammatically independent of spoken Polish and featuring classifier constructions (CCs). Here, for the first time, we compare, with fMRI method, the neural bases of natural vs. devised communication systems. Deaf signers were presented with three types of signed sentences (SJM and PJM with/without CCs). Consistent with previous findings, PJM with CCs compared to either SJM or PJM without CCs recruited the parietal lobes. The reverse comparison revealed activation in the anterior temporal lobes, suggesting increased semantic combinatory processes in lexical sign comprehension. Finally, PJM compared with SJM engaged left posterior superior temporal gyrus and anterior temporal lobe, areas crucial for sentence-level speech comprehension. We suggest that activity in these two areas reflects greater processing efficiency for naturally evolved sign language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vukotic , Vedran; Raymond , Christian; Gravier , Guillaume
International audience; Architectures of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) recently become a very popular choice for Spoken Language Understanding (SLU) problems; however, they represent a big family of different architectures that can furthermore be combined to form more complex neural networks. In this work, we compare different recurrent networks, such as simple Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks, Gated Memory Units (GRU) and their bidirectional versions,...
Williams, Joshua T.; Newman, Sharlene D.
A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel…
This article discusses the attitudes and motivations of two Saudi children learning Japanese as a foreign language (hence JFL), a language which is rarely spoken in the country. Studies regarding children's motivation for learning foreign languages that are not widely spread in their contexts in informal settings are scarce. The aim of the study…
Full Text Available Speech Recognition (ASR) systems in the developing world is severely inhibited. Given that few task-specific corpora exist and speech technology systems perform poorly when deployed in a new environment, we investigate the use of acoustic model adaptation...
Moats, L C
Reading research supports the necessity for directly teaching concepts about linguistic structure to beginning readers and to students with reading and spelling difficulties. In this study, experienced teachers of reading, language arts, and special education were tested to determine if they have the requisite awareness of language elements (e.g., phonemes, morphemes) and of how these elements are represented in writing (e.g., knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences). The results were surprisingly poor, indicating that even motivated and experienced teachers typically understand too little about spoken and written language structure to be able to provide sufficient instruction in these areas. The utility of language structure knowledge for instructional planning, for assessment of student progress, and for remediation of literacy problems is discussed.The teachers participating in the study subsequently took a course focusing on phonemic awareness training, spoken-written language relationships, and careful analysis of spelling and reading behavior in children. At the end of the course, the teachers judged this information to be essential for teaching and advised that it become a prerequisite for certification. Recommendations for requirements and content of teacher education programs are presented.
Fragadasilva, Francisco Jose; Saotome, Osamu; Deoliveira, Carlos Alberto
An automatic speech-to-text transformer system, suited to unlimited vocabulary, is presented. The basic acoustic unit considered are the allophones of the phonemes corresponding to the Portuguese language spoken in Brazil (PLB). The input to the system is a phonetic sequence, from a former step of isolated word recognition of slowly spoken speech. In a first stage, the system eliminates phonetic elements that don't belong to PLB. Using knowledge sources such as phonetics, phonology, orthography, and PLB specific lexicon, the output is a sequence of written words, ordered by probabilistic criterion that constitutes the set of graphemic possibilities to that input sequence. Pronunciation differences of some regions of Brazil are considered, but only those that cause differences in phonological transcription, because those of phonetic level are absorbed, during the transformation to phonological level. In the final stage, all possible written words are analyzed for orthography and grammar point of view, to eliminate the incorrect ones.
Williams, Joshua T.; Darcy, Isabelle; Newman, Sharlene D.
Understanding how language modality (i.e., signed vs. spoken) affects second language outcomes in hearing adults is important both theoretically and pedagogically, as it can determine the specificity of second language (L2) theory and inform how best to teach a language that uses a new modality. The present study investigated which…
Sarant, Julia Z; Holt, Colleen M; Dowell, Richard C; Rickards, Field W; Blamey, Peter J
This article documented spoken language outcomes for preschool children with hearing loss and examined the relationships between language abilities and characteristics of children such as degree of hearing loss, cognitive abilities, age at entry to early intervention, and parent involvement in children's intervention programs. Participants were evaluated using a combination of the Child Development Inventory, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and the Preschool Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals depending on their age at the time of assessment. Maternal education, cognitive ability, and family involvement were also measured. Over half of the children who participated in this study had poor language outcomes overall. No significant differences were found in language outcomes on any of the measures for children who were diagnosed early and those diagnosed later. Multiple regression analyses showed that family participation, degree of hearing loss, and cognitive ability significantly predicted language outcomes and together accounted for almost 60% of the variance in scores. This article highlights the importance of family participation in intervention programs to enable children to achieve optimal language outcomes. Further work may clarify the effects of early diagnosis on language outcomes for preschool children.
As with biological systems, spoken languages are strikingly robust against perturbations. This paper shows that languages achieve robustness in a way that is highly similar to many biological systems. For example, speech sounds are encoded via multiple acoustically diverse, temporally distributed and functionally redundant cues, characteristics that bear similarities to what biologists call "degeneracy". Speech is furthermore adequately characterized by neutrality, with many different tongue configurations leading to similar acoustic outputs, and different acoustic variants understood as the same by recipients. This highlights the presence of a large neutral network of acoustic neighbors for every speech sound. Such neutrality ensures that a steady backdrop of variation can be maintained without impeding communication, assuring that there is "fodder" for subsequent evolution. Thus, studying linguistic robustness is not only important for understanding how linguistic systems maintain their functioning upon the background of noise, but also for understanding the preconditions for language evolution. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.
Hirschmüller, Sarah; Egloff, Boris
How do individuals emotionally cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality? DeWall and Baumeister as well as Kashdan and colleagues previously provided support that an increased use of positive emotion words serves as a way to protect and defend against mortality salience of one's own contemplated death. Although these studies provide important insights into the psychological dynamics of mortality salience, it remains an open question how individuals cope with the immense threat of mortality prior to their imminent actual death. In the present research, we therefore analyzed positivity in the final words spoken immediately before execution by 407 death row inmates in Texas. By using computerized quantitative text analysis as an objective measure of emotional language use, our results showed that the final words contained a significantly higher proportion of positive than negative emotion words. This emotional positivity was significantly higher than (a) positive emotion word usage base rates in spoken and written materials and (b) positive emotional language use with regard to contemplated death and attempted or actual suicide. Additional analyses showed that emotional positivity in final statements was associated with a greater frequency of language use that was indicative of self-references, social orientation, and present-oriented time focus as well as with fewer instances of cognitive-processing, past-oriented, and death-related word use. Taken together, our findings offer new insights into how individuals cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality.
Pyykkönen, Pirita; Hyönä, Jukka; van Gompel, Roger P G
This study used the visual world eye-tracking method to investigate activation of general world knowledge related to gender-stereotypical role names in online spoken language comprehension in Finnish. The results showed that listeners activated gender stereotypes elaboratively in story contexts where this information was not needed to build coherence. Furthermore, listeners made additional inferences based on gender stereotypes to revise an already established coherence relation. Both results are consistent with mental models theory (e.g., Garnham, 2001). They are harder to explain by the minimalist account (McKoon & Ratcliff, 1992) which suggests that people limit inferences to those needed to establish coherence in discourse.
Nussbaum, Debra; Waddy-Smith, Bettie; Doyle, Jane
There is a core body of knowledge, experience, and skills integral to facilitating auditory, speech, and spoken language development when working with the general population of students who are deaf and hard of hearing. There are additional issues, strategies, and challenges inherent in speech habilitation/rehabilitation practices essential to the population of deaf and hard of hearing students who also use sign language. This article will highlight philosophical and practical considerations related to practices used to facilitate spoken language development and associated literacy skills for children and adolescents who sign. It will discuss considerations for planning and implementing practices that acknowledge and utilize a student's abilities in sign language, and address how to link these skills to developing and using spoken language. Included will be considerations for children from early childhood through high school with a broad range of auditory access, language, and communication characteristics. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Diao, Yali; Chandler, Paul; Sweller, John
Based on cognitive load theory, this study investigated the effect of simultaneous written presentations on comprehension of spoken English as a foreign language. Learners' language comprehension was compared while they used 3 instructional formats: listening with auditory materials only, listening with a full, written script, and listening with simultaneous subtitled text. Listening with the presence of a script and subtitles led to better understanding of the scripted and subtitled passage but poorer performance on a subsequent auditory passage than listening with the auditory materials only. These findings indicated that where the intention was learning to listen, the use of a full script or subtitles had detrimental effects on the construction and automation of listening comprehension schemas.
Full Text Available , and complicates the design of the system as a whole. Current benchmark results are established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Language Recognition Evaluation (LRE) . Initially started in 1996, the next evaluation was in 2003..., Gunnar Evermann, Mark Gales, Thomas Hain, Dan Kershaw, Gareth Moore, Julian Odell, Dave Ollason, Dan Povey, Valtcho Valtchev, and Phil Woodland: “The HTK book. Revised for HTK version 3.3”, Online: http://htk.eng.cam.ac.uk/., 2005.  M.A. Zissman...
Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C.M.
A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The “competition” (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest – ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success
Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C M
A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The "competition" (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest--ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success
Pa, Judy; Wilson, Stephen M; Pickell, Herbert; Bellugi, Ursula; Hickok, Gregory
Despite decades of research, there is still disagreement regarding the nature of the information that is maintained in linguistic short-term memory (STM). Some authors argue for abstract phonological codes, whereas others argue for more general sensory traces. We assess these possibilities by investigating linguistic STM in two distinct sensory-motor modalities, spoken and signed language. Hearing bilingual participants (native in English and American Sign Language) performed equivalent STM tasks in both languages during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Distinct, sensory-specific activations were seen during the maintenance phase of the task for spoken versus signed language. These regions have been previously shown to respond to nonlinguistic sensory stimulation, suggesting that linguistic STM tasks recruit sensory-specific networks. However, maintenance-phase activations common to the two languages were also observed, implying some form of common process. We conclude that linguistic STM involves sensory-dependent neural networks, but suggest that sensory-independent neural networks may also exist.
Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Kliegel, Matthias
Findings on the association of speaking different languages with cognitive functioning in old age are inconsistent and inconclusive so far. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of the number of languages spoken to cognitive performance and its interplay with several other markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. Two thousand eight hundred and twelve older adults served as sample for the present study. Psychometric tests on verbal abilities, basic processing speed, and cognitive flexibility were administered. In addition, individuals were interviewed on their different languages spoken on a regular basis, educational attainment, occupation, and engaging in different activities throughout adulthood. Higher number of languages regularly spoken was significantly associated with better performance in verbal abilities and processing speed, but unrelated to cognitive flexibility. Regression analyses showed that the number of languages spoken predicted cognitive performance over and above leisure activities/physical demand of job/gainful activity as respective additional predictor, but not over and above educational attainment/cognitive level of job as respective additional predictor. There was no significant moderation of the association of the number of languages spoken with cognitive performance in any model. Present data suggest that speaking different languages on a regular basis may additionally contribute to the build-up of cognitive reserve in old age. Yet, this may not be universal, but linked to verbal abilities and basic cognitive processing speed. Moreover, it may be dependent on other types of cognitive stimulation that individuals also engaged in during their life course.
Nicholas, Johanna Grant; Geers, Ann E
By age 3, typically developing children have achieved extensive vocabulary and syntax skills that facilitate both cognitive and social development. Substantial delays in spoken language acquisition have been documented for children with severe to profound deafness, even those with auditory oral training and early hearing aid use. This study documents the spoken language skills achieved by orally educated 3-yr-olds whose profound hearing loss was identified and hearing aids fitted between 1 and 30 mo of age and who received a cochlear implant between 12 and 38 mo of age. The purpose of the analysis was to examine the effects of age, duration, and type of early auditory experience on spoken language competence at age 3.5 yr. The spoken language skills of 76 children who had used a cochlear implant for at least 7 mo were evaluated via standardized 30-minute language sample analysis, a parent-completed vocabulary checklist, and a teacher language-rating scale. The children were recruited from and enrolled in oral education programs or therapy practices across the United States. Inclusion criteria included presumed deaf since birth, English the primary language of the home, no other known conditions that interfere with speech/language development, enrolled in programs using oral education methods, and no known problems with the cochlear implant lasting more than 30 days. Strong correlations were obtained among all language measures. Therefore, principal components analysis was used to derive a single Language Factor score for each child. A number of possible predictors of language outcome were examined, including age at identification and intervention with a hearing aid, duration of use of a hearing aid, pre-implant pure-tone average (PTA) threshold with a hearing aid, PTA threshold with a cochlear implant, and duration of use of a cochlear implant/age at implantation (the last two variables were practically identical because all children were tested between 40 and 44
Peterson, Nathaniel R; Pisoni, David B; Miyamoto, Richard T
Cochlear implants (CIs) process sounds electronically and then transmit electric stimulation to the cochlea of individuals with sensorineural deafness, restoring some sensation of auditory perception. Many congenitally deaf CI recipients achieve a high degree of accuracy in speech perception and develop near-normal language skills. Post-lingually deafened implant recipients often regain the ability to understand and use spoken language with or without the aid of visual input (i.e. lip reading). However, there is wide variation in individual outcomes following cochlear implantation, and some CI recipients never develop useable speech and oral language skills. The causes of this enormous variation in outcomes are only partly understood at the present time. The variables most strongly associated with language outcomes are age at implantation and mode of communication in rehabilitation. Thus, some of the more important factors determining success of cochlear implantation are broadly related to neural plasticity that appears to be transiently present in deaf individuals. In this article we review the expected outcomes of cochlear implantation, potential predictors of those outcomes, the basic science regarding critical and sensitive periods, and several new research directions in the field of cochlear implantation.
Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael; Schuele, C. Melanie
Children with hearing loss who are developing spoken language tend to lag behind children with normal hearing in vocabulary knowledge. Thus, researchers must validate instructional practices that lead to improved vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate how semantic richness of instruction…
This article re-examines the notion of spoken fluency. Fluent and fluency are terms commonly used in everyday, lay language, and fluency, or lack of it, has social consequences. The article reviews the main approaches to understanding and measuring spoken fluency and suggest that spoken fluency is best understood as an interactive achievement, and offers the metaphor of ‘confluence’ to replace the term fluency. Many measures of spoken fluency are internal and monologue-based, whereas evidence...
Burstein, Jill; And Others
Reviews current and developing technology uses that are relevant to language assessment and discusses examples of recent linguistic applications from the laboratory at the Educational Testing Service. The processes of language test development are described and the functions they serve from the perspective of a large testing organization are…
Julio VERA VILA
Full Text Available This article is a reflection on how each human being’s learning process and the cultural development of our species are connected to the possibility of translating reality –what we think, what we feel, our interaction- a system of signs that, having shared meanings, enrich our intrapersonal and interpersonal communication. Spoken language was the first technology but being well prepared genetically for it, we learn it through immersion; the rest of them, from written language to hypermedia, have to be well taught and even better learned.We conclude by highlighting the necessity of taking advantage of the benefits provided by the new technologies available nowadays in order to overcome the digital divide, without forgetting others such as literacy acquisition, which are the base of new technologies. Therefore we need a theory and practice of education which comprises its complexity and avoids simplistic reductionism.
Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun
This paper introduces a Dialog-Based Computer Assisted second-Language Learning (DB-CALL) system using task-oriented dialogue processing technology. The system promotes dialogue with a second-language learner for a specific task, such as purchasing tour tickets, ordering food, passing through immigration, etc. The dialog system plays a role of a…
Choroomi, S; Curotta, J
To review foreign body aspiration cases encountered over a 10-year period in a tertiary paediatric hospital, and to assess correlation between foreign body type and language spoken at home. Retrospective chart review of all children undergoing direct laryngobronchoscopy for foreign body aspiration over a 10-year period. Age, sex, foreign body type, complications, hospital stay and home language were analysed. At direct laryngobronchoscopy, 132 children had foreign body aspiration (male:female ratio 1.31:1; mean age 32 months (2.67 years)). Mean hospital stay was 2.0 days. Foreign bodies most commonly comprised food matter (53/132; 40.1 per cent), followed by non-food matter (44/132; 33.33 per cent), a negative endoscopy (11/132; 8.33 per cent) and unknown composition (24/132; 18.2 per cent). Most parents spoke English (92/132, 69.7 per cent; vs non-English-speaking 40/132, 30.3 per cent), but non-English-speaking patients had disproportionately more food foreign bodies, and significantly more nut aspirations (p = 0.0065). Results constitute level 2b evidence. Patients from non-English speaking backgrounds had a significantly higher incidence of food (particularly nut) aspiration. Awareness-raising and public education is needed in relevant communities to prevent certain foods, particularly nuts, being given to children too young to chew and swallow them adequately.
Wang, Jie; Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Wang, Suiping; Chen, Hsuan-Chih
It is widely acknowledged in Germanic languages that segments are the primary planning units at the phonological encoding stage of spoken word production. Mixed results, however, have been found in Chinese, and it is still unclear what roles syllables and segments play in planning Chinese spoken word production. In the current study, participants were asked to first prepare and later produce disyllabic Mandarin words upon picture prompts and a response cue while electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded. Each two consecutive pictures implicitly formed a pair of prime and target, whose names shared the same word-initial atonal syllable or the same word-initial segments, or were unrelated in the control conditions. Only syllable repetition induced significant effects on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) after target onset: a widely distributed positivity in the 200- to 400-ms interval and an anterior positivity in the 400- to 600-ms interval. We interpret these to reflect syllable-size representations at the phonological encoding and phonetic encoding stages. Our results provide the first electrophysiological evidence for the distinct role of syllables in producing Mandarin spoken words, supporting a language specificity hypothesis about the primary phonological units in spoken word production.
Harris, Michael S; Kronenberger, William G; Gao, Sujuan; Hoen, Helena M; Miyamoto, Richard T; Pisoni, David B
Cochlear implants (CIs) help many deaf children achieve near-normal speech and language (S/L) milestones. Nevertheless, high levels of unexplained variability in S/L outcomes are limiting factors in improving the effectiveness of CIs in deaf children. The objective of this study was to longitudinally assess the role of verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) capacity as a progress-limiting source of variability in S/L outcomes after CI in children. Longitudinal study of 66 children with CIs for prelingual severe-to-profound hearing loss. Outcome measures included performance on digit span forward (DSF), digit span backward (DSB), and four conventional S/L measures that examined spoken-word recognition (Phonetically Balanced Kindergarten word test), receptive vocabulary (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test ), sentence-recognition skills (Hearing in Noise Test), and receptive and expressive language functioning (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Fourth Edition Core Language Score; CELF). Growth curves for DSF and DSB in the CI sample over time were comparable in slope, but consistently lagged in magnitude relative to norms for normal-hearing peers of the same age. For DSF and DSB, 50.5% and 44.0%, respectively, of the CI sample scored more than 1 SD below the normative mean for raw scores across all ages. The first (baseline) DSF score significantly predicted all endpoint scores for the four S/L measures, and DSF slope (growth) over time predicted CELF scores. DSF baseline and slope accounted for an additional 13 to 31% of variance in S/L scores after controlling for conventional predictor variables such as: chronological age at time of testing, age at time of implantation, communication mode (auditory-oral communication versus total communication), and maternal education. Only DSB baseline scores predicted endpoint language scores on Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and CELF. DSB slopes were not significantly related to any endpoint S/L measures
Tiun, Sabrina; AL-Dhief, Fahad Taha; Sammour, Mahmoud A. M.
Spoken Language Identification (LID) is the process of determining and classifying natural language from a given content and dataset. Typically, data must be processed to extract useful features to perform LID. The extracting features for LID, based on literature, is a mature process where the standard features for LID have already been developed using Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC), Shifted Delta Cepstral (SDC), the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ending with the i-vector based framework. However, the process of learning based on extract features remains to be improved (i.e. optimised) to capture all embedded knowledge on the extracted features. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is an effective learning model used to perform classification and regression analysis and is extremely useful to train a single hidden layer neural network. Nevertheless, the learning process of this model is not entirely effective (i.e. optimised) due to the random selection of weights within the input hidden layer. In this study, the ELM is selected as a learning model for LID based on standard feature extraction. One of the optimisation approaches of ELM, the Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine (SA-ELM) is selected as the benchmark and improved by altering the selection phase of the optimisation process. The selection process is performed incorporating both the Split-Ratio and K-Tournament methods, the improved SA-ELM is named Enhanced Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine (ESA-ELM). The results are generated based on LID with the datasets created from eight different languages. The results of the study showed excellent superiority relating to the performance of the Enhanced Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine LID (ESA-ELM LID) compared with the SA-ELM LID, with ESA-ELM LID achieving an accuracy of 96.25%, as compared to the accuracy of SA-ELM LID of only 95.00%. PMID:29672546
Albadr, Musatafa Abbas Abbood; Tiun, Sabrina; Al-Dhief, Fahad Taha; Sammour, Mahmoud A M
Spoken Language Identification (LID) is the process of determining and classifying natural language from a given content and dataset. Typically, data must be processed to extract useful features to perform LID. The extracting features for LID, based on literature, is a mature process where the standard features for LID have already been developed using Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC), Shifted Delta Cepstral (SDC), the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ending with the i-vector based framework. However, the process of learning based on extract features remains to be improved (i.e. optimised) to capture all embedded knowledge on the extracted features. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is an effective learning model used to perform classification and regression analysis and is extremely useful to train a single hidden layer neural network. Nevertheless, the learning process of this model is not entirely effective (i.e. optimised) due to the random selection of weights within the input hidden layer. In this study, the ELM is selected as a learning model for LID based on standard feature extraction. One of the optimisation approaches of ELM, the Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine (SA-ELM) is selected as the benchmark and improved by altering the selection phase of the optimisation process. The selection process is performed incorporating both the Split-Ratio and K-Tournament methods, the improved SA-ELM is named Enhanced Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine (ESA-ELM). The results are generated based on LID with the datasets created from eight different languages. The results of the study showed excellent superiority relating to the performance of the Enhanced Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine LID (ESA-ELM LID) compared with the SA-ELM LID, with ESA-ELM LID achieving an accuracy of 96.25%, as compared to the accuracy of SA-ELM LID of only 95.00%.
Werfel, Krystal L.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare change in emergent literacy skills of preschool children with and without hearing loss over a 6-month period. Method: Participants included 19 children with hearing loss and 14 children with normal hearing. Children with hearing loss used amplification and spoken language. Participants completed…
Kasyidi, Fatan; Puji Lestari, Dessi
One of the important aspects in human to human communication is to understand emotion of each party. Recently, interactions between human and computer continues to develop, especially affective interaction where emotion recognition is one of its important components. This paper presents our extended works on emotion recognition of Indonesian spoken language to identify four main class of emotions: Happy, Sad, Angry, and Contentment using combination of acoustic/prosodic features and lexical features. We construct emotion speech corpus from Indonesia television talk show where the situations are as close as possible to the natural situation. After constructing the emotion speech corpus, the acoustic/prosodic and lexical features are extracted to train the emotion model. We employ some machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naive Bayes, and Random Forest to get the best model. The experiment result of testing data shows that the best model has an F-measure score of 0.447 by using only the acoustic/prosodic feature and F-measure score of 0.488 by using both acoustic/prosodic and lexical features to recognize four class emotion using the SVM RBF Kernel.
Purpose: The current study sought to investigate the separate effects of dysarthria and cognitive status on global speech timing, speech hesitation, and linguistic complexity characteristics and how these speech behaviors impose on listener impressions for three connected speech tasks presumed to differ in cognitive-linguistic demand for four carefully defined speaker groups; 1) MS with cognitive deficits (MSCI), 2) MS with clinically diagnosed dysarthria and intact cognition (MSDYS), 3) MS without dysarthria or cognitive deficits (MS), and 4) healthy talkers (CON). The relationship between neuropsychological test scores and speech-language production and perceptual variables for speakers with cognitive deficits was also explored. Methods: 48 speakers, including 36 individuals reporting a neurological diagnosis of MS and 12 healthy talkers participated. The three MS groups and control group each contained 12 speakers (8 women and 4 men). Cognitive function was quantified using standard clinical tests of memory, information processing speed, and executive function. A standard z-score of ≤ -1.50 indicated deficits in a given cognitive domain. Three certified speech-language pathologists determined the clinical diagnosis of dysarthria for speakers with MS. Experimental speech tasks of interest included audio-recordings of an oral reading of the Grandfather passage and two spontaneous speech samples in the form of Familiar and Unfamiliar descriptive discourse. Various measures of spoken language were of interest. Suprasegmental acoustic measures included speech and articulatory rate. Linguistic speech hesitation measures included pause frequency (i.e., silent and filled pauses), mean silent pause duration, grammatical appropriateness of pauses, and interjection frequency. For the two discourse samples, three standard measures of language complexity were obtained including subordination index, inter-sentence cohesion adequacy, and lexical diversity. Ten listeners
Leni Amalia Suek
Full Text Available The maintenance of community languages of migrant students is heavily determined by language use and language attitudes. The superiority of a dominant language over a community language contributes to attitudes of migrant students toward their native languages. When they perceive their native languages as unimportant language, they will reduce the frequency of using that language even though at home domain. Solutions provided for a problem of maintaining community languages should be related to language use and attitudes of community languages, which are developed mostly in two important domains, school and family. Hence, the valorization of community language should be promoted not only in family but also school domains. Several programs such as community language school and community language program can be used for migrant students to practice and use their native languages. Since educational resources such as class session, teachers and government support are limited; family plays significant roles to stimulate positive attitudes toward community language and also to develop the use of native languages.
Petkov, Christopher I; Jarvis, Erich D
Vocal learners such as humans and songbirds can learn to produce elaborate patterns of structurally organized vocalizations, whereas many other vertebrates such as non-human primates and most other bird groups either cannot or do so to a very limited degree. To explain the similarities among humans and vocal-learning birds and the differences with other species, various theories have been proposed. One set of theories are motor theories, which underscore the role of the motor system as an evolutionary substrate for vocal production learning. For instance, the motor theory of speech and song perception proposes enhanced auditory perceptual learning of speech in humans and song in birds, which suggests a considerable level of neurobiological specialization. Another, a motor theory of vocal learning origin, proposes that the brain pathways that control the learning and production of song and speech were derived from adjacent motor brain pathways. Another set of theories are cognitive theories, which address the interface between cognition and the auditory-vocal domains to support language learning in humans. Here we critically review the behavioral and neurobiological evidence for parallels and differences between the so-called vocal learners and vocal non-learners in the context of motor and cognitive theories. In doing so, we note that behaviorally vocal-production learning abilities are more distributed than categorical, as are the auditory-learning abilities of animals. We propose testable hypotheses on the extent of the specializations and cross-species correspondences suggested by motor and cognitive theories. We believe that determining how spoken language evolved is likely to become clearer with concerted efforts in testing comparative data from many non-human animal species.
Full Text Available Spoken English may sometimes cause us to face a peculiar problem in respect of the reception and the decoding of auditive signals, which might lead to mishearings. Risen from erroneous perception, from a lack in understanding the communication and an involuntary mental replacement of a certain element or structure by a more familiar one, these mistakes are most frequently encountered in the case of listening to songs, where the melodic line can facilitate the development of confusion by its somewhat altered intonation, which produces the so called mondegreens. Still, instances can be met in all domains of verbal communication, as proven in several examples noticed during classes of English as a foreign language (EFL taught to non-philological subjects. Production and perceptions of language depend on a series of elements that influence the encoding and the decoding of the message. These filters belong to both psychological and semantic categories which can either interfere with the accuracy of emission and reception. Poor understanding of a notion or concept combined with a more familiar relation with a similarly sounding one will result in unconsciously picking the structure which is better known. This means ‘hearing’ something else than it had been said, something closer to the receiver’s preoccupations and baggage of knowledge than the original structure or word. Some mishearings become particularly relevant as they concern teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP. Such are those encountered during classes of Business English or in English for Law. Though not very likely to occur too often, given an intuitively felt inaccuracy - as the terms are known by the users to need to be more specialised -, such examples are still not ignorable. Thus, we consider they deserve a higher degree of attention, as they might become quite relevant in the global context of an increasing work force migration and a spread of multinational companies.
Chun, Dorothy; Smith, Bryan; Kern, Richard
This article offers a capacious view of technology to suggest broad principles relating technology and language use, language teaching, and language learning. The first part of the article considers some of the ways that technological media influence contexts and forms of expression and communication. In the second part, a set of heuristic…
Adank, P.M.; Noordzij, M.L.; Hagoort, P.
