Sample records for split specimen laboratory

  1. Strength Prediction and Failure Modes of Concrete Specimens Subjected to the Split Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Linh Cao; Andersen, M.E.; Hansen, N.T.


    This paper deals with modelling and test of concrete specimens subjected to the Brazilian split test. Based on the fictitious crack concept, a simple model for the crack propagation process in the splitting plane is developed. From the model, it is possible to determine the distribution of residual...... tensile strength as crack propagation take place. The residual tensile strength is thereafter used in a rigid plastic analysis of the splitting failure. Based on this combined approach, the ultimate load may either be governed by crack propagation or by a plastic failure, which then terminates the crack...

  2. 10 CFR 26.165 - Testing split specimens and retesting single specimens. (United States)


    ... (c), as applicable. If the specimen in Bottle A is free of any evidence of drugs or drug metabolites... suitable inquiry conducted under the provisions of § 26.63 or to any other inquiry or investigation... records must be provided to personnel conducting reviews, inquiries into allegations, or audits under the...

  3. 42 CFR 414.510 - Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory... AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment for New Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Tests § 414.510 Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens. The date of service for either a...

  4. Specimen rejection in laboratory medicine: Necessary for patient safety? (United States)

    Dikmen, Zeliha Gunnur; Pinar, Asli; Akbiyik, Filiz


    The emergency laboratory in Hacettepe University Hospitals receives specimens from emergency departments (EDs), inpatient services and intensive care units (ICUs). The samples are accepted according to the rejection criteria of the laboratory. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the sample rejection ratios according to the types of pre-preanalytical errors and collection areas. The samples sent to the emergency laboratory were recorded during 12 months between January to December, 2013 in which 453,171 samples were received and 27,067 specimens were rejected. Rejection ratios was 2.5% for biochemistry tests, 3.2% for complete blood count (CBC), 9.8% for blood gases, 9.2% for urine analysis, 13.3% for coagulation tests, 12.8% for therapeutic drug monitoring, 3.5% for cardiac markers and 12% for hormone tests. The most frequent rejection reasons were fibrin clots (28%) and inadequate volume (9%) for biochemical tests. Clotted samples (35%) and inadequate volume (13%) were the major causes for coagulation tests, blood gas analyses and CBC. The ratio of rejected specimens was higher in the EDs (40%) compared to ICUs (30%) and inpatient services (28%). The highest rejection ratio was observed in neurology ICU (14%) among the ICUs and internal medicine inpatient service (10%) within inpatient clinics. We detected an overall specimen rejection rate of 6% in emergency laboratory. By documentation of rejected samples and periodic training of healthcare personnel, we expect to decrease sample rejection ratios below 2%, improve total quality management of the emergency laboratory and promote patient safety.

  5. Decreasing mislabeled laboratory specimens using barcode technology and bedside printers. (United States)

    Brown, Judy E; Smith, Nancy; Sherfy, Beth R


    Mislabeling of laboratory samples has been found to be a high-risk issue in acute care hospitals. The goal of this study was to decrease mislabeled blood specimens. In the first year after the implementation of a positive patient identification system using barcoding and computer technology, the number of labeling errors decreased from 103 to 8 per year. The outcome was clinically and statistically significant (P < .001).

  6. Drone Transport of Microbes in Blood and Sputum Laboratory Specimens. (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Street, Jeff; Carroll, Karen; Miller, Heather; Zhang, Sean X


    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) could potentially be used to transport microbiological specimens. To examine the impact of UAVs on microbiological specimens, blood and sputum culture specimens were seeded with usual pathogens and flown in a UAV for 30 ± 2 min. Times to recovery, colony counts, morphologies, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identifications of the flown and stationary specimens were similar for all microbes studied. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory? (United States)


    ... container that adequately protects the specimen bottles from shipment damage in the transport of specimens from the collection site to the laboratory. (b) You are not required to use a shipping container if a...

  8. Finite Element Modeling of Compressive and Splitting Tensile Behavior of Plain Concrete and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Cylinder Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Arman Chowdhury


    Full Text Available Plain concrete and steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC cylinder specimens are modeled in the finite element (FE platform of ANSYS 10.0 and validated with the experimental results and failure patterns. Experimental investigations are conducted to study the increase in compressive and tensile capacity of cylindrical specimens made of stone and brick concrete and SFRC. Satisfactory compressive and tensile capacity improvement is observed by adding steel fibers of 1.5% volumetric ratio. A total of 8 numbers of cylinder specimens are cast and tested in 1000 kN capacity digital universal testing machine (UTM and also modeled in ANSYS. The enhancement of compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of SFRC specimen is achieved up to 17% and 146%, respectively, compared to respective plain concrete specimen. Results gathered from finite element analyses are validated with the experimental test results by identifying as well as optimizing the controlling parameters to make FE models. Modulus of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio, stress-strain behavior, tensile strength, density, and shear transfer coefficients for open and closed cracks are found to be the main governing parameters for successful model of plain concrete and SFRC in FE platform. After proper evaluation and logical optimization of these parameters by extensive analyses, finite element (FE models showed a good correlation with the experimental results.

  9. Specimen labeling errors: a Q-probes analysis of 147 clinical laboratories. (United States)

    Wagar, Elizabeth A; Stankovic, Ana K; Raab, Stephen; Nakhleh, Raouf E; Walsh, Molly K


    Accurate specimen identification is critical for quality patient care. Improperly identified specimens can result in delayed diagnosis, additional laboratory testing, treatment of the wrong patient for the wrong disease, and severe transfusion reactions. Specimen identification errors have been reported to occur at rates of 0.1% to 5%. To determine the frequency of labeling errors in a multi-institutional survey. Labeling errors were categorized as: (1) mislabeled, (2) unlabeled, (3) partially labeled, (4) incompletely labeled, and (5) illegible label. Blood specimens for routine or stat chemistry, hematology, and coagulation testing were included. Labeling error rates were calculated for each participant and tested for associations with institutional demographic and practice variable information. More than 3.3 million specimen labels were reviewed by 147 laboratories. Labeling errors were identified at a rate of 0.92 per 1000 labels. Two variables were statistically associated with lower labeling error rates: (1) laboratories with current, ongoing quality monitors for specimen identification (P = .008) and (2) institutions with 24/7 phlebotomy services for inpatients (P = .02). Most institutions had written policies for specimen labeling at the bedside or in outpatient phlebotomy areas (96% and 98%, respectively). Allowance of relabeling of blood specimens by primary collecting personnel was reported by 42% of institutions. Laboratories actively engaged in ongoing specimen labeling quality monitors had fewer specimen labeling errors. Also, 24/7 phlebotomy services were associated with lower specimen error rates. Establishing quality metrics for specimen labeling and deploying 24/7 phlebotomy operations may contribute to improving the accuracy of specimen labeling for the clinical laboratory.

  10. 10 CFR 707.12 - Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing. (United States)


    ... drug testing. 707.12 Section 707.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.12 Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing... screening specimens to determine whether they are negative or positive for a specific drug, consistent with...

  11. Practices for Identifying and Rejecting Hemolyzed Specimens Are Highly Variable in Clinical Laboratories. (United States)

    Howanitz, Peter J; Lehman, Christopher M; Jones, Bruce A; Meier, Frederick A; Horowitz, Gary L


    Hemolysis is an important clinical laboratory quality attribute that influences result reliability. To determine hemolysis identification and rejection practices occurring in clinical laboratories. We used the College of American Pathologists Survey program to distribute a Q-Probes-type questionnaire about hemolysis practices to Chemistry Survey participants. Of 3495 participants sent the questionnaire, 846 (24%) responded. In 71% of 772 laboratories, the hemolysis rate was less than 3.0%, whereas in 5%, it was 6.0% or greater. A visual scale, an instrument scale, and combination of visual and instrument scales were used to identify hemolysis in 48%, 11%, and 41% of laboratories, respectively. A picture of the hemolysis level was used as an aid to technologists' visual interpretation of hemolysis levels in 40% of laboratories. In 7.0% of laboratories, all hemolyzed specimens were rejected; in 4% of laboratories, no hemolyzed specimens were rejected; and in 88% of laboratories, some specimens were rejected depending on hemolysis levels. Participants used 69 different terms to describe hemolysis scales, with 21 terms used in more than 10 laboratories. Slight and moderate were the terms used most commonly. Of 16 different cutoffs used to reject hemolyzed specimens, moderate was the most common, occurring in 30% of laboratories. For whole blood electrolyte measurements performed in 86 laboratories, 57% did not evaluate the presence of hemolysis, but for those that did, the most common practice in 21 laboratories (24%) was centrifuging and visually determining the presence of hemolysis in all specimens. Hemolysis practices vary widely. Standard assessment and consistent reporting are the first steps in reducing interlaboratory variability among results.

  12. Patient safety in the clinical laboratory: a longitudinal analysis of specimen identification errors. (United States)

    Wagar, Elizabeth A; Tamashiro, Lorraine; Yasin, Bushra; Hilborne, Lee; Bruckner, David A


    Patient safety is an increasingly visible and important mission for clinical laboratories. Attention to improving processes related to patient identification and specimen labeling is being paid by accreditation and regulatory organizations because errors in these areas that jeopardize patient safety are common and avoidable through improvement in the total testing process. To assess patient identification and specimen labeling improvement after multiple implementation projects using longitudinal statistical tools. Specimen errors were categorized by a multidisciplinary health care team. Patient identification errors were grouped into 3 categories: (1) specimen/requisition mismatch, (2) unlabeled specimens, and (3) mislabeled specimens. Specimens with these types of identification errors were compared preimplementation and postimplementation for 3 patient safety projects: (1) reorganization of phlebotomy (4 months); (2) introduction of an electronic event reporting system (10 months); and (3) activation of an automated processing system (14 months) for a 24-month period, using trend analysis and Student t test statistics. Of 16,632 total specimen errors, mislabeled specimens, requisition mismatches, and unlabeled specimens represented 1.0%, 6.3%, and 4.6% of errors, respectively. Student t test showed a significant decrease in the most serious error, mislabeled specimens (P < .001) when compared to before implementation of the 3 patient safety projects. Trend analysis demonstrated decreases in all 3 error types for 26 months. Applying performance-improvement strategies that focus longitudinally on specimen labeling errors can significantly reduce errors, therefore improving patient safety. This is an important area in which laboratory professionals, working in interdisciplinary teams, can improve safety and outcomes of care.

  13. Detection of Pathogenic Protozoa in the Diagnostic Laboratory: Result Reproducibility, Specimen Pooling, and Competency Assessment▿ (United States)

    Libman, M. D.; Gyorkos, T. W.; Kokoskin, E.; MacLean, J. D.


    Stool microscopy as performed in clinical parasitology laboratories is a complex procedure with subjective interpretation. Quality assurance (QA) programs often emphasize proficiency testing as an assessment tool. We describe a result reproducibility assessment tool, which can form part of a broader QA program, and which is based on the blinded resubmission of selected clinical samples, using concordance between the reports of the initial and resubmitted specimen as an indicator. Specimens preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin can be stored for several months for use in such a program. The presence of multiple protozoa in one specimen does not affect concordance. Some dilution of specimens occurs in this process, and this may explain poor concordance when specimens with low protozoal concentrations are resubmitted. Evaluation of this tool in a large parasitology laboratory revealed concordance rates for pathogenic protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Dientamoeba fragilis) of about 80%, which may be considered for use as a benchmark value. We also used this tool to demonstrate that when pairs of specimens from one patient are pooled to create a single specimen, concordance between the results of the individual and pooled specimens is high. PMID:18448690

  14. 10 CFR 26.153 - Using certified laboratories for testing urine specimens. (United States)


    ...-certified laboratories that agree to follow the same rigorous specimen testing, quality control, and chain-of-custody procedures when testing for more stringent cutoff levels as may be specified by licensees... Federal custody-and-control form, licensees and other entities shall provide a memorandum to the...

  15. Causes and impact of specimen rejection in a clinical chemistry laboratory. (United States)

    Cao, Liyun; Chen, Meng; Phipps, Ron A; Del Guidice, Robert E; Handy, Beverly C; Wagar, Elizabeth A; Meng, Qing H


    Pre-analytical errors necessitate specimen rejection and negatively affect patient safety. Our purpose was to investigate the factors leading to specimen rejection and its impact. Specimen rejections in a clinical chemistry laboratory during a 1-year period were reviewed retrospectively and analyzed for frequency, cause, circumstances, and impact. Of the 837,862 specimens received, 2178 (0.26%) were rejected. The most common reasons for specimen rejection were contamination (n=764, 35.1%), inappropriate collection container/tube (n=330, 15.2%), quantity not sufficient (QNS) (n=329, 15.1%), labeling errors (n=321, 14.7%), hemolyzed specimen (n=205, 9.4%), and clotted specimen (n=203, 9.3%). The analytes most often affected were glucose (n=192, 8.8%); calcium (n=152, 7.0%), magnesium (n=148, 6.8%), potassium (n=137, 6.3%), creatinine (n=100, 4.6%), and blood urea nitrogen (n=97, 4.4%). Outpatient service and blood draw by phlebotomists were associated with low rejection rates (536/493,501 or 0.11% and 368/586,503 or 0.06%, respectively). Recollection due to specimen rejection increased the turnaround time by an average of 108min. The total cost for the recollection was around $43,210 USD with an average cost around $21.9 USD. The factors associated with rejection are remediable by improved training and quality assurance measures. Policies and procedures specific to specimen collection, transportation, and preparation should be strictly followed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....

  17. [Safety management in pathology laboratory: from specimen handling to confirmation of reports]. (United States)

    Minato, Hiroshi; Nojima, Takayuki; Nakano, Mariko; Yamazaki, Michiko


    Medical errors in pathological diagnosis give a huge amount of physical and psychological damage to patients as well as medical staffs. We discussed here how to avoid medical errors in surgical pathology laboratory through our experience. Handling of surgical specimens and diagnosing process requires intensive labor and involves many steps. Each hospital reports many kinds of accidents or incidents, however, many laboratories share common problems and each process has its specific risk for the certain error. We analyzed the problems in each process and concentrated on avoiding misaccessioning, mislabeling, and misreporting. We have made several changes in our system, such as barcode labels, digital images of all specimens, putting specimens in embedding cassettes directly on the endoscopic biopsied specimens, and using a multitissue control block as controls in immunohistochemistry. Some problems are still left behind, but we have reduced the errors by decreasing the number of artificial operation as much as possible. A pathological system recognizing the status of read or unread the pathological reports by clinician are now underconstruction. We also discussed about quality assurance of diagnosis, cooperation with clinicians and other comedical staffs, and organization and method. In order to operate riskless work, it is important for all the medical staffs to have common awareness of the problems, keeping careful observations, and sharing all the information in common. Incorporation of an organizational management tool such as ISO 15189 and utilizing PDCA cycle is also helpful for safety management and quality improvement of the laboratory.

  18. Laboratory Focus on Improving the Culture of Biosafety: Statewide Risk Assessment of Clinical Laboratories That Process Specimens for Microbiologic Analysis. (United States)

    Munson, Erik; Bowles, Erin J; Dern, Richard; Beck, Eric; Podzorski, Raymond P; Bateman, Allen C; Block, Timothy K; Kropp, Joshua L; Radke, Tyler; Siebers, Karen; Simmons, Brian; Smith, Mary A; Spray-Larson, Frances; Warshauer, David M


    The Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene challenged Wisconsin laboratories to examine their biosafety practices and improve their culture of biosafety. One hundred three clinical and public health laboratories completed a questionnaire-based, microbiology-focused biosafety risk assessment. Greater than 96% of the respondents performed activities related to specimen processing, direct microscopic examination, and rapid nonmolecular testing, while approximately 60% performed culture interpretation. Although they are important to the assessment of risk, data specific to patient occupation, symptoms, and travel history were often unavailable to the laboratory and, therefore, less contributory to a microbiology-focused biosafety risk assessment than information on the specimen source and test requisition. Over 88% of the respondents complied with more than three-quarters of the mitigation control measures listed in the survey. Facility assessment revealed that subsets of laboratories that claim biosafety level 1, 2, or 3 status did not possess all of the biosafety elements considered minimally standard for their respective classifications. Many laboratories reported being able to quickly correct the minor deficiencies identified. Task assessment identified deficiencies that trended higher within the general (not microbiology-specific) laboratory for core activities, such as packaging and shipping, direct microscopic examination, and culture modalities solely involving screens for organism growth. For traditional microbiology departments, opportunities for improvement in the cultivation and management of highly infectious agents, such as acid-fast bacilli and systemic fungi, were revealed. These results derived from a survey of a large cohort of small- and large-scale laboratories suggest the necessity for continued microbiology-based understanding of biosafety practices, vigilance toward biosafety, and enforcement of biosafety practices throughout the laboratory

  19. Stool-specimen testing practices adopted by clinical microbiology laboratories in the Veneto Region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Spolaore


    Full Text Available In order to correctly analyze data of laboratory diagnoses of infectious gastroenteritis for epidemiological purposes, a survey on analytical methods applied by hospital-based clinical microbiology laboratories has been conducted in the Veneto Region (Italy. The survey has been carried out in 2005 through a questionnaire collecting data on laboratory protocols and materials used for faecal specimens analysis. Laboratories from all the Local Health Units and University Hospitals of the Region returned the questionnaire. Almost all the laboratories routinely tested for the main foodborne pathogens: 23/23 for Salmonella, 22/23 for Shigella and 19/23 for Campylobacter jejuni. A great variety of analytical methods was applied for pathogen isolation; among these is worth of notice the inappropriate use of selenite broth for Shigella enrichment.Among noncultural methods, immunoassays were largely adopted. The survey allowed to appraise stool-specimen testing practices among laboratories of the Veneto Region; overall the compliance with guidelines proposed by the main national and international scientific societies resulted rather good.

  20. Standard test method for laboratory evaluation of magnesium sacrificial anode test specimens for underground applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure that measures the two fundamental performance properties of magnesium sacrificial anode test specimens operating in a saturated calcium sulfate, saturated magnesium hydroxide environment. The two fundamental properties are electrode (oxidation potential) and ampere hours (Ah) obtained per unit mass of specimen consumed. Magnesium anodes installed underground are usually surrounded by a backfill material that typically consists of 75 % gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), 20 % bentonite clay, and 5 % sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The calcium sulfate, magnesium hydroxide test electrolyte simulates the long term environment around an anode installed in the gypsum-bentonite-sodium sulfate backfill. 1.2 This test method is intended to be used for quality assurance by anode manufacturers or anode users. However, long term field performance properties may not be identical to property measurements obtained using this laboratory test. Note 1—Refer to Terminology G 15 for terms used ...

  1. A primer on the cost of quality for improvement of laboratory and pathology specimen processes. (United States)

    Carlson, Richard O; Amirahmadi, Fazlollaah; Hernandez, James S


    In today's environment, many laboratories and pathology practices are challenged to maintain or increase their quality while simultaneously lowering their overall costs. The cost of improving specimen processes is related to quality, and we demonstrate that actual costs can be reduced by designing "quality at the source" into the processes. Various costs are hidden along the total testing process, and we suggest ways to identify opportunities to reduce cost by improving quality in laboratories and pathology practices through the use of Lean, Six Sigma, and industrial engineering.

  2. Prevalence of antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus among clinical laboratory specimens: findings from a survey of primary care physicians. (United States)

    Fernando, N H; Petersen, L R; Conway, G A; Critchley, S E


    To evaluate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection among patients of primary care physicians, we performed anonymous, unlinked HIV-1 antibody testing on leftover blood specimens submitted to 10 large commercial clinical laboratories for complete blood cell count or hematocrit determination, the most commonly ordered diagnostic tests. From January through August 1990, 55,613 specimens submitted by general internists, pediatricians, and family practitioners were sampled; 1,104 (2.0%) had HIV-1 antibody. Seroprevalence among the laboratories varied 50-fold, from 0.3 to 12.4%. The HIV-1 prevalence at each laboratory was not always consistent with the AIDS incidence in the area served by the laboratory. Overall the seroprevalence was almost eight times higher in men (3.9%) than in women (0.5%). Specimens from seropositive persons, especially from men, were unevenly distributed among the physician practices; only three practices submitted approximately 50% of all specimens from seropositive men. These data indicate that a few physicians treat the majority of HIV-1-infected primary care patients. The HIV-1 prevalence among specimens at a clinical laboratory is thus determined by whether few physicians submit specimens to that laboratory. These results could be of use, for instance, in analyzing proposals to mandate physician reporting of HIV-1 infection. The high HIV-1 prevalence among laboratory specimens underscores the potential for exposure to HIV-1-infected blood by clinical laboratory personnel and emphasizes the need for universal precautions for all blood specimens.

  3. Collection, transport and general processing of clinical specimens in Microbiology laboratory. (United States)

    Sánchez-Romero, M Isabel; García-Lechuz Moya, Juan Manuel; González López, Juan José; Orta Mira, Nieves


    The interpretation and the accuracy of the microbiological results still depend to a great extent on the quality of the samples and their processing within the Microbiology laboratory. The type of specimen, the appropriate time to obtain the sample, the way of sampling, the storage and transport are critical points in the diagnostic process. The availability of new laboratory techniques for unusual pathogens, makes necessary the review and update of all the steps involved in the processing of the samples. Nowadays, the laboratory automation and the availability of rapid techniques allow the precision and turn-around time necessary to help the clinicians in the decision making. In order to be efficient, it is very important to obtain clinical information to use the best diagnostic tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Finite Element Modeling of Compressive and Splitting Tensile Behavior of Plain Concrete and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Cylinder Specimens


    Chowdhury, Md. Arman; Islam, Md. Mashfiqul; Ibna Zahid, Zubayer


    Plain concrete and steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) cylinder specimens are modeled in the finite element (FE) platform of ANSYS 10.0 and validated with the experimental results and failure patterns. Experimental investigations are conducted to study the increase in compressive and tensile capacity of cylindrical specimens made of stone and brick concrete and SFRC. Satisfactory compressive and tensile capacity improvement is observed by adding steel fibers of 1.5% volumetric ratio. A tot...

  5. Two-parameter fracture mechanical analysis of a near-crack-tip stress field in wedge splitting test specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Veselý, V.; Řoutil, L.


    Roč. 89, 21-22 (2011), s. 1852-1858 ISSN 0045-7949. [International Conference on Civil, Structural and Enviromental Engineering Computing /12./. Funchal, Madeira, 01.09.2009-04.09.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Wedge splitting test * Stress intensity factor * T-stress * Numerical simulation * Direct method Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.874, year: 2011

  6. Assessment of microbiological diagnostic procedures for respiratory specimens from cystic fibrosis patients in German laboratories by use of a questionnaire. (United States)

    Häfner, Laura; Peters, Georg; Kahl, Barbara C


    Respiratory specimens from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients challenge microbiological laboratories with their complexity of pathogens and atypical variants. We evaluated the diagnostic procedures in German laboratories by use of a questionnaire. Although most laboratories followed guidelines, some of them served only a small number of patients, while others did not use the recommended selective agars to culture the particular CF-relevant species.

  7. Conceptual design of a biological specimen holding facility. [Life Science Laboratory for Space Shuttle (United States)

    Jackson, J. K.; Yakut, M. M.


    An all-important first step in the development of the Spacelab Life Science Laboratory is the design of the Biological Specimen Holding Facility (BSHF) which will provide accommodation for living specimens for life science research in orbit. As a useful tool in the understanding of physiological and biomedical changes produced in the weightless environment, the BSHF will enable biomedical researchers to conduct in-orbit investigations utilizing techniques that may be impossible to perform on human subjects. The results of a comprehensive study for defining the BSHF, description of its experiment support capabilities, and the planning required for its development are presented. Conceptual designs of the facility, its subsystems and interfaces with the Orbiter and Spacelab are included. Environmental control, life support and data management systems are provided. Interface and support equipment required for specimen transfer, surgical research, and food, water and waste storage is defined. New and optimized concepts are presented for waste collection, feces and urine separation and sampling, environmental control, feeding and watering, lighting, data management and other support subsystems.

  8. 9 CFR 381.189 - Provisions inapplicable to specimens for laboratory examination, etc., or to naturally inedible... (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisions inapplicable to specimens for laboratory examination, etc., or to naturally inedible articles. 381.189 Section 381.189 Animals... laboratory examination, exhibition purposes, or other official use; (b) To dead, dying, disabled or diseased...

  9. Numerical and analytical modeling of the end-loaded split (ELS) test specimens made of multi-directional coupled composite laminates (United States)

    Samborski, Sylwester; Valvo, Paolo S.


    The paper deals with the numerical and analytical modelling of the end-loaded split test for multi-directional laminates affected by the typical elastic couplings. Numerical analysis of three-dimensional finite element models was performed with the Abaqus software exploiting the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). The results show possible asymmetries in the widthwise deflections of the specimen, as well as in the strain energy release rate (SERR) distributions along the delamination front. Analytical modelling based on a beam-theory approach was also conducted in simpler cases, where only bending-extension coupling is present, but no out-of-plane effects. The analytical results matched the numerical ones, thus demonstrating that the analytical models are feasible for test design and experimental data reduction.

  10. 49 CFR 40.105 - What happens if the laboratory reports a result different from that expected for a blind specimen? (United States)


    ... different from that expected for a blind specimen? 40.105 Section 40.105 Transportation Office of the... for a blind specimen? (a) If you are an employer, MRO, or C/TPA who submits a blind specimen, and if... expected results (obtained from the supplier of the blind specimen), and direct the laboratory to determine...

  11. Alkali-silica reaction products: Comparison between samples from concrete structures and laboratory test specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachlova, Sarka; Prikryl, Richard; Pertold, Zdenek


    Alkali-silica gels (ASG) were investigated in concrete from bridge structures (constructed from the 1920s to 2000), as well as in experimental specimens; employing optical microscopy, petrographic image analysis, and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The main differences were found in the chemical composition and morphology of the ASGs. ASGs which had formed in older concrete samples (50-80 years old) show a partly crystalline structure and higher Ca 2+ content, indicating their aging and maturation. Younger concrete samples and experimental test specimens exhibit the presence of amorphous ASG. The chemistry of ASG from experimental specimens reflects the chemical composition of accelerating solutions. - Research Highlights: → Quantitative analysis of alkali-silica gels → Comparison of ASR in experimental conditions with ASR in bridge structures → Investigation of factors affecting alkali-silica reaction → Investigation of ASR of different types of aggregates

  12. Processing of fallopian tube, ovary, and endometrial surgical pathology specimens: A survey of U.S. laboratory practices. (United States)

    Samimi, Goli; Trabert, Britton; Duggan, Máire A; Robinson, Jennifer L; Coa, Kisha I; Waibel, Elizabeth; Garcia, Edna; Minasian, Lori M; Sherman, Mark E


    Many high-grade serous carcinomas initiate in fallopian tubes as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), a microscopic lesion identified with specimen processing according to the Sectioning and Extensive Examination of the Fimbria protocol (SEE-Fim). Given that the tubal origin of these cancers was recently recognized, we conducted a survey of pathology practices to assess processing protocols that are applied to gynecologic surgical pathology specimens in clinical contexts in which finding STIC might have different implications. We distributed a survey electronically to the American Society for Clinical Pathology list-serve to determine practice patterns and compared results between practice types by chi-square (χ2) tests for categorical variables. Free text comments were qualitatively reviewed. Survey responses were received from 159 laboratories (72 academic, 87 non-academic), which reported diverse specimen volumes and percentage of gynecologic samples. Overall, 74.1% of laboratories reported performing SEE-Fim for risk-reducing surgical specimens (82.5% academic versus 65.7% non-academic, p STIC or early cancer precursors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Use of pooling and outpatient laboratory specimens in an anonymous seroprevalence survey of HIV infection in British Columbia, Canada. (United States)

    Sherlock, C H; Strathdee, S A; Le, T; Sutherland, D; O'Shaughnessy, M V; Schechter, M T


    To conduct an anonymous HIV seroprevalence survey to establish a baseline estimate of HIV seroprevalence in a general population; to evaluate serum pooling and alternative testing strategies as cost-saving measures. Prospective anonymous HIV seroprevalence study using outpatient laboratory specimens. Two large non-hospital-associated outpatient chemistry testing laboratories in the major population centers in British Columbia, Canada. PATIENTS AND SERA: Leftover sera received for chemistry screen testing in outpatient laboratories were provided to the study after chemistry testing was completed. Those from patients aged or = 55 years were excluded. Patient identifiers were erased from samples. Sera were pooled 10:1 and tested by viral lysate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sera from HIV-positive pools were tested individually. All individual HIV-positive specimens were retested for verification of positivity using a recombinant protein ELISA. HIV seroprevalence rates were stratified by sex, age group, and geographic area; and costs of pooling and alternative algorithm strategy were compared with those of conventional methods. A total of 80,238 sera were collected from 66,658 individuals (53% women, 47% men). Of these, 276 men (88.3 per 10,000) and 24 women (6.8 per 10,000) were HIV-seropositive. The highest rates were in those aged 30-34 years, for both men and women. Using pooling and non-Western blot verification saved US$2.07 per specimen, or 80% of the cost for conventional testing. The anonymous outpatient laboratory setting is practicable to obtain a reasonable estimate of HIV seroprevalence rates in a general population. Such studies can be made cost-effective by pooling sera and using alternative confirmatory strategies.

  14. High Efficiency Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy: Laboratory Demonstration of S-I Water-Splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, R.; Russ, B.; Brown, L.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Gelbard, F.; Pickard F.S.; Leybros, J.; Le Duigou, A.; Borgard, J.M.


    The objective of the French CEA, US-DOE INERI project is to perform a lab scale demonstration of the sulfur iodine (S-I) water splitting cycle, and assess the potential of this cycle for application to nuclear hydrogen production. The project will design, construct and test the three major component reaction sections that make up the S-I cycle. The CEA will design and test the prime (Bunsen) reaction section. General Atomics will develop and test the HI decomposition section, and SNL will develop and test the H2SO4 decomposition section. Activities for this period included initial program coordination and information exchange, the development of models and analyses that will support the design of the component sections, and preliminary designs for the component reaction sections. The sections are being designed to facilitate integration into a closed loop demonstration in a later stage of the program.

  15. Use of simulated sputum specimens to estimate the specificity of laboratory-diagnosed tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demers, A.-M.; Boulle, A.; Warren, R.; Verver, S.; van Helden, P.; Behr, M. A.; Coetzee, D.


    Cross-contamination is not uncommon in mycobacteriology laboratories of high-income countries, as documented by bacterial genotyping. The extent of this problem in low-income countries is largely unknown, where this method is impractical. To estimate the rate of cross-contamination in a high-volume

  16. Can Unmanned Aerial Systems (Drones) Be Used for the Routine Transport of Chemistry, Hematology, and Coagulation Laboratory Specimens? (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Sokoll, Lori J; Pepper, Daniel; Howard, Dana P; Street, Jeff


    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS or drones) could potentially be used for the routine transport of small goods such as diagnostic clinical laboratory specimens. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published study of the impact of UAS transportation on laboratory tests. Three paired samples were obtained from each one of 56 adult volunteers in a single phlebotomy event (336 samples total): two tubes each for chemistry, hematology, and coagulation testing respectively. 168 samples were driven to the flight field and held stationary. The other 168 samples were flown in the UAS for a range of times, from 6 to 38 minutes. After the flight, 33 of the most common chemistry, hematology, and coagulation tests were performed. Statistical methods as well as performance criteria from four distinct clinical, academic, and regulatory bodies were used to evaluate the results. Results from flown and stationary sample pairs were similar for all 33 analytes. Bias and intercepts were <10% and <13% respectively for all analytes. Bland-Altman comparisons showed a mean difference of 3.2% for Glucose and <1% for other analytes. Only bicarbonate did not meet the strictest (Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program) performance criteria. This was due to poor precision rather than bias. There were no systematic differences between laboratory-derived (analytic) CV's and the CV's of our flown versus terrestrial sample pairs however CV's from the sample pairs tended to be slightly higher than analytic CV's. The overall concordance, based on clinical stratification (normal versus abnormal), was 97%. Length of flight had no impact on the results. Transportation of laboratory specimens via small UASs does not affect the accuracy of routine chemistry, hematology, and coagulation tests results from selfsame samples. However it results in slightly poorer precision for some analytes.

  17. Can Unmanned Aerial Systems (Drones Be Used for the Routine Transport of Chemistry, Hematology, and Coagulation Laboratory Specimens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy K Amukele

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS or drones could potentially be used for the routine transport of small goods such as diagnostic clinical laboratory specimens. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published study of the impact of UAS transportation on laboratory tests.Three paired samples were obtained from each one of 56 adult volunteers in a single phlebotomy event (336 samples total: two tubes each for chemistry, hematology, and coagulation testing respectively. 168 samples were driven to the flight field and held stationary. The other 168 samples were flown in the UAS for a range of times, from 6 to 38 minutes. After the flight, 33 of the most common chemistry, hematology, and coagulation tests were performed. Statistical methods as well as performance criteria from four distinct clinical, academic, and regulatory bodies were used to evaluate the results.Results from flown and stationary sample pairs were similar for all 33 analytes. Bias and intercepts were <10% and <13% respectively for all analytes. Bland-Altman comparisons showed a mean difference of 3.2% for Glucose and <1% for other analytes. Only bicarbonate did not meet the strictest (Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program performance criteria. This was due to poor precision rather than bias. There were no systematic differences between laboratory-derived (analytic CV's and the CV's of our flown versus terrestrial sample pairs however CV's from the sample pairs tended to be slightly higher than analytic CV's. The overall concordance, based on clinical stratification (normal versus abnormal, was 97%. Length of flight had no impact on the results.Transportation of laboratory specimens via small UASs does not affect the accuracy of routine chemistry, hematology, and coagulation tests results from selfsame samples. However it results in slightly poorer precision for some analytes.

  18. Improved Specimen-Referral System and Increased Access to Quality Laboratory Services in Ethiopia: The Role of the Public-Private Partnership. (United States)

    Kebede, Yenew; Fonjungo, Peter N; Tibesso, Gudeta; Shrivastava, Ritu; Nkengasong, John N; Kenyon, Thomas; Kebede, Amha; Gadde, Renuka; Ayana, Gonfa


    Nonstandardized specimen-transport logistics, lack of laboratory personnel to transport specimens, lack of standard specimen containers, and long turnaround time (TAT) hindered access to quality laboratory services. The objective of the Becton, Dickinson, and Company (BD)-US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Public-Private Partnership (PPP) was to support country-specific programs to develop integrated laboratory systems, services, and quality improvement strategies, with an emphasis on strengthening the specimen-referral system (SRS). In 2007, through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) joined with the BD-PEPFAR PPP to strengthen laboratory systems. A joint planning and assessment committee identified gaps in the SRS for prioritization and intervention and piloted the system in Addis Ababa and Amhara Region. The PPP established standardized, streamlined specimen logistics, using the Ethiopian Postal Service Enterprise to support a laboratory network in which 554 facilities referred specimens to 160 laboratories. The PPP supported procuring 400 standard specimen containers and the training of 586 laboratory personnel and 81 postal workers. The average TAT was reduced from 7 days (range, 2-14 days) to 2 days (range, 1-3 days) in Addis Ababa and from 10 days (range, 6-21 days) to 5 days (range, 2-6 days) in Amhara Region. This study highlights the feasibility and untapped potential of PPPs to strengthen laboratory systems. This planned and structured approach to improving specimen referral enhanced access to quality laboratory services. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail

  19. Multi-parameter crack tip stress state description for evaluation of nonlinear zone width in silicate composite specimens in component splitting/bending test geometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, V.; Frantík, P.; Sopek, J.; Malíková, L.; Seitl, Stanislav


    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2015), s. 200-214 ISSN 8756-758X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/11/0833 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : near-crack tip fields * Williams series * higher-order terms * stress field * failure criterion * nonlinear zone * quasi-brittle fracture * splitting-bending geometry Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2015

  20. A 10-year study of specimens submitted to oral pathology laboratory analysis: lesion occurrence and demographic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mendez


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper was to describe the range of lesions histologically diagnosed in an oral pathology laboratory in southern Brazil. A retrospective study of 8,168 specimen analyses recorded between 1995 and 2004 was conducted. The records were retrieved from the Oral Pathology Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, RS, Brazil. A total of 6,831 valid cases (83.63% were examined. Of these, inflammatory lesions were the most common occurrences (n = 4,320; 63.24%. Benign and malignant tumors accounted for 7.66% (n = 523 and 1.9% (n = 130 of the occurrences, respectively. Significant associations were observed between nonneoplastic proliferative disorders and benign mesenchymal tumors in females, and between squamous cell carcinoma and leukoplakia in males. Most diagnoses were benign in nature and had an inflammatory etiology. The association of some demographic characteristics with the occurrence of lesions suggests that these characteristics should be considered in performing differential diagnoses.

  1. Laboratory safe detection of nucleocapsid protein of Rift Valley fever virus in human and animal specimens by a sandwich ELISA. (United States)

    Jansen van Vuren, P; Paweska, J T


    A safe laboratory procedure, based on a sandwich ELISA (sAg-ELISA), was developed and evaluated for the detection of nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in specimens inactivated at 56 degrees C for 1h in the presence of 0.5% Tween-20 (v/v) before testing. Polyclonal capture and detection immune sera were generated respectively in sheep and rabbits immunized with recombinant NP antigen. The assay was highly repeatable and specific; it detected strains of RVFV from the entire distributional range of the disease, isolated over a period of 53 years; no cross-reactivity with genetically related African phleboviruses or other members of the family Bunyaviridae was observed. In specimens spiked with RVFV, including human and animal sera, homogenates of liver and spleen tissues of domestic ruminants, and Anopheles mosquito homogenates, the sAg-ELISA detection limit ranged from log(10)10(2.2) to 10(3.2) TCID(50)/reaction volume. The ELISA detected NP antigen in spiked bovine and sheep liver homogenates up to at least 8 days of incubation at 37 degrees C whereas infectious virus could not be detected at 48h incubation in these adverse conditions. Compared to virus isolation from sera from RVF patients and sheep infected experimentally, the ELISA had 67.7% and 70% sensitivity, and 97.97% and 100% specificity, respectively. The assay was 100% accurate when testing tissues of various organs from mice infected experimentally and buffalo foetuses infected naturally. The assay was able to detect NP antigen in infective culture supernatants 16-24h before cytopathic effects were observed microscopically and as early as 8h after inoculation with 10(5.8) TCID(50)/ml of RVFV. This ability renders the assay for rapid identification of the virus when its primary isolation is attempted in vitro. As a highly specific, safe and simple assay format, the sAg-ELISA represents a valuable diagnostic tool for use in less equipped laboratories in Africa, and for routine

  2. Deployment of the 1st Area Medical Laboratory in a Split-Based Configuration During the Largest Ebola Outbreak in History. (United States)

    Cardile, Anthony P; Littell, Christopher T; Backlund, Michael G; Heipertz, Richard A; Brammer, Jerod A; Palmer, Sean M; Vento, Todd J; Ortiz, Felix A; Rosa, William R; Major, Michael J; Garman, Patrick M


    The U.S. Army 1 st Area Medical Laboratory (1 st AML) is currently the only deployable medical CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives) laboratory in the Army's Forces Command. In support of the United States Agency for International Development Ebola response, the U.S. military initiated Operation United Assistance (OUA), and deployed approximately 2,500 service members to support the Government of Liberia's Ebola control efforts. Due to its unique molecular diagnostic and expeditionary capabilities, the 1 st AML was ordered to deploy in October of 2014 in support of OUA via establishment of Ebola testing laboratories. To meet the unique mission requirements of OUA, the unit was re-organized to operate in a split-based configuration and sustain four separate Ebola testing laboratories. This article is a review of the 1 st AML's OUA participation in a split-based configuration. Topics highlighted include pre-deployment planning/training, operational/logistical considerations in fielding/withdrawing laboratories, laboratory testing results, disease and non-battle injuries, and lessons learned. Fielding the 1 st AML in a split-based configuration required careful pre-deployment planning, additional training, optimal use of personnel, and the acquisition of additional laboratory equipment. Challenges in establishing and sustaining remote laboratories in Liberia included: difficulties in transportation of equipment due to poor road infrastructure, heavy equipment unloading, and equipment damage during transit. Between November 26, 2014 and February 18, 2015 the four 1 st AML labs successfully tested blood samples from patients and oral swabs collected by burial teams in rural Liberia. The most significant equipment malfunction during laboratory operations was generators powering the labs, with the same problem impacting headquarters. Generator failures delayed laboratory operations/result reporting, and put temperature sensitive reagents at

  3. Technical note: Discard the specimen collection swab directly at point of care to improve extensive automated processing in clinical microbiology laboratories. (United States)

    Avolio, Manuela; Grosso, Shamanta; Bruschetta, Graziano; Camporese, Alessandro


    We compared, in terms of microorganisms recovery, the discard of specimen collection swab, after swirling into its medium, directly at point of care, with its placing into the medium and vortexing on arrival in the laboratory. Our results show that these two procedures are overlapped in terms of bacterial recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Laboratory Mill for Pulverizing and Homogenizing Nail Specimens as an Aid to Microscopy and Culture Confirmation of Onychomycosis (United States)

    Luedemann, George M.; LeBreton, Ernest


    A small mill has been developed for reducing nail clippings to a convenient size for microscopy and inoculation onto isolation media. The milling process acts to pulverize and homogenize the specimen. The use of a homogeneous sample in microscopy increases the opportunity for the discovery of fungal hyphae in a specimen. The use of a pulverized specimen increases the possibility of culture isolation by permitting greater numbers of potentially viable fungal cells to come into direct contact with the isolation medium. Images PMID:4259708

  5. Embryo splitting


    Karl Illmensee; Mike Levanduski


    Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board appr...

  6. Embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Illmensee


    Full Text Available Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board approval has been carried out to determine its efficiency for blastocyst development. Embryo splitting at the 6–8 cell stage provided a much higher developmental efficiency compared to splitting at the 2–5 cell stage. Embryo splitting may be advantageous for providing additional embryos to be cryopreserved and for patients with low response to hormonal stimulation in assisted reproduction programs. Social and ethical issues concerning embryo splitting are included regarding ethics committee guidelines. Prognostic perspectives are presented for human embryo splitting in reproductive medicine.

  7. Inter- and intra-specimen variability masks reliable temperature control on shell Mg/Ca ratios in laboratory- and field-cultured Mytilus edulis and Pecten maximus (bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Kennedy


    Full Text Available The Mg/Ca ratios of biogenic calcite is commonly seen as a valuable palaeo-proxy for reconstructing past ocean temperatures. The temperature dependence of Mg/Ca ratios in bivalve calcite has been the subject of contradictory observations. The palaeoceanographic use of a geochemical proxy is dependent on initial, rigorous calibration and validation of relationships between the proxy and the ambient environmental variable to be reconstructed. Shell Mg/Ca ratio data are reported for the calcite of two bivalve species, Mytilus edulis (common mussel and Pecten maximus (king scallop, which were grown in laboratory culturing experiments at controlled and constant aquarium seawater temperatures over a range from ~10 to ~20°C. Furthermore, Mg/Ca ratio data of laboratory- and field-grown M. edulis specimens were compared. Only a weak, albeit significant, shell Mg/Ca ratio–temperature relationship was observed in the two bivalve species: M. edulis (r2=0.37, p0.001 for laboratory-cultured specimens and r2=0.50, p0.001 for field-cultured specimens and P. maximus (r2=0.21, p0.001 for laboratory-cultured specimens only. In the two species, shell Mg/Ca ratios were not found to be controlled by shell growth rate or salinity. The Mg/Ca ratios in the shells exhibited a large degree of variability among and within species and individuals. The results suggest that the use of bivalve calcite Mg/Ca ratios as a temperature proxy is limited, at least in the species studied to date. Such limitations are most likely due to the presence of physiological effects on Mg incorporation in bivalve calcite. The utilization is further limited by the great variability both within and among shells of the same species that were precipitated under the same ambient conditions.

