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Sample records for splendidofilaria caperata hibler

  1. Micro-scale elemental distribution in the thallus of Flavoparmelia caperata transplanted to polluted site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinho, R.M.; Wolterbeek, H.T.; Pinheiro, M.T.; Alves, L.C.; Verburg, T.G.; Freitas, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The elemental microdistributions of peripheral and central parts of the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata exposed to industrial pollution were analysed, in order to better understand the elements distribution patterns in relation to the lichen constitution, thereby increasing our knowledge on uptake and

  2. Epiphytic lichen Flavoparmelia caperata as a sentinel for trace metal pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Widely spread lichen specie Flavoparmelia caperata is used in a biomonitoring study for atmospheric trace metal pollution in natural ecosystems in Southeastern Serbia. The concentration and distribution pattern of 21 metals in lichens were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The difference observed between metal deposition in peripheral and central parts of lichen thalli reflected air quality changes in the last and previous years. These findings were confirmed with principal component analysis. Our study demonstrated the accumulation of Ba, K, Mg, Na, Tl and Zn in peripheral parts of thalli, while As, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Li, Ni, Pb and Se were concentrated in central parts of thalli.

  3. Bioindication of heavy metal pollution in the area of Southeastern Serbia by using epiphytic lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L. Hale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović, T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The content and distribution of 21 metals in the central and peripheral parts of the foliose epiphytic lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L. Hale, collected in the area of Southeastern Serbia, were analysed in terms of biological monitoring. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry revealed higher concentrations of As, B, Ba, Cd, Ga, Pb, Se, Cr, Cu, Fe, In, Li and/or Ni in peripheral, younger, parts and Ba, K, Tl, Mg, Na and/or Zn in central, older parts of lichens. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to identify the relationship among metals in samples and their possible sources. Significant correlations were found among Ni-Cr, Cd-Ga-In-As-Se, Zn-Ba, Cu-Pb-B, suggesting a common source of pollution. Given the location of sampling, these findings probably reflect airborne metal pollution in relation to the main wind directions and vicinity of the roads and industrial complexes. The importance of this study is the evidence that the Special Nature Reserve Jelašnička Gorge is influenced by pollution sources in the area. Flavoparmelia caperata could be effective as an early indicator of environmental changes of the studied area.

  4. Bioaccumulation behaviour of transplants of the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata in relation to total deposition at a polluted location in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinho, R.M.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.; Verburg, T.; Freitas, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment compares the short and long time element accumulation behaviour of transplants of Flavoparmelia caperata lichen thalli and total deposition in an atmospheric polluted area. It was found that lichens exposed for a short time behaved differently from lichens in cumulative exposition suggesting the presence of acclimatization behaviour. The lichen transplant elemental content does not unequivocally represent the average or cumulative environmental availability of the exposure period. Reflection characteristics depend on the element and the lichen physiological conditions. Good correlations between lichen elemental contents and total deposition were obtained when a physiological lichen parameter was introduced in a mathematical model, suggesting that metabolically mediated accumulation is important. - The length of the foregoing atmospheric availability period reflected by lichen elemental contents is element-specific and depends on lichen physiological conditions

  5. Bioaccumulation behaviour of transplants of the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata in relation to total deposition at a polluted location in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinho, R.M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Reactor, Apartado 21, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: rveloso@itn.pt; Wolterbeek, H.Th.; Verburg, T. [Department of Radiation, Radionuclides and Reactors, Section RIH -Radiation and Isotopes in Health, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Technical University Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Freitas, M.C. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Reactor, Apartado 21, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    This experiment compares the short and long time element accumulation behaviour of transplants of Flavoparmelia caperata lichen thalli and total deposition in an atmospheric polluted area. It was found that lichens exposed for a short time behaved differently from lichens in cumulative exposition suggesting the presence of acclimatization behaviour. The lichen transplant elemental content does not unequivocally represent the average or cumulative environmental availability of the exposure period. Reflection characteristics depend on the element and the lichen physiological conditions. Good correlations between lichen elemental contents and total deposition were obtained when a physiological lichen parameter was introduced in a mathematical model, suggesting that metabolically mediated accumulation is important. - The length of the foregoing atmospheric availability period reflected by lichen elemental contents is element-specific and depends on lichen physiological conditions.