A repetitionsuppression functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of processing two types of acoustic variationspeaker and accentduring spoken sentence comprehension. Recordings were made for two speakers and two accents: Standard Dutch and a
Full Text Available Computer Science 81 ( 2016 ) 128 – 135 5th Workshop on Spoken Language Technology for Under-resourced Languages, SLTU 2016, 9-12 May 2016, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Code-switched English Pronunciation Modeling for Swahili Spoken Term Detection Neil...
Iloene, Modesta I.; Iloene, George O.; Mbah, Evelyn E.; Mbah, Boniface M.
This paper examines the experience of teachers in the use of new technologies to teach the Igbo language spoken in South East Nigeria. The study investigates the extent to which new technologies are available and accessible to Igbo teachers, the competence of the Igbo language teachers in the new technologies and the challenges they face that…
D'Mello, Sidney K; Dowell, Nia; Graesser, Arthur
There is the question of whether learning differs when students speak versus type their responses when interacting with intelligent tutoring systems with natural language dialogues. Theoretical bases exist for three contrasting hypotheses. The speech facilitation hypothesis predicts that spoken input will increase learning, whereas the text facilitation hypothesis predicts typed input will be superior. The modality equivalence hypothesis claims that learning gains will be equivalent. Previous experiments that tested these hypotheses were confounded by automated speech recognition systems with substantial error rates that were detected by learners. We addressed this concern in two experiments via a Wizard of Oz procedure, where a human intercepted the learner's speech and transcribed the utterances before submitting them to the tutor. The overall pattern of the results supported the following conclusions: (1) learning gains associated with spoken and typed input were on par and quantitatively higher than a no-intervention control, (2) participants' evaluations of the session were not influenced by modality, and (3) there were no modality effects associated with differences in prior knowledge and typing proficiency. Although the results generally support the modality equivalence hypothesis, highly motivated learners reported lower cognitive load and demonstrated increased learning when typing compared with speaking. We discuss the implications of our findings for intelligent tutoring systems that can support typed and spoken input.
Oryadi-Zanjani, Mohammad Majid; Vahab, Maryam; Bazrafkan, Mozhdeh; Haghjoo, Asghar
The aim of this study was to examine the role of audiovisual speech recognition as a clinical criterion of cochlear implant or hearing aid efficiency in Persian-language children with severe-to-profound hearing loss. This research was administered as a cross-sectional study. The sample size was 60 Persian 5-7 year old children. The assessment tool was one of subtests of Persian version of the Test of Language Development-Primary 3. The study included two experiments: auditory-only and audiovisual presentation conditions. The test was a closed-set including 30 words which were orally presented by a speech-language pathologist. The scores of audiovisual word perception were significantly higher than auditory-only condition in the children with normal hearing (Paudiovisual presentation conditions (P>0.05). The audiovisual spoken word recognition can be applied as a clinical criterion to assess the children with severe to profound hearing loss in order to find whether cochlear implant or hearing aid has been efficient for them or not; i.e. if a child with hearing impairment who using CI or HA can obtain higher scores in audiovisual spoken word recognition than auditory-only condition, his/her auditory skills have appropriately developed due to effective CI or HA as one of the main factors of auditory habilitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The current research examined how Arabic diglossia affects verbal learning memory. Thirty native Arab college students were tested using auditory verbal memory test that was adapted according to the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and developed in three versions: Pure spoken language version (SL), pure standard language version (SA), and…
Adank, P.M.; Noordzij, M.L.; Hagoort, P.
A repetition–suppression functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of processing two types of acoustic variation—speaker and accent—during spoken sentence comprehension. Recordings were made for two speakers and two accents: Standard Dutch and
Constantinescu-Sharpe, Gabriella; Phillips, Rebecca L; Davis, Aleisha; Dornan, Dimity; Hogan, Anthony
Social inclusion is a common focus of listening and spoken language (LSL) early intervention for children with hearing loss. This exploratory study compared the social inclusion of young children with hearing loss educated using a listening and spoken language approach with population data. A framework for understanding the scope of social inclusion is presented in the Background. This framework guided the use of a shortened, modified version of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) to measure two of the five facets of social inclusion ('education' and 'interacting with society and fulfilling social goals'). The survey was completed by parents of children with hearing loss aged 4-5 years who were educated using a LSL approach (n = 78; 37% who responded). These responses were compared to those obtained for typical hearing children in the LSAC dataset (n = 3265). Analyses revealed that most children with hearing loss had comparable outcomes to those with typical hearing on the 'education' and 'interacting with society and fulfilling social roles' facets of social inclusion. These exploratory findings are positive and warrant further investigation across all five facets of the framework to identify which factors influence social inclusion.
Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent J.; van Bezooijen, Renee; Pacilly, Jos J. A.
The most straightforward way to explain why Danes understand spoken Swedish relatively better than Swedes understand spoken Danish would be that spoken Danish is intrinsically a more difficult language to understand than spoken Swedish. We discuss circumstantial evidence suggesting that Danish is
Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.
The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an ERP norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard critical associated and unassociated target words in word pairs. In a subsequent experiment, we presented the same word pairs in spoken discourse contexts. Target words were always consistent with the local sentence context, but were congruent or not with the global discourse (e.g., “Luckily Ben had picked up some salt and pepper/basil”, preceded by a context in which Ben was preparing marinara sauce (congruent) or dealing with an icy walkway (incongruent). ERP effects of global discourse congruence preceded those of local lexical association, suggesting an early influence of the global discourse representation on lexical processing, even in locally congruent contexts. Furthermore, effects of lexical association occurred earlier in the congruent than incongruent condition. These results differ from those that have been obtained in studies of reading, suggesting that the effects may be unique to spoken word recognition. PMID:23002319
Full Text Available In this paper the use and quality of the evaluative language produced by a bilingual child in a story-telling situation is analysed. The subject, an 11-year-old Finnish boy, Jimmy, is bilingual in Finnish sign language (FinSL and spoken Finnish.He was born deaf but got a cochlear implant at the age of five.The data consist of a spoken and a signed version of “The Frog Story”. The analysis shows that evaluative devices and expressions differ in the spoken and signed stories told by the child. In his Finnish story he uses mostly lexical devices – comments on a character and the character’s actions as well as quoted speech occasionally combined with prosodic features. In his FinSL story he uses both lexical and paralinguistic devices in a balanced way.
De Angelis, Gessica
The present study adopts a multilingual approach to analysing the standardized test results of primary school immigrant children living in the bi-/multilingual context of South Tyrol, Italy. The standardized test results are from the Invalsi test administered across Italy in 2009/2010. In South Tyrol, several languages are spoken on a daily basis…
Li, Xiao-qing; Ren, Gui-qin
An event-related brain potentials (ERP) experiment was carried out to investigate how and when accentuation influences temporally selective attention and subsequent semantic processing during on-line spoken language comprehension, and how the effect of accentuation on attention allocation and semantic processing changed with the degree of…
Gollan, Tamar H.; Weissberger, Gali H.; Runnqvist, Elin; Montoya, Rosa I.; Cera, Cynthia M.
This study investigated correspondence between different measures of bilingual language proficiency contrasting self-report, proficiency interview, and picture naming skills. Fifty-two young (Experiment 1) and 20 aging (Experiment 2) Spanish-English bilinguals provided self-ratings of proficiency level, were interviewed for spoken proficiency, and…
Full Text Available Mismatch negativity (MMN, a primary response to an acoustic change and an index of sensory memory, was used to investigate the processing of the discrimination between familiar and unfamiliar Consonant-Vowel (CV speech contrasts. The MMN was elicited by rare familiar words presented among repetitive unfamiliar words. Phonetic and phonological contrasts were identical in all conditions. MMN elicited by the familiar word deviant was larger than that elicited by the unfamiliar word deviant. The presence of syllable contrast did significantly alter the word-elicited MMN in amplitude and scalp voltage field distribution. Thus, our results indicate the existence of word-related MMN enhancement largely independent of the word status of the standard stimulus. This enhancement may reflect the presence of a longterm memory trace for familiar spoken words in tonal languages.
Gautreau, Aurore; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny
This study aimed to characterize the linguistic interference that occurs during speech-in-speech comprehension by combining offline and online measures, which included an intelligibility task (at a -5 dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and 2 lexical decision tasks (at a -5 dB and 0 dB SNR) that were performed with French spoken target words. In these 3 experiments we always compared the masking effects of speech backgrounds (i.e., 4-talker babble) that were produced in the same language as the target language (i.e., French) or in unknown foreign languages (i.e., Irish and Italian) to the masking effects of corresponding non-speech backgrounds (i.e., speech-derived fluctuating noise). The fluctuating noise contained similar spectro-temporal information as babble but lacked linguistic information. At -5 dB SNR, both tasks revealed significantly divergent results between the unknown languages (i.e., Irish and Italian) with Italian and French hindering French target word identification to a similar extent, whereas Irish led to significantly better performances on these tasks. By comparing the performances obtained with speech and fluctuating noise backgrounds, we were able to evaluate the effect of each language. The intelligibility task showed a significant difference between babble and fluctuating noise for French, Irish and Italian, suggesting acoustic and linguistic effects for each language. However, the lexical decision task, which reduces the effect of post-lexical interference, appeared to be more accurate, as it only revealed a linguistic effect for French. Thus, although French and Italian had equivalent masking effects on French word identification, the nature of their interference was different. This finding suggests that the differences observed between the masking effects of Italian and Irish can be explained at an acoustic level but not at a linguistic level.
Zimmer, Patricia Moore
Describes the author's experiences directing a play translated and acted in Korean. Notes that she had to get familiar with the sound of the language spoken fluently, to see how an actor's thought is discerned when the verbal language is not understood. Concludes that so much of understanding and communication unfolds in ways other than with…
Social Security Administration — This data set provides quarterly volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for Retirement and Survivor benefits for fiscal...
Social Security Administration — This data set provides quarterly volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for Retirement and Survivor benefits from fiscal...
Rämä, Pia; Sirri, Louah; Serres, Josette
Our aim was to investigate whether developing language system, as measured by a priming task for spoken words, is organized by semantic categories. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a priming task for spoken words in 18- and 24-month-old monolingual French learning children. Spoken word pairs were either semantically related (e.g., train-bike) or unrelated (e.g., chicken-bike). The results showed that the N400-like priming effect occurred in 24-month-olds over the right parietal-occipital recording sites. In 18-month-olds the effect was observed similarly to 24-month-olds only in those children with higher word production ability. The results suggest that words are categorically organized in the mental lexicon of children at the age of 2 years and even earlier in children with a high vocabulary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Greller, W. (2010). Language Technologies for Lifelong Learning. In S. Trausan-Matu & P. Dessus (Eds.), Proceedings of the Natural Language Processing in Support of Learning: Metrics, Feedback and Connectivity. Second Internationl Workshop - NLPSL 2010 (pp. 6-8). September, 14, 2010, Bucharest,
Full Text Available The European ‘Lifelong Learning Programme’ (LLP) project ‘Games Online for Basic Language learning’ (GOBL) aimed to provide youths and adults wishing to improve their basic language skills access to materials for the development of communicative...
Smolík, Filip; Stepankova, Hana; Vyhnálek, Martin; Nikolai, Tomáš; Horáková, Karolína; Matejka, Štepán
Purpose Propositional density (PD) is a measure of content richness in language production that declines in normal aging and more profoundly in dementia. The present study aimed to develop a PD scoring system for Czech and use it to compare PD in language productions of older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and control…
The students learning English as a foreign language sometimes enjoy computer .... Motivation done by Ahangari & Ghalami Nobar (2012), it was found that the modern world of the ..... Journal of Academic and Applied Studies, 2(1), 39-61.
Pimperton, Hannah; Kreppner, Jana; Mahon, Merle; Stevenson, Jim; Terlektsi, Emmanouela; Worsfold, Sarah; Yuen, Ho Ming; Kennedy, Colin R
This study aimed to examine whether (a) exposure to universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) and b) early confirmation of hearing loss were associated with benefits to expressive and receptive language outcomes in the teenage years for a cohort of spoken language users. It also aimed to determine whether either of these two variables was associated with benefits to relative language gain from middle childhood to adolescence within this cohort. The participants were drawn from a prospective cohort study of a population sample of children with bilateral permanent childhood hearing loss, who varied in their exposure to UNHS and who had previously had their language skills assessed at 6-10 years. Sixty deaf or hard of hearing teenagers who were spoken language users and a comparison group of 38 teenagers with normal hearing completed standardized measures of their receptive and expressive language ability at 13-19 years. Teenagers exposed to UNHS did not show significantly better expressive (adjusted mean difference, 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.26 to 1.05; d = 0.32) or receptive (adjusted mean difference, 0.68; 95% CI, -0.56 to 1.93; d = 0.28) language skills than those who were not. Those who had their hearing loss confirmed by 9 months of age did not show significantly better expressive (adjusted mean difference, 0.43; 95% CI, -0.20 to 1.05; d = 0.35) or receptive (adjusted mean difference, 0.95; 95% CI, -0.22 to 2.11; d = 0.42) language skills than those who had it confirmed later. In all cases, effect sizes were of small size and in favor of those exposed to UNHS or confirmed by 9 months. Subgroup analysis indicated larger beneficial effects of early confirmation for those deaf or hard of hearing teenagers without cochlear implants (N = 48; 80% of the sample), and these benefits were significant in the case of receptive language outcomes (adjusted mean difference, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.38 to 2.71; d = 0.78). Exposure to UNHS did not account for significant
Harris, David; Bennet, Lisa; Bant, Sharyn
Objectives: Although it has been established that bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) offer additional speech perception and localization benefits to many children with severe to profound hearing loss, whether these improved perceptual abilities facilitate significantly better language development has not yet been clearly established. The aims of this study were to compare language abilities of children having unilateral and bilateral CIs to quantify the rate of any improvement in language attributable to bilateral CIs and to document other predictors of language development in children with CIs. Design: The receptive vocabulary and language development of 91 children was assessed when they were aged either 5 or 8 years old by using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (fourth edition), and either the Preschool Language Scales (fourth edition) or the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (fourth edition), respectively. Cognitive ability, parent involvement in children’s intervention or education programs, and family reading habits were also evaluated. Language outcomes were examined by using linear regression analyses. The influence of elements of parenting style, child characteristics, and family background as predictors of outcomes were examined. Results: Children using bilateral CIs achieved significantly better vocabulary outcomes and significantly higher scores on the Core and Expressive Language subscales of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (fourth edition) than did comparable children with unilateral CIs. Scores on the Preschool Language Scales (fourth edition) did not differ significantly between children with unilateral and bilateral CIs. Bilateral CI use was found to predict significantly faster rates of vocabulary and language development than unilateral CI use; the magnitude of this effect was moderated by child age at activation of the bilateral CI. In terms of parenting style, high levels of parental involvement, low amounts of
Sarant, Julia; Harris, David; Bennet, Lisa; Bant, Sharyn
Although it has been established that bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) offer additional speech perception and localization benefits to many children with severe to profound hearing loss, whether these improved perceptual abilities facilitate significantly better language development has not yet been clearly established. The aims of this study were to compare language abilities of children having unilateral and bilateral CIs to quantify the rate of any improvement in language attributable to bilateral CIs and to document other predictors of language development in children with CIs. The receptive vocabulary and language development of 91 children was assessed when they were aged either 5 or 8 years old by using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (fourth edition), and either the Preschool Language Scales (fourth edition) or the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (fourth edition), respectively. Cognitive ability, parent involvement in children's intervention or education programs, and family reading habits were also evaluated. Language outcomes were examined by using linear regression analyses. The influence of elements of parenting style, child characteristics, and family background as predictors of outcomes were examined. Children using bilateral CIs achieved significantly better vocabulary outcomes and significantly higher scores on the Core and Expressive Language subscales of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (fourth edition) than did comparable children with unilateral CIs. Scores on the Preschool Language Scales (fourth edition) did not differ significantly between children with unilateral and bilateral CIs. Bilateral CI use was found to predict significantly faster rates of vocabulary and language development than unilateral CI use; the magnitude of this effect was moderated by child age at activation of the bilateral CI. In terms of parenting style, high levels of parental involvement, low amounts of screen time, and more time spent
Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Blind and Disabled benefits from federal...
Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for ESRD Medicare benefits for federal fiscal years...
Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Aged benefits from federal fiscal year 2011...
Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for ESRD Medicare benefits for federal fiscal years...
Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for ESRD Medicare benefits for federal fiscal year...
Social Security Administration — This data set provides quarterly volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Aged benefits for fiscal years 2014 -...
Social Security Administration — This data set provides quarterly volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for ESRD Medicare benefits for fiscal years 2014...
Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for ESRD Medicare benefits for federal fiscal year...
Schneider, Bruce A; Avivi-Reich, Meital; Daneman, Meredyth
Comprehending spoken discourse in noisy situations is likely to be more challenging to older adults than to younger adults due to potential declines in the auditory, cognitive, or linguistic processes supporting speech comprehension. These challenges might force older listeners to reorganize the ways in which they perceive and process speech, thereby altering the balance between the contributions of bottom-up versus top-down processes to speech comprehension. The authors review studies that investigated the effect of age on listeners' ability to follow and comprehend lectures (monologues), and two-talker conversations (dialogues), and the extent to which individual differences in lexical knowledge and reading comprehension skill relate to individual differences in speech comprehension. Comprehension was evaluated after each lecture or conversation by asking listeners to answer multiple-choice questions regarding its content. Once individual differences in speech recognition for words presented in babble were compensated for, age differences in speech comprehension were minimized if not eliminated. However, younger listeners benefited more from spatial separation than did older listeners. Vocabulary knowledge predicted the comprehension scores of both younger and older listeners when listening was difficult, but not when it was easy. However, the contribution of reading comprehension to listening comprehension appeared to be independent of listening difficulty in younger adults but not in older adults. The evidence suggests (1) that most of the difficulties experienced by older adults are due to age-related auditory declines, and (2) that these declines, along with listening difficulty, modulate the degree to which selective linguistic and cognitive abilities are engaged to support listening comprehension in difficult listening situations. When older listeners experience speech recognition difficulties, their attentional resources are more likely to be deployed to
Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) wants English language education to be more communicative. Japanese teachers of English (JTEs) need to adapt their instructional practices to meet this goal; however, they may not feel confident enough to teach speaking themselves. Using technology, JTEs have the ability…
Francis, Alexander L; Ho, Diana Wai Lam
There have been only two reports of multilingual cochlear implant users to date, and both of these were postlingually deafened adults. Here we report the case of a 6-year-old early-deafened child who is acquiring Cantonese, English and Mandarin in Hong Kong. He and two age-matched peers with similar educational backgrounds were tested using common, standardized tests of vocabulary and expressive and receptive language skills (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Revised) and Reynell Developmental Language Scales version II). Results show that this child is acquiring Cantonese, English and Mandarin to a degree comparable to two classmates with normal hearing and similar educational and social backgrounds.
Klein, Evelyn R.; Armstrong, Sharon Lee; Shipon-Blum, Elisa
Children with selective mutism (SM) display a failure to speak in select situations despite speaking when comfortable. The purpose of this study was to obtain valid assessments of receptive and expressive language in 33 children (ages 5 to 12) with SM. Because some children with SM will speak to parents but not a professional, another purpose was…
Lexical sound symbolism in language appears to exploit the feature associations embedded in cross-sensory correspondences. For example, words incorporating relatively high acoustic frequencies (i.e., front/close rather than back/open vowels) are deemed more appropriate as names for concepts associated with brightness, lightness in weight,…
Werfel, Krystal L
The purpose of this study was to compare change in emergent literacy skills of preschool children with and without hearing loss over a 6-month period. Participants included 19 children with hearing loss and 14 children with normal hearing. Children with hearing loss used amplification and spoken language. Participants completed measures of oral language, phonological processing, and print knowledge twice at a 6-month interval. A series of repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to compare change across groups. Main effects of time were observed for all variables except phonological recoding. Main effects of group were observed for vocabulary, morphosyntax, phonological memory, and concepts of print. Interaction effects were observed for phonological awareness and concepts of print. Children with hearing loss performed more poorly than children with normal hearing on measures of oral language, phonological memory, and conceptual print knowledge. Two interaction effects were present. For phonological awareness and concepts of print, children with hearing loss demonstrated less positive change than children with normal hearing. Although children with hearing loss generally demonstrated a positive growth in emergent literacy skills, their initial performance was lower than that of children with normal hearing, and rates of change were not sufficient to catch up to the peers over time.
Full Text Available Recent studies of eye movements in world-situated language comprehension have demonstrated that rapid processing of morphosyntactic information – e.g., grammatical gender and number marking – can produce anticipatory eye movements to referents in the visual scene. We investigated how type of morphosyntactic information and the goals of language users in comprehension affected eye movements, focusing on the processing of grammatical number morphology in English-speaking adults. Participants’ eye movements were recorded as they listened to simple English declarative (There are the lions. and interrogative (Where are the lions? sentences. In Experiment 1, no differences were observed in speed to fixate target referents when grammatical number information was informative relative to when it was not. The same result was obtained in a speeded task (Experiment 2 and in a task using mixed sentence types (Experiment 3. We conclude that grammatical number processing in English and eye movements to potential referents are not tightly coordinated. These results suggest limits on the role of predictive eye movements in concurrent linguistic and scene processing. We discuss how these results can inform and constrain predictive approaches to language processing.
This article compares Alexander Graham Bell's achievements in the areas of instruction and technology for the hearing impaired with contemporary techniques and devices, many of which stem from his work. Assessment techniques, cochlear implants, tactile devices and visual aids are discussed as well as other alternatives and supplements to residual…
Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Kraus, Nina; Wong, Patrick C M
A challenge to learning words of a foreign language is encoding nonnative phonemes, a process typically attributed to cortical circuitry. Using multimodal imaging methods [functional magnetic resonance imaging-adaptation (fMRI-A) and auditory brain stem responses (ABR)], we examined the extent to which pretraining pitch encoding in the inferior colliculus (IC), a primary midbrain structure, related to individual variability in learning to successfully use nonnative pitch patterns to distinguish words in American English-speaking adults. fMRI-A indexed the efficiency of pitch representation localized to the IC, whereas ABR quantified midbrain pitch-related activity with millisecond precision. In line with neural "sharpening" models, we found that efficient IC pitch pattern representation (indexed by fMRI) related to superior neural representation of pitch patterns (indexed by ABR), and consequently more successful word learning following sound-to-meaning training. Our results establish a critical role for the IC in speech-sound representation, consistent with the established role for the IC in the representation of communication signals in other animal models.
Caminha, Guilherme Pilla; Melo Junior, José Tavares de; Hopkins, Claire; Pizzichini, Emilio; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes
Rhinosinusitis is a highly prevalent disease and a major cause of high medical costs. It has been proven to have an impact on the quality of life through generic health-related quality of life assessments. However, generic instruments may not be able to factor in the effects of interventions and treatments. SNOT-22 is a major disease-specific instrument to assess quality of life for patients with rhinosinusitis. Nevertheless, there is still no validated SNOT-22 version in our country. Cross-cultural adaptation of the SNOT-22 into Brazilian Portuguese and assessment of its psychometric properties. The Brazilian version of the SNOT-22 was developed according to international guidelines and was broken down into nine stages: 1) Preparation 2) Translation 3) Reconciliation 4) Back-translation 5) Comparison 6) Evaluation by the author of the SNOT-22 7) Revision by committee of experts 8) Cognitive debriefing 9) Final version. Second phase: prospective study consisting of a verification of the psychometric properties, by analyzing internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Cultural adaptation showed adequate understanding, acceptability and psychometric properties. We followed the recommended steps for the cultural adaptation of the SNOT-22 into Portuguese language, producing a tool for the assessment of patients with sinonasal disorders of clinical importance and for scientific studies.
de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Heeren, W.F.L.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Nijholt, Antinus; Ruiz Miyares, L.; Alvarez Silva, M.R.
Archival practice is shifting from the analogue to the digital world. A specific subset of heritage collections that impose interesting challenges for the field of language and speech technology are spoken word archives. Given the enormous backlog at audiovisual archives of unannotated materials and
Krahmer, E.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Theune, M.; Weegels, M.F.
Given the state of the art of current language and speech technology, errors are unavoidable in present-day spoken dialogue systems. Therefore, one of the main concerns in dialogue design is how to decide whether or not the system has understood the user correctly. In human-human communication,
Krahmer, E.; Swerts, M.; Theune, Mariet; Weegels, M.
Given the state of the art of current language and speech technology, errors are unavoidable in present-day spoken dialogue systems. Therefore, one of the main concerns in dialogue design is how to decide whether or not the system has understood the user correctly. In human-human communication,
Colin, C; Zuinen, T; Bayard, C; Leybaert, J
Sign languages (SL), like oral languages (OL), organize elementary, meaningless units into meaningful semantic units. Our aim was to compare, at behavioral and neurophysiological levels, the processing of the location parameter in French Belgian SL to that of the rhyme in oral French. Ten hearing and 10 profoundly deaf adults performed a rhyme judgment task in OL and a similarity judgment on location in SL. Stimuli were pairs of pictures. As regards OL, deaf subjects' performances, although above chance level, were significantly lower than that of hearing subjects, suggesting that a metaphonological analysis is possible for deaf people but rests on phonological representations that are less precise than in hearing people. As regards SL, deaf subjects scores indicated that a metaphonological judgment may be performed on location. The contingent negative variation (CNV) evoked by the first picture of a pair was similar in hearing subjects in OL and in deaf subjects in OL and SL. However, an N400 evoked by the second picture of the non-rhyming pairs was evidenced only in hearing subjects in OL. The absence of N400 in deaf subjects may be interpreted as the failure to associate two words according to their rhyme in OL or to their location in SL. Although deaf participants can perform metaphonological judgments in OL, they differ from hearing participants both behaviorally and in ERP. Judgment of location in SL is possible for deaf signers, but, contrary to rhyme judgment in hearing participants, does not elicit any N400. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kwon, Youan; Choi, Sungmook; Lee, Yoonhyoung
This study examines whether orthographic information is used during prelexical processes in spoken word recognition by investigating ERPs during spoken word processing for Korean words. Differential effects due to orthographic syllable neighborhood size and sound-to-spelling consistency on P200 and N320 were evaluated by recording ERPs from 42 participants during a lexical decision task. The results indicate that P200 was smaller for words whose orthographic syllable neighbors are large in number rather than those that are small. In addition, a word with a large orthographic syllable neighborhood elicited a smaller N320 effect than a word with a small orthographic syllable neighborhood only when the word had inconsistent sound-to-spelling mapping. The results provide support for the assumption that orthographic information is used early during the prelexical spoken word recognition process. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Schreibman, Laura; Stahmer, Aubyn C
Presently there is no consensus on the specific behavioral treatment of choice for targeting language in young nonverbal children with autism. This randomized clinical trial compared the effectiveness of a verbally-based intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT) to a pictorially-based behavioral intervention, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the acquisition of spoken language by young (2-4 years), nonverbal or minimally verbal (≤9 words) children with autism. Thirty-nine children were randomly assigned to either the PRT or PECS condition. Participants received on average 247 h of intervention across 23 weeks. Dependent measures included overall communication, expressive vocabulary, pictorial communication and parent satisfaction. Children in both intervention groups demonstrated increases in spoken language skills, with no significant difference between the two conditions. Seventy-eight percent of all children exited the program with more than 10 functional words. Parents were very satisfied with both programs but indicated PECS was more difficult to implement.
Vol 9, No 1 (2018): Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa ... TANZANIA: AN ACCOUNT OF THE LANGUAGE OF BILLBOARDS AND SHOP-SIGNS IN DISTRICT HEADQUARTERS ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Reflects on what has transpired in the second language (L2) testing field in relation to technology and situates developments within the larger language testing, general measurement, and educational contexts. (Author/VWL)
The current research examined how Arabic diglossia affects verbal learning memory. Thirty native Arab college students were tested using auditory verbal memory test that was adapted according to the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and developed in three versions: Pure spoken language version (SL), pure standard language version (SA), and phonologically similar version (PS). The result showed that for immediate free-recall, the performances were better for the SL and the PS conditions compared to the SA one. However, for the parts of delayed recall and recognition, the results did not reveal any significant consistent effect of diglossia. Accordingly, it was suggested that diglossia has a significant effect on the storage and short term memory functions but not on long term memory functions. The results were discussed in light of different approaches in the field of bilingual memory.