  8. Laboratory tests on tubular specimens removed from ORBEL I pipeline; Ensaios de laboratorio em especimes tubulares registrados do oleoduto ORBEL I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ricardo D. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Benjamin, Adilson C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Freire, Jose L.F.; Vieira, Ronaldo D. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This paper presents the results and analysis of burst test of five end-capped tubular specimens containing real corrosion defects, removed from ORBEL I pipeline, during the rehabilitation campaign. It is a complement of the paper presented in IPC-2004 by Souza et alii, named as 'Burst Tests on Pipeline Containing Long Real Corrosion Defects'. The burst tests were performed with pipe segments cut from welded tubes made of API 5L X46 SAW steel, with an outside diameter of 457.2 mm and wall thickness of 6.35 mm. Measurements were carried out in order to determine de actual dimensions of each tubular specimen and its respective defect. Tensile specimens were tested to determine material properties. The failure pressures measured in the laboratory tests are compared with those predicted by the Level-1 and Level-2 assessment methods: ASME B31G, 085 dL, DNV RP-F101 for single defects, RSTRENG Effective Area and DNV RP-F101 or complex shaped defects. Comparisons between predicted failure pressure considering nominal values of wall thickness and diameter versus real values and river bottom profile versus the profile obtained from the line where the fracture took place were carried out. (author)

  9. Descriptions of marine mammal specimens in Marine Mammal Osteology Reference Collection, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1938-01-01 to 2015-12-05 (NCEI Accession 0140937) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Marine Mammal Osteology Collection consists of approximately 2500 specimens (skulls...

  10. Laboratory diagnosis of botulism complicated by pyridostigmine treatment of the patient. A method for selectively removing interfering substances from clinical specimens. (United States)

    Horwitz, M A; Hatheway, C L; Dowell, V R


    In August 1974, a case of botulism occurred; home-canned potatoes and peas containing Clostridium botulinum, type A, were strongly incriminated as the vehicle of transmission. C. botulinum, type A, was isolated from a stool specimen of the patient, but the mouse neutralization test for botulinal toxin could not be completed because the stool extract contained a highly toxic, heat-stable substance that rapidly killed mice. Historical and laboratory evidence indicated that the substance was pyridostigmine bromide, a low-molecular-weight drug with which the patient had been treated after her disease was misdiagnosed as myasthenia gravis. A generally applicable method employing dialysis by which toxic SUBSTANCED of low molecular weigth could be selectively removed from specimens without diminishing the potency of botulinal toxin contained in them was developed. Dialysis rendered a pyridostigmine solution, a stool extract from the patient with botulism, and a stool extract from a person taking pyridostigmine virtually nontoxic to mice. Dialysis did not significantly alter the toxicity to mice of crude botulinal toxin; it selectively eliminated all or almost all pyridostigmine toxicity from a pyridostigmine-botulinal toxin mixture without altering the toxicity of the botulinal toxin.

  11. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from central nervous system specimens as reported by U.S. hospital laboratories from 2000 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlowsky James A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial infections of the central nervous system, especially acute infections such as bacterial meningitis require immediate, invariably empiric antibiotic therapy. The widespread emergence of resistance among bacterial species is a cause for concern. Current antibacterial susceptibility data among central nervous system (CNS pathogens is important to define current prevalence of resistance. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens isolated from CNS specimens was analyzed using The Surveillance Database (TSN® USA Database which gathers routine antibiotic susceptibility data from >300 US hospital laboratories. A total of 6029 organisms derived from CNS specimen sources during 2000–2002, were isolated and susceptibility tested. Results Staphylococcus aureus (23.7% and Streptococcus pneumoniae (11.0% were the most common gram-positive pathogens. Gram-negative species comprised approximately 25% of isolates. The modal patient age was 1 or S. aureus from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and brain abscesses were 29.9–32.9%. Penicillin resistance rates were 16.6% for S. pneumoniae, 5.3% for viridans group streptococci, and 0% for S. agalactiae. For CSF isolates, ceftriaxone resistance was S. pneumoniae (3.5%, E. coli (0.6%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.8%, Serratia marcescens (5.6%, Enterobacter cloacae (25.0%, Haemophilus influenzae (0%. Listeria monocytogenes and N. meningitidis are not routinely susceptibility tested. Conclusions Resistance is commonly detected, albeit still at relatively low levels for key drugs classes such as third-generation cephalosporins. This data demonstrates the need to consider predominant resistance phenotypes when choosing empiric therapies to treat CNS infections.

  12. Splitting Descartes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa


    Kognition og Pædagogik vol. 48:10-18. 2003 Short description : The cognitivistic paradigm and Descartes' view of embodied knowledge. Abstract: That the philosopher Descartes separated the mind from the body is hardly news: He did it so effectively that his name is forever tied to that division....... But what exactly is Descartes' point? How does the Kartesian split hold up to recent biologically based learning theories?...

  13. Evaluation and Adaptation of a Laboratory-Based cDNA Library Preparation Protocol for Retrospective Sequencing of Archived MicroRNAs from up to 35-Year-Old Clinical FFPE Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Loudig


    Full Text Available Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE specimens, when used in conjunction with patient clinical data history, represent an invaluable resource for molecular studies of cancer. Even though nucleic acids extracted from archived FFPE tissues are degraded, their molecular analysis has become possible. In this study, we optimized a laboratory-based next-generation sequencing barcoded cDNA library preparation protocol for analysis of small RNAs recovered from archived FFPE tissues. Using matched fresh and FFPE specimens, we evaluated the robustness and reproducibility of our optimized approach, as well as its applicability to archived clinical specimens stored for up to 35 years. We then evaluated this cDNA library preparation protocol by performing a miRNA expression analysis of archived breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS specimens, selected for their relation to the risk of subsequent breast cancer development and obtained from six different institutions. Our analyses identified six miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-221, miR-375, miR-184, miR-363, miR-455-5p differentially expressed between DCIS lesions from women who subsequently developed an invasive breast cancer (cases and women who did not develop invasive breast cancer within the same time interval (control. Our thorough evaluation and application of this laboratory-based miRNA sequencing analysis indicates that the preparation of small RNA cDNA libraries can reliably be performed on older, archived, clinically-classified specimens.

  14. Evaluation and Adaptation of a Laboratory-Based cDNA Library Preparation Protocol for Retrospective Sequencing of Archived MicroRNAs from up to 35-Year-Old Clinical FFPE Specimens. (United States)

    Loudig, Olivier; Wang, Tao; Ye, Kenny; Lin, Juan; Wang, Yihong; Ramnauth, Andrew; Liu, Christina; Stark, Azadeh; Chitale, Dhananjay; Greenlee, Robert; Multerer, Deborah; Honda, Stacey; Daida, Yihe; Spencer Feigelson, Heather; Glass, Andrew; Couch, Fergus J; Rohan, Thomas; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z


    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens, when used in conjunction with patient clinical data history, represent an invaluable resource for molecular studies of cancer. Even though nucleic acids extracted from archived FFPE tissues are degraded, their molecular analysis has become possible. In this study, we optimized a laboratory-based next-generation sequencing barcoded cDNA library preparation protocol for analysis of small RNAs recovered from archived FFPE tissues. Using matched fresh and FFPE specimens, we evaluated the robustness and reproducibility of our optimized approach, as well as its applicability to archived clinical specimens stored for up to 35 years. We then evaluated this cDNA library preparation protocol by performing a miRNA expression analysis of archived breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) specimens, selected for their relation to the risk of subsequent breast cancer development and obtained from six different institutions. Our analyses identified six miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-221, miR-375, miR-184, miR-363, miR-455-5p) differentially expressed between DCIS lesions from women who subsequently developed an invasive breast cancer (cases) and women who did not develop invasive breast cancer within the same time interval (control). Our thorough evaluation and application of this laboratory-based miRNA sequencing analysis indicates that the preparation of small RNA cDNA libraries can reliably be performed on older, archived, clinically-classified specimens.

  15. Evaluation and Adaptation of a Laboratory-Based cDNA Library Preparation Protocol for Retrospective Sequencing of Archived MicroRNAs from up to 35-Year-Old Clinical FFPE Specimens (United States)

    Loudig, Olivier; Wang, Tao; Ye, Kenny; Lin, Juan; Wang, Yihong; Ramnauth, Andrew; Liu, Christina; Stark, Azadeh; Chitale, Dhananjay; Greenlee, Robert; Multerer, Deborah; Honda, Stacey; Daida, Yihe; Spencer Feigelson, Heather; Glass, Andrew; Couch, Fergus J.; Rohan, Thomas; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z.


    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens, when used in conjunction with patient clinical data history, represent an invaluable resource for molecular studies of cancer. Even though nucleic acids extracted from archived FFPE tissues are degraded, their molecular analysis has become possible. In this study, we optimized a laboratory-based next-generation sequencing barcoded cDNA library preparation protocol for analysis of small RNAs recovered from archived FFPE tissues. Using matched fresh and FFPE specimens, we evaluated the robustness and reproducibility of our optimized approach, as well as its applicability to archived clinical specimens stored for up to 35 years. We then evaluated this cDNA library preparation protocol by performing a miRNA expression analysis of archived breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) specimens, selected for their relation to the risk of subsequent breast cancer development and obtained from six different institutions. Our analyses identified six miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-221, miR-375, miR-184, miR-363, miR-455-5p) differentially expressed between DCIS lesions from women who subsequently developed an invasive breast cancer (cases) and women who did not develop invasive breast cancer within the same time interval (control). Our thorough evaluation and application of this laboratory-based miRNA sequencing analysis indicates that the preparation of small RNA cDNA libraries can reliably be performed on older, archived, clinically-classified specimens. PMID:28335433

  16. Application Anti Microbial Activity Test and Direct Inoculation of Urinary Specimen Test to Increase the Quality of Results and Decrease the Production Cost in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Sanglah General Hospital Hospital, Bali-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Sri-Budayanti


    Full Text Available Objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common bacterial infection in general practice and in hospitals. Fast and accurate urine culture and sensitivity test are needed for adequate therapy. Anti Microbial Activity test (AMA test that is used to detect the presence of antibiotics in urine specimens is not commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. Some laboratories are still using indirect inoculation technique using enriched media before inoculating onto the agar media. The aim of this research is to compare results of urinary examination of direct inoculation technique with AMA test with indirect inoculation technique without AMA test.Methods: A number of 210 urine specimens were collected in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at Sanglah General Hospital within a time period between 16 June until 16 July 2009.Results: Antibiotics were detected in 40% of the urinary specimens; whereas 48.1% showed no evidence of UTI, that is negative AMA test and sterile urinary culture or colony growth < 105 CFU/ml. Only 11.9% of the specimens indicates urinary tract infections. The examination can be completed within 2-3 days which is shorter than indirect inoculation test which require 5-7 days. Direct inoculation technique can reduce the cost of production three-fold the costs require for an indirect inoculation test.Conclusions: Application of AMA test and direct inoculation technique can give results more rapidly, reliable and useful for clinicians. This also decrease the laboratory’s cost of production.

  17. Investigation of Heavy Quark Production by Gluon Splitting from Analysis of Muons in QCD Jets at the D0 Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balderston, John M. [Hawaii U.


    The production of b and c quarks in QCD jets from $p\\overline{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ =l.8 TeV is investigated using decays to muons and hadronic debris. The results are based on data collected at the D0 experiment during the 1992-1993 FermiLab collider run. Two jet events are investigated and the rate for $b\\overline{b}$ and $c\\overline{c}$ from gluon splitting is compared with analytic estimates based on perturbative QCD to $O(\\alpha^3_s$). Reasonable agreement is observed. The characteristics of gluon splitting to $b\\overline{b}$ and $c\\overline{c}$ followed by quark decay to a muon are interpreted statistically based on the HERWIG Monte Carlo.

  18. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Bump; RF Luther


    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  19. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JL Bump; RF Luther


    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments

  20. Evaluation of an accelerated aging medium for acrylic bone cement based on analysis of nanoindentation measurements on laboratory-prepared and retrieved specimens. (United States)

    Lewis, Gladius; Xu, Jie; Dunne, Nicholas; Daly, Catherine; Orr, John


    The thrust of the study was a critical evaluation of the efficacy of a medium (30% v/v H(2)O(2), at 60 degrees C) that has been suggested in a literature report as being suitable for simulating the oxidative aging process, seen in vivo, in the acrylic bone cement mantles of total hip and knee joint replacements. For this purpose, quasi-static and dynamic nanoindentation measurements were used to obtain material properties--elastic modulus, E; hardness, H; and the variation of the storage and loss moduli with the frequency of the applied indenting force--of PalacosR acrylic bone cement specimens after various periods of immersion (7, 14, 21, and 28 days) in the aging solution, and of specimens prepared from cement mantles retrieved from cemented total hip joint replacements after various times in vivo (0.92-21 years). Also, best-fit relationships were obtained between E and time in the H(2)O(2) solution (t), H and t, E and in vivo time (T), and H and T. This body of results points to the possibility that the aging solution is effective, although the evidence is not conclusive.

  1. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Cameron M [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  2. Occurrence of bovine TB in Iranian cattle herds of Khuzestan, a laboratory study on postmortem specimens from tuberculin-positive cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Loni


    Full Text Available Khuzestan is a southwestern province of Iran with proximity to the Persian Gulf and the international border with Iraq where harsh climate seriously affects this oil-rich region. In a search for causative agents of bovine tuberculosis (bTB, slaughterhouse specimens (lymph nodes from 32 tuberculin-positive cows originating from 17 farms were cultured on Lowenstein–Jensen slopes. This was further extended with bacterial culture of postmortem material from 6 trapped feral mice straying on the same farm premises. Twenty-five bovine and 2 murine acid-fast isolates were consequently obtained with all of them confirmed as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB complex bacteria by IS6110-PCR experiment. Spoligotyping and RD4 typing of the 2 murine and some of the collected bovine isolates left no doubt that Mycobacterium bovis is the principle and possibly the single culprit in bTB in this region. It does not come as a surprise as previous exhaustive works have shown in the Iranian environment other members of MTB complex than M. bovis are very unlikely to have any role in the epidemiology of bTB.

  3. Effect of Specimen Size on the Tensile Strength Behavior of the Plastic Waste Fiber Reinforced Soil – Lime – Rice Husk Ash Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntohar A.S.


    Full Text Available Improvement of tensile strength in fiber reinforced soil is an important research topic. A study has been undertaken to investigate the strength of stabilized clay-soil reinforced with randomly distributed discrete plastic waste fibers by carrying out split tensile strength test. In this study, the clay soil was stabilized with lime and rice husk ash mixtures. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of specimen size to the tensile strength behavior. Testing procedure was formulated using extended ASTM C496 standard. The laboratory investigation results showed that split-tensile strength of reinforced specimens increased with increase in size. The limitations of the dataset indicate that specimen size of 70 mm in diameter is the threshold to produce reasonable representative strengths.

  4. Comparison of Simplexa HSV 1 & 2 PCR with culture, immunofluorescence, and laboratory-developed TaqMan PCR for detection of herpes simplex virus in swab specimens. (United States)

    Gitman, Melissa R; Ferguson, David; Landry, Marie L


    The Simplexa HSV 1 & 2 direct PCR assay was compared with conventional cell culture, cytospin-enhanced direct fluorescent antibody (DFA), and a laboratory-developed real-time TaqMan PCR (LDT HSV PCR) using extracted nucleic acid for the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in dermal, genital, mouth, ocular, and other swab samples. One hundred seventy-one swabs were tested prospectively, and 58 were positive for HSV (34 HSV-1 and 24 HSV-2). Cytospin-DFA detected 50 (86.2%), conventional cell culture 51 (87.9%), Simplexa direct 55 (94.8%), and LDT HSV PCR 57 (98.3%) of 58 true positives. Simplexa direct detected more positives than DFA and culture, but the differences were not significant (P = 0.0736 and P = 0.3711, respectively, by the McNemar test). Samples that were positive by all methods (n = 48) were strong positives (LDT cycle threshold [CT] value, 14.4 to 26.1). One strongly positive sample was falsely negative by LDT HSV PCR due to a failure of TaqMan probe binding. Three samples falsely negative by Simplexa direct had high CT values by LDT HSV PCR (LDT CT, 35.8 to 38.2). Omission of the DNA extraction step by Simplexa direct led to a drop in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of LDT HSV PCR using extracted samples (94.8% versus 98.3%, respectively), but the difference was not significant (P = 0.6171). Simplexa HSV 1 & 2 direct PCR was the most expensive but required the least training of the assays used, had the lowest hands-on time and fastest assay time (75 min, versus 3 h by LDT HSV PCR), and provided the HSV type.

  5. Basic laboratory procedures in clinical bacteriology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vandepitte, J


    ... of laboratory resources Collection and transport of stool specimens Visual examination of stool specimens Enrichment and inoculation of stool specimens Media for enteric pathogens Primary isolation Prelimin...

  6. Urine culture - catheterized specimen (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... Normal values depend on the test being performed. Normal results are reported as "no growth" and are a sign ...

  7. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar


    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  8. Split Cord Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdal Gezercan


    Full Text Available Split cord malformations are rare form of occult spinal dysraphism in children. Split cord malformations are characterized by septum that cleaves the spinal canal in sagittal plane within the single or duplicated thecal sac. Although their precise incidence is unknown, split cord malformations are exceedingly rare and represent %3.8-5 of all congenital spinal anomalies. Characteristic neurological, urological, orthopedic clinical manifestations are variable and asymptomatic course is possible. Earlier diagnosis and surgical intervention for split cord malformations is associated with better long-term fuctional outcome. For this reason, diagnostic imaging is indicated for children with associated cutaneous and orthopedic signs. Additional congenital anomalies usually to accompany the split cord malformations. Earlier diagnosis, meticuolus surgical therapy and interdisciplinary careful evaluation and follow-up should be made for good prognosis. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 199-207

  9. Are Ducted Mini-Splits Worth It?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Zhang, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory


    Ducted mini-split heat pumps are gaining popularity in some regions of the country due to their energy-efficient specifications and their ability to be hidden from sight. Although product and install costs are typically higher than the ductless mini-split heat pumps, this technology is well worth the premium for some homeowners who do not like to see an indoor unit in their living area. Due to the interest in this technology by local utilities and homeowners, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop capabilities within the Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) tool to model ducted mini-split heat pumps. After the fundamental capabilities were added, energy-use results could be compared to other technologies that were already in BEopt, such as zonal electric resistance heat, central air source heat pumps, and ductless mini-split heat pumps. Each of these technologies was then compared using five prototype configurations in three different BPA heating zones to determine how the ducted mini-split technology would perform under different scenarios. The result of this project was a set of EnergyPlus models representing the various prototype configurations in each climate zone. Overall, the ducted mini-split heat pumps saved about 33-60% compared to zonal electric resistance heat (with window AC systems modeled in the summer). The results also showed that the ducted mini-split systems used about 4% more energy than the ductless mini-split systems, which saved about 37-64% compared to electric zonal heat (depending on the prototype and climate).

  10. TEM Specimen Preparation




    Author: House Ear Institute ### Preparative Techniques for the TEM For routine transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it is generally accepted that specimens should be thin, dry and contain molecules which diffract electrons. Biological specimens, which are large and consist of large amounts of water, also do not defract electrons and are therefore difficult to see in the TEM. Preparing biological specimens for the TEM, whilst retaining the structural morphology of the material, is a...

  11. Laparoscopic specimen retrieval bags. (United States)

    Smorgick, Noam


    Specimen retrieval bags have long been used in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery for contained removal of adnexal cysts and masses. More recently, the concerns regarding spread of malignant cells during mechanical morcellation of myoma have led to an additional use of specimen retrieval bags for contained "in-bag" morcellation. This review will discuss the indications for use retrieval bags in gynecologic endoscopy, and describe the different specimen bags available to date.

  12. A new specimen management system using RFID technology. (United States)

    Shim, Hun; Uh, Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Yoon, Young Ro


    The specimen management system with barcode needs to be improved in order to solve inherent problems in work performance. This study describes the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) which is the solution for the problems associated with specimen labeling and management. A new specimen management system and architecture with RFID technology for clinical laboratory was designed. The suggested system was tested in various conditions such as durability to temperature and aspect of effective utilization of new work flow under a virtual hospital clinical laboratory environment. This system demonstrates its potential application in clinical laboratories for improving work flow and specimen management. The suggested specimen management system with RFID technology has advantages in comparison to the traditional specimen management system with barcode in the aspect of mass specimen processing, robust durability of temperature, humidity changes, and effective specimen tracking.

  13. Split Malcev algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    project of the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia MTM2007-60333. References. [1] Calderón A J, On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 118(2008) 351–356. [2] Calderón A J, On split Lie triple systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 119(2009). 165–177.

  14. Split mandrel versus split sleeve coldworking: Dual methods for extending the fatigue life of metal structures (United States)

    Rodman, Geoffrey A.; Creager, Matthew


    It is common practice to use split sleeve coldworking of fastener holes as a means of extending the fatigue life of metal structures. In search of lower manufacturing costs, the aerospace industry is examining the split mandrel (sleeveless) coldworking process as an alternative method of coldworking fastener holes in metal structures. The split mandrel process (SpM) significantly extends the fatigue life of metal structures through the introduction of a residual compressive stress in a manner that is very similar to the split sleeve system (SpSl). Since the split mandrel process is significantly less expensive than the split sleeve process and more adaptable to robotic automation, it will have a notable influence upon other new manufacture of metal structures which require coldworking a significant number of holes, provided the aerospace community recognizes that the resulting residual stress distributions and fatigue life improvement are the same for both processes. Considerable testing has validated the correctness of that conclusion. The findings presented in this paper represent the results of an extensive research and development program, comprising data collected from over 400 specimens fabricated from 2024-T3 and 7075-T651 aluminum alloys in varied configurations, which quantify the benefits (fatigue enhancement and cost savings) of automating a sleeveless coldworking system.

  15. Hyperfine splitting in lithium-like bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochmann, Matthias; Froemmgen, Nadja; Hammen, Michael; Will, Elisa [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Andelkovic, Zoran; Kuehl, Thomas; Litvinov, Yuri; Winters, Danyal; Sanchez, Rodolfo [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Botermann, Benjamin; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Bussmann, Michael [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Dax, Andreas [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Hannen, Volker; Joehren, Raphael; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian [Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Geppert, Christopher [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Stoehlker, Thomas [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Thompson, Richard [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Volotka, Andrey [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Wen, Weiqiang [IMP Lanzhou (China)


    High-precision measurements of the hyperfine splitting values on Li- and H-like bismuth ions, combined with precise atomic structure calculations allow us to test QED-effects in the regime of the strongest magnetic fields that are available in the laboratory. Performing laser spectroscopy at the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI Darmstadt, we have now succeeded in measuring the hyperfine splitting in Li-like bismuth. Probing this transition has not been easy because of its extremely low fluorescence rate. Details about this challenging experiment will be given and the achieved experimental accuracy are presented.

  16. Acoustic Split-Beam Echosounder Data (EK60) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories collects data using Simrad EK60 scientific split-beam acoustic echosounders during resource...

  17. Aspects of Split Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, N; Giudice, Gian Francesco; Romanino, A


    We explore some fundamental differences in the phenomenology, cosmology and model building of Split Supersymmetry compared with traditional low-scale supersymmetry. We show how the mass spectrum of Split Supersymmetry naturally emerges from theories where the dominant source of supersymmetry breaking preserves an $R$ symmetry, characterize the class of theories where the unavoidable $R$-breaking by gravity can be neglected, and point out a new possibility, where supersymmetry breaking is directly communicated at tree level to the visible sector via renormalizable interactions. Next, we discuss possible low-energy signals for Split Supersymmetry. The absence of new light scalars removes all the phenomenological difficulties of low-energy supersymmetry, associated with one-loop flavor and CP violating effects. However, the electric dipole moments of leptons and quarks do arise at two loops, and are automatically at the level of present limits with no need for small phases, making them accessible to several ongo...

  18. Effect of loading condition, specimen geometry, size-effect and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IC were dependent on material prop- erties and independent of specimen geometry and size. Xu & Reinhardt (1999b, c) developed analytical methods for TPBT and CT or wedge splitting test (WST) to determine the values of double-K fracture parameters. From the available experimental results, it was also shown that.

  19. Split Malcev algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the structure of split Malcev algebras of arbitrary dimension over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. We show that any such algebras is of the form M = U + ∑ j I j with U a subspace of the abelian Malcev subalgebra and any I j a well described ideal of satisfying [ I j , I k ] = 0 if ≠ .

  20. Splitting of Comets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Splitting of Comets. Utpal Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 11-22. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords. Cometary ...

  1. Has the ThinPrep method of cervical screening maintained its improvement over conventional smears in terms of specimen adequacy?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A


    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced conventional smear assessment in many centers over recent years. In our laboratory this transfer took place in 1999. At that time we performed a split sample study comparing the conventional method of cervical smear evaluation with the ThinPrep system. This split sample study identified a dramatic improvement in specimen adequacy with LBC. While 11% of conventional preparations were reported as unsatisfactory and almost 9% were reported as suboptimal, evaluation of the same cases using LBC saw this combined figure reduced to 2.3%. AIM: To evaluate whether this dramatic fall in unsatisfactory smears has been maintained with the use of LBC. The database for all smears reported for 2005 (100% LBC) was interrogated. The number of unsatisfactory reports was calculated. The reason for an unsatisfactory report was recorded for each case. The overall unsatisfactory rate was compared with that reported in the 1999 split sample study. A total of 41,312 smear tests were reported in 2005. 1,342 (3.25%) were reported as unsatisfactory. Our findings support the ongoing value of LBC in a routine cervical screening laboratory in terms of continuing to maintain a low rate of unsatisfactory smears.

  2. Preserve specimens for reproducibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krell, F.-T.; Klimeš, Petr; Rocha, L. A.; Fikáček, M.; Miller, S. E.


    Roč. 539, č. 7628 (2016), s. 168 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : reproducibility * specimen * biodiversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016

  3. Split warhead simultaneous impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Singh Dhari


    Full Text Available A projectile system is proposed to improve efficiency and effectiveness of damage done by anti-tank weapon system on its target by designing a ballistic projectile that can split into multiple warheads and engage a target at the same time. This idea has been developed in interest of saving time consumed from the process of reloading and additional number of rounds wasted on target during an attack. The proposed system is achieved in three steps: Firstly, a mathematical model is prepared using the basic equations of motion. Second, An Ejection Mechanism of proposed warhead is explained with the help of schematics. Third, a part of numerical simulation which is done using the MATLAB software. The final result shows various ranges and times when split can be effectively achieved. With the new system, impact points are increased and hence it has a better probability of hitting a target.

  4. On split Lie triple systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We also introduced in [1] techniques of connection of roots in the framework of split Lie algebras. In the present paper we extend these techniques to the framework of split Lie triple systems so as to obtain a generalization of the results in [1]. We consider the wide class of split Lie triple systems (which contains the class of.

  5. Automated solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 6-acetylmorphine in human urine specimens: application for a high-throughput urine analysis laboratory. (United States)

    Robandt, P V; Bui, H M; Scancella, J M; Klette, K L


    An automated solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS-MS) method using the Spark Holland Symbiosis Pharma SPE-LC coupled to a Waters Quattro Micro MS-MS was developed for the analysis of 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) in human urine specimens. The method was linear (R² = 0.9983) to 100 ng/mL, with no carryover at 200 ng/mL. Limits of quantification and detection were found to be 2 ng/mL. Interrun precision calculated as percent coefficient of variation (%CV) and evaluated by analyzing five specimens at 10 ng/mL over nine batches (n = 45) was 3.6%. Intrarun precision evaluated from 0 to 100 ng/mL ranged from 1.0 to 4.4%CV. Other opioids (codeine, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, hydromorphone, hydrocodone, and norcodeine) did not interfere in the detection, quantification, or chromatography of 6-AM or the deuterated internal standard. The quantified values for 41 authentic human urine specimens previously found to contain 6-AM by a validated gas chromatography (GC)-MS method were compared to those obtained by the SPE-LC-MS-MS method. The SPE-LC-MS-MS procedure eliminates the human factors of specimen handling, extraction, and derivatization, thereby reducing labor costs and rework resulting from human error or technique issues. The time required for extraction and analysis was reduced by approximately 50% when compared to a validated 6-AM procedure using manual SPE and GC-MS analysis.

  6. Thermal property testing technique on micro specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tetsuya; Kishimoto, Isao; Taketoshi, Naoyuki


    This study aims at establishment of further development on some testing techniques on the nuclear advanced basic research accumulated by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology for ten years. For this purpose, a technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of less than 3 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness of micro specimen and technology to test heat diffusion ratio at micro area of less than 1 mm in area along cross section of less than 10 mm in diameter of column specimen were developed to contribute to common basic technology supporting the nuclear power field. As a result, as an element technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of the micro specimen, a specimen holding technique stably to hold a micro specimen with 3 mm in diameter could be developed. And, for testing the specific heat capacity by using the laser flush differential calorimetry, a technique to hold two specimen of 5 mm in diameter at their proximities was also developed. In addition, by promoting development of thermal property data base capable of storing thermal property data obtained in this study and with excellent workability in this 1998 fiscal year a data in/out-put program with graphical user interface could be prepared. (G.K.)

  7. NASA Biological Specimen Repository (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.


    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  8. Rotating specimen rack repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.; Rogers, P.J.; Nabor, W.G.; Bair, H.


    In 1980, an operator at the UCI TRIGA Reactor noticed difficulties with the rotation of the specimen rack. Investigations showed that the drive bearing in the rack had failed and allowed the bearings to enter the rack. After some time of operation in static mode it was decided that installation of a bearing substitute - a graphite sleeve - would be undertaken. Procedures were written and approved for removal of the rack, fabrication and installation of the sleeve, and re-installation of the rack. This paper describes these procedures in some detail. Detailed drawings of the necessary parts may be obtained from the authors

  9. specimens of patients with bloody diarrhoea in Mwanza, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Butimba Health Centre. Bacteriological cultures were done at the National Institute for Medical Research laboratory. Atotal of 489 patients (median age= 20 years) participated in the study and were able to provide stool specimens. Shigella species were isolated from 14% (69/489) of the stool specimens collected.

  10. Description of Specimens in the Marine Mammal Osteology Reference Collection (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Marine Mammal Osteology Collection consists of approximately 2500 specimens (skulls...

  11. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther


    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2

  12. Split SUSY Radiates Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgart, Matthew; Zorawski, Thomas


    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of Mini-Split Supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and WIMP dark matter. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  13. How rivers split (United States)

    Seybold, H. F.; Yi, R.; Devauchelle, O.; Petroff, A.; Rothman, D.


    River networks have fascinated mankind for centuries. They exhibit a striking geometry with similar shapes repeating on all scales. Yet, how these networks form and create these geometries remains elusive. Recently we have shown that channels fed by subsurface flow split at a characteristic angle of 2π/5 unambiguously consistent with our field measurements in a seepage network on the Florida Panhandle (Fig.1). Our theory is based only on the simple hypothesis that the channels grow in the direction at which the ground water enters the spring and classical solutions of subsurface hydrology. Here we apply our analysis to the ramification of large drainage basins and extend our theory to include slope effects. Using high resolution stream networks from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD), we scrutinize our hypothesis in arbitrary channel networks and investigate the branching angle dependence on Horton-Strahler order and the maturity of the streams.; High-resolution topographic map of valley networks incised by groundwater flow, located on the Florida Panhandle near Bristol, FL.

  14. Split supersymmetry radiates flavor (United States)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Stolarski, Daniel; Zorawski, Thomas


    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of mini-split supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and dark matter as a weakly interacting massive particle. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY-breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  15. Interpretation and inverse analysis of the wedge splitting test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik


    to the wedge splitting test and that it is well suited for the interpretation of test results in terms of s(w). A fine agreement between the hinge and FEM-models has been found. It has also been found that the test and the hinge model form a solid basis for inverse analysis. The paper also discusses possible...... three dimensional problems in the experiment as well as the influence of specimen size....

  16. Global Locator, Local Locator, and Identifier Split (GLI-Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Menth


    Full Text Available The locator/identifier split is an approach for a new addressing and routing architecture to make routing in the core of the Internet more scalable. Based on this principle, we developed the GLI-Split framework, which separates the functionality of current IP addresses into a stable identifier and two independent locators, one for routing in the Internet core and one for edge networks. This makes routing in the Internet more stable and provides more flexibility for edge networks. GLI-Split can be incrementally deployed and it is backward-compatible with the IPv6 Internet. We describe its architecture, compare it to other approaches, present its benefits, and finally present a proof-of-concept implementation of GLI-Split.

  17. Split-coil-system SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.


    The high field superconductor test facility SULTAN started operation successfully in May 1992. Originally designed for testing full scale conductors for the large magnets of the next generation fusion reactors, the SULTAN facility installed at PSI (Switzerland) was designed as a common venture of three European Laboratories: ENEA (Italy), ECN (Netherlands) and PSI, and built by ENEA and PSI in the framework of the Euratom Fusion Technology Program. Presently the largest facility in the world, with its superconducting split coil system generating 11 Tesla in a 0.6 m bore, it is ready now for testing superconductor samples with currents up to 50 kA at variable cooling conditions. Similar tests can be arranged also for other applications. SULTAN is offered by the European Community as a contribution to the worldwide cooperation for the next step of fusion reactor development ITER. First measurements on conductor developed by CEA (Cadarache) are now in progress. Others like those of ENEA and CERN will follow. For 1993, a test of an Italian 12 TZ model coil for fusion application is planned. SULTAN is a worldwide unique facility marking the competitive presence of Swiss technology in the field of applied superconductivity research. Based on development and design of PSI, the high field Nb 3 Sn superconductors and coils were fabricated at the works of Kabelwerke Brugg and ABB, numerous Swiss companies contributed to the success of this international effort. Financing of the Swiss contribution of SULTAN was made available by NEFF, BEW, BBW, PSI and EURATOM. (author) figs., tabs., 20 refs

  18. Split-illumination electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira


    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  19. Fracture toughness of thin specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Kenji; Kikuchi, Masanori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi


    Three-dimensional elastic-plastic analyses were carried out on 1 and 2 mm-thick CCT specimens with or without side grooves. The valid effective thickness, 0.85 √(B o xB n ), was obtained from the 3-D analyses. The stretched-zone method is better than the R-curve method to determine the J in value of the thin specimen. However, a great many data should be gathered near the J in value. The J in value obtained using side-grooved specimens is always lower than that of non-side-grooved specimens. Considering the difficulty of machining the side groove, the side groove is not appropriate for the thin specimen. As the thickness decreases, the J in value decreases. However, it is possible to estimate the J ic value from the J in value obtained using thin CCT specimens. (author)

  20. Janka hardness using nonstandard specimens (United States)

    David W. Green; Marshall Begel; William Nelson


    Janka hardness determined on 1.5- by 3.5-in. specimens (2×4s) was found to be equivalent to that determined using the 2- by 2-in. specimen specified in ASTM D 143. Data are presented on the relationship between Janka hardness and the strength of clear wood. Analysis of historical data determined using standard specimens indicated no difference between side hardness...

  1. ISR split-field magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.

  2. Damage evolution in different types of concrete by means of splitting tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervuurt, A.; Van Mier, J.G.M.; Chiaia, B.


    A new splitting test has been used for evaluating damage in different types of concrete. The set up was developed at the Stevin Laboratory of Delft University of Technology and comprises a completely new loading device in which a perfectly horizontal splitting load can be applied to concrete

  3. Post-deformation examination of specimens subjected to SCC testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Busby, Jeremy T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This report details the results of post-radiation and post-deformation characterizations performed during FY 2015–FY 2016 on a subset of specimens that had previously been irradiated at high displacement per atom (dpa) damage doses. The specimens, made of commercial austenitic stainless steels and alloys, were subjected to stress-corrosion cracking tests (constant extension rate testing and crack growth testing) at the University of Michigan under conditions typical of nuclear power plants. After testing, the specimens were returned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for further analysis and evaluation.

  4. Screen-film specimen radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, S.J.; Hogan, J.; Schreck, B.


    This paper reports on the reproducibility and quality of biopsy specimen radiographs, a unique phototimed cabinet x-ray system is being developed. The system utilizes specially modified Kodal Min-R cassettes and will be compatible with current mammographic films. Tube voltages are in the 14-20-kVp range with 0.1-1.0-second exposure times. A top-hat type compression device is used (1) to compress the specimen to uniform thickness, (2) to measure the specimen thickness and determine optimum kVp, and (3) to superimpose a grid over the specimen for identification of objects of radiographic interest. The phototiming circuit developed specifically for this purpose will be described along with the modified Min-R cassette. Characteristics of the generator and cabinet will also be described. Tests will be performed on phantoms to evaluate the system limitations

  5. Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicedo, Benoit


    We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S 3 . Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet σ-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL 2 (C). (orig.)

  6. DNA extraction from herbarium specimens. (United States)

    Drábková, Lenka Záveská


    With the expansion of molecular techniques, the historical collections have become widely used. Studying plant DNA using modern molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing plays an important role in understanding evolutionary relationships, identification through DNA barcoding, conservation status, and many other aspects of plant biology. Enormous herbarium collections are an important source of material especially for specimens from areas difficult to access or from taxa that are now extinct. The ability to utilize these specimens greatly enhances the research. However, the process of extracting DNA from herbarium specimens is often fraught with difficulty related to such variables as plant chemistry, drying method of the specimen, and chemical treatment of the specimen. Although many methods have been developed for extraction of DNA from herbarium specimens, the most frequently used are modified CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit protocols. Nine selected protocols in this chapter have been successfully used for high-quality DNA extraction from different kinds of plant herbarium tissues. These methods differ primarily with respect to their requirements for input material (from algae to vascular plants), type of the plant tissue (leaves with incrustations, sclerenchyma strands, mucilaginous tissues, needles, seeds), and further possible applications (PCR-based methods or microsatellites, AFLP).

  7. General approach for engineering small-molecule-binding DNA split aptamers. (United States)

    Kent, Alexandra D; Spiropulos, Nicholas G; Heemstra, Jennifer M


    Here we report a general method for engineering three-way junction DNA aptamers into split aptamers. Split aptamers show significant potential for use as recognition elements in biosensing applications, but reliable methods for generating these sequences are currently lacking. We hypothesize that the three-way junction is a "privileged architecture" for the elaboration of aptamers into split aptamers, as it provides two potential splitting sites that are distal from the target binding pocket. We propose a general method for split aptamer engineering that involves removing one loop region, then systematically modifying the number of base pairs in the remaining stem regions in order to achieve selective assembly only in the presence of the target small molecule. We screen putative split aptamer sequence pairs using split aptamer proximity ligation (StAPL) technology developed by our laboratory, but we validate that the results obtained using StAPL translate directly to systems in which the aptamer fragments are assembling noncovalently. We introduce four new split aptamer sequences, which triples the number of small-molecule-binding DNA split aptamers reported to date, and the methods described herein provide a reliable route for the engineering of additional split aptamers, dramatically advancing the potential substrate scope of DNA assembly based biosensors.

  8. Application of subsize specimens in nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Kumar, A.S.; Cannon, N.S.; Hamilton, M.L.


    The US Department of Energy is sponsoring a research effort through Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Missouri-Rolla to test a correlation for the upper shelf energy (USE) values obtained from the impact testing of subsize Charpy V-notch specimens to those obtained from the testing of full-size samples. The program involves the impact testing of unirradiated and irradiated full-, half-, and third-size Charpy V-notch specimens. To verify the applicability of the correlation on LWR materials, unirradiated and irradiated full-, half-, and third-size Charpy V-notch specimens of a commercial pressure vessel steel (ASTM A533 Grade B) will be tested. The correlation methodology is based on the partitioning of the USE into crack initiation and crack propagation energies. To accomplish this partition, both precracked and notched-only specimens will be used. Whereas the USE of notched-only specimens is the sum of both crack initiation and crack propagation energies, the USE of precracked specimens reflects only the crack propagation component. The difference in the USE of the two types of specimens represents a measure of the crack initiation energy. Normalizing the values of the crack initiation energy to the fracture volume of the sample produces similar values for the full-, half-, and third-size specimens. In addition, the ratios of the USE and the crack propagation energy are also in agreement for full-, half-, and third-size specimens. These two observations will be used to predict the USE of full-size specimens based on subsize USE data. This paper provides details of the program and presents results obtained from the application of the developed correlation methodology to the impact testing of the unirradiated full-, half-, and third-size A533 Grade B Charpy V-notch specimens

  9. The laboratory and patient safety. (United States)

    Wagar, Elizabeth A; Yuan, Shan


    Laboratory data are used extensively in patient care; consequently, laboratory errors have a tremendous impact on patient safety. Clinical laboratories were early leaders in efforts to minimize medical errors and improve patient safety. These efforts continue in many areas, including patient and specimen identification, laboratory result notification, and assistance in laboratory data interpretation. Emerging ideas on identifying and reducing laboratory errors, as well as specific strategies are reviewed and discussed with examples.

  10. Split supersymmetry in brane models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Type-I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split supersymmetry. To lowest order, gauginos are massless while squarks and sleptons are superheavy. For weak magnetic fields, the correct Standard Model spectrum guarantees gauge coupling unification with sin2 W ...

  11. VBSCan Split 2017 Workshop Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Christoph Falk; et al.


    This document summarises the talks and discussions happened during the VBSCan Split17 workshop, the first general meeting of the VBSCan COST Action network. This collaboration is aiming at a consistent and coordinated study of vector-boson scattering from the phenomenological and experimental point of view, for the best exploitation of the data that will be delivered by existing and future particle colliders.

  12. Split supersymmetry in brane models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. November 2006 physics pp. 793–802. Split supersymmetry in brane models. IGNATIOS ANTONIADIS∗. Department of Physics, CERN-Theory Division, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. E-mail: Ignatios. ... that LEP data favor the unification of the three SM gauge couplings are smoking guns for the presence of new ...

  13. Water splitting by cooperative catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetterscheid, D.G.H.; van der Vlugt, J.I.; de Bruin, B.; Reek, J.N.H.


    A mononuclear Ru complex is shown to efficiently split water into H2 and O2 in consecutive steps through a heat- and light-driven process (see picture). Thermally driven H2 formation involves the aid of a non-innocent ligand scaffold, while dioxygen is generated by initial photochemically induced

  14. On split Lie triple systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lie triple system; system of roots; root space; split Lie algebra; structure theory. 1. Introduction and previous definitions. Throughout this paper, Lie triple systems T are considered of arbitrary dimension and over an arbitrary field K. It is worth to mention that, unless otherwise stated, there is not any restriction on dim Tα or {k ...

  15. On split Lie triple systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The key tool in this job is the notion of connection of roots in the framework of split Lie triple systems. Author Affiliations. Antonio J Calderón Martín1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. Dates. Manuscript received: 25 January 2008. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences.

  16. Torsional Split Hopkinson Bar Optimization (United States)


    cemented carbides , cast carbides , coated carbides , and coated high-speed steels, ranked by the cutting speed used to machine a unit volume of material...determine the load and deformation history of the specimen to obtain various mechanical properties of the material such as shear stress and strain. 15...simplified version of the process has as its objective to determine the load and deformation history of the specimen to obtain various mechanical

  17. Behavior of concrete specimens reinforced with composite materials : laboratory study (United States)


    The main objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between FRP composite and concrete by addressing the most important : variables in terms of FRP (fiber reinforced polymer) properties. Type of fibers, thickness of the laminates, fib...