  6. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of an Endolichenic Fungus, Aspergillus sp. Isolated from Parmelia caperata of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Srichandan; Das, Devaranjan; Panja, Suraj; Tayung, Kumananda

    2017-06-01

    Endolichenic fungi are microbes that inhabit healthy inner lichen tissues without any disease symptoms. They have been reported to produce new and interesting bioactive metabolites. In the present study, an endolichenic fungus frequently isolated from surface-sterilized lichen thallus of Parmelia caperata has been described. The fungus was identified as Aspergillus tubingensis based on morphological traits and ITS rDNA sequence. Crude metabolites extracted from the culture broth exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity against a panel of clinically significant human pathogens. The fungus showed optimum antimicrobial activity in PDB medium in day 7 of incubation period. PDB medium amended with 1 % NaCl and at alkaline pH was found to be optimal for antimicrobial metabolites production. Enhanced activity was observed when the fungus was exposed briefly to a heat shock of 60 °C during incubation. The metabolites showed optimum λ-max at 214 nm with an absorbance value of 1.589. Molecular characterization of the isolate was carried out by ITS phylogeny and ITS2 secondary structure analyses. The phylogenetic trees based on both ITS rDNA and ITS2 sequences showed the isolate within the clade A. tubingensis. Considering the ubiquity and ambiguity in identifying Aspergillus species of different lifestyles, a method to differentiate pathogenic and endophytic Aspergillus at species level was developed using ITS2 secondary structure analysis. The results showed common folding pattern in the secondary structures with a helix and a 5' dangling end found to be highly conserved. Certain features in the secondary structure like multi-bulges and a symmetric interior loop were observed to be unique which distinguish our isolate from other A. tubingensis.

  7. Elephants for Mr. Lincoln: American Civil War-Era Diplomacy in Southeast Asia, William Strobridge & Anita Hibler

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    Adela Baer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This curious book, which begins with events in the 1810s, emphasizes Burma and Siam but undervalues other parts of Southeast Asia. The title refers to the offer by the king of Siam to send elephants to the United States to help President Lincoln win the Civil War. The book rightly discusses commerce, diplomats, and military actions in Southeast Asia. Missionaries are, for unclear reasons, also given prominence; in fact, much of the authors’ information comes from Protestant missionary sources...

  8. Delft3D-Modelling of Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Processes in San Diego Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    Terrill (SIO Scripps), Dr. Lyle Hibler ( PNL ) and Mark Moline (CalPoly) who are funded separately. LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this effort is...October 3, 2002. RELATED PROJECTS This work is a cooperation with Dr. Eric Terrill (SIO Scripps), Dr. Lyle Hibler ( PNL ) and Mark Moline (CalPoly) who are funded separately. 5

  9. Landmark survey tracks decade of changes in India's rural schools ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... So do free textbooks, now distributed in almost all primary schools. Community ... The authors ascribe that to responsible management of the traditional schooling system, based on government schools and regular teachers, “with a little help from a relatively egalitarian social context.” Michelle Hibler is ...

  10. Better resilience to disasters and improved livelihoods on South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 avr. 2016 ... MSSRF Saving Lives Panel. MSSRF. Michelle Hibler. Research supported by IDRC and the former Canadian International Development Agency ... Solar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan. Des séchoirs à fruits et à légumes fonctionnant à l'énergie solaire aident les résidents de villages reculés du ...

  11. Comparison of three different prehospital wrapping methods for preventing hypothermia - a crossover study in humans

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    Zakariassen Erik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental hypothermia increases mortality and morbidity in trauma patients. Various methods for insulating and wrapping hypothermic patients are used worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare the thermal insulating effects and comfort of bubble wrap, ambulance blankets / quilts, and Hibler's method, a low-cost method combining a plastic outer layer with an insulating layer. Methods Eight volunteers were dressed in moistened clothing, exposed to a cold and windy environment then wrapped using one of the three different insulation methods in random order on three different days. They were rested quietly on their back for 60 minutes in a cold climatic chamber. Skin temperature, rectal temperature, oxygen consumption were measured, and metabolic heat production was calculated. A questionnaire was used for a subjective evaluation of comfort, thermal sensation, and shivering. Results Skin temperature was significantly higher 15 minutes after wrapping using Hibler's method compared with wrapping with ambulance blankets / quilts or bubble wrap. There were no differences in core temperature between the three insulating methods. The subjects reported more shivering, they felt colder, were more uncomfortable, and had an increased heat production when using bubble wrap compared with the other two methods. Hibler's method was the volunteers preferred method for preventing hypothermia. Bubble wrap was the least effective insulating method, and seemed to require significantly higher heat production to compensate for increased heat loss. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a combination of vapour tight layer and an additional dry insulating layer (Hibler's method is the most efficient wrapping method to prevent heat loss, as shown by increased skin temperatures, lower metabolic rate and better thermal comfort. This should then be the method of choice when wrapping a wet patient at risk of developing hypothermia in prehospital