Petitto, Laura Ann; Holowka, Siobhan
Examines whether early simultaneous bilingual language exposure causes children to be language delayed or confused. Cites research suggesting normal and parallel linguistic development occurs in each language in young children and young children's dual language developments are similar to monolingual language acquisition. Research on simultaneous…
Full Text Available Reading plays a key role in education and communication in modern society. Learning to read establishes the connections between the visual word form area (VWFA and language areas responsible for speech processing. Using resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC and Granger Causality Analysis (GCA methods, the current developmental study aimed to identify the difference in the relationship between the connections of VWFA-language areas and reading performance in both adults and children. The results showed that: (1 the spontaneous connectivity between VWFA and the spoken language areas, i.e., the left inferior frontal gyrus/supramarginal gyrus (LIFG/LSMG, was stronger in adults compared with children; (2 the spontaneous functional patterns of connectivity between VWFA and language network were negatively correlated with reading ability in adults but not in children; (3 the causal influence from LIFG to VWFA was negatively correlated with reading ability only in adults but not in children; (4 the RSFCs between left posterior middle frontal gyrus (LpMFG and VWFA/LIFG were positively correlated with reading ability in both adults and children; and (5 the causal influence from LIFG to LSMG was positively correlated with reading ability in both groups. These findings provide insights into the relationship between VWFA and the language network for reading, and the role of the unique features of Chinese in the neural circuits of reading.
Kazzemi, Akram; Narafshan, Mehry Haddad
This paper is a try to investigate the attitudes of English language university teachers in Kerman (Iran) toward computer technology and find the hidden factors that make university teachers avoid using technology in English language teaching. 30 university teachers participated in this study. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were…
Sedgwick, Carole; Garner, Mark
Non-native speakers of English who hold nursing qualifications from outside the UK are required to provide evidence of English language competence by achieving a minimum overall score of Band 7 on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) academic test. To describe the English language required to deal with the daily demands of nursing in the UK. To compare these abilities with the stipulated levels on the language test. A tracking study was conducted with 4 nurses, and focus groups with 11 further nurses. The transcripts of the interviews and focus groups were analysed thematically for recurrent themes. These findings were then compared with the requirements of the IELTS spoken test. The study was conducted outside the participants' working shifts in busy London hospitals. The participants in the tracking study were selected opportunistically;all were trained in non-English speaking countries. Snowball sampling was used for the focus groups, of whom 4 were non-native and 7 native speakers of English. In the tracking study, each of the 4 nurses was interviewed on four occasions, outside the workplace, and as close to the end of a shift as possible. They were asked to recount their spoken interactions during the course of their shift. The participants in the focus groups were asked to describe their typical interactions with patients, family members, doctors, and nursing colleagues. They were prompted to recall specific instances of frequently-occurring communication problems. All interactions were audio-recorded, with the participants' permission,and transcribed. Nurses are at the centre of communication for patient care. They have to use appropriate registers to communicate with a range of health professionals, patients and their families. They must elicit information, calm and reassure, instruct, check procedures, ask for and give opinions,agree and disagree. Politeness strategies are needed to avoid threats to face. They participate in medical
The languages of Klingon and Na'vi, both created for media, are also languages that have garnered much media attention throughout the course of their existence. Speakers of these languages also utilize social media and information technologies, specifically websites, in order to learn the languages and then put them into practice. While teaching a…
Wilder Yesid Escobar
Full Text Available Recognizing that developing the competences needed to appropriately use linguistic resources according to contextual characteristics (pragmatics is as important as the cultural-imbedded linguistic knowledge itself (semantics and that both are equally essential to form competent speakers of English in foreign language contexts, we feel this research relies on corpus linguistics to analyze both the scope and the limitations of the sociolinguistic knowledge and the communicative skills of English students at the university level. To such end, a linguistic corpus was assembled, compared to an existing corpus of native speakers, and analyzed in terms of the frequency, overuse, underuse, misuse, ambiguity, success, and failure of the linguistic parameters used in speech acts. The findings herein describe the linguistic configurations employed to modify levels and degrees of descriptions (salient sematic theme exhibited in the EFL learners´ corpus appealing to the sociolinguistic principles governing meaning making and language use which are constructed under the social conditions of the environments where the language is naturally spoken for sociocultural exchange.
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Social Security Administration — This data set provides quarterly volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Blind and Disabled benefits for fiscal...
Social Security Administration — This data set provides quarterly volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Blind and Disabled benefits from fiscal...
Reviews what is known about Esperanto as a home language and first language. Recorded cases of Esperanto-speaking families are known since 1919, and in nearly all of the approximately 350 families documented, the language is spoken to the children by the father. The data suggests that this "artificial bilingualism" can be as successful…
This article briefly traces the historical conceptualization of linguistic and cultural immersion through technological applications, from the early days of locally networked computers to the cutting-edge technologies known as virtual reality and augmented reality. Next, the article explores the challenges of immersive technologies for the field…
Full Text Available Human language technologies (HLT) can play a vital role in bridging the digital divide and thus the HLT field has been recognised as a priority area by the South African government. The authors present the work on conducting a technology audit...
Adilia Maria Pires Sciarra
Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In a world in which global communication is becoming ever more important and in which English is increasingly positioned as the pre-eminent international language, that is, English as a Lingua Franca refers to the use of English as a medium of communication between peoples of different languages. It is important to highlight the positive advances in communication in health, provided by technology. OBJECTIVE: To present an overview on some technological devices of translating languages provided by the Web as well as to point out some advantages and disadvantages specially using Google Translate in Medicine and Health Sciences. METHODS: A bibliographical survey was performed to provide an overview on the usefulness of online translators for applicability using written and spoken languages. RESULTS: As we have to consider this question to be further surely answered, this study could present some advantages and disadvantages in using translating online devices. CONCLUSION: Considering Medicine and Health Sciences as expressive into the human scientific knowledge to be spread worldwidely; technological devices available on communication should be used to overcome some language barriers either written or spoken, but with some caution depending on the context of their applicability.
Sciarra, Adilia Maria Pires; Batigália, Fernando; Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza de
In a world in which global communication is becoming ever more important and in which English is increasingly positioned as the pre-eminent international language, that is, English as a Lingua Franca refers to the use of English as a medium of communication between peoples of different languages. It is important to highlight the positive advances in communication in health, provided by technology. To present an overview on some technological devices of translating languages provided by the Web as well as to point out some advantages and disadvantages specially using Google Translate in Medicine and Health Sciences. A bibliographical survey was performed to provide an overview on the usefulness of online translators for applicability using written and spoken languages. As we have to consider this question to be further surely answered, this study could present some advantages and disadvantages in using translating online devices. Considering Medicine and Health Sciences as expressive into the human scientific knowledge to be spread worldwidely; technological devices available on communication should be used to overcome some language barriers either written or spoken, but with some caution depending on the context of their applicability.
Ma, Weiyi; Zhou, Peng; Singh, Leher; Gao, Liqun
The majority of the world's languages rely on both segmental (vowels, consonants) and suprasegmental (lexical tones) information to contrast the meanings of individual words. However, research on early language development has mostly focused on the acquisition of vowel-consonant languages. Developmental research comparing sensitivity to segmental and suprasegmental features in young tone learners is extremely rare. This study examined 2- and 3-year-old monolingual tone learners' sensitivity to vowels and tones. Experiment 1a tested the influence of vowel and tone variation on novel word learning. Vowel and tone variation hindered word recognition efficiency in both age groups. However, tone variation hindered word recognition accuracy only in 2-year-olds, while 3-year-olds were insensitive to tone variation. Experiment 1b demonstrated that 3-year-olds could use tones to learn new words when additional support was provided, and additionally, that Tone 3 words were exceptionally difficult to learn. Experiment 2 confirmed a similar pattern of results when children were presented with familiar words. This study is the first to show that despite the importance of tones in tone languages, vowels maintain primacy over tones in young children's word recognition and that tone sensitivity in word learning and recognition changes between 2 and 3years of age. The findings suggest that early lexical processes are more tightly constrained by variation in vowels than by tones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Pei-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wei
Telepractice provides an alternative form of auditory-verbal therapy (eAVT) intervention through videoconferencing; this can be of immense benefit for children with hearing loss, especially those living in rural or remote areas. The effectiveness of eAVT for the language development of Mandarin-speaking preschoolers with hearing loss was…
Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Yc; Button, Laura; Seeto, Mark; Zhang, Vicky; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise; Marnane, Vivienne
This study investigated the factors influencing 5-year language, speech and everyday functioning of children with congenital hearing loss. Standardised tests including PLS-4, PPVT-4 and DEAP were directly administered to children. Parent reports on language (CDI) and everyday functioning (PEACH) were collected. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of a range of demographic variables on outcomes. Participants were 339 children enrolled in the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. Children's average receptive and expressive language scores were approximately 1 SD below the mean of typically developing children, and scores on speech production and everyday functioning were more than 1 SD below. Regression models accounted for 70-23% of variance in scores across different tests. Earlier CI switch-on and higher non-verbal ability were associated with better outcomes in most domains. Earlier HA fitting and use of oral communication were associated with better outcomes on directly administered language assessments. Severity of hearing loss and maternal education influenced outcomes of children with HAs. The presence of additional disabilities affected outcomes of children with CIs. The findings provide strong evidence for the benefits of early HA fitting and early CI for improving children's outcomes.
Chapelle, Carol A.; Voss, Erik
This review article provides an analysis of the research from the last two decades on the theme of technology and second language assessment. Based on an examination of the assessment scholarship published in "Language Learning & Technology" since its launch in 1997, we analyzed the review articles, research articles, book reviews,…
Hernández, Cesar; Pulido, Jose L; Arias, Jorge E
To develop a technological tool that improves the initial learning of sign language in hearing impaired children. The development of this research was conducted in three phases: the lifting of requirements, design and development of the proposed device, and validation and evaluation device. Through the use of information technology and with the advice of special education professionals, we were able to develop an electronic device that facilitates the learning of sign language in deaf children. This is formed mainly by a graphic touch screen, a voice synthesizer, and a voice recognition system. Validation was performed with the deaf children in the Filadelfia School of the city of Bogotá. A learning methodology was established that improves learning times through a small, portable, lightweight, and educational technological prototype. Tests showed the effectiveness of this prototype, achieving a 32 % reduction in the initial learning time for sign language in deaf children.
Full Text Available Drawing on a lengthier review completed for the US National Institute for Literacy, this paper examines emerging technologies that are applicable to self-access and autonomous learning in the areas of listening and speaking, collaborative writing, reading and language structure, and online interaction. Digital media reviewed include podcasts, blogs, wikis, online writing sites, text-scaffolding software, concordancers, multiuser virtual environments, multiplayer games, and chatbots. For each of these technologies, we summarize recent research and discuss possible uses for autonomous language learning.
N. Y. Gutareva
Full Text Available This article develops the sources of occurrence and the purposes of application of information technologies in teaching of foreign languages from the point of view of linguistics, methods of teaching foreign languages and psychology. The main features of them have been determined in works of native and foreign scientists from the point of view of the basic didactic principles and new standards of selection for working with computer programs are pointed out. In work the author focuses the main attention to modern technologies that in language education in teaching are especially important and demanded as answer the purpose and problems of teaching in foreign languages are equitable to interests of students but they should be safe.Purpose: to determine advantages of using interactive means in teaching foreign languages.Methodology: studying and analysis of psychological, pedagogical and methodological literature on the theme of investigation.Results: the analysis of the purpose and kinds of interactive means has shown importance of its application in practice.Practical implications: it is possible for us to use the results of this work in courses of theory of methodology of teaching foreign languages.
Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Allen, Jont B.; Dorman, Michael; Bergeson-Dana, Tonya R.
These are the proceedings of 2012 AG Bell Research Symposium, presented July 1, 2012, as part of the AG Bell 2012 Convention. The session was moderated by Tamala S. Bradham, Ph.D., CCC-A. The papers presented at the proceedings are the following: (1) The Queens of Audition; (2) Speech Perception and Hearing Loss; (3) The Restoration of Speech…
Šimáčková, Š.; Podlipský, V.J.; Chládková, K.
As a western Slavic language of the Indo-European family, Czech is closest to Slovak and Polish. It is spoken as a native language by nearly 10 million people in the Czech Republic (Czech Statistical Office n.d.). About two million people living abroad, mostly in the USA, Canada, Austria, Germany,
Rodríguez, Julio C.
This article describes how a multi-institutional, proficiency-based program engages stakeholders in design thinking to discover and explore solutions to perennial problems in technology integration into world language education (WLE). Examples of replicable activities illustrate the strategies used to fuel innovation efforts, including fostering…
Focus and Scope. The journal is cross-disciplinary and therefore it publishes articles from a wide-range of topics including language, technology, entrepreneurship, finance and communication. It is meant to promote dialogue across disciplines by emphasizing the interconnectedness of knowledge. It is ideal for scholars ...
Natalia Alexandrovna Kameneva
Full Text Available This article analyzes the use of information technologies in the context of a blended technology approach to learning foreign languages in higher education institutions. Distance learning tools can be categorized as being synchronous (webinar, video conferencing, case-technology, chat, ICQ, Skype, interactive whiteboards or asynchronous (blogs, forums, Twitter, video and audio podcasts, wikis, on-line testing. Sociological and psychological aspects of their application in the educational process are also considered.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-41
Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; McAuley, Rose; Smith, Laura; Grether, Sandra
Pilot study to assess the effect of augmentative and alternative communication technology to enhance language development in children who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. Five children ages 5-10 years with permanent bilateral hearing loss who were identified with language underperformance participated in an individualized 24-week structured program using the application TouchChat WordPower on iPads ® . Language samples were analyzed for changes in mean length of utterance, vocabulary words and mean turn length. Repeated measures models assessed change over time. The baseline median mean length of utterance was 2.41 (range 1.09-6.63; mean 2.88) and significantly increased over time (p = 0.002) to a median of 3.68 at final visit (range 1.97-6.81; mean 3.62). At baseline, the median total number of words spoken per language sample was 251 (range 101-458), with 100 (range 36-100) different words spoken. Total words and different words significantly increased over time (β = 26.8 (7.1), p = 0.001 for total words; β = 8.0 (2.7), p = 0.008 for different words). Mean turn length values also slightly increased over time. Using augmentative and alternative communication technology on iPads ® shows promise in supporting rapid language growth among elementary school-age children who are deaf or hard-of-hearing with language underperformance.
LANGUAGE POLICIES PURSUED IN THE AXIS OF OTHERING AND IN THE PROCESS OF CONVERTING SPOKEN LANGUAGE OF TURKS LIVING IN RUSSIA INTO THEIR WRITTEN LANGUAGE / RUSYA'DA YASAYAN TÜRKLERİN KONUSMA DİLLERİNİN YAZI DİLİNE DÖNÜSTÜRÜLME SÜRECİ VE ÖTEKİLESTİRME EKSENİNDE İZLENEN DİL POLİTİKALARI
Süleyman Kaan YALÇIN (M.A.H.
Full Text Available Language is an object realized in two ways; spokenlanguage and written language. Each language can havethe characteristics of a spoken language, however, everylanguage can not have the characteristics of a writtenlanguage since there are some requirements for alanguage to be deemed as a written language. Theserequirements are selection, coding, standardization andbecoming widespread. It is necessary for a language tomeet these requirements in either natural or artificial wayso to be deemed as a written language (standardlanguage.Turkish language, which developed as a singlewritten language till 13th century, was divided intolanguages as West Turkish and North-East Turkish bymeeting the requirements of a written language in anatural way. Following this separation and through anatural process, it showed some differences in itself;however, the policy of converting the spoken language ofeach Turkish clan into their written language -the policypursued by Russia in a planned way- turned Turkish,which came to 20th century as a few written languagesinto20 different written languages. Implementation ofdiscriminatory language policies suggested by missionerssuch as Slinky and Ostramov to Russian Government,imposing of Cyrillic alphabet full of different andunnecessary signs on each Turkish clan by force andothering activities of Soviet boarding schools opened hadconsiderable effects on the said process.This study aims at explaining that the conversionof spoken languages of Turkish societies in Russia intotheir written languages did not result from a naturalprocess; the historical development of Turkish languagewhich is shaped as 20 separate written languages onlybecause of the pressure exerted by political will; and how the Russian subjected language concept -which is thememory of a nation- to an artificial process.
Galla, Candace Kaleimamoowahinekapu
Within the last two decades, there has been increased interest in how technology supports Indigenous language revitalization and reclamation efforts. This paper considers the effect technology has on Indigenous language learning and teaching, while conceptualizing how language educators, speakers, learners, and technology users holistically…
Appelo, L.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.
TWLT is an acronym of Twente Workshop(s) on Language Technology. These workshops on natural language theory and technology are organised bij Project Parlevink (sometimes with the help of others) a language theory and technology project conducted at the Department of Computer Science of the
Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua
Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…
Conner, Peggy S.
A high percentage of individuals with dyslexia struggle to learn unfamiliar spoken words, creating a significant obstacle to foreign language learning after early childhood. The origin of spoken-word learning difficulties in this population, generally thought to be related to the underlying literacy deficit, is not well defined (e.g., Di Betta…
Using contemporary science, the paper builds on Wittgenstein’s views of human language. Rather than ascribing reality to inscription-like entities, it links embodiment with distributed cognition. The verbal or (quasi) technological aspect of language is traced to not action, but human specific...... interactivity. This species-specific form of sense-making sustains, among other things, using texts, making/construing phonetic gestures and thinking. Human action is thus grounded in appraisals or sense-saturated coordination. To illustrate interactivity at work, the paper focuses on a case study. Over 11 s......, a crime scene investigator infers that she is probably dealing with an inside job: she uses not words, but intelligent gaze. This connects professional expertise to circumstances and the feeling of thinking. It is suggested that, as for other species, human appraisal is based in synergies. However, since...
Loukina, Anastassia; Buzick, Heather
This study is an evaluation of the performance of automated speech scoring for speakers with documented or suspected speech impairments. Given that the use of automated scoring of open-ended spoken responses is relatively nascent and there is little research to date that includes test takers with disabilities, this small exploratory study focuses…
Crowe, Kathryn; Marschark, Marc; Dammeyer, Jesper; Lehane, Christine
Deaf learners are a highly heterogeneous group who demonstrate varied levels of academic achievement and attainment. Most prior research involving this population has focused on factors facilitating academic success in young deaf children, with less attention paid to older learners. Recent studies, however, have suggested that while factors such as early cochlear implantation and early sign language fluency are positively associated with academic achievement in younger deaf children, they no longer predict achievement once children reach high school age. This study, involving data from 980 college-bound high school students with hearing loss, examined relations between academic achievement, communication variables (audiological, language), and use of assistive technologies (e.g., cochlear implants [CIs], FM systems) and other support services (e.g., interpreting, real-time text) in the classroom. Spoken language skills were positively related to achievement in some domains, while better sign language skills were related to poorer achievement in others. Among these college-bound students, use of CIs and academic support services in high school accounted for little variability in their college entrance examination scores. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Laursen, Helle Pia
in various technological environments, we see an increase in scholarship that highlights the mixing and chaining of spoken, written and visual modalities and how written and visual often precede or overrule spoken language. There seems to be a mismatch between current day language practices......, in language education and in language practices. As a consequence of this and in the light of the increasing mobility and linguistic diversity in Europe, in this colloquium, we address the need for a (re)conceptualization of the relation between language and literacy. Drawing on data from different settings...
Currently, the concept of spoken grammar has been mentioned among Chinese teachers. However, teach-ers in China still have a vague idea of spoken grammar. Therefore this dissertation examines what spoken grammar is and argues that native speakers’ model of spoken grammar needs to be highlighted in the classroom teaching.
Full Text Available Second language acquisition cannot take place without having exposure to language input. With regard to this, the present research aimed at providing empirical evidence about the low and the upper-intermediate language learners’ preferred type of audiovisual programs and language proficiency development outside the classroom. To this end, 60 language learners (30 low level and 30 upper-intermediate level were asked to have exposure to their preferred types of audiovisual program(s outside the classroom and keep a diary of the amount and the type of exposure. The obtained data indicated that the low-level participants preferred cartoons and the upper-intermediate participants preferred news more. To find out which language proficiency level could improve its language proficiency significantly, a post-test was administered. The results indicated that only the upper-intermediate language learners gained significant improvement. Based on the findings, the quality of the language input should be given priority over the amount of exposure.
Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Providing Formative Feedback: Language Technologies for Lifelong Learning CONSPECT tool. Presentation given at the Onderwijslunch, University of Maastricht. January, 18, 2011, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
While many studies have demonstrated the advantages of using computer technology in foreign language classrooms, many post-secondary foreign language (FL) teachers still remain reluctant to use technology in instruction. Even when teachers do use technology, critiques have indicated that it is oftentimes used merely to replicate traditional…
Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu
Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…
Ease of access, production, and distribution have made online technologies popular in language revitalization. By incorporating multimodal resources, audio, video, and games, they attract indigenous communities undergoing language shift in hopes of its reversal. However, by merely expanding language revitalization to the web, many language…
Hamzah, Mohd. Sahandri Gani B.; Ghorbani, Mohd. Reza; Abdullah, Saifuddin Kumar B.
Communication technology is changing things. Language is no exception. Some language researchers argue that language is deteriorating due to increased use in electronic communication. The present paper investigated 100 randomly selected electronic mails (e-mails) and 50 short messaging system (SMS) messages of a representative sample of…
Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica
When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German…
Qu, Qingqing; Damian, Markus F
Extensive evidence from alphabetic languages demonstrates a role of orthography in the processing of spoken words. Because alphabetic systems explicitly code speech sounds, such effects are perhaps not surprising. However, it is less clear whether orthographic codes are involuntarily accessed from spoken words in languages with non-alphabetic systems, in which the sound-spelling correspondence is largely arbitrary. We investigated the role of orthography via a semantic relatedness judgment task: native Mandarin speakers judged whether or not spoken word pairs were related in meaning. Word pairs were either semantically related, orthographically related, or unrelated. Results showed that relatedness judgments were made faster for word pairs that were semantically related than for unrelated word pairs. Critically, orthographic overlap on semantically unrelated word pairs induced a significant increase in response latencies. These findings indicate that orthographic information is involuntarily accessed in spoken-word recognition, even in a non-alphabetic language such as Chinese.
Full Text Available of field experiments are done to gain an improved understanding of the extent to which citizens’ exposure to technology and home language affect their ability to access electronic services. These experiments will influence technology development...
Dooly, Melinda; Masats, Dolors
This state-of-the-art review provides a critical overview of research publications in Spain in the last ten years in three areas of teaching and learning foreign languages (especially English): context and language integrated learning (CLIL), young language learners (YLL), and technology-enhanced language learning (TELL). These three domains have…
Lucas, Ceil; Mirus, Gene; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Roessler, Nicholas James; Frost, Adam
This paper first reviews the fairly established ways of collecting sign language data. It then discusses the new technologies available and their impact on sign language research, both in terms of how data is collected and what new kinds of data are emerging as a result of technology. New data collection methods and new kinds of data are…
Basically the main medium of expressing information and communication is through language. Human beings are generally endowed with the most effective means of information and communication i.e. language. The popular assumption is that Language is simply communication with words especially the human use of ...
Full Text Available Modern learning foreign languages is based on a humanistic paradigm. The realization of the possibility of such activity researches consider in implementation of technological approach in educational process. The scientists connect the optimal and qualitative realization of this activity with the implementation of education technology into learning process. Modern studies are focused on questions of implementation of technological approach into teaching foreign languages. It is thought to allow to achieve guaranteed minimal level of learning results. At the same time there are some incompletely studied aspects such as content of pedagogical technologies, their conceptual and procedural characteristics, approaches to classification. In the article the essence of technological approach is revealed, the communicatively focused technologies of teaching foreign languages in non-linguistic universities are concretized. The interpretation of technological approach is given; characteristics and attributes in teaching foreign languages are selected. It is noticed that technological approach is social and engineering ideology in the sphere of didactics according to which teaching process is considered to be a completely designed process with strictly planned and fixed results (M. Klarin. In the article it is emphasized on feasibility and efficiency of technological approach while teaching foreign languages, the degree of its integration in educational process is defined. The communication-oriented technologies, based on a communicative method of E. Passov, are allocated as the most optimum. It is shown the communication-oriented technologies go beyond the conceptual idea of modelling in teaching process of real foreign-language communication, and their procedural component and contents are founded on certain principles. The most commonly used technologies of teaching foreign languages are classified as technologies of modernization and technologies of
Dethlefs, Nina; Milders, Maarten; Cuayáhuitl, Heriberto; Al-Salkini, Turkey; Douglas, Lorraine
Currently, an estimated 36 million people worldwide are affected by Alzheimer's disease or related dementias. In the absence of a cure, non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive stimulation, which slow down the rate of deterioration can benefit people with dementia and their caregivers. Such interventions have shown to improve well-being and slow down the rate of cognitive decline. It has further been shown that cognitive stimulation in interaction with a computer is as effective as with a human. However, the need to operate a computer often represents a difficulty for the elderly and stands in the way of widespread adoption. A possible solution to this obstacle is to provide a spoken natural language interface that allows people with dementia to interact with the cognitive stimulation software in the same way as they would interact with a human caregiver. This makes the assistive technology accessible to users regardless of their technical skills and provides a fully intuitive user experience. This article describes a pilot study that evaluated the feasibility of computer-based cognitive stimulation through a spoken natural language interface. Prototype software was evaluated with 23 users, including healthy elderly people and people with dementia. Feedback was overwhelmingly positive.
Kuure, Leena; Molin-Juustila, Tonja; Keisanen, Tiina; Riekki, Maritta; Iivari, Netta; Kinnula, Marianne
Despite abundant research on educational technology and strategic input in the field, various surveys have shown that (language) teachers do not seem to embrace in their teaching the full potential of information and communication technology available in our everyday life. Language students soon entering the professional field could accelerate the…
Full Text Available When you switch on your computer and type up a letter, what language do you see? What about when you visit a website or play a computer game? Does your mobile phone speak your language? Chances are that each of these technological marvels of the modern age communicates with you in your own language. For many of us, this is so commonplace and seamless that we hardly give it a moment's thought but behind the scenes there is a whole industry dedicated to making sure that technology bridges the gap between language and culture without you even noticing.
Full Text Available When you switch on your computer and type up a letter, what language do you see? What about when you visit a website or play a computer game? Does your mobile phone speak your language? Chances are that each of these technological marvels of the modern age communicates with you in your own language. For many of us, this is so commonplace and seamless that we hardly give it a moment's thought but behind the scenes there is a whole industry dedicated to making sure that technology bridges the gap between language and culture without you even noticing.
Wiseheart, Rebecca; Altmann, Lori J. P.
Background: Individuals with dyslexia demonstrate syntactic difficulties on tasks of language comprehension, yet little is known about spoken language production in this population. Aims: To investigate whether spoken sentence production in college students with dyslexia is less proficient than in typical readers, and to determine whether group…
Full Text Available The study of discourse is the study of using language in actual use. In this article, the writer is trying to investigate the phonological features, either segmental or supra-segmental, in the spoken discourse of Indonesian university students. The data were taken from the recordings of 15 conversations by 30 students of Bina Nusantara University who are taking English Entrant subject (TOEFL –IBT. Finally, the writer is in opinion that the students are still influenced by their first language in their spoken discourse. This results in English with Indonesian accent. Even though it does not cause misunderstanding at the moment, this may become problematic if they have to communicate in the real world.
Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana
Although interest in the language sciences was previously focused on newly created sentences, more recently much attention has turned to the importance of formulaic expressions in normal and disordered communication. Also referred to as formulaic expressions and made up of speech formulas, idioms, expletives, serial and memorized speech, slang, sayings, clichés, and conventional expressions, non-propositional language forms a large proportion of every speaker's competence, and may be differentially disturbed in neurological disorders. This review aims to examine non-propositional speech with respect to linguistic descriptions, psycholinguistic experiments, sociolinguistic studies, child language development, clinical language disorders, and neurological studies. Evidence from numerous sources reveals differentiated and specialized roles for novel and formulaic verbal functions, and suggests that generation of novel sentences and management of prefabricated expressions represent two legitimate and separable processes in language behaviour. A preliminary model of language behaviour that encompasses unitary and compositional properties and their integration in everyday language use is proposed. Integration and synchronizing of two disparate processes in language behaviour, formulaic and novel, characterizes normal communicative function and contributes to creativity in language. This dichotomy is supported by studies arising from other disciplines in neurology and psychology. Further studies are necessary to determine in what ways the various categories of formulaic expressions are related, and how these categories are processed by the brain. Better understanding of how non-propositional categories of speech are stored and processed in the brain can lead to better informed treatment strategies in language disorders.