  18. Stability of split Stirling refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waele, A T A M de; Liang, W


    In many thermal systems spontaneous mechanical oscillations are generated under the influence of large temperature gradients. Well-known examples are Taconis oscillations in liquid-helium cryostats and oscillations in thermoacoustic systems. In split Stirling refrigerators the compressor and the cold finger are connected by a flexible tube. The displacer in the cold head is suspended by a spring. Its motion is pneumatically driven by the pressure oscillations generated by the compressor. In this paper we give the basic dynamic equations of split Stirling refrigerators and investigate the possibility of spontaneous mechanical oscillations if a large temperature gradient develops in the cold finger, e.g. during or after cool down. These oscillations would be superimposed on the pressure oscillations of the compressor and could ruin the cooler performance.

  19. Replacement/Refurbishment of JSC/NASA POD Specimens (United States)

    Castner, Willard L.


    The NASA Special NDE certification process requires demonstration of NDE capability by test per NASA-STD-5009. This test is performed with fatigue cracked specimens containing very small cracks. The certification test results are usually based on binomial statistics and must meet a 90/95 Probability of Detection (POD). The assumption is that fatigue cracks are tightly closed, difficult to detect, and inspectors and processes passing such a test are well qualified for inspecting NASA fracture critical hardware. The JSC NDE laboratory has what may be the largest inventory that exists of such fatigue cracked NDE demonstration specimens. These specimens were produced by the hundreds in the late 1980s and early 1990s. None have been produced since that time and the condition and usability of the specimens are questionable.

  20. Influence of specimen size on the creep of rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senseny, P.E.


    Triaxial compression creep data for Avery Island dome salt are analyzed to determine the influence of specimen size on creep deformation. Laboratory experiments were performed on 50- and 100-mm-diameter specimens in the temperature range from 25 to 200 0 C and the axial stress difference range from 2.5 to 31.0 MPa. The strain-vs-time data from each test are divided into transient and steady-state components. Results of statistical analysis of these data show that transient creep of the small specimens is a stronger function of stress, temperature, and time than is transient creep of the larger specimens. Analysis of the steady-state data show no size effect, however. 14 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  1. Specimen Collection and Submission Manual (United States)


    local, approved medical treatment facility collection procedures. Superficial wounds and abscesses Sterile swab Follow local, approved medical...Tests May Include: West Nile virus (WNV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus... Wound Botulism Acceptable Specimens Required Volume/Comments Toxin Assay (T) or Culture (C) Performed Serum (priority sample type) 5 ml (less

  2. Instrumented impact testing machine with reduced specimen oscillation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.; Rahka, K.; Wallin, K.


    Owing to small and inexpensive specimens the Charpy impact test is widely used in quality control and alloy development. Limitations in power reactor survellance capsules it is also widely used for safety analysis purposes. Instrumenting the tup and computerizing data acquisition, makes dynamic fracture mechanics data measurement possible and convenient. However, the dynamic effects (inertia forces, specimen oscillations) in the impact test cause inaccuracies in the recorded load-time diagram and hence diminish the reliability of the calculated dynamic fracture mechanics parameters. To decrease inaccuracies a new pendulum type of instrumented impact test apparatus has been developed and constructed in the Metals Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland. This tester is based on a new principle involving inverted test geometry. The purpose of the geometry inversion is to reduce inertia load and specimen oscillation effects. Further, the new impact tester has some other novel features: e.g. the available initia impact energy is about double compared to the conventional standard (300 J) impact tester allowing the use of larger (10 x 20 x 110 mm) bend specimens than normal Charpy specimens. Also, the rotation asix in the three point bending is nearly stationary making COD-measurements possible. An experimental test series is described in which the inertia effects and specimen oscillations are compared in the conventional and new impact tester utilizing Charpy V-notch specimens. Comparison of the two test geometries is also made with the aid of an analytical model using finite element method (FEM) analysis. (author)

  3. Geometrical Applications of Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merab Gogberashvili


    Full Text Available It is shown that physical signals and space-time intervals modeled on split-octonion geometry naturally exhibit properties from conventional (3 + 1-theory (e.g., number of dimensions, existence of maximal velocities, Heisenberg uncertainty, and particle generations. This paper demonstrates these properties using an explicit representation of the automorphisms on split-octonions, the noncompact form of the exceptional Lie group G2. This group generates specific rotations of (3 + 4-vector parts of split octonions with three extra time-like coordinates and in infinitesimal limit imitates standard Poincare transformations. In this picture translations are represented by noncompact Lorentz-type rotations towards the extra time-like coordinates. It is shown how the G2 algebra’s chirality yields an intrinsic left-right asymmetry of a certain 3-vector (spin, as well as a parity violating effect on light emitted by a moving quantum system. Elementary particles are connected with the special elements of the algebra which nullify octonionic intervals. Then the zero-norm conditions lead to free particle Lagrangians, which allow virtual trajectories also and exhibit the appearance of spatial horizons governing by mass parameters.

  4. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell... of the shell, measured in the direction of the crack. ...

  5. Sample handling of clinical specimens for ultratrace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, R.


    Some simple logistics to an improved sample handling of clinical specimens are presented. This comprises clean room conditions, clean laboratory ware, ultra-pure reagents and good analytical practice. Sample handling procedures for blood, urine, soft tissues and pharmaceuticals are briefly discussed. (author) 26 refs

  6. Quantitative tear lysozyme assay: a new technique for transporting specimens.


    Seal, D V; Mackie, I A; Coakes, R L; Farooqi, B


    We have developed a method for assaying the concentration of tear lysozyme using eluates of tear fluid collected on filter paper discs. Specimens can be stored and transported to remote laboratories for assay. We have shown that the 'indirect' or eluate method gives statistically comparable results to the 'direct' method using fresh, neat tear fluid.

  7. Quantitative tear lysozyme assay: a new technique for transporting specimens. (United States)

    Seal, D V; Mackie, I A; Coakes, R L; Farooqi, B


    We have developed a method for assaying the concentration of tear lysozyme using eluates of tear fluid collected on filter paper discs. Specimens can be stored and transported to remote laboratories for assay. We have shown that the 'indirect' or eluate method gives statistically comparable results to the 'direct' method using fresh, neat tear fluid.

  8. ZrO2 nanoparticles' effects on split tensile strength of self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari


    Full Text Available In the present study, split tensile strength of self compacting concrete with different amount of ZrO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. ZrO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to cement paste (Portland cement together with polycarboxylate superplasticizer and split tensile strength of the specimens has been measured. The results indicate that ZrO2 nanoparticles are able to improve split tensile strength of concrete and recover the negative effects of polycarboxylate superplasticizer. ZrO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 4 wt. (% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount at the early age of hydration. The increased the ZrO2 nanoparticles' content more than 4 wt. (%, causes the reduced the split tensile strength because of unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix.

  9. Histological evaluation of 400 cholecystectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kumar


    Full Text Available Background: A majority of gallbladder specimens show changes associated with chronic cholecystitis; however few harbour a highly lethal carcinoma. This study was conducted to review the significant histopathological findings encountered in gallbladder specimens received in our laboratory.Materials and Methods: Four hundred cholecystectomy specimens were studied over a period of five years (May, 2002 to April, 2007 received at department of pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India. Results: Gallstones and associated diseases were more common in women in the 4th to 5th decade as compared to men with M: F ratio of 1:1.33. Maximum number of patients (28.25% being 41 to 50 years old. Histopathologically, the most common diagnosis was chronic cholecystitis (66.75%, followed by chronic active cholecystitis (20.25%, acute cholecystitis (6%, gangrenous cholecystitis (2.25%,xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (0.50%, empyema (1%, mucocele (0.25%, choledochal cyst (0.25%, adenocarcinoma gallbladder (1.25% and  normal  gallbladders (1%.Conclusion: All lesions were found more frequently in women except chronic active cholecystitis. Gallstones were present in (80.25% cases, and significantly associated with various lesions (P value 0.009. Pigment stones were most common, followed by cholesterol stones and mixed stones. Adequate  sectioning  is  mandatory  in  all  cases  to  assess  epithelial changes arising from cholelithiasis and chronic cholecystitis as it has been known to progress to malignancy in some cases.

  10. Innovative wedge axe in making split firewood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutikainen, A.


    Interteam Oy, a company located in Espoo, has developed a new method for making split firewood. The tools on which the patented System Logmatic are based are wedge axe and cylindrical splitting-carrying frame. The equipment costs about 495 FIM. The block of wood to be split is placed inside the upright carrying frame and split in a series of splitting actions using the innovative wedge axe. The finished split firewood remains in the carrying frame, which (as its name indicates) also serves as the means for carrying the firewood. This innovative wedge-axe method was compared with the conventional splitting of wood using an axe (Fiskars -handy 1400 splitting axe costing about 200 FIM) in a study conducted at TTS-Institute. There were eight test subjects involved in the study. In the case of the wedge-axe method, handling of the blocks to be split and of the finished firewood was a little quicker, but in actual splitting it was a little slower than the conventional axe method. The average productivity of splitting the wood and of the work stages related to it was about 0.4 m 3 per effective hour in both methods. The methods were also equivalent of one another in terms of the load imposed by the work when measured in terms of the heart rate. As regards work safety, the wedge-axe method was superior to the conventional method, but the continuous striking action and jolting transmitted to the arms were unpleasant (orig.)

  11. Preparing for Ebolavirus disease: specimen collection, packaging and transport. (United States)

    Adamson, Sheena; Wilson, Roger; James, Greg


    Ebolavirus is classified by Standards Australia as a Risk Group 4 pathogen for handling in laboratories. Specimens known or reasonably expected to contain Ebolavirus are classified by the United Nations as Dangerous Goods Infectious Substances Category A, UN 2814, which if transported by air must comply with International Air Transport Association (IATA) Hazard Class 6.2 and Packing Instruction 620 and Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) Regulations. As such high risk pathogens are rarely encountered in pathology laboratories in Australia, the possibility of an imported case of Ebolavirus disease occurring in NSW during the current ongoing outbreak which began in West Africa in 2014 prompted a review and rapid implementation of specific risk management protocols for Ebolavirus testing. Here we describe and report on the management of specimen collection, packaging and transport by public and private pathology laboratories agreed by a task force led by NSW Health Pathology and Health Protection NSW.

  12. Parallel BLAST on split databases. (United States)

    Mathog, David R


    BLAST programs often run on large SMP machines where multiple threads can work simultaneously and there is enough memory to cache the databases between program runs. A group of programs is described which allows comparable performance to be achieved with a Beowulf configuration in which no node has enough memory to cache a database but the cluster as an aggregate does. To achieve this result, databases are split into equal sized pieces and stored locally on each node. Each query is run on all nodes in parallel and the resultant BLAST output files from all nodes merged to yield the final output. Source code is available from

  13. A split accumulation gate architecture for silicon MOS quantum dots (United States)

    Rochette, Sophie; Rudolph, Martin; Roy, Anne-Marie; Curry, Matthew; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Dominguez, Jason; Manginell, Ronald; Pluym, Tammy; King Gamble, John; Lilly, Michael; Bureau-Oxton, Chloé; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    We investigate tunnel barrier modulation without barrier electrodes in a split accumulation gate architecture for silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dots (QD). The layout consists of two independent accumulation gates, one gate forming a reservoir and the other the QD. The devices are fabricated with a foundry-compatible, etched, poly-silicon gate stack. We demonstrate 4 orders of magnitude of tunnel-rate control between the QD and the reservoir by modulating the reservoir gate voltage. Last electron charging energies of app. 10 meV and tuning of the ST splitting in the range 100-200 ueV are observed in two different split gate layouts and labs. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Algebraic techniques for diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix in split quaternionic mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tongsong, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong 276005 (China); Department of Mathematics, Heze University, Heze, Shandong 274015 (China); Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong [Department of Mathematics, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong 276005 (China)


    In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics.

  15. Laboratory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handin, J.


    Our task is to design mined-repository systems that will adequately secure high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 yr and that will be mechanically stable for 50 to 100-yr periods of retrievability during which mistakes could be corrected and a valuable source of energy could be reclaimed, should national policy on the reprocessing of spent fuel ever change. The only credible path for the escape of radionuclides from the repository to the biosphere is through ground-water, and in hard rock, bulk permeability is largely governed by natural and artificial fracture systems. Catastrophic failure of an excavation in hard rock is likely to occur at the weakest links - the discontinuities in the rock mass that is perturbed first by mining and then by radiogenic heating. The laboratory can contribute precise measurements of the pertinent thermomechanical, hydrological and chemical properties and improve our understanding of the fundamental processes through careful experiments under well controlled conditions that simulate the prototype environment. Thus laboratory investigations are necessary, but they are not sufficient, for conventional sample sizes are small relative to natural defects like joints - i.e., the rock mass is not a continuum - and test durations are short compared to those that predictive modeling must take into account. Laboratory investigators can contribute substantially more useful data if they are provided facilities for testing large specimens(say one cubic meter) and for creep testing of all candidate host rocks. Even so, extrapolations of laboratory data to the field in neither space nor time are valid without the firm theoretical foundations yet to be built. Meanwhile in-situ measurements of structure-sensitive physical properties and access to direct observations of rock-mass character will be absolutely necessary

  16. Testing PVLAS axions with resonant photon splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, E; Gabrielli, Emidio; Giovannini, Massimo


    The photon splitting gamma -> gamma gamma in a time-independent and inhomogeneous magnetized background is considered when neutral and ultralight spin-0 particles are coupled to two-photons. Depending on the inhomogeneity scale of the external field, resonant photon splitting can occur. If an optical laser crosses a magnetic field of few Tesla with typical inhomogeneity scale of the order of the meter, a potentially observable rate of photon splittings is expected for the PVLAS range of couplings and masses.

  17. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N


    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  18. Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Juergen


    Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations explains how to solve evolution equations via novel iterative-based splitting methods that efficiently use computational and memory resources. It focuses on systems of parabolic and hyperbolic equations, including convection-diffusion-reaction equations, heat equations, and wave equations. In the theoretical part of the book, the author discusses the main theorems and results of the stability and consistency analysis for ordinary differential equations. He then presents extensions of the iterative splitting methods to partial differential

  19. Laboratory seismic anisotropy in mylonites (United States)

    Almqvist, B. S. G.; Herwegh, M.; Hirt, A. M.; Ebert, A.; Linckens, J.; Precigout, J.; Leiss, B.; Walter, J. M.; Burg, J.-P.


    match the calculated seismic anisotropy. However, anisotropy may be reinforced by the contribution of grain-boundary effects and calcite SPO, as is indicated by microCT imaging and SEM analysis. This is evident in one case where the measured P wave anisotropy exceeded the calculated anisotropy by more than 5%, and by ~4 % higher shear-wave splitting. An even greater discrepancy can be found when comparing measured and calculated seismic anisotropy in mylonitized peridotites from shear zones in the Lanzo (Italy) and Ronda (Spain) massifs. This is in part related to serpentinization of olivine, which remains a challenge for laboratory measurements of peridotites. Highest values of calculated anisotropy, for both the calcite and peridotite mylonites, are found in near monomineralic specimens (i.e., 8 - 10% P wave anisotropy). In comparison, polymineralic specimens have calculated P wave anisotropy ranging between <2 - 5%. In contrast, the laboratory measured seismic anisotropy do not display a simple relationship as a function of mono- versus polymineralic composition. Seismic properties and anisotropy are discussed in light of conditions and mechanisms of deformation, and the possible role and influence of second-phase minerals. Laboratory measurements offers a venue for exploring the relationship between deformation and seismic anisotropy. Such investigation may, in combination with high-resolution geophysical methods and increasingly sophisticated numerical models, yield further insight on remote active deformation in the mid and lower crust, and in the upper mantle.

  20. Residual stress state in pipe cut ring specimens for fracture toughness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damjanovic, Darko [J.J. Strossmayer Univ. of Osijek, Slavonski Brod (Croatia). Mechanical Engineering Faculty; Kozak, Drazan [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. for Mechanical Design; Marsoner, Stefan [Materials Center, Leoben (Austria).; Gubeljak, Nenad [Maribor Univ. (Slovenia). Chair of Mechanics


    Thin-walled pipes are not suitable for measuring fracture toughness parameters of vital importance because longitudinal crack failure is the most common failure mode in pipes. This is due to the impossibility to manufacture standard specimens for measuring fracture toughness, such as SENB or CT specimens, from the thin wall of the pipe. Previous works noticed this problem, but until now, a good and convenient solution has not been found or developed. To overcome this problem, very good alternative solution was proposed, the so-called pipe ring notched bend specimen (PRNB) [1-5]. Until now, only the idealized geometry PRNB specimen is analyzed, i. e., a specimen which is not cut out from an actual pipe but produced from steel plate. Based on that, residual stresses are neglected along with the imperfections in geometry (elliptical and eccentricity). The aim of this research is to estimate the residual stress state(s) in real pipes used in the boiler industry produced by hot rolling technique. These types of pipes are delivered only in normalized condition, but not stress relieved. Therefore, there are residual stresses present due to the manufacturing technique, but also due to uneven cooling after the production process. Within this paper, residual stresses are estimated by three methods: the incremental hole drilling method (IHMD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the splitting method (SM). Knowing the residual stress state in the ring specimen, it is possible to assess their impact on fracture toughness measured on the corresponding PRNB specimen(s).

  1. Spin Splitting in Different Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yafei


    We theoretically investigate the spin splitting in four undoped asymmetric quantum wells in the absence of external electric field and magnetic field. The quantum well geometry dependence of spin splitting is studied with the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling included. The results show that the structure of quantum well plays an important role in spin splitting. The Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin splitting in four asymmetric quantum wells are quite different. The origin of the distinction is discussed in this work. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  2. Dark matter from split seesaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.


    The seesaw mechanism in models with extra dimensions is shown to be generically consistent with a broad range of Majorana masses. The resulting democracy of scales implies that the seesaw mechanism can naturally explain the smallness of neutrino masses for an arbitrarily small right-handed neutrino mass. If the scales of the seesaw parameters are split, with two right-handed neutrinos at a high scale and one at a keV scale, one can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, as well as dark matter. The dark matter candidate, a sterile right-handed neutrino with mass of several keV, can account for the observed pulsar velocities and for the recent data from Chandra X-ray Observatory, which suggest the existence of a 5 keV sterile right-handed neutrino.

  3. Emittance compensation in split photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Floettmann


    Full Text Available The compensation of correlated emittance contributions is of primary importance to optimize the performance of high brightness photoinjectors. While only extended numerical simulations can capture the complex beam dynamics of space-charge-dominated beams in sufficient detail to optimize a specific injector layout, simplified models are required to gain a deeper understanding of the involved dynamics, to guide the optimization procedure, and to interpret experimental results. In this paper, a slice envelope model for the emittance compensation process in a split photoinjector is presented. The emittance term is included in the analytical solution of the beam envelope in a drift, which is essential to take the emittance contribution due to a beam size mismatch into account. The appearance of two emittance minima in the drift is explained, and the matching into the booster cavity is discussed. A comparison with simulation results points out effects which are not treated in the envelope model, such as overfocusing and field nonlinearities.

  4. Gauge mediated mini-split (United States)

    Cohen, Timothy; Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon


    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ- b μ problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 105 to 108 GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  5. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, M.


    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  6. Gauge mediated mini-split

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Craig, Nathaniel [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Knapen, Simon [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ−b{sub μ} problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 8} GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  7. Cerenkov and radioluminescence imaging of brain tumor specimens during neurosurgery (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello Enrico; Schiariti, Marco P.; Grana, Chiara M.; Ferrari, Mahila; Cremonesi, Marta; Boschi, Federico


    We presented the first example of Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and radioluminescence imaging (RLI) of human tumor specimens. A patient with a brain meningioma localized in the left parietal region was injected with 166 MBq of Y90-DOTATOC the day before neurosurgery. The specimens of the tumor removed during surgery were imaged using both CLI and RLI using an optical imager prototype developed in our laboratory. The system is based on a cooled electron multiplied charge coupled device coupled with an f/0.95 17-mm C-mount lens. We showed for the first time the possibility of obtaining CLI and RLI images of fresh human brain tumor specimens removed during neurosurgery.

  8. Acquisition and preparation of specimens of rock for large-scale testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.J.


    The techniques used for acquisition and preparation of large specimens of rock for laboratory testing depend upon the location of the specimen, the type of rock and the equipment available at the sampling site. Examples are presented to illustrate sampling and preparation techniques used for two large cylindrical samples of granitic material, one pervasively fractured and one containing a single fracture

  9. Molecular tests for human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cytology specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigliotti Veronica S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimens is now based on identification of the DNA sequences unique to these infectious agents. However, current commercial test kits rely on nucleotide probe hybridization to determine DNA sequences, which may lead to diagnostic errors due to cross-reactivity. The aim of this study was to find a practical approach to perform automated Sanger DNA sequencing in clinical laboratories for validation of the DNA tests for these three infectious agents. Methods A crude proteinase K digestate of 5% of the cells collected in a liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimen was used for the detection of DNA molecules specific for HPV, C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae, and for preparation of materials suitable for direct automated DNA sequencing. Several sets of commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers were used to prepare nested PCR amplicons for direct DNA sequencing. Results Some variants of HPV-16 and HPV-31 were found to share an at least 34-base long sequence homology downstream of the GP5+ binding site, and all HPV-6 and HPV-11 variants shared an upstream 34-base sequence including part of the GP5+ primer. Accurate HPV genotyping frequently required more than 34-bases for sequence alignments to distinguish some of the HPV genotype variants with closely related sequences in this L1 gene hypervariable region. Using the automated Sanger DNA sequencing method for parallel comparative studies on split samples and to retest the residues of samples previously tested positive for C trachomatis and/or for N gonorrhoeae, we also found false-negative and false-positive results as reported by two commercial nucleic acid test kits. Conclusion Identification of a signature DNA sequence by the automated Sanger method is useful for validation of HPV genotyping and for molecular testing of

  10. Measurements and Counts for Notacanthidae Specimens (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic data were collected for specimens of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) from the Hawaiian Ridge by Bruce C. Mundy. Specimens were collected off the north...

  11. SplitDist—Calculating Split-Distances for Sets of Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T


    We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other.......We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other....

  12. Possible standard specimens for neutron diffraction residual stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, P.C.; Prask, H.J.; Fields, R.J.; Blackburn, J.; Proctor, T.M.


    Increasingly, sub-surface residual stress measurements by means of neutron diffraction are being conducted at various laboratories around the world. Unlike X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement setups, neutron instruments in use worldwide vary widely in design, neutron flux, and level of dedication towards residual stress measurements. Although confidence in the neutron technique has increased within the materials science and engineering communities, no demonstration of standardization or consistency between laboratories has been made. One of the steps in the direction of such standardization is the development of standard specimens, that have well characterized residual stress states and which could be examined worldwide. In this paper the authors will examine two options for a neutron stress standard specimen: (1) a steel ring-plug specimen with very well defined diametrical interference; (2) a spot weld in a High Strength Low Alloy steel disk. The results of neutron residual stress measurements on these specimens will be discussed and conclusions as to their usefulness as neutron stress standards will be presented

  13. Split Questionnaire Design for Massive Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adiguzel, F.; Wedel, M.


    Companies are conducting more and longer surveys than ever before. Massive questionnaires are pervasive in marketing practice. As an alternative to the heuristic methods that are currently used to split questionnaires, this study develops a methodology to design the split questionnaire in a way that

  14. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.


    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  15. Standard Model Particles from Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogberashvili M.


    Full Text Available We model physical signals using elements of the algebra of split octonions over the field of real numbers. Elementary particles are corresponded to the special elements of the algebra that nullify octonionic norms (zero divisors. It is shown that the standard model particle spectrum naturally follows from the classification of the independent primitive zero divisors of split octonions.

  16. Split Scheduling with Uniform Setup Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, F.; Sitters, R.A.; van der Ster, S.L.; Stougie, L.; Verdugo, V.; van Zuylen, A.


    We study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a machine cannot process or

  17. Split scheduling with uniform setup times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Schalekamp; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen); V. Verdugo; A. van Zuylen


    htmlabstractWe study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a

  18. On split Lie triple systems II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lie triple system with a coherent 0-root space is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie triple system, and the simplicity of T is characterized. In the present paper we extend these results to arbitrary split Lie triple systems with no restrictions on their 0-root spaces. Keywords.

  19. Standard test method for splitting tensile strength for brittle nuclear waste forms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method is used to measure the static splitting tensile strength of cylindrical specimens of brittle nuclear waste forms. It provides splitting tensile-strength data that can be used to compare the strength of waste forms when tests are done on one size of specimen. 1.2 The test method is applicable to glass, ceramic, and concrete waste forms that are sufficiently homogeneous (Note 1) but not to coated-particle, metal-matrix, bituminous, or plastic waste forms, or concretes with large-scale heterogeneities. Cementitious waste forms with heterogeneities >1 to 2 mm and 5 mm can be tested using this procedure provided the specimen size is increased from the reference size of 12.7 mm diameter by 6 mm length, to 51 mm diameter by 100 mm length, as recommended in Test Method C 496 and Practice C 192. Note 1—Generally, the specimen structural or microstructural heterogeneities must be less than about one-tenth the diameter of the specimen. 1.3 This test method can be used as a quality control chec...

  20. Particulate photocatalysts for overall water splitting (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Domen, Kazunari


    The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is a promising way of generating renewable energy. Hydrogen production by means of water splitting over semiconductor photocatalysts is a simple, cost-effective approach to large-scale solar hydrogen synthesis. Since the discovery of the Honda-Fujishima effect, considerable progress has been made in this field, and numerous photocatalytic materials and water-splitting systems have been developed. In this Review, we summarize existing water-splitting systems based on particulate photocatalysts, focusing on the main components: light-harvesting semiconductors and co-catalysts. The essential design principles of the materials employed for overall water-splitting systems based on one-step and two-step photoexcitation are also discussed, concentrating on three elementary processes: photoabsorption, charge transfer and surface catalytic reactions. Finally, we outline challenges and potential advances associated with solar water splitting by particulate photocatalysts for future commercial applications.

  1. Prediction of Splitting Tensile Strength of Concrete Containing Zeolite and Diatomite by ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gülbandılar


    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate with two different artificial neural network (ANN prediction model for the behavior of concrete containing zeolite and diatomite. For purpose of constructing this model, 7 different mixes with 63 specimens of the 28, 56 and 90 days splitting tensile strength experimental results of concrete containing zeolite, diatomite, both zeolite and diatomite used in training and testing for ANN systems was gathered from the tests. The data used in the ANN models are arranged in a format of seven input parameters that cover the age of samples, Portland cement, zeolite, diatomite, aggregate, water and hyper plasticizer and an output parameter which is splitting tensile strength of concrete. In the model, the training and testing results have shown that two different ANN systems have strong potential as a feasible tool for predicting 28, 56 and 90 days the splitting tensile strength of concrete containing zeolite and diatomite.

  2. Development of Reconstitution Technology for Surveillance Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasushi Atago; Shunichi Hatano; Eiichiro Otsuka


    The Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) has been carrying out the project titled 'Nuclear Power Plant Integrated Management Technology (PLIM)' consigned by Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) since 1996FY as a 10-years project. As one of the project themes, development of reconstitution technology for reactor pressure vessel (RPV/RV) surveillance specimens, which are installed in RPVs to monitor the neutron irradiation embrittlement on RPV/RV materials, is now on being carried out to deal with the long-term operation of nuclear power plants. The target of this theme is to establish the technical standard for applicability of reconstituted surveillance specimens including the reconstitution of the Charpy specimens and Compact Tension (CT) specimens. With the Charpy specimen reconstitution, application of 10 mm length inserts is used, which enables the conversion of tests from the LT-direction to the TL-direction. This paper presents the basic data from Charpy and CT specimens of RPV materials using the surveillance specimens obtained for un-irradiated materials including the following. 1) Reconstitution Technology of Charpy Specimens. a) The interaction between plastic zone and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). b) The effects of the possible deviations from the standard specimens for the reconstituted specimens. 2) Reconstitution Technology of CT specimens. a) The correlation between fracture toughness and plastic zone width. Because the project is now in progress, this paper describes the outline of the results obtained as of the end of 2000 FY. (authors)

  3. Laboratory Diagnostics for Histoplasmosis. (United States)

    Azar, Marwan M; Hage, Chadi A


    The diagnosis of histoplasmosis is based on a multifaceted approach that includes clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evidence of disease. The gold standards for laboratory diagnosis include demonstration of yeast on pathological examination of tissue and isolation of the mold in the culture of clinical specimens; however, antigen detection has provided a rapid, noninvasive, and highly sensitive method for diagnosis and is a useful marker of treatment response. Molecular methods with improved sensitivity on clinical specimens are being developed but are not yet ready for widespread clinical use. This review synthesizes currently available laboratory diagnostics for histoplasmosis, with an emphasis on complexities of testing and performance in various clinical contexts. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Failure mechanism of resistance-spot-welded specimens impacted on base material by bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Fan


    Full Text Available The tests of bullet impact on the base material (BM of a simple specimen with a single resistance-spot-welded (RSW nugget of TRIP800 steel are performed to investigate the response of the RSW specimen to the ballistic debris impact on the RSW specimen. A one-stage gas gun is used to fire the bullets while a laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR is used to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the RSW specimen. The recovered RSW specimens are examined with the three-dimensional super depth digital microscope (SDDM and the scanning electro microscope (SEM. For the tests of small multiple-bullet impact, it is revealed that the wave train of the VISAR measured results and the detachment of the base material interfaces in the recovered RSW specimens are directly related to the reflection and refraction of the curved stress waves incoming to the interfaces and the free surfaces in the RSW specimens. The detachment of BM interfaces can lead to the impact failure of the RSW joints for the larger multiple-bullet impact at higher velocity, the mechanism of which is different from the case for normal incidence (spalling. For the tests of single large bullet impact, it is brought to light experimentally that the plastic strain concentration at the “notch tip” spurs either the crack near the RSW joint or the split of the nugget. The numerical simulation shows up the process of splitting the nugget: a crack initiates at the “notch tip”, propagates across the nugget interface and splits the nugget into two parts. It is indicated that the interaction between the stress waves and many interfaces/free surfaces in the RSW specimen under ballistic impact causes variable local stress triaxialities and stress Lode angles, which affects the deformation and fracture mechanism of the RSW specimen including stretching and shearing failure. It is shown that the impact failure of the RSW joints is a mixture of brittle

  5. Failure mechanism of resistance-spot-welded specimens impacted on base material by bullets (United States)

    Fan, Chunlei; Ma, Bohan; Chen, Danian; Wang, Huanran; Ma, Dongfang


    The tests of bullet impact on the base material (BM) of a simple specimen with a single resistance-spot-welded (RSW) nugget of TRIP800 steel are performed to investigate the response of the RSW specimen to the ballistic debris impact on the RSW specimen. A one-stage gas gun is used to fire the bullets while a laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) is used to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the RSW specimen. The recovered RSW specimens are examined with the three-dimensional super depth digital microscope (SDDM) and the scanning electro microscope (SEM). For the tests of small multiple-bullet impact, it is revealed that the wave train of the VISAR measured results and the detachment of the base material interfaces in the recovered RSW specimens are directly related to the reflection and refraction of the curved stress waves incoming to the interfaces and the free surfaces in the RSW specimens. The detachment of BM interfaces can lead to the impact failure of the RSW joints for the larger multiple-bullet impact at higher velocity, the mechanism of which is different from the case for normal incidence (spalling). For the tests of single large bullet impact, it is brought to light experimentally that the plastic strain concentration at the "notch tip" spurs either the crack near the RSW joint or the split of the nugget. The numerical simulation shows up the process of splitting the nugget: a crack initiates at the "notch tip", propagates across the nugget interface and splits the nugget into two parts. It is indicated that the interaction between the stress waves and many interfaces/free surfaces in the RSW specimen under ballistic impact causes variable local stress triaxialities and stress Lode angles, which affects the deformation and fracture mechanism of the RSW specimen including stretching and shearing failure. It is shown that the impact failure of the RSW joints is a mixture of brittle fracture and ductile

  6. Histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shrestha


    Full Text Available Background: Acute appendicitis is one of the common conditions requiring emergency surgery. A retrospective study was performed to determine various histopathological diagnoses, their demographics and the rates of perforated appendicitis, negative appendectomy and incidental appendectomy. Materials and Methods: Histopathological records of resected appendices submitted to histopathology department Chitwan medical college teaching hospital over the period of 2 yrs from May, 2009 to April 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Out of 930 specimens of appendix, appendicitis accounted for 88.8% with peak age incidence in the age group of 11 to 30 yrs in both sexes. Histopathologic diagnoses included acute appendicitis (45.6%, acute suppurative (20.8%, gangrenous (16.3%, perforated (1.7%, resolving /recurrent/non specific chronic appendicitis (2.5%, acute eosinophilic appendicitis (1.2%, periappendicitis (0.2%, and carcinoid tumour (0.1%. Other important coexisting pathologies were parasitic infestation (0.2% and Meckel’s diverticulum (0.2%. Negative appendectomy rate was 10.8% and three times more common in females with peak occurrence in the age group of 21-30 yrs. There were 10 cases of acute appendicitis in incidental appendectomies (2.5%, 24 cases with 7 times more common in females of age group of 31- 60 yrs. Conclusion: There is a high incidence of appendicitis in adolescents and young adults in central south region of Nepal. Negative appendectomy is also very common in females. Incidental appendectomy in elderly females may have preventive value. DOI: JPN 2012; 2(3: 215-219

  7. AGC-2 Specimen Post Irradiation Data Package Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windes, William Enoch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rohrbaugh, David T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cottle, David L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report documents results of the post-irradiation examination material property testing of the creep, control, and piggyback specimens from the irradiation creep capsule Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC)-2 are reported. This is the second of a series of six irradiation test trains planned as part of the AGC experiment to fully characterize the neutron irradiation effects and radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphite grades. The AGC-2 capsule was irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor at a nominal temperature of 600°C and to a peak dose of 5 dpa (displacements per atom). One-half of the creep specimens were subjected to mechanical stresses (an applied stress of either 13.8, 17.2, or 20.7 MPa) to induce irradiation creep. All post-irradiation testing and measurement results are reported with the exception of the irradiation mechanical strength testing, which is the last destructive testing stage of the irradiation testing program. Material property tests were conducted on specimens from 15 nuclear graphite grades using a similar loading configuration as the first AGC capsule (AGC-1) to provide easy comparison between the two capsules. However, AGC-2 contained an increased number of specimens (i.e., 487 total specimens irradiated) and replaced specimens of the minor grade 2020 with the newer grade 2114. The data reported include specimen dimensions for both stressed and unstressed specimens to establish the irradiation creep rates, mass and volume data necessary to derive density, elastic constants (Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) from ultrasonic time-of-flight velocity measurements, Young’s modulus from the fundamental frequency of vibration, electrical resistivity, and thermal diffusivity and thermal expansion data from 100–500°C. No data outliers were determined after all measurements were completed. A brief statistical analysis was performed on the irradiated data and a limited comparison between

  8. 2-Photon tandem device for water splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard


    Within the field Of photocatalytic water splitting there are several strategies to achieve the goal of efficient and cheap photocatalytic water splitting. This work examines one particular strategy by focusing on monolithically stacked, two-photon photoelectrochemical cells. The overall aim...... absorption, this is the more difficult side to optimize. Nevertheless, by using TiO2 as a transparent cathode protection layer in conjunction with known H-2 evolution catalysts, protection is clearly feasible for a large bandgap photocathode. This suggests that there may be promising strategies...... for photocatalytic water splitting by using a large bandgap photocathode and a low bandgap photoanode with attached protection layers....

  9. Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)


    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν{sub 2} bending mode starting with 4ν{sub 2}.

  10. Splitting Functions at High Transverse Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Moutafis, Rhea Penelope; CERN. Geneva. TH Department


    Among the production channels of the Higgs boson one contribution could become significant at high transverse momentum which is the radiation of a Higgs boson from another particle. This note focuses on the calculation of splitting functions and cross sections of such processes. The calculation is first carried out on the example $e\\rightarrow e\\gamma$ to illustrate the way splitting functions are calculated. Then the splitting function of $e\\rightarrow eh$ is calculated in similar fashion. This procedure can easily be generalized to processes such as $q\\rightarrow qh$ or $g\\rightarrow gh$.

  11. Development of miniature bending fatigue specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.R.; Chin, B.A.; Rowcliffe, A.


    Two new miniaturized bending fatigue specimens have been designed and developed to aid in the scoping of materials for fusion first-wall and blanket structural applications. One of these is rectangular in shape with a gauge section 6.35 mm in length, while the other is cut from a 3 mm transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disk and has a gauge length of 1.5 mm. Test rules for unirradiated annealed type 316 stainless steel tested at room temperature, 550deg C and 650deg C are presented. A good correlation between miniature and standard subsize fatigue specimen results was obtained. The miniature specimen results show the same dependence of strain range on cycles to failure as the standard subsize specimens with the miniature-disk specimen results falling below all the other results. The results indicate that these specimens provide reliable data that can be used to scope fatigue properties for fusion applications. (orig.)

  12. Bioassay Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...


    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  14. STEM tomography for thick biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Kazuhiro [FEI Company Japan Ltd., Application Laboratory, NSS-II Building, 2-13-34 Kohnan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan)], E-mail:; Takagi, Tomoko [FEI Company Japan Ltd., Application Laboratory, NSS-II Building, 2-13-34 Kohnan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan); Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Japan Women' s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8681 (Japan); Hirase, Ai; Miyazawa, Atsuo [Bio-multisome Research Team, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); CREST, JST (Japan)


    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography was applied to biological specimens such as yeast cells, HEK293 cells and primary culture neurons. These cells, which were embedded in a resin, were cut into 1-{mu}m-thick sections. STEM tomography offers several important advantages including: (1) it is effective even for thick specimens, (2) 'dynamic focusing', (3) ease of using an annular dark field (ADF) mode and (4) linear contrasts. It has become evident that STEM tomography offers significant advantages for the observation of thick specimens. By employing STEM tomography, even a 1-{mu}m-thick specimen (which is difficult to observe by conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) was successfully analyzed in three dimensions. The specimen was tilted up to 73 deg. during data acquisition. At a large tilt angle, the specimen thicknesses increase dramatically. In order to observe such thick specimens, we introduced a special small condenser aperture that reduces the collection angle of the STEM probe. The specimen damage caused by the convergent electron beam was expected to be the most serious problem; however, the damage in STEM was actually smaller than that in TEM. In this study, the irradiation damage caused by TEM- and STEM-tomography in biological specimens was quantitatively compared.

  15. Splitting Strip Detector Clusters in Dense Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration


    Tracking in high density environments, particularly in high energy jets, plays an important role in many physics analyses at the LHC. In such environments, there is significant degradation of track reconstruction performance. Between runs 1 and 2, ATLAS implemented an algorithm that splits pixel clusters originating from multiple charged particles, using charge information, resulting in the recovery of much of the lost efficiency. However, no attempt was made in prior work to split merged clusters in the Semi Conductor Tracker (SCT), which does not measure charge information. In spite of the lack of charge information in SCT, a cluster-splitting algorithm has been developed in this work. It is based primarily on the difference between the observed cluster width and the expected cluster width, which is derived from track incidence angle. The performance of this algorithm is found to be competitive with the existing pixel cluster splitting based on track information.

  16. Structural basis of photosynthetic water-splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic water-splitting takes place in photosystem II (PSII), a membrane protein complex consisting of 20 subunits with an overall molecular mass of 350 kDa. The light-induced water-splitting reaction catalyzed by PSII not only converts light energy into biologically useful chemical energy, but also provides us with oxygen indispensible for sustaining oxygenic life on the earth. We have solved the structure of PSII at a 1.9 Å resolution, from which, the detailed structure of the Mn 4 CaO 5 -cluster, the catalytic center for water-splitting, became clear. Based on the structure of PSII at the atomic resolution, possible mechanism of light-induced water-splitting was discussed

  17. Irrational beliefs, attitudes about competition, and splitting. (United States)

    Watson, P J; Morris, R J; Miller, L


    Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theoretically promotes actualization of both individualistic and social-oriented potentials. In a test of this assumption, the Belief Scale and subscales from the Survey of Personal Beliefs served as measures of what REBT presumes to be pathogenic irrationalities. These measures were correlated with the Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale (HCAS), the Personal Development Competitive Attitude Scale (PDCAS), factors from the Splitting Index, and self-esteem. Results for the HCAS and Self-Splitting supported the REBT claim about individualistic self-actualization. Mostly nonsignificant and a few counterintuitive linkages were observed for irrational beliefs with the PDCAS, Family-Splitting, and Other-Splitting, and these data suggested that REBT may be less successful in capturing the "rationality" of a social-oriented self-actualization. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Mort Rainey's Split Personality in Secret Window


    Sandjaya, Cynthya; Limanta, Liem Satya


    Psychological issue is the main issue discussed in David Koepp's Secret Window through its main character, Mort Rainey. Rainey's psychological struggle will be the main theme in this research. This thesis examines Rainey's split personality. Furthermore, in this study, we want to analyze the process of how Mort Rainey's personality splits into two different personalities. To meet the answer of this study, we will use the theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder with a support from Sigmund Fre...

  19. A split SUSY model from SUSY GUT


    Wang, FeiDepartment of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450000, P.R. China; Wang, Wenyu(Institute of Theoretical Physics, College of Applied Science, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, P.R. China); Yang, Jin(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, P.R. China)


    We propose to split the sparticle spectrum from the hierarchy between the GUT scale and the Planck scale. A split supersymmetric model, which gives non-universal gaugino masses, is built with proper high dimensional operators in the framework of SO(10) GUT. Based on a calculation of two-loop beta functions for gauge couplings (taking into account all weak scale threshold corrections), we check the gauge coupling unification and dark matter constraints (relic density and direct detections). We...

  20. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server


    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  1. Antenna Splitting Functions for Massive Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC


    An antenna shower is a parton shower in which the basic move is a color-coherent 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting process. In this paper, we give compact forms for the spin-dependent antenna splitting functions involving massive partons of spin 0 and spin 1/2. We hope that this formalism we have presented will be useful in describing the QCD dynamics of the top quark and other heavy particles at LHC.

  2. Ultrasonic absorption in solid specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwabessy, P.J. W.; Stewart, G.A.


    As part of a project to measure the absorption of high frequency (50 - 500 kHz) sonar signals in warm sea-water, a laboratory apparatus has been constructed and tested against room temperature distilled water and various solutions of MgSO 4 (chemical relaxation of MgSO 4 is the major contribution to absorption below 200 kHz). The technique involves monitoring the decay of an acoustic signal for different sizes of vessels of water suspended in an evacuated chamber. So far, all containing vessels used have been spherical in shape. Extrapolation of the results to infinite volume yields the absorption due to the water alone. In order to accommodate variations in temperature and pressure, and to make the system more robust (e.g. for ship deck usage), it is desirable to employ stainless steel vessels. However, it was found that the quality of the data was greatly improved when pyrex glass spheres were used. The stainless steel spheres were manufactured by welding together mechanically spun hemispheres. The linear frequency dependence characteristic of acoustic absorption in solids was observed (in contrast to the quadratic frequency dependence of acoustic absorption in water), and the acoustic absorption was found to depend strongly on the thermal history of the steel

  3. Influence of photoperiod and running wheel access on the entrainment of split circadian rhythms in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Jeffrey A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the laboratory, behavioral and physiological states of nocturnal rodents alternate, with a period near 24 h, between those appropriate for the night (e.g., elevated wheel-running activity and high melatonin secretion and for the day (e.g., rest and low melatonin secretion. Under appropriate 24 h light:dark:light:dark conditions, however, rodents may be readily induced to express bimodal rest/activity cycles that reflect a global temporal reorganization of the central neural pacemaker in the hypothalamus. We examine here how the relative length of the light and dark phases of the environmental cycle influences this rhythm splitting and the necessity of a running wheel for expression of this entrainment condition. Results Rhythm splitting was observed in wheel-running and general locomotion of Siberian and Syrian hamsters. The latter also manifest split rhythms in body temperature. Access to a running wheel was necessary neither for the induction nor maintenance of this entrainment pattern. While rhythms were only transiently split in many animals with two 5 h nights, the incidence of splitting was greater with twice daily nights of shorter duration. Removal of running wheels altered the body temperature rhythm but did not eliminate its clear bimodality. Conclusion The expression of entrained, split circadian rhythms exhibits no strict dependence on access to a running wheel, but can be facilitated by manipulation of ambient lighting conditions. These circadian entrainment patterns may be of therapeutic value to human shift-workers and others facing chronobiological challenges.