  12. Effects of acute NH3 air pollution on N-sensitive and N-tolerant lichen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Grassi, Alice; Bačkor, Martin; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    Lichens are sensitive to the presence of ammonia (NH3) in the environment. However, in order to use them as reliable indicators in biomonitoring studies, it is necessary to establish unequivocally the occurrence of certain symptoms following the exposure to NH3 in the environment. In this paper, we simulated an episode of acute air pollution due to the release of NH3. The biological effects of acute air pollution by atmospheric NH3 have been investigated using N-sensitive (Flavoparmelia caperata) and N-tolerant (Xanthoria parietina) species. Lichen samples were exposed to ecologically relevant NH3 concentrations for 8 weeks, simulating three areas of impact: a control area (2 μg/m(3)), an area of intermediate impact (2-35 μg/m(3)) and an area of high impact (10-315 μg/m(3)), with a peak of pollution reached between the fourth and fifth week. Ammonia affected both the photobiont and the mycobiont in F. caperata, while in X. parietina only the photosynthetic performance of the photobiont was altered after exposure to the highest concentration. In the photobiont of F. caperata we recorded chlorophyll degradation as indicated by OD435/415 ratio, decrease of the photosynthetic performance (as reflected by the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry FV/FM and the performance index PIABS); in the mycobiont, ergosterol reduction, membrane lipid peroxidation (as reflected by the increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), alteration (decrease) of the secondary metabolite usnic acid. No effects were detected on caperatic acid and dehydrogenase activity. In X. parietina, the only signal determined by NH3 was the alteration of FV/FM and the performance index PIABS. The results suggest that physiological parameters in N-sensitive lichens well reflect the effects of NH3 exposure and can be applied as early indicators in monitoring studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of different mushroom species as indicator organisms[Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, R.; Stensrud, H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    To investigate the differences between accumulation capacity and transfer factor from soil to different mushroom species, 25 species were collected at 9 locations in south and central parts of Norway. Yearly sampling has been carried since 1988 and a total of 1283 samples analysed for {sup 137}Cs. Entire, fresh fruit bodies were collected, homogenized and measured fresh weight. Levels of ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs in Norway were taken from a nationwide sampling program carried out by National Institute of Radiation Hygiene in 1986 following the Chernobyl accident. The estimated ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs (Bq m{sup -2}) and the corresponding activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in mushrooms were used to calculate the ratio between activity concentration in mushroom and ground deposition (transfer factor, TF). Both the mushroom and the soil data are decay corrected to 2004. Considerable differences in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in different mushroom species were found. The Tricholoma album, Cortinarius armillatus, and Rozites caperata were found to have the highest levels. Followed by two Cortinarius species, C. brunneus and C. traganus. The highest transfer factors were found in the Cortinarius armillatus and C. brunneus, but also Tricoloma album and Rozites caperata had high transfer factors. Other mushroom species, e.g. Leccinum versipelle (Orange Birch Bolete), Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric), Boletus subtomentosus (Suede Bolete), Collybia butyracea (Butter Cap) generally show a low radiocaesium uptake and are therefore not considered as good indicators. Even though Tricholoma album, Cortinarius armillatus, C. brunneus, C. traganus, and Rozites caperata accumulate high levels of {sup 137}Cs, their seasonality and local occurrence should be evaluated before they are considered as good indicator organisms. (LN)

  14. Notes on the genus Punctelia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; Søchting, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Punctelia jeckeri (Roum.) Kalb was previously known as P. ulophylla (Ach.) van Herk & Aptroot. The taxon was described by Acharius (1810) as Parmelia caperata var. ulophylla. It was long overlooked or reduced to synonomy, i.a. with Parmelia subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog (e.g. Hale 1965). Krog (1982), wh...... name at species level, proposed the combination Punctelia jeckeri, and lectotypified the name. As a preparatory work to a forthcoming revision of the Danish lichen checklist (Søchting & Alstrup 2007) it was decided to examine the Danish material of the genus Punctelia....

  15. Lichen biomonitoring of ammonia emission and nitrogen deposition around a pig stockfarm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frati, L. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Santoni, S. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Nicolardi, V. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Gaggi, C. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Brunialti, G. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Guttova, A. [Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 14, sk-84523 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Slovakia); Gaudino, S. [APAT, Via di Castel Romano 100, I-00128 Rome (Italy); Pati, A. [APAT, Via di Castel Romano 100, I-00128 Rome (Italy); Pirintsos, S.A. [Department of Biology, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-71409 Heraklion (Greece); Loppi, S. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)]. E-mail: loppi@unisi.it

    2007-03-15

    Effects of high ammonia emissions and nitrogen deposition were investigated on lichens around a pig stockfarm (ca. 7,000 animals) in central Italy. Four sites were selected along a transect at 200, 400, 1000 and 2500 m from the stockfarm, the diversity of epiphytic lichens was measured and transplanted thalli of Xanthoria parietina and Flavoparmelia caperata exposed, together with passive NH{sub 3} (diffusion tubes) samplers. Ammonia dramatically decreased from the centre of the stockfarm to the sampled sites, where it was correlated with bark pH. Total lichen diversity was not associated with either NH{sub 3} concentrations or bark pH, but the diversity of strictly nitrophytic species was highly correlated with both parameters. Physconia grisea was the best indicator species for NH{sub 3} pollution. Total N accumulated in X. parietina and F. caperata was correlated with NH{sub 3} concentrations. - The diversity of strictly nitrophytic lichen species can be used to monitor and map NH{sub 3} pollution in the Mediterranean area.