The author posits a reciprocal relationship between the recent popularisation of computer-based technology and the democratisation of Central and Eastern Europe. Brief reference is made to their common denominator, language and language change. The advent of the communicative approach to language learning and the new wave of language authenticity arising from it, both enhanced by the technological revolution, have made the defining of acceptability in the classroom and of communication in the process of testing more problematic than ever, although several advantages have also accrued. Advances in technology have generally outstripped our ability to apply their full or characteristic potential. While technology can personalise learning and in this way make learning more efficient, it can also impede motivation. Old methods, drills and routines are tending to be sustained by it. Lack of technology can also widen the gulf between developed, developing and underdeveloped countries of the world. The author proposes international partnerships as a means of preventing an imbalance which could threaten stability. Single language dominance is another threat to international understanding, given the growing awareness of our multilingual and multicultural environment. Enlightened language policies reaching from the individual to beyond the national community are needed, which adopt these aspects of language learning, explain decisions about the state's choice of languages and, at the same time, promote individual choice wherever practicable.
Full Text Available was conducted for the South African HLT landscape, to create a systematic and detailed inventory of the status of the HLT components across the eleven official languages. Based on the Basic Language Resource Kit (BLaRK) framework (Krauwer, 1998), we used various...
Spoken words have always been an important component of traditional instruction. With the development of modern educational technology tools, spoken text more often replaces or supplements written or on-screen textual representations. However, there could be a cognitive load cost involved in this trend, as spoken words can have both benefits and…
Simmons, Noreen; Johnston, Judith
Background: Speech-language pathologists often advise families about interaction patterns that will facilitate language learning. This advice is typically based on research with North American families of European heritage and may not be culturally suited for non-Western families. Aims: The goal of the project was to identify differences in the…
This systematic review of the literature provides a synthesis of research on the use of technology to support sign language. Background research on the use of sign language with students who are deaf/hard of hearing and students with low incidence disabilities, such as autism, intellectual disability, or communication disorders is provided. The…
Zou, Bin; Xing, Minjie; Wang, Yuping; Sun, Mingyu; Xiang, Catherine H.
Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic…
This exploratory study was designed to assess the experience of preservice teachers when integrating written language technology and their likelihood of applying that technology in their future classrooms. Results suggest that after experiencing technology integration, preservice teachers are more likely to use it in their future teaching.
Warschauer, Mark; Liaw, Meei-Ling
Although information and communication technologies have become an integral part of life in the United States, they have not yet been adequately integrated into adult language and literacy programs. This raises concerns because of the potential value of technology for enhancing learning and because of the vital role of technological proficiency as…
Unlike Uganda which already had kingdoms and social stratifications, the ..... Kiswahili is taught as a subject all the way from elementary school to the university level. .... of the legal systems as well as the language of media and entertainment.
Garfield, D A; Rapp, C; Evens, M
The potential benefit of artificial intelligence (AI) technology as a tool of psychiatry has not been well defined. In this essay, the technology of natural language processing and its position with regard to the two main schools of AI is clearly outlined. Past experiments utilizing AI techniques in understanding psychopathology are reviewed. Natural language processing can automate the analysis of transcripts and can be used in modeling theories of language comprehension. In these ways, it can serve as a tool in testing psychological theories of psychopathology and can be used as an effective tool in empirical research on verbal behavior in psychopathology.
Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.
Sign language linguists show here that all the questions relevant to the linguistic investigation of spoken languages can be asked about sign languages. Conversely, questions that sign language linguists consider - even if spoken language researchers have not asked them yet - should also be asked of
Full Text Available This paper describes trends in instructional technology that are influencing foreign language teaching today and that can be expected to increasingly do so in the future. Though already an integral part of foreign language instruction, digital technology is bound to play an increasing role in language teaching in the coming years. The greatest stimulus for this will undoubtedly be the accessibility of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL, made possible through the exploitation of mobile devices owned by students themselves. The ubiquitous ownership of smartphones and tablet computers among adolescents and adults now makes a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD approach a feasible alternative to desktop computer labs. Making this work, however, especially in a financially and technologically restricted environment, presents a number of challenges which are the focus of this paper.
Simmons, Noreen; Johnston, Judith
Speech-language pathologists often advise families about interaction patterns that will facilitate language learning. This advice is typically based on research with North American families of European heritage and may not be culturally suited for non-Western families. The goal of the project was to identify differences in the beliefs and practices of Indian and Euro-Canadian mothers that would affect patterns of talk to children. A total of 47 Indian mothers and 51 Euro-Canadian mothers of preschool age children completed a written survey concerning child-rearing practices and beliefs, especially those about talk to children. Discriminant analyses indicated clear cross-cultural differences and produced functions that could predict group membership with a 96% accuracy rate. Items contributing most to these functions concerned the importance of family, perceptions of language learning, children's use of language in family and society, and interactions surrounding text. Speech-language pathologists who wish to adapt their services for families of Indian heritage should remember the centrality of the family, the likelihood that there will be less emphasis on early independence and achievement, and the preference for direct instruction.
Gender is multi-faceted, always changing, but often contested. It is embedded in our institutions, our actions, our beliefs, and our desires, that it appears to us to be completely natural. Gender is, after all, a system of meaning -- a way of construing notions of male and female – and language is the primary means through ...
Miyashita, Mizuki; Moll, Laura A.
This paper describes the use of computer technology to produce an updated online Tohono O'odham dictionary. Spoken in southern Arizona and northern Mexico, Tohono O'odham (formerly Papago) and its close relative Akimel O'odham (Pima) had a total of about 25,000 speakers in 1988. Although the language is taught to school children through community…
Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D
Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Glykas, Michael; Chytas, Panagiotis
Speech and language therapists (SLTs) are faced daily with a diversity of speech and language disabilities, which are associated with a variety of conditions ranging from client groups with overall cognitive deficits to those with more specific difficulties. It is desirable that those working with such a range of problems and with such a demanding workload, plan care efficiently. Therefore, the introduction of methodologies, reference models of work and tools, which significantly improve the effectiveness of therapy, are particularly welcome. This paper describes the first web-based tool for diagnosis, treatment and e-Learning in the field of language and speech therapy. The system allows SLTs to find the optimum treatment for each patient, it also allows any non-specialist user-SLT, patient or helper (relative etc.)-to explore their creativity, by designing their own communication aid in an interactive manner, with the use of editors such as: configuration and vocabulary. The system has been tested and piloted by potential users in Greece and the UK.
Knoors, Harry; Marschark, Marc
For over 25 years in some countries and more recently in others, bilingual education involving sign language and the written/spoken vernacular has been considered an essential educational intervention for deaf children. With the recent growth in universal newborn hearing screening and technological advances such as digital hearing aids and…
Knoors, H.E.T.; Marschark, M.
For over 25 years in some countries and more recently in others, bilingual education involving sign language and the written/spoken vernacular has been considered an essential educational intervention for deaf children. With the recent growth in universal newborn hearing screening and technological
Leech, Geoffrey; Wilson, Andrew (All Of Lancaster University)
Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English is a landmark volume in the development of vocabulary frequency studies. Whereas previous books have in general given frequency information about the written language only, this book provides information on both speech and writing. It not only gives information about the language as a whole, but also about the differences between spoken and written English, and between different spoken and written varieties of the language. The frequencies are derived from a wide ranging and up-to-date corpus of English: the British Na
The paper addresses methodological potential of mobile technologies in teaching a foreign language to non-linguistic students. The author a) gives definition of the term "mobile education", b) suggests a list of mobile technologies used in foreign language teaching; c) develops a list of non-linguistic major students'' language abilities and language skills, which can be developed via mobile technologies.
Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S.; Grainger, Jonathan
How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition—including visual word recognition—have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349
Boulet, J R; van Zanten, M; McKinley, D W; Gary, N E
The purpose of this study was to gather additional evidence for the validity and reliability of spoken English proficiency ratings provided by trained standardized patients (SPs) in high-stakes clinical skills examination. Over 2500 candidates who took the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates' (ECFMG) Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA) were studied. The CSA consists of 10 or 11 timed clinical encounters. Standardized patients evaluate spoken English proficiency and interpersonal skills in every encounter. Generalizability theory was used to estimate the consistency of spoken English ratings. Validity coefficients were calculated by correlating summary English ratings with CSA scores and other external criterion measures. Mean spoken English ratings were also compared by various candidate background variables. The reliability of the spoken English ratings, based on 10 independent evaluations, was high. The magnitudes of the associated variance components indicated that the evaluation of a candidate's spoken English proficiency is unlikely to be affected by the choice of cases or SPs used in a given assessment. Proficiency in spoken English was related to native language (English versus other) and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The pattern of the relationships, both within assessment components and with external criterion measures, suggests that valid measures of spoken English proficiency are obtained. This result, combined with the high reproducibility of the ratings over encounters and SPs, supports the use of trained SPs to measure spoken English skills in a simulated medical environment.
White, Erin L.; Gillard, Sharlett
There is a growing need to implement an alternative and viable solution in U.S. K-12 schools that will address the ever-growing gap that the rapidly growing English language learner (ELL) population presents. This article examines various technology-based solutions, and their potential impact. The systematic implementation of these…
Kubler, Cornelius C.
This article discusses principles involved in developing course materials for technology-mediated Chinese language learning, with examples from a new course designed to take into account the needs of distance and independent learners. Which learning environment is most efficient for a given learning activity needs to be carefully considered. It…
INCORPORATING DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF FRENCH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE (FFL) IN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF KENYA · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Teresa Atieno Otieno, 1-11 ...
Full Text Available Advances in spoken corpora analysis have brought about new insights into language pedagogy and have led to an awareness of the characteristics of spoken language. Current findings have shown that grammar of spoken language is different from written language. However, most listening and speaking materials are concocted based on written grammar and lack core spoken language features. The aim of the present study was to explore the question whether awareness of spoken grammar features could affect learners’ comprehension of real-life conversations. To this end, 45 university students in two intact classes participated in a listening course employing corpus-based materials. The instruction of the spoken grammar features to the experimental group was done overtly through awareness raising tasks, whereas the control group, though exposed to the same materials, was not provided with such tasks for learning the features. The results of the independent samples t tests revealed that the learners in the experimental group comprehended everyday conversations much better than those in the control group. Additionally, the highly positive views of spoken grammar held by the learners, which was elicited by means of a retrospective questionnaire, were generally comparable to those reported in the literature.
Behrns, Ingrid; Wengelin, Asa; Broberg, Malin; Hartelius, Lena
The aim of the present study was to explore how a personal narrative told by a group of eight persons with aphasia differed between written and spoken language, and to compare this with findings from 10 participants in a reference group. The stories were analysed through holistic assessments made by 60 participants without experience of aphasia…
Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.
In this paper, ongoing work concerning the language modelling and lexicon optimization of a Dutch speech recognition system for Spoken Document Retrieval is described: the collection and normalization of a training data set and the optimization of our recognition lexicon. Effects on lexical coverage
Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Dalsgaard, P.; Lindberg, B.; Benner, H.
In this paper, ongoing work concerning the language modelling and lexicon optimization of a Dutch speech recognition system for Spoken Document Retrieval is described: the collection and normalization of a training data set and the optimization of our recognition lexicon. Effects on lexical coverage
Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Abe, Mariko
The purpose of the present study is to assess second language (L2) spoken English using automated scoring techniques. Automated scoring aims to classify a large set of learners' oral performance data into a small number of discrete oral proficiency levels. In automated scoring, objectively measurable features such as the frequencies of lexical and…
Lin, Show Mei; Griffith, Priscilla
This article reviews the literature on computer-supported collaborative learning in second language and foreign language writing. While research has been conducted on the effects of online technology in first language reading and writing, this article explores how online technology affects second and foreign language writing. The goal of this…
Schneider, Erin; Kozak, L. Viola; Santiago, Roberto; Stephen, Anika
Technological and language innovation often flow in concert with one another. Casual observation by researchers has shown that electronic communication memes, in the form of abbreviations, have found their way into spoken English. This study focuses on the current use of electronic modes of communication, such as cell smartphones, and e-mail, and…
Lai, Chun; Gu, Mingyue
Current computer-assisted language learning (CALL) research has identified various potentials of technology for language learning. To realize and maximize these potentials, engaging students in self-initiated use of technology for language learning is a must. This study investigated Hong Kong university students' use of technology outside the…
Yu, Ping; Pan, Yingxin; Li, Chen; Zhang, Zengxiu; Shi, Qin; Chu, Wenpei; Liu, Mingzhuo; Zhu, Zhiting
Oral production is an important part in English learning. Lack of a language environment with efficient instruction and feedback is a big issue for non-native speakers' English spoken skill improvement. A computer-assisted language learning system can provide many potential benefits to language learners. It allows adequate instructions and instant…
Vývoj sociální kognice českých neslyšících dětí — uživatelů českého znakového jazyka a uživatelů mluvené češtiny: adaptace testové baterie : Development of Social Cognition in Czech Deaf Children — Czech Sign Language Users and Czech Spoken Language Users: Adaptation of a Test Battery
Full Text Available The present paper describes the process of an adaptation of a set of tasks for testing theory-of-mind competencies, Theory of Mind Task Battery, for the use with the population of Czech Deaf children — both users of Czech Sign Language as well as those using spoken Czech.
Carmichael, Lesley; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia Beckford
We are developing a novel, searchable corpus as a research tool for investigating phonetic and phonological phenomena across various speech styles. Five speech styles have been well studied independently in previous work: reduced (casual), careful (hyperarticulated), citation (reading), Lombard effect (speech in noise), and ``motherese'' (child-directed speech). Few studies to date have collected a wide range of styles from a single set of speakers, and fewer yet have provided publicly available corpora. The pilot corpus includes recordings of (1) a set of speakers participating in a variety of tasks designed to elicit the five speech styles, and (2) casual peer conversations and wordlists to illustrate regional vowels. The data include high-quality recordings and time-aligned transcriptions linked to text files that can be queried. Initial measures drawn from the database provide comparison across speech styles along the following acoustic dimensions: MLU (changes in unit duration); relative intra-speaker intensity changes (mean and dynamic range); and intra-speaker pitch values (minimum, maximum, mean, range). The corpus design will allow for a variety of analyses requiring control of demographic and style factors, including hyperarticulation variety, disfluencies, intonation, discourse analysis, and detailed spectral measures.
Larsen, Lars Bo
This work is centred on the methods and problems associated with defining and measuring the usability of Spoken Dialogue Systems (SDS). The starting point is the fact that speech based interfaces has several times during the last 20 years fallen short of the high expectations and predictions held...... by industry, researchers and analysts. Several studies in the literature of SDS indicate that this can be ascribed to a lack of attention from the speech technology community towards the usability of such systems. The experimental results presented in this work are based on a field trial with the OVID home...
Igor José Siquieri Savenhago
Full Text Available The first broadcast of a World Cup footballon television, to Brazil was in 1970, via Embratel. Before that, the people followed the games of the Brazilian team on the radio. Gradually, the owners of television networks realized that football could generate good financial results, with the exposing of advertisements during the broadcasts, similar to what was already done on the radio. Thus, the television, focused on the growth of audience and number of advertisers, covered football with a language of entertainment. The narration of the matches, in which the figure of the narrator is more like that of an entertainer, and improvement of the transmission technologies that improve the image quality every day, take away from football the characteristic of being just a sport to occupy the place of an entertainment. In this context, the sport becomes an article of purchase and sale. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how this entertainment language was made up on Brazilian television, based on the broadcast sports, especially football, and like the television, which represented a technological leapin the country over the radio, assumed of the sport, country’s most popular as a commodity, interfering with the dynamics of Brazilian society. Finally, an attempt to understand how the researches that allow a technological development change behaviors and vice versa, that is, how the demands of society lead to a race to develop new technologies.
In Monitoring Adaptive Spoken Dialog Systems, authors Alexander Schmitt and Wolfgang Minker investigate statistical approaches that allow for recognition of negative dialog patterns in Spoken Dialog Systems (SDS). The presented stochastic methods allow a flexible, portable and accurate use. Beginning with the foundations of machine learning and pattern recognition, this monograph examines how frequently users show negative emotions in spoken dialog systems and develop novel approaches to speech-based emotion recognition using hybrid approach to model emotions. The authors make use of statistical methods based on acoustic, linguistic and contextual features to examine the relationship between the interaction flow and the occurrence of emotions using non-acted recordings several thousand real users from commercial and non-commercial SDS. Additionally, the authors present novel statistical methods that spot problems within a dialog based on interaction patterns. The approaches enable future SDS to offer m...
Full Text Available Research has increasingly uncovered the cognitive, cultural, and economic advantages of bilingualism and the positive impact of heritage language on children's second language acquisition (M:cLaughlin, 1995. As one type of heritage language education organizations, Chinese language schools have been in existence for decades in the U.S., but their practices have remained informal and not readily accessible to people from other cultures. In order to bridge this gap, this ethnographic study illustrates family and community involvement in promoting language proficiency in heritage language populations and explores language education methods practiced in Chinese community language schools in an urban Southern California area. The study examines the intricate issues affecting heritage language learning and explores the potential uses of technology in assisting young learners in acquiring their heritage language (Chinese. In addition, the study generates guidelines for adapting existing technology-assisted language programs (e.g., the Chinese Cultural Crystals for instructional uses.
Full Text Available This study focuses on stereotypes about Germany, its culture and people, held by learners of German in a big public university in Malaysia. It examines not only the stereotypical representations of the target language country but also assesses its favourability and salience, which has not been done previously. The findings revealed that the students' stereotypes about Germany were varied and diverse. Also, they were overwhelmingly positive. The top three salient categories of images about Germany were related to technology, famous personalities - for the most part football players and scientists - and cars. The findings also indicated that very few references had been made to German culture and to its great cultural figures. The results of the present study suggest that students could benefit from a wider and deeper exposure to German culture in the language classroom.
Lai, Cheng-Chieh; Kritsonis, William Allan
The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of computer technology and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) programs for current second language learning. According to the National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs' report (2002), more than nine million…
Li, Jia; Snow, Catherine; Jiang, Jingjing; Edwards, Nicholas
Technology including social media and other technology applications enabled by different technology devices offer many possibilities for second language learners to improve their learning, if they are interested in doing so. We investigated purposes for using technology among urban adolescents, including both English language learners (ELLs) and…
Miranda Bojórquez, Erasmo; Vergara Villegas, Osslan Osiris; Cruz Sánchez, Vianey Guadalupe; García-Alcaraz, Jorge Luis; Favela Vara, Jesús
This paper presents the results of a study applied to undergraduates in order to know how the cultural dimensions affect their perceptions of the acceptance and use of new technologies in a student-centered learning environment. A total of 85 undergraduate students from the Autonomous Indigenous University of Mexico (UAIM) participated in the study. Each student was asked to use a mobile augmented reality (MAR) application designed to learn Mayo language (language spoken in Northwestern Mexic...
Shah, Nishal Pradeepkumar
A recent advance in computer technology has permitted scientists to implement and test algorithms that were known from quite some time (or not) but which were computationally expensive. Two such projects are IBM's Jeopardy as a part of its DeepQA project  and Wolfram's Wolframalpha. Both these methods implement natural language processing (another goal of AI scientists) and try to answer questions as asked by the user. Though the goal of the two projects is similar, both of them have a ...
I Nengah Sudipa
Full Text Available This article investigates the spoken ability for German students using Bahasa Indonesia (BI. They have studied it for six weeks in IBSN Program at Udayana University, Bali-Indonesia. The data was collected at the time the students sat for the mid-term oral test and was further analyzed with reference to the standard usage of BI. The result suggests that most students managed to express several concepts related to (1 LOCATION; (2 TIME; (3 TRANSPORT; (4 PURPOSE; (5 TRANSACTION; (6 IMPRESSION; (7 REASON; (8 FOOD AND BEVERAGE, and (9 NUMBER AND PERSON. The only problem few students might encounter is due to the influence from their own language system called interference, especially in word order.
Chen, Wei; Mostow, Jack; Aist, Gregory
Free-form spoken input would be the easiest and most natural way for young children to communicate to an intelligent tutoring system. However, achieving such a capability poses a challenge both to instruction design and to automatic speech recognition. To address the difficulties of accepting such input, we adopt the framework of predictable…
Kowal, Sabine; O'Connell, Daniel C
The following article presents basic concepts and methods of Ragnar Rommetveit's (born 1924) hermeneutic-dialogical approach to everyday spoken dialogue with a focus on both shared consciousness and linguistically mediated meaning. He developed this approach originally in his engagement of mainstream linguistic and psycholinguistic research of the 1960s and 1970s. He criticized this research tradition for its individualistic orientation and its adherence to experimental methodology which did not allow the engagement of interactively established meaning and understanding in everyday spoken dialogue. As a social psychologist influenced by phenomenological philosophy, Rommetveit opted for an alternative conceptualization of such dialogue as a contextualized, partially private world, temporarily co-established by interlocutors on the basis of shared consciousness. He argued that everyday spoken dialogue should be investigated from within, i.e., from the perspectives of the interlocutors and from a psychology of the second person. Hence, he developed his approach with an emphasis on intersubjectivity, perspectivity and perspectival relativity, meaning potential of utterances, and epistemic responsibility of interlocutors. In his methods, he limited himself for the most part to casuistic analyses, i.e., logical analyses of fictitious examples to argue for the plausibility of his approach. After many years of experimental research on language, he pursued his phenomenologically oriented research on dialogue in English-language publications from the late 1980s up to 2003. During that period, he engaged psycholinguistic research on spoken dialogue carried out by Anglo-American colleagues only occasionally. Although his work remained unfinished and open to development, it provides both a challenging alternative and supplement to current Anglo-American research on spoken dialogue and some overlap therewith.
Mast, Marion; Maier, Elisabeth; Schmitz, Birte
This report describes how spoken language turns are segmented into utterances in the framework of the verbmobil project. The problem of segmenting turns is directly related to the task of annotating a discourse with dialogue act information: an utterance can be characterized as a stretch of dialogue that is attributed one dialogue act. Unfortunately, this rule in many cases is insufficient and many doubtful cases remain. We tried to at least reduce the number of unclear cases by providing a n...
This article examines how the use of mobile technologies (iPods and tablets) in language classrooms contributes to redesigning task-based approaches for young language learners. The article is based on a collaborative action research (CAR) project in Early French Immersion classrooms in the province of Alberta, Canada. The data collection included…
Full Text Available The internet and social networks provide new forms of public spaces, virtual continents populated by people of different races, languages, and religions that communicate with a single language, in one unique mode and with one unique tool. In the era of extreme social participation, it is impossible not to consider the role of future policies of education. We cannot ignore the basic language in which the Euro-Mediterranean people recognize themselves, allowing them to interact on all sides of the Mediterranean basin. Technology provides a dialogue bridge, as well as mutual recognition and accreditation for the people who share the Mediterranean Sea and the world. The Internet is the true centre of the Union membership and provides a common good, which generates shared recognition and willingness to communicate; furthermore, it results in the renunciation of personal data protection, as well as the management of its powers to private entities. The aim of this paper is to envisage the effects of the electronic society on the Mediterranean Policies.
Full Text Available This contribution presents the results of the “Speech technology integrated learning modules for Intercultural Dialogue” project. The project objective was to increase the availability and quality of e-learning opportunities for less widely-used and less taught European languages using a user-friendly and highly accessible learning environment. The integration of new Text-to-Speech developments into web-based authoring software for tutorial CALL had a double goal: on the one hand increase the accessibility of e-learning packages, also for learners having difficulty reading (e.g. dyslexic learners or preferring auditory learning; on the other hand exploiting some didactic possibilities of this technology.
Chapelle, Carol A.
Over the past fourteen years, the pages of "Language Learning & Technology" have been filled with examples of research that take up the challenge of investigating second language learning through technology. It has been a period of expansion and growth in many ways. The expansion of technologies as well as their acceptance and use in language…
Underwood, John H.
Describes the role of technology in teaching foreign languages. Offers a brief history of language lab technologies, including computer use for drill-and-practice, text reconstruction, and simulations and games. Discusses tool programs, intelligent systems, video technology, satellite television, videodisc and interactive video, hypertext and…
Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko
When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…
Zhao, Jingjing; Guo, Jingjing; Zhou, Fengying; Shu, Hua
Evidence from event-related potential (ERP) analyses of English spoken words suggests that the time course of English word recognition in monosyllables is cumulative. Different types of phonological competitors (i.e., rhymes and cohorts) modulate the temporal grain of ERP components differentially (Desroches, Newman, & Joanisse, 2009). The time course of Chinese monosyllabic spoken word recognition could be different from that of English due to the differences in syllable structure between the two languages (e.g., lexical tones). The present study investigated the time course of Chinese monosyllabic spoken word recognition using ERPs to record brain responses online while subjects listened to spoken words. During the experiment, participants were asked to compare a target picture with a subsequent picture by judging whether or not these two pictures belonged to the same semantic category. The spoken word was presented between the two pictures, and participants were not required to respond during its presentation. We manipulated phonological competition by presenting spoken words that either matched or mismatched the target picture in one of the following four ways: onset mismatch, rime mismatch, tone mismatch, or syllable mismatch. In contrast to the English findings, our findings showed that the three partial mismatches (onset, rime, and tone mismatches) equally modulated the amplitudes and time courses of the N400 (a negative component that peaks about 400ms after the spoken word), whereas, the syllable mismatched words elicited an earlier and stronger N400 than the three partial mismatched words. The results shed light on the important role of syllable-level awareness in Chinese spoken word recognition and also imply that the recognition of Chinese monosyllabic words might rely more on global similarity of the whole syllable structure or syllable-based holistic processing rather than phonemic segment-based processing. We interpret the differences in spoken word
It is difficult to find the exact number of other languages spoken besides Dutch in the Netherlands. A study showed that a total of 96 other languages are spoken by students attending Dutch primary and secondary schools. The variety of languages spoken shows the growth of linguistic diversity in the
Full Text Available Language learning strategies play a vital role in the language acquisition process, and this includes the realm of ESP at the tertiary level of education. This contribution first defines the concept of language learning strategies and gives a historical background to language learning strategy research. The central section focuses on a comparative analysis of language learning strategies used by first year students of traffic technology at the Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport in Portorož, University of Ljubljana. The analysis, based on Rebecca Oxford’s “Strategy Inventory for Language Learning”, aims to assess the students’ existing awareness of the process of language acquisition and the learning strategies that they use. Objectives of language teachers should include helping students to raise their awareness of language learning strategies and providing them with contexts for their development. Therefore, the concluding section contains sample ESP teaching materials and student instructions focusing on cognitive language learning strategies.
Sadykova, Gulnara; Gimaletdinova, Gulnara; Khalitova, Liliia; Kayumova, Albina
This report is based on an exploratory case study of a private multilingual preschool language program that integrated a Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) project into the curriculum of five/six year-old children whose native language(s) is/are Russian and/or Tatar. The purpose of the study was to reveal teachers' and parents' perceptions…
Батагоз Талгатовна Керимбаева
Full Text Available In the article an attempt was made to define the role and to study the peculiarities of functioning of English language in higher education. The state of education of the Republic of Kazakhstan and trends of development of society are the most result problems of priority development of the education system on the basis of computer technology and the creation of a unified educational information environment. With the rapid development of science, fast updates of information, it is impossible to learn for a lifetime, it is important to develop the interest in obtaining knowledge for continuous self- education. Intense changes in society caused by the development of modern educational technologies, has led to the need for change of the education system. The main objective of the training is to achieve a new modern quality of education.Modernization of the Kazakhstan education defines the main goal of professional education as the training of qualified professional of the appropriate level and profile, fluent in their profession, capable to effective work on a speciality at the level of world standards, ready for professional growth and professional mobility. Modern trends of modernization of educational programs demand introduction of modern methods of teaching. The increasing introduction of new computer technology and the application of the competence approach in educational process of H.A. Yasawi International kazakh- turkish university promotes increase of efficiency of process of teaching English.
Calabrich, Simone L.
This research explored perceptions of learners studying English in private language schools regarding the use of mobile technology to support language learning. Learners were first exposed to both a mobile assisted and a mobile unassisted language learning experience, and then asked to express their thoughts on the incorporation of mobile devices…
Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Brentari, Diane
How does sign language compare with gesture, on the one hand, and spoken language on the other? Sign was once viewed as nothing more than a system of pictorial gestures without linguistic structure. More recently, researchers have argued that sign is no different from spoken language, with all of the same linguistic structures. The pendulum is currently swinging back toward the view that sign is gestural, or at least has gestural components. The goal of this review is to elucidate the relationships among sign language, gesture, and spoken language. We do so by taking a close look not only at how sign has been studied over the past 50 years, but also at how the spontaneous gestures that accompany speech have been studied. We conclude that signers gesture just as speakers do. Both produce imagistic gestures along with more categorical signs or words. Because at present it is difficult to tell where sign stops and gesture begins, we suggest that sign should not be compared with speech alone but should be compared with speech-plus-gesture. Although it might be easier (and, in some cases, preferable) to blur the distinction between sign and gesture, we argue that distinguishing between sign (or speech) and gesture is essential to predict certain types of learning and allows us to understand the conditions under which gesture takes on properties of sign, and speech takes on properties of gesture. We end by calling for new technology that may help us better calibrate the borders between sign and gesture.