  4. 7 CFR 97.8 - Specimen requirements. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen requirements. 97.8 Section 97.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... required by the examiner to furnish representative specimens of the variety, or its flower, fruit, or seeds...

  5. Machining technique prevents undercutting in tensile specimens (United States)

    Moscater, R. E.; Royster, D. M.


    Machining technique prevents undercutting at the test section in tensile specimens when machining the four corners of the reduced section. Made with a gradual taper in the test section, the width of the center of the tensile specimen is less than the width at the four corners of the reduced section.

  6. Fatigue Specimens for Sheet and Plate Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijve, J.


    The usefulness of simple sheet and plate specimens is discussed for various experimental research purposes. Specimens should be representative as much as possible for the conditions of fatigue problems in practice, which is more difficult to achieve for the fatigue crack initiation phase than for

  7. The self-splitting atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenn, T.J.


    The book describes the collaboration between Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy at McGill University on the study of radioactivity. Their hypothesis of spontaneous atomic disintegration, which represented the first case of an atomic process completely specified in its time relationships by a probability constant, was extremely fruitful. This concept became the paradigm of a host of other quantized processes in high-energy or elementary particle physics involving a single system in isolation. This achievement did not emerge in a single moment of inspiration but passed dialectically through several, not always coherent, stages of experiment and theory. Hitherto unpublished material has been incorporated in the account, including evidence from the original laboratory notebooks. (U.K.)

  8. Recent advances on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Lobo, Raquel M.; Miranda, Carlos Alexandre J., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Charpy specimen reconstitution is widely used around the world as a tool to enhance or supplement surveillance programs of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The reconstitution technique consists in the incorporation of a small piece from a previously tested specimen into a compound specimen, allowing to increase the number of tests. This is especially important if the available materials is restricted and fracture mechanics parameter have to be determined. The reconstitution technique must fulfill some demands, among them tests results like the original standard specimens and the loaded material of the insert must not be influenced by the welding and machining procedure. It is known that reconstitution of Charpy specimens may affect the impact energy in a consequence of the constraint of plastic deformation by the hardened weldment and HAZ. This paper reviews some recent advances of the reconstitution technique and its applications. (author)

  9. Examination of Surgical Specimens of the Esophagus. (United States)

    Bejarano, Pablo A; Berho, Mariana


    Esophageal cancer continues to be one of the most lethal of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Its prognostic parameters are based on the gross and histopathologic examination of resected specimens by pathologists. To describe the implications of appropriate handling and examination of endomucosal resection and esophagectomy specimens from patients with esophageal carcinoma while considering the implications of the surgical techniques used to obtain such specimens. Parameters include histopathologic findings necessary for accurate staging, differences in the assessment of margins, residual malignancy, and criteria to evaluate for tumor regression after chemoradiation therapy as well as the role of immunohistochemistry and the judicious use of frozen sections. Sources were a review of the literature and the authors' experience handling these types of specimens. Examining surgical specimens of the esophagus is critical in the management of patients with esophageal carcinoma, and it requires careful consideration of the diagnostic pitfalls, staging-related parameters, and results of molecular tests.

  10. Recent advances on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Lobo, Raquel M.; Miranda, Carlos Alexandre J.


    Charpy specimen reconstitution is widely used around the world as a tool to enhance or supplement surveillance programs of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The reconstitution technique consists in the incorporation of a small piece from a previously tested specimen into a compound specimen, allowing to increase the number of tests. This is especially important if the available materials is restricted and fracture mechanics parameter have to be determined. The reconstitution technique must fulfill some demands, among them tests results like the original standard specimens and the loaded material of the insert must not be influenced by the welding and machining procedure. It is known that reconstitution of Charpy specimens may affect the impact energy in a consequence of the constraint of plastic deformation by the hardened weldment and HAZ. This paper reviews some recent advances of the reconstitution technique and its applications. (author)

  11. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate purpose...

  12. Investigation of Entamoeba histolytica in stool specimens by ELISA during a year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sinan Dal


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate Entamoebahistolytica in the stool samples that have beensent to microbiology laboratory by ELISA method.Materials and methods: This study was performed on800 stool specimens belonging to different age groupsand different patients sent to Microbiology Laboratory ofa State Hospital between January 2009 and December2009.Results: In this study Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cystsand/or trophozoites were observed in 31 (3.9% out of atotal of 800 stool specimens which were examined bynative-lugol. Entamoeba histolytica specific antigen wasinvestigated by ELISA in all stool specimens. Entamoebahistolytica specific antigen was detected in 12 (1.5% ofthese stool specimens. The diagnosis of amoebiasis forthe patients whose ELISA tests were “positive” and appropriatetherapy was begun.Conclusion: Entamoeba histolytica in the stool samplesshould be investigated and unnecessary treatmentsshould not given to patients. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2(1:50-54

  13. Fano resonance Rabi splitting of surface plasmons. (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguang; Li, Jiafang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Wuxia; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Li, Zhi-Yuan


    Rabi splitting and Fano resonance are well-known physical phenomena in conventional quantum systems as atoms and quantum dots, arising from strong interaction between two quantum states. In recent years similar features have been observed in various nanophotonic and nanoplasmonic systems. Yet, realization of strong interaction between two or more Fano resonance states has not been accomplished either in quantum or in optical systems. Here we report the observation of Rabi splitting of two strongly coupled surface plasmon Fano resonance states in a three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructure consisting of vertical asymmetric split-ring resonators. The plasmonic system stably supports triple Fano resonance states and double Rabi splittings can occur between lower and upper pairs of the Fano resonance states. The experimental discovery agrees excellently with rigorous numerical simulations, and is well explained by an analytical three-oscillator model. The discovery of Fano resonance Rabi splitting could provide a stimulating insight to explore new fundamental physics in analogous atomic systems and could be used to significantly enhance light-matter interaction for optical sensing and detecting applications.

  14. Photochemical Water-Splitting with Organomanganese Complexes. (United States)

    Kadassery, Karthika J; Dey, Suman Kr; Cannella, Anthony F; Surendhran, Roshaan; Lacy, David C


    Certain organometallic chromophores with water-derived ligands, such as the known [Mn(CO) 3 (μ 3 -OH)] 4 (1) tetramer, drew our attention as possible platforms to study water-splitting reactions. Herein, we investigate the UV irradiation of various tricarbonyl organomanganese complexes, including 1, and demonstrate that dihydrogen, CO, and hydrogen peroxide form as products in a photochemical water-splitting decomposition reaction. The organic and manganese-containing side products are also characterized. Labeling studies with 18 O-1 suggest that the source of oxygen atoms in H 2 O 2 originates from free water that interacts with 1 after photochemical dissociation of CO (1-CO) constituting the oxidative half-reaction of water splitting mediated by 1. Hydrogen production from 1 is the result of several different processes, one of which involves the protons derived from the hydroxido ligands in 1 constituting the reductive half-reaction of water splitting mediated by 1. Other processes that generate H 2 are also operative and are described. Collectively the results from the photochemical decomposition of 1 provide an opportunity to propose a mechanism, and it is discussed within the context of developing new strategies for water-splitting reactions with organomanganese complexes.

  15. Split-hand/split-foot malformation with paternal mutation in the p63 gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witters, I.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Goossens, A.; Assche, F.A. van; Fryns, J.P.


    We report the prenatal diagnosis at 16 weeks' gestation of bilateral split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHSFM) with severe lobster claw deformity of hands and feet in a male fetus without associated malformations. A minor manifestation of SHSFM was present in the father with only mild bilateral

  16. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang


    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  17. Macroscopic techniques for ophthalmic tumor specimens. (United States)

    Roberts, Fiona


    This article explores the range of tumor specimens that may be submitted to ophthalmic pathology. The handling of complex enucleation and exenteration is described along with smaller eyelid, conjunctival and corneal specimens. The importance of a good understanding of the unique anatomy of the ocular region and detailed clinical information is emphasized as this results in the taking of appropriate blocks for histology and consequently clinically helpful reports. Recommendations for handling specimens where further tissue is required for molecular studies is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of irradiated coating material specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Jin; Nam, Seok Woo; Cho, Lee Moon [RCS Korea Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Evaluation result of irradiated coating material specimens - Coating material specimens radiated Gamma Energy(Co 60) in air condition. - Evaluation conditions was above 1 X 10{sup 4} Gy/hr, and radiated TID 2.0 X 10{sup 6} Gy. - The radiated coating material specimens, No Checking, Cracking, Flaking, Delamination, Peeling and Blistering. - Coating system at the Kori no. 1 and APR 1400 Nuclear power plant, evaluation of irradiated coating materials is in accordance with owner's requirement(2.0 X 10{sup 6} Gy)

  19. Remote replacement of materials open-test assembly (MOTA) specimens at the FFTF IEM cel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, P.W.; Ramsey, E.B.


    This paper discusses the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Interim Examination and maintenance (IEM) Cell which is used for the remote disassembly of irradiated fuel and material experiments. Materials Open-Test Assemblies (MOTA) are brought to the IEM Cell where their outer ducts are removed, exposing the test train for material-specimen removal. The specimens are shipped to the materials laboratory for sorting. Some are selected for testing while the rest, along with new specimens, are loaded in new specimen holders and returned within ten days to the IEM Cell where they are placed in the test train of new MOTA vehicles. Installation of the outer ducts readies the MOTA's for further specimen irradiation. This presentation discusses remote equipment and techniques used in this process

  20. Tensile-Creep Test Specimen Preparation Practices of Surface Support Liners (United States)

    Guner, Dogukan; Ozturk, Hasan


    Ground support has always been considered as a challenging issue in all underground operations. Many forms of support systems and supporting techniques are available in the mining/tunnelling industry. In the last two decades, a new polymer based material, Thin Spray-on Liner (TSL), has attained a place in the market as an alternative to the current areal ground support systems. Although TSL provides numerous merits and has different application purposes, the knowledge on mechanical properties and performance of this material is still limited. In laboratory studies, since tensile rupture is the most commonly observed failure mechanism in field applications, researchers have generally studied the tensile testing of TSLs with modification of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-638 standards. For tensile creep testing, specimen preparation process also follows the ASTM standards. Two different specimen dimension types (Type I, Type IV) are widely preferred in TSL tensile testing that conform to the related standards. Moreover, molding and die cutting are commonly used specimen preparation techniques. In literature, there is a great variability of test results due to the difference in specimen preparation techniques and practices. In this study, a ductile TSL product was tested in order to investigate the effect of both specimen preparation techniques and specimen dimensions under 7-day curing time. As a result, ultimate tensile strength, tensile yield strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break values were obtained for 4 different test series. It is concluded that Type IV specimens have higher strength values compared to Type I specimens and moulded specimens have lower results than that of prepared by using die cutter. Moreover, specimens prepared by molding techniques have scattered test results. Type IV specimens prepared by die cutter technique are suggested for preparation of tensile test and Type I specimens prepared by die cutter technique

  1. Large Bandgap Semiconductors for Solar Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malizia, Mauro

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting represents an eco-friendly technology that could enable the production of hydrogen using water as reactant and solar energy as primary energy source. The exploitation of solar energy for the production of hydrogen would help modern society to reduce the reliance...... (bismuth vanadate) was investigated in view of combining this 2.4 eV large bandgap semiconductor with a Si back-illuminated photocathode. A device obtained by mechanical stacking of BiVO4 photoanode and standard Si photocathode performs non-assisted water splitting under illumination with Solar......-to-Hydrogen efficiency lower than 0.5%. In addition, BiVO4 was synthesized on the back-side of a Si back-illuminated photocathode to produce a preliminary monolithic solar water splitting device.The Faradaic efficiency of different types of catalysts for the electrochemical production of hydrogen or oxygen was evaluated...

  2. Multiple spectral splits of supernova neutrinos. (United States)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Raffelt, Georg G; Smirnov, Alexei Yu


    Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos swap the spectra f(nu(e))(E) and f(nu[over ](e))(E) with those of another flavor in certain energy intervals bounded by sharp spectral splits. This phenomenon is far more general than previously appreciated: typically one finds one or more swaps and accompanying splits in the nu and nu[over ] channels for both inverted and normal neutrino mass hierarchies. Depending on an instability condition, swaps develop around spectral crossings (energies where f(nu(e))=f(nu(x)), f(nu[over ](e))=f(nu[over ](x)) as well as E-->infinity where all fluxes vanish), and the widths of swaps are determined by the spectra and fluxes. Washout by multiangle decoherence varies across the spectrum and splits can survive as sharp spectral features.

  3. Split Notochord Syndrome: A Rare Variant (United States)

    Dhawan, Vidhu; Kapoor, Kanchan; Singh, Balbir; Kochhar, Suman; Sehgal, Alka; Dada, Rima


    Split notochord syndrome represents an extremely rare and pleomorphic form of spinal dysraphism characterized by a persistent communication between the endoderm and the ectoderm, resulting in splitting or deviation of the notochord. It manifests as a cleft in the dorsal midline of the body through which intestinal loops are exteriorized and even myelomeningoceles or teratomas may occur at the site. A rare variant was diagnosed on autopsy of a 23+4-week-old fetus showing a similar dorsal enteric fistula and midline protruding intestinal loops in thoracolumbar region. The anteroposterior radiograph showed a complete midline cleft in the vertebral bodies from T11 to L5 region, and a split in the spinal cord was further confirmed by ultrasonography. Myelomeningocele was erroneously reported on antenatal ultrasound. Thus, awareness of this rare anomaly is necessary to thoroughly evaluate the cases of such spinal defects or suspected myelomeningoceles. PMID:28904581

  4. Fuzzy split and merge for shadow detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remya K. Sasi


    Full Text Available Presence of shadow in an image often causes problems in computer vision applications such as object recognition and image segmentation. This paper proposes a method to detect the shadow from a single image using fuzzy split and merge approach. Split and merge is a classical algorithm used in image segmentation. Predicate function in the classical approach is replaced by a Fuzzy predicate in the proposed approach. The method follows a top down approach of recursively splitting an image into homogeneous quadtree blocks, followed by a bottom up approach by merging adjacent unique regions. The method has been compared with previous approaches and found to be better in performance in terms of accuracy.

  5. Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R.; Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P.


    Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate

  6. Faster multiple emulsification with drop splitting. (United States)

    Abate, Adam R; Weitz, David A


    Microfluidic devices can form emulsions in which the drops have an intricate, controlled structure; however, a challenge is that the droplets are produced slowly, typically only a few millilitres per hour. Here, we present a simple technique to increase the production rate. Using a large drop maker, we produce large drops at a fast volumetric rate; by splitting these drops several times in a splitting array, we create drops of the desired small size. The advantage of this over forming the small drops directly using a small drop maker is that the drops can be formed at much faster rates. This can be applied to the production of single and multiple emulsions.

  7. Splitting Strategy for Simulating Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You


    Full Text Available The splitting approach is developed for the numerical simulation of genetic regulatory networks with a stable steady-state structure. The numerical results of the simulation of a one-gene network, a two-gene network, and a p53-mdm2 network show that the new splitting methods constructed in this paper are remarkably more effective and more suitable for long-term computation with large steps than the traditional general-purpose Runge-Kutta methods. The new methods have no restriction on the choice of stepsize due to their infinitely large stability regions.

  8. Structure of Wet Specimens in Electron Microscopy (United States)

    Parsons, D. F.


    Discussed are past work and recent advances in the use of electron microscopes for viewing structures immersed in gas and liquid. Improved environmental chambers make it possible to examine wet specimens easily. (Author/RH)

  9. CPS Trawl Life History Specimen Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Individual specimens measured (weight in grams and length in mm) and sexed from mainly targeted species caught during SWFSC-FRD fishery independent trawl surveys of...

  10. Specimen environments in thermal neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebula, D.J.


    This report is an attempt to collect into one place outline information concerning the techniques used and basic design of sample environment apparatus employed in neutron scattering experiments. Preliminary recommendations for the specimen environment programme of the SNS are presented. The general conclusion reached is that effort should be devoted towards improving reliability and efficiency of operation of specimen environment apparatus and developing systems which are robust and easy to use, rather than achieving performance at the limits of technology. (author)

  11. Dye-Sensitized Photocatalytic Water Splitting and Sacrificial Hydrogen Generation: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Chowdhury


    Full Text Available Today, global warming and green energy are important topics of discussion for every intellectual gathering all over the world. The only sustainable solution to these problems is the use of solar energy and storing it as hydrogen fuel. Photocatalytic and photo-electrochemical water splitting and sacrificial hydrogen generation show a promise for future energy generation from renewable water and sunlight. This article mainly reviews the current research progress on photocatalytic and photo-electrochemical systems focusing on dye-sensitized overall water splitting and sacrificial hydrogen generation. An overview of significant parameters including dyes, sacrificial agents, modified photocatalysts and co-catalysts are provided. Also, the significance of statistical analysis as an effective tool for a systematic investigation of the effects of different factors and their interactions are explained. Finally, different photocatalytic reactor configurations that are currently in use for water splitting application in laboratory and large scale are discussed.

  12. Comparative study on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdiliau, B.; Decroix, G.-M.; Averty, X.; Wident, P.; Bienvenu, Y.


    Highlights: → Welding processes are used to reconstitute previously tested Charpy specimens. → Stud welding is preferred for a quick installation, almost immediately operational. → Friction welding produces better quality welds, but requires a development effort. - Abstract: Reconstitution techniques are often used to allow material from previously fractured Charpy-V specimens to be reused for additional experiments. This paper presents a comparative experimental study of various reconstitution techniques and evaluates the feasibility of these methods for future use in shielded cells. The following techniques were investigated: arc stud welding, 6.0 kW CO 2 continuous wave laser welding, 4.5 kW YAG continuous wave laser welding and friction welding. Subsize Charpy specimens were reconstituted using a 400 W YAG pulsed wave laser. The best result was obtained with arc stud welding; the resilience of the reconstituted specimens and the load-displacement curves agreed well with the reference specimens, and the temperature elevation caused by the welding process was limited to the vicinity of the weld. Good results were also obtained with friction welding; this process led to the best quality welds. Laser welding seems to have affected the central part of the specimens, thus leading to different resilience values and load-displacement curves.

  13. Ultrasonic splitting of oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; König, Ralf; Benes, Ewald


    Standing resonant ultrasonic wave fields can be utilized for liquid–liquid separation of the dispersed particles and the fluid caused by the acoustic radiation pressure and the induced particle agglomeration or coagulation/coalescence process. For the splitting of oil-in-water emulsions, the avai......Standing resonant ultrasonic wave fields can be utilized for liquid–liquid separation of the dispersed particles and the fluid caused by the acoustic radiation pressure and the induced particle agglomeration or coagulation/coalescence process. For the splitting of oil-in-water emulsions......, the available piezoelectric composite transducer technology was improved and a dedicated resonator with crossed plane wave sonication geometry has been developed. The resonator chamber is entirely made of aluminium or tempax glass and the PZT piezoceramic transducer delivers an acoustic energy flow density...... of up to 24 W/cm2 into the sonication volume. The chosen resonance frequency is kept stable by automatic frequency control utilizing the maximum true power criterion. Physically and chemically well-defined low and high density pure laboratory and also industrially used cooling-lubricating oil...

  14. Diagnostic virology laboratory within a microbiology setting.


    Rubin, S. J.


    The virology section at St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Connecticut, is not a separate laboratory division but is a part of the microbiology division and is supervised by the same personnel who supervise bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and serology. Current volume is over 1,000 cultures yearly with 12 to 24 percent positive. Isolates are confirmed and typed by the Connecticut State Health Department Laboratory. Specimen distribution, percentage positive specimens, and distr...

  15. Photometrics Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  16. Blackroom Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  17. Target Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  18. Discrete objects, splitting closure and connectedness | Castellini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notions of discrete and indiscrete classes with respect to a closure operator are introduced and studied. These notions are strongly related to splitting and cosplitting closure operators. By linking the above concepts, two Galois connections arise whose composition provides a third Galois connection that can be used as a ...

  19. Miniaturized Planar Split-Ring Resonator Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav


    A miniaturized planar antenna based on a broadside-coupled split ring resonator excited by an arc-shaped dipole is presented. The excitation dipole acts as a small tuning capacitor in series with a parallel RLC circuit represented by the SRR. The antenna resonance frequency and dimensions...

  20. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.


    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  1. Split Beta-Lactamase Complementation Assay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Concept of split beta. -lactamase protein fragment complementation assay. (A) and (B) are vector systems involved in the assay. As an example, a vector system for bacterial host is described here. (C) Co-transformation of complementation vectors in appropriate bacterial host. (D) and (E) are types of inter- actions expected ...

  2. Molecular catalytic system for efficient water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joya, Khurram Saleem


    The aim of this dissertation is to construct and explore artificial oxygen evolving complexes that are synthetically accessible, stable, functionally robust and efficient. To achieve this, a class of mono metal water splitting catalysts is introduced in this manuscript and exploitation of these

  3. Splitting up Beta’s change


    Suarez, Ronny


    In this paper we estimated IBM beta from 2000 to 2013, then using differential equation mathematical formula we split up the annual beta’s change attributed to the volatility market effect, the stock volatility effect, the correlation effect and the jointly effect of these variables.

  4. Shear-wave splitting and moonquakes (United States)

    Dimech, J. L.; Weber, R. C.; Savage, M. K.


    Shear-wave splitting is a powerful tool for measuring anisotropy in the Earth's crust and mantle, and is sensitive to geological features such as fluid filled cracks, thin alternating layers of rock with different elastic properties, and preferred mineral orientations caused by strain. Since a shear wave splitting measurement requires only a single 3-component seismic station, it has potential applications for future single-station planetary seismic missions, such as the InSight geophysical mission to Mars, as well as possible future missions to Europa and the Moon. Here we present a preliminary shear-wave splitting analysis of moonquakes detected by the Apollo Passive Seismic Experiment. Lunar seismic data suffers from several drawbacks compared to modern terrestrial data, including severe seismic scattering, low intrinsic attenuation, 10-bit data resolution, thermal spikes, and timing errors. Despite these drawbacks, we show that it is in principle possible to make a shear wave splitting measurement using the S-phase arrival of a relatively high-quality moonquake, as determined by several agreeing measurement criteria. Encouraged by this finding, we further extend our analysis to clusters of "deep moonquake" events by stacking multiple events from the same cluster together to further enhance the quality of the S-phase arrivals that the measurement is based on.

  5. Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness. (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; Neville, David A; Otten, Marte; Corballis, Paul M; Lamme, Victor A F; de Haan, Edward H F; Foschi, Nicoletta; Fabri, Mara


    In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change signi- ficantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal varia- tions in the rotation rate near the solar ...

  7. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Multimedia


    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  8. Comparing Electrochemical and Biological Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Dimitrievski, Kristian; Siegbahn, P.


    On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system...

  9. Scanning transmission ion micro-tomography (STIM-T) of biological specimens. (United States)

    Schwertner, Micheal; Sakellariou, Arthur; Reinert, Tilo; Butz, Tilman


    Computed tomography (CT) was applied to sets of Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) projections recorded at the LIPSION ion beam laboratory (Leipzig) in order to visualize the 3D-mass distribution in several specimens. Examples for a test structure (copper grid) and for biological specimens (cartilage cells, cygospore) are shown. Scanning Transmission Micro-Tomography (STIM-T) at a resolution of 260 nm was demonstrated for the first time. Sub-micron features of the Cu-grid specimen were verified by scanning electron microscopy. The ion energy loss measured during a STIM-T experiment is related to the mass density of the specimen. Typically, biological specimens can be analysed without staining. Only shock freezing and freeze-drying is required to preserve the ultra-structure of the specimen. The radiation damage to the specimen during the experiment can be neglected. This is an advantage compared to other techniques like X-ray micro-tomography. At present, the spatial resolution is limited by beam position fluctuations and specimen vibrations.

  10. Scanning transmission ion micro-tomography (STIM-T) of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwertner, Michael; Sakellariou, Arthur; Reinert, Tilo; Butz, Tilman


    Computed tomography (CT) was applied to sets of Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) projections recorded at the LIPSION ion beam laboratory (Leipzig) in order to visualize the 3D-mass distribution in several specimens. Examples for a test structure (copper grid) and for biological specimens (cartilage cells, cygospore) are shown. Scanning Transmission Micro-Tomography (STIM-T) at a resolution of 260 nm was demonstrated for the first time. Sub-micron features of the Cu-grid specimen were verified by scanning electron microscopy. The ion energy loss measured during a STIM-T experiment is related to the mass density of the specimen. Typically, biological specimens can be analysed without staining. Only shock freezing and freeze-drying is required to preserve the ultra-structure of the specimen. The radiation damage to the specimen during the experiment can be neglected. This is an advantage compared to other techniques like X-ray micro-tomography. At present, the spatial resolution is limited by beam position fluctuations and specimen vibrations

  11. Numerical Simulation on the Dynamic Splitting Tensile Test of reinforced concrete (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuan; Jia, Haokai; Jing, Lin


    The research for crack resistance was of RC was based on the split Hopkinson bar and numerical simulate software LS-DYNA3D. In the research, the difference of dynamic splitting failure modes between plane concrete and reinforced concrete were completed, and the change rule of tensile stress distribution with reinforcement ratio was studied; also the effect rule with the strain rate and the crack resistance was also discussed by the radial tensile stress time history curve of RC specimen under different loading speeds. The results shows that the reinforcement in the concrete can impede the crack extension, defer the failure time of concrete, increase the tension intensity of concrete; with strain rate of concrete increased, the crack resistance of RC increased.

  12. Sequencing historical specimens: successful preparation of small specimens with low amounts of degraded DNA. (United States)

    Sproul, John S; Maddison, David R


    Despite advances that allow DNA sequencing of old museum specimens, sequencing small-bodied, historical specimens can be challenging and unreliable as many contain only small amounts of fragmented DNA. Dependable methods to sequence such specimens are especially critical if the specimens are unique. We attempt to sequence small-bodied (3-6 mm) historical specimens (including nomenclatural types) of beetles that have been housed, dried, in museums for 58-159 years, and for which few or no suitable replacement specimens exist. To better understand ideal approaches of sample preparation and produce preparation guidelines, we compared different library preparation protocols using low amounts of input DNA (1-10 ng). We also explored low-cost optimizations designed to improve library preparation efficiency and sequencing success of historical specimens with minimal DNA, such as enzymatic repair of DNA. We report successful sample preparation and sequencing for all historical specimens despite our low-input DNA approach. We provide a list of guidelines related to DNA repair, bead handling, reducing adapter dimers and library amplification. We present these guidelines to facilitate more economical use of valuable DNA and enable more consistent results in projects that aim to sequence challenging, irreplaceable historical specimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Non-Mendelian transmission in a human developmental disorder: split hand/split foot.


    Jarvik, G. P.; Patton, M. A.; Homfray, T.; Evans, J. P.


    The study of Mendelian disorders that do not meet some Mendelian expectations has led to an increased understanding of such previously obscure genetic phenomena as anticipation. Split hand/split foot (SHSF), a human developmental malformation, demonstrates such distinctive genetic features as reduced penetrance and variable expressivity. In this study, new pedigrees with defined ascertainment confirm the existence of non-Mendelian transmission characterized by the overtransmission of SHSF fro...

  14. Splitting, splitting and splitting again: A brief history of the development of regional government in Indonesia since independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Booth


    Full Text Available The paper reviews the changes in the structure and role of provincial and sub-provincial governments in Indonesia since independence. Particular attention is paid to the process of splitting both provinces and districts (kabupaten and kota into smaller units. The paper points out that this process has been going on since the 1950s, but has accelerated in the post-Soeharto era. The paper examines why the splitting of government units has occurred in some parts of the Outer Islands to a much greater extent than in Java, and also examines the implications of developments since 1999 for the capacity of local government units to deliver basic services such as health and education.

  15. Numerical study and pilot evaluation of experimental data measured on specimen loaded by bending and wedge splitting forces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Liedo, R.


    Roč. 11, č. 39 (2017), s. 100-109 ISSN 1971-8993 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Concrete * Finite element method * Numerical simulation * Stress intensity factors Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis

  16. HRR Field in an Aluminum SEN Specimen. (United States)


    edge notched, 2024-T3, 2024-0, and 5052 -H32 aluminum alloy specimens subjected to uniaxial and biaxial loadings [4,5,6]. One of the objectives of this...Contract N00014-89-J-1276 Technical Report No. UWA/DME/TR-89/63 00 HRR FIELD IN AN ALUMINUM SEN SPECIMENrkft Ln1 0 by M.S. Dadkhah and A.S. Kobayashi...Washington ~ dY~LI3OI k t*a U1PA09Q111 89 02Ieja II A I 6 I HRR FIELD IN AN ALUMINUM SEN SPECIMEN Mahyar Dadkhah ° and Albert S. Kobayashi** ABSTRACT Moire

  17. Photoelectrochemical water splitting: optimizing interfaces and light absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Sun-Young


    In this thesis several photoelectrochemical water splitting devices based on semiconductor materials were investigated. The aim was the design, characterization, and fabrication of solar-to-fuel devices which can absorb solar light and split water to produce hydrogen.

  18. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao


    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  19. Nontyphoidal Salmonella: An Occupational Hazard for Clinical Laboratory Workers


    Barker, Anna; Duster, Megan; Van Hoof, Sarah; Safdar, Nasia


    Laboratory-acquired infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella are rare. Yet, recent outbreaks in microbiology teaching laboratories show that these species are still an appreciable occupational hazard for laboratory employees. This article presents two cases of nontyphoidal Salmonella that occurred at the authors' institution—an infected patient and a clinical laboratory worker who acquired the infection by handling this patient's specimens.

  20. Multiple Rabi Splittings under Ultrastrong Vibrational Coupling. (United States)

    George, Jino; Chervy, Thibault; Shalabney, Atef; Devaux, Eloïse; Hiura, Hidefumi; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W


    From the high vibrational dipolar strength offered by molecular liquids, we demonstrate that a molecular vibration can be ultrastrongly coupled to multiple IR cavity modes, with Rabi splittings reaching 24% of the vibration frequencies. As a proof of the ultrastrong coupling regime, our experimental data unambiguously reveal the contributions to the polaritonic dynamics coming from the antiresonant terms in the interaction energy and from the dipolar self-energy of the molecular vibrations themselves. In particular, we measure the opening of a genuine vibrational polaritonic band gap of ca. 60 meV. We also demonstrate that the multimode splitting effect defines a whole vibrational ladder of heavy polaritonic states perfectly resolved. These findings reveal the broad possibilities in the vibrational ultrastrong coupling regime which impact both the optical and the molecular properties of such coupled systems, in particular, in the context of mode-selective chemistry.

  1. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Facco


    Full Text Available A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H^{-} beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kW of proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fraction of the main H^{-} beam, magnetic splitting of H^{-} and H^{0}, and stripping of H^{0} to H^{+}. The method allows slow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  2. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C


    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  3. Timelike single-logarithm-resummed splitting functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.V.; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow


    We calculate the single logarithmic contributions to the quark singlet and gluon matrix of timelike splitting functions at all orders in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme. We fix two of the degrees of freedom of this matrix from the analogous results in the massive-gluon regularization scheme by using the relation between that scheme and the MS scheme. We determine this scheme transformation from the double logarithmic contributions to the timelike splitting functions and the coefficient functions of inclusive particle production in e + e - annihilation now available in both schemes. The remaining two degrees of freedom are fixed by reasonable physical assumptions. The results agree with the fixed-order results at next-to-next-to-leading order in the literature. (orig.)

  4. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro


    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.

  5. Atom beams split by gentle persuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.


    Two different research teams have taken a big step toward atom interferometry. They have succeeded in splitting atomic beams by using atoms in spin states that neither absorb nor reemit laser light. By proper adjustment of experimental conditions, atoms are changed from one spin state to another, without passing through the intermediary excited state. The atoms in essence absorb momentum from the laser photons, without absorption or emission of photons. The change in momentum deflects atoms in the proper spin state

  6. On split Lie triple systems II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we extend these results to arbitrary split Lie triple systems with no restrictions on their 0-root spaces. Author Affiliations. Antonio J Calderón Martín1 M Forero Piulestán1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. Dates. Manuscript received: 24 June 2009 ...

  7. The production of calibration specimens for impact testing of subsize Charpy specimens (United States)

    Alexander, D. J.; Corwin, W. R.; Owings, T. D.

    Calibration specimens have been manufactured for checking the performance of a pendulum impact testing machine that has been configured for testing subsize specimens, both half-size (5.0 x 5.0 x 25.4 mm) and third-size (3.33 x 3.33 x 25.4 mm). Specimens were fabricated from quenched-and-tempered 4340 steel heat treated to produce different microstructures that would result in either high or low absorbed energy levels on testing. A large group of both half- and third-size specimens were tested at -40 C. The results of the tests were analyzed for average value and standard deviation, and these values were used to establish calibration limits for the Charpy impact machine when testing subsize specimens. These average values plus or minus two standard deviations were set as the acceptable limits for the average of five tests for calibration of the impact testing machine.

  8. Stress Wave Attenuation in Aluminum Alloy and Mild Steel Specimens Under SHPB Tensile Testing (United States)

    Pothnis, J. R.; Ravikumar, G.; Arya, H.; Yerramalli, Chandra S.; Naik, N. K.


    Investigations on the effect of intensity of incident pressure wave applied through the striker bar on the specimen force histories and stress wave attenuation during split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tensile testing are presented. Details of the tensile SHPB along with Lagrangian x- t diagram of the setup are included. Studies were carried out on aluminum alloy 7075 T651 and IS 2062 mild steel. While testing specimens using the tensile SHPB setup, it was observed that the force calculated from the transmitter bar strain gauge was smaller than the force obtained from the incident bar strain gauge. This mismatch between the forces in the incident bar and the transmitter bar is explained on the basis of stress wave attenuation in the specimens. A methodology to obtain force histories using the strain gauges on the specimen during SHPB tensile testing is also presented. Further, scanning electron microscope images and photomicrographs are given. Correlation between the microstructure and mechanical properties is explained. Further, uncertainty analysis was conducted to ascertain the accuracy of the results.

  9. Transonymization as Revitalization: Old Toponyms of Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lozić Knezović


    Full Text Available The paper deals with ancient toponyms of Split, a city in the centre of the Croatian region of Dalmatia. Along with numerous monuments of spiritual and material culture, toponyms are part of the two-thousand-year-old city’s historical heritage. Split in particular abounds with sources that provide valuable information concerning ancient toponyms. In terms of the study and preservation of toponymy, three basic sources are crucial: the living oral tradition, written records, and old charts — mostly cadastral plans. In addition to researching, recording, documenting, and publishing Split’s ancient place names through toponomastic, geographical, and town planning studies, toponymic heritage preservation is also implemented through the direct use of the names in everyday life. One of the ways of such revitalization of Split’s ancient place names is their transonymization into the category of chrematonyms, i.e. their secondary use as names of institutions, shops, restaurants, schools, sports associations and facilities, bars and coffee shops, cemeteries, and so on. The present paper provides a classification and etymological analysis of detoponymic chrematonyms of Split. The authors propose measures to raise public awareness of the historical information conveyed by the names and raise some issues for consideration regarding further study of transonymization as a means of revitalizing local toponymic tradition.

  10. Stress analysis of the cracked lap shear specimens: An ASTM round robin (United States)

    Johnson, W. S.


    This ASTM Round Robin was conducted to evaluate the state of the art in stress analysis of adhesively bonded joint specimens. Specifically, the participants were asked to calculate the strain-energy-release rate for two different geometry cracked lap shear (CLS) specimens at four different debond lengths. The various analytical techniques consisted of 2- and 3-dimensional finite element analysis, beam theory, plate theory, and a combination of beam theory and finite element analysis. The results were examined in terms of the total strain-energy-release rate and the mode I to mode II ratio as a function of debond length for each specimen geometry. These results basically clustered into two groups: geometric linear or geometric nonlinear analysis. The geometric nonlinear analysis is required to properly analyze the CLS specimens. The 3-D finite element analysis gave indications of edge closure plus some mode III loading. Each participant described his analytical technique and results. Nine laboratories participated.

  11. Stress analysis of the cracked-lap-shear specimen - An ASTM round-robin (United States)

    Johnson, W. S.


    This ASTM Round Robin was conducted to evaluate the state of the art in stress analysis of adhesively bonded joint specimens. Specifically, the participants were asked to calculate the strain-energy-release rate for two different geometry cracked lap shear (CLS) specimens at four different debond lengths. The various analytical techniques consisted of 2- and 3-dimensional finite element analysis, beam theory, plate theory, and a combination of beam theory and finite element analysis. The results were examined in terms of the total strain-energy-release rate and the mode I to mode II ratio as a function of debond length for each specimen geometry. These results basically clustered into two groups: geometric linear or geometric nonlinear analysis. The geometric nonlinear analysis is required to properly analyze the CLS specimens. The 3-D finite element analysis gave indications of edge closure plus some mode III loading. Each participant described his analytical technique and results. Nine laboratories participated.

  12. Radiofrequency identification specimen tracking in anatomical pathology: pilot study of 1067 consecutive prostate biopsies. (United States)

    Bostwick, David G


    Improved methods such as radiofrequency identification (RFID) are needed to optimize specimen tracking in anatomical pathology. We undertook a study of RFID in an effort to optimize specimen tracking and patient identification, including the following: (1) creation of workflow process maps, (2) evaluation of existing RFID hardware technologies, (3) creation of Web-based software to support the RFID-enabled workflow, and (4) assessment of the impact with a series of prostate biopsies. We identified multiple steps in the workflow process in which RFID enhanced specimen tracking. Multiple product choices were found that could withstand the harsh heat and chemical environments encountered in pathology processing, and software that was compatible with our laboratory information system was designed in-house. A total of 1067 prostate biopsies were received, and 78.3% were successfully processed with the RFID system. Radiofrequency identification allowed dynamic specimen tracking throughout the workflow process in anatomical pathology. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Virus isolation: Specimen type and probable transmission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Virus isolation: Specimen type and probable transmission. Over 500 CHIK virus isolations were made. 4 from male Ae. Aegypti (?TOT). 6 from CSF (neurological involvement). 1 from a 4-day old child (transplacental transmission.

  14. Some recent innovations in small specimen testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, G.R.; He, M.; Gragg, D.; Klingensmith, D.; Lucas, G.E.


    New innovative small specimen test techniques are described. Finite element simulations show that combinations of cone indentation pile-up geometry and load-penetration depth relations can be used to determine both the yield stress and strain-hardening behavior of a material. Techniques for pre-cracking and testing sub-miniaturized fracture toughness bend bars, with dimensions of 1.65x1.65x9 mm 3 , or less, are described. The corresponding toughness-temperature curves have a very steep transition slope, primarily due to rapid loss of constraint, which has advantages in some experiments to characterize the effects of specified irradiation variables. As one example of using composite specimens, an approach to evaluating helium effects is proposed, involving diffusion bonding small wires of a 54 Fe-based ferritic-martensitic alloy to a surrounding fracture specimen composed of an elemental Fe-based alloy. Finally, we briefly outline some potential approaches to multipurpose specimens and test automation

  15. 26 CFR 1.7872-15 - Split-dollar loans. (United States)


    ...) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7872-15 Split-dollar loans. (a) General rules—(1... split-dollar loan depend upon the relationship between the parties and upon whether the loan is a demand...-dollar demand loan is any split-dollar loan that is payable in full at any time on the demand of the...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  17. Progress in the preparation of cross-sectional TEM specimens by ion-beam thinning

    CERN Document Server

    Strecker, A; Kelsch, M; Salzberger, U; Sycha, M; Gao, M; Richter, G; Benthem, K V


    In transmission electron microscopy (TEM), often the preparation of samples is the most critical part. Specimens have to have disk geometries of 3 mm diameter laterally, and they have to be transparent for the electron beam vertically. Therefore, a specimen thickness in the range of some 1-10 nm has to be achieved by the preparation process. While shrinking the specimen dimensions, care has to be taken to recover the materials properties in the nm-regime. We report and shortly discuss some TEM specimen preparation techniques mainly used in the Stuttgart TEM specimen preparation laboratory. Furthermore, we demonstrate how more advanced techniques lead to a more reliable preparation of weakly-bonded metal/SrTiO sub 3 interfaces. In addition, the advantage of low-voltage ion-milling is demonstrated by a case study for bulk SrTiO sub 3. As a result, low-voltage ion polishing as a final step in the TEM specimen preparation by conventional ion-thinning turns out to significantly increase the specimen quality. In tu...

  18. Laboratory Tests (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  19. National laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscati, G.


    The foundation of a 'National Laboratory' which would support a Research center in synchrotron radiation applications is proposed. The essential features of such a laboratory differing of others centers in Brazil are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Geomechanics Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geomechanics Laboratory allows its users to measure rock properties under a wide range of simulated service conditions up to very high pressures and complex load...

  1. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens. (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K


    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  2. 10 CFR 26.159 - Assuring specimen security, chain of custody, and preservation. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assuring specimen security, chain of custody, and... custody, and preservation. (a) The HHS-certified laboratories performing services for licensees and other... within each package to the information on the accompanying custody-and-control forms. (1) Any direct...

  3. Investigation of Exposure to Formaldehyde from Preserved Biological Specimens. Status Report. (United States)

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    This investigation of formaldehyde exposure in school laboratories, where its principal source is from preserved biological specimens, was undertaken because of concern over exposure levels reported in the literature. Information was obtained in two ways. A limited survey of schools was conducted to determine extent of students' use of preserved…

  4. Evaluation of laboratory diagnosis for cutaneous tuberculosis. (United States)

    Afsar, Ilhan; Afsar, Fatma Sule


    Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is still difficult to diagnose due to its varied clinical presentation and limitations of diagnostic methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of diagnostic laboratory tests available for CTB. Twenty-six skin biopsy specimens belonging to clinically suspected cases of CTB were studied retrospectively. The specimens were divided into two portions, one part processed for histopathological evaluation and the other was used for microscopy and inoculation for the isolation of mycobacteria. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was applied to 14 of 26 specimens to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) DNA. Of the 26 biopsy specimens, 11 were confirmed as CTB by identification of MTBC in culture and/or histopathologic affirmation. Of these, four were lupus vulgaris, four were TB verrucosa cutis, one was scrofuloderma, one was primary inoculation TB, and one was periorifical CTB. Culture for mycobacteria was positive for five (45.45%) specimens, while histopathologic affirmation was obtained in ten (90.90%) specimens. Acid-fast Bacilli were not demonstrated in any of the specimens on microscopic examination. The PCR was found to be applied to six of the 11 specimens diagnosed as CTB and was positive in two specimens (33.3%), which were positive for growth in culture and histopathological correlation. The recovery rate of MTBC from biopsy specimens was found to be satisfactory for CTB with histopathological correlation, but the combination of culture with a rapid method, PCR, may improve the diagnostic rate.