  16. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill (C Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Grassi, Alice; Vannini, Andrea; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Bil'ová, Ivana; Bačkor, Martin; Corsini, Adelmo; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Epiphytic lichens have been used as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill in C Italy. An integrated approach, using the diversity of epiphytic lichens, as well as element bioaccumulation and physiological parameters in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale was applied along a transect from the facility. The results highlighted the biological effects of air pollution around the landfill. The Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) increased and the content of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn) decreased with distance from the landfill. Clear stress signals were observed in lichens growing in front of the facility, i.e. discoloration, necrosis, membrane lipid peroxidation, lower ergosterol content, higher dehydrogenase activity. Decreased photosynthetic efficiency, altered chlorophyll integrity and production of secondary metabolites were also found. The results suggested that lichens can be profitably used as bioindicators of environmental quality around landfills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Copper, nickel and lead in lichen and tree bark transplants over different periods of time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Mafalda S. [CIIMAR, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: abaptista@fc.up.pt; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S.D. [CIIMAR, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-071 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: mtvascon@fc.up.pt; Cabral, Joao Paulo [CIIMAR, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Botany Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 1191, 4150-181 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: jpcabral@fc.up.pt; Freitas, M. Carmo [ITN - Technological and Nuclear Institute, Reactor E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: cfreitas@itn.mcies.pt; Pacheco, Adriano M.G. [CVRM-IST - Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: apacheco@ist.utl.pt

    2008-01-15

    This work aimed at comparing the dynamics of atmospheric metal accumulation by the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata and bark of Platanus hybrida over different periods of time. Transplants were exposed in three Portuguese coastal cities. Samples were retrieved (1) every 2 months (discontinuous exposure), or (2) after 2-, 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-month periods (continuous exposure), and analysed for Cu, Ni and Pb. Airborne accumulation of metals was essentially independent of climatic factors. For both biomonitors [Pb] > [Ni] > [Cu] but Pb was the only element for which a consistent pattern of accumulation was observed, with the bark outperforming the lichen. The longest exposure periods hardly ever corresponded to the highest accumulation. This might have been partly because the biomonitors bound and released metals throughout the exposure, each with its own dynamics of accumulation, but both according to the environmental metal availability. - Lichen and tree bark have distinct dynamics of airborne metal accumulation.

  18. Contribution to the lichen biota of the Stawy Milickie nature reserve and its adjacent area (Lower Silesia, southwestern Poland

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    Edyta Kaźmierska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of lichenological investigations conducted in the eastern part of the Stawy Milickie nature reserve and its buffer zone (Barycz Valley, southwestern Poland. The study area is a famous waterfowl refuge, consisting of several fishpond complexes, together with adjacent forests, meadows, and villages. In total 72 lichen taxa were recorded, growing on bark and branches of trees and shrubs, stumps, wood, soil, and anthropogenic rock substrates (mortar, concrete, bricks, etc.. Six species, namely Evernia prunastri, Flavoparmelia caperata, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Parmelina tiliacea, Physconia distorta, and Pleurosticta acetabulum, are threatened in Poland. As represented by single young thalli, they indicate the recent improvement of environmental conditions. The lichen biota of the study area is typical for the lowland regions of western and southwestern Poland.

  19. Comparison of elastic-viscous-plastic and viscous-plastic dynamics models using a high resolution Arctic sea ice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, E.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Zhang, Y. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A nonlinear viscous-plastic (VP) rheology proposed by Hibler (1979) has been demonstrated to be the most suitable of the rheologies commonly used for modeling sea ice dynamics. However, the presence of a huge range of effective viscosities hinders numerical implementations of this model, particularly on high resolution grids or when the ice model is coupled to an ocean or atmosphere model. Hunke and Dukowicz (1997) have modified the VP model by including elastic waves as a numerical regularization in the case of zero strain rate. This modification (EVP) allows an efficient, fully explicit discretization that adapts well to parallel architectures. The authors present a comparison of EVP and VP dynamics model results from two 5-year simulations of Arctic sea ice, obtained with a high resolution sea ice model. The purpose of the comparison is to determine how differently the two dynamics models behave, and to decide whether the elastic-viscous-plastic model is preferable for high resolution climate simulations, considering its high efficiency in parallel computation. Results from the first year of this experiment (1990) are discussed in detail in Hunke and Zhang (1997).

  20. A finite element multigrid-framework to solve the sea ice momentum equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlmann, C.; Richter, T.

    2017-11-01

    We present a multigrid framework for the solution of the momentum equation arising in Hibler's viscous-plastic (VP) sea ice model. This model is used in global climate models, for seasonal prediction and high-resolution short-term forecasting systems. The development of fast and robust solvers for the strongly nonlinear momentum equation is still a big issue. There are mainly three approaches to solve the momentum equation: a fixed-point iteration (Picard solver), an inexact Newton method and a subcycling procedure based on an elastic-viscous-plastic (EVP) model approximation. Simple fixed-point iterations call for a vast number of cycles. The Jacobian arising in Newton linearizations is ill-conditioned and unstructured. No efficient linear solvers are available up to date. One possibility to solve the linear systems arising within a Newton method is the preconditioned GMRES iteration that however still requires many steps. The commonly used line SOR preconditioner is computationally expensive. Especially on fine meshes, literature recommends to revise common solution strategies. We introduce a geometric multigrid method as a preconditioner to the GMRES iteration for accelerating the solution of the linear problems. We show that the convergence rate of the multigrid method is robust with respect to mesh refinement. This makes it an appealing method for high resolution simulations. We validate the robustness of the linear solver and compare the multigrid with ILU preconditioning. In particular on fine meshes (∼16 km-2 km), multigrid preconditioning can substantially reduce the computational effort and decreases iteration counts by 80%.

  1. Sôbre a patogenia da Grangrena gasona

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    Genésio Pacheco

    1954-06-01

    Full Text Available Since von Hibler gas grangrene has been considered a local infection with systemic symptoms. When we consider some of the symptoms of gas gangrene, those of the central nervous system are in evidence beeing similar to those observed in tetanus and botulism. It is likely therefore that gas gangrene intoxication and the disease caused by it are of neurotoxic nature. With Almeida Cardoso and Araujo Costa we were able to demonstrate lesions in the central nervous system of animals wich had been intoxicated during a short period of time as well in those with intoxication of longer duration. In acute intoxication, after intracreneal inoculation, severe alterations were seen within 20 to 30 minutes in the cells of the spinal cord, specially in motor cells and also in some cells of the posterior cord and spinal bulb. The changes consisted in chromatolysis and picnosis and were more marked in animals intoxicated with Clostridium histolyticum and Cl. perfringens toxines. Myelin sheet was unchanged. in delayed intoxication with greater and repeated dosis lesions of the central nervous system (brain, protuberance, medula ablongate and medula spinal were observed. They consisted in hyperemia, perivascular hemorrages in white and grey substances, oedema, accumulation of glia cells with enlarged and hyperchromatic nuclei, fragmentation of the myelin sheet and balooning degeneration of the described by Spielmeyer. Such changes were found in the swollen and hemorragic zones and were generally similar to those found in the acute type of Spielmeyer 9acute swelling and liquefation. Other changes found sometimes were agglutination of Nissl's bodies, sinous appearence of the dendritic endings, shruncken cells of Spielmeyer and neuronophagy around "ghost" cells. In short the changes...

  2. The amount of 137Cs in chosen parts of food chains from localities in the East of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipakova, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the amount of radiocaesium in chosen parts of food chains from localities in the Eastern Slovakia. Prevailing part of radiocaesium is in the upper layer of soils and specific activity of 137 Cs in the first layer for locality Stara Voda in 2000 achieved 152.4 Bq/kg 1 . On the base of results from modified Tessier sequential extraction method we determined that more than 50 % of this radionuclide is in the soil in not extractable fraction. From studied species of mushrooms the highest value was determined in sample of Rozites caperata the and specific activity achieved 1822.0 Bq/kg 1 d. w. The aim of our study was to determine the amount of caesium in chosen parts of food chains from localities in Eastern Slovakia for period 2000-2004. On the base of obtained results we can conclude that radiocaesium migrates vertically in soils very slowly and prevailing part of caesium is in the upper layer. Prevailing part of radiocaesium is in the not extractable fraction. Extremely low concentration of caesium in soil solution is the factor limiting caesium uptake by the root systems, too. Mushrooms are characterised by high ability to accumulate radiocaesium. (authors)

  3. Monitoring of trace element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.; Gouveia, M.A.; Prudencio, M.I.; Ferreira, P.; Morgado, I.; Amaro, A.; Fernandes, T.; Dionisio, I.; Reis, M.A.; Alves, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    With this project, a biomonitoring survey will be carried out with epiphytic lichens. The lichens Parmelia sulcata (or caperata) will be collected from olive trees about 1-2 m above the ground, using a 10x10 km grid or 50x50 km gird. In total, about 300 sampling sites will be set up. Within one sampling site, variations in elemental concentrations of lichen material taken from several trees of the same species will be analyzed to obtained the local variation for each element (made in 10% of the grid). In addition some typical soil samples will be collected so that the contribution of soil suspended in air particulate matter can be recognized. The samples will be analyzed for ∼50 elements by NAA and PIXE. The expected results will be integrated data sets, which will be used in the next step for application of a statistical procedure to identify particular pollution sources. The project also consists of exposure experiments with lichen transplant samples at several sampling sites, which are representative for the regions under study. In addition at each sampling site air particular matter and total deposition will be collected monthly, during 1 year. The aim is to establish a quantitative relationship between results obtained with the lichen transplant samples and with air particulate matter and total deposition. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Čomić, Ljiljana; Đačić, Dragana; Ćurčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells. PMID:21954369

  5. Bioindicators of Air Quality Species | Bioindicadores de espécies de qualidade do ar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleuma Christir Silva Almeida

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to identify biomarkers (trees and lichens used in studies related to air pollution published in scientific articles in the years 2013 and 2016 worldwide. It performed a literature review based on scientific article published between the years 2013-2016, seeking to indicate the main bio-indicators species of lichens and individual trees, as well as the local indication that favors the highest concentration of atmospheric pollutant. The most studied species of lichens were Flavoparmelia caperata (L. Evernia prunastri (L. Ach., Parmelia sulcata Taylor, L. Pseudevernia furfuracea Zopf, all cited in at least two studies. By contrast, the forest species have been little studied preventing the indication of the species that are considered bioindicators, requiring further study. The concentrations of PAHs and heavy metals in the atmosphere influence the diversity and distribution of species of both lichens, as the tree species, which may be related to sensitivity that one may have in relation to the other. Such concentrations are influenced by climate change, humidity, wind direction, altitude, different uses and occupation, distance and type of pollution. The bioindicators raised proved to be quite relevant, however it lacks a methodological standardization, hindering greater intraspecific and interspecific comparisons.

  6. Elemental levels in tree-bark and epiphytic-lichen transplants at a mixed environment in mainland Portugal, and comparisons with an in situ lichen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: apacheco@ist.utl.pt; Freitas, M.C. [Reactor-ITN, Technological and Nuclear Institute, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Baptista, M.S. [CIIMAR, University of Porto, R. dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Vasconcelos, M.T.S.D. [CIIMAR, University of Porto, R. dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Department, University of Porto, R. do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-071 Porto (Portugal); Cabral, J.P. [CIIMAR, University of Porto, R. dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Botany Department, University of Porto, R. do Campo Alegre 1191, 4150-181 Porto (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    Samples of Platanus hybrida Brot. bark and Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale thalli, from a clean area in northern Portugal (Baiao), were transplanted into an exposure location at the south-western Atlantic coast, impacted by urban-industrial emissions (Sines), for a 10-month long experiment. Bark pieces were confined into nylon bags (2-mm mesh), and lichen thalli kept with their bark substrate (Pinus pinaster (Ait.) Sol.). Every two months, a double set of transplants (one for bark, one for lichens) was brought back into the laboratory, together with native samples of Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. Following suitable cleansing and preparation procedures, field samples were put through INAA for elemental assessment. The results indicate that, regardless of signal magnitude, (1) concentrations in bark and lichen transplants are significantly correlated with atmospheric deposition for an appreciable number of elements; (2) there are a number of significant correlations between transplanted and native samples, and again between the latter and the deposition; and (3) the elements with biological patterns that follow the deposition in either transplanted or native samples (Co, V) are the very ones whose bioaccumulation seems to benefit from an alternation of wet-dry periods, which fits the precipitation record of the test site during the exposure term. - Depending on the element(s) of interest, native lichens can replace transplants for temporal (short-term) atmospheric assessment.

  7. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Marković

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+ bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells.

  8. Levels of some trace elements in edible fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorhem, L. [National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden); Sundstroem, B. [National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    A number of common edible fungi were analysed for their contents of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, Mn and Se. The results indicate that the Cd level in the species Rozites caperata can be as high as several mg/kg fresh weight. In Lycoperdon perlatum and Macrolepiota procera the Pb level was found to be up to 2.5 mg/kg. The Ni level was at or below 0.1 mg/kg in all species, with the expection of Albartrellus ovinus, which had a mean concentration of 0.72 mg/kg. The level of Cr was highest in M.procera with a mean of 0.091 mg/kg. In a single sample of the species Agaricus augustus, the concentration of Co was found to be exceptionally high at 0.28 mg/kg. Zn and Cu levels were highest in L.perlatum and M.procera. Mn levels were fairly similar in the different species. The results of several surveys show that there can be large differences in the concentrations of the same metal (e.g. Pb) in the same species. The Se level was found to be very high in the species Boletus edulis, as has been shown by others. In the other species analysed the level of Se was low. (orig.)

  9. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series : Diversity and distribution of anurans in Phansad Wildlife Sanctuary (PWS, northern Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Katwate

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In global consequences of rapidly changing climate and increased amphibian population decline, mapping amphibian diversity in biodiversity hotspots is essential. In this study we have systematically studied anurans of Phansad Wildlife Sanctuary in terms of species diversity, population structure, threat status and distribution. We recorded a total of 22 anuran species, of which 11 species are endemic to Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot. Family Dicroglossidae was found to be more species-rich. Spatial and temporal variation in anuran diversity was observed by using Shannon diversity and evenness indices. Most of the endemic and threatened anuran species are found to be associated with evergreen undisturbed forest patches. Habitat parameters like humidity, forest type, canopy coverage, riparian canopy coverage, stream persistence and litter depth are found to be major variables governing species diversity and distribution. Major anthropogenic threats to amphibians of Phansad Wildlife Sanctuary are discussed along with future conservation objectives. With range extension of species like Fejervarya caperata and Minervarya sahyadris further north in the Western Ghats, taxonomic ambiguities recorded during study are discussed briefly.

  10. On the accumulation of radionuclids by lichen symbionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifontova, M.G.; Kulikov, N.V.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, dUrably cUltivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fUngi and seaweeds is estimated according to accUmulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content ( 90 Sr and 137 Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of eXperiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweek and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of 137 Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus

  11. Epiphytic lichens as sentinels for heavy metal pollution at forest ecosystems (central Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loppi, Stefano; Pirintsos, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Epiphytic lichens were useful as an early warning system for changes in forest ecosystems. - The results of a study using epiphytic lichens (Parmelia caperata) as sentinels for heavy metal deposition at six selected forest ecosystems of central Italy are reported. The woods investigated are characterized by holm oak (Quercus ilex), turkey oak (Quercus cerris) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) and represent the typical forest ecosystems of central Italy at low, medium and high elevations, respectively. The results showed that levels of heavy metals in lichens were relatively low and consequently no risk of heavy metal air pollution is expected for the six forest ecosystems investigated. However, for two of them there are indications of a potential risk: the beech forest of Vallombrosa showed signs of contamination by Pb as a consequence of vehicle traffic due to the rather high touristic pressure in the area, and the holm oak forest of Cala Violina showed transboundary pollution by Mn, Cr and Ni originating from the steel industry in Piombino. Epiphytic lichens proved to be very effective as an early warning system to detect signs of a changing environment at forest ecosystems

  12. Trace element concentrations in ashes from various types of lichen biomass species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey)

    2004-04-15

    Lichens are useful as pollution biomonitors because their biomass can strongly concentrate heavy metals, pollutant gases, and radionuclides from aerosol fallout, precipitation, or runoff. Lichens tend to concentrate pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and heavy metals. The results obtained from the analysis of the lichen biomass gave information about the predominant direction of pollutant transportation, while those related to the concentrations found in the air particulate allowed the evaluation of the degree of the local trace metals atmospheric pollution. Sixteen elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Na, B and S) were determined in 17 different lichen biomass genera Cladina rangiferina, Cladonia foliacea, Cladonia furcata, Cladonia pyxidata, Cladonia rangiformis, Cladonia stellaris, Dermatocarpon miniatum, Diploschistes scruposus, Evernia mesomorpha, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia caperata, Parmelia sulcata, Peltiqera canina, Physcita adcenders, Pseadevernia furfurace, Xanthoria calcicola, and Xanthoria parietina by atomic absorption (AAS) and spectrophotometric methods. The highest K, Ca, Mn, and Hg concentrations were 5125, 4627, 126.4, and 0.72 mg/kg in Xanthoria parietina, respectively. The highest P, B, S, Zn and Pb concentrations were 1561, 6.18, 1226, 82.72, and 16.82 mg/kg in Parmelia sulcata, respectively. The highest Cu, Ni, Cr, and Cd concentrations were 17.53, 1.75, 15.36 and 3.86 mg/kg in Xanthoria calcicola, respectively. The highest Mg, Al, Fe and Na concentrations were 601.8, 951.8, 925.2 and 76.33 mg/kg in Cladonia pyxidata, respectively. (author)