Sergey S. Chromov; Nadezda A. Gulayeva; Irina S. Zelenetskaya
The paper is untended to draw attention to information communication technologiesin teaching Russian as a foreign language for special purposes at level B 2. In thisregard the educational process of teaching Russian as a foreign language is examinedfor promoting quality improvement in the process of ELT.Technology-enhances language learning(TELL) is described through computer-assisted language learning(CALL)-presentations, webinars, videolectures. The authors share their experience obtained d...
Full Text Available The article is aimed at investigating the originality of foreign language teaching technologies in higher educational establishments of the Danube river basin countries. Definitions of teaching technologies, typology of some foreign language teaching technologies, analysis of activity learning technologies are given. The stress is made on the importance of competence and communicative approaches in Maritime English teaching in the Danube basin higher educational establishments.
Introducing Spoken Dialogue Systems into Intelligent Environments outlines the formalisms of a novel knowledge-driven framework for spoken dialogue management and presents the implementation of a model-based Adaptive Spoken Dialogue Manager(ASDM) called OwlSpeak. The authors have identified three stakeholders that potentially influence the behavior of the ASDM: the user, the SDS, and a complex Intelligent Environment (IE) consisting of various devices, services, and task descriptions. The theoretical foundation of a working ontology-based spoken dialogue description framework, the prototype implementation of the ASDM, and the evaluation activities that are presented as part of this book contribute to the ongoing spoken dialogue research by establishing the fertile ground of model-based adaptive spoken dialogue management. This monograph is ideal for advanced undergraduate students, PhD students, and postdocs as well as academic and industrial researchers and developers in speech and multimodal interactive ...
Shafiee Nahrkhalaji, Saeedeh; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Koosha, Mansour
The present study aims to reveal some facts concerning first language (L[subscript 1]) and second language (L[subscript 2]) spoken-word processing in unbalanced proficient bilinguals using behavioral measures. The intention here is to examine the effects of auditory repetition word priming and semantic priming in first and second languages of…
This study explores the development of pedagogical design for language teaching and learning in increasingly technology-rich environments. More specifically, it focuses on the process of design, enactment and analysis of language and literacy pedagogies in technology-rich environments. Two substudies are reported in five articles, each of which approaches pedagogical design from a different perspective. The first substudy examined (a) what pedagogical choices language studen...
Today, the rapid advances in technology have been drastically changing and shaping the way humans live.In line with these developments, the use of technology in education has been on the increase and language education is no exception. Therefore, the expectations from language teachers have been changing. As expected from all teachers of other…
Rymaszewski, Rachel, Ed.
This report of a seminar on information technology (IT) and language development begins by presenting background on language skills and information technology in order to define the scope of the topic. The report then pulls together and elaborates on the output of the seminar. The first section discusses media-centered issues, including the design…
As mobile computing technologies have been more powerful and inclusive in people's daily life, the issue of mobile assisted language learning (MALL) has also been widely explored in CALL research. Many researches on MALL consider the emerging mobile technologies have considerable potentials for the effective language learning. This review study…
Full Text Available A concept of software support of learning programming language and technologies is regarded in the article. Present systems of independent study of subjects, related to programming, are examined. Necessary components of a system of support learning programming languages and technologies, which is oriented on independent study, are considered.
Suominen, Hanna; Lehtikunnas, Tuija; Back, Barbro; Karsten, Helena; Salakoski, Tapio; Salanterä, Sanna
The present study discusses ethics in building and using applications based on natural language processing in electronic nursing documentation. Specifically, we first focus on the question of how patient confidentiality can be ensured in developing language technology for the nursing documentation domain. Then, we identify and theoretically analyze the ethical outcomes which arise when using natural language processing to support clinical judgement and decision-making. In total, we put forward and justify 10 claims related to ethics in applying language technology to nursing documents. A review of recent scientific articles related to ethics in electronic patient records or in the utilization of large databases was conducted. Then, the results were compared with ethical guidelines for nurses and the Finnish legislation covering health care and processing of personal data. Finally, the practical experiences of the authors in applying the methods of natural language processing to nursing documents were appended. Patient records supplemented with natural language processing capabilities may help nurses give better, more efficient and more individualized care for their patients. In addition, language technology may facilitate patients' possibility to receive truthful information about their health and improve the nature of narratives. Because of these benefits, research about the use of language technology in narratives should be encouraged. In contrast, privacy-sensitive health care documentation brings specific ethical concerns and difficulties to the natural language processing of nursing documents. Therefore, when developing natural language processing tools, patient confidentiality must be ensured. While using the tools, health care personnel should always be responsible for the clinical judgement and decision-making. One should also consider that the use of language technology in nursing narratives may threaten patients' rights by using documentation collected
Guo, Xuan; Yu, Qi; Alm, Cecilia Ovesdotter; Calvelli, Cara; Pelz, Jeff B; Shi, Pengcheng; Haake, Anne R
Extracting useful visual clues from medical images allowing accurate diagnoses requires physicians' domain knowledge acquired through years of systematic study and clinical training. This is especially true in the dermatology domain, a medical specialty that requires physicians to have image inspection experience. Automating or at least aiding such efforts requires understanding physicians' reasoning processes and their use of domain knowledge. Mining physicians' references to medical concepts in narratives during image-based diagnosis of a disease is an interesting research topic that can help reveal experts' reasoning processes. It can also be a useful resource to assist with design of information technologies for image use and for image case-based medical education systems. We collected data for analyzing physicians' diagnostic reasoning processes by conducting an experiment that recorded their spoken descriptions during inspection of dermatology images. In this paper we focus on the benefit of physicians' spoken descriptions and provide a general workflow for mining medical domain knowledge based on linguistic data from these narratives. The challenge of a medical image case can influence the accuracy of the diagnosis as well as how physicians pursue the diagnostic process. Accordingly, we define two lexical metrics for physicians' narratives--lexical consensus score and top N relatedness score--and evaluate their usefulness by assessing the diagnostic challenge levels of corresponding medical images. We also report on clustering medical images based on anchor concepts obtained from physicians' medical term usage. These analyses are based on physicians' spoken narratives that have been preprocessed by incorporating the Unified Medical Language System for detecting medical concepts. The image rankings based on lexical consensus score and on top 1 relatedness score are well correlated with those based on challenge levels (Spearman correlation>0.5 and Kendall
Brick, Billy; Cervi-Wilson, Tiziana
The speed of technological advance in the mobile phone, netbook and tablet markets has meant that learners increasingly have access to digital devices capable of enhancing their learning experience. This case study reports on how language learners, taking Italian as an option on the Institution Wide Languages Programme (IWLP) at Coventry…
Whalen, D. H.; Giulivi, Sara; Nam, Hosung; Levitt, Andrea G.; Hallé, Pierre; Goldstein, Louis M.
Certain consonant/vowel (CV) combinations are more frequent than would be expected from the individual C and V frequencies alone, both in babbling and, to a lesser extent, in adult language, based on dictionary counts: Labial consonants co-occur with central vowels more often than chance would dictate; coronals co-occur with front vowels, and velars with back vowels (Davis & MacNeilage, 1994). Plausible biomechanical explanations have been proposed, but it is also possible that infants are mirroring the frequency of the CVs that they hear. As noted, previous assessments of adult language were based on dictionaries; these “type” counts are incommensurate with the babbling measures, which are necessarily “token” counts. We analyzed the tokens in two spoken corpora for English, two for French and one for Mandarin. We found that the adult spoken CV preferences correlated with the type counts for Mandarin and French, not for English. Correlations between the adult spoken corpora and the babbling results had all three possible outcomes: significantly positive (French), uncorrelated (Mandarin), and significantly negative (English). There were no correlations of the dictionary data with the babbling results when we consider all nine combinations of consonants and vowels. The results indicate that spoken frequencies of CV combinations can differ from dictionary (type) counts and that the CV preferences apparent in babbling are biomechanically driven and can ignore the frequencies of CVs in the ambient spoken language. PMID:23420980
Jason D. Hendryx
Grounded in over a decade of language classroom observations, in multiple institutions of secondary and higher education in several countries, across over a dozen languages, three key features of what appear to be successful applications of technology by instructors in these classes for language teaching emerged. These features came to be identified as directional, developmental, and decisive—Hereafter referred to as the 3Ds. Observational data suggests that when an instructor embraces any of the 3Ds while using technology for teaching and learning purposes, the more successful that application of technology seems to be. Success here should be understood as higher levels of student interaction, engagement, and motivation, with more kinds and types of student language being produced. Meanwhile, observations of instructors who did not utilize any of the 3Ds, revealed stiff, uninspiring uses of technology, oftentimes devoid of context, which did not result in much, if any, student interaction or language production.
山本, 智広; 山本, 利一
This study is a proposal of instruction process for improvement of language activities in the technology education course in the junior high school in Japan. In this study, two efforts were carried out for the technology concerning material and processing. The first effort was the extraction of the learning situations that develop abilities of thinking, judgment and expression through language activities peculiar to the technology education course. The second effort was the verification o...
Roisin P. Corcoran; Steven M. Ross; Beverly J. Irby; Fuhui Tong; Rafael Lara-Alecio; Cindy Guerrero
This paper describes the use of technology to provide virtual professional development (VPD) for teachers and to conduct classroom observations in a study of English Language Learner (ELL) instruction in grades K–3. The technology applications were part of a cluster randomized control trial (RCT) design for a federally funded longitudinal validation study of a particular program, English Language and Literacy Acquisition-Validation, ELLA- V, to determine its degree of impact on English oral l...
Full Text Available Web technologies and educational platforms have greatly evolved over the past decade. One of the most significant factors contributing to education on the Internet has been the development of Web 2.0 technologies. These technologies, socially interactive in nature, have much to contribute to the area of Computer Assisted Language Leaning. Unfortunately, Web 2.0 technologies for the most part have been used in an ad hoc manner, permitting language learners acquire knowledge through interaction, but not through a more structured manner as these technologies were not developed to help lean languages as such. The goal of our work is to research and develop an environment, which employs Web 2.0 technology plus online language learning tools to provide a more integrated language learning environment. This paper will explore the technologies and provide information about how tools can be better integrated to provide a more productive working environment for language learners. A first working proof of concept based on our approach introduced is promising supporting modern language requirements and first findings and space for improvements are discussed.
Full Text Available This study addressed the development of and the relationship between foundational metalinguistic skills and word reading skills in Arabic. It compared Arabic-speaking children’s phonological awareness (PA, morphological awareness, and voweled and unvoweled word reading skills in spoken and standard language varieties separately in children across five grade levels from childhood to adolescence. Second, it investigated whether skills developed in the spoken variety of Arabic predict reading in the standard variety. Results indicate that although individual differences between students in PA are eliminated toward the end of elementary school in both spoken and standard language varieties, gaps in morphological awareness and in reading skills persisted through junior and high school years. The results also show that the gap in reading accuracy and fluency between Spoken Arabic (SpA and Standard Arabic (StA was evident in both voweled and unvoweled words. Finally, regression analyses showed that morphological awareness in SpA contributed to reading fluency in StA, i.e., children’s early morphological awareness in SpA explained variance in children’s gains in reading fluency in StA. These findings have important theoretical and practical contributions for Arabic reading theory in general and they extend the previous work regarding the cross-linguistic relevance of foundational metalinguistic skills in the first acquired language to reading in a second language, as in societal bilingualism contexts, or a second language variety, as in diglossic contexts.
Schiff, Rachel; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor
This study addressed the development of and the relationship between foundational metalinguistic skills and word reading skills in Arabic. It compared Arabic-speaking children’s phonological awareness (PA), morphological awareness, and voweled and unvoweled word reading skills in spoken and standard language varieties separately in children across five grade levels from childhood to adolescence. Second, it investigated whether skills developed in the spoken variety of Arabic predict reading in the standard variety. Results indicate that although individual differences between students in PA are eliminated toward the end of elementary school in both spoken and standard language varieties, gaps in morphological awareness and in reading skills persisted through junior and high school years. The results also show that the gap in reading accuracy and fluency between Spoken Arabic (SpA) and Standard Arabic (StA) was evident in both voweled and unvoweled words. Finally, regression analyses showed that morphological awareness in SpA contributed to reading fluency in StA, i.e., children’s early morphological awareness in SpA explained variance in children’s gains in reading fluency in StA. These findings have important theoretical and practical contributions for Arabic reading theory in general and they extend the previous work regarding the cross-linguistic relevance of foundational metalinguistic skills in the first acquired language to reading in a second language, as in societal bilingualism contexts, or a second language variety, as in diglossic contexts. PMID:29686633
Full Text Available French language policy has historically centred on ways French can be considered a dominant and influential language. It has done this since the Middle Ages, by allowing the French language to serve as a political tool. On an international level, language was a way of subjugating conquered peoples (former colonies. It promoted France’s international status (by the 18th century French was the diplomatic language of Europe. On a national level, the French language was one of the ways governments were able to centralise political power (suppression of regional languages. One of the ways French language authorities have promoted the use of language has been through education policies and the way language is taught in schools. For example, the French language was imposed on the colonised territories of France through teaching in missionary schools. Within France, stringent laws were adopted, in particular during the nineteenth century, allowing the French language to replace local languages in schools. In France today, language policies continue to exist and to have an influence on the way we view language and society. One of the main priorities of French language policy is to protect the status of the national language in particular with respect to the increasing use of English as a global dominant language in areas such as science, technology, tourism, entertainment and the media (Nunan: 2007, 178. Consequently, France has adopted policies to respond to this linguistic climate. This has implications on the way the French language is taught both within France as well as outside of France. This paper will examine some of the policies and agencies created over recent years that affect the French language. It will also identify some of the consequences these policies have on the teaching of language. Finally it will argue that a space has been created within the language classroom that attempts to find a compromise between the language policies of
Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559
Full Text Available Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide.
Okano, Kana; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J
In a masked cross-modal priming experiment with ERP recordings, spoken Japanese words were primed with words written in one of the two syllabary scripts of Japanese. An early priming effect, peaking at around 200ms after onset of the spoken word target, was seen in left lateral electrode sites for Katakana primes, and later effects were seen for both Hiragana and Katakana primes on the N400 ERP component. The early effect is thought to reflect the efficiency with which words in Katakana script make contact with sublexical phonological representations involved in spoken language comprehension, due to the particular way this script is used by Japanese readers. This demonstrates fast-acting influences of visual primes on the processing of auditory target words, and suggests that briefly presented visual primes can influence sublexical processing of auditory target words. The later N400 priming effects, on the other hand, most likely reflect cross-modal influences on activity at the level of whole-word phonology and semantics.
Language in Education and the role of Applied Linguistics in Kenya. Martha M. ... The narrow view, as he sees it, is “equated with language teaching – mainly second or .... The greatest difference has been noted in the affluent urban ..... Applied linguistics, Brazilian perspectives. ... English in Kenya: a sociolinguistic profile .
speaker's poor learning and mastery of other languages. ... Githiora (2002), on the other hand, calls it a Kiswahili-based patois which ... primary school students too, use Sheng' as their principle language outside of ... the youth living in the upper-middle, and middle income estates of Nairobi in ..... their science and their god.
Full Text Available There are a lot of didactic and technological methods and techniques that shape and develop cognitive interest of primary school students in modern methodology of teaching foreign languages. The use of various forms of gaming interaction, problem assignments, information and communication technologies in the teaching of primary school students allows diversifying the teaching of a foreign language, contributes to the development of their creative and cognitive activity. The use of health-saving technologies ensures the creation of a psychologically and emotionally supportive atmosphere at the lesson, which is an essential condition for acquiring new knowledge and maintaining stable cognitive interest among students while learning a foreign language.
Natalia A. Kameneva
Full Text Available The article determines the role and analyzes specificity of the use of information technology in a mixed model of learning foreign languages in higher educational institutions. The authors also describe such forms of e-learning as a webinar, seminar videos, video conferencing, case-technology. The ways of overcoming difficulties in learning foreign languages, which the students can face when using distance learning technologies, are indicated. The positive experience of using E-learning System «Virtual Campus» in the teaching foreign languages at the Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics and Informatics is mentioned.
Eyup Bayram Guzel
People have been fairly interested in what technology offers to them around a scope of human necessities and it has become a part of human life. In this study, experimental studies were reviewed for the purpose of how technology helps language learners improve their phonemic awareness, reading comprehension and vocabulary development skills. As a conclusion, experimental studies demonstrated that students showed significant improvements up to 70% in phonological awaren...
Casey, Laura Baylot; Bicard, David F.
Language development in typically developing children has a very predictable pattern beginning with crying, cooing, babbling, and gestures along with the recognition of spoken words, comprehension of spoken words, and then one word utterances. This predictable pattern breaks down for children with language disorders. This article will discuss…
Cignoni, Laura; Fornaciari, Gino
The aim of this paper is to describe a project in which Italian undergraduate students at the Palaeopathology Division of Pisa University will attend a two-year Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) course combining the study of funerary archaeology with English as vehicular language. At the presence of a subject and language teacher working together, the trainees will use different types of technology including devices such as electronic blackboards and Word applications with user-...
Arndt, Karen Barako; Schuele, C. Melanie
Complex syntax production emerges shortly after the emergence of two-word combinations in oral language and continues to develop through the school-age years. This article defines a framework for the analysis of complex syntax in the spontaneous language of preschool- and early school-age children. The purpose of this article is to provide…
Rodríguez, Cathi Draper; Cumming, Therese M
This exploratory study investigated the effects of a language building iPad application on the language skills (i.e., receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and sentence formation) of young students with language-based disabilities. The study utilized a pre-test-post-test control group design. Students in the treatment group used the iPad language building application, Language Builder, for 30 minutes a day. Participants were 31 first-grade to third-grade students with identified language-based disabilities. Students were assigned to two groups for the 8-week intervention. Data indicated that students in the treatment group made significantly greater gains in the area of sentence formation than the control group. Results revealed no significant difference between the two groups in the areas of expressive and receptive vocabulary. A short intervention of using Language Builder via the iPad may increase the sentence formation skills of young students with language delays. Additionally, discussion regarding the usefulness of iPad applications in education is presented.
Abdous, M'hammed; Camarena, Margaret M.; Facer, Betty Rose
Integrating Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) technology (personal multimedia players, cell phones, and handheld devices) into the foreign language curriculum is becoming commonplace in many secondary and higher education institutions. Current research has identified both pedagogically sound applications and important benefits to students.…
Although the enormous potential of the Internet has gained attention in Internet-assisted language teaching (IALT), a solid background of research is still lacking about/investigating English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' use of Internet assistive technologies. This study set out to determine Turkish university level EFL instructors'…
Dooly, Melinda; Sadler, Randall
This article outlines research into innovative language teaching practices that make optimal use of technology and Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) for an integrated approach to Project-Based Learning. It is based on data compiled during a 10- week language project that employed videoconferencing and "machinima" (short video clips…
Critical to maximizing the potential of technology for learning is enhancing language learners' self-directed use of technology for learning purposes. This study aimed to enhance our understanding of the determinants of self-directed technology use through the construction of a structural equation modelling (SEM) framework of factors and…
Мира Алексеевна Вчерашняя
Full Text Available The article describes the major trends in tourism development in Kaliningrad, caused the actualization of the application of information and innovative technologies of foreign language teaching in vocational training in the field of tourism.
Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Dogruoz, A. Seza
Multilingual speakers switch between languages in online and spoken communication. Analyses of large scale multilingual data require automatic language identification at the word level. For our experiments with multilingual online discussions, we first tag the language of individual words using
Wang, Zhen; Zechner, Klaus; Sun, Yu
As automated scoring systems for spoken responses are increasingly used in language assessments, testing organizations need to analyze their performance, as compared to human raters, across several dimensions, for example, on individual items or based on subgroups of test takers. In addition, there is a need in testing organizations to establish…
With questions and answer sections throughout, this book helps you to improve your written and spoken English through understanding the structure of the English language. This is a thorough and useful book with all parts of speech and grammar explained. Used by ELT self-study students.
Čermáková, Anna; Komrsková, Zuzana; Kopřivová, Marie; Poukarová, Petra
-, 25.04.2017 (2017), s. 393-414 ISSN 2509-9507 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01116S Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : Causality * Discourse marker * Spoken language * Czech Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Linguistics https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs41701-017-0014-y.pdf
Stone, Adam; Petitto, Laura-Ann; Bosworth, Rain
The infant brain may be predisposed to identify perceptually salient cues that are common to both signed and spoken languages. Recent theory based on spoken languages has advanced sonority as one of these potential language acquisition cues. Using a preferential looking paradigm with an infrared eye tracker, we explored visual attention of hearing…
Hofmann, Kristin; Chilla, Solveig
Adopting a bimodal bilingual language acquisition model, this qualitative case study is the first in Germany to investigate the spoken and sign language development of hearing children of deaf adults (codas). The spoken language competence of six codas within the age range of 3;10 to 6;4 is assessed by a series of standardised tests (SETK 3-5,…
favour of foreign language (and culture). They also ... native language, and children are unable to learn a language not spoken ... shielding them off their mother tongue”. ..... the effect endangered language has on the existence of the owners.
Aalberse, S.; Moro, F.; Braunmüller, K.; Höder, S.; Kühl, K.
This article discusses Malay and Chinese heritage languages as spoken in the Netherlands. Heritage speakers are dominant in another language and use their heritage language less. Moreover, they have qualitatively and quantitatively different input from monolinguals. Heritage languages are often
Aalberse, S.; Moro, F.R.; Braunmüller, K.; Höder, S.; Kühl, K.
This article discusses Malay and Chinese heritage languages as spoken in the Netherlands. Heritage speakers are dominant in another language and use their heritage language less. Moreover, they have qualitatively and quantitatively different input from monolinguals. Heritage languages are often
Full Text Available Technology Assisted Language Learning (TALL is an infallible means to develop profound knowledge and wide range of language skills. It instills in EFL learners an illimitable passion for task-based and skills oriented learning rather than rote memorization. New technological gadgets have commoditized a broad-based learning and teaching avenues and brought the whole learning process to life. A vast variety of authentic online- learning resources, motivational visual prompts, exciting videos, web-based interactivity and customizable language software, email, discussion forums, Skype, Twitter, apps, Internet mobiles, Facebook and YouTube have become obtrusive tools to enhance competence and performance in EFL teaching and learning realms. Technology can also provide various types of scaffolding for students learning to read. Nevertheless, instructors can also enhance their pedagogical effectiveness. However, the main focus of interest in this study is to ascertain to what extent the modern technological devices augment learners’ competence and performance specifically in vocabulary learning, grammatical accuracy and listening/ speaking skills. The remarkable scores of empirical surveys conducted in the present study reveal that TALL does assist learners to improve listening / speaking skills, pronunciation, extensive vocabulary and grammatical accuracy. The findings also manifest that the hybridity, instantaneity and super-diversity of digital learning lay far-reaching impact on learners' motivation for learning and incredibly maneuver learners to immerse in the whole learning process.
Full Text Available E-communication places new demands on language, leading to interesting variations in written language use. E-mail, chats, online discussions and SMS messages use a language marked by traits of both informal speech and formal writing, a host of text-based icons and acronyms for handling social interaction and modifications in spelling norms. Objectives: The purpose of this article is to provide a framework on individuals’ possibilities to learn a foreign language using e-communication technologies. Approach: It shows the specialty literature that focuses on e-learning, with priority to e-communication. Results: Proper use of new technologies allows a more systematic integration of language, content and culture, and gives individuals unprecedented opportunities for autonomous learning. E-communication not only helps teachers and students to exceed linguistic, geographical and time barriers, but also to build bridges between native and foreign language programs. Implications: This research work is important for academics and students who use online technologies to teach or learn another language. Value: In this paper, we have identified that the use of new technologies consents learners to engage in forms of online communication, thus research becoming vital for success in their academic and professional pursuits.
Wong, Miranda Kit-Yi; So, Wing Chee
This study developed a spoken narrative (i.e., storytelling) assessment as a supplementary measure of children's creativity. Both spoken and gestural contents of children's spoken narratives were coded to assess their verbal and nonverbal creativity. The psychometric properties of the coding system for the spoken narrative assessment were…
Sanden, Guro Refsum
Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...
Van Heerden, C
Full Text Available Spoken dialogue systems (SDSs) have great potential for information access in the developing world. However, the realisation of that potential requires the solution of several challenging problems, including the development of sufficiently accurate...
Full Text Available In the article the author determines the concept of the technology of forming linguomethodological competence of prospective Ukrainian language teachers. The technology of forming the prospective Ukrainian language teachers’ linguomethodological competence in the process of their professional training is theoretically grounded: it consists of the targeted, content, technology and procedure, and effective stages. Experimental teaching was organized taking into account the pedagogical conditions and included the following forms and methods of work: problem lectures, discussions, round tables, simulation games, portfolio, project work, and testing. As a part of implementing the technology we have actively applied the specific methods of forming linguomethodological competence, such as the method of observing and analyzing linguomethodological activities, the method of modelling linguomethodological activities and training linguomethodological activities in the real conditions. The efficiency of the technology of forming linguomethodological competence of prospective Ukrainian language teachers in interrelation with monitoring of its quality was practically tested taking into account the specified criteria (cognitive, operational and activity, motivational and cultural and the indicators and levels of the concept. The developed technology of forming future Ukrainian language teachers’ linguomethodological competence allows to illustrate the progress of the process under study, demonstrates the functioning of all its components in close relationship. The proposed technology can be added and is not meant to finally solve the problem of forming linguomethodological competence of future Ukrainian language teachers; it can be improved theoretically and experimentally in the future and adapted and used by universities according to field of study.
Morales, Luis; Paolieri, Daniela; Dussias, Paola E.; Valdés kroff, Jorge R.; Gerfen, Chip; Bajo, María Teresa
We investigate the ‘gender-congruency’ effect during a spoken-word recognition task using the visual world paradigm. Eye movements of Italian–Spanish bilinguals and Spanish monolinguals were monitored while they viewed a pair of objects on a computer screen. Participants listened to instructions in Spanish (encuentra la bufanda / ‘find the scarf’) and clicked on the object named in the instruction. Grammatical gender of the objects’ name was manipulated so that pairs of objects had the same (congruent) or different (incongruent) gender in Italian, but gender in Spanish was always congruent. Results showed that bilinguals, but not monolinguals, looked at target objects less when they were incongruent in gender, suggesting a between-language gender competition effect. In addition, bilinguals looked at target objects more when the definite article in the spoken instructions provided a valid cue to anticipate its selection (different-gender condition). The temporal dynamics of gender processing and cross-language activation in bilinguals are discussed. PMID:28018132
Gençtürk, Abdullah Tarik; Korucu, Agah Tugrul
It is observed that teacher candidates receiving education in the department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education are not able to gain enough experience and knowledge in "Programming Languages" lesson. The goal of this study is to analyse the effects of web 2.0 technologies usage in programming languages lesson on the…
Full Text Available Casual mention of teaching technology subjects in Estonian schools dates back several centuries. Navigation and construction were amongthe earliest professional skills that were taught. As both of them required mathematical thinking skills, teaching the subjects was usually accompanied by explaining the principles of mathematics. The first technology book in Estonian was published about two centuries ago and it dealed with geodesy. The earliest Estonian glossaries of technological terminology were published in the fields of physics and chemistry. The rise of Estonian as a language of higher education and science in the country came about in the 1920s and 1930s. Faculty members of the Tallinn School of Technology then published the first textbooks composed in the Estonian language for students of technology. The Estonian Society for Technology and the Estonian Association of Engineers became seriously involved in linguistic activities. Together with the Vocational Teachers’ Assembly of Tartu they published an illustrated technology glossary for machinery and tools terms. It was followed by a glossary of construction and building terms, compiled under the lead of the University of Technology. In addition, journals of technology introducedinnovations in the lexicon of technology to the general public. The postwar period in the development of the lexicon of technical terms was of little significance at first. A surge in language creativity could be detected in the 1960s, when terminology became a target of constantly growing attention to the development of technology lexicon. Series of technology glossaries were published. This tendency has continued to this day.
Chen, Jen Jun; Yang, Shu Ching
The main aim of learning English as an international language is to effectively communicate with people from other cultures. In Taiwan, learners have few opportunities to experience cross-cultural communication in English. To create an authentic EFL classroom, this one-year action research study carried out three collaborative intercultural…
Justifying Innovative Language Programs in an Environment of Change: The Case of Communication Skills in Kenyan Universities · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Kibiwott P. Kurgat, 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jolte.v2i1.51986 ...