  5. Semiconductor Nanowires for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting (United States)

    Hwang, Yun Jeong

    Photolysis of water with semiconductor materials has been investigated intensely as a clean and renewable energy resource by storing solar energy in chemical bonds such as hydrogen. One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as nanowires can provide several advantages for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to their high surface areas and excellent charge transport and collection efficiency. This dissertation discusses various nanowire photoelectrodes for single or dual semiconductor systems, and their linked PEC cells for self-driven water splitting. After an introduction of solar water splitting in the first chapter, the second chapter demonstrates water oxidative activities of hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanowire arrays depending on their length and surface properties. The photocurrents with TiO2 nanowire arrays approach saturation due to their poor charge collection efficiency with longer nanowires despite increased photon absorption efficiency. Epitaxial grains of rutile atomic layer deposition (ALD) shell on TiO2 nanowire increase the photocurrent density by 1.5 times due to improved charge collection efficiency especially in the short wavelength region. Chapter three compares the photocurrent density of the planar Si and Si nanowire arrays coated by anatase ALD TiO 2 thin film as a model system of a dual bandgap system. The electroless etched Si nanowire coated by ALD TiO2 (Si EENW/TiO2) shows 2.5 times higher photocurrent density due to lower reflectance and higher surface area. Also, this chapter illustrates that n-Si/n-TiO2 heterojunction is a promising structure for the photoanode application of a dual semiconductor system, since it can enhance the photocurrent density compared to p-Si/n-TiO 2 junction with the assistance of bend banding at the interface. Chapter four demonstrates the charge separation and transport of photogenerated electrons and holes within a single asymmetric Si/TiO2 nanowire. Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements show

  6. The ideal laboratory information system. (United States)

    Sepulveda, Jorge L; Young, Donald S


    Laboratory information systems (LIS) are critical components of the operation of clinical laboratories. However, the functionalities of LIS have lagged significantly behind the capacities of current hardware and software technologies, while the complexity of the information produced by clinical laboratories has been increasing over time and will soon undergo rapid expansion with the use of new, high-throughput and high-dimensionality laboratory tests. In the broadest sense, LIS are essential to manage the flow of information between health care providers, patients, and laboratories and should be designed to optimize not only laboratory operations but also personalized clinical care. To list suggestions for designing LIS with the goal of optimizing the operation of clinical laboratories while improving clinical care by intelligent management of laboratory information. Literature review, interviews with laboratory users, and personal experience and opinion. Laboratory information systems can improve laboratory operations and improve patient care. Specific suggestions for improving the function of LIS are listed under the following sections: (1) Information Security, (2) Test Ordering, (3) Specimen Collection, Accessioning, and Processing, (4) Analytic Phase, (5) Result Entry and Validation, (6) Result Reporting, (7) Notification Management, (8) Data Mining and Cross-sectional Reports, (9) Method Validation, (10) Quality Management, (11) Administrative and Financial Issues, and (12) Other Operational Issues.

  7. Splitting methods for split feasibility problems with application to Dantzig selectors (United States)

    He, Hongjin; Xu, Hong-Kun


    The split feasibility problem (SFP), which refers to the task of finding a point that belongs to a given nonempty, closed and convex set, and whose image under a bounded linear operator belongs to another given nonempty, closed and convex set, has promising applicability in modeling a wide range of inverse problems. Motivated by the increasingly data-driven regularization in the areas of signal/image processing and statistical learning, in this paper, we study the regularized split feasibility problem (RSFP), which provides a unified model for treating many real-world problems. By exploiting the split nature of the RSFP, we shall gainfully employ several efficient splitting methods to solve the model under consideration. A remarkable advantage of our methods lies in their easier subproblems in the sense that the resulting subproblems have closed-form representations or can be efficiently solved up to a high precision. As an interesting application, we apply the proposed algorithms for finding Dantzig selectors, in addition to demonstrating the effectiveness of the splitting methods through some computational results on synthetic and real medical data sets.

  8. Peer groups splitting in Croatian EQA scheme: a trade-off between homogeneity and sample size number. (United States)

    Vlašić Tanasković, Jelena; Coucke, Wim; Leniček Krleža, Jasna; Vuković Rodriguez, Jadranka


    Laboratory evaluation through external quality assessment (EQA) schemes is often performed as 'peer group' comparison under the assumption that matrix effects influence the comparisons between results of different methods, for analytes where no commutable materials with reference value assignment are available. With EQA schemes that are not large but have many available instruments and reagent options for same analyte, homogenous peer groups must be created with adequate number of results to enable satisfactory statistical evaluation. We proposed a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)-based test to evaluate heterogeneity of peer groups within the Croatian EQA biochemistry scheme and identify groups where further splitting might improve laboratory evaluation. EQA biochemistry results were divided according to instruments used per analyte and the MANOVA test was used to verify statistically significant differences between subgroups. The number of samples was determined by sample size calculation ensuring a power of 90% and allowing the false flagging rate to increase not more than 5%. When statistically significant differences between subgroups were found, clear improvement of laboratory evaluation was assessed before splitting groups. After evaluating 29 peer groups, we found strong evidence for further splitting of six groups. Overall improvement of 6% reported results were observed, with the percentage being as high as 27.4% for one particular method. Defining maximal allowable differences between subgroups based on flagging rate change, followed by sample size planning and MANOVA, identifies heterogeneous peer groups where further splitting improves laboratory evaluation and enables continuous monitoring for peer group heterogeneity within EQA schemes.

  9. Flow Cytometric Bead Sandwich Assay Based on a Split Aptamer. (United States)

    Shen, Luyao; Bing, Tao; Liu, Xiangjun; Wang, Junyan; Wang, Linlin; Zhang, Nan; Shangguan, Dihua


    A few aptamers still bind their targets after being split into two moieties. Split aptamers have shown great potential in the development of aptameric sensors. However, only a few split aptamers have been generated because of lack of knowledge on the binding structure of their parent aptamers. Here, we report the design of a new split aptamer and a flow cytometric bead sandwich assay using a split aptamer instead of double antibodies. Through DMS footprinting and mutation assay, we figured out the target-binding moiety and the structure-stabilizing moiety of the l-selectin aptamer, Sgc-3b. By separating the duplex strand in the structure-stabilizing moiety, we obtained a split aptamer that bound l-selectin. After optimization of one part of the split sequence to eliminate the nonspecific binding of the split sequence pair, we developed a split-aptamer-based cytometric bead assay (SACBA) for the detection of soluble l-selectin. SACBA showed good sensitivity and selectivity to l-selectin and was successfully applied for the detection of spiked l-selectin in the human serum. The strategies for generating split aptamers and designing the split-aptamer-based sandwich assay are simple and efficient and show good practicability in aptamer engineering.

  10. Experimental Behavior of Fatigued Single Stiffener PRSEUS Specimens (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.


    NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and The Boeing Company have worked to develop new low-cost, light-weight composite structures for aircraft. A Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept has been developed which offers advantages over traditional metallic structure. In this concept a stitched carbon-epoxy material system has been developed with the potential for reducing the weight and cost of transport aircraft structure by eliminating fasteners, thereby reducing part count and labor. By adding unidirectional carbon rods to the top of stiffeners, the panel becomes more structurally efficient. This combination produces a more damage tolerant design. This document describes the results of experimentation on PRSEUS specimens loaded in unidirectional compression in fatigue and to failure.

  11. SplitRFLab: A MATLAB GUI toolbox for receiver function analysis based on SplitLab (United States)

    Xu, Mijian; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhouchuan; Wang, Liangshu


    We add new modules for receiver function (RF) analysis in SplitLab toolbox, which includes the manual RF analysis module, automatic RF analysis and related quality control modules, and H- k stacking module. The updated toolbox (named SplitRFLab toolbox), especially its automatic RF analysis module, could calculate the RFs quickly and efficiently, which is very useful in RF analysis with huge amount of seismic data. China is now conducting the ChinArray project that plans to deploy thousands of portable stations across Chinese mainland. Our SplitRFLab toolbox may obtain reliable RF results quickly at the first time, which provide essentially new constraint to the crustal and mantle structures.

  12. Natural History Specimen Digitization: Challenges and Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vollmar


    Full Text Available A survey on the challenges and concerns invovled with digitizing natural history specimens was circulated to curators, collections managers, and administrators in the natural history community in the Spring of 2009, with over 200 responses received. The overwhelming barrier to digitizing collections was a lack of funding, based on a limited number of sources, leaving institutions mostly responsible for providing the necessary support. The uneven digitization landscape leads to a patchy accumulation of records at varying qualities, and based on different priorities, ulitimately influencing the data's fitness for use. The survey also found that although the kind of specimens found in collections and their storage can be quite varible, there are many similar challenges when digitizing including imaging, automated text scanning and parsing, geo-referencing, etc. Thus, better communication between domains could foster knowledge on digitization leading to efficiencies that could be disseminated through documentation of best practices and training.

  13. Standard guide for preparation of metallographic specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 The primary objective of metallographic examinations is to reveal the constituents and structure of metals and their alloys by means of a light optical or scanning electron microscope. In special cases, the objective of the examination may require the development of less detail than in other cases but, under nearly all conditions, the proper selection and preparation of the specimen is of major importance. Because of the diversity in available equipment and the wide variety of problems encountered, the following text presents for the guidance of the metallographer only those practices which experience has shown are generally satisfactory; it cannot and does not describe the variations in technique required to solve individual specimen preparation problems. Note 1—For a more extensive description of various metallographic techniques, refer to Samuels, L. E., Metallographic Polishing by Mechanical Methods, American Society for Metals (ASM) Metals Park, OH, 3rd Ed., 1982; Petzow, G., Metallographic Etchin...

  14. Damage modeling in Small Punch Test specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Cuesta, I.I.; Peñuelas, I.


    Ductile damage modeling within the Small Punch Test (SPT) is extensively investigated. The capabilities ofthe SPT to reliably estimate fracture and damage properties are thoroughly discussed and emphasis isplaced on the use of notched specimens. First, different notch profiles are analyzed....... Furthermore,Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model predictions from a top-down approach are employed to gain insightinto the mechanisms governing crack initiation and subsequent propagation in small punch experiments.An accurate assessment of micromechanical toughness parameters from the SPT...

  15. Thermal endurance tests on silicone rubber specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, C.


    Thermal endurance tests have been performed on a range of silicone rubber specimens at temperature above 300 0 C. It is suggested that the rubber mix A2426, the compound from which Wylfa sealing rings are manufactured, will fail at temperatures above 300 0 C within weeks. Hardness measurements show that this particular rubber performs in a similar manner to Walker's S.I.L./60. (author)

  16. The working procedure of human autopsy specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rusong; Liu Guodong


    In order to perform the Coordinated Research Program for the Reference Asian Man (phase 2): Ingestion and body content of trace elements of importance in Radiation Protection, study on elemental content in organs of normal Chinese has been worked by China Institute for Radiation Protection and Institute of Radiation Medicine - CAMS in recent two years. Sampling and sample collection of human tissues and the procedures of sample preparation of human autopsy specimens are enlisted

  17. Effect of Fibre Hybridization on Compressive Strength, Split Tensile Strength and Water Permeability of SFRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Singh


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of an investigation conducted to study the compressive strength, split tensile strength and water permeability of fibre concrete mixes containing steel fibres in mono, binary and ternary combinations. Steel fibres of different lengths i.e. 12.5 mm, 25 mm and 50 mm having constant diameter of 0.6 mm were used to obtain mono, binary and ternary combinations. A reference concrete mix with no fibres was also used for comparison purpose. The total fibre volume fraction was kept at 1.0% in all the mixes. Compressive strength, split tensile strength and water permeability tests were conducted of specimens of size 100 x 100 x 100 mm after 28 days of curing.  It has been observed that a fibre combination of 33% 12.5 mm + 33% 25 mm + 33% 50 mm long fibres can be adjudged as the most appropriate combination to be employed  in HySFRC for compressive strength, split tensile strength and water permeability.

  18. A Review of Sleeve Gastrectomy Specimen Histopathology. (United States)

    Kinsinger, Luke A; Garber, James C; Whipple, Oliver


    With the increasing popularity of sleeve gastrectomy, many stomach specimens are being evaluated. Understanding the significance and treatment for unexpected pathology is important. This study examines the incidence of relevant histopathology of sleeve gastrectomy specimens. It evaluates previous data for each histopathology and provides recommendations for treatment. In this study, a retrospective review was performed for 241 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy from 2009 to 2014 at a single institution. Of the specimens, 122 had no significant histopathology, 91 had gastritis, 13 had lymphoid aggregates, 5 had hyperplasia, 3 had intestinal metaplasia, 3 had gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and 3 had gastric polyps. Of the GISTs all had a low mitotic rate and the size of the tumor ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 cm. The findings of metaplasia may be a marker for increased risk of malignancy and may require additional surveillance. The findings of GIST may warrant interval imaging to survey for recurrence, though the likelihood of recurrence for the tumors in this study is less than 2 per cent based on previous studies.

  19. Motorized manipulator for positioning a TEM specimen (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas Karl; Andresen, Nord


    The invention relates to a motorized manipulator for positioning a TEM specimen holder with sub-micron resolution parallel to a y-z plane and rotating the specimen holder in the y-z plane, the manipulator comprising a base (2), and attachment means (30) for attaching the specimen holder to the manipulator, characterized in that the manipulator further comprises at least three nano-actuators (3.sup.a, 3.sup.b, 3.sup.c) mounted on the base, each nano-actuator showing a tip (4.sup.a, 4.sup.b, 4.sup.c), the at least three tips defining the y-z plane, each tip capable of moving with respect to the base in the y-z plane; a platform (5) in contact with the tips of the nano-actuators; and clamping means (6) for pressing the platform against the tips of the nano-actuators; as a result of which the nano-actuators can rotate the platform with respect to the base in the y-z plane and translate the platform parallel to the y-z plane.

  20. Spalling Experiments on Large Hard Rock Specimens (United States)

    Jacobsson, Lars; Appelquist, Karin; Lindkvist, Jan Erik


    Specimens of coarse-grained Äspö diorite were axially compressed to observe stress-induced spalling. The specimens had a novel design characterized by two manufactured large radius notches on opposite sides. The tangential stress occurring in the notches aimed to represent the tangential loading around a circular opening. Fracture stages were monitored by acoustic emission measurements. Rock chips were formed similar to those found in situ, which indicates a similar fracture process. Slabs were cut out from the specimens and impregnated using a fluorescent material to visualize the cracks. The cracks were subsequently examined by the naked eye and by means of microscopy images, from which fracture paths could be identified and related to different minerals and their crystallographic orientations. The microscopy analyses showed how the stress field and the microstructure interact. Parallel cracks were formed 2-4 mm below the surface, sub-parallel to the direction of the maximum principal stress. The crack initiation, the roles of minerals such as feldspar, biotite and quartz and their grain boundaries and crystallographic directions are thoroughly studied and discussed in this paper. Scale effects, which relate to the stress gradient and microstructure, are discussed.

  1. Method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Yang, Qian; Liu, Xintong


    In order to meet the aviation's and machinery manufacturing's pose measurement need of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range, and to resolve the contradiction between measurement range and resolution of vision sensor, this paper proposes an orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement method. This paper designs and realizes an orthogonally splitting imaging vision sensor and establishes a pose measurement system. The vision sensor consists of one imaging lens, a beam splitter prism, cylindrical lenses and dual linear CCD. Dual linear CCD respectively acquire one dimensional image coordinate data of the target point, and two data can restore the two dimensional image coordinates of the target point. According to the characteristics of imaging system, this paper establishes the nonlinear distortion model to correct distortion. Based on cross ratio invariability, polynomial equation is established and solved by the least square fitting method. After completing distortion correction, this paper establishes the measurement mathematical model of vision sensor, and determines intrinsic parameters to calibrate. An array of feature points for calibration is built by placing a planar target in any different positions for a few times. An terative optimization method is presented to solve the parameters of model. The experimental results show that the field angle is 52 °, the focus distance is 27.40 mm, image resolution is 5185×5117 pixels, displacement measurement error is less than 0.1mm, and rotation angle measurement error is less than 0.15°. The method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement can satisfy the pose measurement requirement of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range.

  2. Axial-Gap Induction Motor For Levitated Specimens (United States)

    Sridharan, Govind; Rhim, Won-Kyu; Barber, Dan; Chung, Sang


    Motor does not obscure view of specimen. Axial-gap induction motor applies torque to rotate electrostatically or electromagnetically levitated specimen of metal. Possible applications include turning specimens for uniform heating under focused laser beams and obtaining indirect measurements of resistivities or of surface tensions in molten specimens.

  3. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.


    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report

  4. Injuries caused by firewood splitting machines. (United States)

    Hellstrand, P H


    The aim of this paper is to present the types of injury caused by firewood splitting machines and also to elucidate the accident mechanism. The study is based on 15 cases. The machine has a rotating spiral cone, and usually the victims' gloved fingertips were caught by the point of the cone. This led to either amputations, usually of radial fingers and/or penetrating wounds through the middle of the hand. In most cases the accidents could not be blamed on bad working techniques. The study of the mechanisms of injury points to insufficient protective devices in a machine construction which has a potentially dangerous working principle.

  5. Quality improvements in the preanalytical phase: focus on urine specimen workflow. (United States)

    Stankovic, Ana K; DeLauro, Elizabeth


    In the past, laboratories have addressed issues of preanalytical variability in an opportunistic way, addressing discrete parts of the preanalytical process, such as patient identification, specimen rejection, and blood/urine culture contamination. To obtain needed quality improvements and error reduction, it is necessary to look at the preanalytical process as a whole - from test ordering to the moment the specimen is processed by the analyzer and apply process improvement methodologies, such as LEAN and Six Sigma. To achieve this, laboratories should map the preanalytical phase in its entirety, identify steps that are potential causes of unnecessary variability that lead can to laboratory errors, and find ways either to remove them or error proof them. At the same time, by using this approach it is possible to reduce unnecessary waste and obtain needed process efficiencies.

  6. Effects of delayed microbial analysis of dental unit water line specimens. (United States)

    Palenik, Charles John; Burgess, Kenneth H; Miller, Chris H


    Monitoring microbial concentrations in water emitted from dental unit water lines (DUWL) is an important safety procedure. Improper handling of test water specimens could give incorrect results. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure the effects delayed culturing might have on DUWL specimens. First, 100 mL water specimens were obtained from 10 different handpiece service lines within the School. All units had independent water systems, used DI (deionized water) water and were routinely cleaned using an alkaline peroxide based product. Two specimens of 10 mL were removed from the bottles and placed into individual sterile conical tubes. One set of tubes was processed immediately. 0.05 mL of sterile 1.0% (w/v) sodium thiosulfate solution was added to undiluted and diluted (1:10 and 1:100 with sterile DI water) specimens. After mixing, specimens were spiral plated onto duplicate R2A plates and incubated at 21degrees C for 7 days. Colonies were then counted and the cfu/mL of each original specimen determined. Another set of tubes was placed into a shipping envelope and mailed out to the School. Upon receipt, the tubes were processed as described above. The remaining 80 mL of water in the collection bottles were divided equally into new sterile tubes. One tube was left at 21 degrees C, while the other was placed into a 37 degrees C incubator. Aliquots were processed immediately and then after 1, 3 and 7 days. Next, 30 mL water specimens were obtained from 15 handpiece service lines in three outside clinics. All units had independent water systems, used DI water and were routinely cleaned with an alkaline peroxide-based product. Specimens were then divided equally into three sterile conical tubes. One of the tubes was transported (at 4 degrees C) to the laboratory and immediately processed as described. At the collection site, the second tube was placed into a padded envelope and mailed back to the School. The third tube was returned by overnight delivery using

  7. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  8. Randomized clinical trial comparing fixed-time split dosing and split dosing of oral Picosulfate regimen for bowel preparation. (United States)

    Jun, Jae Hyuck; Han, Koon Hee; Park, Jong Kyu; Seo, Hyun Il; Kim, Young Don; Lee, Sang Jin; Jun, Baek Gyu; Hwang, Min Sik; Park, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, Myeong Jong; Cheon, Gab Jin


    To compare the efficacy of fixed-time split dose and split dose of an oral sodium picosulfate for bowel preparation. This is study was prospective, randomized controlled study performed at a single Institution (2013-058). A total of 204 subjects were assigned to receive one of two sodium picosulfate regimens ( i.e ., fixed-time split or split) prior to colonoscopy. Main outcome measurements were bowel preparation quality and subject tolerability. There was no statistical difference between the fixed-time split dose regimen group and the split dose regimen group (Ottawa score mean 2.57 ± 1.91 vs 2.80 ± 2.51, P = 0.457). Cecal intubation time and physician's satisfaction of inspection were not significantly different between the two groups ( P = 0.428, P = 0.489). On subgroup analysis, for afternoon procedures, the fixed-time split dose regimen was equally effective as compared with the split dose regimen (Ottawa score mean 2.56 ± 1.78 vs 2.59 ± 2.27, P = 0.932). There was no difference in tolerability or compliance between the two groups. Nausea was 21.2% in the fixed-time split dose group and 14.3% in the split dose group ( P = 0.136). Vomiting was 7.1% and 2.9% ( P = 0.164), abdominal discomfort 7.1% and 4.8% ( P = 0.484), dizziness 1% and 4.8% ( P = 0.113), cold sweating 1% and 0% ( P = 0.302) and palpitation 0% and 1% ( P = 0.330), respectively. Sleep disturbance was two (2%) patients in the fixed-time split dose group and zero (0%) patient in the split dose preparation ( P = 0.143) group. A fixed-time split dose regimen with sodium picosulfate is not inferior to a split dose regimen for bowel preparation and equally effective for afternoon colonoscopy.

  9. Analytical Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  10. Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  11. Propulsion Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  12. Psychology Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...

  13. Dynamics Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  14. Visualization Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  15. The Regularity of Functions on Dual Split Quaternions in Clifford Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kim


    Full Text Available This paper shows some properties of dual split quaternion numbers and expressions of power series in dual split quaternions and provides differential operators in dual split quaternions and a dual split regular function on Ω⊂ℂ2×ℂ2 that has a dual split Cauchy-Riemann system in dual split quaternions.

  16. Splitting of the weak hypercharge quantum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.


    The ratio between the weak hypercharge quantum for particles having no coupling to the gauge bosons corresponding to the semisimple component of the gauge group and the smallest hypercharge quantum for particles that do have such couplings is exceptionally large for the standard model, considering its rank. To compare groups with respect to this property we propose a quantity χ which depends on the rank of the group and the splitting ratio of the hypercharge(s) to be found in the group. The quantity χ has maximal value for the gauge group of the standard model. This suggest that the hypercharge splitting may play an important role either in the origin of the gauge symmetry at a fundamental scale or in some kind of selection mechanism at a scale perhaps nearer to the experimental scale. Such selection mechanism might be what we have called confusion which removes groups with many (so called generalized) automorphisms. The quantity χ tends to be large for groups with few generalized automorphisms. (orig.)

  17. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri


    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  18. An Iterative Algorithm for the Split Equality and Multiple-Sets Split Equality Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoyi Shi


    Full Text Available The multiple-sets split equality problem (MSSEP requires finding a point x∈∩i=1NCi, y∈∩j=1MQj such that Ax=By, where N and M are positive integers, {C1,C2,…,CN} and {Q1,Q2,…,QM} are closed convex subsets of Hilbert spaces H1, H2, respectively, and A:H1→H3, B:H2→H3 are two bounded linear operators. When N=M=1, the MSSEP is called the split equality problem (SEP. If  B=I, then the MSSEP and SEP reduce to the well-known multiple-sets split feasibility problem (MSSFP and split feasibility problem (SFP, respectively. One of the purposes of this paper is to introduce an iterative algorithm to solve the SEP and MSSEP in the framework of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces under some more mild conditions for the iterative coefficient.

  19. Development and implementation of a custom integrated database with dashboards to assist with hematopathology specimen triage and traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Azzato


    Full Text Available Background: At some institutions, including ours, bone marrow aspirate specimen triage is complex, with hematopathology triage decisions that need to be communicated to downstream ancillary testing laboratories and many specimen aliquot transfers that are handled outside of the laboratory information system (LIS. We developed a custom integrated database with dashboards to facilitate and streamline this workflow. Methods: We developed user-specific dashboards that allow entry of specimen information by technologists in the hematology laboratory, have custom scripting to present relevant information for the hematopathology service and ancillary laboratories and allow communication of triage decisions from the hematopathology service to other laboratories. These dashboards are web-accessible on the local intranet and accessible from behind the hospital firewall on a computer or tablet. Secure user access and group rights ensure that relevant users can edit or access appropriate records. Results: After database and dashboard design, two-stage beta-testing and user education was performed, with the first focusing on technologist specimen entry and the second on downstream users. Commonly encountered issues and user functionality requests were resolved with database and dashboard redesign. Final implementation occurred within 6 months of initial design; users report improved triage efficiency and reduced need for interlaboratory communications. Conclusions: We successfully developed and implemented a custom database with dashboards that facilitates and streamlines our hematopathology bone marrow aspirate triage. This provides an example of a possible solution to specimen communications and traffic that are outside the purview of a standard LIS.

  20. Is the Axillary Nerve at Risk During a Deltoid-Splitting Approach for Proximal Humerus Fractures? (United States)

    Traver, Jessica L; Guzman, Miguel A; Cannada, Lisa K; Kaar, Scott G


    The strain placed across the axillary nerve during the deltoid-splitting approach could correlate with microtrauma and place the patient at risk of a neuropraxia or more permanent injury. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the change in length and strain exhibited by the axillary nerve during the deltoid-splitting approach and to determine the presence of any microscopic structural damage. The axillary nerve was identified through a lateral deltoid-splitting approach in 10 fresh-frozen cadaver specimens. Two suture tags were placed near the lateral margins of the incision. The initial distance between the 2 tags was measured and the distance at each retractor click of a Kölbel retractor until full expansion (6 clicks). The retractor was then released for a 1-minute break at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. The strain at each interval was calculated as change in length divided by the initial distance. The section of nerve in the field of exposure was excised for histologic analysis. The location of the axillary nerve was 6.32 cm (range, 5.20-7.6 cm) from the anterolateral aspect of the acromion. The mean final increase in length was 8.42 mm (range, 6.43-12.26 mm). The strain increased to a final mean of 51% (range, 28%-99%). Histologic analysis confirmed disruption of the myelin sheaths and axonal retraction. This study demonstrated a progressive, irreversible increase in axillary nerve length and strain, resulting in microscopic damage to the neuronal structure during a deltoid-splitting approach. Prolonged soft tissue retraction can place the axillary nerve at substantial risk for injury.

  1. Improved compliance with the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist is associated with reduced surgical specimen labelling errors. (United States)

    Martis, Walston R; Hannam, Jacqueline A; Lee, Tracey; Merry, Alan F; Mitchell, Simon J


    A new approach to administering the surgical safety checklist (SSC) at our institution using wall-mounted charts for each SSC domain coupled with migrated leadership among operating room (OR) sub-teams, led to improved compliance with the Sign Out domain. Since surgical specimens are reviewed at Sign Out, we aimed to quantify any related change in surgical specimen labelling errors. Prospectively maintained error logs for surgical specimens sent to pathology were examined for the six months before and after introduction of the new SSC administration paradigm. We recorded errors made in the labelling or completion of the specimen pot and on the specimen laboratory request form. Total error rates were calculated from the number of errors divided by total number of specimens. Rates from the two periods were compared using a chi square test. There were 19 errors in 4,760 specimens (rate 3.99/1,000) and eight errors in 5,065 specimens (rate 1.58/1,000) before and after the change in SSC administration paradigm (P=0.0225). Improved compliance with administering the Sign Out domain of the SSC can reduce surgical specimen errors. This finding provides further evidence that OR teams should optimise compliance with the SSC.

  2. Wildlife specimen collection, preservation, and shipment (United States)

    White, C. LeAnn; Dusek, Robert J.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.


    Specimens are used to provide supporting information leading to the determination of the cause of disease or death in wildlife and for disease monitoring or surveillance. Commonly used specimens for wildlife disease investigations include intact carcasses, tissues from carcasses, euthanized or moribund animals, parasites, ingested food, feces, or environmental samples. Samples from live animals or the environment (e.g., contaminated feed) in the same vicinity as a mortality event also may be helpful. The type of specimen collected is determined by availability of samples and biological objectives. Multiple fresh, intact carcasses from affected species are the most useful in establishing a cause for a mortality event. Submission of entire carcasses allows observation of gross lesions and abnormalities, as well as disease testing of multiple tissues. Samples from live animals may be more appropriate when sick animals cannot be euthanized (e.g., threatened or endangered species) or for research and monitoring projects examining disease or agents circulating in apparently healthy animals or those not exhibiting clinical signs. Samples from live animals may include collections of blood, hair, feathers, feces, or ectoparasites, or samples obtained by swabbing lesions or orifices. Photographs and videos are useful additions for recording field and clinical signs and conveying conditions at the site. Collection of environmental samples (e.g., feces, water, feed, or soil) may be appropriate when animals cannot be captured for sampling or the disease agent may persist in the environment. If lethal collection is considered necessary, biologists should refer to the policies, procedures, and permit requirements of their institution/facility and the agency responsible for species management (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or State natural resource agency) prior to use in the field. If threatened or endangered species are found dead, or there is evidence of illegal take, field

  3. The Dugdale model for the compact specimen (United States)

    Mall, S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.


    Plastic zone size and crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) equations were developed. Boundary collocation analyses were used to analyze the compact specimen subjected to various loading conditions (pin loads, concentrated forces, and uniform pressure acting on the crack surface). Stress intensity factor and crack surface displacement equations for some of these loadings were developed and used to obtain the Dugdale model. The results from the equations for plastic zone size and CTOD agreed well with numerical values calculated by Terada for crack length to width ratios greater than 0.4.

  4. The Dugdale model for compact specimen (United States)

    Mall, S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.


    Plastic zone size and crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) equations were developed. Boundary collocation analyses were used to analyze the compact specimen subjected to various loading conditions (pin loads, concentrated forces, and uniform pressure acting on the crack surface). Stress intensity factor and crack surface displacement equations for some of these loadings were developed and used to obtain the Dugdale model. The results from the equations for plastic zone size and CTOD agreed well with numerical values calculated by Terada for crack length to width ratios greater than 0.4.

  5. [Real-time PCR detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in clinical specimens]. (United States)

    Vacková, Z; Lžičařová, D; Stock, N K; Kozáková, J


    The study aim was to implement a molecular real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay recommended by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) for the detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in clinical (culture negative) specimens from patients with suspected invasive bacterial disease. Clinical specimens are referred to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Meningococcal Infections, Unit for Airborne Bacterial Infections, Centre for Epidemiology and Microbiology, National Institute of Public Health from various regions of the Czech Republic. Clinical specimens are, in particular, cerebrospinal fluid, anti-coagulated blood or serum and, exceptionally, post-mortem specimens. The NRL has implemented molecular diagnosis of these bacterial pathogens involved in meningitis and sepsis from clinical specimens since 1999. The first diagnostic method was semi-nested PCR followed by electrophoretic analysis. In 2014, a molecular qualitative real-time PCR assay was implemented.

  6. Electrocatalytic water splitting to produce fuel hydrogen (United States)

    Yuan, Hao

    Solar energy is regarded as a promising source for clean and sustainable energy. However, it is not a continuous energy source, thus certain strategies have to be developed to effectively convert and store it. Solar-driven electrocatalytic water splitting, which converts solar energy into chemical energy for storage as fuel hydrogen, can effectively mitigate the intermittence of solar radiation. Water splitting consists of two half reactions: water oxidation and hydrogen evolution. Both reactions rely on highly effective electrocatalysts. This dissertation is an account of four detailed studies on developing highly effective low-cost electrocatalysts for both reactions, and includes a preliminary attempt at system integration to build a functional photoanode for solar-driven water oxidation. For the water oxidation reaction, we have developed an electrochemical method to immobilize a cobalt-based (Co-OXO) water oxidation catalyst on a conductive surface to promote recyclability and reusability without affecting functionality. We have also developed a method to synthesize a manganese-based (MnOx) catalytic film in situ, generating a nanoscale fibrous morphology that provides steady and excellent water oxidation performance. The new method involves two series of cyclic voltammetry (CV) over different potential ranges, followed by calcination to increase crystallinity. The research has the potential to open avenues for synthesizing and optimizing other manganese-based water oxidation catalysts. For the hydrogen evolution reaction, we have developed a new electrodeposition method to synthesize Ni/Ni(OH)2 catalysts in situ on conductive surfaces. The new method involves only two cycles of CV over a single potential range. The resulting catalytic film has a morphology of packed walnut-shaped particles. It has superior catalytic activity and good stability over long periods. We have investigated the feasibility of incorporating manganese-based water oxidation catalysts

  7. The impact of payment splitting on liquidity requirements in RTGS


    Denbee, Edward; Norman, Ben


    This paper examines the impact that payment splitting could have upon the liquidity requirements and efficiency of a large-value payment system, such as the United Kingdom’s CHAPS. Using the Bank of Finland Payment and Settlement Simulator and real UK payments data we find that payment splitting could reduce the liquidity required to settle payments. The reduction in required liquidity would increase as the payment splitting threshold decreased but the relationship is non-linear. Liquidity sa...

  8. Splitting methods in communication, imaging, science, and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Osher, Stanley; Yin, Wotao


    This book is about computational methods based on operator splitting. It consists of twenty-three chapters written by recognized splitting method contributors and practitioners, and covers a vast spectrum of topics and application areas, including computational mechanics, computational physics, image processing, wireless communication, nonlinear optics, and finance. Therefore, the book presents very versatile aspects of splitting methods and their applications, motivating the cross-fertilization of ideas. .

  9. Flexor tendon specimens in organ cultures. (United States)

    Rank, F; Eiken, O; Bergenholtz, A; Lundborg, G; Erkel, L J


    The healing process of sectioned and subsequently sutured rabbit tendon segments was studied over a period of 3 weeks, using an organ culture technique. In one series, the tendon specimens were exposed to a chemically defined culture medium for nutrition. In two control series, the specimens were kept in the synovial cavity of the knee joint for varying periods of time, before being transferred to the culture medium. The tendons remained viable in the medium. The superficial tendon cells demonstrated the morphological characteristics of fibroblasts, but cellular fibroplasia could not be detected. The two control series subjected to synovia prior to transfer into the culture medium showed superficial repair similar to the findings in previous studies on healing capacity of tendon nourished by synovia. The investigation supports the hypothesis that superficial tendon cells are fibroblasts with a potential for repair and that synovia is an efficient nutrient medium. Thus, the beneficial effects on repair exercised by the tendon sheath function should be utilized in flexor tendon surgery.

  10. Creep test with use of miniaturized specimens (United States)

    Chvostová, E.; Džugan, J.


    Application of the mini samples methods is very common especially for residual service life assessment of the components operating in the energy sector. Residual lifetime of operating device can be evaluated using standard tests, but these usually cannot be performed due to limited material amount that can be extracted from the components. It is possible to use in these cases a semi destructive sampling of materials and testing methods employing miniature specimens. This article deals with comparison of the creep results obtained with the use of on standard test bars and sub sized samples such as Small Punch Test and newly proposed miniature samples that are axially loaded. The experiment was performed on steam line steel CSN 15 128 after operation. Emphasis was put to practical use of the test results and therefore residual life was assessed with the use of standard and new mini specimens. The results obtained for standard and mini samples exhibit very good agreement without necessity of any correlation as in the case of SPT and thus much more straight forward approach can be applied even for “unknown materials”.

  11. Power morcellation in a specimen bag. (United States)

    Cholkeri-Singh, Aarathi; Miller, Charles E


    To show a technique of power morcellation within a rip-stop nylon specimen bag. Step-by-step explanation of the technique. The Food and Drug Administration recently warned against the use of electromechanical power morcellation for hysterectomy and myomectomy because of potential tissue dissemination within the abdomen and pelvis. If the tumor is malignant, this technique increases the staging of the patient and may further warrant re-operation and chemotherapy. If the tumor is benign, the patient is at risk for parasitic myomas that may lead to, but are not limited to, pain and/or bowel obstruction. To reduce the preceding risks, we reviewed the techniques of power morcellation within a specimen bag used by other surgeons across the United States. This technique was modified to incorporate a more durable bag made out of rip-stop nylon. Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy during power morcellation was performed, along with an introduction to incorporating power morcellation of multiple myomas during a laparoscopic myomectomy. This technique of power morcellation within a rip-stop nylon bag minimizes the risk of inadvertent tissue spread. This allows the patient an opportunity to undergo minimally invasive surgery for hysterectomy and myomectomy. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnostic virology laboratory within a microbiology setting. (United States)

    Rubin, S J


    The virology section at St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Connecticut, is not a separate laboratory division but is a part of the microbiology division and is supervised by the same personnel who supervise bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and serology. Current volume is over 1,000 cultures yearly with 12 to 24 percent positive. Isolates are confirmed and typed by the Connecticut State Health Department Laboratory. Specimen distribution, percentage positive specimens, and distribution of viral isolates are similar to those reported from microbiology laboratories with separate virology laboratories directed by a full-time doctoral-level virologist. Our seven years' experience demonstrates that a microbiology laboratory without a full-time doctoral-level virologist can provide clinically useful virologic information.

  13. A Power System Network Splitting Strategy Based on Contingency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zawani Saharuddin


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a network splitting strategy following critical line outages based on N-1 contingency analysis. Network splitting is the best option for certain critical outages when the tendency of severe cascading failures is very high. Network splitting is executed by splitting the power system network into feasible set of islands. Thus, it is essential to identify the optimal splitting solution (in terms of minimal power flow disruption that satisfies certain constraints. This paper determines the optimal splitting solution for each of the critical line outage using discrete evolutionary programming (DEP optimization technique assisted by heuristic initialization approach. Heuristic initialization provides the best initial cutsets which will guide the optimization technique to find the optimal splitting solution. Generation–load balance and transmission line overloading analysis are carried out in each island to ensure the steady state stability is achieved. Load shedding scheme is initiated if the power balance criterion is violated in any island to sustain the generation–load balance. The proposed technique is validated on the IEEE 118 bus system. Results show that the proposed approach produces an optimal splitting solution with lower power flow disruption during network splitting execution.

  14. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John


    Most of today’s complex systems and processes involve several stages through which input or the raw material has to go before the final product is obtained. Also in many cases factors at different stages interact. Therefore, a holistic approach for experimentation that considers all stages...... on the Kronecker product representation of orthogonal designs and can be used for any number of stages, for various numbers of subplots and for different number of subplots for each stage. The procedure is demonstrated on both regular and nonregular designs and provides the maximum number of factors that can...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  15. A Frequency Splitting Method For CFM Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    The performance of conventional CFM imaging will often be degraded due to the relatively low number of pulses (4-10) used for each velocity estimate. To circumvent this problem we propose a new method using frequency splitting (FS). The FS method uses broad band chirps as excitation pulses instead...... of narrow band pulses as in conventional CFM imaging. By appropriate filtration, the returned signals are divided into a number of narrow band signals which are approximately disjoint. After clutter filtering the velocities are found from each frequency band using a conventional autocorrelation estimator....... Finally the velocity estimates from each frequency band are averaged to obtain an improved velocity estimate. The FS method has been evaluated in simulations using the Field II program and in flow phantom experiments using the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS. In both simulations and experiments...

  16. Molecular concepts of water splitting. Nature's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Nicholas; Lubitz, Wolfgang


    Based on studies of natural systems, much has also been learned concerning the design principles required for biomimetic catalysis of water splitting and hydrogen evolution. In summary, these include use of abundant and inexpensive metals, the effective protection of the active sites in functional environments, repair/replacement of active components in case of damage, and the optimization of reaction rates. Biomimetic chemistry aims to mimic all these features; many labs are working toward this goal by developing new approaches in the design and synthesis of such systems, encompassing not only the catalytic center, but also smart matrices and assembly via self-organization. More stable catalysts that do not require self-repair may be obtained from fully artificial (inorganic) catalytic systems that are totally different from the biological ones and only apply some basic principles learned from nature. Metals other than Mn/Ca, Fe, and Ni could be used (e.g. Co) in new ligand spheres and other matrices. For light harvesting, charge separation/stabilization, and the effective coupling of the oxidizing/reducing equivalents to the redox catalysts, different methods have been proposed - for example, covalently linked molecular donor-acceptor systems, photo-voltaic devices, semiconductor-based systems, and photoactive metal complexes. The aim of all these approaches is to develop catalytic systems that split water with sunlight into hydrogen and oxygen while displaying high efficiency and long-term stability. Such a system - either biological, biomimetic, or bioinspired - has the potential to be used on a large scale to produce 'solar fuels' (e.g. hydrogen or secondary products thereof). (orig.)

  17. Remote replacement of materials open-test assembly specimens at the FFTF/IEM cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, P.W.; Ramsey, E.B.


    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) interim examination and maintenance (IEM) cell is used for the remote disassembly of irradiated fuel and materials experiments. The materials open-test assembly (MOTA) is brought to the IEM cell for materials test specimen removal. The specimens are shipped to the materials laboratory for sorting and installation in new specimen holders and then returned within 10 days to the IEM cell where they are installed in a new MOTA vehicle for further irradiation. Reconstituting a MOTA is a challenging remote operation involving dozens of steps and two separate facilities. Handling and disassembling sodium-wetted components pose interesting handling, cleaning, and disposal challenges. The success of this system is evidenced by its timely completion in the critical path of FFTF outage schedules

  18. Split-Doa10: a naturally split polytopic eukaryotic membrane protein generated by fission of a nuclear gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Stuerner

    Full Text Available Large polytopic membrane proteins often derive from duplication and fusion of genes for smaller proteins. The reverse process, splitting of a membrane protein by gene fission, is rare and has been studied mainly with artificially split proteins. Fragments of a split membrane protein may associate and reconstitute the function of the larger protein. Most examples of naturally split membrane proteins are from bacteria or eukaryotic organelles, and their exact history is usually poorly understood. Here, we describe a nuclear-encoded split membrane protein, split-Doa10, in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. In most species, Doa10 is encoded as a single polypeptide with 12-16 transmembrane helices (TMs, but split-KlDoa10 is encoded as two fragments, with the split occurring between TM2 and TM3. The two fragments assemble into an active ubiquitin-protein ligase. The K. lactis DOA10 locus has two ORFs separated by a 508-bp intervening sequence (IVS. A promoter within the IVS drives expression of the C-terminal KlDoa10 fragment. At least four additional Kluyveromyces species contain an IVS in the DOA10 locus, in contrast to even closely related genera, allowing dating of the fission event to the base of the genus. The upstream Kluyveromyces Doa10 fragment with its N-terminal RING-CH and two TMs resembles many metazoan MARCH (Membrane-Associated RING-CH and related viral RING-CH proteins, suggesting that gene splitting may have contributed to MARCH enzyme diversification. Split-Doa10 is the first unequivocal case of a split membrane protein where fission occurred in a nuclear-encoded gene. Such a split may allow divergent functions for the individual protein segments.

  19. Self-interference of split HOLZ line (SIS-HOLZ) for z-dependent atomic displacement measurement: Theoretical discussion. (United States)

    Norouzpour, Mana; Rakhsha, Ramtin; Herring, Rodney


    A characteristic of the majority of semiconductors is the presence of lattice strain varying with the nanometer scale. Strain originates from the lattice mismatch between layers of different composition deposited during epitaxial growth. Strain can increase the mobility of the charge carriers by the band gap reduction. So, measuring atomic displacement inside crystals is an important field of interest in semiconductor industry. Among all available transmission electron microscopy techniques offering nano-scale resolution measurements, convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) patterns show the highest sensitivity to the atomic displacement. Higher Order Laue Zone (HOLZ) lines split by small non-uniform variations of lattice constant allowing to measure the atomic displacement through the crystal. However, it could only reveal the atomic displacement in two dimensions, i.e., within the x-y plane of the thin film of TEM specimen. The z-axis atomic displacement which is along the path of the electron beam has been missing. This information can be obtained by recovering the phase information across the split HOLZ line using the self-interference of the split HOLZ line (SIS-HOLZ). In this work, we report the analytical approach used to attain the phase profile across the split HOLZ line. The phase profile is studied for three different atomic displacement fields in the Si substrate at 80nm away from its interface with Si/Si 0.8 Ge 0.2 superlattices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Elastomers Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Primary capabilities include: elastomer compounding in various sizes (micro, 3x5, 8x12, 8x15 rubber mills); elastomer curing and post curing (two 50-ton presses, one...