  13. Long-term effects of single potassium fertilization on {sup 137}Cs levels in plants and fungi in a boreal forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K., E-mail: Klas.Rosen@mark.slu.s [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Vinichuk, M. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Ecology, Zhytomyr State Technological University, 103 Chernyakhovsky Str., 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Nikolova, I.; Johanson, K. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    We examined the long-term effects of a single application of potassium (K) fertilizer (100 kg K ha{sup -1}) in 1992 on {sup 137}Cs uptake in a forest ecosystem in central Sweden. {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations were determined in three low-growing perennial shrubs, heather (Calluna vulgaris), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), and in four wild fungal species (Cortinarius semisanguineus, Lactarius rufus, Rozites caperata and Suillus variegatus). Uptake of {sup 137}Cs by plants and fungi growing on K-fertilized plots 17 years after application of the K fertilizer was significantly lower than in corresponding species growing in a non-fertilized control area. The {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was 21-58% lower in fungal sporocarps and 40-61% lower in plants in the K-fertilized area compared with the control. Over the study period, this decrease in {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was more consistent in plants than in fungi, although the effect was statistically significant and strongly pronounced in all species. The effect of K fertilization in reducing {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in fungi and plants decreased over time but was still significant in 2009, 17 years after fertilization. This suggests that application of K fertilizer to forests is an appropriate and effective long-term measure to decrease radiocaesium accumulation in plants and fungi. - Research highlights: {yields} Effects of potassium fertilizer on {sup 137}Cs uptake by plants and fungi are investigated. {yields} {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in forest plants decreased even within the first year. {yields} The most significant reduction occurred over the first 7-8 years. {yields} The reduction in fungi was less pronounced, but still statistically significant.

  14. Flora and fauna of Thummalapalle uranium mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullaiah, T.

    2012-01-01

    Thummalapalle Uranium Mining site is located near Thummalapalle village in Vemula mandal, Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh. Flora and faunal study was carried out in the area 30 km radius from the mining site, covering an area of 2828 Km 2 , during 2009-2012. The geographical coordinates of the centre point are NL 14° 19 min 59.3 sec and EL 78° 15 min 18.2 sec. Altitude of the study area ranges from 198 to 875 m above MSL. Scrub type of forest is dominant in the core zone followed by waste lands and agriculture lands. Buffer zone I and II also are dominated by scrub forest except a small patch at the North West corner where degraded dry deciduous forest is seen. A total of 859 plant taxa comprising 474 genera and 120 families were identified. Of the 859 taxa, 768 are Angiosperms, 9 Pteridophytes, 25 Bryophytes, 44 Algae and 14 Lichens. A total of 49 endemic taxa (2 strictly Andhra Pradesh, 5 to Eastern Ghats and 43 from Peninsular India) have been recorded. Albizia thompsonii and Ceropegia spiralis, rare taxa, have been recorded in the study area and these two species are distributed throughout peninsular India. Quadrat analysis revealed that Heteropogon contortus, Catunaregum spinosa, Asparagus racemosus and Croton scabiosus are the dominant in herbs, shrubs, climbers and trees respectively. A total of 419 animal species belonging to 358 genera and 178 families have been recorded in the Thummalapalle Uranium Mining Area. A total of nine endemic animal species have been recorded. Golden Gecko (Calodactylodes aureus) which is endemic to Eastern Ghats is recorded in Buffer zone 1. Fejervarya caperata is a new record to Andhra Pradesh, which was earlier reported from Western Ghats. An analysis of the flora reveals interesting features. Orchidaceae which is the second largest family in India is only one species represented in Thummalapalle Uranium Mining Area as it is evident that the growth and development of Orchids in open dry deciduous and scrub forests are

  15. An experience in Montenegro with atmospheric pollution by means of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.

    2000-01-01

    The very first study of the atmospheric pollution by means of bioindicators in the region of Montenegro was performed in 1992-93. The study, supported by the Commission of the European Union, was focused to the impact of an aluminium smelter plant to the air pollution in its surroundings. The plant (KAP) is situated 10 km to the south of Podgorica (capital of Montenegro) and produces some 100,000 tons of cast aluminium per year, using French (Pechine) technology. The technological process contributes in several manners to the atmospheric pollution. We investigated an area up to 50 km distances from the plant. Epiphytic lichens (Hypogymnia caperata) were collected from the tree bark 2 m above the ground. In the near vicinity of the plant no epiphytic lichens could have been found (died out due to high pollution levels). Instead, the more resistant lithophytic varieties (Lecanora expallens) were collected therein. Samples of wild grasses and pine needles were taken at the same spots, so as to compare the three indicators. We further found 5-10 times higher pollutant accumulation factors in lichens than in grasses or pine needles, emphasising thus the monitoring sensitivity of the lichens. Soil samples were also taken at the spots and analysed, but no impact factors for the soil were calculated. Samples were analysed by means of the k 0 -method of neutron activation analysis at 'Pierre Sue' Laboratory, Nuclear Research Centre, Saclay/Paris, France. Three types of analyses were made: (i) with short (matter of a few minutes) irradiations at the reactor ORPHEE , followed by analysing the short lived nuclides; (ii) with long (matter of hours) irradiations at the reactor OSIRIS, followed by analysing the long lived nuclides and occasionally - when necessary - (iii) epithermal analyses, in order to suppress the induced activities of certain matrix elements (e.g.Na) and obtain better sensitivity for the other elements. The following elements were determined down to