Billington, J.; Christensen, S.; Hee, van K.M.; Kindler, E.; Kummer, O.; Petrucci, L.; Post, R.D.J.; Stehno, C.; Weber, M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Best, E.
The Petri Net Markup Language (PNML) is an XML-based interchange format for Petri nets. In order to support different versions of Petri nets and, in particular, future versions of Petri nets, PNML allows the definition of Petri net types.Due to this flexibility, PNML is a starting point for a
Language in education and the role of applied linguistics in Kenya · EMAIL FREE ... Influence of Managerial Accounting Skills on SME's on the Success and Growth ... Youth in conflict in the Horn of Africa: A comparative analysis of mungiki in ...
Roisin P. Corcoran
Full Text Available This paper describes the use of technology to provide virtual professional development (VPD for teachers and to conduct classroom observations in a study of English Language Learner (ELL instruction in grades K–3. The technology applications were part of a cluster randomized control trial (RCT design for a federally funded longitudinal validation study of a particular program, English Language and Literacy Acquisition-Validation, ELLA- V, to determine its degree of impact on English oral language/literacy, reading, and science across 63 randomly assigned urban, suburban, and rural schools (first year of implementation. ELLA-V also examines the impact of bimonthly VPD for treatment teachers compared to comparison group teachers on pedagogical skills, measured by sound observation instruments, and on student achievement, measured by state/national English language/literacy/reading tests and a national science test. This study features extensive technology use via virtual observations, bimonthly VPD, and randomly assigned treatment and control schools with students served in English as second language (ESL instructional time. The study design and methodology are discussed relativeto the specialized uses of technology and issues involving the evaluation of technology’s contribution to the intervention of interest and of the efficient, cost-effective execution of the study.
Murray, Denise E
Provides a wide-ranging survey of the sociolinguistic issues raised by the impact of information technology. The author demonstrates how and in which ways the new technologies both affect human communication and are in turn affected by the way people communicate using the technologies.
Sherwood, Bruce Arne
Explains that reading English among Scientists is almost universal, however, there are enormous problems with spoken English. Advocates the use of Esperanto as a viable alternative, and as a language requirement for graduate work. (GA)
Williams, Wendy R.
This article discusses the arts, multimodality, and new technologies in English language arts. It then turns to the example of the illuminated text--a multimodal book report consisting of animated text, music, and images--to consider how art, multimodality, and technology can work together to support students' reading of literature and inspire…
Lee, Cynthia; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Ip, Tiffany
Computer technology provides spaces and locales for language learning. However, learning style preference and demographic variables may affect the effectiveness of technology use for a desired goal. Adapting Reid's pioneering Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ), this study investigated the relations of university students'…
Digital media technology has become an integral part of daily life for almost all young students, and for the majority of Saudi EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students. Digital media technology may not be limited to one or two kinds; it has various types such as software and programs, devices, application, websites, social media tools, etc.…
Parvin, Ruxana Hossain; Salam, Shaikh Flint
Across the globe, governments of different countries have recognized the importance and value of digital technologies in language learning. This article is based on the pilot project of Save the Children using information and communication technology (ICT) in education. Through this initiative, interactive multimedia software based on national…
Mariia A. Umryk
Full Text Available In the research it was reviewed the use of distance learning technologies in the organization of research tasks while studying modern programming languages. The article contains an example of a training project on the subject "Modern programming languages". The authors argue the necessity of the use of modern information and communication technologies, in particular in modern programming languages distance learning, for the formation of students' 21st century skills that are essential in the process of programming (it is skills such as self-organization and self-discipline, communication skills, teamwork skills etc.. It is pointed out the structural units of the training project in accordance with the use of distance learning technologies. It is described the general characteristics and the use of appropriate methods of modern information and communication technologies.
Full Text Available This article explores the role played by body language in recent examples of popular culture and political news coverage as a means of highlighting the poten-tially deceptive haracter of speech and promising to bypass it altogether. It situ-ates the promise of "visceral literacy" - the alleged ability to read inner emotions and dispositions - within emerging surveillance practices and the landscapes of risk they navigate. At the same time, it describes portrayals of body language analysis as characteristic of an emerging genre of "securitainment" that instructs viewers in monitoring techniques as it entertains and informs them. Body lan-guage ends up caught in the symbolic impasse it sought to avoid: as soon as it is portrayed as a language that can be learned and consciously "spoken" it falls prey to the potential for deceit. The article's conclusion considers the way in which emerging technologies attempt to address this impasse, bypassing the attempt to infer underlying signification altogether.
This study examined the effects of preceding contextual stimuli, either auditory or visual, on the identification of spoken target words. Fifty-one participants (29% males, 71% females; mean age = 24.5 years, SD = 8.5) were divided into three groups: no context, auditory context, and visual context. All target stimuli were spoken words masked with white noise. The relationships between the context and target stimuli were as follows: identical word, similar word, and unrelated word. Participants presented with context experienced a sequence of six context stimuli in the form of either spoken words or photographs. Auditory and visual context conditions produced similar results, but the auditory context aided word identification more than the visual context in the similar word relationship. We discuss these results in the light of top-down processing, motor theory, and the phonological system of language.
Cai, Tianrun; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Yu, Sheng; Kelil, Tatiana; Ripley, Beth; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; Rybicki, Frank J.
The migration of imaging reports to electronic medical record systems holds great potential in terms of advancing radiology research and practice by leveraging the large volume of data continuously being updated, integrated, and shared. However, there are significant challenges as well, largely due to the heterogeneity of how these data are formatted. Indeed, although there is movement toward structured reporting in radiology (ie, hierarchically itemized reporting with use of standardized terminology), the majority of radiology reports remain unstructured and use free-form language. To effectively “mine” these large datasets for hypothesis testing, a robust strategy for extracting the necessary information is needed. Manual extraction of information is a time-consuming and often unmanageable task. “Intelligent” search engines that instead rely on natural language processing (NLP), a computer-based approach to analyzing free-form text or speech, can be used to automate this data mining task. The overall goal of NLP is to translate natural human language into a structured format (ie, a fixed collection of elements), each with a standardized set of choices for its value, that is easily manipulated by computer programs to (among other things) order into subcategories or query for the presence or absence of a finding. The authors review the fundamentals of NLP and describe various techniques that constitute NLP in radiology, along with some key applications. ©RSNA, 2016 PMID:26761536
Cai, Tianrun; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Yu, Sheng; Kelil, Tatiana; Ripley, Beth; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitrios
The migration of imaging reports to electronic medical record systems holds great potential in terms of advancing radiology research and practice by leveraging the large volume of data continuously being updated, integrated, and shared. However, there are significant challenges as well, largely due to the heterogeneity of how these data are formatted. Indeed, although there is movement toward structured reporting in radiology (ie, hierarchically itemized reporting with use of standardized terminology), the majority of radiology reports remain unstructured and use free-form language. To effectively "mine" these large datasets for hypothesis testing, a robust strategy for extracting the necessary information is needed. Manual extraction of information is a time-consuming and often unmanageable task. "Intelligent" search engines that instead rely on natural language processing (NLP), a computer-based approach to analyzing free-form text or speech, can be used to automate this data mining task. The overall goal of NLP is to translate natural human language into a structured format (ie, a fixed collection of elements), each with a standardized set of choices for its value, that is easily manipulated by computer programs to (among other things) order into subcategories or query for the presence or absence of a finding. The authors review the fundamentals of NLP and describe various techniques that constitute NLP in radiology, along with some key applications. ©RSNA, 2016.
Crane, Paul K; Gruhl, Jonathan C; Erosheva, Elena A; Gibbons, Laura E; McCurry, Susan M; Rhoads, Kristoffer; Nguyen, Viet; Arani, Keerthi; Masaki, Kamal; White, Lon
Spoken bilingualism may be associated with cognitive reserve. Mastering a complicated written language may be associated with additional reserve. We sought to determine if midlife use of spoken and written Japanese was associated with lower rates of late life cognitive decline. Participants were second-generation Japanese-American men from the Hawaiian island of Oahu, born 1900-1919, free of dementia in 1991, and categorized based on midlife self-reported use of spoken and written Japanese (total n included in primary analysis = 2,520). Cognitive functioning was measured with the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument scored using item response theory. We used mixed effects models, controlling for age, income, education, smoking status, apolipoprotein E e4 alleles, and number of study visits. Rates of cognitive decline were not related to use of spoken or written Japanese. This finding was consistent across numerous sensitivity analyses. We did not find evidence to support the hypothesis that multilingualism is associated with cognitive reserve.
Interferência da língua falada na escrita de crianças: processos de apagamento da oclusiva dental /d/ e da vibrante final /r/ Interference of the spoken language on children's writing: cancellation processes of the dental occlusive /d/ and final vibrant /r/
Socorro Cláudia Tavares de Sousa
Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a influência da língua falada na escrita de crianças em relação aos fenômenos do cancelamento da dental /d/ e da vibrante final /r/. Elaboramos e aplicamos um instrumento de pesquisa em alunos do Ensino Fundamental em escolas de Fortaleza. Para a análise dos dados obtidos, utilizamos o software SPSS. Os resultados nos revelaram que o sexo masculino e as palavras polissílabas são fatores que influenciam, de forma parcial, a realização da variável dependente /no/ e que os verbos e o nível de escolaridade são elementos condicionadores para o cancelamento da vibrante final /r/.The present study aims to investigate the influence of the spoken language in children's writing in relation to the phenomena of cancellation of dental /d/ and final vibrant /r/. We elaborated and applied a research instrument to children from primary school in Fortaleza. We used the software SPSS to analyze the data. The results showed that the male sex and the words which have three or more syllable are factors that influence, in part, the realization of the dependent variable /no/ and that verbs and level of education are conditioners elements for the cancellation of the final vibrant /r/.
Stickland, Michael G.; Conrad, Gregory N.; Eaton, Shelley M.
Natural language processing-based knowledge management software, traditionally developed for security organizations, is now becoming commercially available. An informal survey was conducted to discover and examine current NLP and related technologies and potential applications for information retrieval, information extraction, summarization, categorization, terminology management, link analysis, and visualization for possible implementation at Sandia National Laboratories. This report documents our current understanding of the technologies, lists software vendors and their products, and identifies potential applications of these technologies.
This article describes two emerging technologies--Skype and podcasting. Both Skype and podcasting can be considered "disruptive technologies" in that they allow for new and different ways of doing familiar tasks, and in the process, may threaten traditional industries. Skype, the "people's telephone," is a free, Internet-based alternative to…
Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to cover some of the issues of using information and commu-nication technologies (ICT in foreign languages teaching and learning (FLT/FLL on the basis of intercultural approach. The facilities of Internet along with computer programs, audio and video devices, interactive whiteboards and telecommunications are considered. Special attention is given to the peculiarities of telecommunication projects; the example of telecommunication project realization is represented. The advantages and disadvantages of distance language learning are considered. Besides, some difÞ culties that students and teachers come across during ICT-supported language education are also discussed.
This article explores the implications of Hegel's theories of language on second language (L2) teaching. Three among the various concepts in Hegel's theories of language are selected. They are the crucial role of intersubjectivity; the primacy of the spoken over the written form; and the importance of the training of form or grammar. Applying…
Schuit, J.; Baker, A.; Pfau, R.
Sign language typology is a fairly new research field and typological classifications have yet to be established. For spoken languages, these classifications are generally based on typological parameters; it would thus be desirable to establish these for sign languages. In this paper, different
Full Text Available The online course offerings have grown exponentially globally since the turn of the 21st century - be they as a primary mode of instruction or as a supplement to traditional face-to-face classroom instruction, and this phenomenon is most noticeable in higher education. More recently, the new technology has also been integrated into the English as a Foreign Language,henceforth called EFL, classrooms. This article argues that the notion of technology-enhanced language learning is not just an intriguing idea – it is a necessity, for it has a great potential to offer in facilitating the development of English language proficiency of EFL learners through computer-mediated communication. Additionally, it contends that the new technology can potentially address most, if not all, of the shortcomings inherent to the EFL classroom including, but not limited to, lack of exposure to the target language, lack of practice, and lack of learning resources. Theoretical implications of technology-enhanced language teaching and learning will also be explored.
information communication technology (ICT) experience on the success and ... We contend that managerial capabilities have a critical impact on decision making .... qualified internal accounting staff, proactive external accountants and .... Management Control systems embraces a variety of activities undertaken by middle.
Evseeva, Arina Mikhailovna; Solozhenko, Anton
The flipped classroom as a key component of blended learning arouses great interest among researchers and educators nowadays. The technology of flipped classroom implies such organization of the educational process in which classroom activities and homework assignments are reversed. The present paper gives the overview of the flipped classroom technology and explores its potential for both teachers and students. The authors present the results obtained from the experience of the flipped class...
domain adaptation, unsupervised learning , deep neural networks, bottleneck features 1. Introduction and task Spoken language identification (LID) is...the process of identifying the language in a spoken speech utterance. In recent years, great improvements in LID system performance have been seen...be the case in practice. Lastly, we conduct an out-of-set experiment where VoA data from 9 other languages (Amharic, Creole, Croatian, English
Kalt, Susan E.
Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Quechua is the largest indigenous language family to constitute the first language (L1) of second language (L2) Spanish speakers. Despite sheer number of speakers and typologically interesting contrasts, Quechua-Spanish second language acquisition is a nearly untapped research area,…
González-Alvarez, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Angeles
Research has shown that syllables play a relevant role in lexical access in Spanish, a shallow language with a transparent syllabic structure. Syllable frequency has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on visual word recognition in Spanish. However, no study has examined the syllable frequency effect on spoken word recognition. The present study tested the effect of the frequency of the first syllable on recognition of spoken Spanish words. A sample of 45 young adults (33 women, 12 men; M = 20.4, SD = 2.8; college students) performed an auditory lexical decision on 128 Spanish disyllabic words and 128 disyllabic nonwords. Words were selected so that lexical and first syllable frequency were manipulated in a within-subject 2 × 2 design, and six additional independent variables were controlled: token positional frequency of the second syllable, number of phonemes, position of lexical stress, number of phonological neighbors, number of phonological neighbors that have higher frequencies than the word, and acoustical durations measured in milliseconds. Decision latencies and error rates were submitted to linear mixed models analysis. Results showed a typical facilitatory effect of the lexical frequency and, importantly, an inhibitory effect of the first syllable frequency on reaction times and error rates. © The Author(s) 2016.
Olsen, Daniel J.
While speech analysis technology has become an integral part of phonetic research, and to some degree is used in language instruction at the most advanced levels, it appears to be mostly absent from the beginning levels of language instruction. In part, the lack of incorporation into the language classroom can be attributed to both the lack of…
Ngo, Hong T. P.
Given breakthroughs in information and communication technologies (ICTs), language learners are increasingly presented with opportunities to advance their proficiency in a target language (herein English as a foreign language or EFL). The attitudes of learners toward the use of ICTs (ICT attitudes) can be predictive of their adoption of ICTs for…
Norris, Lindy; Coutas, Penelope
The rhetoric around global connectedness and advances in information communication technologies (ICTs) suggests that: Professional life for the marginalised and isolated language teacher should be easier; the experience of language learners in Australian schools should be more meaningful and bring them closer to the languages and communities that…
Kenyan Sign Language (KSL) is a visual gestural language used by members of the deaf community in Kenya. Kiswahili on the other hand is a Bantu language that is used as the national language of Kenya. The two are world's apart, one being a spoken language and the other a signed language and thus their “… basic ...
Full Text Available Middlebury Interactive Language (MIL programs are designed to teach world language courses using blended and online learning for students in kindergarten through grade 12. Middlebury Interactive courses start with fundamental building blocks in four key areas of world-language study: listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. As students progress through the course levels, they deepen their understanding of the target language, continuing to focus on the three modes of communication: interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational. The extensive use of authentic materials (video, audio, images, or texts is intended to provide a contextualized and interactive presentation of the vocabulary and the linguistic structures. In the present paper, we describe the MIL program and the results of a mixed-methods survey and case-study evaluation of its implementation in a broad sample of schools. Technology application is examined with regard to MIL instructional strategies and the present evaluation approach relative to those employed in the literature.
I. B. Tampel
Full Text Available The article deals with the various ways of application for automatic speech recognition, Text-to-Speech technology, pronunciation and communication skills training, vocabulary check of the taught person, audition skills training in computer aided language learning (CALL-system. In spite of some constraints such technologies application is effective both for education problems simplification and for comfort growth of the system application.
Sasi, Sabri; Chang, Maiga; Altinay-Aksal, Fahriye; Kayimbasioglu, Dervis; Dervis, Huseyin; Kinshuk; Altinay-Gazi, Zehra
Early childhood quality education is a cornerstone in educational development. Many countries have started to develop their own preschool educational system in accordance with the European Union Standards, where learning English language and using technology are prerequisites. In this research, the peace context was used as a mediator for learning…
Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep
The purpose of this study was to inform about some of the current applications and literature on Augmented Reality (AR) technology in education and to present experimental data about the effectiveness of AR application in a language classroom at the elementary level in Turkey. The research design of the study was quasi-experimental. Sixty-one 5th…
Describes the computer as a hammer, a tool with unique qualities that allows people to perceive, manipulate, and express language in ways quite different from traditional media. Explores the tool of the multimedia presentation, a common use of technology in classrooms today. Describes a simple project with sixth graders that incorporates reading,…
A kindergarten teacher, two preservice teachers, and a college consultant on educational computer technology designed and developed a 10-day whole-language integrated unit on the theme of Beatrix Potter's "Benjamin Bunny." The project was designed as a demonstration of the potential of integrating the CD-ROM-based version of…
Agelyia a/p Murugan
Full Text Available Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL by using devices such as mobile phones is an ideal learning platform for learners to acquire language and share knowledge beyond the confines of a fixed location. By utilising the mobile applications available via smartphone, learners can engage in collaborative networks and find information that they need in a variety of diverse environments. This paper shares the findings of a research at UiTM to determine the technological readiness of the students by measuring their digital skills using the Digital Competence Framework (EU. 50 students from the English language proficiency course were purposively sampled because they have been exposed to MALL by their lecturer participated in this research. Their responses were collected through an online questionnaire. The findings showed that all 50 of the students owned a smartphone. 82.6% of the students did not attend any training on how to use the smartphones. 80.4% of the students have their own storing strategies and nearly 90% of the students reported having the following technological skills in operating their smartphone such as accessing applications, ability to record, share and produce technological resources. The findings reiterate that to ensure successful MALL, educators need to be aware of the background and technological skills of the learners before embedding m-learning into the English Language lessons. View it in PDF
Al Musawi, Ali; Al Hashmi, Abdullah; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al Busaidi, Fatima; Al Khaifi, Salim
This study is part of a 3-year strategic research project to measure the effectiveness of the design and use of new software for learning Arabic. However, this paper's particular objective is to evaluate the use of technology in the Omani basic education schools as it is perceived by the Arabic language teachers. The study follows the descriptive…
Firdyiwek, Yitna; Scida, Emily E.
This study reports on a sequence of iterative redesigns of a graduate-level foreign language teacher education course. The study describes the interplay between technology and pedagogy that resulted in important curricular changes, from a focus on individual to social and then holistic reflection. Using a team-based design model, instructional…
Van Praag, Benjamin; Sanchez, Hugo Santiago
Adopting a multiple-case, multiple-method design, this study investigates mobile technology use in the practices of three experienced second language teachers. The findings, based on an analysis of the teachers' rationales, stated beliefs and classroom actions, show that the teachers tend to prohibit or reluctantly tolerate mobile device usage,…
Specific features of the Galician language and implications for speech technology development correspondence: Corresponding author. (Banga, Eduardo Rodriguez) (Banga, Eduardo Rodriguez) Dpto. Filoloxia Galega. Universidade de Santiago. Santiago de Compostela. Spain - (Gonzalez, Manuel Gonzalez) Dpto. Teoria de la Se?al y Comunicaciones. Universidad de Vigo. Vigo. Spain - (Banga, Eduardo Rodriguez) SPAIN (Banga...
Garcia Laborda, Jesus; Magal Royo, Teresa; Barcena Madera, Elena
Over the few years, computer based language testing has become prevailing worldwide. The number of institutions the use computers as the main means of delivery has increased dramatically. Many students face each day tests for well-known high-stakes decisions which imply the knowledge and ability to use technology to provide evidence of language…
Full Text Available Technology-enhanced multimedia instruction offers benefits for foreign language learners. Despite having much potential, technology itself is neither effective or nor effective, but teachers play a key role in determining its effectiveness because they are in charge of making instructional decisions and choose whether and how to use technology. This article fills a gap in the literature by reporting findings of a mixed methods study of technology- enhanced multimedia instruction in middle and high school foreign language classrooms. Convergent parallel mixed methods design was applied in this study and data was collected through quantitative survey and qualitative semi-structured interviews with teachers. Results from the study indicated a significant positive correlation between variables that contribute to the use of technology-enhanced multimedia instruction in foreign language classrooms and described effective technology-enhanced multimedia practices. The findings of the study have implications for teachers, administrators and faculty of teacher preparation programs as well as state teacher education policy makers.
Brøndsted, Tom; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Larsen, Lars Bo
window focused over the part which most likely contains an answer to the query. The two systems are integrated into a full spoken query answering system. The prototype can answer queries and questions within the chosen football (soccer) test domain, but the system has the flexibility for being ported...
PARKER, GARY J.; SOLA, DONALD F.
THE ESSENTIALS OF AYACUCHO GRAMMAR WERE PRESENTED IN THE FIRST VOLUME OF THIS SERIES, SPOKEN AYACUCHO QUECHUA, UNITS 1-10. THE 10 UNITS IN THIS VOLUME (11-20) ARE INTENDED FOR USE IN AN INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED COURSE, AND PRESENT THE STUDENT WITH LENGTHIER AND MORE COMPLEX DIALOGS, CONVERSATIONS, "LISTENING-INS," AND DICTATIONS AS WELL…
SOLA, DONALD F.; AND OTHERS
THIS SECOND VOLUME OF AN INTRODUCTORY COURSE IN SPOKEN CUZCO QUECHUA ALSO COMPRISES ENOUGH MATERIAL FOR ONE INTENSIVE SUMMER SESSION COURSE OR ONE SEMESTER OF SEMI-INTENSIVE INSTRUCTION (120 CLASS HOURS). THE METHOD OF PRESENTATION IS ESSENTIALLY THE SAME AS IN THE FIRST VOLUME WITH FURTHER CONTRASTIVE, LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH-QUECHUA…
LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.
UNITS 13-24 OF THE SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA COURSE FOLLOW THE GENERAL FORMAT OF THE FIRST VOLUME (UNITS 1-12). THIS SECOND VOLUME IS INTENDED FOR USE IN AN INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED COURSE AND INCLUDES MORE COMPLEX DIALOGS, CONVERSATIONS, "LISTENING-INS," AND DICTATIONS, AS WELL AS GRAMMAR AND EXERCISE SECTIONS COVERING ADDITIONAL…
PARKER, GARY J.; SOLA, DONALD F.
THIS BEGINNING COURSE IN AYACUCHO QUECHUA, SPOKEN BY ABOUT A MILLION PEOPLE IN SOUTH-CENTRAL PERU, WAS PREPARED TO INTRODUCE THE PHONOLOGY AND GRAMMAR OF THIS DIALECT TO SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH. THE FIRST OF TWO VOLUMES, IT SERVES AS A TEXT FOR A 6-WEEK INTENSIVE COURSE OF 20 CLASS HOURS A WEEK. THE AUTHORS COMPARE AND CONTRAST SIGNIFICANT FEATURES OF…
Thomas, Earl W.
This is a first-year text of Portuguese grammar based on the Portuguese of moderately educated Brazilians from the area around Rio de Janeiro. Spoken idiomatic usage is emphasized. An important innovation is found in the presentation of verb tenses; they are presented in the order in which the native speaker learns them. The text is intended to…
Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Heeren, W.F.L.; Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Larson, M; Fernie, K; Oomen, J; Cigarran, J.
This paper presents and discusses ongoing work aiming at affordable disclosure of real-world spoken word archives in general, and in particular of a collection of recorded interviews with Dutch survivors of World War II concentration camp Buchenwald. Given such collections, the least we want to be
Larson, M; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Heeren, W.F.L.; Fernie, K; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Oomen, J; Hiemstra, Djoerd
This paper presents and discusses ongoing work aiming at affordable disclosure of real-world spoken heritage archives in general, and in particular of a collection of recorded interviews with Dutch survivors of World War II concentration camp Buchenwald. Given such collections, we at least want to
This study expands contemporary theorising about students' conceptions of equality. A nationally representative sample of New Zealand students' were asked to provide a spoken numerical response and an explanation as they solved an arithmetic additive missing number problem. Students' responses were conceptualised as acts of communication and…
Many reports suggest that the use of education technology can have a positive effect on language education. However, most of the research indicates that there is need for more detailed understanding of the pedagogical processes that support technology-enhanced language learning. This text takes a social semiotic perspective to examine multimodal…
Lai, Chun; Shum, Mark; Tian, Yan
Enhancing self-directed use of technology for language learning is essential for maximizing the potential of technology for language learning. Understanding how to construct learner training to promote this critical competency is of great significance. This study examined the effectiveness of an online training platform aimed at enhancing the…
Chau, Juliana; Lee, Alfred
The range and number of technologies currently available have yielded both opportunities and challenges for language educators. This study aims to review recent technology-enhanced language learning (TeLL) research, and to examine their potential relevance to EAP pedagogy, curricula, assessment and instruction. The results of this study show TeLL…
Percy-Smith, Lone; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Breinegaard, Nina
The present study demonstrates a very strong effect of the parental communication mode on the auditory capabilities and speech/language outcome for cochlear implanted children. The children exposed to spoken language had higher odds of scoring high in all tests applied and the findings suggest...... a very clear benefit of spoken language communication with a cochlear implanted child....
This study addresses the issue of promoting effective Business Spoken English of Enterprise Staff in China.It aims to assess the assessment of spoken English learning methods and identify the difficulties of learning English oral expression concerned business area.It also provides strategies for enhancing Enterprise Staff’s level of Business Spoken English.
Sridhar, Kamal K.
Language and literacy issues in India are reviewed in terms of background, steps taken to combat illiteracy, and some problems associated with literacy. The following facts are noted: India has 106 languages spoken by more than 685 million people, there are several minor script systems, a major language has different dialects, a language may use…
Tatiana V. Masharova
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to consider the problem of the improvement of the students-managers linguistic competence.Methods. The analysis of the features of the linguistic competence formation of the future managers with the help of critical thinking technology was used at the initial stage. The model of the organization of the effective foreign language practicals is developed by means of pedagogical simulation. The testing of the control and the experimental groups with the future statistical data processing is used to evaluate the developed model effectiveness.Results. Methods and teaching techniques are used in compliance with each stage of cognitive activity. The necessary requirements while the organization and the conducting of the foreign language practicals when critical thinking skills learning are stated. The role of the professionally-oriented foreign texts in the higher educational institutions for the critical thinking development and the improvement of the future managers’ linguistic competence is identified.Scientific novelty. A model of foreign language practicals for students of economics using the stages of cognitive activity and methods and techniques of critical thinking is developed. The dependence between the requirements for foreign language practicals and information mastery level is defined.Practical significance. The complex of foreign language practicals for students of economics increasing the level of language training is developed on the basis of theoretical survey and experimental data.
Full Text Available The effects of word frequency and syllable frequency are well-established phenomena in domain such as spoken production in alphabetic languages. Chinese, as a non-alphabetic language, presents unique lexical and phonological properties in speech production. For example, the proximate unit of phonological encoding is syllable in Chinese but segments in Dutch, French or English. The present study investigated the effects of word frequency and syllable frequency, and their interaction in Chinese written and spoken production. Significant facilitatory word frequency and syllable frequency effects were observed in spoken as well as in written production. The syllable frequency effect in writing indicated that phonological properties (i.e., syllabic frequency constrain orthographic output via a lexical route, at least, in Chinese written production. However, the syllable frequency effect over repetitions was divergent in both modalities: it was significant in the former two repetitions in spoken whereas it was significant in the second repetition only in written. Due to the fragility of the syllable frequency effect in writing, we suggest that the phonological influence in handwritten production is not mandatory and universal, and it is modulated by experimental manipulations. This provides evidence for the orthographic autonomy hypothesis, rather than the phonological mediation hypothesis. The absence of an interaction between word frequency and syllable frequency showed that the syllable frequency effect is independent of the word frequency effect in spoken and written output modalities. The implications of these results on written production models are discussed.