  1. Laboratory Tests (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical devices that are intended for use on samples of blood, urine, or other tissues ...

  2. Audio Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment and facilities for auditory display research. A primary focus is the performance use of binaurally rendered 3D sound in conjunction...

  3. Illicit drugs in alternative biological specimens: a case report. (United States)

    Margalho, Cláudia; Franco, João; Corte-Real, Francisco; Vieira, Duarte Nuno


    Postmortem tissues (e.g. liver, kidney) have been long used in forensic applications especially in those cases where blood is unavailable. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of the information provided to the forensic toxicologist at the time of carrying out the toxicological analysis, especially in cases where the samples commonly used in forensic toxicology are unavailable. This work describes the toxicological findings in a violent death resulting from a man who was hit by a train. Vitreous humor, liver and kidney were sent for toxicological analysis, once it was not possible to obtain blood and urine. The validated procedures used in the routine casework of Forensic Toxicology Laboratory of the Centre Branch of the National Institute of Legal Medicine, were applied in the analysis of liver, kidney and vitreous humor, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector for the analysis of drugs of abuse and ethanol, respectively. Morphine, codeine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester were found in the liver and in the kidney and no ethanol was found in the vitreous humor. The method validation included the study of specificity, selectivity, limits of detection, recovery and carryover. Although blood and urine are the most common and preferred matrices used for toxicological studies involving drugs of abuse, sometimes the choice of specimen is determined by the case under investigation. The forensic pathologist must be aware that relevant information must be provided so that the toxicological analysis can be conducted in accordance with case history, particularly when the only samples available for analysis are these "unconventional" specimens, since the interpretation of the obtained results is more difficult. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  5. Reheating of zinc-titanate sintered specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus N.


    Full Text Available The scope of this work was observing dimensional and heat transfer changes in ZnTiO3 samples during heating in nitrogen and air atmosphere. Interactions of bulk specimens with gaseous surrounding induce microstructure changes during heating. Sintered ZnTiO3 nanopowder samples were submitted to subsequent heating. Dilatation curves and thermogravimetric with simultaneous differential thermal analysis TGA/DTA curves were recorded. Reheating was performed in air and nitrogen atmospheres. Reheated samples obtained at different characteristic temperatures in air were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. Microstructures obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM of reheated sintered samples are presented and compared. Reheating in a different atmosphere induced different microstructures. The goal was indicating possible causes leading to the microstructure changes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI172057 i br. III45014

  6. A system for mapping radioactive specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britten, R.J.; Davidson, E.H.


    A system for mapping radioactive specimens comprises an avalanche counter, an encoder, pre-amplifier circuits, sample and hold circuits and a programmed computer. The parallel plate counter utilizes avalanche event counting over a large area with the ability to locate radioactive sources in two dimensions. When a beta ray, for example, enters a chamber, an ionization event occurs and the avalanche effect multiplies the event and results in charge collection on the anode surface for a limited period of time before the charge leaks away. The encoder comprises a symmetrical array of planar conductive surfaces separated from the anode by a dielectric material. The encoder couples charge currents, the amlitudes of which define the relative position of the ionization event. The amplitude of coupled current, delivered to pre-amplifiers, defines the location of the event. (author) 12 figs

  7. 46 CFR 4.06-40 - Specimen handling and shipping. (United States)


    ... qualified to conduct tests on such specimens. A proper chain of custody must be maintained for each specimen... collection procedures of § 16.113 of this chapter and the chain of custody requirements of 49 CFR part 40...

  8. Current status of small specimen technology in Charpy impact testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, H.; Kayano, H.; Narui, M.; Yamazaki, M.


    The current status of small-scale specimen technology in Charpy impact testing for ferritic steels is presented, with emphasis on the effect of the notch dimensions (notch depth, notch root radius and notch angle) on the upper shelf energy (USE) and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). The USE for miniaturized specimens, normalized by Bb 2 or (Bb) 3/2 (B is the specimen thickness, b the ligament size), is essentially independent of notch geometry and has a linear relationship with the USE of full size specimens, regardless of irradiation and alloy conditions. The DBTT of miniaturized specimens depends strongly on the notch dimensions; this dependence of the DBTT decreases as the DBTT of full size specimens increase due to neutron irradiation or thermal aging. These results may be useful in determining the USE and DBTT for full size specimens from those for miniaturized specimens. ((orig.))

  9. Laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad S


    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira species, for which humans are accidental hosts. It is endemic in the tropical urban areas including our country, where seasonal epidemics are becoming increasingly common. Laboratory tests are necessary to confirm the diagnosis of clinically suspected leptospirosis due to its varied symptomatology. Moreover, leptospirosis must always be considered during the differential diagnosis of other tropical febrile illnesses .Laboratory analysis depends on the samples available and temporal stage of the illness. A confusing array of laboratory tests is described for the detection of this spirochete and antibodies. The conventional tests include direct microscopy, culture and the most widely used reference standard method -the microscopic agglutination test. In addition a variety of newer serological tests and those based on molecular techniques have been described.This review has attempted to describe the basis of these techniques and discussed the relative advantages and drawbacks of these assays with special emphasis on the selection of the most appropriate specimen and test, and the correct interpretation of the test result

  10. Measurement of the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, B.; Widmann, E.


    Full text: The hydrogen atom is one of the most extensively studied atomic systems, and its ground state hyperfine splitting (GS-HFS) of ν HFS = 1.42 GHz has been measured with an extremely high precision of δν HFS /ν HFS ∼ 10 -12 . Therefore, the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen, the antihydrogen atom, consisting of an antiproton and a positron, is an ideal laboratory for studying the CPT symmetry. As a test of the CPT invariance, measuring ν HFS of antihydrogen can surpass in accuracy a measurement of the 1S-2S transition frequency proposed by other groups. In fact, it has several advantages over a 1S-2S measurement. Firstly, it does not require the (neutral) antihydrogen atoms to be trapped. Secondly, the only existing consistent extension of the standard model, which is based on a microscopic theory of CPT and Lorentz violation, predicts that νHFS should be more sensitive to CPT violations. In addition, the parameters introduced by Kostelecky et al. have the dimension of energy (or frequency). Therefore, by measuring a relatively small quantity on an energy scale (like the 1.42 GHz GS-HFS splitting), a smaller relative accuracy is needed to reach the same absolute precision for a CPT test. This makes a determination of νHFS with a relative accuracy of 10 -4 competitive to the measured relative mass difference of K 0 and -- K 0 of 10 -18 , which is often quoted as the most precise CPT test so far. The ASACUSA collaboration at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator (AD) has recently submitted a proposal to measure νHFS of antihydrogen in an atomic beam apparatus similar to the ones which were used in the early days of hydrogen HFS spectroscopy. The apparatus consists of two sextupole magnets for the selection and analysis of the spin of the antihydrogen atoms, and a microwave cavity to flip the spin. This method has the advantage that antihydrogen atoms of temperatures up to 150 K, 'evaporating' from a formation region, can be used. Numerical simulations show

  11. A non-destructive DNA sampling technique for herbarium specimens


    Shepherd, Lara D.


    Herbarium specimens are an important source of DNA for plant research but current sampling methods require the removal of material for DNA extraction. This is undesirable for irreplaceable specimens such as rare species or type material. Here I present the first non-destructive sampling method for extracting DNA from herbarium specimens. DNA was successfully retrieved from robust leaves and/or stems of herbarium specimens up to 73 years old.

  12. The type specimen of Anoura geoffroyi lasiopyga (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) (United States)

    Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Gardner, A.L.


    In 1868, Wilhelm Peters described Glossonycteris lasiopyga, based on a specimen provided by Henri de Saussure and collected in Mexico. The type specimen was presumed to be among those housed in the collections of the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt Universitat in Berlin, Germany. Our study of one of Saussure?s specimens from Mexico, discovered in the collections of the Museum d?Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland, demonstrates that it and not one of the Berlin specimens is the holotype.

  13. A non-destructive DNA sampling technique for herbarium specimens. (United States)

    Shepherd, Lara D


    Herbarium specimens are an important source of DNA for plant research but current sampling methods require the removal of material for DNA extraction. This is undesirable for irreplaceable specimens such as rare species or type material. Here I present the first non-destructive sampling method for extracting DNA from herbarium specimens. DNA was successfully retrieved from robust leaves and/or stems of herbarium specimens up to 73 years old.

  14. Native alunogen: A Raman spectroscopic study of a well-described specimen (United States)

    Košek, Filip; Culka, Adam; Žáček, Vladimír; Laufek, František; Škoda, Radek; Jehlička, Jan


    Alunogen (Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O) is a common secondary mineral in the terrestrial environment (acid mine drainage, volcanic or coal-fire fumaroles), and is also formed through the acidic weathering of aluminosilicates. Moreover, alunogen has been suggested as a part of the Al-bearing deposits on Mars. The identification of alunogen in secondary sulfate mixtures by Raman spectroscopy strictly depends on good knowledge of alunogen spectral features and band positions. However, comprehensive Raman data of alunogen of natural origin are lacking. This study reports on Raman spectra obtained from two natural specimens originating from a burning coal dump at the Schoeller mine, Kladno, Czech Republic, along with the additional characterizations by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microprobe. For comparison purposes, a Raman spectrum of a synthetic analogue was also obtained. The studied specimens have (Al1.99Fe3+0.01)2 (SO4)3·17H2O as their calculated empirical formula, and the structural parameters correspond to the previously reported data for alunogen. Both natural specimens and the synthetic analogue showed uniform Raman spectra with no extensive band splitting in the sulfate vibrational regions. The most intensive Raman band associated with the symmetric stretching vibration of the SO4 tetrahedra (ν1) is located at 992 cm-1. A multicomponent band was observable in the characteristic region for OH-related vibrations. A small variation in the spectral intensity of the hydroxyl bands suggests that the studied specimens could possibly be slightly dehydrated.

  15. Towards Highly Efficient Bias-Free Solar Water Splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdi, F.F.


    Solar water splitting has attracted significant attention due to its potential of converting solar to chemical energy. It uses semiconductor to convert sunlight into electron-hole pairs, which then split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can be used as a renewable fuel, or it can serve as

  16. 77 FR 8127 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events (United States)


    ... Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and... affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the... that if there is a foreign tax credit splitting event with respect to a foreign income tax paid or...

  17. 77 FR 8184 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events (United States)


    ... Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... these proposed regulations. The regulations affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. Special... of the Federal Register.] Sec. 1.909-6 Pre-2011 foreign tax credit splitting events. [The text of...

  18. Clonal differences in log end splitting in Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the juvenile–mature correlation of log end splitting among Eucalyptus grandis clones from two trials and how differences in splitting relate to differences in wood density, pith-to-bark gradient and growth rate. Two approximately 20-year-old Eucalyptus grandis clonal trials at Bergvliet plantation were ...

  19. April / May 2006. 108 Harvesting split thickness skin in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Background: In the third world countries like Ethiopia the majority of Hospitals have difficulties in harvesting split thickness skin ... The grafts were well taken by the recipient areas and technically there was no danger of deep bite. Conclusion: Split ... to meet the hospital needs. Thus we need to improvise and use appropriate.

  20. Pulse splitting in nonlinear media with anisotropic dispersion properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Schmidt, M.R.


    to a singularity in the transverse plane. Instead, the pulse spreads out along the direction of negative dispersion and splits up into small-scale cells, which may undergo further splitting events. The analytical results are supported by direct numerical solutions of the three dimensional cubic Schrodinger...

  1. Split-liver transplantation : An underused resource in liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogiers, Xavier; Sieders, Egbert


    Split-liver transplantation is an efficient tool to increase the number of liver grafts available for transplantation. More than 15 years after its introduction only the classical splitting technique has reached broad application. Consequently children are benefiting most from this possibility.

  2. Plasmonic nanoparticle-semiconductor composites for efficient solar water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenti, M.; Jonsson, M.P.; Biskos, G.; Schmidt-Ott, A.; Smith, W.A.


    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a promising technology that uses light absorbing semiconductors to convert solar energy directly into a chemical fuel (i.e., hydrogen). PEC water splitting has the potential to become a key technology in achieving a sustainable society, if high solar

  3. Enhanced residual mean circulation during the evolution of split type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    keywords: split events, stratospheric sudden warming, residual mean circulation. 1 Introduction ... sudden warming. It is characterized by a rapid cooling of the polar cap tempera- ture (Kuroda, 2008). The competition between planetary waves and gravity waves to the residual .... any automated scheme. The split events ...

  4. Recent developments in solar H 2 generation from water splitting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Assistance of metal nanostructures and quantum dots to semiconductors attains vital importance as they are exuberant visible light harvesters and charge carrier amplifiers. Benevolent use of quantum dots in solar water splitting and photoelectrochemical water splitting provides scope to revolutionize the quantum efficiency ...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2753 - U.S. Virginia Splits. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Virginia Splits. 51.2753 Section 51.2753... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2753 U.S. Virginia Splits. “U.S. Virginia Splits” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut kernels of similar varietal...

  6. Linear expansion of products out of thermal splitting graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishina, E.A.; Kurnevich, G.I.


    Linear expansion of thermally split graphite in the form of foil and pressed items of different density was studied. It is ascertained that the extreme character of temperature dependence of linear expansion factor of pressed samples of thermally split graphite is determined by the formation of closed pores containing air in the course of their production. 3 refs., 2 figs

  7. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairi M. S. Fahelelbom


    Full Text Available Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves. The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.

  8. Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Reaction from Catalytic and Kinetic Perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Hisatomi, Takashi


    Abstract: Some particulate semiconductors loaded with nanoparticulate catalysts exhibit photocatalytic activity for the water-splitting reaction. The photocatalysis is distinct from the thermal catalysis because photocatalysis involves photophysical processes in particulate semiconductors. This review article presents a brief introduction to photocatalysis, followed by kinetic aspects of the photocatalytic water-splitting reaction.Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Adaptation of Museum Specimens for Use in Anatomical Teaching Aids (United States)

    Harris, P. F.; And Others


    Color transparencies are prepared of a re-colored anatomical specimen after placing labels temporarily in position to indicate specific structures. The specimen is also radiographed to show skeletal and soft tissue structures. Cross-reference among the specimen, photographs, and radiographs is supplemented by examination and self-assessment…

  10. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specimen transport and storage container. 864.3250 Section 864.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....3250 Specimen transport and storage container. (a) Identification. A specimen transport and storage...

  11. Automation in the clinical microbiology laboratory. (United States)

    Novak, Susan M; Marlowe, Elizabeth M


    Imagine a clinical microbiology laboratory where a patient's specimens are placed on a conveyor belt and sent on an automation line for processing and plating. Technologists need only log onto a computer to visualize the images of a culture and send to a mass spectrometer for identification. Once a pathogen is identified, the system knows to send the colony for susceptibility testing. This is the future of the clinical microbiology laboratory. This article outlines the operational and staffing challenges facing clinical microbiology laboratories and the evolution of automation that is shaping the way laboratory medicine will be practiced in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Techniques for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts from stool specimens.


    Garcia, L S; Bruckner, D A; Brewer, T C; Shimizu, R Y


    Due to increasing numbers of patients with documented infections with Cryptosporidium and other coccidia, it is important for the physician and clinical laboratory to be aware of the appropriate diagnostic techniques necessary for organism recovery and identification. Although Cryptosporidium is found in the gastrointestinal tract, tissue biopsies may be insufficient for organism recovery; the examination of stool specimens is a noninvasive procedure and will provide better overall opportunit...

  13. Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics and Plasticity of the Split Cylinder Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, John Forbes; Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik


    The split cylinder testis subjected to an analysis combining nonlinear fracture mechanics and plasticity. The fictitious crack model is applied for the analysis of splitting tensile fracture, and the Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion is adopted for modelling the compressive crushing/sliding failure. Two...... demonstrates the influence of varying geometry or constitutive properties. For a split cylinder test in load control it is shown how the ultimate load is either plasticity dominated or fracture mechanics dominated. The transition between the two modes is related to changes in geometry or constitutive...... properties. This implies that the linear elastic interpretation of the ultimate splitting force in term of the uniaxial tensile strength of the material is only valid for special situations, e.g. for very large cylinders. Furthermore, the numerical analysis suggests that the split cylinder test is not well...

  14. Optimizing TCP Performance over UMTS with Split TCP Proxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Dittmann, Lars


    . To cope with large delay bandwidth product, we propose a novel concept of split TCP proxy which is placed at GGSN between UNITS network and Internet. The split proxy divides the bandwidth delay product into two parts, resulting in two TCP connections with smaller bandwidth delay products which can...... be pipelined and thus operating at higher speeds. Simulation results show, the split TCP proxy can significantly improve the TCP performance in terms of RLC throughput under high bit rate DCH channel scenario (e.g.256 kbps). On the other hand, it only brings small performance improvement under low bit rate DCH...... scenario (e.g.64 kbps). Besides, the split TCP proxy brings more performance gain for downloading large files than downloading small ones. To the end, for the configuration of the split proxy, an aggressive initial TCP congestion window size (e.g. 10 MSS) at proxy is particularly useful for radio links...

  15. Photoelectrochemical solar water splitting: From basic principles to advanced devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Y.Alfaifi


    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting (PEC offers a promising path for sustainable generation of hydrogen fuel. However, improving solar fuel water splitting efficiency facing tremendous challenges, due to the energy loss related to fast recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, electrode degradation, as well as limited light harvesting. This review focuses on the brief introduction of basic fundamental of PEC water splitting and the concept of various types of water splitting approaches. Numerous engineering strategies for the investgating of the higher efficiency of the PEC, including charge separation, light harvesting, and co-catalysts doping, have been discussed. Moreover, recent remarkable progress and developments for PEC water splitting with some promising materials are discussed. Recent advanced applications of PEC are also reviewed. Finally, the review concludes with a summary and future outlook of this hot field.

  16. Long-term pavement performance project laboratory materials testing and handling guide (United States)


    The Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) Laboratory Material Testing Guide was originally prepared for laboratory material handling and testing of material specimens and samples of asphalt materials, portland cement concrete, aggregates, and soils u...

  17. Performance Optimization of Alternative Lower Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Mini-Split Room Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL


    Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) recently conducted extensive laboratory, drop-in investigations for lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerants to replace R-22 and R-410A. ORNL studied propane, DR-3, ARM-20B, N-20B and R-444B as lower GWP refrigerant replacement for R-22 in a mini-split room air conditioner (RAC) originally designed for R-22; and, R-32, DR-55, ARM-71A, and L41-2, in a mini-split RAC designed for R-410A. We obtained laboratory testing results with very good energy balance and nominal measurement uncertainty. Drop-in studies are not enough to judge the overall performance of the alternative refrigerants since their thermodynamic and transport properties might favor different heat exchanger configurations, e.g. cross-flow, counter flow, etc. This study compares optimized performances of individual refrigerants using a physics-based system model tools. The DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM) was used to model the mini-split RACs by inputting detailed heat exchangers geometries, compressor displacement and efficiencies as well as other relevant system components. The RAC models were calibrated against the lab data for each individual refrigerant. The calibrated models were then used to conduct a design optimization for the cooling performance by varying the compressor displacement to match the required capacity, and changing the number of circuits, refrigerant flow direction, tube diameters, air flow rates in the condenser and evaporator at 100% and 50% cooling capacities. This paper compares the optimized performance results for all alternative refrigerants and highlights best candidates for R-22 and R-410A replacement.

  18. Isotope laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report from the Dutch Ministry of Health is an advisory document concerned with isotope laboratories in hospitals, in connection with the Dutch laws for hospitals. It discusses which hospitals should have isotope laboratories and concludes that as many hospitals as possible should have small laboratories so that emergency cases can be dealt with. It divides the Netherlands into regions and suggests which hospitals should have these facilities. The questions of how big each lab. is to be, what equipment each has, how each lab. is organised, what therapeutic and diagnostic work should be carried out by each, etc. are discussed. The answers are provided by reports from working groups for in vivo diagnostics, in vitro diagnostics, therapy, and safety and their results form the criteria for the licences of isotope labs. The results of a questionnaire for isotope labs. already in the Netherlands are presented, and their activities outlined. (C.F.)

  19. New suoid specimens from Gebel Zelten, Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickford, M.


    Full Text Available A restricted collection of suoids from Gebel Zelten was made in the 1990’s by the Spanish-Libyan Palaeontology Expedition. Dr Dolores Soria filmed the specimens with a video camera and took measurements of the teeth with vernier calipers. This paper uses the images from the video, which, even though somewhat limited in terms of picture quality, are of interest because they represent the first known snout of the gigantic suid Megalochoerus khinzikebirus. The images reveal that it is basically an enlarged version of Libycochoerus massai, but with relatively small premolars. The sanithere specimens from the site were photographed with an Olympus 1.4 megapixel digital camera, and the image quality is better than from the video camera. These specimens throw light on the degree of sexual dimorphism exhibited by sanitheres, a feature that was previously inferred from isolated teeth, but which can now be confirmed on the basis of the two mandible fragments from Gebel Zelten. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr Soria. This paper takes into account a few undescribed suid post-cranial bones from Gebel Zelten housed in the Natural History Museum, London, collected during the 1960’s by R. Savage.Una limitada colección de suoideos procedentes de Gebel Zelten fue hecha a finales de los años 1990 por una expedición paleontológica internacional, con participación española y libia. La Dra. Dolores Soria filmó los ejemplares con una cámara de vídeo y tomó las medidas de los dientes con calibre. En este trabajo se utilizan las imágenes filmadas, que, aunque algo limitadas en términos de calidad fotográfica, son interesantes porque representan las primeras conocidas del rostro del suido gigante Megalochoerus khinzikebirus. Las imágenes revelan que básicamente es una versión agrandada de Libycochoerus massai, pero con premolares relativamente más pequeños. Los ejemplares de saniterios fueron fotografiados con una cámara digital Olympus

  20. Fixture For Compression-After-Impact Tests Of Thin Specimens (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Hodge, Andrew J.; Lance, David G.


    Special fixture holds specimen of laminated composite material in 20-klb (89-kN) or larger load frame for compression-after-impact test. In preparation for test, specimen damaged by dropping weight on it at known kinetic energy. During test, specimen loaded in compression, and load measured, until specimen fails. Measurement data used to characterize compressive strength of specimen after impact important indicator of ability of structural components made of composite material to tolerate damage. Tests give more-realistic measures of tolerance to damage.

  1. In pile creep measuring rigs for metallic specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, M.


    Two types of creep rigs are described using stainless steel or zircaloy specimens. First, a tensile creep rig allowing continuous length measurement of tubular or solid specimens. The measurement of the specimen length is compared with that of a reference specimen, situated as close as possible to the tensile one. The second rig is used for continuous measurement of the radial strain of pressurised tubes. The measurement is made by a cone and ball system, transforming diameter changes into axial displacements. These rigs are made in two parts: a capsule with NaK, including: specimens, loading bellows microwave measuring system, and a standard 'CHOUCA' furnace with electrical heating [fr

  2. Instrumented impact testing machine with reduced specimen oscillation effects (United States)

    Rintamaa, R.; Ranka, K.; Wallin, K.; Ikonen, K.; Talja, H.; Kotilainen, H.; Sirkkola, E.


    A pendulum-type instrumented Charpy test apparatus based on inverted test geometry was developed. Geometry inversion reduces inertia load and specimen oscillation effects. Initial impact energy is double that of standard (300 J) impact testers, allowing the use of larger (10 x 20 x 110 mm) bend specimens than normal Charpy specimens. The rotation axis in the three point bending is nearly stationary, making COD-measurements possible. Inertia effects and specimen oscillations are compared with the conventional tester, and using an analytical finite element model for Charpy V-notch specimens. Better performance for the inverted geometry is reported.

  3. Specimen holder for an electron microscope and device and method for mounting a specimen in an electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, H.W.; Latenstein van Voorst, A.; Westra, C.; Hoveling, G.H.


    A specimen holder for an electron microscope, comprising a bar-shaped body provided adjacent one end with means for receiving a specimen, with means being present for screening the specimen from the environment at least temporarily in airtight and moisture-proof manner in a first position, which

  4. Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lulu


    The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.

  5. Split-Field Magnet facility upgraded

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The Split Field Magnet (SFM) was the largest spectrometer for particles from beam-beam collisions in the ISR. It could determine particle momenta in a large solid angle, but was designed mainly for the analysis of forward travelling particles.As the magnet was working on the ISR circulating beams, its magnetic field had to be such as to restore the correct proton orbit.The SFM, therefore, produced zero field at the crossing point and fields of opposite signs upstream and downstream of it and was completed by 2 large and 2 small compensator magnets. The gradient effects were corrected by magnetic channels equipped with movable flaps. The useful magnetic field volume was 28 m3, the induction in the median plane 1.14 T, the gap heigth 1.1 m, the length 10.5 m, the weight about 1000 ton. Concerning the detectors, the SFM was the first massive application of multiwire proportional chambers (about 70000 wires) which filled the main and the large compensator magnets. In 1976 an improved programme was started with tw...

  6. Assessment of commercial laboratories performing hair mineral analysis. (United States)

    Seidel, S; Kreutzer, R; Smith, D; McNeel, S; Gilliss, D


    Hair mineral analysis is being used by health care practitioners and promoted by laboratories as a clinical assessment tool and to identify toxic exposures, despite a 1985 study that found poor reliability for this test. To assess whether the reliability of data from commercial laboratories advertising multimineral hair analyses for nutritional or toxicity assessment has improved since the 1985 study. A split hair sample taken from near the scalp of a single healthy volunteer was submitted for analysis to 6 commercial US laboratories, which analyze 90% of samples submitted for mineral analysis in the United States. Agreement of test results for each analyte, laboratory reference ranges, laboratory characteristics, and interpretation of health implications. Laboratory differences in highest and lowest reported mineral concentrations for the split sample exceeded 10-fold for 12 minerals, and statistically significant (P<.05) extreme values were reported for 14 of the 31 minerals that were analyzed by 3 or more laboratories. Variations also were found in laboratory sample preparation methods and calibration standards. Laboratory designations of normal reference ranges varied greatly, resulting in conflicting classifications (high, normal, or low) of nearly all analyzed minerals. Laboratories also provided conflicting dietary and nutritional supplement recommendations based on their results. Hair mineral analysis from these laboratories was unreliable, and we recommend that health care practitioners refrain from using such analyses to assess individual nutritional status or suspected environmental exposures. Problems with the regulation and certification of these laboratories also should be addressed.

  7. Effects of aspect ratio and specimen size on uniaxial failure stress of iron green bodies at high strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroyanagi Yuki


    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy is used for the production of a number of mechanical parts and is an essential production method. These are great advantages such as product cost effectiveness and product uniqueness. In general, however parts created by powder metallurgy have low strength because of low density. In order to increase strength as well as density, new techniques such as high-velocity-compaction (HVC was developed and further investigation has been conducted on improvement of techniques and optimum condition using computer simulation. In this study, the effects of aspect ratio and specimen size of iron green bodies on failure strength of uniaxial compression and failure behavior were examined using a split Hopkinson pressure Bar. The diameters of specimens were 12.5 mm and 25 mm the aspect ratios (thickness/diameter were 0.8 and 1.2.

  8. Photophysics and electrochemistry relevant to photocatalytic water splitting involved at solid–electrolyte interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya


    Direct photon to chemical energy conversion using semiconductor-electrocatalyst-electrolyte interfaces has been extensively investigated for more than a half century. Many studies have focused on screening materials for efficient photocatalysis. Photocatalytic efficiency has been improved during this period but is not sufficient for industrial commercialization. Detailed elucidation on the photocatalytic water splitting process leads to consecutive six reaction steps with the fundamental parameters involved: The photocatalysis is initiated involving photophysics derived from various semiconductor properties (1: photon absorption, 2: exciton separation). The generated charge carriers need to be transferred to surfaces effectively utilizing the interfaces (3: carrier diffusion, 4: carrier transport). Consequently, electrocatalysis finishes the process by producing products on the surface (5: catalytic efficiency, 6: mass transfer of reactants and products). Successful photocatalytic water splitting requires the enhancement of efficiency at each stage. Most critically, a fundamental understanding of the interfacial phenomena is highly desired for establishing "photocatalysis by design" concepts, where the kinetic bottleneck within a process is identified by further improving the specific properties of photocatalytic materials as opposed to blind material screening. Theoretical modeling using the identified quantitative parameters can effectively predict the theoretically attainable photon-conversion yields. This article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art theoretical understanding of interfacial problems mainly developed in our laboratory. Photocatalytic water splitting (especially hydrogen evolution on metal surfaces) was selected as a topic, and the photophysical and electrochemical processes that occur at semiconductor-metal, semiconductor-electrolyte and metal-electrolyte interfaces are discussed.

  9. Nerve degeneration in inguinal hernia specimens. (United States)

    Amato, G; Ober, E; Romano, G; Salamone, G; Agrusa, A; Gulotta, G; Bussani, R


    The histological study of the herniated inguinal area is rare in the literature. This report is focused on the detection of structural changes of the nerves within tissues bordering the inguinal hernia of cadavers. Their physiopathological consequences are hypothesized. Primary inguinal hernia was diagnosed in 30 fresh cadavers. Tissue specimens from the inguinal region close to and around the hernia opening were excised for histological examination. A control of the data was achieved through tissue samples excised from equivalent sites of the inguinal region in 15 cadavers without hernia. The detected nerves in the inguinal area demonstrated pathological changes such as fibrotic degeneration, atrophy, and fatty dystrophy of the axons. The thickening of the perineural sheath was constantly seen. These findings were consistently present, independent of the hernia type. The detected nerve alterations lead us to imagine a worsening, or even the cessation, of the nervous impulse to the muscles, leading to atrophy and weakening of the abdominal wall. This could represent one of the multifactorial causes of hernia genesis.

  10. Gradient field microscopy of unstained specimens. (United States)

    Kim, Taewoo; Sridharan, Shamira; Popescu, Gabriel


    We present a phase derivative microscopy technique referred to as gradient field microscopy (GFM), which provides the first-order derivatives of the phase associated with an optical field passing through a transparent specimen. GFM utilizes spatial light modulation at the Fourier plane of a bright field microscope to optically obtain the derivatives of the phase and increase the contrast of the final image. The controllable spatial modulation pattern allows us to obtain both one component of the field gradient (derivative along one direction) and the gradient intensity, which offers some advantages over the regular differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. Most importantly, unlike DIC, GFM does not use polarizing optics and, thus, it is applicable to birefringent samples. We demonstrate these features of GFM with studies of static and dynamic biological cells (HeLa cells and red blood cells). We show that GFM is capable of qualitatively providing information about cell membrane fluctuations. Specifically, we captured the disappearance of the bending mode of fluctuations in osmotically swollen red blood cells.

  11. The Great Lakes Fisheries Specimen Bank: a Canadian perspective in environmental specimen banking. (United States)

    Kiriluk, R M; Whittle, D M; Keir, M J; Carswell, A A; Huestis, S Y


    Since 1977 the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) has maintained a specimen bank for retrospective chemical analyses. The Great Lakes Fisheries Specimen Bank (GLFSB) is a complementary activity to the department's ongoing Great Lakes Contaminants Surveillance Program that has annually, since 1977, monitored levels of metals and organochlorines in aquatic biota throughout the Canadian Great Lakes. Past activities have focused on defining the effects of long-term frozen storage on the integrity of organochlorine residues in archived biological tissues. Archived samples have been reanalyzed for total PCBs, PCB congeners including co-planar PCBs, dioxin and furan isomers, and 22 toxaphene congeners. More recently, archived samples of predatory fish have been analyzed for stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta 15N) and carbon (delta 13C), as indicators of historical changes in food web dynamics. A catalogue or user-guide has recently been completed describing all information associated with samples stored in the GLFSB.

  12. Evaluation of laboratory diagnosis for cutaneous tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Afsar


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB is still difficult to diagnose due to its varied clinical presentation and limitations of diagnostic methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of diagnostic laboratory tests available for CTB. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six skin biopsy specimens belonging to clinically suspected cases of CTB were studied retrospectively. The specimens were divided into two portions, one part processed for histopathological evaluation and the other was used for microscopy and inoculation for the isolation of mycobacteria. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique was applied to 14 of 26 specimens to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC DNA. Results: Of the 26 biopsy specimens, 11 were confirmed as CTB by identification of MTBC in culture and/or histopathologic affirmation. Of these, four were lupus vulgaris, four were TB verrucosa cutis, one was scrofuloderma, one was primary inoculation TB, and one was periorifical CTB. Culture for mycobacteria was positive for five (45.45% specimens, while histopathologic affirmation was obtained in ten (90.90% specimens. Acid-fast Bacilli were not demonstrated in any of the specimens on microscopic examination. The PCR was found to be applied to six of the 11 specimens diagnosed as CTB and was positive in two specimens (33.3%, which were positive for growth in culture and histopathological correlation. Conclusion: The recovery rate of MTBC from biopsy specimens was found to be satisfactory for CTB with histopathological correlation, but the combination of culture with a rapid method, PCR, may improve the diagnostic rate.

  13. The effect of microwave/laboratory light source postcuring technique and wet-aging on microhardness of composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Sharafeddin


    Full Text Available Background: Although composite restorations are really valuable for esthetic zones, they have shown less longevity rather than amalgam restorations. Since it may be related to the method used for curing the composite, postcuring could increase the degree of conversion and result in more long-lasting composite restorations. This study was planned to evaluate the effect of two different postcuring techniques on microhardness of indirect composite resin after wet-aging and comparing them with the direct type. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 99 composite disk-shaped (6.5 × 2.5 mm specimens of composite (Gradia GC, Japan were prepared in split mold. The indirect composite specimens were postcured by laboratory light source (Labolite LV-III GC Corp, Japan or microwave unit (MC 2002 JR, LG, Korea. Then, the aging procedure was done for 24 h, 30 and 180 days in distilled water. The Vicker′s Hardness test (VHN on surface of specmens was measured by Wolpert microhardness tester and the data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey′s post hoc tests. (P ≤ 0.05. Results: The statistical analysis revealed that surface microhardness of postcured composite by microwave and laboratory light source was more than that of direct composite ( P = 0.0001 and postcuring by microwave was more effective than postcuring by laboratory light source ( P = 0.004. The 30 days stored composite demonstrated significant decrease of VHN compared with the 24-h stored samples ( P = 0.0001, with a more significant VHN decrease after 180 days of aging ( P = 0.045. Conclusion: Postcuring increased the surface microhardness and aging reduced the surface microhardness of indirect composite.

  14. Photoswitchable Rabi Splitting in Hybrid Plasmon-Waveguide Modes. (United States)

    Lin, Linhan; Wang, Mingsong; Wei, Xiaoling; Peng, Xiaolei; Xie, Chong; Zheng, Yuebing


    Rabi splitting that arises from strong plasmon-molecule coupling has attracted tremendous interests. However, it has remained elusive to integrate Rabi splitting into the hybrid plasmon-waveguide modes (HPWMs), which have advantages of both subwavelength light confinement of surface plasmons and long-range propagation of guided modes in dielectric waveguides. Herein, we explore a new type of HPWMs based on hybrid systems of Al nanodisk arrays covered by PMMA thin films that are doped with photochromic molecules and demonstrate the photoswitchable Rabi splitting with a maximum splitting energy of 572 meV in the HPWMs by controlling the photoisomerization of the molecules. Through our experimental measurements combined with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, we reveal that the photoswitchable Rabi splitting arises from the switchable coupling between the HPWMs and molecular excitons. By harnessing the photoswitchable Rabi splitting, we develop all-optical light modulators and rewritable waveguides. The demonstration of Rabi splitting in the HPWMs will further advance scientific research and device applications of hybrid plasmon-molecule systems.

  15. Sleep inertia during a simulated 6-h on/6-h off fixed split duty schedule. (United States)

    Hilditch, Cassie J; Short, Michelle; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Centofanti, Stephanie A; Dorrian, Jillian; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    Sleep inertia is a safety concern for shift workers returning to work soon after waking up. Split duty schedules offer an alternative to longer shift periods, but introduce additional wake-ups and may therefore increase risk of sleep inertia. This study investigated sleep inertia across a split duty schedule. Sixteen participants (age range 21-36 years; 10 females) participated in a 9-day laboratory study with two baseline nights (10 h time in bed, [TIB]), four 24-h periods of a 6-h on/6-h off split duty schedule (5-h TIB in off period; 10-h TIB per 24 h) and two recovery nights. Two complementary rosters were evaluated, with the timing of sleep and wake alternating between the two rosters (2 am/2 pm wake-up roster versus 8 am/8 pm wake-up roster). At 2, 17, 32 and 47 min after scheduled awakening, participants completed an 8-min inertia test bout, which included a 3-min psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B), a 3-min Digit-Symbol Substitution Task (DSST), the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Scale (SP-Fatigue). Further testing occurred every 2 h during scheduled wakefulness. Performance was consistently degraded and subjective sleepiness/fatigue was consistently increased during the inertia testing period as compared to other testing times. Morning wake-ups (2 am and 8 am) were associated with higher levels of sleep inertia than later wake-ups (2 pm and 8 pm). These results suggest that split duty workers should recognise the potential for sleep inertia after waking, especially during the morning hours.

  16. Improvement of rotary specimen rack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batch, J.M.; Gietzen, A.J.


    A redesign and verification test program has been completed on a new Rotary Specimen Rack ('Lazy Susan') design for the TRIGA Mark III. The purpose of the redesign was to solve a rotation problem which occurred at power levels of about 1 MW and above. The previous redesign effort on the Mark II-type lazy susan was made in 1967 when the bearing was changed to use stellite balls, spring-type separators and stainless-steel bearing races. An extensive test program at that time showed that the design gave excellent service under all anticipated operating conditions. Fifteen of these units have been installed in the past ten years and have been essentially trouble-free. Although the bearing design for the Mark III was very similar, the component layout was such that irradiation-induced heating with associated thermal expansion resulted in decreased bearing clearance and an increase in the required driving torque. The solution involved redesign and re-arrangement of the rack drive mechanism. A series of stringent operational proof tests were made under high temperature and temperature differential conditions which proved successful operation of the new design. The severe conditions under which these tests were performed uncovered further difficulties with the bearing and led to a re-evaluation of the bearing design. A new design was developed in which the spring separators were replaced by similar sized, cylindrical graphite spacers. The entire series of operational and life tests were repeated and the performance was outstanding. Acceptable wear characteristics of the spacers were verified and the bearing was noticeably smoother and quieter than with previous designs. A Mark III lazy susan of this new design was installed in a TRIGA about one year ago and operated at power levels up to 2 MW with excellent performance. The Mark II design has now been changed to incorporate the new drive and bearing design proven for the Mark III. (author)

  17. Wideband metasurface filter based on complementary split-ring resonators (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Jiameng; Xu, Jianchun; Wang, Qingmin; Zhao, Ruochen; Liu, Hao; Dong, Guoyan; Hao, Yanan; Bi, Ke


    A wideband metasurface filter based on complementary split-ring resonators (CSRR) has been prepared. The frequency and transmission bandwidth of the metasurface filters with different split widths are discussed. After analyzing the mechanism of the metasurface, the proposed metasurface filters are fabricated. The electromagnetic properties of the metasurface are measured by a designed test system. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated ones, which shows that the metasurface filter has a wideband property. As the split width of the CSRR increases, the frequency of the passband shifts to higher frequency regions and the transmission bandwidth decreases.

  18. A splitting algorithm for directional regularization and sparsification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau; Nielsen, Mads


    We present a new split-type algorithm for the minimization of a p-harmonic energy with added data fidelity term. The half-quadratic splitting reduces the original problem to two straightforward problems, that can be minimized efficiently. The minimizers to the two sub-problems can typically...... be computed pointwise and are easily implemented on massively parallel processors. Furthermore the splitting method allows for the computation of solutions to a large number of more advanced directional regularization problems. In particular we are able to handle robust, non-convex data terms, and to define...

  19. Ridge Splitting Technique for Horizontal Augmentation and Immediate Implant Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papathanasiou Ioannis


    Full Text Available Insufficient width of the alveolar ridge often prevents ideal implant placement. Guided bone regeneration, bone grafting, alveolar ridge splitting and combinations of these techniques are used for the lateral augmentation of the alveolar ridge. Ridge splitting is a minimally invasive technique indicated for alveolar ridges with adequate height, which enables immediate implant placement and eliminates morbidity and overall treatment time. The classical approach of the technique involves splitting the alveolar ridge into 2 parts with use of ostetomes and chisels. Modifications of this technique include the use of rotating instrument, screw spreaders, horizontal spreaders and ultrasonic device.

  20. Market Split based Congestion Management for Networks with Loops (United States)

    Marmiroli, Marta; Tanimoto, Masahiko; Tsukamoto, Yukitoki; Yokoyama, Ryuichi

    Market splitting is one of the methods to solve the transmission congestion problem associated with the introduction of competitive electricity market and transmission access. Based on the concept of price difference among congested areas, the market splitting approach produces a solution that strongly informs market participants of congestion path. In this paper, an algorithm to solve the market splitting problem for complex networks including loop structures is proposed. The method, based on an algebraic approach, ensures a feasible optimal solution verifiable and easily understandable by the market participants. Complex networks are transformed into simple radial ones using the delta-star approach. The method was tested on large problems to evaluate the performances.

  1. Evaluation of laboratory diagnostic methods for cryptosporidiosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The laboratory diagnosis of Cryptosporidium parum infection involves the demonstration of the infective oocysts in stool specimen. The conventional method of modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) is very laborious, and stool debris can be mistaken for the parasite oocytes. Objective: This research was set to evaluate ...

  2. Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Duck Seok; Seo, Hang Seok; Min, Duck Kee; Koo, Dae Seo; Lee, Eun Pyo; Yang, Song Yeol


    Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods to perform efficient PIE is developed by analyzing the relation between requiring time of manufacturing specimen and manufacturing method in irradiated fuel rods. It takes within an hour to grind 1 mm of specimen thickness under 150 rpm in speed of grinding, 600 g gravity in force using no.120, no.240, no.320 of grinding paper. In case of no.400 of grinding paper, it takes more an hour to grind the same thickness as above. It takes up to a quarter to grind 80-130 μm in specimen thickness using no.400 of grinding paper. When grinding time goes beyond 15 minutes, the grinding thickness of specimen does not exist. The polishing of specimen with 150 Rpms in speed of grinding machine, 600 g gravity in force, 10 minutes in polishing time using diamond paste 15 μm on polishing cloths amounts to 50 μm in specimen thickness. In case of diamond paste 9 μm on polishing cloth, the polishing of specimen amounts to 20 μm. The polishing thickness of specimen with 15 minutes in polishing time using 6 μm, 3 μm, 1 μm, 1/4 μm does not exist. Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods will have application to the destructive examination of PIE. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  3. The thickness effects of the side-grooved CCT specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Kenji; Kikuchi, Masanori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi


    J IC tests were carried out on SUS 316 steel by means of the JSME R-curve method as well as the JSME stretched-zone width (SZW) method. The effects of side-grooves on the J in value at the onset of stable crack growth were investigated using CCT specimens of two thicknesses (B = 1 mm and 2 mm). The ratio of the net thickness to the gross thickness was maintained at 0.5. The J in values of the side-grooved CCT specimens of both thicknesses were considerably smaller than those of the 1 TCT specimen. The J in value of the side-grooved specimen of 2 mm thickness was smaller than that of the standard CCT specimen. Further, as the thickness of the specimen became thinner, the J in value decreased. In the case of 1 mm-thick CCT specimens with or without a side-groove, the contraction percentage of thickness was very large so that it was not appropriate to use these specimens for the fracture toughness test. In the case of the thin or side-grooved CCT specimens, the J-value, which is evaluated from the load versus displacement curve using Rice's formula, cannot estimate the J-integral at the central part of the specimen. Therefore, a J-integral estimation method would have to be established using 3-D elastic-plastic analysis. (author)

  4. A flexible microrobotic platform for handling microscale specimens of fibrous materials for microscopic studies. (United States)

    Saketi, P; Von Essen, M; Mikczinski, M; Heinemann, S; Fatikow, S; Kallio, P


    One of the most challenging issues faced in handling specimens for microscopy, is avoiding artefacts and structural changes in the samples caused by human errors. In addition, specimen handling is a laborious and time-consuming task and requires skilful and experienced personnel. This paper introduces a flexible microrobotic platform for the handling of microscale specimens of fibrous materials for various microscopic studies such as scanning electron microscopy and nanotomography. The platform is capable of handling various fibres with diameters ranging from 10 to 1000 μm and lengths of 100 μm-15 mm, and mounting them on different types of specimen holders without damaging them. This tele-operated microrobotic platform minimizes human interaction with the samples, which is one of the main sources contributory to introducing artefacts into the specimens. The platform also grants a higher throughput and an improved success rate of specimen handling, when compared to the manual processes. The operator does not need extensive experience of microscale manipulation and only a short training period is sufficient to operate the platform. The requirement of easy configurability for various samples and sample holders is typical in the research and development of materials in this field. Therefore, one of the main criteria for the design of the microrobotic platform was the ability to adapt the platform to different specimen handling methods required for microscopic studies. To demonstrate this, three experiments are carried out using the microrobotic platform. In the first experiment, individual paper fibres are mounted successfully on scanning electron microscopy specimen holders for the in situ scanning electron microscopy diagonal compression test of paper fibres. The performance of the microrobotic platform is compared with a skilled laboratory worker performing the same experiment. In the second experiment, a strand of human hair and an individual paper fibre bond

  5. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  6. Culham Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The report contains summaries of work carried out under the following headings: fusion research experiments; U.K. contribution to the JET project; supporting studies; theoretical plasma physics, computational physics and computing; fusion reactor studies; engineering and technology; contract research; external relations; staff, finance and services. Appendices cover main characteristics of Culham fusion experiments, staff, extra-mural projects supported by Culham Laboratory, and a list of papers written by Culham staff. (U.K.)

  7. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.


    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  8. Detection of Ebola virus in oral fluid specimens during outbreaks of Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever in the Republic of Congo. (United States)

    Formenty, Pierre; Leroy, Eric Maurice; Epelboin, Alain; Libama, Francois; Lenzi, Marco; Sudeck, Hinrich; Yaba, Philippe; Allarangar, Yokouidé; Boumandouki, Paul; Nkounkou, Virginot Blad; Drosten, Christian; Grolla, Allen; Feldmann, Heinz; Roth, Cathy


    Patients who have refused to provide blood samples has meant that there have been significant delays in confirming outbreaks of Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever (EVHF). During the 2 EVHF outbreaks in the Republic of Congo in 2003, we assessed the use of oral fluid specimens versus serum samples for laboratory confirmation of cases of EVHF. Serum and oral fluid specimens were obtained from 24 patients with suspected Ebola and 10 healthy control subjects. Specimens were analyzed for immunoglobulin G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for Ebola virus by antigen detection ELISA and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Oral fluid specimens were collected with a commercially available collection device. We failed to detect antibodies against Ebola in the oral fluid specimens obtained from patients whose serum samples were seropositive. All patients with positive serum RT-PCR results also had positive results for their oral fluid specimens. This study demonstrates the usefulness of oral fluid samples for the investigation of Ebola outbreaks, but further development in antibodies and antigen detection in oral fluid specimens is needed before these samples are used for filovirus surveillance activities in Africa.

  9. Factors that impact turnaround time of surgical pathology specimens in an academic institution. (United States)

    Patel, Samip; Smith, Jennifer B; Kurbatova, Ekaterina; Guarner, Jeannette


    Turnaround time of laboratory results is important for customer satisfaction. The College of American Pathologists' checklist requires an analytic turnaround time of 2 days or less for most routine cases and lets every hospital define what a routine specimen is. The objective of this study was to analyze which factors impact turnaround time of nonbiopsy surgical pathology specimens. We calculated the turnaround time from receipt to verification of results (adjusted for weekends and holidays) for all nonbiopsy surgical specimens during a 2-week period. Factors studied included tissue type, number of slides per case, decalcification, immunohistochemistry, consultations with other pathologists, and diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 713 specimens were analyzed, 551 (77%) were verified within 2 days and 162 (23%) in 3 days or more. Lung, gastrointestinal, breast, and genitourinary specimens showed the highest percentage of cases being signed out in over 3 days. Diagnosis of malignancy (including staging of the neoplasia), consultation with other pathologists, having had a frozen section, and use of immunohistochemical stains were significantly associated with increased turnaround time in univariate analysis. Decalcification was not associated with increased turnaround time. In multivariate analysis, consultation with other pathologists, use of immunohistochemistry, diagnosis of malignancy, and the number of slides studied continued to be significantly associated with prolonged turnaround time. Our findings suggest that diagnosis of malignancy is central to significantly prolonging the turnaround time for surgical pathology specimens, thus institutions that serve cancer centers will have longer turnaround time than those that do not. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of specimen size/type on the fracture toughness of five irradiated RPV materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Mikhail A; Lucon, Enrico


    The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program had previously irradiated five reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels/welds at fast neutron fluxes of about 4 to 8 x 10 11 n/cm 2 /s (>1 MeV) to fluences from 0.5 to 3.4 10 19 n/cm 2 and at 288 °C. The unirradiated fracture toughness tests were performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory with 12.7-mm and 25.4-mm thick (0.5T and 1T) compact specimens, while the HSSI Program provided tensile and 5 x 10-mm three-point bend specimens to SCK-CEN for irradiation in the in-pile section of the Belgian Reactor BR2 at fluxes > 10 13 n/cm 2 /s and subsequent testing by SCK-CEN. The BR2 irradiations were conducted at about 2 and 4 x 10 13 n/cm 2 /s with irradiation temperature between 295 °C and 300 °C (water temperature), and to fluences between 6 and 10 x 10 19 n/cm 2 . The irradiation-induced shifts of the Master Curve reference temperatures, ΔT 0 , for most of the materials deviated from the embrittlement correlations much more than expected, motivating the testing of 5 x 10-mm three-point bend specimens of all five materials in the unirradiated condition to eliminate specimen size and geometry as a variable. Tests of the unirradiated small bend specimens resulted in Master Curve reference temperatures, ΔT 0 , 25 °C to 53 °C lower than those from the larger compact specimens, meaning that the irradiation-induced reference temperature shifts, ΔT 0 , were larger than the initial measurements, resulting in much improved agreement between the measured and predicted fracture toughness shifts.

  11. Fatigue damage observed non-destructively in fibre composite coupon test specimens by X-ray CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard


    This study presents a method for monitoring the 3D fatigue damage progression on a micro-structural level in a glass fibre/polymer coupon test specimen by means of laboratory X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). A modified mount and holder made for the standard test samples to fit into the X-ray CT sc...

  12. Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Robin [SAIC; Davenport, Roger [SAIC; Talbot, Jan [UCSD; Herz, Richard [UCSD; Genders, David [Electrosynthesis Co.; Symons, Peter [Electrosynthesis Co.; Brown, Lloyd [TChemE


    A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800°C. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic, and (2) electrolytic oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions. Also, two sub-cycles were evaluated for the oxygen evolution side of the SA cycle: (1) zinc sulfate/zinc oxide, and (2) potassium sulfate/potassium pyrosulfate. The laboratory testing and optimization of all the process steps for each version of the SA cycle were proven in the laboratory or have been fully demonstrated by others, but further optimization is still possible and needed. The solar configuration evolved to a 50 MW(thermal) central receiver system with a North heliostat field, a cavity receiver, and NaCl molten salt storage to allow continuous operation. The H2A economic model was used to optimize and trade-off SA cycle configurations. Parametric studies of chemical plant performance have indicated process efficiencies of ~20%. Although the current process efficiency is technically acceptable, an increased efficiency is needed if the DOE cost targets are to be reached. There are two interrelated areas in which there is the potential for significant efficiency improvements: electrolysis cell voltage and excessive water vaporization. Methods to significantly reduce water evaporation are

  13. Shear wave splitting in the Isparta Angle, southwestern Turkey ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    broadband station in the Isparta Angle,southwestern Turkey.We selected 21 good quality seismic events out of nearly 357 earthquakes and calculated splitting parameters (polarization direction of fast wave, and delay time between fast and ...

  14. Field Monitoring Protocol. Mini-Split Heat Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Dane [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomerlin, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)


    This Building America program report provides a detailed method for accurately measuring and monitoring performance of a residential mini-split heat pump, which will be used in high-performance retrofit applications.

  15. Electrochemical Water-Splitting Based on Hypochlorite Oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minhová Macounová, Kateřina; Simic, N.; Ahlberg, E.; Krtil, Petr


    Roč. 137, č. 23 (2015), s. 7262-7265 ISSN 0002-7863 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * hypochlorite oxidation * water-splitting Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 13.038, year: 2015

  16. Possibilities of Intermodal Passenger Transport between Split Airport and Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Roguljić


    Full Text Available A substantial number of passengers landing at Split Airportduring the tourist season continue their journey to the destinationson the central Dalmatian islands. Today the transfer isdone mainly through the ferry port in Split. The insufficient capacitiesof roads from the airport to the city centre which accommodatesthe ferry port and waiting for the embarkation onthe ferries and the transport itself to the islands and the finaldestinations take much longer than the air transport itself toSplit. The paper studies the possible improvements of the existingcondition as well as the construction completion and openingto traffic of the passenger sea port next to Split Airport whichwould provide a much better solution of passenger transfer tothe islands.

  17. Effect of Repeated Food Morsel Splitting on Jaw Muscle Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Kumar; Svensson, Krister G; Baad-Hansen, Lene


    Mastication is a complex motor task often initiated by splitting of the food morsel between the anterior teeth. Training of complex motor tasks has consistently been shown to trigger neuroplastic changes in corticomotor control and optimization of muscle function. It is not known if training...... and repeated food morsel splitting lead to changes in jaw muscle function. Objective: To investigate if repeated splitting of food morsels in participants with natural dentition changes the force and jaw muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age = 26.2 ± 3.9 years......) participated in a single one-hour session divided into six series. Each series consisted of ten trials of a standardized behavioral task (total of 60 trials). The behavioral task was to hold and split a food morsel (8 mm, 180 mg placebo tablet) placed on a bite force transducer with the anterior teeth...

  18. The homogeneous property and flux splitting in gas dynamics (United States)

    Lerat, A.

    The homogeneous property of fluxes in gas dynamics is investigated, and its consequences concerning the flux splitting introduced by Steger and Warming (1981) are examined. It is shown that, for any hyperbolic system w sub t + f(w) sub x = 0 which satisfies the homogeneous property, the flux f(w) can be expressed in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix A(w) = df(w)/dw. This same result is also found to hold for the split fluxes f(+)(w) and f(-)(w). The problem of the validity of flux splitting is studied using these results. Three applications of flux splitting are then considered. The first application concerns uncentered schemes and particularly a precise analysis of their stability, the second is connected with a method for correcting the dispersive error of second-order accurate schemes, and the third deals with a nonreflective boundary condition.

  19. Recent Progress in Energy-Driven Water Splitting. (United States)

    Tee, Si Yin; Win, Khin Yin; Teo, Wee Siang; Koh, Leng-Duei; Liu, Shuhua; Teng, Choon Peng; Han, Ming-Yong


    Hydrogen is readily obtained from renewable and non-renewable resources via water splitting by using thermal, electrical, photonic and biochemical energy. The major hydrogen production is generated from thermal energy through steam reforming/gasification of fossil fuel. As the commonly used non-renewable resources will be depleted in the long run, there is great demand to utilize renewable energy resources for hydrogen production. Most of the renewable resources may be used to produce electricity for driving water splitting while challenges remain to improve cost-effectiveness. As the most abundant energy resource, the direct conversion of solar energy to hydrogen is considered the most sustainable energy production method without causing pollutions to the environment. In overall, this review briefly summarizes thermolytic, electrolytic, photolytic and biolytic water splitting. It highlights photonic and electrical driven water splitting together with photovoltaic-integrated solar-driven water electrolysis.

  20. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.


    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  1. Opportunistic splitting for scheduling using a score-based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan


    We consider the problem of scheduling a user in a multi-user wireless environment in a distributed manner. The opportunistic splitting algorithm is applied to find the best group of users without reporting the channel state information to the centralized scheduler. The users find the best among themselves while requiring just a ternary feedback from the common receiver at the end of each mini-slot. The original splitting algorithm is modified to handle users with asymmetric channel conditions. We use a score-based approach with the splitting algorithm to introduce time and throughput fairness while exploiting the multi-user diversity of the network. Analytical and simulation results are given to show that the modified score-based splitting algorithm works well as a fair scheduling scheme with good spectral efficiency and reduced feedback. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.


    Medium-size specimens (adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres...

  3. Friction Compensation in the Upsetting of Cylindrical Test Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Martins, P. A. F.; Bay, Niels Oluf


    This manuscript presents a combined numerical andexperimental methodology for determining the stress-straincurve of metallic materials from the measurements of forceand displacement obtained in the axial compression of cylindrical test specimens with friction between the specimens and the platens...... model or combined friction models are utilized .Experimental results obtained from cylindrical and Rastegaev test specimens with different lubricants combined with the experimental determination of friction by means of ring compression tests allows compensating the effect of friction...

  4. Specimen Provenance Testing Identifies Contamination That Affects Molecular Prognostic Assay Results in Prostate Cancer Biopsy Specimens. (United States)

    Wojno, Lathem; Minutella, Caitlyn; Moylan, Donald; Bush, Arla; Wojno, Kirk


    To determine if tissue contamination in histologic specimens can significantly affect the results of prognostic molecular markers that are routinely used as confirmatory tests to safely assign appropriate candidates to prostate cancer active surveillance protocols. This study evaluates 2,134 cases from a single, large urology practice that were successfully tested for DNA specimen provenance verification using short tandem repeat analysis for the presence of a significant level of contaminating DNA. After removal of the contamination, five of the samples were retested, and the results of the molecular diagnostic test were compared. 49 of the 2,134 cases (2.3%) sent for DNA provenance analysis were found to possess significant levels of contamination. Of these 49 cases, seven of them were resent for a repeat molecular diagnostic test after being decontaminated. Five of these prostate cancer specimens had sufficient tissue and RNA to give a more accurate cell cycle progression (CCP) score. The average absolute change in these patient's CCP scores was 0.48, with a low of a 0.1-unit and a high of a 1.0-unit difference. These changes in CCP scores are significant enough to cause meaningful alterations in a patient's calculated 10-year mortality rate, as defined by their combined risk score (CRS). DNA contamination in unstained tissue sections sent for prognostic prostate cancer molecular diagnostic testing occurs on 2.3% of cases, and can be of a magnitude that affects the results and subsequent clinical decision of appropriateness for active surveillance. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Endoscopic classification of representations of quasi-split unitary groups

    CERN Document Server

    Mok, Chung Pang


    In this paper the author establishes the endoscopic classification of tempered representations of quasi-split unitary groups over local fields, and the endoscopic classification of the discrete automorphic spectrum of quasi-split unitary groups over global number fields. The method is analogous to the work of Arthur on orthogonal and symplectic groups, based on the theory of endoscopy and the comparison of trace formulas on unitary groups and general linear groups.

  6. Spectral splitting for thermal management in photovoltaic cells (United States)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Chiou, Yu-Cheng; Chiesa, Matteo; Almansouri, Ibraheem


    Spectral splitting is widely employed as a way to divide light between different solar cells or processes to optimize energy conversion. Well-understood but less explored is the use of spectrum splitting or filtering to combat solar cell heating. This has impacts both on cell performance and on the surrounding environment. In this manuscript we explore the design of spectral filtering systems that can improve the thermal and power-conversion performance of commercial PV modules.

  7. Split Octonion electrodynamics and unified fields of dyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, P.S.


    Split octonion electrodynamics has been developed in terms of Zorn's vector matrix realization by reformulating electromagnetic potential, current, field tensor and other dynamical quantities. Corresponding field equation (Unified Maxwell's equations) and equation of motion have been reformulated by means of split octonion and its Zorn vector realization in unique, simpler and consistent manner. It has been shown that this theory reproduces the dyon field equations in the absence of gravito-dyons and vice versa

  8. Visualization of the sequence of a couple splitting outside shop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Visualization of tracks of couple walking together before splitting and one goes into shop the other waits outside. The visualization represents the sequence described in figure 7 in the publication 'Taking the temperature of pedestrian movement in public spaces'......Visualization of tracks of couple walking together before splitting and one goes into shop the other waits outside. The visualization represents the sequence described in figure 7 in the publication 'Taking the temperature of pedestrian movement in public spaces'...

  9. A Modified Halpern's Iterative Scheme for Solving Split Feasibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitsupa Deepho


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce and study a modified Halpern’s iterative scheme for solving the split feasibility problem (SFP in the setting of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Under suitable conditions a strong convergence theorem is established. The main result presented in this paper improves and extends some recent results done by Xu (Iterative methods for the split feasibility problem in infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, Inverse Problem 26 (2010 105018 and some others.

  10. Comparison of serum and whole-blood specimens for the detection of Candida DNA in critically ill, non-neutropenic patients. (United States)

    Metwally, L; Fairley, D J; Coyle, P V; Hay, R J; Hedderwick, S; McCloskey, B; O'Neill, H J; Webb, C H; McMullan, R


    In contrast to the multitude of studies on fungal PCR assay methods, little work has been reported evaluating Candida PCR performance when using whole blood compared with serum in candidaemic patients. Here, a comparison of the performance of whole-blood and serum specimens using a set of real-time PCR Candida species assays is described. Specimens were collected prospectively from non-neutropenic adults who were recruited to a diagnostic clinical trial, the primary purpose of which was to verify the performance of the assays using serum; in all, 104 participants also had whole-blood specimens submitted for analysis in addition to the serum specimen. Of these participants, 10 had laboratory-confirmed candidaemia and 94 were categorized as being 'unlikely' to have invasive Candida infection. PCR results from the whole-blood specimens are presented here and compared with the results from serum specimens in this subgroup among whom both specimen types were obtained contemporaneously. All participants with candidaemia were PCR-positive from serum samples; however, only seven were PCR-positive from whole blood. All specimens from patients in the 'unlikely' category were PCR-negative in both types of specimen. Moreover, DNA extraction from serum required 1 h; extraction from whole blood required approximately 3 h. These data tentatively suggest that, overall, serum is an appropriate specimen for Candida PCR for detection of candidaemia in non-neutropenic adults.

  11. The hot cell laboratories for material investigations of the Institute for Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehrig, H.W.


    Special facilities for handling and testing of irradiated specimens are necessary, to perform the investigation of activated material. The Institute for Safety Research has two hot cell laboratories: - the preparation laboratory and - the materials testing laboratory. This report is intended to give an overview of the available facilities and developed techniques in the laboratories. (orig.)

  12. Uniaxial compression tests on diesel contaminated frozen silty soil specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenaf, D.; Stampli, N.; Bathurst, R.; Chapuis, R.P.


    Results of a uniaxial, unconfined compression test on artificial diesel-contaminated and uncontaminated frozen silty soils are discussed. The testing program involved 59 specimens. The results show that for the same fluid content, diesel contamination reduced the strength of the frozen specimens by increasing the unfrozen water content. For example, in specimens containing 50 per cent diesel oil of the fluid content by weight the maximum strength was reduced by 95 per cent compared to the strength of an uncontaminated specimen. Diesel contamination was also shown to contribute to the slippage between soil particles by acting as a lubricant, thus accelerating the loss of compressive strength.13 refs., 18 figs

  13. Location specific in situ TEM straining specimens made using FIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.; Papin, P.A.


    A method has been devised and demonstrated for producing in situ straining specimens for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) from specific locations in a sample using a dual-beam focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. The specimen is removed from a polished surface in the FIB using normal methods and then attached to a pre-fabricated substrate in the form of a modified TEM tensile specimen. In this manner, specific features of the microstructure of a polished optical mount can be selected for in situ tensile straining. With the use of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), this technique could be extended to select specific orientations of the specimen as well

  14. Analysis of the stress state in an Iosipescu sheartest specimen (United States)

    Walrath, D. E.; Adams, D. F.


    The state of stress in an Iosipescu shear test specimen is analyzed, utilizing a finite element computer program. The influence of test fixture configuration on this stress state is included. Variations of the standard specimen configuration, including notch depth, notch angle, and notch root radius are modeled. The purpose is to establish guidelines for a specimen geometry which will accommodate highly orthotropic materials while minimizing stress distribution nonuniformities. Materials ranging from isotropic to highly orthotropic are considered. An optimum specimen configuration is suggested, along with changes in the test fixture.

  15. Laboratory Mix Design of Asphalt Mixture Containing Reclaimed Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lo Presti


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the production of asphalt test specimens in the laboratory containing reclaimed asphalt. The mixtures considered were stone mastic asphalt concrete mixtures containing up to 30% of reclaimed asphalt. Specimens were compacted to the reference density obtained from the Marshall mix design. Gyration compaction method was used for preparing specimens for the experimental programme, while coring and cutting methods and X-ray computed tomography (CT were used to investigate the change in properties within the specimens and to validate the selected methodology. The study concluded that gyratory compaction is suitable to produce homogeneous test specimens also for mixtures containing high amount of reclaimed asphalt. Nevertheless, preliminary trials for each material are mandatory, as well as final coring and trimming of the specimens due to side effects.

  16. Observation particle morphology of colloidal system by conventional SEM with an improved specimen preparation technique. (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Zhaosheng; Yuan, Xiaojiao; Guo, Hong


    On the basis of our previous report that polymer emulsion with different viscosity can be investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we have developed an improved specimen preparation technique for obtaining particle morphology and size of colloidal silver, collagen, glutin, and polymer microspheres. In this study, we expect to provide a means for charactering the three-dimensional surface microstructure of colloidal particles. Dilution of the samples with appropriate volatile solvent like ethanol is effective for SEM specimen preparation. At a proper ratio between sample and ethanol, the colloidal particles are dispersed uniformly in ethanol and then deposited evenly on the substrate. Different drying methods are studied to search a proper drying condition, in which the small molecule solvent is removed without destroying the natural particle morphology. And the effects of ethanol in the specimen preparation process are described by analyzing the physicochemical properties of ethanol. The specimen preparation technique is simple and can be achieved in common laboratory for charactering the particle morphology of colloidal system. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Targeted DNA enrichment and whole genome sequencing of Neisseria meningitidis directly from clinical specimens. (United States)

    Clark, Stephen A; Doyle, Ronan; Lucidarme, Jay; Borrow, Ray; Breuer, Judith


    In England and Wales, approximately one half of all laboratory-confirmed meningococcal disease cases fail to yield a viable invasive isolate, primarily due to the use of antibiotics. Characterisation of non-culture meningococci has been restricted to the detection or sequencing of specific gene targets within clinical specimens. In this study we investigated the ability of the Agilent SureSelectXT kit to facilitate DNA enrichment and genome sequencing of meningococcal DNA within a small panel of blood and CSF specimens. A target-specific RNA oligonucleotide bait library was used to capture and enrich the bacterial DNA prior to next generation sequencing. A positive correlation between meningococcal DNA amount and genome coverage was observed with eight of the ten specimens producing genomes of acceptable quality. All commonly-used typing information derived from each acceptable non-culture genome matched those of an isolate from the same patient and the paired genomes showed a high level of congruence across indexed loci. We estimate that this technique could be used to perform whole genome sequencing on up to ∼45% of the positive specimens received by the Public Health England's Meningococcal Reference Unit. Further optimisation of the extraction and/or enrichment processes may, however, increase the proportion of non-culture cases from which quality genomes can be obtained. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrogen Production from Semiconductor-based Photocatalysis via Water Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. S. Wu


    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the ideal fuel for the future because it is clean, energy efficient, and abundant in nature. While various technologies can be used to generate hydrogen, only some of them can be considered environmentally friendly. Recently, solar hydrogen generated via photocatalytic water splitting has attracted tremendous attention and has been extensively studied because of its great potential for low-cost and clean hydrogen production. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the development of photocatalytic water splitting for generating hydrogen, particularly under visible-light irradiation. The topics covered include an introduction of hydrogen production technologies, a review of photocatalytic water splitting over titania and non-titania based photocatalysts, a discussion of the types of photocatalytic water-splitting approaches, and a conclusion for the current challenges and future prospects of photocatalytic water splitting. Based on the literatures reported here, the development of highly stable visible–light-active photocatalytic materials, and the design of efficient, low-cost photoreactor systems are the key for the advancement of solar-hydrogen production via photocatalytic water splitting in the future.

  19. Laboratory Investigation of the Characterization of Cor-Tuf Flexural and Splitting Tensile Properties (United States)


    plasticizer material. The superplasticizer used in the previous study, ADVA 170, was discontinued by the manufacturer (WR Grace). Therefore, its replacement...product, ADVA 190, was used in the present study. Even with the minor change in superplasticizers , by utilizing a generally consistent material...Additionally, a polycarboxylate type superplasticizer was included to decrease water demand, aid mixing, and improve workability. The water-to- cement

  20. [Peripheral specimen collecting centers. Preanalytical control]. (United States)

    Boixés Saña, D; Badia Mallorquí, M


    The progressive decentralization in the process of sample drawing and collection of biological samples has produced a socio-economical improvement for the general public and for health systems specifically even though this requires a higher degree of control to avoid pre-analytical errors derived from this procedure by the laboratories receiving these aforementioned samples. This study is based on 372,243 drawings, taken from June 1994 until December 1996 at 74 sample drawing centers and the systematic recording of any errors committed during the drawing, conservation and transportation of the diverse biological samples drawn. The results indicate an overall incident rate of 1.5% broken down by year as 1.3% in 1994, 1.3% in 1995 and 1.9% in 1996 and broken down by type as 0.7% in blood samples, 0.7% in urine samples, and 0.07% due to other errors such as transportation. 1. The incident rate is slightly lower than that obtained in a prior study of similar characteristics. 2. The small increase in the incident rate which occurred in 1996 is attributed to an improvement in the error recording system. 3. We recommend continuing applying strategies which permit one to detect, limit, and if possible, reduce these types of errors. These strategies include periodical meetings and professional development.

  1. Evaluation of Mycology Laboratory Proficiency Testing (United States)

    Reilly, Andrew A.; Salkin, Ira F.; McGinnis, Michael R.; Gromadzki, Sally; Pasarell, Lester; Kemna, Maggi; Higgins, Nancy; Salfinger, Max


    Changes over the last decade in overt proficiency testing (OPT) regulations have been ostensibly directed at improving laboratory performance on patient samples. However, the overt (unblinded) format of the tests and regulatory penalties associated with incorrect values allow and encourage laboratorians to take extra precautions with OPT analytes. As a result OPT may measure optimal laboratory performance instead of the intended target of typical performance attained during routine patient testing. This study addresses this issue by evaluating medical mycology OPT and comparing its fungal specimen identification error rates to those obtained in a covert (blinded) proficiency testing (CPT) program. Identifications from 188 laboratories participating in the New York State mycology OPT from 1982 to 1994 were compared with the identifications of the same fungi recovered from patient specimens in 1989 and 1994 as part of the routine procedures of 88 of these laboratories. The consistency in the identification of OPT specimens was sufficient to make accurate predictions of OPT error rates. However, while the error rates in OPT and CPT were similar for Candida albicans, significantly higher error rates were found in CPT for Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and other common pathogenic fungi. These differences may, in part, be due to OPT’s use of ideal organism representatives cultured under optimum growth conditions. This difference, as well as the organism-dependent error rate differences, reflects the limitations of OPT as a means of assessing the quality of routine laboratory performance in medical mycology. PMID:10364601

  2. Bioterrorism: a Laboratory Who Does It? (United States)

    Lee, Philip A.; Rowlinson, Marie-Claire


    In October 2001, the first disseminated biological warfare attack was perpetrated on American soil. Initially, a few clinical microbiology laboratories were testing specimens from acutely ill patients and also being asked to test nasal swabs from the potentially exposed. Soon after, a significant number of clinical microbiology and public health laboratories received similar requests to test the worried well or evaluate potentially contaminated mail or environmental materials, sometimes from their own break rooms. The role of the clinical and public health microbiology laboratory in response to a select agent event or act of bioterrorism is reviewed. PMID:24648550

  3. Prediction the effects of ZnO2 nanoparticles on splitting tensile strength and water absorption of high strength concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari


    Full Text Available In the present paper, two models based on artificial neural networks (ANN and gene expression programming (GEP for predicting splitting tensile strength and water absorption of concretes containing ZnO2 nanoparticles at different ages of curing have been developed. To build these models, training and testing using experimental results for 144 specimens produced with 16 different mixture proportions were conducted. The used data in the multilayer feed forward neural networks models and input variables of genetic programming models are arranged in a format of eight input parameters that cover the cement content (C, nanoparticle content (N, aggregate type (AG, water content (W, the amount of superplasticizer (S, the type of curing medium (CM, Age of curing (AC and number of testing try (NT. According to these input parameters, in the neural networks and genetic programming models, the splitting tensile strength and water absorption values of concretes containing ZnO2 nanoparticles were predicted. The training and testing results in these two models have shown the strong potential of the models for predicting the splitting tensile strength and water absorption values of concretes containing ZnO2 nanoparticles. Although neural networks have predicted better results, genetic programming is able to predict reasonable values with a simpler method rather than neural networks.

  4. Numerical investigation of a dual-loop EGR split strategy using a split index and multi-objective Pareto optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jungsoo; Song, Soonho; Lee, Kyo Seung


    Highlights: • Model-based control of dual-loop EGR system is performed. • EGR split index is developed to provide non-dimensional index for optimization. • EGR rates are calibrated using EGR split index at specific operating conditions. • Multi-objective Pareto optimization is performed to minimize NO X and BSFC. • Optimum split strategies are suggested with LP-rich dual-loop EGR at high load. - Abstract: A proposed dual-loop exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) system that combines the features of high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) systems is considered a key technology for improving the combustion behavior of diesel engines. The fraction of HP and LP flows, known as the EGR split, for a given dual-loop EGR rate play an important role in determining the engine performance and emission characteristics. Therefore, identifying the proper EGR split is important for the engine optimization and calibration processes, which affect the EGR response and deNO X efficiencies. The objective of this research was to develop a dual-loop EGR split strategy using numerical analysis and one-dimensional (1D) cycle simulation. A control system was modeled by coupling the 1D cycle simulation and the control logic. An EGR split index was developed to investigate the HP/LP split effects on the engine performance and emissions. Using the model-based control system, a multi-objective Pareto (MOP) analysis was used to minimize the NO X formation and fuel consumption through optimized engine operating parameters. The MOP analysis was performed using a response surface model extracted from Latin hypercube sampling as a fractional factorial design of experiment. By using an LP rich dual-loop EGR, a high EGR rate was attained at low, medium, and high engine speeds, increasing the applicable load ranges compared to base conditions

  5. Enzymatic detection of formalin-fixed museum specimens for DNA analysis and enzymatic maceration of formalin-fixed specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Margrethe; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær


    Abstract.—A simple enzymatic screening method has been developed to detect whether a tissue sample has been preserved with formalin or with ethanol only because such a method is a useful tool for predicting the quality of genetic test results. The method is based on enzymatic digestion at 55 C...... in museums where DNA analyses of archived specimens are performed. Wasted time and resources can be avoided through the detection of formalin-fixed specimens because these specimens yield low-quality, damaged DNA. In addition to the screening method, it is shown that formalin-preserved specimens can...

  6. System for vacuum pouring of epoxy tensile and impact specimens with a study of the behavior of these specimens at 77 K and 293 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, C.M.; Stoddart, W.C.T.


    The purpose of the investigation described in this report was to establish a suitable technique for vacuum pouring of epoxy test specimens and to study the behavior of these specimens at 77 K and 293 K. A series of tensile and impact tests was conducted using specimens made from the following resins: Epon 828, Epon 871, and Epon curing agent Z. These materials are of general interest to designers of magnets for cryogenic service. Some of the applications that may be considered are: structural support, spacing, electrical insulation, and thermal insulation. The epoxies mentioned above were selected for more extensive testing because they have been used successfully, at room temperature in EBT and ORMAK programs in the Fusion Energy Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Liquid nitrogen was chosen over liquid helium because it is less difficult to handle, less expensive, and in most instances physical properties of epoxies seem to change very little from 77 K to 4.2 K. The two main features of the vacuum pouring apparatus are (1) batches can be poured under near-identical conditions, and (2) samples can be handled free from air contamination. Tests of the specimens were carried out at 77 K and 293 K. The 77 K data indicate that tensile strength increases proportionally with the increase of Epon 871 relative to Epon 828. When the mixture includes more than 90% Epon 871, impact testing at 293 K becomes practically impossible due to the rubbery condition of the material. However, when tested at 77 K, this same mixture evinces high tensile strength. When optimum data are sought over a wide range of temperatures, 77 K to 293 K, it appears that a mixture of 70% Epon 871, 30% Epon 838 with 13 ppH curing agent Z offers the best compromise in tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and impact resistance

  7. Laboratory studies on the capability of Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four age groups of Biomphalaria pfeifferi were subjected to laboratory desiccation and allowed to aestivate for 7,14,21 and 28 days before being revived. Also, B. pheifferi specimens harbouring schistosomal infection were also subjected to laboratory desiccation and aestivated for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Uninfected ...

  8. Fusidic acid resistance among staphylococci strains isolated from clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Deveci


    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate in vitrosusceptibility of fusidic acid to clinic isolates of staphylococci.Materials and methods: The forty-one coagulase negativestaphylococci (CNS and 18 Staphylococcus aureusstrains isolated from various clinical specimens were includedin this study. Staphylococci isolates were identifiedby conventional methods such as colony morphologyonto medium, gram staining, catalase and coagulasetests. According to “Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI” criteria, antimicrobial susceptibility testingof isolates was performed by Kirby-Bauer’s disk diffusionmethod.Results: The seventy-two percent of the isolated S.aureuswere defined as methicillin sensitive-S.aureus (MSSA,28% of the isolated S.aureus were defined as methicillinresistant-S.aureus (MRSA. The difference among fusidicacid susceptibility rates of MSSA and MRSA strains wasnot statistically significant (p=0.305. The twenty-nine percentof the isolated CNS were defined as methicillin sensitive-CNS (MS-CNS, 71% of the isolated CNS were definedas methicillin resistant-CNS (MR-CNS. There wasno statistically significant difference between MS-CNSand MR-CNS strains for fusidic acid susceptibility rates(p=0.490. But the difference among fusidic acid susceptibilityrates of CNS and S.aureus strains was statisticallysignificant (p<0.001. CNS strains were found more resistancethan S.aureus strains for fusidic acid.Conclusion: In this study, the resistance rates weredetected to increase for fusidic acid along with methicillinresistance. Among CNS isolates, fusidic acid resistancerates were significantly more elevated than that forS.aureus. Fusidic acid remains as an alternative in thetreatment of infections due to staphylococci.

  9. On a specimen of Lumbricus terrestris, L. with bifurcated tail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.


    In the last number of the »Annals and Magazine of Nat. History” (Dec. 1885), I find a notice of Prof. Jeffrey Bell about two Lumbrici with bifid hinder ends, one specimen belonging to L. terrestris, the other to L. foetidus; moreover he mentions a specimen, presenting a similar remarquable

  10. A Debonded Sandwich Specimen Under Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.


    for the MMB specimen were derived from a superposition analysis. An experimental verification of the methodology proposed was performed using MMB sandwich specimens with H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 faces. Different mixed mode loadings were applied...

  11. Design Analysis of the Mixed Mode Bending Sandwich Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.


    . The analysis facilitates selection of the appropriate geometry for the MMB sandwich specimen to promote debond failure. An experimental study is performed using MMB sandwich specimens with a H100 PVC foam core and E-glass–polyester faces. The results reveal that debond propagation is successfully achieved...

  12. Structural analysis of 177-FA redesigned surveillance specimen holder tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, C.W.; Thoren, D.E.; Vames, G.J.; Harris, R.J.


    Because of in-service operational problems, the surveillance specimen holder tubes described in B and W topical report BAW-10051 have been redesigned. This report describes the new design and structural analysis for normal operation and upset loading conditions. The results of the analysis demonstrate the adequacy of the new surveillance specimen holder tubes for their design life of 40 years

  13. stomach contents of a specimen of proteles cristatus from angola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    north of Sa da Bandeira, Angola (at about 140. SO' Sjl3° 35' E). The skin and skull were deposited in the Alexander McGregor Memorial Museum. Kimberley, Cape (Collectors No. 276a). The stomach contents of this specimen are detailed in. Table I. The habitat where the specimen was obtained was degraded ...

  14. Feasibility Study of Laser Cutting for Fabrication of Tensile Specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B.


    The specimen fabrication technique was established to machine the specimen from the irradiated materials. The wire cut EDM(electric discharge machine) was modified to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from irradiated components and fuel claddings. The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated components and claddings interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, zirconium oxide is protective against further corrosion as well as beneficial to mechanical strength for the tensile deformation of the cladding. Thus, it is important to fabricate the irradiated specimens without removal of oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated structural components and claddings. In the present study, laser cutting system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the feasibility of the laser cutting system was studied for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser beam machining system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the dimensions were compared for the feasibility of the laser cutting system. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer

  15. Thermal Cycling of Uranium Dioxide - Tungsten Cermet Fuel Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gripshover, P.J.; Peterson, J.H.


    In phase I tungsten clad cermet fuel specimens were thermal cycled, to study the effects of fuel loading, fuel particle size, stablized fuel, duplex coatings, and fabrication techniques on dimensional stability during thermal cycling. In phase II the best combination of the factors studies in phase I were combined in one specimen for evaluation.

  16. Improved PID control for triaxial testing liquefied specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Using a frictionless triaxial apparatus, sand specimens can be tested at relatively high axial strains, even while liquefying. However, liquefying specimens have extremely nonlinear stiffness, thus standard PID control does not perform well. To maintain control over applied loads, the PID...

  17. Analysis of off-axis tension test of wood specimens (United States)

    Jen Y. Liu


    This paper presents a stress analysis of the off-axis tension test of clear wood specimens based on orthotropic elasticity theory. The effects of Poisson's ratio and shear coupling coefficient on stress distribution are analyzed in detail. The analysis also provides a theoretical foundation for the selection of a 10° grain angle in wood specimens for the...

  18. Dual-Energy CT of Rectal Cancer Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Madsen, Gunvor


    %; specificity, 88%; and accuracy, 91%), and 4) iodine concentration at 2.58 μg/mL (sensitivity, 86%; specificity, 92%; and accuracy, 89%). LIMITATIONS: The investigation is conducted on isolated surgical specimens from rectal cancer operations. CONCLUSIONS: Dual-energy CT can be performed on rectal specimens...... is represented by a certain effective Z value, which allows for information on its composition. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to standardize a method for dual-energy scanning of rectal specimens to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of benign versus malignant lymph node differentiation. Histopathological evaluation...... of the nodes was our reference. DESIGN: This was a descriptive and prospective study. SETTINGS: Seventeen rectal specimens were examined in 2 series. The first series was conducted with 3 specimens from patients who were not given perioperative contrast; 3 had iodine-based contrast and 3 had gadolinium...

  19. Tensile strength of various nylon PA6 specimen modes (United States)

    Raz, Karel; Zahalka, Martin


    This article explores the influence of production technique on the strength of nylon parts. Identical specimens were manufactured by various techniques. The material of specimens was nylon PA6. 3D printing and injection molding were used, with various orientations of printed layers, and various orientations of specimens in the working space of the 3D printer. The variants are described in detail. A special mold was used for the injection molding process in order to make specimens with and without a weld line. The effect of this weld line was evaluated. All specimens were tested using the standard tensile test configuration. The strength was compared. It was found that the same plastic material has very different mechanical properties depending on the production process.

  20. CGH and SNP array using DNA extracted from fixed cytogenetic preparations and long-term refrigerated bone marrow specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKinnon Ruth N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of nucleic acids is limited by the availability of archival specimens and the quality and amount of the extracted material. Archived cytogenetic preparations are stored in many laboratories and are a potential source of total genomic DNA for array karyotyping and other applications. Array CGH using DNA from fixed cytogenetic preparations has been described, but it is not known whether it can be used for SNP arrays. Diagnostic bone marrow specimens taken during the assessment of hematological malignancies are also a potential source of DNA, but it is generally assumed that DNA must be extracted, or the specimen frozen, within a day or two of collection, to obtain DNA suitable for further analysis. We have assessed DNA extracted from these materials for both SNP array and array CGH. Results We show that both SNP array and array CGH can be performed on genomic DNA extracted from cytogenetic specimens stored in Carnoy's fixative, and from bone marrow which has been stored unfrozen, at 4°C, for at least 36 days. We describe a procedure for extracting a usable concentration of total genomic DNA from cytogenetic suspensions of low cellularity. Conclusions The ability to use these archival specimens for DNA-based analysis increases the potential for retrospective genetic analysis of clinical specimens. Fixed cytogenetic preparations and long-term refrigerated bone marrow both provide DNA suitable for array karyotyping, and may be suitable for a wider range of analytical procedures.

  1. A quality initiative to decrease pathology specimen-labeling errors using radiofrequency identification in a high-volume endoscopy center. (United States)

    Francis, Dawn L; Prabhakar, Shalini; Sanderson, Schuyler O


    Our institution has had problems with mislabeling of tissue specimens in our gastrointestinal and colorectal surgery endoscopy units. Most labeling errors have been due to either the wrong patient label or no label being affixed to a specimen bottle. As a result, an initiative was created to reduce the number of specimen-labeling errors. This initiative involved the application of radiofrequency identification (RFID) technology to specimen bottles, moving to a paperless pathology requisition system and confirmation of the correct site and correct patient by both the endoscopy nursing staff and the endoscopist for each specimen bottle. We reviewed the number of specimen-labeling errors from our endoscopy unit for the first 3 months of 2007, before the implementation of the initiative, and for the first 3 months of 2008, 6 months after the initiation of RFID specimen labeling with paperless requisition and two-provider confirmation of correct site, correct patient specimen labeling. The RFID system we used was an off-the-shelf 3M (St. Paul, MN) Library Sciences RFID system modified and installed for our purposes. Specimen-labeling errors were categorized as Class 1 (only typographical with no potential clinical consequences), Class 2 (minor error, unlikely to have clinical consequences) or Class 3 (significant error that has the potential to detrimentally impact patient care). The Fischer's exact test was used to compare the rate of specimen-bottle labeling errors before and after the initiation of this new system. In the first 3 months of 2007, our endoscopy unit sent 8,231 specimen bottles to our pathology laboratory for evaluation; 8,539 bottles were sent in the first 3 months of 2008. There were 646 (7.85%) Class 1 errors in the first quarter of 2007 and 35 (0.41%) in the first quarter of 2008 (PRFID technology, a paperless requisition process, and confirmation of the correct site and correct patient by two health-care providers significantly decreased specimen

  2. An Examination Of Fracture Splitting Parameters Of Crackable Connecting Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Özdemir


    Full Text Available Fracture splitting method is an innovative processing technique in the field of automobile engine connecting rod (con/rod manufacturing. Compared with traditional method, this technique has remarkable advantages. Manufacturing procedures, equipment and tools investment can be decreased and energy consumption reduced remarkably. Furthermore, product quality and bearing capability can also be improved. It provides a high quality, high accuracy and low cost route for producing connecting rods (con/rods. With the many advantages mentioned above, this method has attracted manufacturers attention and has been utilized in many types of con/rod manufacturing. In this article, the method and the advantages it provides, such as materials, notches for fracture splitting, fracture splitting conditions and fracture splitting equipment are discussed in detail. The paper describes an analysis of examination of fracture splitting parameters and optik-SEM fractography of C70S6 crackable connectıng rod. Force and velocity parameters are investigated. That uniform impact force distrubition starting from the starting notch causes brittle and cleavage failure mode is obtained as a result. This induces to decrease the toughness.

  3. New Splitting Criteria for Decision Trees in Stationary Data Streams. (United States)

    Jaworski, Maciej; Duda, Piotr; Rutkowski, Leszek


    The most popular tools for stream data mining are based on decision trees. In previous 15 years, all designed methods, headed by the very fast decision tree algorithm, relayed on Hoeffding's inequality and hundreds of researchers followed this scheme. Recently, we have demonstrated that although the Hoeffding decision trees are an effective tool for dealing with stream data, they are a purely heuristic procedure; for example, classical decision trees such as ID3 or CART cannot be adopted to data stream mining using Hoeffding's inequality. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new algorithms, which are both mathematically justified and characterized by good performance. In this paper, we address this problem by developing a family of new splitting criteria for classification in stationary data streams and investigating their probabilistic properties. The new criteria, derived using appropriate statistical tools, are based on the misclassification error and the Gini index impurity measures. The general division of splitting criteria into two types is proposed. Attributes chosen based on type-$I$ splitting criteria guarantee, with high probability, the highest expected value of split measure. Type-$II$ criteria ensure that the chosen attribute is the same, with high probability, as it would be chosen based on the whole infinite data stream. Moreover, in this paper, two hybrid splitting criteria are proposed, which are the combinations of single criteria based on the misclassification error and Gini index.

  4. Experimental study on dynamic splitting of recycled concrete using SHPB (United States)

    Lu, Yubin; Yu, Shuisheng; Cai, Yong


    To study the recycled concrete splitting tensile properties and fracture state with various recycled coarse aggregate replacement percentage (i.e. 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), the dynamic splitting test of recycled concrete was carried out using large diameter (75 mm) split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The results show that the recycled concrete splitting tensile strength increases with the increase of loading rate, and the loading rate also affects the recycled concrete fracture state, which indicates that the recycled concrete has obvious rate sensitivity. The damage state of the recycled concrete is not only the destruction of the interface between coarse aggregate and cement mortar, but also associates with the fracture damage of aggregates. Under the same water cement ratio, when the replacement percentage of coarse aggregates is around 50%-75%, the gradation of natural and recycled coarse aggregate is optimal, and thus the splitting tensile strength is the largest. This study offers theoretical basis for the engineering applications of recycled concrete.

  5. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Moro


    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.

  6. SplitRacer - a semi-automatic tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting (United States)

    Reiss, Miriam Christina; Rümpker, Georg


    We present a semi-automatic, graphical user interface tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting in MATLAB. Shear wave splitting analysis is a standard tool to infer seismic anisotropy, which is often interpreted as due to lattice-preferred orientation of e.g. mantle minerals or shape-preferred orientation caused by cracks or alternating layers in the lithosphere and hence provides a direct link to the earth's kinematic processes. The increasing number of permanent stations and temporary experiments result in comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. Their successive comparison with a growing number of global models of mantle flow further advances our understanding the earth's interior. However, increasingly large data sets pose the inevitable question as to how to process them. Well-established routines and programs are accurate but often slow and impractical for analyzing a large amount of data. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same quality criteria which complicates a straight-forward comparison. SplitRacer consists of several processing steps: i) download of data per FDSNWS, ii) direct reading of miniSEED-files and an initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold. iii) an analysis of the particle motion of selected phases and successive correction of the sensor miss-alignment based on the long-axis of the particle motion. iv) splitting analysis of selected events: seismograms are first rotated into radial and transverse components, then the energy-minimization method is applied, which provides the polarization and delay time of the phase. To estimate errors, the analysis is done for different randomly-chosen time windows. v) joint-splitting analysis for all events for one station, where the energy content of all phases is inverted simultaneously. This allows to decrease the influence of noise and to increase robustness of the measurement

  7. Evaluation of a new venous catheter blood draw device and its impact on specimen hemolysis rates. (United States)

    Natali, Ruth; Wand, Cara; Doyle, Kelly; Noguez, Jaime H


    Blood collections from peripheral intravenous catheters offer several benefits to patients, including reduced needle punctures and patient discomfort, but they risk reducing the quality of blood specimens analyzed by the laboratory. In an effort to balance analytical quality of test results with patient-centered care initiatives, a needle-less blood collection device called PIVO™ was evaluated at two institutions. The primary objective of this study was to assess the ability of the PIVO™ device to provide high-quality blood specimens for laboratory testing compared to current blood collection methods. Blood specimens drawn using the PIVO™ device were prospectively flagged. A retrospective review was performed comparing the degree and rate of hemolysis for PIVO™ blood collections to both concurrent and historical hemolysis rates for other collection methods. Approximately 7600 PIVO™ blood draws were performed across the two institutions. The hemolysis rates of samples collected with PIVO™ were evaluated using 2380 flagged collections, containing approximately 1200 test orders requiring hemolysis index measurements. The hemolysis rate of PIVO™-flagged samples (1.8%) was statistically superior to the venipuncture and central line blood collection methods (3.3%), reducing the risk of hemolysis during a venous blood draw by 39%. PIVO™ collections facilitated improvement in the rate and degree of sample hemolysis when compared to venipuncture and central line blood collections. These findings suggest that PIVO™ is capable of delivering samples that are superior to current blood collection methods in terms of hemolysis rate as well as reducing the number of invasive venipunctures required for laboratory testing.

  8. Bio Engineering Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...


    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory provides biomechanical and physical analyses for both military and commercial footwear. The laboratory contains equipment that is integral to the us...

  10. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  11. Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research performs preclinical characterization of nanomaterials...

  12. Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...

  13. Stirling Laboratory Research Engine: Preprototype configuration report (United States)

    Hoehn, F. W.


    The concept of a simple Stirling research engine that could be used by industrial, university, and government laboratories was studied. The conceptual and final designs, hardware fabrication and the experimental validation of a preprototype stirling laboratory research engine (SLRE) were completed. Also completed was a task to identify the potential markets for research engines of this type. An analytical effort was conducted to provide a stirling cycle computer model. The versatile engine is a horizontally opposed, two piston, single acting stirling engine with a split crankshaft drive mechanism; special instrumentation is installed at all component interfaces. Results of a thermodynamic energy balance for the system are reported. Also included are the engine performance results obtained over a range of speeds, working pressures, phase angles and gas temperatures. The potential for a stirling research engine to support the laboratory requirements of educators and researchers was demonstrated.

  14. The Differences Between Stock Splits and Stock Dividends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Raaballe, Johannes

    It is often asserted that stock splits and stock dividends are purely cosmetic events. However, many studies have documented several stock market effects associated with stock splits and stock dividends. This paper examines the effects of these two types of events for the Danish stock market...... different. Second, the positive stock market reaction is closely related to associated changes in a firm's payout policy, but the relationship varies for the two types of events. Finally, there is only very weak evidence for a change in the liquidity of the stock. On the whole, after controlling...... for the firm's payout policy, the results suggest that a stock split is a cosmetic event and that a stock dividend on its own is considered negative news....

  15. Electron refrigeration in hybrid structures with spin-split superconductors (United States)

    Rouco, M.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Bergeret, F. S.


    Electron tunneling between superconductors and normal metals has been used for an efficient refrigeration of electrons in the latter. Such cooling is a nonlinear effect and usually requires a large voltage. Here we study the electron cooling in heterostructures based on superconductors with a spin-splitting field coupled to normal metals via spin-filtering barriers. The cooling power shows a linear term in the applied voltage. This improves the coefficient of performance of electron refrigeration in the normal metal by shifting its optimum cooling to lower voltage, and also allows for cooling the spin-split superconductor by reverting the sign of the voltage. We also show how tunnel coupling spin-split superconductors with regular ones allows for a highly efficient refrigeration of the latter.

  16. Giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3: Tl

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra


    First-principles calculations are employed to demonstrate a giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3:Tl. Biaxial tensile and compressive strain is used to tune the splitting by modifying the potential gradient. The band gap is found to increase under compression and decreases under tension, whereas the dependence of the Rashba spin splitting on the strain is the opposite. Large values of αR = 1.57 eV Å at the bottom of the conduction band (electrons) and αR = 3.34 eV Å at the top of the valence band (holes) are obtained without strain. These values can be further enhanced to αR = 1.83 eV Å and αR = 3.64 eV Å, respectively, by 2% tensile strain. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Stride length asymmetry in split-belt locomotion. (United States)

    Hoogkamer, Wouter; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Duysens, Jacques


    The number of studies utilizing a split-belt treadmill is rapidly increasing in recent years. This has led to some confusion regarding the definitions of reported gait parameters. The purpose of this paper is to clearly present the definitions of the gait parameters that are commonly used in split-belt treadmill studies. We argue that the modified version of stride length for split-belt gait, which is different from the standard definition of stride length and actually is a measure of limb excursion, should be referred to as 'limb excursion' in future studies. Furthermore, the symmetry of stride length and stride time is specifically addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Geometric inductance effects in the spectrum of split transmon qubits (United States)

    Brierley, R. T.; Blumoff, J.; Chou, K.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Girvin, S. M.


    The low-energy spectra of transmon superconducting qubits in a cavity can be accurately calculated using the black-box quantization approach. This method involves finding the normal modes of the circuit with a linearized Josephson junction and using these as the basis in which to express the non-linear terms. A split transmon qubit consists of two Josephson junctions in a SQUID loop. This configuration allows the Josephson energy to be tuned by applying external flux. Ideally, the system otherwise behaves as a conventional transmon with a single effective Josephson junction. However, the finite geometric inductance of the SQUID loop causes deviations from the simplest ideal description of a split transmon. This alters both the linearized and non-linear behaviour of the Josephson junctions in the superconducting circuit. We study how these changes can be incorporated into the black-box quantization approach and their effects on the low-energy spectrum of the split transmon.

  19. Point splitting in a curved space-time background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggatt, P.A.J.; Macfarlane, A.J.


    A prescription is given for point splitting in a curved space-time background which is a natural generalization of that familiar in quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills theory. It is applied (to establish its validity) to the verification of the gravitational anomaly in the divergence of a fermion axial current. Notable features of the prescription are that it defines a point-split current that can be differentiated straightforwardly, and that it involves a natural way of averaging (four-dimensionally) over the directions of point splitting. The method can extend directly from the spin-1/2 fermion case treated to other cases, e.g., to spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fermions. (author)

  20. Splitting rules for spectra of two-dimensional Fibonacci quasilattices (United States)

    Yang, Xiangbo; Liu, Youyan


    In the framework of the single-electron tight-binding on-site model, after establishing the method of constructing a class of two-dimensional Fibonacci quasilattices, we have studied the rules of energy spectra splitting for these quasilattices by means of a decomposition-decimation method based on the renormalization-group technique. Under the first approximation, the analytic results show that there exist only six kinds of clusters and the electronic energy bands split as type Y and consist of nine subbands. Instead of the on-site model, the transfer model should be used for the higher hierarchy of the spectra, the electronic energy spectra split as type F. The analytic results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  1. Tantalum nitride for photocatalytic water splitting: concept and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela Nurlaela


    Full Text Available Abstract Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This review focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, catalytic efficiency, and mass transfer of the reactants. An overview of collaborative experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting using Ta3N5 is discussed.

  2. Split and delay photon correlation spectroscopy with a visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasch, Marten


    The development and performance of a setup constructed with the aim for the split pulse photon correlation spectroscopy is presented in this thesis. The double pulse time structure is accomplished with help of an Acusto-Optic Modulator (AOM) crystal, which mimics the splitting and delaying of photon pulses. The setup provides double pulses and allows to control the pulse width and delay and to synchronize them into one camera exposure window. The performance of the setup was successfully verified in a proof of principle experiment with a model system of polystyrene particles following Brownian motion. The measured radius of particles obtained with from the split pulse experiment (R h =(2.567±0.097) μm) is in agreement with the particle size provided by the manufacturer (R=(2.26±0.08) μm). The achieved results show higher statistics compared to a standard Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurement.

  3. Guidelines to Develop Efficient Photocatalysts for Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.


    Photocatalytic overall water splitting is the only viable solar-to-fuel conversion technology. The research discloses an investigation process wherein by dissecting the photocatalytic water splitting device, electrocatalysts, and semiconductor photocatalysts can be independently studied, developed and optimized. The assumption of perfect catalysts leads to the realization that semiconductors are the limiting factor in photocatalysis. This dissertation presents a guideline for efficient photocatalysis using semiconductor particles developed from idealized theoretical simulations. No perfect catalysts exist; then the discussion focus on the development of efficient non-noble metal electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution from water reduction. Tungsten carbide (WC) is selective for the catalysis of hydrogen without the introduction of the reverse reaction of water formation, which is critical to achieving photocatalytic overall water splitting as demonstrated in this work. Finally, photoelectrochemistry is used to characterize thoroughly Cu-based p-type semiconductors with potential for large-scale manufacture. Artificial photosynthesis may be achieved by following the recommendations herein presented.

  4. Rabi splitting in an acoustic cavity embedded plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Xu; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Ze-Guo; Zheng, Li-Yang; Xu, Ye-Long; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng


    We design a structure to realize Rabi splitting and Rabi oscillation in acoustics. We develop rigorous analytical models to analyze the splitting effect from the aspect of phase matching, and from the aspect of mode coupling using a coupled mode model. In this model, we discover that the splitting effect is caused by the coupling of the Fabry–Perot fundamental mode with the resonant mode of an artificial acoustic ‘atom’. We then extract the coupling strength and analyze the impact of structural parameters on it. In addition, we demonstrate Rabi oscillation in the time domain. Such quantum phenomena in the classical regime may have potential applications in the design of novel ultrasonic devices.

  5. Immediate Loaded Implants in Split-Crest Procedure. (United States)

    Crespi, Roberto; Bruschi, Giovanni B; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Capparé, Paolo; Gherlone, Enrico F


    The aim of this study was to assess survival rate of immediate loading implants placed after split-crest technique. Thirty-six patients were enrolled in the study. They underwent placement of 93 dental implants in edentulous region after split-crest ridge expansion procedure. Implants followed an immediate loading procedure. Crestal bone levels were measured at baseline, at temporary prosthesis placement, at 1 year, and at 2 years from implant placement. For dental implants, a survival rate of 98.92% was reported at 2-year follow-up, with a mean value bone loss of -1.02 ± 0.48. This study assessed immediate loading implant placement after split-crest procedure at 2-year follow-up. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao


    Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.

  7. Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Ken; Shindo, Daisuke


    Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible

  8. Tantalum nitride for photocatalytic water splitting: concept and applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela


    Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This review focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, catalytic efficiency, and mass transfer of the reactants. An overview of collaborative experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting using Ta3N5 is discussed.

  9. A comparison between kinetic flux vector splitting and flux difference splitting methods in solution of Euler equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaei, M.; Shahverdi, M.


    This paper is proposed to compare the performances of deferent inviscid flux approximation methods in solution of two-dimensional Euler equations. The methods belong to two different group of flux splitting methods: flux difference splitting (FDS) methods and kinetic flux vector splitting (KFVS) method. Here Roe method and Osher method belonging to flux difference splitting (FDS) group have been employed and their performances are compared with that of kinetic flux vector splitting method (KFVS). Roe and Osher methods are based on approximate solution of Riemann problem over computational cell surfaces while the KFVS has a quit different base. In KFVS inviscid fluxes are approximated based on the kinetic theory and correlation between Boltzmann equation and Euler equations. For comparison the performances of the above mentioned methods three different problems have been solved. The first problem is flow over a 10 degree compression-expansion ramp with Mach number of 2.0, the second one is a transonic flow with Mach number of 0.85 over a 4.2% circular bump in a duct and the third is supersonic flow with Mach number of 3.0 over a circular blunt slab. (author)

  10. Splitting and non splitting are pollution models photochemical reactions in the urban areas of greater Tehran area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarinasab, A.; Dabir, B.; Sahimi, M.; Badii, Kh.


    During the past years, one of the most important problems has been air pollution in urban areas. In this regards, ozone, as one of the major products of photochemical reactions, has great importance. The term 'photochemical' is applied to a number of secondary pollutants that appear as a result of sun-related reactions, ozone being the most important one. So far various models have been suggested to predict these pollutants. In this paper, we developed the model that has been introduced by Dabir, et al. [4]. In this model more than 48 chemical species and 114 chemical reactions are involved. The result of this development, showed good to excellent agreement across the region for compounds such as O 3 , NO, NO 2 , CO, and SO 2 with regard to VOC and NMHC. The results of the simulation were compared with previous work [4] and the effects of increasing the number of components and reactions were evaluated. The results of the operator splitting method were compared with non splitting solving method. The result showed that splitting method with one-tenth time step collapsed with non splitting method (Crank-Nicolson, under-relaxation iteration method without splitting of the equation terms). Then we developed one dimensional model to 3-D and were compared with experimental data

  11. Screening current induced magnetic field in REBCO superconducting coil wound by using split wire having intermittent inner split (United States)

    Matsuda, Tetsuro; Jin, Xinzhe; Okamura, Tetsuji


    REBCO-coated conductor having a high critical current is promising for applications in next generation apparatuses such as ultra-high field NMR, high-resolution MRI, and high-precision accelerator. However, it has an important challenge for application in NMR and MRI, due to the single core in REBCO superconducting layer. The single core induces a large screening current-induced magnetic field (screening current field), and it influences the controlling of center field in NMR/MRI magnet. To reduce the screening current field, we have recently developed a split wire having multi-core structure by inner split method (electrical separation by bending stress, ESBS). In experiment, short samples with linear inner split by a large bending stress of 80 N were prepared and tested. However, to fabricate a long length wire with good quality, it is better to use a smaller bending stress. In this study, a low-bending-stress inner split method is used to fabricate superconducting tapes with longitudinal split in their superconducting layer. The fabrication and experimental assessments for the wire and coil are carried out.

  12. Tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting. (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Jijie; Gong, Jinlong


    Solar energy utilization is one of the most promising solutions for the energy crises. Among all the possible means to make use of solar energy, solar water splitting is remarkable since it can accomplish the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. The produced hydrogen is clean and sustainable which could be used in various areas. For the past decades, numerous efforts have been put into this research area with many important achievements. Improving the overall efficiency and stability of semiconductor photocatalysts are the research focuses for the solar water splitting. Tantalum-based semiconductors, including tantalum oxide, tantalate and tantalum (oxy)nitride, are among the most important photocatalysts. Tantalum oxide has the band gap energy that is suitable for the overall solar water splitting. The more negative conduction band minimum of tantalum oxide provides photogenerated electrons with higher potential for the hydrogen generation reaction. Tantalates, with tunable compositions, show high activities owning to their layered perovskite structure. (Oxy)nitrides, especially TaON and Ta3N5, have small band gaps to respond to visible-light, whereas they can still realize overall solar water splitting with the proper positions of conduction band minimum and valence band maximum. This review describes recent progress regarding the improvement of photocatalytic activities of tantalum-based semiconductors. Basic concepts and principles of solar water splitting will be discussed in the introduction section, followed by the three main categories regarding to the different types of tantalum-based semiconductors. In each category, synthetic methodologies, influencing factors on the photocatalytic activities, strategies to enhance the efficiencies of photocatalysts and morphology control of tantalum-based materials will be discussed in detail. Future directions to further explore the research area of tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting

  13. Rabi-like splitting from large area plasmonic microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hosseini Alast


    Full Text Available Rabi-like splitting was observed from a hybrid plasmonic microcavity. The splitting comes from the coupling of cavity mode with the surface plasmon polariton mode; anti-crossing was observed alongside the modal conversional channel on the reflection light measurement. The hybrid device consists of a 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating integrated onto the Fabry-Perot microcavity. The 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating fabricated from laser interference and the area is sufficiently large to be used in the practical optical device. The larger area hybrid plasmonic microcavity can be employed in polariton lasers and biosensors.

  14. Optimal Cross-Validation Split Ratio: Experimental Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan


    Cross-validation is a common method for assessing the generalisation ability of a model in order to tune a regularisation parameter or otherhyper-parameters of a learning process. The use of cross-validation requires to set yet an additional parameter, the split rati. While a few texts haveinvest......Cross-validation is a common method for assessing the generalisation ability of a model in order to tune a regularisation parameter or otherhyper-parameters of a learning process. The use of cross-validation requires to set yet an additional parameter, the split rati. While a few texts...

  15. Crystal Splitting in the Growth of Bi2S3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jing; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    Novel Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanostructures with a sheaf-like morphology are obtained via reaction of bismuth acetate-oleic acid complex with elemental sulfur in 1-octadecence. We propose these structures form by the splitting crystal growth mechanism, which is known to account for the morphology some mineral crystals assume in nature. By controlling the synthetic parameters, different forms of splitting, analogous to observed in minerals, are obtained in our case of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}. These new and complex Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanostructures are characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD and ED.

  16. SiC MOSFETs based split output half bridge inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon


    output. The double pulse test shows the devices' current during commutation process and the reduced switching losses of SiC MOSFETs compared to that of the traditional half bridge. The efficiency comparison is presented with experimental results of half bridge power inverter with split output...... and traditional half bridge inverter, from switching frequency 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The experimental results comparison shows that the half bridge with split output has an efficiency improvement of more than 0.5% at 100 kHz switching frequency....

  17. Cooper Pair Splitting by Means of Graphene Quantum Dots (United States)

    Tan, Z. B.; Cox, D.; Nieminen, T.; Lähteenmäki, P.; Golubev, D.; Lesovik, G. B.; Hakonen, P. J.


    A split Cooper pair is a natural source for entangled electrons which is a basic ingredient for quantum information in the solid state. We report an experiment on a superconductor-graphene double quantum dot (QD) system, in which we observe Cooper pair splitting (CPS) up to a CPS efficiency of ˜10 % . With bias on both QDs, we are able to detect a positive conductance correlation across the two distinctly decoupled QDs. Furthermore, with bias only on one QD, CPS and elastic cotunneling can be distinguished by tuning the energy levels of the QDs to be asymmetric or symmetric with respect to the Fermi level in the superconductor.

  18. Frobenius splitting and geometry of $G$-Schubert varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xuhua; Thomsen, Jesper Funch


    Let X be an equivariant embedding of a connected reductive group G over an algebraically closed field k of positive characteristic. Let B denote a Borel subgroup of G. A G-Schubert variety in X is a subvariety of the form diag(G) V , where V is a B×B -orbit closure in X. In the case where X...... admits a stable Frobenius splitting along an ample divisors. Although this indicates that G-Schubert varieties have nice singularities we present an example of a nonnormal G-Schubert variety in the wonderful compactification of a group of type G2 . Finally we also extend the Frobenius splitting results...

  19. Modulated-splitting-ratio fiber-optic temperature sensor (United States)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Rys, John R.; Fritsch, Klaus; Ruppe, Walter R.


    A fiber-optic temperature sensor is described that uses a small silicon beamsplitter whose splitting ratio varies as a function of temperature. A four-beam technique is used to measure the sensor's temperature-indicating splitting ratio. This referencing method provides a measurement that is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's optical fiber link. A significant advantage of this sensor, relative to other fiber-optic sensors, is its high stability, which permits the fiber-optic components to be readily substituted, thereby simplifying the sensor's installation and maintenance.

  20. Split-plot Experiments with Unusual Numbers of Subplot Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat


    In many experimental situations, it may not be feasible or even possible to run experiments in a completely randomized fashion as usually recommended. Under these circumstances, split-plot experiments in which certain factors are changed less frequently than the others are often used. Most...... of the literature on split-plot designs is based on 2-level factorials. For those designs, the number of subplots is a power of 2. There may however be some situations where for cost purposes or physical constraints, we may need to have unusual number of subplots such as 3, 5, 6, etc. In this article, we explore...

  1. Novel Split Chest Tube Improves Post-Surgical Thoracic Drainage (United States)

    Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H; Cherry, Brandon H; Gurji, Hunaid A; White, Daniel W; Newton, J Tyler; Scott, Gary F; Hoxha, Besim; Gourlay, Terence; Mallet, Robert T


    Objective Conventional, separate mediastinal and pleural tubes are often inefficient at draining thoracic effusions. Description We developed a Y-shaped chest tube with split ends that divide within the thoracic cavity, permitting separate intrathoracic placement and requiring a single exit port. In this study, thoracic drainage by the split drain vs. that of separate drains was tested. Methods After sternotomy, pericardiotomy, and left pleurotomy, pigs were fitted with separate chest drains (n=10) or a split tube prototype (n=9) with internal openings positioned in the mediastinum and in the costo-diaphragmatic recess. Separate series of experiments were conducted to test drainage of D5W or 0.58 M sucrose, an aqueous solution with viscosity approximating that of plasma. One litre of fluid was infused into the thorax, and suction was applied at −20 cm H2O for 30 min. Results When D5W was infused, the split drain left a residual volume of 53 ± 99 ml (mean value ± SD) vs. 148 ± 120 for the separate drain (P=0.007), representing a drainage efficiency (i.e. drained vol/[drained + residual vol]) of 95 ± 10% vs. 86 ± 12% for the separate drains (P = 0.011). In the second series, the split drain evacuated more 0.58 M sucrose in the first minute (967 ± 129 ml) than the separate drains (680 ± 192 ml, P<0.001). By 30 min, the split drain evacuated a similar volume of sucrose vs. the conventional drain (1089 ± 72 vs. 1056 ± 78 ml; P = 0.5). Residual volume tended to be lower (25 ± 10 vs. 62 ± 72 ml; P = 0.128) and drainage efficiency tended to be higher (98 ± 1 vs. 95 ± 6%; P = 0.111) with the split drain vs. conventional separate drains. Conclusion The split chest tube drained the thoracic cavity at least as effectively as conventional separate tubes. This new device could potentially alleviate postoperative complications. PMID:25478289

  2. High-resolution simulations of unstable cylindrical gravity currents undergoing wandering and splitting motions in a rotating system (United States)

    Dai, Albert; Wu, Ching-Sen


    High-resolution simulations of unstable cylindrical gravity currents when wandering and splitting motions occur in a rotating system are reported. In this study, our attention is focused on the situation of unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents when the ratio of Coriolis to inertia forces is larger, namely, 0.5 ≤ C ≤ 2.0, in comparison to the stable ones when C ≤ 0.3 as investigated previously by the authors. The simulations reproduce the major features of the unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents observed in the laboratory, i.e., vortex-wandering or vortex-splitting following the contraction-relaxation motion, and good agreement is found when compared with the experimental results on the outrush radius of the advancing front and on the number of bulges. Furthermore, the simulations provide energy budget information which could not be attained in the laboratory. After the heavy fluid is released, the heavy fluid collapses and a contraction-relaxation motion is at work for approximately 2-3 revolutions of the system. During the contraction-relaxation motion of the heavy fluid, the unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents behave similar to the stable ones. Towards the end of the contraction-relaxation motion, the dissipation rate in the system reaches a local minimum and a quasi-geostrophic equilibrium state is reached. After the quasi-geostrophic equilibrium state, vortex-wandering or vortex-splitting may occur depending on the ratio of Coriolis to inertia forces. The vortex-splitting process begins with non-axisymmetric bulges and, as the bulges grow, the kinetic energy increases at the expense of decreasing potential energy in the system. The completion of vortex-splitting is accompanied by a local maximum of dissipation rate and a local maximum of kinetic energy in the system. A striking feature of the unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents is the persistent upwelling and downwelling motions, which are observed for both the

  3. ARCTOS: a relational database relating specimens, specimen-based science, and archival documentation (United States)

    Jarrell, Gordon H.; Ramotnik, Cindy A.; McDonald, D.L.


    Data are preserved when they are perpetually discoverable, but even in the Information Age, discovery of legacy data appropriate to particular investigations is uncertain. Secure Internet storage is necessary but insufficient. Data can be discovered only when they are adequately described, and visibility increases markedly if the data are related to other data that are receiving usage. Such relationships can be built within (1) the framework of a relational database, or (1) they can be built among separate resources, within the framework of the Internet. Evolving primarily around biological collections, Arctos is a database that does both of these tasks. It includes data structures for a diversity of specimen attributes, essentially all collection-management tasks, plus literature citations, project descriptions, etc. As a centralized collaboration of several university museums, Arctos is an ideal environment for capitalizing on the many relationships that often exist between items in separate collections. Arctos is related to NIH’s DNA-sequence repository (GenBank) with record-to-record reciprocal linkages, and it serves data to several discipline-specific web portals, including the Global Biodiversity Information Network (GBIF). The University of Alaska Museum’s paleontological collection is Arctos’s recent extension beyond the constraints of neontology. With about 1.3 million cataloged items, additional collections are being added each year.

  4. Role of microscopic examination of stool specimens in the diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stain of the stool in diagnosis of campylobacter infection, using culture as the gold standard. A total of 226 stool specimens were obtained from children with acute diarrhoea, attending Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Stool smears were ...

  5. Elemental microanalysis of botanical specimens using the Melbourne Proton Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolini, A.P.J.; Legge, G.J.F.


    A proton microprobe has been used to obtain the distribution of elements of various botanical specimens. This paper presents preliminary results obtained by the irradiation of certain organs of the wheat plant

  6. Tensile and Creep Testing of Sanicro 25 Using Miniature Specimens (United States)

    Dymáček, Petr; Jarý, Milan; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Kloc, Luboš


    Tensile and creep properties of new austenitic steel Sanicro 25 at room temperature and operating temperature 700 °C were investigated by testing on miniature specimens. The results were correlated with testing on conventional specimens. Very good agreement of results was obtained, namely in yield and ultimate strength, as well as short-term creep properties. Although the creep rupture time was found to be systematically shorter and creep ductility lower in the miniature test, the minimum creep rates were comparable. The analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed similar ductile fracture morphology for both specimen geometries. One exception was found in a small area near the miniature specimen edge that was cut by electro discharge machining, where an influence of the steel fracture behavior at elevated temperature was identified. PMID:29337867

  7. Ultra high vacuum heating and rotating specimen stage (United States)

    Coombs, A.W. III


    A heating and rotating specimen stage provides for simultaneous specimen heating and rotating. The stage is ideally suited for operation in ultrahigh vacuum (1{times}10{sup {minus}9} torr or less), but is useful at atmosphere and in pressurized systems as well. A specimen is placed on a specimen holder that is attached to a heater that, in turn, is attached to a top housing. The top housing is rotated relative to a bottom housing and electrically connected thereto by electrically conductive brushes. This stage is made of materials that are compatible with UHV, able to withstand high temperatures, possess low outgassing rates, are gall and seize resistant, and are able to carry substantial electrical loading without overheating. 5 figs.

  8. Tensile and Creep Testing of Sanicro 25 Using Miniature Specimens. (United States)

    Dymáček, Petr; Jarý, Milan; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Kloc, Luboš


    Tensile and creep properties of new austenitic steel Sanicro 25 at room temperature and operating temperature 700 °C were investigated by testing on miniature specimens. The results were correlated with testing on conventional specimens. Very good agreement of results was obtained, namely in yield and ultimate strength, as well as short-term creep properties. Although the creep rupture time was found to be systematically shorter and creep ductility lower in the miniature test, the minimum creep rates were comparable. The analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed similar ductile fracture morphology for both specimen geometries. One exception was found in a small area near the miniature specimen edge that was cut by electro discharge machining, where an influence of the steel fracture behavior at elevated temperature was identified.

  9. Tensile and Creep Testing of Sanicro 25 Using Miniature Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dymáček


    Full Text Available Tensile and creep properties of new austenitic steel Sanicro 25 at room temperature and operating temperature 700 °C were investigated by testing on miniature specimens. The results were correlated with testing on conventional specimens. Very good agreement of results was obtained, namely in yield and ultimate strength, as well as short-term creep properties. Although the creep rupture time was found to be systematically shorter and creep ductility lower in the miniature test, the minimum creep rates were comparable. The analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed similar ductile fracture morphology for both specimen geometries. One exception was found in a small area near the miniature specimen edge that was cut by electro discharge machining, where an influence of the steel fracture behavior at elevated temperature was identified.

  10. Specimen size effects on the tensile strength and fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teran, J.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Hallen, J. M.; Martinez, M.


    In this work, an experimental research was conducted to determine size and orientation effects on tension and toughness properties through CTOD-R curves, using standard and miniature specimens taken from a structural steel plate.Compliance function estimation for the miniature size sample through load-displacement curves was considered. Experimental and statistical results showed that size and orientation affect tensioned toughness properties. The miniature tension test specimens showed strength values slightly greater than the standard ones but with less ductility. Miniature specimen CTOD-R curves showed sensibility to load changes and measurement method of crack aperture and crack length. Inconsistency in fracture toughness for specimen orientation longitudinal circumferential (LC) regarding size effect was also observed. Short orientations showed less strength and toughness than the other directions. (Author) 27 refs

  11. Old Plants, New Tricks: Phenological Research Using Herbarium Specimens. (United States)

    Willis, Charles G; Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Primack, Richard B; Davis, Charles C; Pearson, Katelin D; Gallinat, Amanda S; Yost, Jenn M; Nelson, Gil; Mazer, Susan J; Rossington, Natalie L; Sparks, Tim H; Soltis, Pamela S


    The timing of phenological events, such as leaf-out and flowering, strongly influence plant success and their study is vital to understanding how plants will respond to climate change. Phenological research, however, is often limited by the temporal, geographic, or phylogenetic scope of available data. Hundreds of millions of plant specimens in herbaria worldwide offer a potential solution to this problem, especially as digitization efforts drastically improve access to collections. Herbarium specimens represent snapshots of phenological events and have been reliably used to characterize phenological responses to climate. We review the current state of herbarium-based phenological research, identify potential biases and limitations in the collection, digitization, and interpretation of specimen data, and discuss future opportunities for phenological investigations using herbarium specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Letter to the editor The number of urine specimens for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adult-with-asymptomatic- bacteriuria. Letter to the editor. The number of urine specimens for bacteriological examination in women. Ertugrul Guclu, Tuba Damar, Oguz Karabay. 1. Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, ...

  13. Verification of split spectrum technique for ultrasonic inspection of welded structures in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, L.; Stepinski, T.


    Ultrasonic nondestructive inspection of materials is often limited by the presence of backscattered echoes from the material structure. A digital signal processing technique for removal of this material noise, referred to as split spectrum processing (SSP), has been developed and verified using simple laboratory experiments during the last decade. However, application of the split spectrum processing algorithm to industrial conditions has been rarely reported. In the paper the results of the practical evaluation of the SSP technique are presented. A number of different ultrasonic transducers were used for acquiring echoes from artificial flaws as well as natural cracks. The flaws were located in test blocks employed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Companies as reference during ultrasonic inspection of nuclear reactor vessels. The acquired ultrasonic A-scan signals were processed off-line using specially developed algorithms on a personal computer (PC). The experiments show evidence that properly tuned SSP algorithms result in a considerable improvement of the signal to material noise ratio. The enhancements were similar irrespective of the features of the transducer used or the nature of the inspected flaw. The problems related to the development of self-tuning SSP algorithms for on-line processing of B-scans are discussed. (author)

  14. Boxer crabs induce asexual reproduction of their associated sea anemones by splitting and intraspecific theft. (United States)

    Schnytzer, Yisrael; Giman, Yaniv; Karplus, Ilan; Achituv, Yair


    Crabs of the genus Lybia have the remarkable habit of holding a sea anemone in each of their claws. This partnership appears to be obligate, at least on the part of the crab. The present study focuses on Lybia leptochelis from the Red Sea holding anemones of the genus Alicia (family Aliciidae). These anemones have not been found free living, only in association with L. leptochelis . In an attempt to understand how the crabs acquire them, we conducted a series of behavioral experiments and molecular analyses. Laboratory observations showed that the removal of one anemone from a crab induces a "splitting" behavior, whereby the crab tears the remaining anemone into two similar parts, resulting in a complete anemone in each claw after regeneration. Furthermore, when two crabs, one holding anemones and one lacking them, are confronted, the crabs fight, almost always leading to the "theft" of a complete anemone or anemone fragment by the crab without them. Following this, crabs "split" their lone anemone into two. Individuals of Alicia sp. removed from freshly collected L. leptochelis were used for DNA analysis. By employing AFLP (Fluorescence Amplified Fragments Length Polymorphism) it was shown that each pair of anemones from a given crab is genetically identical. Furthermore, there is genetic identity between most pairs of anemone held by different crabs, with the others showing slight genetic differences. This is a unique case in which one animal induces asexual reproduction of another, consequently also affecting its genetic diversity.

  15. Failed PCR of Ganoderma type specimens affects nomenclature. (United States)

    Paterson, R R M; Lima, N


    The nomenclature of Ganoderma used as a Chinese medicine is debated. A group of researchers could not amplify the DNA of type specimens and concluded the DNA was degraded irreparably. New topotypes were used as the type specimens which was premature. The use of internal amplification controls is recommended to determine if other factors were involved as alternative explanations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intraoperative specimen radiography in patients with nonpalpable malignant breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmachtenberg, C.; Engelken, F.; Fischer, T.; Bick, U.; Poellinger, A.; Fallenberg, E.M. [Charite, Berlin (Germany). Radiology


    Purpose: Specimen mammography of nonpalpable wire-localized breast lesions is the standard in breast-conserving surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intraoperative 2-view specimen mammography in different cancer types. Materials and Methods: After ethics approval, 3 readers retrospectively evaluated margins on 266 2-view specimen radiographs. They determined the closest margin and the orientation. The results were correlated with the histopathology (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] and contingency coefficient [CC]) and compared (Wilcoxon test). Results: Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was present in 115 (43 %), IDC in 75 (28 %), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) in 57 (22 %) and rare cancers (CA) in 19 specimens (7 %). The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive value (P/NPV) of specimen mammography were 0.50/0.86 and 0.86/0.50 for CA, 0.42/0.68 and 0.48/0.63 for IDC, 0.36/0.81 and 0.69/0.51 for ILC, and 0.22/0.78 and 0.68/0.32 for IDC+DCIS. Readers correctly identified the orientation of the closest margin in at least one view in an average of 149 specimens (56 %). CCs were between 0.680 (IDC) and 0.912 (CA), suggesting a moderate correlation between radiographic and histological orientation. The correlations were worse for the radiographic and histological distances, with ICC ranging from 0.238 (ILC) to 0.475 (CA). The Wilcoxon test revealed overestimation of the radiographic margins compared to the histological ones for DCIS. Conclusion: Our results suggest that specimen radiography has relatively good overall specificity and good PPV, while the sensitivity and NPV are low for DCIS. A negative result on specimen radiography does not rule out histologically involved margins. (orig.)

  17. Improved PID control for triaxial testing liquefied specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Using a frictionless triaxial apparatus, sand specimens can be tested at relatively high axial strains, even while liquefying. However, liquefying specimens have extremely nonlinear stiffness, thus standard PID control does not perform well. To maintain control over applied loads, the PID...... controller was modified to adapt to disturbed soil states. The proposed methods expand the scope of testing towards options which are otherwise inaccessible by triaxial testing....

  18. Influence of thermal conditioning media on Charpy specimen test temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Swain, R.L.; Berggren, R.G.


    The Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact test is used extensively for determining the toughness of structural materials. Research programs in many technologies concerned with structural integrity perform such testing to obtain Charpy energy vs temperature curves. American Society for Testing and Materials Method E 23 includes rather strict requirements regarding determination and control of specimen test temperature. It specifies minimum soaking times dependent on the use of liquids or gases as the medium for thermally conditioning the specimen. The method also requires that impact of the specimen occur within 5 s removal from the conditioning medium. It does not, however, provide guidance regarding choice of conditioning media. This investigation was primarily conducted to investigate the changes in specimen temperature which occur when water is used for thermal conditioning. A standard CVN impact specimen of low-alloy steel was instrumented with surface-mounted and embedded thermocouples. Dependent on the media used, the specimen was heated or cooled to selected temperatures in the range -100 to 100 degree C using cold nitrogen gas, heated air, acetone and dry ice, methanol and dry ice, heated oil, or heated water. After temperature stabilization, the specimen was removed from the conditioning medium while the temperatures were recorded four times per second from all thermocouples using a data acquisition system and a computer. The results show that evaporative cooling causes significant changes in the specimen temperatures when water is used for conditioning. Conditioning in the other media did not result in such significant changes. The results demonstrate that, even within the guidelines of E 23, significant test temperature changes can occur which may substantially affect the Charpy impact test results if water is used for temperature conditioning. 7 refs., 11 figs

  19. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Notched Specimen Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtrey, Michael David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Richard Neil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Creep behavior of Alloy 617 has been extensively characterized to support the development of a draft Code Case to qualify Alloy 617 in Section III division 5 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This will allow use of Alloy 617 in construction of nuclear reactor components at elevated temperatures and longer periods of time (up to 950°C and 100,000 hours). Prior to actual use, additional concerns not considered in the ASME code need to be addressed. Code Cases are based largely on uniaxial testing of smooth gage specimens. In service conditions, components will generally be under multi axial loading. There is also the concern of the behavior at discontinuities, such as threaded components. To address the concerns of multi axial creep behavior and at geometric discontinuities, notched specimens have been designed to create conditions representative of the states that service components experience. Two general notch geometries have been used for these series of tests: U notch and V notch specimens. The notches produce a tri axial stress state, though not uniform across the specimen. Characterization of the creep behavior of the U notch specimens and the creep rupture behavior of the V notch specimens provides a good approximation of the behavior expected of actual components. Preliminary testing and analysis have been completed and are reported in this document. This includes results from V notch specimens tested at 900°C and 800°C. Failure occurred in the smooth gage section of the specimen rather than at the root of the notch, though some damage was present at the root of the notch, where initial stress was highest. This indicates notch strengthening behavior in this material at these temperatures.

  20. Innovation for reducing blood culture contamination: initial specimen diversion technique. (United States)

    Patton, Richard G; Schmitt, Timothy


    We hypothesized that diversion of the first milliliter of venipuncture blood-the initial specimen diversion technique (ISDT)-would eliminate incompletely sterilized fragments of skin from the culture specimen and significantly reduce our blood culture contamination rate (R). We studied our hypothesis prospectively beginning with our control culture (C) definition: one venipuncture with two sequentially obtained specimens, 10 ml each, the first specimen (M1) for aerobic and the second (M2) for anaerobic media. The test ISDT culture (D) was identical, with the exception that each was preceded by diverting a 1-ml sample (DS) from the same venipuncture. During the first of two sequential 9-month periods, we captured D versus C data (n=3,733), where DMXR and CMXR are R for D and C specimens. Our hypothesis predicted DS would divert soiled skin fragments from DM1, and therefore, CM1R would be significantly greater than DM1R. This was confirmed by CM1R (30/1,061 [2.8%]) less DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]; P=0.005), which equals 1.4%. For the second 9-month follow-up period, data were compiled for all cultures (n=4,143), where ADMXR is R for all (A) diversion specimens, enabling comparison to test ISDT. Our hypothesis predicted no significant differences for test ISDT versus all ISDT. This was confirmed by DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]) versus ADM1R (42/4,143 [1.0%]; P=0.17) and DM2R (21/2,672 [0.80%]) versus ADM2R (39/4,143 [0.94%]; P=0.50). We conclude that our hypothesis is valid: venipuncture needles soil blood culture specimens with unsterilized skin fragments and increase R, and ISDT significantly reduces R from venipuncture-obtained blood culture specimens.