Jones, -A C; Toscano, E; Botting, N; Marshall, C-R; Atkinson, J R; Denmark, T; Herman, -R; Morgan, G
Previous research has highlighted that deaf children acquiring spoken English have difficulties in narrative development relative to their hearing peers both in terms of macro-structure and with micro-structural devices. The majority of previous research focused on narrative tasks designed for hearing children that depend on good receptive language skills. The current study compared narratives of 6 to 11-year-old deaf children who use spoken English (N=59) with matched for age and non-verbal intelligence hearing peers. To examine the role of general language abilities, single word vocabulary was also assessed. Narratives were elicited by the retelling of a story presented non-verbally in video format. Results showed that deaf and hearing children had equivalent macro-structure skills, but the deaf group showed poorer performance on micro-structural components. Furthermore, the deaf group gave less detailed responses to inferencing probe questions indicating poorer understanding of the story's underlying message. For deaf children, micro-level devices most strongly correlated with the vocabulary measure. These findings suggest that deaf children, despite spoken language delays, are able to convey the main elements of content and structure in narrative but have greater difficulty in using grammatical devices more dependent on finer linguistic and pragmatic skills. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wiseheart, Rebecca; Altmann, Lori J P
Individuals with dyslexia demonstrate syntactic difficulties on tasks of language comprehension, yet little is known about spoken language production in this population. To investigate whether spoken sentence production in college students with dyslexia is less proficient than in typical readers, and to determine whether group differences can be attributable to cognitive differences between groups. Fifty-one college students with and without dyslexia were asked to produce sentences from stimuli comprising a verb and two nouns. Verb types varied in argument structure and morphological form and nouns varied in animacy. Outcome measures were precision (measured by fluency, grammaticality and completeness) and efficiency (measured by response times). Vocabulary and working memory tests were also administered and used as predictors of sentence production performance. Relative to non-dyslexic peers, students with dyslexia responded significantly slower and produced sentences that were significantly less precise in terms of fluency, grammaticality and completeness. The primary predictors of precision and efficiency were working memory, which differed between groups, and vocabulary, which did not. College students with dyslexia were significantly less facile and flexible on this spoken sentence-production task than typical readers, which is consistent with previous studies of school-age children with dyslexia. Group differences in performance were traced primarily to limited working memory, and were somewhat mitigated by strong vocabulary. © 2017 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Full Text Available Technological advances have brought about the ever-increasing utilisation of computer-assisted language learning (CALL media in the learning of a second language (L2. Computer-mediated communication, for example, provides a practical means for extending the learning of spoken language, a challenging process in tonal languages such as Chinese, beyond the realms of the classroom. In order to effectively improve spoken language competency, however, CALL applications must also reproduce the social interaction that lies at the heart of language learning and language use. This study draws on data obtained from the utilisation of CALL in the learning of L2 Chinese to explore whether this medium can be used to extend opportunities for rapport-building in language teaching beyond the face-to-face interaction of the classroom. Rapport's importance lies in its potential to enhance learning, motivate learners, and reduce learner anxiety. To date, CALL's potential in relation to this facet of social interaction remains a neglected area of research. The results of this exploratory study suggest that CALL may help foster learner-teacher rapport and that scaffolding, such as strategically composing rapport-fostering questions in sound-files, is conducive to this outcome. The study provides an instruction model for this application of CALL.
Massaro, Dominic W
I review 2 seminal research reports published in this journal during its second decade more than a century ago. Given psychology's subdisciplines, they would not normally be reviewed together because one involves reading and the other speech perception. The small amount of interaction between these domains might have limited research and theoretical progress. In fact, the 2 early research reports revealed common processes involved in these 2 forms of language processing. Their illustration of the role of Wundt's apperceptive process in reading and speech perception anticipated descriptions of contemporary theories of pattern recognition, such as the fuzzy logical model of perception. Based on the commonalities between reading and listening, one can question why they have been viewed so differently. It is commonly believed that learning to read requires formal instruction and schooling, whereas spoken language is acquired from birth onward through natural interactions with people who talk. Most researchers and educators believe that spoken language is acquired naturally from birth onward and even prenatally. Learning to read, on the other hand, is not possible until the child has acquired spoken language, reaches school age, and receives formal instruction. If an appropriate form of written text is made available early in a child's life, however, the current hypothesis is that reading will also be learned inductively and emerge naturally, with no significant negative consequences. If this proposal is true, it should soon be possible to create an interactive system, Technology Assisted Reading Acquisition, to allow children to acquire literacy naturally.
Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of the interactive technologies of foreign language teaching in future marine specialists’ training in the Danube river basin universities. The author gives definitions of the most popular interactive technologies aimed to form communicative competence as a significant component of future mariners’ key competencies. Typology and analysis of some interactive technologies of foreign language teaching in future marine specialists’ training are provided.
Marshall, Chloë; Mason, Kathryn; Rowley, Katherine; Herman, Rosalind; Atkinson, Joanna; Woll, Bencie; Morgan, Gary
Children with specific language impairment (SLI) perform poorly on sentence repetition tasks across different spoken languages, but until now, this methodology has not been investigated in children who have SLI in a signed language. Users of a natural sign language encode different sentence meanings through their choice of signs and by altering…
Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Leeuwe, Jan; van Balkom, Hans
In this study, we investigated which componential skills can be distinguished in the second language (L2) development of 140 bilingual children with specific language impairment in the Netherlands, aged 6-11 years, divided into 3 age groups. L2 development was assessed by means of spoken language tasks representing different language skills…
This article reports on a survey with 170 school-age children growing up with two or more languages in the Canadian province of Ontario where English is the majority language, French is a minority language, and numerous other minority languages may be spoken by immigrant or Indigenous residents. Within this context the study focuses on minority…
Rosset, Sophie; Garnier-Rizet, Martine; Devillers, Laurence; Natural Interaction with Robots, Knowbots and Smartphones : Putting Spoken Dialog Systems into Practice
These proceedings presents the state-of-the-art in spoken dialog systems with applications in robotics, knowledge access and communication. It addresses specifically: 1. Dialog for interacting with smartphones; 2. Dialog for Open Domain knowledge access; 3. Dialog for robot interaction; 4. Mediated dialog (including crosslingual dialog involving Speech Translation); and, 5. Dialog quality evaluation. These articles were presented at the IWSDS 2012 workshop.
Alimi, Modupe M.
Many African countries exhibit complex patterns of language use because of linguistic pluralism. The situation is often compounded by the presence of at least one foreign language that is either the official or second language. The language situation in Botswana depicts this complex pattern. Out of the 26 languages spoken in the country, including…
Robert K. Logan
Full Text Available Logan  in his book The Extended Mind developed the hypothesis that language, culture, technology and science can be treated as organisms that evolve and reproduce themselves. This idea is extended by making use of the notion of teleodynamics that Deacon  introduced and developed in his book Incomplete Nature to explain the nature of life, sentience, mind and a self that acts in its own interest. It is suggested that language, culture, technology and science (LCT&S like living organisms also act in their own self-interest, are self-correcting and are to a certain degree autonomous even though they are obligate symbionts with their human hosts. Specifically, it will be argued that LCT&S are essentially teleodynamic systems, which Deacon defines as “self-creating, self-maintaining, self-reproducing, individuated systems  (p. 325”.
Van Praag, Benjamin; Sanchez, Hugo Santiago
Adopting a multiple-case, multiple-method design, this study investigates mobile technology use in the practices of three experienced second language teachers. The findings, based on an analysis of the teachers' rationales, stated beliefs and classroom actions, show that the teachers tend to prohibit or reluctantly tolerate mobile device usage, while they recognise some of its potential benefits to support their teaching and student learning. They also highlight the incentives and barriers wh...
Shane, Howard C; Laubscher, Emily H; Schlosser, Ralf W; Flynn, Suzanne; Sorce, James F; Abramson, Jennifer
The burgeoning role of technology in society has provided opportunities for the development of new means of communication for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This paper offers an organizational framework for describing traditional and emerging augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technology, and highlights how tools within this framework can support a visual approach to everyday communication and improve language instruction. The growing adoption of handheld media devices along with applications acquired via a consumer-oriented delivery model suggests a potential paradigm shift in AAC for people with ASD.
A brief review of Indian education focuses on special problems caused by overcrowded schools, insufficient funding, and the status of education itself in the Indian social structure. Language instruction in India, a complex issue due largely to the numerous official languages currently spoken, is commented on with special reference to the problem…
Full Text Available This paper reports on the on-going evaluation of a computer-assisted system (CEOTS for the assessing of spoken English skills among Chinese university students. This system is being developed to deal with the negative backwash effects of the present system of assessment of speaking skills which is only available to a tiny minority. We present data from a survey of students at the developing institution (USTC, with follow-up interviews and further interviews with English language teachers, to gauge the reactions to the test and its impact on language learning. We identify the key issue as being one of validity, with a tension existing between construct and consequential validities of the existing system and of CEOTS. We argue that a computer-based system seems to offer the only solution to the negative backwash problem but the development of the technology required to meet current construct validity demands makes this a very long term prospect. We suggest that a compromise between the competing forms of validity must therefore be accepted, probably well before a computer-based system can deliver the level of interaction with the examinees that would emulate the present face-to-face mode.
Andréa Machado de Almeida Mattos
Full Text Available Many researchers, nowadays, have been enthusiastic in promoting the advantages of introducing technology in the language classroom, but few have been worried with the problems and anxieties that result from changes in a long-lasting culture such as the culture of language learning. This paper aims at discussing the problems faced by teachers who have been working with technology in their language classrooms. The research design was based on theoretical and empirical studies both in the areas of Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teacher Development. The main objective of this paper is, thus, to achieve a global understanding of the teachers' anxieties in relation to the virtual environment of language learning. Data was gathered through interviews with the teachers, leading to a qualitative analysis of the findings.Atualmente, muitos pesquisadores têm promovido entusiasticamente as vantagens de se introduzir tecnologia na sala de aula de língua estrangeira (LE, mas poucos têm-se preocupado com os problemas e as ansiedades que resultam de mudanças numa cultura tão antiga quanto a da sala de aula de LE. Este trabalho visa a discutir os problemas enfrentados por professores que trabalham com tecnologia em suas salas de aula de língua. A pesquisa foi baseada em estudos teóricos e empíricos tanto na área de ensino mediado por computador quanto no campo de desenvolvimento de professores. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é, assim, obter um entendimento global das ansiedades do professor em relação ao ambiente virtual de aprendizagem de língua. Os dados foram coletados mediante entrevistas com os professores informantes, levando a uma análise qualitativa dos resultados.
Spoken dialog systems have the potential to offer highly intuitive user interfaces, as they allow systems to be controlled using natural language. However, the complexity inherent in natural language dialogs means that careful testing of the system must be carried out from the very beginning of the design process. This book examines how user models can be used to support such early evaluations in two ways: by running simulations of dialogs, and by estimating the quality judgments of users. First, a design environment supporting the creation of dialog flows, the simulation of dialogs, and the analysis of the simulated data is proposed. How the quality of user simulations may be quantified with respect to their suitability for both formative and summative evaluation is then discussed. The remainder of the book is dedicated to the problem of predicting quality judgments of users based on interaction data. New modeling approaches are presented, which process the dialogs as sequences, and which allow knowl...
Parrott, David L.
The use of virtual world technology for language instruction is a recent development in education. The goal of this study was to provide a functioning 3D environment for German language students to experience as avatars. The student's impressions, attitudes, and perceptions of this learning activity would be recorded and analyzed to see if this…
Zamorshchikova, Lena; Egorova, Olga; Popova, Marina
This paper discusses recent uses of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in fostering Internet-based projects for learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) at the Faculty of Foreign Languages in Yakutsk State University, Russia. It covers the authors' experiences integrating distance education and creating educational resources…
Mafuraga, Mbizo; Moremi, Mbiganyi
The paper discusses how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) could be integrated in the teaching of English Language in Botswana Junior Secondary Schools. It does so by exploring opportunities and challenges faced by teachers of English Language and the students they teach. Fifty five (55) teachers in eleven (11) Junior Secondary Schools…
Gloria Avendaño de Barón
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research project whose aims were the following: to determine the frequency of the use of pronoun forms in polite treatment sumercé, usted and tú, according to differences in gender, age and level of education, among speakers in Tunja; to describe the sociodiscursive variations and to explain the relationship between usage and courtesy. The methodology of the Project for the Sociolinguistic Study of Spanish in Spain and in Latin America (PRESEEA was used, and a sample of 54 speakers was taken. The results indicate that the most frequently used pronoun in Tunja to express friendliness and affection is sumercé, followed by usted and tú; women and men of different generations and levels of education alternate the use of these three forms in the context of narrative, descriptive, argumentative and explanatory speech.
Full Text Available A speech processing system is often required to perform in a different environment than the one for which it was initially developed. In such a case, data from the new environment may be more limited in quantity and of poorer quality than...
10. 10. Content. 25. Conveying interaction between lecturer and students. 5. 5. Managing equipment. Breath control and volume. 5. Intonation and voice quality. Use of coping techniques. Pronunciation and general clarity. Error correction. Fluency of interpreting product (hesitations, silences etc.) Interpreting competency. 15.
André, Elisabeth; Rehm, Matthias; Minker, Wolfgang
While most dialogue systems restrict themselves to the adjustment of the propositional contents, our work concentrates on the generation of stylistic variations in order to improve the user’s perception of the interaction. To accomplish this goal, our approach integrates a social theory of polite...... of politeness with a cognitive theory of emotions. We propose a hierarchical selection process for politeness behaviors in order to enable the refinement of decisions in case additional context information becomes available....
Similarly, we included derivations (mostly plurals and possessives) of many open-class words in the domnain. We also added about 400 concatenated word...UueraiCe’l~ usinig a system of’ ’realization 1111C, %%. hiCh map) thle gr-aimmlatcal relation anl argumlent bears to the head onto thle semantic relatio ...syntactic categories as well. Representations of this form contain significantly more internal structure than specialized sublanguage models. This can be
This study examines whether and how tapping into students' everyday language in a web-based learning environment can improve all students' science learning in linguistically heterogeneous classrooms. A total of 220 fifth-grade English Language Learners (ELLs) and their non-ELL peers were assigned to either an everyday English approach condition or a textbook approach condition, and completed technology-enhanced instruction focusing on respiration and photosynthesis. Students in the everyday English approach condition were taught the concepts in everyday, conversational English before content-specific scientific terms were introduced, while students in the textbook approach condition were taught the same concepts and vocabulary simultaneously. The results show that the everyday English approach was significantly more effective in helping both ELLs and non-ELL students develop a coherent understanding of abstract concepts related to photosynthesis and respiration. Students in the everyday English approach condition were also better able to link content-specific terms to their understanding of the concepts. These findings show the potential advantage of using students' everyday English as a resource to make science more accessible to linguistically diverse students in mainstream classrooms. By integrating students' everyday language in science instruction, it is possible for all students including ELLs to acquire both the content and language of science.
Full Text Available Lithuanian universities are currently undergoing a novel period of social changes, globalization and rapid technological development. A substantial body of relevant international programmes are being implemented. One of them is Erasmus – an international higher education programme aiming to strengthen cooperation at the European level and promote the mobility of students and lecturers, as well as to enhance the interaction between enterprises and higher education institutions. Vilnius Gediminas Technical University attempts to provide foreign Erasmus students with the best scientific, linguistic, cultural and educational experiences. For this purpose, the use information technologies in learning processes proved to be very helpful by opening a unique possibility to learn new languages and to communicate despite cultural differences. Computer aided language teaching tools are modern, effective and flexible alternatives to traditional learning in auditoriums and serve as auxiliary means to increase the effectiveness of studies. The article presents an e-learning programme “First Steps of HERMES” for learning languages. The management of the programme is discussed, the possibilities provided by online learning are assessed and the results of the pilot offering of the programme to VGTU are summarized.
Maria Carolina Coelho Chimenti
Full Text Available The present article is based on a field research that aimed to provide educational subsidies for the use of digital technologies in teaching and learning process of English language, in two classes of the fifth grade from the elementary school, at the public school located in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Based on the perspective of childhood pedagogy, which conceives the child as the protagonist and also (reproductive of knowledge, activities were carried with YouTube videos, online games, music, and many other learning objects. Likewise, observations, interviews and questionnaires were made with teachers and students involved in the research. Based on the action research, we analyzed aspects related to the contribution of some digital resources in teaching and learning of English at elementary school and we obtained many elements that allowed us to know the importance of learning a foreign language in the childhood nowadays, mainly English, and how new technologies can make learning more contextualized, meaningful, motivating children for language learning in a context in which they can be (criative.
Full Text Available The goal of this project in Estonia was to determine what languages are spoken by students from the 2nd to the 5th year of basic school at their homes in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. At the same time, this problem was also studied in other segregated regions of Estonia: Kohtla-Järve and Maardu. According to the database of the population census from the year 2000 (Estonian Statistics Executive Office's census 2000, there are representatives of 142 ethnic groups living in Estonia, speaking a total of 109 native languages. At the same time, the database doesn’t state which languages are spoken at homes. The material presented in this article belongs to the research topic “Home Language of Basic School Students in Tallinn” from years 2007–2008, specifically financed and ordered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant No. ETF 7065 in the framework of an international study called “Multilingual Project”. It was determined what language is dominating in everyday use, what are the factors for choosing the language for communication, what are the preferred languages and language skills. This study reflects the actual trends of the language situation in these cities.
Chaet, Alexis V; Morshedi, Bijan; Wells, Kristen J; Barnes, Laura E; Valdez, Rupa
As consumer health information technology (IT) becomes more thoroughly integrated into patient care, it is critical that these tools are appropriate for the diverse patient populations whom they are intended to serve. Cultural differences associated with ethnicity are one aspect of diversity that may play a role in user-technology interactions. Our aim was to evaluate the current scope of consumer health IT interventions targeted to the US Spanish-speaking Latino population and to characterize these interventions in terms of technological attributes, health domains, cultural tailoring, and evaluation metrics. A narrative synthesis was conducted of existing Spanish-language consumer health IT interventions indexed within health and computer science databases. Database searches were limited to English-language articles published between January 1990 and September 2015. Studies were included if they detailed an assessment of a patient-centered electronic technology intervention targeting health within the US Spanish-speaking Latino population. Included studies were required to have a majority Latino population sample. The following were extracted from articles: first author's last name, publication year, population characteristics, journal domain, health domain, technology platform and functionality, available languages of intervention, US region, cultural tailoring, intervention delivery location, study design, and evaluation metrics. We included 42 studies in the review. Most of the studies were published between 2009 and 2015 and had a majority percentage of female study participants. The mean age of participants ranged from 15 to 68. Interventions most commonly focused on urban population centers and within the western region of the United States. Of articles specifying a technology domain, computer was found to be most common; however, a fairly even distribution across all technologies was noted. Cancer, diabetes, and child, infant, or maternal health were the
Rice, Mabel L
Future perspectives on children with language impairments are framed from what is known about children with specific language impairment (SLI). A summary of the current state of services is followed by discussion of how these children can be overlooked and misunderstood and consideration of why it is so hard for some children to acquire language when it is effortless for most children. Genetic influences are highlighted, with the suggestion that nature plus nurture should be considered in present as well as future intervention approaches. A nurture perspective highlights the family context of the likelihood of SLI for some of the children. Future models of the causal pathways may provide more specific information to guide gene-treatment decisions, in ways parallel to current personalized medicine approaches. Future treatment options can build on the potential of electronic technologies and social media to provide personalized treatment methods available at a time and place convenient for the person to use as often as desired. The speech-language pathologist could oversee a wide range of treatment options and monitor evidence provided electronically to evaluate progress and plan future treatment steps. Most importantly, future methods can provide lifelong language acquisition activities that maintain the privacy and dignity of persons with language impairment, and in so doing will in turn enhance the effectiveness of speech-language pathologists. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Min, Yul Ha; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Jeon, Eunjoo; Lee, Joo Yun; Jo, Soo Jung
The purpose of this study was to develop an ontology model to generate nursing narratives as natural as human language from the entity-attribute-value triplets of a detailed clinical model using natural language generation technology. The model was based on the types of information and documentation time of the information along the nursing process. The typesof information are data characterizing the patient status, inferences made by the nurse from the patient data, and nursing actions selected by the nurse to change the patient status. This information was linked to the nursing process based on the time of documentation. We describe a case study illustrating the application of this model in an acute-care setting. The proposed model provides a strategy for designing an electronic nursing record system.
The only book on the market to specifically address its audience, Recording Voiceover is the comprehensive guide for engineers looking to understand the aspects of capturing the spoken word.Discussing all phases of the recording session, Recording Voiceover addresses everything from microphone recommendations for voice recording to pre-production considerations, including setting up the studio, working with and directing the voice talent, and strategies for reducing or eliminating distracting noise elements found in human speech.Recording Voiceover features in-depth, specific recommendations f
Rodd, Jennifer M.; Longe, Olivia A.; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K.
Spoken language comprehension is known to involve a large left-dominant network of fronto-temporal brain regions, but there is still little consensus about how the syntactic and semantic aspects of language are processed within this network. In an fMRI study, volunteers heard spoken sentences that contained either syntactic or semantic ambiguities…
Lobel, Jason William; Paputungan, Ade Tatak
This paper consists of a short multimedia introduction to Lolak, a near-extinct Greater Central Philippine language traditionally spoken in three small communities on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. In addition to being one of the most underdocumented languages in the area, it is also spoken by one of the smallest native speaker populations…
Roy-Campbell, Zaline M.
English is spoken in five countries as the native language and in numerous other countries as an official language and the language of instruction. In countries where English is the native language, it is taught to speakers of other languages as an additional language to enable them to participate in all domains of life of that country. In many…
Dekker, Diane; Young, Catherine
There are more than 6000 languages spoken by the 6 billion people in the world today--however, those languages are not evenly divided among the world's population--over 90% of people globally speak only about 300 majority languages--the remaining 5700 languages being termed "minority languages". These languages represent the…
Full Text Available This paper describes the phonology of the Sida language, a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by approximately 3,900 people in Laos and Vietnam. The data presented here are the variety spoken in Luang Namtha province of northwestern Laos, and focuses on a synchronic description of the fundamentals of the Sida phonological systems. Several issues of diachronic interest are also discussed in the context of the diversity of the Southern Loloish group of languages, many of which are spoken in Laos and have not yet been described in detail.
Havas, Viktória; Taylor, Jsh; Vaquero, Lucía; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Davis, Matthew H
We studied the initial acquisition and overnight consolidation of new spoken words that resemble words in the native language (L1) or in an unfamiliar, non-native language (L2). Spanish-speaking participants learned the spoken forms of novel words in their native language (Spanish) or in a different language (Hungarian), which were paired with pictures of familiar or unfamiliar objects, or no picture. We thereby assessed, in a factorial way, the impact of existing knowledge (schema) on word learning by manipulating both semantic (familiar vs unfamiliar objects) and phonological (L1- vs L2-like novel words) familiarity. Participants were trained and tested with a 12-hr intervening period that included overnight sleep or daytime awake. Our results showed (1) benefits of sleep to recognition memory that were greater for words with L2-like phonology and (2) that learned associations with familiar but not unfamiliar pictures enhanced recognition memory for novel words. Implications for complementary systems accounts of word learning are discussed.
This work contains the first comprehensive description of Abui, a language of the Trans New Guinea family spoken approximately by 16,000 speakers in the central part of the Alor Island in Eastern Indonesia. The description focuses on the northern dialect of Abui as spoken in the village
Full Text Available of indexes developed to provide a landscape overview. They found that a number of HLT LRs are available in South Africa but are of a very basic and exploratory nature and there are many areas that lie fallow in terms of the variety, number, technology...
In this paper, the literature related to the use of technology in the languages classroom will be explored. In relation to the teaching and learning methodologies and approaches past and present as well as current research, comparisons are made between the audio-lingual/visual classroom and the digital classroom by way of describing and comparing…
Robert K. Logan
Full Text Available Terrence Deacon’s (2012 notion developed in his book Incomplete Nature (IN that living organisms are teleodynamic systems that are self-maintaining, self-correcting and self-reproducing is extended to human social systems. The hypothesis is developed that culture, language, organization, science, economics and technology (CLOSET can be construed as living organisms that evolve, maintain and reproduce themselves and are self-correcting, and hence are teleodynamic systems. The elements of CLOSET are to a certain degree autonomous, even though they are obligate symbionts dependent on their human hosts for the energy that sustains them.
Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Simkin, Zoe
Purpose: This study aimed to compare cell phone use (both oral and text-based) by adolescents with and without specific language impairment (SLI) and examine the extent to which language and social factors affect frequency of use. Method: Both interview and diary methods were used to compare oral and text-based communication using cell phones by…
Kusters, Annelies; Spotti, Massimiliano; Swanwick, Ruth; Tapio, Elina
This paper presents a critical examination of key concepts in the study of (signed and spoken) language and multimodality. It shows how shifts in conceptual understandings of language use, moving from bilingualism to multilingualism and (trans)languaging, have resulted in the revitalisation of the concept of language repertoires. We discuss key…
In recent years, there has been a growing debate in the United States, Europe, and Australia about the nature of the Deaf community as a cultural community,1 and the recognition of signed languages as “real” or “legitimate” languages comparable in all meaningful ways to spoken languages. An important element of this ...
Palmer, Barbara C.; Chen, Chia-I; Chang, Sara; Leclere, Judith T.
According to the 2000 United States Census, Americans age five and older who speak a language other than English at home grew 47 percent over the preceding decade. This group accounts for slightly less than one in five Americans (17.9%). Among the minority languages spoken in the United States, Asian-language speakers, including Chinese and other…
Carter, Ronald; McCarthy, Michael
This article synthesises progress made in the description of spoken (especially conversational) grammar over the 20 years since the authors published a paper in this journal arguing for a re-thinking of grammatical description and pedagogy based on spoken corpus evidence. We begin with a glance back at the 16th century and the teaching of Latin…
This article reviews chronometric and neuroimaging evidence on attention to spoken word planning, using the WEAVER++ model as theoretical framework. First, chronometric studies on the time to initiate vocal responding and gaze shifting suggest that spoken word planning may require some attention,
Ansyari, Muhammad Fauzan
This study aims to develop and evaluate a professional development programme for technology integration in an Indonesian university's English language teaching setting. The study explored the characteristics of this programme to English lecturers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) development. This design-based research employed…
Walker, Susan K.; Mao, Dung
Student response system technology was employed for parenting education program evaluation data collection with Karen adults. The technology, with translation and use of an interpreter, provided an efficient and secure method that respected oral language and collective learning preferences and accommodated literacy needs. The method was popular…
Corneli, Joseph; Corneli, Miriam
"Natural Language," whether spoken and attended to by humans, or processed and generated by computers, requires networked structures that reflect creative processes in semantic, syntactic, phonetic, linguistic, social, emotional, and cultural modules. Being able to produce novel and useful behavior following repeated practice gets to the root of both artificial intelligence and human language. This paper investigates the modalities involved in language-like applications that computers -- and ...
Tatiana Borisovna Lysunets
Full Text Available The paper considers the necessity of the computerization of the education sphere. Information Communication Technology (ICT tools and services of Google, blended learning techniques help to enhance autonomous education and answer the training needs of future specia-lists. The paper describes the Padlet (Google application and provides with its practical usage in language classroom. The authors come to the following conclusions: improving Internet and computer technology competence through mastering various Internet tools and applications can be traced. Besides, the introduction of IT into traditional classroom intensifies the process of cognitive development and mental activities, forming the high level of students’ motivation and interest. For students the usage of IT proves the positive dynamics of their accomplishments in the field of selecting, organizing and dealing with information provided in various forms. It enhances students’ opportunities in creating, designing and performing their works and achievements.
Juan Manuel Montero
Full Text Available We describe the work on infusion of emotion into a limited-task autonomous spoken conversational agent situated in the domestic environment, using a need-inspired task-independent emotion model (NEMO. In order to demonstrate the generation of affect through the use of the model, we describe the work of integrating it with a natural-language mixed-initiative HiFi-control spoken conversational agent (SCA. NEMO and the host system communicate externally, removing the need for the Dialog Manager to be modified, as is done in most existing dialog systems, in order to be adaptive. The first part of the paper concerns the integration between NEMO and the host agent. The second part summarizes the work on automatic affect prediction, namely, frustration and contentment, from dialog features, a non-conventional source, in the attempt of moving towards a more user-centric approach. The final part reports the evaluation results obtained from a user study, in which both versions of the agent (non-adaptive and emotionally-adaptive were compared. The results provide substantial evidences with respect to the benefits of adding emotion in a spoken conversational agent, especially in mitigating users’ frustrations and, ultimately, improving their satisfaction.
Sumner, Meghan; Kim, Seung Kyung; King, Ed; McGowan, Kevin B
Spoken words are highly variable. A single word may never be uttered the same way twice. As listeners, we regularly encounter speakers of different ages, genders, and accents, increasing the amount of variation we face. How listeners understand spoken words as quickly and adeptly as they do despite this variation remains an issue central to linguistic theory. We propose that learned acoustic patterns are mapped simultaneously to linguistic representations and to social representations. In doing so, we illuminate a paradox that results in the literature from, we argue, the focus on representations and the peripheral treatment of word-level phonetic variation. We consider phonetic variation more fully and highlight a growing body of work that is problematic for current theory: words with different pronunciation variants are recognized equally well in immediate processing tasks, while an atypical, infrequent, but socially idealized form is remembered better in the long-term. We suggest that the perception of spoken words is socially weighted, resulting in sparse, but high-resolution clusters of socially idealized episodes that are robust in immediate processing and are more strongly encoded, predicting memory inequality. Our proposal includes a dual-route approach to speech perception in which listeners map acoustic patterns in speech to linguistic and social representations in tandem. This approach makes novel predictions about the extraction of information from the speech signal, and provides a framework with which we can ask new questions. We propose that language comprehension, broadly, results from the integration of both linguistic and social information.
Jose Carlos Garcia Cabrero
Full Text Available The expansion of the lnternet has Ied to the development of distance teaching models based on the net (e learning. One of the crucial factors in this phenomenon is the continuous training required by workers to maintain or improve their professional skills. Foreign languages are, without doubt, one of the most in demand subjects. This is because they are needed for comunication in an increasingly globalized world.
The development of new wireless communication technologies, UMTS or 3G nets, and their corresponding access terminals (Palm-size PCs, PPCs, with wireless telephone connection. also called smart-phones. will enable solutions to be found for some of the problems Iaeed hy current e-learning users. These problems include access speed and the physical constraints of tlhe ( The new wireless comunication technologies will bring other benefits like portability. always on-line, etc.
This article presents one on' the world's first prototypes of language learning software or smart-phones, produced by the Laboratorio de lngenieria Didactica e lngenieria Linguistica of UNED (Didactic Engineering and Linguistic Engineering Laboratory (LIDIL, http://www.vip.~ined.es. i¿le Enl
Kerimbaeva T. Botagoz
Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the article is the using of informational-computer technologies in learning English language of future specialists very effectively, as the didactic function of these technologies is wide. This is due to the fact that computer technology allows obtaining information multichannel, and therefore increases significantly as the volume of information received, and the quality of its assimilation.Methods. Modern trends of modernization of educational programs demand introduction of modern methods of teaching. The increasing introduction of new information and computer technologies and application of the competence approach in educational process of Kh. A. Yasawi International Kazakh-Turkish University promotes increase of efficiency of process of English teaching. One of the urgent problems of training of specialists of international level is development of methods of using information technology in forming informational-communicative competence of future specialists.Results. The relevance of this issue is determined, firstly, by the fact that information and computer technology implies a future specialist of new knowledge, skills, style of thinking which will provide necessary social adaptation to changes and guarantee its competitiveness on the labour market; secondly, necessity of perfection of the methodical-didactic organization of the process of professionally oriented training of future; thirdly, objective requirement of modern society in preparing professionals able to integrate into the world information space; fourthly, tendencies of a national educational policy.Scientific novelty. One of the main challenges facing the system of training of future specialists is to improve the quality of professional training of students taking into account modern trends of development and use of information technology in professional activities. Worldwide there is a trend of using the computer as an integral means of studying
Olena Ye. Kravets
Full Text Available The article substantiates the view that the intensification of information flows as one of the main factors entering the world in the era of the global information society actualizes the problem of the organization of educational information space in the classroom for foreign language in higher educational institutions. The authors have proposed the educational information design technology in foreign languages distance learning at non-philological faculties. The article analyzes the experimental results verification of the technological effectiveness used in the learning content design in a foreign language for professional purposes; it has been proved the basic criterion of effective informational product – information-oriented competence of professional foreign language knowledge.
Shafiee Nahrkhalaji, Saeedeh; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Koosha, Mansour
The present study aims to reveal some facts concerning first language (L 1 ) and second language (L 2 ) spoken-word processing in unbalanced proficient bilinguals using behavioral measures. The intention here is to examine the effects of auditory repetition word priming and semantic priming in first and second languages of these bilinguals. The other goal is to explore the effects of attention manipulation on implicit retrieval of perceptual and conceptual properties of spoken L 1 and L 2 words. In so doing, the participants performed auditory word priming and semantic priming as memory tests in their L 1 and L 2 . In a half of the trials of each experiment, they carried out the memory test while simultaneously performing a secondary task in visual modality. The results revealed that effects of auditory word priming and semantic priming were present when participants processed L 1 and L 2 words in full attention condition. Attention manipulation could reduce priming magnitude in both experiments in L 2 . Moreover, L 2 word retrieval increases the reaction times and reduces accuracy on the simultaneous secondary task to protect its own accuracy and speed.
Full Text Available The necessity of training of the future primary-school teachers for application of information communication technologies (ICT in their professional activity is proven in the article. The author considers the essence of the teacher’s language didactic competence, reveals constituent components of the latter, and proves the urgency of the problem of introducing the future primary school teachers to the basics of electronic language didactics as a branch of education studies.
Full Text Available The necessity of training of the future primary-school teachers for application of information communication technologies (ICT in their professional activity is proven in the article. The author considers the essence of the teacher’s language didactic competence, reveals constituent components of the latter, and proves the urgency of the problem of introducing the future primary school teachers to the basics of electronic language didactics as a branch of education studies.
Marina Alexeevna Laskovets
Full Text Available The strategy of forming a competitive linguistic space dictates a necessity to use modern IT and means of distance learning while teaching foreign languages to postgraduates of non-linguistics higher learning institutions. The problems of designing, implementation and support of the information security systems in the technologies of distant foreign language teaching become essential in a multidiscipline approach of teaching postgraduates.
The role and importance of foreign language study in the activity of tourism and service companies’workers are studied. The employers’requirements to the employers for the job in Tourism sphere are analysed. The study of foreign languages in tourism, innovative technologies by means of international and intercultural communication of a modern expert’s communicative and educational needs are reviewed. The study of definite problem is greatly complicated by the fact that the candidate for the...
Full Text Available The article gives new evidence about the adverb as a part of the grammatical system of the Ukrainian steppe dialect spread in the area between the Danube and the Dniester rivers. The author proves that the grammatical system of the dialect spoken in the v. Shevchenkove, Kiliya district, Odessa region is determined by the historical development of the Ukrainian language rather than the influence of neighboring dialects.
Finance and Economic Planning, Cross River and Akwa ... See Table 1. Table 1: Indigenous Languages Spoken in Biase ... used in education, in business, in religion, in the media ... far back as the seventeenth (17th) century (King. 1844).
Dunkley, Carolyn; Pattie, Lydelle; Wilson, Linda; McAllister, Lindy
This paper reports results and implications of two related studies which investigated (a) access of residents and speech-language pathologists (SLPs) of rural Australia to information and communication technologies (ICT) and (b) their attitudes towards the use of ICT for delivery of speech-language pathology services. Both studies used mail out questionnaires, followed by interviews with a subset of those who completed the questionnaires. Data were obtained from 43 questionnaires from rural residents and 10 interviews with a subset of those residents, and from questionnaires returned by 49 SLPs and 4 interviews with a subset of those SLPs. Results show a mismatch between rural residents' and SLPs' access to and attitudes towards use of ICT for speech-language pathology service delivery. Rural residents had better access and more positive attitudes to the use of ICT for speech-language pathology service delivery than expected by SLPs. The results of this study have important implications for education and professional development of SLPs and for research into the use of ICT for telespeech-language pathology.
Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard
levels (Schein, 2004) in which each player and his actions can be considered an artefact - a concrete symbol in motion embedded in espoused values and basic assumptions. Therefore, the actions of each dialect are strongly connected to the underlying understanding of football. By document and video......The language of football: A cultural analysis of selected World Cup nations. This essay describes how actions on the football field relate to the nations’ different cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Saussure reasoned...... language to have two components: a language system and language users (Danesi, 2003). Consequently, football can be characterized as a language containing a system with specific rules of the game and users with actual choices and actions within the game. All football players can be considered language...
Caselli, Naomi K; Pyers, Jennie E
Iconic mappings between words and their meanings are far more prevalent than once estimated and seem to support children's acquisition of new words, spoken or signed. We asked whether iconicity's prevalence in sign language overshadows two other factors known to support the acquisition of spoken vocabulary: neighborhood density (the number of lexical items phonologically similar to the target) and lexical frequency. Using mixed-effects logistic regressions, we reanalyzed 58 parental reports of native-signing deaf children's productive acquisition of 332 signs in American Sign Language (ASL; Anderson & Reilly, 2002) and found that iconicity, neighborhood density, and lexical frequency independently facilitated vocabulary acquisition. Despite differences in iconicity and phonological structure between signed and spoken language, signing children, like children learning a spoken language, track statistical information about lexical items and their phonological properties and leverage this information to expand their vocabulary.
Pizer, Ginger; Walters, Keith; Meier, Richard P
Families with deaf parents and hearing children are often bilingual and bimodal, with both a spoken language and a signed one in regular use among family members. When interviewed, 13 American hearing adults with deaf parents reported widely varying language practices, sign language abilities, and social affiliations with Deaf and Hearing communities. Despite this variation, the interviewees' moral judgments of their own and others' communicative behavior suggest that these adults share a language ideology concerning the obligation of all family members to expend effort to overcome potential communication barriers. To our knowledge, such a language ideology is not similarly pervasive among spoken-language bilingual families, raising the question of whether there is something unique about family bimodal bilingualism that imposes different rights and responsibilities on family members than spoken-language family bilingualism does. This ideology unites an otherwise diverse group of interviewees, where each one preemptively denied being a "typical CODA [children of deaf adult]."
Lauren B. Collister
Full Text Available Twenty listeners were exposed to spoken and sung passages in English produced by three trained vocalists. Passages included representative words extracted from a large database of vocal lyrics, including both popular and classical repertoires. Target words were set within spoken or sung carrier phrases. Sung carrier phrases were selected from classical vocal melodies. Roughly a quarter of all words sung by an unaccompanied soloist were misheard. Sung passages showed a seven-fold decrease in intelligibility compared with their spoken counterparts. The perceptual mistakes occurring with vowels replicate previous studies showing the centralization of vowels. Significant confusions are also evident for consonants, especially voiced stops and nasals.
Johannessen, Janne Bondi; Salmons, Joseph C.; Westergaard, Marit; Anderssen, Merete; Arnbjörnsdóttir, Birna; Allen, Brent; Pierce, Marc; Boas, Hans C.; Roesch, Karen; Brown, Joshua R.; Putnam, Michael; Åfarli, Tor A.; Newman, Zelda Kahan; Annear, Lucas; Speth, Kristin
This book presents new empirical findings about Germanic heritage varieties spoken in North America: Dutch, German, Pennsylvania Dutch, Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, West Frisian and Yiddish, and varieties of English spoken both by heritage speakers and in communities after language shift. The volume focuses on three critical issues underlying the notion of ‘heritage language’: acquisition, attrition and change. The book offers theoretically-informed discussions of heritage language processe...
Full Text Available Is a smart phone a toy or a tool? Students can’t get enough of it – after all, social media notifications and viral videos do take time to reflect on – while teachers, quite understandably, are dismayed to see an excellent educational tool used purely for entertainment. This paper posits that these two concepts are not mutually exclusive. It proposes a possible common ground, ‘edutainment,’ the integration of interactive mobile technology with the classroom for new opportunities to effectively achieve learning objectives in a light-hearted spirit. This research study describes the attitudes and intentions of 121 Thai English as a Foreign Language (EFL university students towards a playful, competitive smart phone application, its ease of use and perceived benefits to learning. Results of a cross-sectional examination through a paper-based, 4-page questionnaire seem to indicate general acceptance, widespread use and an altogether positive attitude to the software. The paper concludes by highlighting student impressions of its relevance to their studies and offering recommendations for further integration of digital teach-nology into foreign language classrooms.
Thompson, Robin L; Vinson, David P; Woll, Bencie; Vigliocco, Gabriella
An arbitrary link between linguistic form and meaning is generally considered a universal feature of language. However, iconic (i.e., nonarbitrary) mappings between properties of meaning and features of linguistic form are also widely present across languages, especially signed languages. Although recent research has shown a role for sign iconicity in language processing, research on the role of iconicity in sign-language development has been mixed. In this article, we present clear evidence that iconicity plays a role in sign-language acquisition for both the comprehension and production of signs. Signed languages were taken as a starting point because they tend to encode a higher degree of iconic form-meaning mappings in their lexicons than spoken languages do, but our findings are more broadly applicable: Specifically, we hypothesize that iconicity is fundamental to all languages (signed and spoken) and that it serves to bridge the gap between linguistic form and human experience.
Aslı Lidice Göktürk Sağlam
Full Text Available Technology is changing paradigms in education rapidly and teachers are caught unguarded due to lack of professional training in this aspect. This study reflects the perceptions of nine ELT instructors with M.A TEFL degrees and with over six years of professional experience. Despite the lack of formal professional training as part of their pre-service teacher education, these instructors need to cope with the demands of this transition in daily implementation. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, open-ended questionnaires and field notes. An inductive analysis approach was used to analyze the data and emergent patterns of data were used to develop coding categories. Results indicated that respondents held positive views about the role of educational technology for enriching language instruction. However, they also acknowledged the challenges faced and emphasised the need for ICT training not only for teachers but also for students. It is concluded that participants make use of technology to teach academic and linguistic skills in an integrated skills approach, encourage students to construct knowledge, expose students to life-long learning skills and strategies, cater for different students who have different learning styles, find and create teaching materials, develop skills through exposure to existing on-line sources and create a motivating environment that is conducive for learning.
Aslı Lidice Göktürk Saglam
Full Text Available Technology is changing paradigms in education rapidly and teachers are caught unguarded due to lack of professional training in this aspect. This study reflects the perceptions of nine ELT instructors with M.A TEFL degrees and with over six years of professional experience. Despite the lack of formal professional training as part of their pre-service teacher education, these instructors need to cope with the demands of this transition in daily implementation. Data were collected through semistructured interviews, open-ended questionnaires and field notes. An inductive analysis approach was used to analyze the data and emergent patterns of data were used to develop coding categories. Results indicated that respondents held positive views about the role of educational technology for enriching language instruction. However, they also acknowledged the challenges faced and emphasised the need for ICT training not only for teachers but also for students. It is concluded that participants make use of technology to teach academic and linguistic skills in an integrated skills approach, encourage students to construct knowledge, expose students to life-long learning skills and strategies, cater for different students who have different learning styles, find and create teaching materials, develop skills through exposure to existing on-line sources and create a motivating environment that is conducive for learning
Gruhl, Jonathan C.; Erosheva, Elena A.; Gibbons, Laura E.; McCurry, Susan M.; Rhoads, Kristoffer; Nguyen, Viet; Arani, Keerthi; Masaki, Kamal; White, Lon
Objectives. Spoken bilingualism may be associated with cognitive reserve. Mastering a complicated written language may be associated with additional reserve. We sought to determine if midlife use of spoken and written Japanese was associated with lower rates of late life cognitive decline. Methods. Participants were second-generation Japanese-American men from the Hawaiian island of Oahu, born 1900–1919, free of dementia in 1991, and categorized based on midlife self-reported use of spoken and written Japanese (total n included in primary analysis = 2,520). Cognitive functioning was measured with the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument scored using item response theory. We used mixed effects models, controlling for age, income, education, smoking status, apolipoprotein E e4 alleles, and number of study visits. Results. Rates of cognitive decline were not related to use of spoken or written Japanese. This finding was consistent across numerous sensitivity analyses. Discussion. We did not find evidence to support the hypothesis that multilingualism is associated with cognitive reserve. PMID:20639282
Craine, B. L.; Craine, E. R.; Craine, E. M.; Crawford, D. L.
Light at Night Markup Language (LANML) is a standard, based upon XML, useful in acquiring, validating, transporting, archiving and analyzing multi-dimensional light at night (LAN) datasets of any size. The LANML standard can accommodate a variety of measurement scenarios including single spot measures, static time-series, web based monitoring networks, mobile measurements, and airborne measurements. LANML is human-readable, machine-readable, and does not require a dedicated parser. In addition LANML is flexible; ensuring future extensions of the format will remain backward compatible with analysis software. The XML technology is at the heart of communicating over the internet and can be equally useful at the desktop level, making this standard particularly attractive for web based applications, educational outreach and efficient collaboration between research groups.
Elaine Teixeira da Silva
Full Text Available This article aims to describe the possibilities provided by the use of new digital Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, aided by Web 2.0, on Spanish teaching both inside and outside classroom. We analyzed the social network Facebook because it has a large number of users who spend a significant amount of time on the site chatting with friends, posting comments, liking photos and profiles and participating in groups. This social network also provides teaching tools that will help students to develop their autonomy to (re learn how to think. It is shown that Facebook presents EaD characteristics and therefore can be considered an additional tool on language teaching and education.
The Computer Integration into the EFL Instruction in Indonesia: An Analysis of Two University Instructors in Integrating Computer Technology into EFL Instruction to Encourage Students' Language Learning Engagement
Prihatin, Pius N.
Computer technology has been popular for teaching English as a foreign language in non-English speaking countries. This case study explored the way language instructors designed and implemented computer-based instruction so that students are engaged in English language learning. This study explored the beliefs, practices and perceptions of…
This monograph discusses the problem of the language barrier in scientific and technological development in terms of several parameters describing the flow of scientific information from one language to another. The numerical values of the language barrier parameters of the model are calculated in the field of information on second language…
During the second half of the 19th century, the psychology of language was invented as a discipline for the sole purpose of explaining the evolution of spoken language. These efforts culminated in Wilhelm Wundt’s monumental Die Sprache of 1900, which outlined the psychological mechanisms involved in
Moeser, Shannon Dawn
College students were presented with an artificial language in which spoken nonsense words were correlated with visual references. Inferences regarding vocabulary acquisition were drawn, and it was suggested that the processing of the language was mediated through a semantic memory system. (CK)
There are conflicting claims among scholars on whether the structural outputs of the types of English spoken in countries where English is used as a second language gives such speech forms the status of varieties of English. This study examined those morphological features considered to be marked features of the variety spoken in Nigeria according to Kirkpatrick (2011) and the variety spoken in Malaysia by considering the claims of the Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis (MSIH) a Second Lan...
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine Moroccan higher education students’ and teachers’ perceptions and attitudes towards using Web 2.0 technologies in language learning and teaching. The results of the study revealed that all the informants were immersed in using these Internet-based applications for personal and educational purposes. Nevertheless, while language learners reported to make beneficial uses of these online platforms as language learning tools, the great majority of the interviewed faculty members did not really benefit from these platforms. Although language teachers acknowledged that Web 2.0 technologies had a positive impact on language teaching and learning, most of them were still reluctant to incorporate these tools in educational practice. The findings demonstrated that most teachers’ use of these applications was limited to sending or transferring web links and learning materials produced by other Internet users. Rather than making effective use of Web 2.0 technologies and applications as teaching facilities, most teachers used them only as a means of communication.
Van Heerden, CJ
Full Text Available and then adapting or training new models using the segmented spoken lectures. The eventual systems perform quite well, aligning more than 90% of a selected set of target words successfully....
... spoken French of IUFLs. Key words: IUFLs, Epenthensis, Ijebu dialect, Autosegmental phonology .... Ambiguities may result: salmi "strait" vs. salami. (An exception is that in .... tiers of segments. In the picture given us by classical generative.
Oct 11, 2009 ... In this article we will review the types of aphasia, an approach to its diagnosis, aphasia subtypes, rehabilitation and prognosis. ... language processing in both the written and spoken forms.6 ... The angular gyrus (Brodman area 39) is located at the .... of his or her quality of life, emotional state, sense of well-.
Macrory, Gee; Chretien, Lucette; Ortega-Martin, Jose Luis
This paper reports on an EU-funded project (Ref: 134244-2007-UK-COMENIUS-CMP) that explored the impact of technology, notably video-conferencing, on primary school children's language learning in England, France and Spain. Data were gathered from the children in the project, their teachers and also from trainee teachers placed in the schools. The…
Full Text Available Hitherto, most research into cohesion has concentrated on texts (usually written only in standard Native Speaker English – e.g. Halliday and Hasan (1976. By contrast, following on the work in anaphora of such scholars as Reinhart (1983 and Cornish (1999, Christiansen (2011 describes cohesion as an interactive process focusing on the link between text cohesion and discourse coherence. Such a consideration of cohesion from the perspective of discourse (i.e. the process of which text is the product -- Widdowson 1984, p. 100 is especially relevant within a lingua franca context as the issue of different variations of ELF and inter-cultural concerns (Guido 2008 add extra dimensions to the complex multi-code interaction. In this case study, six extracts of transcripts (approximately 1000 words each, taken from the VOICE corpus (2011 of conference question and answer sessions (spoken interaction set in multicultural university contexts are analysed in depth by means of a qualitative method.
Cooper, Angela; Bradlow, Ann R.
Prior research has demonstrated that listeners are sensitive to changes in the indexical (talker-specific) characteristics of speech input, suggesting that these signal-intrinsic features are integrally encoded in memory for spoken words. Given that listeners frequently must contend with concurrent environmental noise, to what extent do they also encode signal-extrinsic details? Native English listeners’ explicit memory for spoken English monosyllabic and disyllabic words was assessed as a fu...
Tavano, A; Grimm, S; Costa-Faidella, J; Slabu, L; Schröger, E; Escera, C
The Mismatch Negativity (MMN) component of the event-related potentials is generated when a detectable spectrotemporal feature of the incoming sound does not match the sensory model set up by preceding repeated stimuli. MMN is enhanced at frontocentral scalp sites for deviant words when compared to acoustically similar deviant pseudowords, suggesting that automatic access to long-term memory traces for spoken words contributes to MMN generation. Does spectrotemporal feature matching also drive automatic lexical access? To test this, we recorded human auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) to disyllabic spoken words and pseudowords within a passive oddball paradigm. We first aimed at replicating the word-related MMN enhancement effect for Spanish, thereby adding to the available cross-linguistic evidence (e.g., Finnish, English). We then probed its resilience to spectrotemporal perturbation by inserting short (20 ms) and long (120 ms) silent gaps between first and second syllables of deviant and standard stimuli. A significantly enhanced, frontocentrally distributed MMN to deviant words was found for stimuli with no gap. The long gap yielded no deviant word MMN, showing that prior expectations of word form limits in a given language influence deviance detection processes. Crucially, the insertion of a short gap suppressed deviant word MMN enhancement at frontocentral sites. We propose that spectrotemporal point-wise matching constitutes a core mechanism for fast serial computations in audition and language, bridging sensory and long-term memory systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lai, Chun; Yeung, Yuk; Hu, Jingjing
Helping students to become autonomous learners, who actively utilize technologies for learning outside the classroom, is important for successful language learning. Teachers, as significant social agents who shape students' intellectual and social experiences, have a critical role to play. This study examined students' and teachers' perceptions of…
Lisbeth O. Swain; Timothy D. Swain
We examined the unmanipulated performance of students under real classroom conditions in order to assess the effect of a technology-enhanced hybrid learning approach to second language, (L2) instruction on beginning and advanced Spanish language learners. This research focused on the transition period of technology implementation when the entire section of Spanish of a modern language department of a liberal arts university transitioned from traditional face-to-face instruction, to a technolo...
Geers, Ann E; Sedey, Allison L
of sign to enhance language skills during the elementary years does not appear to have a negative impact on later language skills, students who continue to rely on sign to improve their vocabulary comprehension into high school typically exhibit poorer English language outcomes than students whose spoken language comprehension parallels or exceeds their comprehension of speech + sign. Overall, the language results obtained from these teenagers with more than 10 yrs of CI experience reflect substantial improvement over the verbal skills exhibited by adolescents with similar levels of hearing loss before the advent of CIs. These optimistic results were observed in teenagers who were among the first in the United States and Canada to receive a CI. We anticipate that the use of improved technology that is being initiated at even younger ages should lead to age-appropriate language levels in an even larger proportion of children with CIs.
Byram, Michael; Wagner, Manuela
Language teaching has long been associated with teaching in a country or countries where a target language is spoken, but this approach is inadequate. In the contemporary world, language teaching has a responsibility to prepare learners for interaction with people of other cultural backgrounds, teaching them skills and attitudes as well as…
Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf…
Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy
Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…
Stern, Alissa Joy
For a language to survive, it must be spoken and passed down to the next generation. But how can we engage teenagers--so crucial for language transmission--to use and value their local tongue when they are bombarded by pressures from outside and from within their society to only speak national and international languages? This paper analyses the…
A proposal to transform Spanish into a universal language because it possesses the prerequisites: it is a living language, spoken in several countries; it is a natural language; and it uses the ordinary alphabet. Details on simplification and standardization are given. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)
Kelsey, Irving; Serrano, Jose
A rationale for teaching foreign languages in Venezuelan schools is discussed. An included sociolinguistic profile of Venezuela indicates that Spanish is the sole language of internal communication needs. Other languages spoken in Venezuela serve primarily a group function among the immigrant and indigenous communities. However, the teaching of…
Puskás, Tünde; Björk-Willén, Polly
This article explores dilemmatic aspects of language policies in a preschool group in which three languages (Swedish, Romani and Arabic) are spoken on an everyday basis. The article highlights the interplay between policy decisions on the societal level, the teachers' interpretations of these policies, as well as language practices on the micro…
Students are learning that their indigenous language and culture are a vital part of ... until the late 1990s, actively discouraged the use of Indigenous languages in the ... quality computer and Internet training for rural Indigenous communities.
Nofre, D.; Priestley, M.; Alberts, G.
Language is one of the central metaphors around which the discipline of computer science has been built. The language metaphor entered modern computing as part of a cybernetic discourse, but during the second half of the 1950s acquired a more abstract meaning, closely related to the formal languages
Sign language test development is a relatively new field within sign linguistics, motivated by the practical need for assessment instruments to evaluate language development in different groups of learners (L1, L2). Due to the lack of research on the structure and acquisition of many sign languages, developing an assessment instrument poses…
Full Text Available Introduction. Telemedicine provides a solution to treatment of economically and geographically compromised patients and enhances the level of care. However, a problem has arisen in safeguarding patientsâ€™ rights to informed consent.Objective. To determine the impact of language, translation and interpretation barriers on gaining legally valid informed consent in telemedicine.Design. Forty-one key words relevant to computer terminology and concepts required to gain informed consent for a telemedicine encounter were selected and sent for translation into isiZulu, the local indigenous language of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A questionnaire with the list of words was developed with three domains covering information communication technology (ICT use, ICT terms and ethics terms. This was administered to patients at four outpatient departments in rural KwaZulu-Natal hospitals.Results. Of the 54 participants, 50 (92.6% did not know or understand the term â€˜telemedicineâ€™, 49 (90.7% the term â€˜video conferenceâ€™ and 49 (90.7% the term â€˜electronic recordsâ€™. Words such as â€˜consentâ€™ and â€˜autonomyâ€™ were understood by less than a third of the participants. Only 19 individuals (35.2% understood the word â€˜consentâ€™, and only 4 (7.4% understood both the words â€˜consentâ€™ and â€˜telemedicineâ€™.Conclusions. The results of this study show that obtaining informed consent for a telemedicine consultation is problematic. Alternative ways of gaining informed consent need to be investigated.
Bergmans, Lodewijk; Gybels, Kris; Ernst, Erik
, comprehensibility and evolvability. As (aspect) languages are being pushed to meet their boundaries and limitations, the trade-offs in language design become increasingly difficult to make. In particular, a trade-off may be perfectly sensible in one application context, but much less so in another. In this special...... issue you will find three full papers, originating from the SPLAT workshop series, that address this last issue. Each of these papers resolves a fundamental language design trade-off by offering a language mechanism that lifts the design decisions to the application programmers: The first paper, "User......-Defined Join Point Selectors-An Extension Mechanism for Pointcut Languages" by Breuel and Reverbel, addresses the fact that aspect programmers are pushing the boundaries of pointcut languages. As a result, aspect language designers have to make a trade-off between limited expressiveness of traditional types...
Blom, E.; van Dijk, C.; Vasić, N.; van Witteloostuijn, M.; Avrutin, S.
The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages
Blom, W.B.T.; van Dijk, Chantal; Vasic, Nada; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Avrutin, S.
The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages