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Sample records for spitzahorn acer platanoides

  1. Proteomic analysis of embryogenesis and the acquisition of seed dormancy in Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.).

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    Staszak, Aleksandra Maria; Pawłowski, Tomasz Andrzej

    2014-06-17

    The proteome of zygotic embryos of Acer platanoides L. was analyzed via high-resolution 2D-SDS-PAGE and MS/MS in order to: (1) identify significant physiological processes associated with embryo development; and (2) identify changes in the proteome of the embryo associated with the acquisition of seed dormancy. Seventeen spots were identified as associated with morphogenesis at 10 to 13 weeks after flowering (WAF). Thirty-three spots were associated with maturation of the embryo at 14 to 22 WAF. The greatest changes in protein abundance occurred at 22 WAF, when seeds become fully mature. Overall, the stage of morphogenesis was characterized by changes in the abundance of proteins (tubulins and actin) associated with the growth and development of the embryo. Enzymes related to energy supply were especially elevated, most likely due to the energy demand associated with rapid growth and cell division. The stage of maturation is crucial to the establishment of seed dormancy and is associated with a higher abundance of proteins involved in genetic information processing, energy and carbon metabolism and cellular and antioxidant processes. Results indicated that a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein and proteasome proteins may be directly involved in dormancy acquisition control, and future studies are warranted to verify this association.

  2. ECOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF ORIBATID MITE COMMUNITIES IN ACER PLATANOIDES L. STAND ON THE REMEDIATED SITE OF PAVLOGRADSKAYA MINE (PAVLOGRAD, THE DNIPROPETROVSK REGION

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    Y. L. Kulbachko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and features of ecological structure of oribatid mite communities were studied on various options of bulk artificial-mixed soil in Acer platanoides L. stand growing on the remediated site of Pavlogradskaya mine (Pavlograd, Dnipropetrovsk Region. The ecological structure of oribatid population generally was damaged and this is typical for the man-modified ecosystems. Oribatid mite density in maple litter was higher than in the top layer of bulk soil (loess loam and chernozem by 4.1–7.4 times. Species abundance of oribatid mite was almost equal in maple litter and bulk soil. Punctoribates liber Pavlitshenko, 1991 prevailed generally as eudominant species in oribatid mite structure in Acer platanoides stand. The representatives of unspecialized life-forms were dominated among the oribatid life-forms in the remediated site with chernozem bulk. Key words: oribatid mites, forest remediation, mine dumps.

  3. Levels of selected trace elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) in an urbanized environment.

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    Kosiorek, Milena; Modrzewska, Beata; Wyszkowski, Mirosław

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of selected trace elements in needles and bark of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), leaves and bark of silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), as well as in the soil in which the trees grew, depending on their localization and hence the distribution of local pollution sources. The content of trace elements in needles of Scots pine, leaves of silver birch, and Norway maple and in bark of these trees depended on the location, tree species, and analyzed organ. The content of Fe, Mn, and Zn in needles, leaves, and bark of the examined tree species was significantly higher than that of the other elements. The highest average content of Fe and Mn was detected in leaves of Norway maple whereas the highest average content of Zn was found in silver birch leaves. The impact of such locations as the center of Olsztyn or roadside along Road 51 on the content of individual elements tended to be more pronounced than the influence of the other locations. The influence of the sampling sites on the content of trace elements in tree bark was less regular than the analogous effect in needles and leaves. Moreover, the relevant dependences were slightly different for Scots pine than for the other two tree species. The concentrations of heavy metals determined in the soil samples did not exceed the threshold values set in the Regulation of the Minister for the Environment, although the soil along Road 51 and in the center of Olsztyn typically had the highest content of these elements. There were also significant correlations between the content of some trace elements in soil and their accumulation in needles, leaves, and bark of trees.

  4. Proteome analysis of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L. seeds dormancy breaking and germination: influence of abscisic and gibberellic acids

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    Pawłowski Tomasz A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed dormancy is controlled by the physiological or structural properties of a seed and the external conditions. It is induced as part of the genetic program of seed development and maturation. Seeds with deep physiological embryo dormancy can be stimulated to germinate by a variety of treatments including cold stratification. Hormonal imbalance between germination inhibitors (e.g. abscisic acid and growth promoters (e.g. gibberellins is the main cause of seed dormancy breaking. Differences in the status of hormones would affect expression of genes required for germination. Proteomics offers the opportunity to examine simultaneous changes and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during seed dormancy breaking and germination. Analysis of the functions of the identified proteins and the related metabolic pathways, in conjunction with the plant hormones implicated in seed dormancy breaking, would expand our knowledge about this process. Results A proteomic approach was used to analyse the mechanism of dormancy breaking in Norway maple seeds caused by cold stratification, and the participation of the abscisic (ABA and gibberellic (GA acids. Forty-four proteins showing significant changes were identified by mass spectrometry. Of these, eight spots were identified as water-responsive, 18 spots were ABA- and nine GA-responsive and nine spots were regulated by both hormones. The classification of proteins showed that most of the proteins associated with dormancy breaking in water were involved in protein destination. Most of the ABA- and GA-responsive proteins were involved in protein destination and energy metabolism. Conclusion In this study, ABA was found to mostly down-regulate proteins whereas GA up-regulated proteins abundance. Most of the changes were observed at the end of stratification in the germinated seeds. This is the most active period of dormancy breaking when seeds pass from the quiescent state to germination. Seed dormancy breaking involves proteins of various processes but the proteasome proteins, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, glycine-rich RNA binding protein, ABI3-interacting protein 1, EF-2 and adenosylhomocysteinase are of particular importance. The effect of exogenously applied hormones was not a determining factor for total inhibition (ABA or stimulation (GA of Norway maple seed dormancy breaking and germination but proteomic data has proven these hormones play a role.

  5. Polyploidy in Acer rubrum L.

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    John W. Duffield

    1943-01-01

    Acer rubrum L. is a highly polymorphic species occupying a range which includes almost all of the United States east of the prairies, southeastern Canada, and a portion of Newfoundland. The range of habitats occupied is equally impressive. Cytological study of this species was first undertaken by Mottier in 1893, but the first indication of...

  6. Accelerator Center for Energy Research (ACER)

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    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Accelerator Center for Energy Research (ACER) exploits radiation chemistry techniques to study chemical reactions (and other phenomena) by subjecting samples to...

  7. Flowering and sex expression in Acer L. : a biosystematic study

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    Jong, de P.C.

    1976-01-01

    A review and an analysis is given of flowering and sex expression in Acer. The process of sex differentiation was studied in physiological experiments and could be influenced by accelerated flowering and by removal of female.gif flower buds just after bud break. The

  8. Volatiles from a Rare Acer spp. Honey Sample from Croatia

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    Igor Jerković

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A rare sample of maple (Acer spp. honey from Croatia was analysed. Ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE using: 1 pentane, 2 diethyl ether, 3 a mixture of pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v and 4 dichloromethane as solvents was applied. All the extracts were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The most representative extracts were 3 and 4. Syringaldehyde was the most striking compound, being dominant in the extracts 2, 3 and 4 with percentages 34.5%, 33.1% and 35.9%, respectively. In comparison to USE results of other single Croatian tree honey samples (Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar honey, Salix spp. nectar and honeydew honeys, Quercus frainetto Ten. honeydew as well as Abies alba Mill. and Picea abies L. honeydew and literature data the presence of syringaldehyde, previously identified in maple sap and syrup, can be pointed out as a distinct characteristic of the Acer spp. honey sample. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC and GC/MS identified benzaldehyde (16.5%, trans-linalool oxide (20.5% and 2-phenylethanol (14.9% as the major compounds that are common in different honey headspace compositions.

  9. Seasonality of cavitation and frost fatigue in Acer mono Maxim.

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    Zhang, Wen; Feng, Feng; Tyree, Melvin T

    2017-12-08

    Although cavitation is common in plants, it is unknown whether the cavitation resistance of xylem is seasonally constant or variable. We tested the changes in cavitation resistance of Acer mono before and after a controlled cavitation-refilling and freeze-thaw cycles for a whole year. Cavitation resistance was determined from 'vulnerability curves' showing the percent loss of conductivity versus xylem tension. Cavitation fatigue was defined as a reduction of cavitation resistance following a cavitation-refilling cycle, whereas frost fatigue was caused by a freeze-thaw cycle. A. mono developed seasonal changes in native embolisms; values were relatively high during winter but relatively low and constant throughout the growing season. Cavitation fatigue occurred and changed seasonally during the 12-month cycle; the greatest fatigue response occurred during summer and the weakest during winter, and the transitions occurred during spring and autumn. A. mono was highly resistant to frost damage during the relatively mild winter months; however, a quite different situation occurred during the growing season, as the seasonal trend of frost fatigue was strikingly similar to that of cavitation fatigue. Seasonality changes in cavitation resistance may be caused by seasonal changes in the mechanical properties of the pit membranes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Monitoring the health of sugar maple, Acer saccharum

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    Carlson, Martha

    The sugar maple, Acer saccharum, is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming climate. This study measures the health of sugar maples on 12 privately owned forests and at three schools in New Hampshire. Laboratory quantitative analyses of leaves, buds and sap as well as qualitative measures of leaf and bud indicate that record high beat in 2012 stressed the sugar maple. The study identifies several laboratory and qualitative tests of health which seem most sensitive and capable of identifying stress early when intervention in forest management or public policy change might counter decline of the species. The study presents evidence of an unusual atmospheric pollution event which defoliated sugar maples in 2010. The study examines the work of citizen scientists in Forest Watch, a K-12 school program in which students monitor the impacts of ozone on white pine, Pinus strobus, another keystone species in New Hampshire's forest. Finally, the study examines three simple measurements of bud, leaf and the tree's acclimation to light. The findings of these tests illuminate findings in the first study. And they present examples of what citizen scientists might contribute to long-term monitoring of maples. A partnership between science and citizens is proposed to begin long-term monitoring and to report on the health of sugar maples.

  11. Brazilian adaptation of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R

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    Viviane Amaral Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R is a highly sensitive and specific tool for the detection of mild dementia. It is particularly useful in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from frontotemporal dementia. While the first version of the test battery has been adapted in many countries, its revised version has not, probably because it was published very recently. Objective: To translate and adapt the ACE-R for use in the Brazilian population. Methods: Two independent translations were made from English into Portuguese, followed by two independent back-translations. Few adaptations in accordance to the Brazilian culture and language were made and a first version of the instrument produced. This former version of the ACE-R was administered to 21 cognitively healthy subjects aged 60 years or more, with different educational levels. Results: The mean age of the studied sample of healthy elderly was 75.4 years (ranging from 60 to 89 years. Small additional modifications were necessary after the evaluation of the first ten subjects in order to improve comprehension of the test. The final Portuguese version of the ACE-R was produced and was found to be well understood by the remaining 11 subjects, taking an average of 15 minutes to be administered. Conclusions: The Brazilian version of the ACE-R proved to be a promising cognitive instrument for testing both in research and clinical settings. With this regard, additional studies are currently being carried out in our unit in order to investigate the diagnostic properties of the ACE-R in our milieu.

  12. Traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of the genus Acer (maple): A review.

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    Bi, Wu; Gao, Ying; Shen, Jie; He, Chunnian; Liu, Haibo; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Chunhong; Xiao, Peigen

    2016-08-02

    The genus Acer (Aceraceae), commonly known as maple, comprises approximately 129 species that primarily grow in the northern hemisphere, especially in the temperate regions of East Asia, eastern North America, and Europe. These plants have been traditionally used to treat a wide range of diseases in East Asia and North America. Moreover, clinical studies have shown that medicinal plants belonging to Acer are highly effective in the treatment of rheumatism, bruises, hepatic disorders, eye disease, and pain, and in detoxification. This review provides a systematic and constructive overview of the traditional uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of plants of the genus Acer. This review is based on a literature study of scientific journals and books from libraries and electronic sources such as SciFinder, ScienceDirect, Springer, PubMed, CNKI, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and Web of Science. The literature in this review related to chemical constituents and pharmacological activities dates from 1922 to the end of October 2015. Furthermore, ethnopharmacological information on this genus was obtained from libraries and herbaria in China and USA. In traditional medicine, 40 species, 11 subspecies, and one varieta of the genus Acer are known to exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities. To date, 331 compounds have been identified from 34 species of the genus Acer, including flavonoids, tannins, phenylpropanoids, diarylheptanoids, terpenoids, benzoic acid derivatives, and several other types of compounds, such as phenylethanoid glycosides and alkaloids. Preliminary pharmacological studies have shown that the extracts and compounds isolated from this genus exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, and antiobesity activities, as well as promoting osteoblast differentiation. To date, reports on the toxicity of Acer species to humans are very limited, and

  13. ACER Mathematics Profile Series: Number Test. (Test Booklet, Answer and Record Sheet, Score Key, and Teachers Handbook).

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    Cornish, Greg; Wines, Robin

    The Number Test of the ACER Mathematics Profile Series, contains 30 items, for each of three suggested grade levels: 7-8, 8-9, and 9-10. Raw scores on all tests in the ACER Mathematics Profile Series (Number, Operations, Space and Measurement) are converted to a common scale called MAPS, a major feature of the Series. Based on the Rasch Model,…

  14. Rapid degradation of abnormal proteins in vacuoles from Acer pseudoplatanus L. cells

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    Canut, H.; Alibert, G.; Carrasco, A.; Boudet, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    In Acer pseudoplatanus cells, the proteins synthesized in the presence of an amino acid analog ([ 14 C]p-fluorophenylalanine), were degraded more rapidly than normal ones ([ 14 C]phenylalanine as precursor). The degradation of an important part of these abnormal proteins occurred inside the vacuoles. The degradation process was not apparently associated to a specific proteolytic system but was related to a preferential transfer of these aberrant proteins from the cytoplasm to the vacuole

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity and variation of acer mono max seedlings after spaceflight

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    Long, C.; Li, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity and variation of Acer Mono Maxim seedlings sampled from space-mutated (sm) populations were compared to seedlings from parallel control (ck) ones using molecular markers. RAMP analysis showed that the percentage of polymorphic band, Shannon diversity index and Nei gene diversity index of the space-mutated populations were higher than those of the control ones, which indicated that genetic variation increased after spaceflight in populations of Acer Mono Maxim. By using un-weighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method, three space-mutated repeats (populations) were clustered together, and control groups clustered separately, which further indicated that there was difference between the space-mutated ones and the control ones, which may be caused by space mutation. Further analysis of genomic inconsistency between the root and leaf samples from the same tree showed that a total variation rate of 6.3% and 1.7% were obtained in ten space-mutated individuals by using RAMP and SSR markers, respectively, however, the variation rate was zero in control ones. It provided that space mutation may be caused the individual variation of Acer Mono Maxim. (author)

  16. Reproduction and vegetative growth in the dioecious shrub Acer barbinerve in temperate forests of Northeast China.

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    Wang, Juan; Zhang, Chunyu; Gadow, Klaus V; Cheng, Yanxia; Zhao, Xiuhai

    2015-06-01

    Trade-off in dioecious plant. The trade-off between reproduction, vegetative growth and maintenance is a major issue in the life history of an organism and a record of the process which is producing the largest possible number of living offspring by natural selection. Dioecious species afford an excellent opportunity for detecting such possible trade-offs in resource allocation. In this study, we selected the dioecious shrub Acer barbinerve to examine possible trade-offs between reproduction and vegetative growth in both genders at different modular levels during three successive years. Reproductive and vegetative biomass values were assessed during successive years to evaluate their intra-annual and inter-annual trade-offs. These trade-offs were examined at shoot, branch and shrub modular levels in Acer barbinerve shrubs. An intra-annual trade-off was detected at the shoot level for both genders in 2011 and 2012. Both males and females showed a negative correlation between reproduction and vegetative growth, but this was more prominent in males. For the females of the species, inter-annual trade-offs were only found at branch and shrub levels. Slightly negative correlations in females were detected between the reproduction in 2012 and the reproduction in the two previous years. The gender ratio was significantly male biased during the three successive years of our investigation. Females had higher mortality rates in the larger diameter classes, both in 2011 and 2012. This study revealed a clear trade-off between reproduction and vegetative growth in Acer barbinerve, but results varied between males and females. The degree of autonomy of the different modular levels may affect the ability to detect such trade-offs.

  17. Presumptive red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis in Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi).

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    Weber, M; Miller, R E

    1997-03-01

    Two female Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi), one juvenile and one adult, were treated for hemolytic anemia. The juvenile survived, but the adult animal, which also had methemoglobinemia, was euthanized after it failed to recover from anesthesia. Significant pathologic findings in the adult zebra included generalized icterus, hemoglobinuric nephrosis, and paracentral hepatic necrosis. Serum titers for known infectious causes of anemia were negative. Examination of the zebra holding areas revealed two hybrid red maple (Acer sp.) trees. There was no known exposure to other hemolytic agents. This is the first report of probable red maple-induced hemolysis in zebra.

  18. Morphometric characteristics of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L. fruits in Novi Sad urban populations

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    Kostić Saša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the analysis of the fruit morphometric characteristics of 29 trees of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and red - leaf sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus ‘Аtropurpureum’ Späth. in Novi Sad area. Based on the test trees, it can be concluded that the analyzed secondary population of sycamore maple has a high level of intra - populations variability, based on different degrees of variability of measured parameters and statistically significant differences of all analyzed parameters within the analysed genotypes. The results indicate that there are certain differences between fruit of sycamore maple and its red - leaf variety. Given that there is no statistically significant difference between sites and different urban spaces, it can be concluded that stress factors caused by a high degree of urbanity do not affect the morphometric characteristics of fruits in the analyzed test trees. Testing the symmetry of fruits indicates a high level of genetic variability within the analyzed population.

  19. Testing hypotheses that link wood anatomy to cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in the genus Acer.

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    Lens, Frederic; Sperry, John S; Christman, Mairgareth A; Choat, Brendan; Rabaey, David; Jansen, Steven

    2011-05-01

    • Vulnerability to cavitation and conductive efficiency depend on xylem anatomy. We tested a large range of structure-function hypotheses, some for the first time, within a single genus to minimize phylogenetic 'noise' and maximize detection of functionally relevant variation. • This integrative study combined in-depth anatomical observations using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy of seven Acer taxa, and compared these observations with empirical measures of xylem hydraulics. • Our results reveal a 2 MPa range in species' mean cavitation pressure (MCP). MCP was strongly correlated with intervessel pit structure (membrane thickness and porosity, chamber depth), weakly correlated with pit number per vessel, and not related to pit area per vessel. At the tissue level, there was a strong correlation between MCP and mechanical strength parameters, and some of the first evidence is provided for the functional significance of vessel grouping and thickenings on inner vessel walls. In addition, a strong trade-off was observed between xylem-specific conductivity and MCP. Vessel length and intervessel wall characteristics were implicated in this safety-efficiency trade-off. • Cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in Acer appear to be controlled by a very complex interaction between tissue, vessel network and pit characteristics. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. On merging Acer sections Rubra and Hyptiocarpa: Molecular and morphological evidence

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    AJ Harris

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we expanded Acer sect. Rubra Pax to include A. sect. Hyptiocarpa Fang. Traditionally, section Rubra comprises two iconic species, Acer rubrum Linnaeus (red maple and A. saccharinum Linnaeus (silver maple, of eastern North American forests as well as the rare Japanese montane species, A. pycnanthum K. Koch. Section Hyptiocarpa consists of A. laurinum Hasskarl and A. pinnatinervium Merrill, which occur in subtropical and tropical regions of southwestern China to southeast Asia. Here, we confirm prior phylogenetic results showing the close relationship between sects. Rubra and Hyptiocarpa, and we use scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate that leaves of species within these sections have similar arrangements of cuticular waxes, which account for the silvery color of their abaxial surfaces. We describe that the sections also share labile sex expression; inflorescences that range from compound racemose thyrses, to racemes or umbels and that may have undergone evolutionary reduction; and several features of their fruits, such as seed locules without keels, basal portion of wings straight, acute attachment angle between mericarps, and production of some mericarps that are seedless and partially developed at maturity. Our expansion of sect. Rubra to include sect. Hyptiocarpa better elucidates the biogeographic and evolutionary history of these species. Additionally, we show that A. laurinum and A. pinnatinervium have intergrading morphology and are probably synonymous, but we note that further studies are required to conclude their taxonomic status.

  1. Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Growth and Foliar Nutrient Responses to Soil Fertility Level and Water Regime

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    C. H. Pham; Howard G. Halverson; Gordon M. Heisler

    1978-01-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) seedlings were grown in a greenhouse using three treatments: two soil horizons, two soil moisture regimes, and three nutrient levels. Fertilization increased growth under moist conditions on the more fertile topsoil. Under dry conditions, fertilization had no effect on growth in subsoil, and slightly increased growth in...

  2. Effect of planting procedures in initial growth of Acer rubrum L. and Fraxinus pennsylvanicum L. in a parking lot

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    Gordon M. Heisler; Robert E. Schutzki; Robert P. Zisa; Howard G. Halverson; Bruce A. Hamilton

    1982-01-01

    Five-year old red maples, Acer rubrum L. 'October Glory', and green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanicum L. 'Marshall Seedless', were planted in 8 ft x 8 ft openings in an asphalt parking lot with two planting stocks (bare-root, BR, and balled and burlapped, B&B) and two fertilizer levels (a control and 1.36 kg of...

  3. A Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Phylogeny of Acer Inferred with Maximum Likelihood, Splits Graphs, and Motif Analysis of 606 Sequences

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    Guido W. Grimm

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The multi-copy internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA is widely used to infer phylogenetic relationships among closely related taxa. Here we use maximum likelihood (ML and splits graph analyses to extract phylogenetic information from ~ 600 mostly cloned ITS sequences, representing 81 species and subspecies of Acer, and both species of its sister Dipteronia. Additional analyses compared sequence motifs in Acer and several hundred Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Meliaceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae ITS sequences in GenBank. We also assessed the effects of using smaller data sets of consensus sequences with ambiguity coding (accounting for within-species variation instead of the full (partly redundant original sequences. Neighbor-nets and bipartition networks were used to visualize conflict among character state patterns. Species clusters observed in the trees and networks largely agree with morphology-based classifications; of de Jong’s (1994 16 sections, nine are supported in neighbor-net and bipartition networks, and ten by sequence motifs and the ML tree; of his 19 series, 14 are supported in networks, motifs, and the ML tree. Most nodes had higher bootstrap support with matrices of 105 or 40 consensus sequences than with the original matrix. Within-taxon ITS divergence did not differ between diploid and polyploid Acer, and there was little evidence of differentiated parental ITS haplotypes, suggesting that concerted evolution in Acer acts rapidly.

  4. Analysis of stand basal area development of thinned and unthinned Acer rubrum forests in the upper Great Lakes region, USA

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    Justin L. Pszwaro; Anthony W. D' Amato; Thomas E. Burk; Matthew B. Russell; Brian J. Palik; Terry F. Strong

    2016-01-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.), historically a common but not abundant tree species in North America, has increased in abundance throughout its range over the last several decades; however, it has received little attention in growth and yield studies. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the effects of stocking level and stand density on...

  5. Carbohydrate reserves in Acer saccharum trees damaged during the January 1998 ice storm in northern New York

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    B.L. Wong; L.J. Staats; A.S. Burfeind; K.L. Baggett; A.H. Rye; A.H. Rye

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effect of the ice storm of January 1998 on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree health, starch, and soluble sugars in twigs from two damaged sugarbushes (younger: trees 50-100 years old, and older: trees approximately 200 years old) in northern New York were measured throughout the leafless phase (September 1998 - May 1999). Trees severely damaged by...

  6. Hypoglycin A concentrations in seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus trees growing on atypical myopathy-affected and control pastures.

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    Unger, L; Nicholson, A; Jewitt, E M; Gerber, V; Hegeman, A; Sweetman, L; Valberg, S

    2014-01-01

    Hypoglycin A, found in seeds of Acer negundo, appears to cause seasonal pasture myopathy (SPM) in North America and is implicated in atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe. Acer negundo is uncommon in Europe. Thus, the potential source of hypoglycin A in Europe is unknown. We hypothesized that seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus were the source of hypoglycin A in Europe. Our objective was to determine the concentration of hypoglycin A in seeds of A. pseudoplatanus trees located in pastures where previous cases of AM had occurred. None. University of Berne records were searched to retrospectively identify 6 farms with 10 AM cases and 11 suspected AM deaths between 2007 and 2011. During October 2012, A. pseudoplatanus seeds were collected from 2 to 6 trees per pasture on 6 AM farms (7 pastures) from trees in or close to 2 pastures on 2 control farms where AM had not been previously reported. Hypoglycin A in seeds was analyzed by GC-MS. Acer pseudoplatanus trees were identified on all AM pastures. Hypoglycin A was detected in all A. pseudoplatanus seeds in highly variable concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 2.81 μg/mg (mean 0.69) on AM farms and 0.10 to 9.12 μg/mg (mean 1.59) on control farms. Preventing horses from grazing pastures containing A. pseudoplatanus seeds during late fall and early spring might be the best means to prevent AM. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Morphometric characteristics of the leaves of Greek maple (Acer heldreichii Orph in central Serbia

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    Perović Marko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic characteristics of Greek maple (Acer heldreichii Orph were studied based on the analysis of leaf characteristics, by comparative-morphological method. The study was performed at three localities in central Serbia: Goč, Jastrebac and Rudnik. 30 normally developed trees were selected per each locality, and 30 leaves were selected from each tree for the analysis. The study includes 8 measured and 15 derived characteristics of leaves. The study results were statistically processed by correlation analysis, analysis of variance and cluster-analysis. It is concluded that there are two varieties, var. heldreichii and var. macropterum. Four forms are set aside in the variety macropterum: f. typicum f. dissectum, f. Equiloba and f. rotundiloba. The populations are relatively homogeneous, and both varieties occur at all three localities in significant numbers.

  8. Chemical synthesis, redox transformation, and identification of sonnerphenolic C, an antioxidant in Acer nikoense.

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    Iwadate, Takehiro; Nihei, Ken-Ichi

    2017-04-15

    Sonnerphenolic C (3), which was predicted in a redox product of epirhododendrin (1) isolated from Acer nikoense, was synthesized for the first time via the epimeric separation of benzylidene acetal intermediates as a key step. From a similar synthetic route, 1 was obtained concisely. As a result of their antioxidative evaluation, only 3 revealed potent activity. The redox transformation of 1 into 3 was achieved in the presence of tyrosinase and vitamin C. Moreover, 3 was identified in the decoction of A. nikoense by HPLC analysis with the effective use of synthesized 3. Thus, a novel naturally occurring antioxidant 3 was developed through the sequential flow including redox prediction, chemical synthesis, evaluation of the activity, and identification as the natural product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enfermedad pulmonar por amianto en trabajadores de acería

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    Rita Zurbriggen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades relacionadas al amianto se producen por la inhalación de fibras de asbestos en su variedad crisotilo o amianto blanco. A pesar de que en la Argentina la prohibición data del año 2003, existen numerosas industrias donde se sigue trabajando con este mineral, entre ellas las metalúrgicas y acerías. Actualmente se conoce la alta patogenicidad de este material, por lo que en muchos países existen programas de seguimiento de los trabajadores expuestos. Se describen las características generales y manifestaciones clínicas pulmonares de 27 pacientes que trabajaron en una gran acería de América del Sur. El diagnóstico de amiantopatías se realizó mediante historia clínica laboral, antecedente de exposición al amianto, estudios complementarios de función pulmonar e imágenes del tórax. Se analizaron la fuente de exposición (laboral, doméstica y ambiental, tiempo de exposición y período de latencia en los pacientes de los cuales se detectó enfermedad relacionada. Los antecedentes de tabaquismo fueron tenidos en cuenta para el análisis. En 22 pacientes se presentaron patologías benignas (81.4%, 16 de ellos tenían lesiones exclusivamente pleurales y otros 6 asbestosis. Las patologías malignas se presentaron en 5 pacientes (18.5%, en 4 fueron mesoteliomas y en uno carcinoma pulmonar. El problema de la exposición al amianto tiene vigencia actual. De ahí la necesidad de un programa de vigilancia en trabajadores expuestos al amianto actualmente o en el pasado, para detectar, notificar, registrar e investigar las características de estas patologías.

  10. Disseny, construcció i manteniment de paviments industrials de formigó armats amb fibres d’acer

    OpenAIRE

    Villaverde González, José María; Moreno Moreno, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    En el present projecte s’ha pretès descriure amb detall els avantatges específics del formigó reforçat amb fibres d’acer en la seva utilització com a paviment industrial. Segons això, la primera part d’aquest document s’estructura de la següent manera: En primer lloc, es fa una comparació amb els sistemes convencionals d’execució de paviments on, inicialment, es planteja el procés de disseny d’un paviment de formigó reforçat amb fibres d’acer, tant des del punt de vista del càl...

  11. New forms of maples (ACER L., Aceraceae cultivated at Peter the Great Botanic Garden (ST. Petersburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsov Gennadii

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contains description of two new maple forms - Acer miyabei Maxim. f. suberosum Byalt et Firsov forma nova (Aceraceae and Acer saccharinum L. f. variifolium Byalt et Firsov forma nova – cultivated at Peter the Great Botanic Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS in St. Petersburg, Russia. The article contains a brief history of the introduction of A. miyabei Maxim. and A. saccharinum L., information about the origin of the planting material in the park of the botanical garden of RAS, basic differences between the new forms and similar taxa (incl. Latin diagnoses, as well as data about standard samples and their storage. The article has color photos of the alive plants located in the botanical garden of RAS. Both maple forms are very decorative and appear to be very useful for a large-scale implementation in the urban landscape planting.

  12. Phenotypic variability of plant leaves of Acer genus, introduced into steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zaitseva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with studying of the patterns of ecological adaptation of wood species of Acer L. genus during their introduction into steppe zone of Ukraine. Hydrothermal conditions of the growing season in steppe zone of Ukraine are particularly unfavorable for tree and shrubbery plantings, comprising both native and introduced species. In the course of plants’ introduction, adaptive changes occur; such changes represent the spectrum of phenotypic implementation of the definite genotype under the influence of new environmental conditions. Stress environment of the region of introduction leads to occurrence of a great variety of phenotypic forms, as the different variants of genotype implementation. Studying of phenotypic variability gives an opportunity to determine the capacity to adaptation of introduced species and ways of adaptive reactions in new conditions of living. Therefore, objective of the work consists in studying of the processes of differentiation of morphological characters in species of Acer genus introduced in the regions of steppe zone with varying intensity of hydrothermal factors. Studies were carried out in the central and south-eastern steppe regions, as well as in the south of steppe zone in the coastal and continental areas. Subjects of research were 9 species of maples, differing by their botanic and geographic origin and by the degree of drought resistance in the steppe zone of Ukraine. Patterns of variability of morphostructural characters of leaves were determined by the indicator of specific weight of leaves which was calculated as a ratio of weight of dry laminas to their area (mg/cm2. Following the results of study, it was found that adaptation of maples to xerothermic factors of the environment is connected with changing of the ratio of groups of character variation and their contribution into total sample. Direct relationship is established between the probability density of expression (phenotypic

  13. Indirect approach to C-3 branched 1,2-cis-glycofuranosides: synthesis of aceric acid glycoside analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcelo T; Hughes, David L; Nepogodiev, Sergey A; Field, Robert A

    2008-02-04

    Aceric acid (3-C-carboxy-5-deoxy-alpha-l-xylofuranose) residues are present in pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II (RG II) in the form of synthetically challenging 1,2-cis-glycofuranosides. To access synthetic fragments of RG II incorporating aceric acid, a four-step procedure based on C-2 epimerisation of initially prepared 1,2-trans-glycofuranoside was developed. Readily available derivatives of branched-chain l-lyxofuranose bearing a 3-C-vinyl group as a masked 3-C-carboxyl group were investigated as potential precursors of aceric acid units. In the first step of the procedure, installation of a participating group at C-2 of the furanose ring ensured stereocontrol of the O-glycosylation, which was carried out with the thioglycoside of 2-O-acetyl-3,5-di-O-benzyl-3-C-vinyl-L-lyxofuranose. After the glycosylation step, the 2-O-acetyl group was removed, the free 2-OH group was oxidised and the resulting ketone was finally reduced to form the C-3-vinyl-L-xylofuranoside. The use of L-Selectride in the key reduction reaction was essential to achieve the required stereoselectivity to generate 1,2-cis-furanoside.

  14. Phenotypic plasticity of leaf shape along a temperature gradient in Acer rubrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L Royer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Both phenotypic plasticity and genetic determination can be important for understanding how plants respond to environmental change. However, little is known about the plastic response of leaf teeth and leaf dissection to temperature. This gap is critical because these leaf traits are commonly used to reconstruct paleoclimate from fossils, and such studies tacitly assume that traits measured from fossils reflect the environment at the time of their deposition, even during periods of rapid climate change. We measured leaf size and shape in Acer rubrum derived from four seed sources with a broad temperature range and grown for two years in two gardens with contrasting climates (Rhode Island and Florida. Leaves in the Rhode Island garden have more teeth and are more highly dissected than leaves in Florida from the same seed source. Plasticity in these variables accounts for at least 6-19% of the total variance, while genetic differences among ecotypes probably account for at most 69-87%. This study highlights the role of phenotypic plasticity in leaf-climate relationships. We suggest that variables related to tooth count and leaf dissection in A. rubrum can respond quickly to climate change, which increases confidence in paleoclimate methods that use these variables.

  15. [Effects of benthic macro-invertebrate on decomposition of Acer buergerianum leaf litter in streams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Hong; Wang, Bei-Xin; Chen, Ai-Qing; Lan, Ce-Jie

    2009-05-01

    By using composite mesh bag method, the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate in an undisturbed stream and an ecologically restored stream on the decomposition process of Acer buergerianum leaf litter from the Purple Mountain of Nanjing in winter were studied. After 112 days of decomposition, the remaining rate of A. buergerianum leaf litter based on ash-free dry mass was 31-62%, and the decomposition rate followed a declined exponential equation (P leaf litter was 0.0064 d(-1) and 0.0030 d(-1); while in the still water of the streams, it was 0.0016 d(-1) and 0. 0018 d(-1), respectively. The abundance and biomass of benthic macro-invertebrate were significantly higher in the flowing water of undisturbed stream than in that of ecologically restored stream (P Shredders (mainly Asellus sp.) had the highest abundance (70.4%) in the flowing water of undisturbed stream, while filterers (mainly Tanytarsus sp.) were dominant (37.8%) in the flowing water of ecologically restored stream. The decomposition rate of the leaf litter was significantly correlated with the richness and abundance of shredder species in flowing water (P shredders, suggesting that the decomposition of A. buergerianum leaf litter in streams in winter was more dependent on the richness and abundance of shredders.

  16. RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CURLYMAPLE WOOD (ACER PSEUDOPLATANUS USED FOR BACK SIDE OF VIOLIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Domnica STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stringed instruments are made of high quality wood species from physical, mechanical and acoustical point of view, being carefully selected, kiln dried and processed under specific conditions that assure micro-structural integrity. Maple wood (Acer Pseudoplatanus for musical instruments is used to getting back plates and sides for string instruments (violin family. This species of wood is valued for both acoustic qualities but mostly for aesthetic, using a natural defect of maple wood characterized by wavy grain. The paper presents the research on visco-elasticity behavior of maple wood with different types of grain deviation in wood from very curly maple to common maple. The storage modulus, loss modulus, damping capacity in varying temperature conditions and for different loading frequencies were determined using dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA. It was found that specimens characterized by very wavy grain shows a high damping capacity of frequency range between 33.33 to 50Hz, unlike specimens of common maple which do not have the capacity of frequency selectivity.

  17. Effect of Value Congruence, Brand Distinctiveness, Brand Social, Brand Warmth, and Memorable Brand Experience on Customer-Brand Identification and Brand Loyalty (Case Study: Brand of ACER Laptop)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanty, Aries; Tresnaningrum, Aprilia

    2018-02-01

    This study has several purposes. First, this study aims to investigate the effect of consumer-brand value congruence, brand distinctiveness, brand social benefit, brand warmth, and memorable brand experience on customer-brand identification (CBI). We call all of those factors as the antecedent factor of CBI. Second, this study aims to investigate the effect of CBI on customer loyalty. Third, investigate the role of product involvement as a moderating variable of the relationship between brand distinctiveness, brand social benefit, brand warmth, memorable brand experience and CBI. This research used primary data collected through closed questionnaires using a Likert scale of 1 - 5. The total sample size was 273 respondents located in Semarang City who has or has been using Acer Laptop for minimal one year. This research was conducted using Partial Least Square (PLS) method through SmartPLS 3.0 software. The result of data processing indicated that all of the antecedent factors of CBI have the positive and significant effect on CBI of the user of Acer Laptop. In this case, among the five antecedent factors of CBI, value congruence has the greatest effect on CBI of the user of Acer Laptop. The result of data processing also indicated that CBI has the positive and significant effect on brand loyalty of user of Acer Laptop. This study fails to prove the role of product involvement as a moderating variable of the relationship between brand distinctiveness, brand social benefit, brand warmth, memorable brand experience and CBI of the user of Acer Laptop. Moreover, based on the result of hypothesis testing, this study gives some recommendation to Acer Laptop to develop or create some features which are match with the value of user of Laptop Acer in Semarang City.

  18. Effect of Value Congruence, Brand Distinctiveness, Brand Social, Brand Warmth, and Memorable Brand Experience on Customer-Brand Identification and Brand Loyalty (Case Study: Brand of ACER Laptop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanty Aries

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has several purposes. First, this study aims to investigate the effect of consumer–brand value congruence, brand distinctiveness, brand social benefit, brand warmth, and memorable brand experience on customer-brand identification (CBI. We call all of those factors as the antecedent factor of CBI. Second, this study aims to investigate the effect of CBI on customer loyalty. Third, investigate the role of product involvement as a moderating variable of the relationship between brand distinctiveness, brand social benefit, brand warmth, memorable brand experience and CBI. This research used primary data collected through closed questionnaires using a Likert scale of 1 - 5. The total sample size was 273 respondents located in Semarang City who has or has been using Acer Laptop for minimal one year. This research was conducted using Partial Least Square (PLS method through SmartPLS 3.0 software. The result of data processing indicated that all of the antecedent factors of CBI have the positive and significant effect on CBI of the user of Acer Laptop. In this case, among the five antecedent factors of CBI, value congruence has the greatest effect on CBI of the user of Acer Laptop. The result of data processing also indicated that CBI has the positive and significant effect on brand loyalty of user of Acer Laptop. This study fails to prove the role of product involvement as a moderating variable of the relationship between brand distinctiveness, brand social benefit, brand warmth, memorable brand experience and CBI of the user of Acer Laptop. Moreover, based on the result of hypothesis testing, this study gives some recommendation to Acer Laptop to develop or create some features which are match with the value of user of Laptop Acer in Semarang City.

  19. Hallazgo de un endocarpo del genero Acer en niveles del Cretácico superior del embalse de Pedrezuela (Guadalix de la Sierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesiak, M. A.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is described and discussed an endocarp of Acer genus that exhibits a morphology like the living species A. buergerianum Miquel. The fruit was met in the upper part of Cretaceous series from the Pedrezuela barrier of Madrid Community. We propose a new denomination for the plant that contains this endocarp: Acer palaeobuergerianum n. fsp. This name has only taxonomic value. The prefix is give in order to the age and -buergerianum by its similarity with the actual species.Se describe y discute un endocarpo fósil perteneciente al género Acer, encontrado en el Cretácico superior del embalse de Pedrezuela (Madrid. Este fruto muestra una marcada semejanza con los endocarpos de la especie actual Acer buergerianum Miquel. Se propone una nueva denominación, con valor taxonómico, para la planta: Acer palaeobuergerianum n. fsp. El prefijo palaeo sugiere su edad y la denominación - buergerianum su semejanza morfológica con la especie actual.

  20. Validation of the language component of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination--Revised (ACE-R) as a screening tool for aphasia in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Tarek A-Z K; Parsons, Faye; Gautam, Vidushi

    2011-09-01

    Several tests are available for aphasia screening following stroke. However, some of them have shortcomings such as need of specialist knowledge, low sensitivity and/or specificity and lengthy administration time. Our study aims to evaluate the language component of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination--Revised (ACE-R) as a screening tool for aphasia in stroke patients. The language component of ACE-R was administered to consecutive patients admitted to a post-acute stroke unit. Patients who were medically unstable or had a significant history of sensory impairment or mental health issues were excluded. The test was administered by two junior doctors with basic training in ACE-R administration. Patients recruited were also assessed by an experienced speech and language therapist (SLT). The results of the two assessments were documented by a different member of the team and the SLT results were used as the benchmark to calculate the ACE-R language component sensitivity and specificity.   Fifty-nine participants were recruited and 27 of them were women. The mean age was 72 (SD 11.9). Thirty-four participants had left and 11 right hemisphere stroke. Fourteen had bilateral affection. Six participants were left handed. A cut-off value of 22/26 of ACE-R language component showed 100% specificity and 83.1% sensitivity, while a cut-off value of 16/26 had 88.2% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Our results suggest that the language component of ACE-R has a satisfactory sensitivity and specificity compared with other screening tests used in strokes. It is easy to administer and free to use. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2010 ACOTA.

  1. Effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on the function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2013-02-01

    Sap is a plant fluid that primarily consists of water and small amounts of mineral elements, sugars, hormones and other nutrients. Acer mono (A. mono) is an endemic Korean mono maple which was recently suggested to have health benefits due to its abundant calcium and magnesium ion content. In the present study, we examined the effects of sap from Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) on the phagocytic response of mouse neutrophils in vivo and rat and canine neutrophils in vitro. We tested the regulation of phagocytic activity, oxidative burst activity (OBA) and the levels of filamentous polymeric actin (F-actin) in the absence and presence of dexamethasone (DEX) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that DEX primarily reduced OBA in the mouse neutrophils, and that this was reversed in the presence of the sap. By contrast, the phagocytic activity of the mouse cells was not regulated by either DEX or the sap. Rat and canine polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) responded in vitro to the sap in a similar manner by increasing OBA. However, regulation of phagocytic activity by the sap was different between the species. In canine PMNs, phagocytic activity was enhanced by the sap at a high dose, while it did not significantly modulate this activity in rat PMNs. These findings suggest that the sap of A. okamotoanum stimulates neutrophil activity in the mouse, rat and canine by increasing OBA in vivo and in vitro, and thus may have a potential antimicrobial effect in the PMNs of patients with infections.

  2. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wesley-Smith, J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available of Botany, Volume 115, Issue 6 pp. 991-1000. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo- exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum James Wesley-Smith1,2, Christina...

  3. Intracellular ice and cell survival in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum: an ultrastructural study of factors affecting cell and ice structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wesley-Smith, J

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Annals of Botany 113: 695–709, 2014 doi:10.1093/aob/mct284, available online at www.aob.oxfordjournals.org Intracellular ice and cell survival in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum: an ultrastructural study...

  4. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  5. Influence of overstory density on ecophysiology of red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings in central Ontario shelterwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was established in a secondgrowth hardwood forest dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to examine the effects of shelterwood overstory density on leaf gas exchange and seedling water status of planted red oak, naturally regenerated red oak and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings during the first...

  6. Klíčení semen javoru jasanolistého (Acer negundo) a postup jeho invaze v ČR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrázský, Z.; Mihulka, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 43, Mater. 23 (2008), s. 151-162 ISSN 1212-3323. [Rostlinné invaze v ČR: situace, výzkum a management . Praha, 30.11.2007-01.12.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Acer negundo * invasion * mapping of distributiion Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  7. Photosynthetic acclimation of overstory Populus tremuloides and understory Acer saccharum to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration: interactions with shade and soil nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Kubiske; Donald R. Zak; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Yu Takeuchi

    2002-01-01

    We exposed Populus tremuloides Michx. and Acer saccharum Marsh. to a factorial combination of ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) and high-nitrogen (N) and low-N soil treatments in open-top chambers for 3 years. Our objective was to compare photosynthetic...

  8. Managing for delicious ecosystem service under climate change: can United States sugar maple (Acer saccharum) syrup production be maintained in a warming climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen N. Matthews; Louis R. Iverson

    2017-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is a highly valued tree in United States (US) and Canada, and its sap when collected from taps and concentrated, makes a delicious syrup. Understanding how this resource may be impacted by climate change and other threats is essential to continue management for maple syrup into the future. Here, we evaluate the current...

  9. Long-term calcium addition increases growth release, wound closure, and health of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett A. Huggett; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher Eager

    2007-01-01

    We surveyed and wounded forest-grown sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees in a long-term, replicated Ca manipulation study at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Plots received applications of Ca (to boost Ca availability above depleted ambient levels) or A1 (to compete with Ca uptake and further reduce Ca availability...

  10. Equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) in 14 horses associated with ingestion of Maple leaves (Acer pseudoplatanus) covered with European tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, J. H.; Wijnberg, I. D.; Westermann, C. M.; Dorland, L.; de Sain-van der Velden, M. G. M.; Kranenburg, L. C.; Duran, M.; Dijkstra, J. A.; van der Lugt, J. J.; Wanders, R. J. A.; Gruys, E.

    2010-01-01

    This case-series describes fourteen horses suspected of equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) also known as atypical myopathy of which seven cases were confirmed biochemically with all horses having had access to leaves of the Maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus) covered with

  11. The role of habitat factors in successful invasion of alien plant Acer negundo in riparian zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Piotr; Sikorska, Daria

    2016-04-01

    Ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo) is one of the most invasive species occurring in riparian zones. The invasion is especially effective in disturbed areas, as the plant favours anthropogenic sites. The plant was also observed to be able to penetrate into sandy bars, also those separated from the land, inaccessible to people. It's removal is time-consuming and laborious, often involves damage done to sensitive vegetation and the results are doubtful, as the plant quickly regenerates. The invasion patterns and establishment of ash-leaved maple in natural ecosystems are poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to test how habitat factors such as: light availability, soil characteristics and competition contribute to ash-leaved maple effective colonization of natural sand bars free from anthropogenic pressure. In 2014 sand bars located in Vistula River Valley in Warsaw were inventoried and classified basing on their development stage as 1 - initial, 2 - unstable, 3 - stable. Apart from the occurrence of the invasive ash-leaved maple the plants competing with it were recognized and the percentage of the shoots of shrubs and herbaceous plants was estimated. PAR was measured at ground level and 1 meter above ground, the thickness of organic layer formed on the top of the sand was also measured as the indicator of sand bar development stage. The maple's survival in extremely difficult conditions resembles the strategy of willows and poplars naturally occurring in the riparian zones, which are well adapted to this environment. The success of invasion strongly depends on the plants establishment during sand bars initial stage of development. The seedlings growth correlates with the age of the sand bar (r1=0,41, r2=0,42 i r3=0,57). The colonization lasts for 4-6 years and the individuals start to cluster in bigger parches. After that period the maple turns into the phase of competition for space. Habitat factors such as shading (r2=0,41 i r3=0,51) and organic layer

  12. Colonization of Three Maple Species by Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, in Two Mixed-Hardwood Forest Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Dodds

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Asian longhorned beetle (ALB, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky, is an invasive insect that has successfully established multiple times in North America. To investigate host colonization and reproductive success (exit holes/eggs, two ALB infested forest stands were sampled in central Massachusetts, USA. Infested Acer platanoides L., Acer rubrum L., and Acer saccharum Marsh. were felled, bucked into 1 m sections and dissected to determine indications of ALB infestations, such as presence of life stages or signs of damage on trees. ALB damage was also aged on a subset of trees to determine the earliest attacks on the three Acer species. In one stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher on the native A. rubrum and A. saccharum than the exotic A. platanoides. In the second stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher and cumulative reproductive success was higher on A. rubrum than A. platanoides or A. saccharum. An A. saccharum had the earliest signs of attack that occurred in 2006. Acer rubrum (2007 and A. platanoides (2010 were colonized shortly thereafter. Overall, ALB was more successful in A. rubrum, where adults emerged from 53% and 64% of trees in each stand, compared to A. platanoides (11% and 18% or A. saccharum (14% and 9%.

  13. UV-B-mediated changes on below-ground communities associated with the roots of Acer saccharum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klironomos, J.N.; Allen, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    1. Little is known about how exposure to UV-B radiation affects rhizosphere microbes. Rhizosphere organisms are fed primarily by root-derived substrates and fulfil functions such as mineralization, immobilization, decomposition, pathogeneity and improvement of plant nutrition; they form the base of the below-ground food web. 2. In this study, we exposed Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings to UV-B radiation in order to determine if UV-B influences the activities of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal fungi, bacteria and microbe-feeding arthropods in the rhizosphere. 3. Below-ground organisms are greatly affected by UV-B radiation. Overall, carbon-flow in the plant soil system was shifted from a mutualistic-closed, mycorrhizal-dominated system to an opportunist-open, saprobe/pathogen-dominated one. (author)

  14. Winter climate change and fine root biogenic silica in sugar maple trees (Acer saccharum): Implications for silica in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Timothy J.; Templer, Pamela H.; Battles, John J.; Fulweiler, Robinson W.

    2017-03-01

    Winter temperatures are projected to increase over the next century, leading to reductions in winter snowpack and increased frequency of soil freezing in many northern forest ecosystems. Here we examine biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) fine roots collected from a snow manipulation experiment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Increased soil freezing significantly lowered the BSi content of sugar maple fine roots potentially decreasing their capacity to take up water and dissolved nutrients. The reduced silica uptake (8 ± 1 kmol silica km-2) by sugar maple fine roots is comparable to silica export from temperate forest watersheds. We estimate that fine roots account for 29% of sugar maple BSi, despite accounting for only 4% of their biomass. These results suggest that increased frequency of soil freezing will reduce silica uptake by temperate tree roots, thereby changing silica availability in downstream receiving waters.

  15. Biosynthesis of gallic and ellagic acids with 14C-labeled compounds in Acer and Rhus leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Nariyuki; Hayashida, Shunzo; Tazaki, Kiyoshi

    1984-01-01

    The biosynthetic pathway for gallic and ellagic acids in young, mature and autumn leaves of Acer buergerianum and Rhus succedanea was examined by tracer experiments, and also by isotope competition, with D-shikimic acid- 14 C, L-phenylalanine-U- 14 C, L-phenyllactic acid-U- 14 C, gallic acid-G- 14 C and their unlabeled compounds. In young leaves of both plants, the incorporation rate of labeled shikimic acid into gallic acid was significantly higher than that of labeled phenylalanine, whereas in the mature and autumn leaves the latter was a good precursor rather than the former for the gallic acid biosynthesis. Therefore, two pathways for gallic acid formation, through β-oxidation of phenylpropanoid and through dehydrogenation of shikimic acid, could be operating in Acer and Rhus leaves, and the preferential pathway is altered by leaf age. In both plants, the incorporation rate of labeled phenyllactic acid during a 24 hr metabolic period was almost the same as that of labeled phenylalanine. The incorporation of D-shikimic acid-G- 14 C, L-phenylalanine-U- 14 C and L-phenyllactic acid-U- 14 C into ellagic acid was very similar to the case of the radioactive gallic acid formation. Furthermore, regardless of the presence of unlabeled shikimic acid and/or phenylalanine, incorporation of the radioactivity of labeled gallic acid into ellagic acid occurred at a very high rate, suggesting the reciprocal radical reaction of gallic acid for the ellagic acid formation. The incorporation of labeled compounds into ellagitannins was also examined and their biosynthesis discussed further. (author)

  16. Detection of hypoglycin A in the seeds of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) and box elder (A. negundo) in New Zealand; the toxin associated with cases of equine atypical myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R K; Hill, F I; Habyarimana, J A; Boemer, F; Votion, D M

    2016-05-01

    During April and May 2014 four horses aged between 5 months and 9 years, located in the Canterbury, Marlborough and Southland regions, presented with a variety of clinical signs including recumbency, stiffness, lethargy, dehydration, depression, and myoglobinuria suggestive of acute muscle damage. Two horses were subjected to euthanasia and two recovered. In all cases seeds of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) or box elder (A. negundo) were present in the area where the horse had been grazing. The samaras (seeds) of some Acer spp. may contain hypoglycin A, that has been associated with cases of atypical myopathy in Europe and North America. To determine if hypoglycin A is present in the samaras of Acer spp. in New Zealand, samples were collected from trees throughout the country that were associated with historical and/or current cases of atypical myopathy, and analysed for hypoglycin A. Serum samples from the four cases and four unaffected horses were analysed for the presence of hypoglycin A, profiles of acylcarnitines (the definitive diagnosis for atypical myopathy) and activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase.Markedly elevated serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, and increased concentrations of selected acylcarnitines were found in the case horses. Hypoglycin A was detected in the serum of those horses but not in the healthy controls. Hypoglycin A was detected in 10/15 samples of samaras from sycamore maple and box elder from throughout New Zealand. Cases of atypical myopathy were diagnosed on properties where samaras containing hypoglycin A were also found. Sycamore and box elder trees in New Zealand are a source of hypoglycin A associated with the development of atypical myopathy. If pastured horses present with clinical and biochemical signs of severe muscle damage then the environment should be checked for the presence of these trees. Horses should be prevented from grazing samaras from Acer spp. in the

  17. Seasonal changes in the degree of symplasmic continuity between the cells of cambial region of Acer pseudoplatanus and Ulmus minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Sokołowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of symplasmic isolation and symplasmic continuity which are functional aspects of cell-to-cell communication, had been studied in cambium of Acer pseudoplatanus and Ulmus minor, with hope that uniqueness of this meristem, exemplified by its morphology and seasonal variations in its activity is also manifested in differences in the efficiency of communication between cambial cells during the year. The degree of symplasmic continuity was estimated by loading the fluorescent symplasmic tracer to the stem and following its distribution in a population of cambial cells observed on tangential, transverse and radial sections. In active cambium the tracer did not enter the rays. This suggested that the ray and fusiform cells, growing and dividing intensively at different rates were specifically isolated from each other. In the state of dormancy the tracer was present also in the rays implying continuity between the two types of cambial cells. Temporal restriction in tracer spreading from secondary xylem to cambial region was observed on transverse sections in both physiological states of the meristem. Higher degree of symplasmic isolation in active cambium is, most probably, associated with functional distinctiveness of ray and fusiform cells. We hypothesize further that the symplasmic continuity in dormant cambium results from the open conformation states of plasmodesmata, because the energy costs of these states are low. It is reasonable strategy when cambial cells do not divide and maintenance of their functional individuality is not necessary.

  18. Characterization of Endophytic Fungi from Acer ginnala Maxim. in an Artificial Plantation: Media Effect and Tissue-Dependent Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yaguang

    2012-01-01

    The community of endophytic fungi associated with Acer ginnala, a common tree in northeastern China, was investigated. Four media, PDA, Czapek’s, WA and Sabouraud’s, were used to inoculate explants from seeds, annual twigs and perennial twigs (xylem and bark). Media strongly affected the isolated species number, but not colonization frequency (CF) or isolation frequency (IF). To investigate media effect further, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was done. As a result, two components accounted for 86.502% of the total variance were extracted. These two components were named as PDA-determined factor (accounted for 45.139% of the total variance) and Czapek’s-determined factor (accounted for 41.363% of the total variance), respectively. This result suggested that only two media, PDA and Czapek’s, could be used instead of all four media in this study without affecting the isolation results significantly. In total, ten taxa were isolated in this study. Alternaria sp., Phomopsis sp., Neurospora sp. and Phoma sp. were dominant endophytes while Pleosporales Incertae Sedis sp., Cladosporium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Epicoccum sp. were rare taxa. Different tissues/organs had different endophyte assemblages. All tissue/organ pairs had low Bray-Curtis indices (endophyte dominance and diversity indices. Seeds had distinct assemblage, lower similarity and similar low diversity indices to annual twigs. These results suggested that tissue type determines the endophyte assemblage while age determines the diversity. PMID:23056451

  19. Root vitality of Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea Liebl. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in mature mixed forest stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygoruk Dorota

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main task of the present study was to investigate the root vitality of common beech Fagus sylvatica L., sessile oak Quercus petraea Liebl. and sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the optimal g rowth conditions in south-western Poland. The study was carried out in 130-year-old mixed stand located within natural range of studied tree species. The density of roots (g/100 cm3 of soil and biomass of fine roots (g/m2 in topsoil layers (0-5 cm, 5-15 cm were determined in the tree biogroups of the same species. The mean total root density ranged from 0.248 to 0.417 g/100 cm3 in the 0-5 cm soil layer, and it decreased in the deeper soil layer (5-15 cm. There were found no statistically significant differences of total root densities between tree biogroups in topsoil layers. Diversity of fine root biomass was comparable in the tree biogroups (H’ = 1.5, but common beech showed more intensive growth of fine roots in the topsoil 0-15 cm when compared to sessile oak and sycamore maple. The results of the study point out the stability of the multi-species structure of the mixed stand studied, and consequently - the ability of beech, sessile oak and sycamore maple trees to coexist in the mixed stands - in the area of natural range of these species.

  20. Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Steiner, K.C.; Davis, D.D.; Pennypacker, S.P.; Zhang, J.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    High soil water availability favors ozone uptake, increases foliar injury, and exacerbates the negative ozone effect on gas exchange of seedlings of deciduous tree species. - Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O 3 ; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O 3 ; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O 3 ) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data, ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (<34% affected leaf area, LAA) than ash (<5% LAA), while maple rarely showed foliar injury, indicating the species differed in ozone sensitivity. Significantly more severe injury on seedlings grown under irrigated conditions than seedlings grown under non-irrigated conditions demonstrated that soil moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures

  1. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Liu

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE, whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC. In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM. Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278 among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  2. Characterization of endophytic fungi from Acer ginnala Maxim. in an artificial plantation: media effect and tissue-dependent variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghui Qi

    Full Text Available The community of endophytic fungi associated with Acer ginnala, a common tree in northeastern China, was investigated. Four media, PDA, Czapek's, WA and Sabouraud's, were used to inoculate explants from seeds, annual twigs and perennial twigs (xylem and bark. Media strongly affected the isolated species number, but not colonization frequency (CF or isolation frequency (IF. To investigate media effect further, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA was done. As a result, two components accounted for 86.502% of the total variance were extracted. These two components were named as PDA-determined factor (accounted for 45.139% of the total variance and Czapek's-determined factor (accounted for 41.363% of the total variance, respectively. This result suggested that only two media, PDA and Czapek's, could be used instead of all four media in this study without affecting the isolation results significantly. In total, ten taxa were isolated in this study. Alternaria sp., Phomopsis sp., Neurospora sp. and Phoma sp. were dominant endophytes while Pleosporales Incertae Sedis sp., Cladosporium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Epicoccum sp. were rare taxa. Different tissues/organs had different endophyte assemblages. All tissue/organ pairs had low Bray-Curtis indices (<0.3 except for bark and annual twigs (0.63. Compared to perennial twigs, annual twigs had a lower taxon number, lower isolate number, lower endophyte dominance and diversity indices. Seeds had distinct assemblage, lower similarity and similar low diversity indices to annual twigs. These results suggested that tissue type determines the endophyte assemblage while age determines the diversity.

  3. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunping; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Shen, Hailong; Hu, Lijiang; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE), whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC). In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM). Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278) among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  4. Der Eschen-Ahorn (Acer negundo) am nördlichen Oberrhein : Beitrag zur naturschutzfachlichen Einschätzung eines Neophyten

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgärtel, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Der Eschen-Ahorn (Acer negundo) hat in Mitteleuropa seinen Verbreitungsschwerpunkt an der Donau unterstrom von Wien sowie am Nördlichen Oberrhein, am Mittel- und Niederrhein. A. negundo zeichnet sich durch eine hohe Überflutungstoleranz aus, seine Samen weisen gegenüber den Diasporen von Weiden und Pappeln eine wesentlich längere Keimfähigkeit auf. Dadurch ist die Art in der Lage, offene Standorte in dynamischen Systemen über einen langen Zeitraum zu besiedeln und einheimische Gehölze zu verd...

  5. Effects of forest fragmentation on the mating system of a cool-temperate heterodichogamous tree Acer mono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kikuchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollination is a key process for reproduction and gene flow in flowering plants. Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation, however, can disrupt plant–pollinator interactions, and may have a negative impact on the reproductive success and population viability of entomophilous plants. Heterodichogamous plants containing protandrous and protogynous individuals within a population may be susceptible to habitat fragmentation due to a lack of available mating partners. In this study, we investigated the effects of forest fragmentation on the mating system in the heterodichogamous plant Acer mono, a major constituent of cool-temperate deciduous forests in Japan. Microsatellite analysis was applied to 212 adult trees and 17 seed families from continuous and fragmented forests. Dispersal kernel modeling using the neighborhood model indicated that pollen dispersal of A. mono was highly fat-tailed. The estimated parameters of the model suggested that the siring success of a pollen donor increased approximately fivefold, with a 100 cm increase in its diameter at breast height (DBH, and that disassortative mating was five times more frequent than assortative mating. The mating system parameters of each mother tree, outcrossing rate (tm, biparental inbreeding (tm−ts, and paternity correlation (rpm varied among sites and conditions, depending on the local density of potential pollen donors. Whereas A. mono was effectively outcrossed (tm=0.901, tm−ts=0.052, and the number of effective sires was 1/rpm=14.93 in the continuous forest, clumped trees within the fragmented forest showed increased biparental inbreeding and reduced pollen pool genetic diversity (tm=0.959, tm−ts=0.245,1/rpm=1.742 as a result of localized mating combined with spatial genetic structures. In contrast, the isolated trees had a higher selfing rate, but the pollen pool diversity was maintained (tm=0.801, tm−ts=0.022, and 1/rpm=15.63 due to frequent long-distance pollination. These

  6. Climate Change in the School Yard: Monitoring the Health of Acer Saccharum with A Maple Report Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, M.; Diller, A.; Rock, B. N.

    2012-12-01

    K-12 Teachers and students engage in authentic science and a research partnership with scientists in Maple Watch, a University of New Hampshire outreach program. Maple Watch is a hands-on, inquiry-based program in which students learn about climate change and air quality as well as many other environmental stress factors which may affect the health of sugar maple. The iconic New England tree is slated to lose 52% of its range in this century. Maple Watch builds on the 20-year record of Forest Watch, a K-12 program in which students and teachers have contributed annual research specimens and data to a UNH study of tropospheric ozone and its impact on white pine (Pinus strobus). Maple Watch students monitor sugar maples (Acer saccharum) year-round for signals of strain and disease. Students report the first run in sap season, bud burst and leaf development, and leaf senescence and fall. Across New England the timing of these phenologic events is changing with climate warming. Students assess maple health with simple measures of leaf development in May, leaf senescence in early fall and bud quality in late fall. Simple student arithmetic rankings of leaf and bud health correlate with chlorophyll content and spectral reflectance measures that students can analyze and compare with researchers at UNH. Grading their trees for each test on a one-two-three scale, students develop a Maple Report Card for each type of measurement, which presents an annual portrait of tree health. Year-by-year, schools across the sugar maple's 31 million acre range could monitor changes in tree health. The change over time in maple health can be graphed in parallel with the Goddard Space Institute's Common Sense Climate Index. Four teachers, listed as co-authors here, began a pilot study with Maple Watch in 2010, contributing sap samples and sharing curricular activities with UNH. Pilot Maple Watch schools already manage stands of sugar maples and make maple syrup and are assisting in training

  7. Revealing the cellular metabolism and microstructural changes in vivo in senescing Acer saccharum leaves using two-photon FLIM and full-field OCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Anna, Tulsi; Kuo, Wen-Chuan; Chiou, Arthur

    2016-10-01

    Seasonal as well as climate changes have immense effect on bud burst, leaf color and leaf abscission. Autumn phenology of leaves is clearly distinguishable in deciduous plant leaves where the leaf color changes from green to red (leaf senescence). In this work, two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2P-FLIM) and full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM) were applied to study mitochondrial activity and microstructural changes, respectively, in the senescence of Acer saccharum (Sugar maple) leaves. Fluorescence lifetime of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] was recorded using 2P-FLIM to quantify the cellular metabolic changes. Compared to the green leaves, the red leaves showed a 19% increase (P fluorescence lifetime of NAD(P)H, and a 52% decrease (p protein-bound NAD(P)H ratio. This infers a significant change in mitochondrial metabolic regulation in red leaves in contrast to green leaves. Additionally, en-face sectional images at 0.8 μm axial resolutions of the green and the red color Acer saccharum leaves via FF-OCM using white light emitting diode (WLED) showed a well-defined microstructure of epicuticular waxy layer in green leaves as compared to red leaves where disintegrated microstructure was observed. Our approach can potentially be used to correlate mitochondrial activity with epicuticular microstructural changes in senescing leaves and other biological tissues.

  8. The ACER pollen and charcoal database: a global resource to document vegetation and fire response to abrupt climate changes during the last glacial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Goñi, María Fernanda; Desprat, Stéphanie; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Bassinot, Frank C.; Polanco-Martínez, Josué M.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Allen, Judy R. M.; Anderson, R. Scott; Behling, Hermann; Bonnefille, Raymonde; Burjachs, Francesc; Carrión, José S.; Cheddadi, Rachid; Clark, James S.; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Mustaphi, Colin. J. Courtney; Debusk, Georg H.; Dupont, Lydie M.; Finch, Jemma M.; Fletcher, William J.; Giardini, Marco; González, Catalina; Gosling, William D.; Grigg, Laurie D.; Grimm, Eric C.; Hayashi, Ryoma; Helmens, Karin; Heusser, Linda E.; Hill, Trevor; Hope, Geoffrey; Huntley, Brian; Igarashi, Yaeko; Irino, Tomohisa; Jacobs, Bonnie; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Kawai, Sayuri; Kershaw, A. Peter; Kumon, Fujio; Lawson, Ian T.; Ledru, Marie-Pierre; Lézine, Anne-Marie; Liew, Ping Mei; Magri, Donatella; Marchant, Robert; Margari, Vasiliki; Mayle, Francis E.; Merna McKenzie, G.; Moss, Patrick; Müller, Stefanie; Müller, Ulrich C.; Naughton, Filipa; Newnham, Rewi M.; Oba, Tadamichi; Pérez-Obiol, Ramón; Pini, Roberta; Ravazzi, Cesare; Roucoux, Katy H.; Rucina, Stephen M.; Scott, Louis; Takahara, Hikaru; Tzedakis, Polichronis C.; Urrego, Dunia H.; van Geel, Bas; Valencia, B. Guido; Vandergoes, Marcus J.; Vincens, Annie; Whitlock, Cathy L.; Willard, Debra A.; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2017-09-01

    Quaternary records provide an opportunity to examine the nature of the vegetation and fire responses to rapid past climate changes comparable in velocity and magnitude to those expected in the 21st-century. The best documented examples of rapid climate change in the past are the warming events associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles during the last glacial period, which were sufficiently large to have had a potential feedback through changes in albedo and greenhouse gas emissions on climate. Previous reconstructions of vegetation and fire changes during the D-O cycles used independently constructed age models, making it difficult to compare the changes between different sites and regions. Here, we present the ACER (Abrupt Climate Changes and Environmental Responses) global database, which includes 93 pollen records from the last glacial period (73-15 ka) with a temporal resolution better than 1000 years, 32 of which also provide charcoal records. A harmonized and consistent chronology based on radiometric dating (14C, 234U/230Th, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), 40Ar/39Ar-dated tephra layers) has been constructed for 86 of these records, although in some cases additional information was derived using common control points based on event stratigraphy. The ACER database compiles metadata including geospatial and dating information, pollen and charcoal counts, and pollen percentages of the characteristic biomes and is archived in Microsoft AccessTM at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.870867.

  9. Dependence of leaf structural indices in two forest maple species from within-crown irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Belyavskaya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main leaf structural parameters of two genus Acer L. representatives ( A. platanoides and A. tataricum have been characterized. The responses of structural indices to within-crown light level have been studied. Inter-species differences have been revealed in irradiance adaptation at the cellular level.

  10. An assessment of management history of damaged and undamaged trees 8 years after the ice storm in Rochester, New York, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne C. Zipperer; Susan M. Sisinni; Jerry Bond; Chris Luley; Andrew G. Pleninger

    2004-01-01

    Rochester, New York, U.S., were reviewed to evaluate the city's storm related removal protocol and how maintenance varied by damage classes. Maintenance codes assigned in 1991 were used to identify ice-storm damage classes based on percentage of crown loss. We evaluated seven species Noway maple (Acer platanoides), silver maple (A. saccharinum), sugar maple (A....

  11. Decay, defects and condition of street trees in four Upstate New York cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Luley; David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    Throughout most of New York State, maple species are the most common street tree. It is not unusual for Norway (Acer platanoides), silver (A. saccharinum), sugar (A. saccharum), red (A. rubrum), and other maples species to comprise over 50% of the street tree population in communities...

  12. Ecotoxicological effects evoked in hydrophytes by leachates of invasive Acer negundo and autochthonous Alnus glutinosa fallen off leaves during their microbial decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevš, Alina; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Grigutytė, Reda; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Kučinskienė, Alė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Vitkus, Rimantas

    2013-01-01

    Throughout 90-day biodegradation under microaerobic conditions, invasive to Lithuania species boxelder maple (Acer negundo) leaves lost 1.5-fold more biomass than that of autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa), releasing higher contents of N tot , ammonium and generating higher BOD 7 . Boxelder maple leaf leachates were characterized by higher total bacterial numbers and colony numbers of heterotrophic and cellulose-decomposing bacteria than those of black alder. The higher toxicity of A. negundo aqueous extracts and leachates to charophyte cell (Nitellopsis obtusa), the inhabitant of clean lakes, were manifested at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while the effect on H + -ATPase activity in membrane preparations from the same algae was stronger in case of A. glutinosa. Duckweed (Lemna minor), a bioindicator of eutrophic waters, was more sensitive to leaf leachates of A. glutinosa. Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter water body, affect differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems. - Highlights: ► We examined Acer negundo and Alnus glutinosa leaf extract effects on hydrophytes. ► Nitellopsis obtusa and Lemna minor responded differently to leaf litter leachates. ► 90-day biodegraded A. negundo leaves lost twofold more biomass than that of A. glutinosa. ► A. negundo leachates evoked higher mortality and cell depolarization of N. obtusa. ► Leachates affected H + -ATPase activity in algae membrane preparations. - Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter waterbody can be environmental factor affecting differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems, thus influencing ecological scenarios.

  13. The ACER pollen and charcoal database: a global resource to document vegetation and fire response to abrupt climate changes during the last glacial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Sánchez Goñi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Quaternary records provide an opportunity to examine the nature of the vegetation and fire responses to rapid past climate changes comparable in velocity and magnitude to those expected in the 21st-century. The best documented examples of rapid climate change in the past are the warming events associated with the Dansgaard–Oeschger (D–O cycles during the last glacial period, which were sufficiently large to have had a potential feedback through changes in albedo and greenhouse gas emissions on climate. Previous reconstructions of vegetation and fire changes during the D–O cycles used independently constructed age models, making it difficult to compare the changes between different sites and regions. Here, we present the ACER (Abrupt Climate Changes and Environmental Responses global database, which includes 93 pollen records from the last glacial period (73–15 ka with a temporal resolution better than 1000 years, 32 of which also provide charcoal records. A harmonized and consistent chronology based on radiometric dating (14C, 234U∕230Th, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL, 40Ar∕39Ar-dated tephra layers has been constructed for 86 of these records, although in some cases additional information was derived using common control points based on event stratigraphy. The ACER database compiles metadata including geospatial and dating information, pollen and charcoal counts, and pollen percentages of the characteristic biomes and is archived in Microsoft AccessTM at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.870867.

  14. Ecotoxicological effects evoked in hydrophytes by leachates of invasive Acer negundo and autochthonous Alnus glutinosa fallen off leaves during their microbial decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevš, Alina; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Grigutytė, Reda; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Kučinskienė, Alė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Vitkus, Rimantas; Manusadžianas, Levonas

    2013-02-01

    Throughout 90-day biodegradation under microaerobic conditions, invasive to Lithuania species boxelder maple (Acer negundo) leaves lost 1.5-fold more biomass than that of autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa), releasing higher contents of N(tot), ammonium and generating higher BOD(7). Boxelder maple leaf leachates were characterized by higher total bacterial numbers and colony numbers of heterotrophic and cellulose-decomposing bacteria than those of black alder. The higher toxicity of A. negundo aqueous extracts and leachates to charophyte cell (Nitellopsis obtusa), the inhabitant of clean lakes, were manifested at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while the effect on H(+)-ATPase activity in membrane preparations from the same algae was stronger in case of A. glutinosa. Duckweed (Lemna minor), a bioindicator of eutrophic waters, was more sensitive to leaf leachates of A. glutinosa. Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter water body, affect differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Food-chain transfer of zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to the aphids Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis Schrank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnett, Danielle, E-mail: danielle.sinnett@forestry.gsi.gov.u [Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Hutchings, Tony R., E-mail: tony.hutchings@forestry.gsi.gov.u [Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E., E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.u [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    This study examines the food-chain transfer of Zn from two plant species, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple), into their corresponding aphid species, Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system using solutions with increasing concentrations of Zn from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/l. Above-ground tissue concentrations in U. dioica and M. carnosum increased with increasing Zn exposure (p < 0.001). Zn concentrations in A. pseudoplatanus also increased with solution concentration from the control to the 9.8 mg Zn/l solution, above which concentrations remained constant. Zn concentrations in both D. platanoidis and the phloem tissue of A. pseudoplatanus were not affected by the Zn concentration in the watering solution. It appears that A. pseudoplatanus was able to limit Zn transport in the phloem, resulting in constant Zn exposure to the aphids. Zn concentrations in D. platanoidis were around three times those in M. carnosum. - Concentrations of Zn in two aphid species are dependant on species and exposure.

  16. Food-chain transfer of zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to the aphids Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis Schrank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnett, Danielle; Hutchings, Tony R.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the food-chain transfer of Zn from two plant species, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple), into their corresponding aphid species, Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system using solutions with increasing concentrations of Zn from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/l. Above-ground tissue concentrations in U. dioica and M. carnosum increased with increasing Zn exposure (p < 0.001). Zn concentrations in A. pseudoplatanus also increased with solution concentration from the control to the 9.8 mg Zn/l solution, above which concentrations remained constant. Zn concentrations in both D. platanoidis and the phloem tissue of A. pseudoplatanus were not affected by the Zn concentration in the watering solution. It appears that A. pseudoplatanus was able to limit Zn transport in the phloem, resulting in constant Zn exposure to the aphids. Zn concentrations in D. platanoidis were around three times those in M. carnosum. - Concentrations of Zn in two aphid species are dependant on species and exposure.

  17. Analisis Peta Persepsi Pemilihan Atribut Produk Laptop Di Kalangan Mahasiswa Universitas Telkom Kota Bandung (Studi Pada Laptop Acer, Asus, Lenovo, Toshiba, HP, Samsung dan Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Melwinda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out laptop brand selection perceptual map of among Telkom University students. The object of this research study are some of incoming laptop brand in Top Brand 2016 which are Acer, Lenovo, Asus, Toshiba, HP, Samsung and Apple. The attributes of the study are design instrument, operation system, variation, feature set, specification, processor, battery resistance, product price, price resale, warranty, LCD display, storage capacity, product quality, sustainability to defect, and keyboard quality. This research used quantitative method. Research instrument used was a questionnaire, which distributed to 100 respondent sample area of the object of research. In taking a sample of this study, the researcher used Non-Probability technique by using purposive sampling method. The data analysis that used is multidimensional scalling analysis, this analysis gives perception map picture, appeared the position of each laptop brand that is close together or far apart. Laptop brand that showed in a perceptual map will display rank of the best position than another laptop brand. As perception, Apple occupies the first best position among another best laptop brands. That is proved by the rank position from respondents preference based on overall attributes which is more excellent in design, operation system, variation, feature set, specification, processor, battery resistance, product quality, and keyboard quality. For price product attribute is occupied by Lenovo as the cheapest rather than another laptop brands. Meanwhile, for the LCD display attribute, price resale, and storage capacity are occupied by Asus which get the second best rank based overall attribute.

  18. The acropetal effects of indole-3-acetic acid in isolated shoot segments of Acer pseudoplatanus L. II. Possible regulation by a vectorial fieid of auxin waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek A. Adamczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acropetal effects of auxin on elongation of axillary buds and on modulation of the wave-like pattern of basipetal efflux of natural auxin to agar from Acer pseudoplatanus L. shoots were studied. When synthetic IAA was applied to cut surfaces of one of two branches the elongation growth of buds situated on the opposite branch was retarded, suggesting regulation independent of the direct action of the molecules of the applied IAA. Oscillations in basipetal transport of natural auxin along the stem segments were observed corroborating the results of other authors using different tree species. Apical application of synthetic IAA for 1 hour to the lateral branch caused a phase shift of the wave-like pattern of basipetal efflux of natural auxin, when the stem segment above the treated branch was sectioned. The same effect was observed evoked by the laterally growing branch which is interpreted as an effect of natural auxin produced by the actively growing shoot. These modulations could be propagated acropetally at a rate excluding direct action of auxin molecules at the sites of measurement. The results seem to corroborate the hypothesis suggesting that auxin is involved in acropetal regulation of shoot apex growth through its effect upon modulation of the vectorial field which arises when the auxin-waves translocate in cambium.

  19. Influence of invasive Acer negundo leaf litter on benthic microbial abundance and activity in the littoral zone of a temperate river in Lithuania

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    Krevš Alina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forests are known as important source of allochthonous organic matter entering to water ecosystems via fallen leaves. However, leaf litter, depending on their quality, may create different conditions for benthic microorganisms functioning in littoral zone of water bodies. In order to evaluate the impact of riparian invasive Acer negundo on littoral water zone of the River Neris (Lithuania, we performed physicochemical and microbiological investigations in bottom sediments of three different sites of the river. One sampling site was close by riparian A. negundo, another close by native Alnus glutinosa location and a third zone was near the shore without riparian vegetation. Content of nutrients in the littoral sediments differed between invasive and native trees leaf litter accumulation sites, while not always significantly. The highest microbial densities as well as benthic community respiratory activity (expressed as the rate of organic carbon mineralization occurred in A. negundo leaves accumulation site. In sediments of this site, the most intensive anaerobic terminal organic carbon mineralization process − sulfate reduction and the highest concentration of hydrogen sulfide were also observed. Differences in the intensity of mineralization processes between sites suggest that the replacement of the riparian native species such as dominant A. glutinosa by invasive A. negundo with higher biodegradability leaves may induce local changes in organic matter processing in the littoral zone of the river. The increase of littoral bioproductivity in the accumulation zone of A. negundo leaf litter can occur due to the inflow of available organic matter and its intensive mineralization.

  20. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Zhang, J.W.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.; Davis, D.D.; Steiner, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (ψ L ) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (g wv ) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (P n ), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P wv and P n demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. - Within the heterogeneous environment of a mature forest, many factors in addition to soil moisture play a significant role in determining exposure/response relationships to ozone

  1. Effects of elevated [CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L. seedlings to light.

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    Gabriel Danyagri

    Full Text Available Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L. seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol(-1 and elevated (784 µmol mol(-1 [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M regimes, at high light (100% and low light (30% in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (g s, instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE, maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax, rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J, triose phosphate utilization (TPU, leaf respiration (R d, light compensation point (LCP and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx. A and g s did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the C i/C a in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable.

  2. Analytical approaches to the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2005-06-01

    Analytical methods are reviewed for the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak). Data are limited but nevertheless clearly establish the critical importance of sample preparation and pre-treatment in the analysis. For example, drying methods invariably reduce the recovery of biophenols and this is illustrated by data for birch leaves where flavonoid glycosides were determined as 12.3 +/- 0.44 mg g(-1) in fresh leaves but 9.7 +/- 0.35 mg g(-1) in air-dried samples (data expressed as dry weight). Diverse sample handling procedures have been employed for recovery of biophenols. The range of biophenols and diversity of sample types precludes general procedural recommendations. Caution is necessary in selecting appropriate procedures as the high reactivity of these compounds complicates their analysis. Moreover, our experience suggests that their reactivity is very dependent on the matrix. The actual measurement is less contentious and high performance separation methods particularly liquid chromatography dominate analyses whilst coupled techniques involving electrospray ionization are becoming routine particularly for qualitative applications. Quantitative data are still the exception and are summarized for representative species that dominate the forest canopy of various habitats. Reported concentrations for simple phenols range from trace level (<0.1 microg g(-1)) to in excess of 500 microg g(-1) depending on a range of factors. Plant tissue is one of these variables but various biotic and abiotic processes such as stress are also important considerations.

  3. Simulated root dynamics of a 160-year-old sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree with and without ozone exposure using the TREGRO model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzlaff, W. A.; Weinstein, D. A.; Laurence, J. A.; Gollands, B.

    1996-01-01

    Because of difficulties in directly assessing root responses of mature forest trees exposed to atmospheric pollutants, we have used the model TREGRO to analyze the effects of a 3- and a 10-year exposure to ozone (O(3)) on root dynamics of a simulated 160-year-old sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree. We used existing phenological, allometric, and growth data to parameterize TREGRO to produce a simulated 160-year-old tree. Simulations were based on literature values for sugar maple fine root production and senescence and the photosynthetic responses of sugar maple seedlings exposed to O(3) in open-top chambers. In the simulated 3-year exposure to O(3), 2 x ambient atmospheric O(3) concentrations reduced net carbon (C) gain of the 160-year-old tree. This reduction occurred in the C storage pools (total nonstructural carbohydrate, TNC), with most of the reduction occurring in coarse (woody) roots. Total fine root production and senescence were unaffected by the simulated 3-year exposure to O(3). However, extending the simulated O(3) exposure period to 10 years depleted the TNC pools of the coarse roots and reduced total fine root production. Similar reductions in TNC pools have been observed in forest-grown sugar maple trees exhibiting symptoms of stress. We conclude that modeling can aid in evaluating the belowground response of mature forest trees to atmospheric pollution stress and could indicate the potential for gradual deterioration of tree health under conditions of long-term stress, a situation similar to that underlying the decline of sugar maple trees.

  4. Effects of elevated [CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyagri, Gabriel; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2]) and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol(-1)) and elevated (784 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M) regimes, at high light (100%) and low light (30%) in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s), instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J), triose phosphate utilization (TPU)), leaf respiration (R d), light compensation point (LCP) and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx). A and g s did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the C i/C a in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable.

  5. Samaras and seedlings of Acer pseudoplatanus are potential sources of hypoglycin A intoxication in atypical myopathy without necessarily inducing clinical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baise, E; Habyarimana, J A; Amory, H; Boemer, F; Douny, C; Gustin, P; Marcillaud-Pitel, C; Patarin, F; Weber, M; Votion, D-M

    2016-07-01

    Ingestion of sycamore seeds (Acer pseudoplatanus) is the likely source of hypoglycin A in atypical myopathy (AM) but ingestion of seedlings in spring might also contribute to intoxication. To test for hypoglycin A in seeds and seedlings collected on pastures where AM cases were reported and compare its concentration in serum of affected and healthy horses. Field investigation of clinical cases. Whenever present, samaras (the winged nuts that each contain one seed) and/or seedlings were collected from pastures of 8 AM cases and 5 unaffected horses from different premises. Two AM cases were each co-grazing with an apparently healthy horse. Acylcarnitines and hypoglycin A were quantified in blood samples of all horses involved in the study. Hypoglycin A was detected in serum of AM (5.47 ± 1.60 μmol/l) but not in healthy controls pasturing where A. pseudoplatanus trees were not present. However, hypoglycin A was detected at high concentrations (7.98 μmol/l) in serum of a clinically healthy horse grazing a pasture with seedlings and samaras and also in the 2 healthy horses co-grazing with AM cases (0.43 ± 0.59 μmol/l). Hypoglycin A was detected in all samples of seeds and spring seedlings of A. pseudoplatanus. Atypical myopathy can be associated with the ingestion of sycamore samaras and also ingestion of seedlings. Hypoglycin A can be detected in the blood of horses with no detectable clinical signs at pasture in which there is A. pseudoplatanus. Determination of hypoglycin A concentration in blood is useful for screening for exposure in suspected cases of AM. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Optimization of ultrasonic circulating extraction of samara oil from Acer saccharum using combination of Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengli; Zhang, Qiang; Fei, Shimin; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2017-03-01

    In this study, ultrasonic circulating extraction (UCE) technique was firstly and successfully applied for extraction of samara oil from Acer saccharum. The extraction kinetics were fitted and described, and the extraction mechanism was discussed. Through comparison, n-hexane was selected as the extraction solvent, the influence of solvent type on the responses was detailedly interpreted based on the influence of their properties on the occurrence and intensity of cavitation. Seven parameters potentially influencing the extraction yield of samara oil and content of nervonic acid, including ultrasound irradiation time, ultrasound irradiation power, ultrasound temperature, liquid-solid ratio, soaking time, particle size and stirring rate, were screened through Plackett-Burman design to determine the significant variables. Then, three parameters performed statistically significant, including liquid-solid ratio, ultrasound irradiation time and ultrasound irradiation power, were further optimized using Box-Behnken design to predict optimum extraction conditions. Satisfactory yield of samara oil (11.72±0.38%) and content of nervonic acid (5.28±0.18%) were achieved using the optimal conditions. 1% proportion of ethanol in extraction solvent, 120°C of drying temperature and 6.4% moisture were selected and applied for effective extraction. There were no distinct differences in the physicochemical properties of samara oil obtained by UCE and Soxhlet extraction, and the samara oil obtained by UCE exhibited better antioxidant activities. Therefore, UCE method has enormous potential for efficient extraction of edible oil with high quality from plant materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Seasonal changes in contents of phenolic compounds and sugar in Rhus, Euonymus and Acer leaves with special reference to anthocyanin formation in autumn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Nariyuki

    1976-01-01

    The seasonal changes in the contents of sugar and phenolic compounds in the leaves of Rhus, Euonymus and two Acer species were examined in order to obtain information on the metabolic process inducing the autumn reddening. The incorporation of radioactivity of glucose-(U-14C) into anthocyanin was also examined. As a result of a preliminary test, the compositions of sugar and phenolic compounds were not altered by the drying treatment, therefore dried material was used. Dried leaves (ca. 2 g) were subject to the extraction with 80% methanol (3 ml, 3 hr) under refluxing. The extraction was repeated twice. Combined extracts (ca. 90 ml) were concentrated to ca. 20 ml at 35 deg C under reduced pressure. The concentrate was repeatedly washed with n-hexane and evaporated to remove the n-hexane. The resulting solution was made up to 30 ml with water, and used for the quantitative analysis. The solutions were fractionated in order to estimate total phenol and flavanol contents. Sugars were extracted from dry leaves (ca. 2 g) by boiling 70% ethanol (20 ml) for 3 hours. D-glucose-(U- 14 C)(280 mCi/mM) and phenylalanine-(U- 14 C)(422 mCi/mM) were fed to the leaves. It was found that antho-cyanin (mainly cyanidin 3-monoglucoside) was produced in the autumnal leaves of all plants examined, and that the red pigment was steadily accumulated in their leaves during the autumn. The sugar accumulated in autumnal Rhus leaves may be rapidly consumed by the formation of phenolic compounds. (Iwakiri, K.)

  8. Chemical and physical properties of two-year short-rotation deciduous species. [Olea sp. , Populus deltoides, Platanus sp. , Alnus glutinosa, Paulownia tomentosa, Robina pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.S

    1982-01-01

    The following seven broadleaved species were tested: autumn olive (Olea sp.) eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), sycamore (Platanus species), black alder (Alnus glutinosa), royal paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), black locust (Robina pseudoacacia) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). The species and portions both significantly affected the chemical and the physical findings of the juvenile wood. The ages, which were tested in factorial combination with the species, also showed a significant effect on both the chemical and the physical properties of wood. All of the results indicated that both chemical and physical properties did vary with species, among the portions of the wood, and according to the ages of the wood. From the portion standpoint, the bark had higher gross heat content, sulphur content, ash content and lignin content, and it was also higher in all three kinds of extractives contents. The wood portion was found to be rich in holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and pentosan. In considering the chemical and physical properties of juvenile wood among the species, eastern cottonwood was found to have the highest value for ash content and all of the three kinds of extractives content. Paulownia had the highest value for sulphur content. Black locust had highest gross heat content, holocellulose and alpha-cellulose contents. Silver maple had highest lignin content. Results from this study showed that these seven juvenile hardwood species can produce high biomass yields of fibre and energy when grown under intensive care in central and southern Illinois sites. The best species of these seven tested woods seem to be black locust, which could also serve as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry, as well as for a fuel for energy generation. However, further economic and energy efficiency analyses are needed before judging the feasibility of these short-rotation juvenile hardwood species.

  9. Obtención de un material vitrocerámico a partir de una escoria de acería mezclada con vidrio de desecho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oziel Méndez Guerero, D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the qualitative, quantitative and thermal characterization of a steel slag and glass cullet of high generation rate in northern Mexico were made in order to use these wastes as raw materials in the production of glassceramics. The particle size was controlled at sizes ≤ 75 micrometers and the major components of the slag were located in a phase equilibrium diagram for proposing a reaction temperature that leaded to the starting glass. Later, heat treatments were performed to obtain the glassceramics. The materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential thermal analysis coupled with thermal gravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA, reflected light optical microscopy (RLOM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Subsequently, Vickers microhardness and chemical resistance tests were performed, which enabled us to propose an application of the glassceramics.

    En el presente trabajo se realizó la caracterización cualitativa, cuantitativa y térmica de una escoria de acería y un vidrio de desecho, ambos de elevada producción en la zona noreste de México, para utilizarlos como materia prima en la obtención de un material vitrocerámico. Se controló el tamaño de partícula a ≤ 75 micrómetros y se ubicaron los componentes mayoritarios de la escoria en un diagrama de equilibrio de fases, para proponer una temperatura de fusión que condujera al vidrio de partida. Posteriormente se realizaron los tratamientos térmicos para la obtención del vitrocerámico. Los materiales obtenidos se caracterizaron por difracción de rayos-X, método de polvos (DRX, análisis térmico diferencial-gravimétrico (ATD-TG, microscopía óptica de luz reflejada (MOLR y microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB. Finalmente, se realizaron ensayos de microdureza Vickers y de resistencia al ataque químico que permitieron proponer una aplicación para el vitrocerámico.

  10. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Hypoglycin A Concentrations in Maple Tree Species in the Netherlands and the Occurrence of Atypical Myopathy in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, C M; van Leeuwen, R; van Raamsdonk, L W D; Mol, H G J

    2016-05-01

    Atypical myopathy (AM) in horses is caused by the plant toxin hypoglycin A, which in Europe typically is found in the sycamore maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus). Owners are concerned about whether their horses are in danger if they graze near maple trees. To measure hypoglycin A in the most common maple tree species in the Netherlands, and to determine whether concentration of toxin is a predictor of AM in horses. A total of 278 samples of maple tree leaves, sprouts, and seeds were classified by species. Mean concentrations of hypoglycin A were compared for the type of sample, the season and the occurrence of AM in the pasture (non-AM versus AM). Statistical analysis was performed using generalized a linear model (SPPS22). Almost all Acer pseudoplatanus samples contained hypoglycin A, with concentrations differing significantly among sources (P < .001). Concentrations were significantly higher in seeds from the AM group than in seeds from the non-AM group (856 ± 677 and 456 ± 358 mg/kg, respectively; P = .039). In sprouts and leaves this was not the case. Acer platanoides and Acer campestre samples did not contain detectable concentrations of hypoglycin A. Acer platanoides and campestre seem to be safe around paddocks and pastures, whereas almost all Acer pseudoplatanus samples contained hypoglycin A. In all AM cases, Acer pseudoplatanus was found. Despite significantly higher concentration of hypoglycin A in seeds of pastures where AM has occurred, individual prediction of AM cannot be made by measuring these concentrations because of the high standard deviation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Utilización del polvo de acería de horno de arco eléctrico. // Use of powder produced by electric arc furnaces at steel plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tápanes Robau

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El polvo de las Acerías de Horno de Arco Eléctrico se produce como consecuencia de la producción de Acero, durante ladepuración de los gases, y, en menor medida, en sus equipos de captación de aire. Estos polvos deben ser captados por lossistemas de depuración del taller. Con el presente trabajo pretendemos darle utilidad a un producto de desecho como es elpolvo, mejorar las condiciones ambientales en el taller, elevar la calidad del pavimento u hormigón asfáltico mediante lavariación de sus propiedades y disminuir el costo de la tonelada de acero mediante la comercialización de estos productosde desecho.Palabras claves: Polvos, aglutinantes, composición química, pruebas realizadas._______________________________________________________________________________SummaryThe powder generated by electric arc furnaces at steel plants is the result of processes such as the production of steel, thepurification of gases and, capturing air equipment .This article shows a method for recycling waste material – powder in this case- which also contributes to improve the steelplant environment, provides the possibility of improving asphalt paving and makes the production of steel cheaper throughthe commercialization of waste materials.Key words: Powder, binder, tests, chemical composition.

  13. Antidepressant properties of aqueous acerate from Gladiolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: We assessed the antidepressant properties of G. dalenii corm aqueous extract in mice, using the open field, forced swimming, and tail suspension tests. Spontaneous locomotor activity of mice given various doses of G. dalenii extract (per os) was determined in the open field, whereas immobility was ...

  14. Content of certain mineral components in the thallus of lichens and the bark of roadside trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Kuziel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The total N, P, Mg, Ca, K and Na contents were investigated in the thalli of several lichen species occurring on various trees, and in the bark and bark extracts from these trees. pH of the bark extracts was also determined. Wide differences were found in the content of the elements in point in the thalli of various lichen species on Acer platanoides and on the thalli of the same species on other trees. No relation was detected between the chemical composition of the bark and that of the lichen thalli occurring on it.

  15. Cristulariella depraedans as causal agent of leaf spots of maple and other trees and shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kowalski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of the first studies in Poland on Cristulariella depraedans, the causal agent of necroses on tree and shrub leaves, are presented. The fungus was recorded on Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and eight other species of trees and shrubs, including Corylus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Lonicera xylosteum and Padus avium that were not previously known as hosts of the fungus. The disease symptoms, which depend on the host plant species, the size and number of necrotic lesions on leaves, and the morphological features of the fungal propagules were characterized.

  16. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils and plant material in the post-industrial city of Katowice, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindor, Karolina A; Franiel, Izabella J; Bierza, Wojciech M; Pawlak, Beata; Palowski, Bernard F

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environment pollution by biological monitoring. The leaves and bark of popular ornamental trees Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L. and soil from the sampling sites were used to perform heavy metals pollution monitoring in urban areas with different pollution sources, as well to investigate the suitability of the leaves and bark as bioindicators of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu pollution. Plant samples were collected at nine locations classified into three pollution groups based on metal content in the soils. The chosen pollution indices were used to assess the level of contamination according to background values. Soils in the Katowice area are found to be relatively heavily contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd. Both of the maple tree species did not statistically differ in terms of the investigated elements' concentration in leaves or bark. Only bark samples reflected the pollution level, showing differences between the sampling points, and therefore are recommended for biomonitoring purposes.

  17. Chamber and field evaluations of air pollution tolerances of urban trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnosky, D.F.

    1981-04-01

    Results are presented for a study of the relative air pollution tolerances of 32 urban-tree cultivars as determined by both chamber fumigations and field exposures. Tolerances to ozone and sulfur dioxide, alone and in combination, were determined using short-term, acute doses administered while the plants were inside a plastic fumigation chamber located inside the Cary Arboretum greenhouses. In a follow-up study still underway, representatives of the same cultivars were outplanted at four locations in the greater New York City area. To date, only oxidant-type injury has been observed on trees in the field plots. Cultivars tolerant to all chamber and field exposures were Acer platanoides Cleveland, Crimson King, Emerald Queen, Jade Glen, and Summershade; Acer rubrum Autumn Flame and Red Sunset; Acer saccharum Green Mountain and Temple's Upright; Fagus sylvatica Rotundifolia; Fraxinus pennsylvanica Summit; and Ginkgo biloba Fastigate and Sentry. Cultivars sensitive to ozone as determined by the chamber and field tests and that may serve as bioindicators of the presence of ozone were Gleditsia triacanthos inermis imperial and Platanus acerifolia Bloodgood.

  18. Effects of Drought and Rewetting on Growth and Gas Exchange of Minor European Broadleaved Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Kunz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread and economically important European tree species such as Norway spruce, Scots pine, and European beech are projected to be negatively affected by the increasing intensity and frequency of dry and hot conditions in a future climate. Hence, there is an increasing need to investigate the suitability of presumably more drought tolerant species to ensure future ecological stability, biodiversity, and productivity of forests. Based on their distribution patterns and climatic envelopes, the rare, minor broadleaved tree species Sorbus torminalis ((L. CRANTZ, S. domestica (L., Acer campestre (L., and A. platanoides (L. are assumed to be drought tolerant, however, there is only limited experimental basis to support that notion. This study aimed at quantifying growth and gas exchange of seedlings of these species during drought conditions, and their capacity to recover following drought. For that purpose, they were compared to the common companion species Quercus petraea ((MATTUSCHKA LIEBL. and Fagus sylvatica (L.. Here, potted seedlings of these species were exposed to water limitation followed by rewetting cycles in a greenhouse experiment. Photosynthesis and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance as well as root and shoot growth rates indicated a high drought resistance of A. campestre and A. platanoides. Sorbus domestica showed a marked ability to recover after drought stress. Therefore, we conclude that these minor tree species have the potential to enrich forests on drought-prone sites. Results from this pot experiment need to be complemented by field studies, in which the drought response of the species is not influenced by restrictions to root development.

  19. Understory Changes in Fraxinus excelsior Stands in Response to Dieback in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pušpure Ilze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intense dieback of Fraxinus excelsior L. has been causing rapid changes in advance growth of trees and understory shrub growth of the affected stands. In this study, changes in composition and density of understory were studied in 15 permanent plots (each 235.6 m2, repeatedly sampled in 2005, 2010, and 2015. Within each plot, the number and average height of understory individuals were determined. The successional changes in understory were assessed by Detrended Correspondence Analysis. In total, 11 advance growth and 20 undergrowth species were recorded. A significant increase in the density of understory was observed only in 2015, mainly due to understorey growth of Corylus avellana L., Padus avium Mill., and Lonicera xylosteum L. Regarding advanced growth, the highest density was observed for Ulmus glabra Huds., F. excelsior and Acer platanoides L.; the density of A. platanoides and F. excelsior increased particularly in the period from 2010–2015. The observed successional changes suggested individuality of development of the affected stands according to the composition of the remaining and neighbouring canopy trees.

  20. Distribution and ecology of the lichen Fellhanera gyrophorica in the Pojezierze Olsztyńskie Lakeland and its status in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents recent data on the distribution of Fellhanera gyrophorica (Pilocarpaceae, Ascomycota in Poland, a rare lichen with a crustose, usually sterile thallus. Both previous and new localities of the species are presented with data on its eco­logy and general distribution. Furthermore, this paper provides detailed results on floristic investigations of the species in the forest areas of the Pojezierze Olsztyńskie Lakeland (Northern Poland. Fertile specimens of F. gyrophorica have been observed in Poland for the second time and in the world – for the third time. Also, a new substrate for this species has been found: Acer platanoides. In addition, Carpinus betulus and Populus tremula were also found to be the species' substrates in Poland. Based on this study and previous reports, F. gyrophorica seems to be a relatively common species in north-eastern Poland.

  1. Potential tree species for use in urban areas in temperate and oceanic climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the potential of trees for integration in urban development by evaluating the damage caused by trees in relation to various tree characteristics. Tree damage to permeable pavement systems and other urban structures such as impermeable pavements, kerbs, roads, retaining walls, footpaths, walls and buildings were assessed to identify the most suitable trees for the urban environment. One hundred square sites of 100 m × 100 m were randomly selected in Greater Manchester for this representative example case study to demonstrate the assessment methodology. Among tree species in this study, Acer platanoides L. (Norway maple occurred most frequently (17%; others were Tilia spp. L. (Lime; 16%, Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash; 12%, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (sycamore; 10% and Prunus avium L. (wild cherry; 8%. The study concludes that 44% of the damage was to impermeable pavements and 22% to permeable pavements. Other damage to structures included kerbs (19%, retaining walls (5%, footpaths (4%, roads (3% and walls (3%. Concerning the severity of damage, 66% were moderate, 21% light and 19% severe. Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse chestnut caused the greatest damage (59% expressed in percentage as a ratio of the tree number related to damage over the corresponding tree number that was found close to structures.

  2. The Robin, Erithacus Rubecula (Passeriformes, Turdidae, as a Component of Heterotrophic Consortia of Forest Cenoses, Northeast Ukraine. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplygina A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of the robin as a determinant of heterotrophic consortia is considered. The robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753, Tilia cordata Miller, 1768, Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753, Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753, and also by sedges (Carex sp. and grasses (Poaceae, connected with the determinants by fabric links. The robin also belongs to the concentr of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and it is also the main determinant in species composition of the insects inhabiting bird nests. As a result of the taxonomic analysis of invertebrates in the robin nests, it has been found out that the most numerous class was Insecta (9 orders and 27 families, with the dominance of Coleoptera (30.7 %. The nidicolous fauna of the robin (38 species was dominated by zoophages along with parasites and hematophages such as Hippoboscidae (46.4 %. The percentage of phytophages and saprophages among the invertebrate nest inhabitants was somewhat less (21 % each, then followed necrophages (12 %. Zoophages and parasites also dominated according to the number of objects in the nests (42 %; n = 150, the less was the portion of phytophages (34 %, saprophages (18 %, and necrophages (6 %. The highest number of species and objects of zoophages was recorded for climax and mature biocenoses (oak forests in NNP “HL” and pine cenoses in NNP “H””.

  3. Auxin and ethylene regulation of diameter growth in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidge, R A

    1988-12-01

    Recent studies on the phytohormonal regulation of seasonal cell-division activity in the cambium, primary-wall radial expansion of cambial derivatives, differentiation of xylem cells, and growth of the cortex in forest trees of the north temperate zone are reviewed. Indol-3-ylacetic acid (IAA, auxin) has been characterized by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the cambial region of Abies balsamea, Pinus densiflora, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur. All of the evidence supports the hypothesis that developing leaves and extending shoots are primary sources of IAA. The rate of ethylene emanation varies among conifer species when adjoining phloem and cambial tissues are incubated in vitro. The cambium from young cuttings of Abies balsamea produces more ethylene than that from older cuttings. Ethylene production by seven-year-old Abies balsamea cambium is substantially increased in vitro when the tissue is provided with exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and IAA. In response to elevated ethylene concentrations, cortex growth is accelerated in both hardwood and conifer seedlings. Ethrel (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) increases ray size and ray-cell number and promotes traumatic resin-canal development in xylem. In Ulmus americana, endogenous ethylene concentrations are inversely correlated with cambial activity. Ethylene decreases vessel diameter in Acer negundo, Acer platanoides and Ulmus americana. Several studies suggest that ethylene has a role in regulating reaction-wood formation in both conifers and hardwoods.

  4. Bioaccumulation and trophodynamics of the antidepressants sertraline and fluoxetine in laboratory-constructed, 3-level aquatic food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Marja L; Ugge, Gustaf; Jönsson, Jan Åke; Berglund, Olof

    2017-04-01

    Although reports of pharmaceutical bioconcentration in aquatic organisms are increasing, less is known about trophic transfer in aquatic food webs. The bioaccumulation and trophodynamics of sertraline and fluoxetine, 2 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) frequently detected in aquatic environments, were tested by exposing constructed aquatic food chains to SSRIs under controlled laboratory conditions. Both of these ionizable, weak base pharmaceuticals showed lower bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) with increasing trophic level (i.e., no biomagnifications) in 2 3-level food chains (Acer platanoides, fed to Asellus aquaticus, in turn fed to Notonecta glauca or Pungitius pungitius). Mean sertraline BAFs in A. platanoides, A. aquaticus, N. glauca, and P. pungitus were 2200 L/kg, 360 L/kg, 26 L/kg, and 49 L/kg, respectively, and mean fluoxetine BAFs 1300 L/kg, 110 L/kg, 11 L/kg, and 41 L/kg, respectively. The weak influence of diet was further demonstrated by measured BAFs being equal to or lower than measured bioconcentration factors (BCFs). Organism lipid content was not positively correlated with BAFs, suggesting that other processes are driving interspecific differences in SSRI bioaccumulation. The empirically derived parameter values were introduced into a proposed bioaccumulation model, and a poor correlation was found between modeled and empirical BAFs (predicted r 2  = -0.63). In conclusion, the apparent lack of biomagnification of these ionizable pharmaceuticals suggests that environmental concern should not necessarily focus only on higher trophic levels, but also on species showing high BCFs at any trophic level. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1029-1037. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Characterization of Rubisco activase from thermally contrasting genotypes of Acer rubrum (Aceraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David J; Bauerle, William L; Swire-Clark, Ginger A; Moore, Brandon D; Baird, Wm Vance

    2007-06-01

    The lability of Rubisco activase function is thought to have a major role in the decline of leaf photosynthesis under moderate heat (RCA1 and RCA2 proteins increased modestly in FL plants under warmer temperature, while only RCA2 protein increased in MN plants. Rubisco large subunit (RbsL) protein abundance was relatively unaffected in either genotype by temperature. These results support the idea that Rubisco activase, particularly the ratio of Rubisco activase to Rubisco, may play a role in the photosynthetic heat acclimation in A. rubrum and may have adaptive significance. This mechanism alone is not likely to entirely explain the thermotolerance in the FL genotype, and future research on adaptive mechanisms to high temperatures should consider activase function in a multipathway framework.

  6. Bark thickness related to tree diameter in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1969-01-01

    Bark thickness for sugar maple trees in Vermont was found to be related to tree diameter at breast height (d.b.h.). The relationship was positive-as the diameter increased, the bark thickness increased.

  7. Drying hard maple (Acer saccharum L.) lumber in a small dehumidification kiln

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal. Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Portable sawmill owners quickly recognize the advantage to kiln drying lumber they produce. Having the ability to provide properly kiln-dried lumber opens new market opportunities and can increase profit margins. However, the construction and operation of a dry kiln must be economical and simple. A small dehumidification dry kiln constructed and tested in Princeton, WV...

  8. Testing hypotheses that link wood anatomy to cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in the genus Acer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Sperry, J.S.; Christmas, M.A.; Rabaey, D.; Jansen, S.

    2011-01-01

    • Vulnerability to cavitation and conductive efficiency depend on xylem anatomy. We tested a large range of structure–function hypotheses, some for the first time, within a single genus to minimize phylogenetic ‘noise’ and maximize detection of functionally relevant variation. • This integrative

  9. Rooting Depths of Red Maple (Acer Rubrum L.) on Various Sites in the Lake States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Haag; James E. Johnson; Gayne G. Erdmann

    1989-01-01

    Rooting depth and habit of red maple were observed on 60 sites in northern Wisconsin and Michigan as part of a regional soil-site studay. Vertical woody root extension on dry, outwash sites averaged 174 cm, which was significantly greater than the extension on sites with fragipans (139 cm) and on wet sites (112 cm). Site index was higher on wet sites and non-woody...

  10. S1415CD, Trial Assessing CSF Prescribing Effectiveness and Risk (TrACER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-02

    Febrile Neutropenia; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage 0 Colorectal Cancer; Stage 0 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer

  11. Competition for nitrogen between Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus seedlings depends on soil nitrogen availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Competition for nitrogen (N), particularly in resource-limited habitats, might be avoided by different N acquisition strategies of plants. In our study, we investigated whether slow-growing European beech and fast-growing sycamore maple seedlings avoid competition for growth-limiting N by different N uptake patterns and the potential alteration by soil N availability in a microcosm experiment. We quantified growth and biomass indices, 15N uptake capacity and N pools in the fine roots. Overall, growth indices, N acquisition and N pools in the fine roots were influenced by species-specific competition depending on soil N availability. With inter-specific competition, growth of sycamore maple reduced regardless of soil N supply, whereas beech only showed reduced growth when N was limited. Both species responded to inter-specific competition by alteration of N pools in the fine roots; however, sycamore maple showed a stronger response compared to beech for almost all N pools in roots, except for structural N at low soil N availability. Beech generally preferred organic N acquisition while sycamore maple took up more inorganic N. Furthermore, with inter-specific competition, beech had an enhanced organic N uptake capacity, while in sycamore maple inorganic N uptake capacity was impaired by the presence of beech. Although sycamore maple could tolerate the suboptimal conditions at the cost of reduced growth, our study indicates its reduced competitive ability for N compared to beech. PMID:25983738

  12. Xylan synthetase activity in differentiated xylem cells of sycamore trees (Acer pseudoplatanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, G; Northcote, D H

    1981-01-01

    Particulate enzymic preparations obtained from homogenates of differentiated xylem cells isolated from sycamore trees, catalyzed the formation of a radioactive xylan in the presence of UDP-D-[U-(14)C]xylose as substrate. The synthesized xylan was not dialyzable through Visking cellophane tubing. Successive extraction with cold water, hot water and 5% NaOH dissolved respectively 15, 5 and 80% of the radioactive polymer. Complete acid hydrolysis of the water-insoluble polysaccharide synthesized from UDP-D-[U-(14)C]xylose released all the radioactivity as xylose. β-1,4-Xylodextrins, degree of polymerization 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, were obtained by partial acid hydrolysis (fuming HCl or 0.1 M HCl) of radioactive xylan. The polymer was hydrolysed to xylose, xylobiose and xylotriose by Driselase which contains 1,4-β xylanase activities. Methylation and then hydrolysis of the xylan released two methylated sugars which were identified as di-O-methyl[(14)C]xylose and tri-O-methyl-[(14)C]xylose, suggesting a 1→4-linked polymer. The linkage was confirmed by periodate oxidation studies. The apparent Km value of the synthetase for UDP-D-xylose was 0.4 mM. Xylan synthetase activity was not potentiated in the presence of a detergent. The enzymic activity was stimulated by Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) ions, although EDTA in the range of concentrations between 0.01 and 1 mM did not affect the reaction rate. It appears that the xylan synthetase system associated with membranes obtained from differentiated xylem cells of sycamore trees may serve for catalyzing the in vivo synthesis of the xylan main chain during the biogenesis of the plant cell wall.

  13. Macro-microscopic anatomy: obtaining a composite view of barrier zone formation in Acer saccharum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth Dudzik

    1988-01-01

    The technique for constructing a montage of large wood sections cut on a sliding microtome is discussed. Briefly, the technique involves photographing many serial micrographs in a pattern under a light microscope similar to the way flight lines are run in aerial photography. Assembly of the resulting overlapping photographs requires careful trimming. A composite of...

  14. Altered growth and fine root chemistry of Betula papyrifera and Acer saccharum under elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, W. F. J.; Kopper, B. J.; Lindroth, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on fine root chemical composition of two tree species common to northern hardwood forests was investigated. Results showed no change in the root/shoot ratios and fine root percentages in either birch or maple samples as a result of enriched carbon dioxide. Tissue nitrogen concentrations decreased in the fine roots, and consequently, carbon/nitrogen ratios increased with elevated carbon dioxide. In birch only, condensed tannins increased with carbon dioxide enrichment; in maple, neither complex tannins nor hydrosable tannins appear to have been influenced by elevated carbon dioxide. It is suspected that the responses of the tree saplings to elevated carbon dioxide may be related to their successional status. 37 refs., 2 tabs

  15. The Way of Tradition: Life in an Orthodox Jewish School. ACER Research Series No. 103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullivant, B. M.

    This anthropological and sociological study of a Jewish school (the Lubavitcher School) in Victoria, Australia examines the problems of an ethnic group trying to preserve its culture and values within a multicultural society. The study focuses on pressures facing both students and teachers over 15 months. The three major parts of the book discuss…

  16. Is Anyone Listening? Young People Speak about Work and Unemployment. ACER Research Monograph No. 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakers, Catherine

    This report presents the results of an Australian survey investigating the issues raised by unemployment in society, using extensive quotations from the respondents. In 1983 an open-ended questionnaire was sent to a group of about 10,000 young people (aged 18-22) in Australia to determine their opinions about unemployment and the future and to…

  17. Fine root productivity and turnover of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizaltree species in a temperate broad-leaved mixed forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kubisch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Advancing our understanding of tree fine root dynamics is of high importance for tree physiology and forest biogeochemistry. In temperate broad-leaved forests, ectomycorrhizal (EM and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM tree species often are coexisting. It is not known whether EM and AM trees differ systematically in fine root dynamics and belowground resource foraging strategies. We measured fine root productivity (FRP and fine root turnover (and its inverse, root longevity of three EM and three AM broad-leaved tree species in a natural cool-temperate mixed forest using ingrowth cores and combined the productivity data with data on root biomass per root orders. FRP and root turnover were related to root morphological traits and aboveground productivity.FRP differed up to twofold among the six coexisting species with larger species differences in lower horizons than in the topsoil. Root turnover varied up to fivefold among the species with lowest values in Acer pseudoplatanus and highest in its congener A. platanoides. Variation in root turnover was larger within the two groups than between EM and AM species. We conclude that the main determinant of fine root productivity and turnover in this mixed forest is species identity, while the influence of mycorrhiza type seems to be less important.

  18. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DYNAMIC OF TREE POPULATIONS AND HORIZONTAL STRUCTURE OF THE OLD-GROWTH NEMORAL HERB BROAD-LEAVED FOREST WITH DOMINATION OF QUERCUS ROBUR AND TILIA CORDATA (ACCORDING TO THE RESULTS OF LONG-TERM MONITORING, PENZA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Chistyakova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A forecast for the development of old-growth nemoral herb broad-leaved forest with domination of Quercus robur and Tilia cordata in the Inselsky forest range (the Penza region is given in the article. The community belongs to the association Mercurialo perrenis-Quercetum roboris Bulokhov et Solomeshch 2003 according the Braun-Blanquet floristic classification. Long-term monitoring observations (28 years on a permanent sample plot were the basis of the forecasts. The ontogenetic state of tree species coenopopulations was analyzed and maps were produced for placing biogroups of trees of different age. The study showed that the existing horizontal structure (mosaic of the studied community ensures the reliable development of only shade-tolerant species (Acer platanoides, Tilia cordata, Fraxinus excelsior, Ulmus glabra. The available light regime is not sufficient for development of light-demanding species (Quercus robur, Populus tremula. The small number of oak individuals in the population and the death of its undergrowth make the position of Quercus robur very vulnerable in modern communities. The incompleteness of tree species composition and the inability to restore it with the existing structure of the community make it possible to characterize the broad-leaved forest as a quasi-climax. The transformation of this forest into the climax is impossible without human intervention. Reducing size of mosaic prevents the formation of uneven-aged populations of all potential tree species in the future.

  20. Possibilities of cultivating ornamental trees and shrubs under conditions of air pollution with oxides of sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialobok, S.; Bartkowiak, S.; Rachwal, L.

    1974-01-01

    The field work conducted has shown that high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ in the air can be withstood by the following trees and shrubs. Trees: Acer campestris, A. platanoides, Ailanthus altissima, Aesculus hippocastanum, Morus alba, Platanus acerifolia, Pinus strobur, P. nigra, Populus Berolinensis, P. candicans, P. Hybr. 27, P. Marilandica, P. simonii, P. Serotina, Quercus robus, Robinia pseudoacacia. Shrubs: Caragana arborescens, Crataegus oxyacantha, C. monogyna, Cerasus mehaleb, Forsythia/most of the species and varieties/, Ligustrum vulgare, Philadelphus coronaria, Ptelea trifoliata, Sambucus nigra, Salix caprea, Sorbaria sorbifolia, Sorbus aucuparia, Taxus baccata. For the selection of trees and shrubs in the laboratory, high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ were used (60-150 ppm for a period of 10 minutes). Experiments were conducted on cut shrubs kept in the gas chambers. In order to estimate the degree of their injury, they were transferred to a shaded greenhouse. A concentration of 65 ppm of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by the following Forsythias: Forsythia intermedia Primulina, F. Densiflora, F. Spectabilis, F. giraldina, F. suspensa, F. koreana, F. ovata, F. japonica and Hippophae rhamnoides. A concentration of 130 ppm could be withstood only by F. intermedia Vitelina. A similarly high concentration of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by shoots and leaves of Ailanthus girladii Duclouxii and by Platanus acerifolia. From among the lilacs Syringa pekinensis and S. amurensis proved resistant to high concentrations of SO/sub 2/.

  1. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks.

  2. Assessment of the urban trees health status on the base of nutrient and pigment content in their leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLAVEYA PETROVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Town settlements have different load level by emissions originated mostly from transport, industry and heating system. Their environmental and climate conditions are more or less changed that effect to growth, physiology and vigor of woody plants at the city public vegetation areas. Our study on determining the impact of urban environment on the tree health status was focused on the quantities of nutrients and main components of the pigment complex – chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids. Leaves of Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Betula pendula Roth. were sampled from urban areas with different type of anthropogenic pressure in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria. Concentrations of the elements Ca, K, Mg, N, Na, P, and S were analyzed by ICP-MS. Health condition of trees in the city parks and suburban areas was acceptable, but in the central part and close to the industrial area it was non-satisfactory. This preliminary research pointed ecophysiological tools as useful to develop new criteria for sustainable urban arboriculture, including species selection (based on stress tolerance criteria, nursery hardening and preconditioning, and care after planting.

  3. Strengthening the Profession? A Comparison of Recent Reforms in the UK and the USA. ACER Policy Briefs. Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarson, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Educational policy makers in many countries recognize the need to focus their policies more directly on factors affecting the quality of teachers. Common to these policies are attempts to reform teachers' pay systems and career paths to place greater value on teachers' work and give stronger incentives for professional development. Investing in…

  4. Responses of secondary chemicals in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings to UV-B, springtime warming and nitrogen additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, E.P.S.; Hutchinson, T.C. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada). Environmental Studies

    2006-10-15

    Elevated UV-B radiation due to climatic change and ozone depletion may represent a significant springtime environmental stressor to germinating seedlings in temperate forest regions. This study aimed to determine the effects of UV-B, nitrogen (N) fertilization and climate warming on the concentrations of base cations and secondary metabolites in the foliage of sugar maple seedlings growing in acid or alkaline soils. The influence of measured flavonoids and phenolics on herbivore activity was examined, as well as the relationship between foliar concentrations of calcium (Ca); manganese (Mn); and N and the production of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Experimental plots were established in mature hardwood forests in alkaline and acid soil locations in Bobcaygeon and Haliburton, Ontario. Pentagonal open-top chambers were used to lengthen the growing season and simulate an earlier spring. Ammonium nitrate was applied at a rate comparable with an additional deposition of 5 g N per m per year. Fertilizer was applied on 3 separate occasions. Ambient UV-B radiation was screened out with Mylar D polyester film. Sites, treatments and time of sampling had complex effects on foliar elemental chemistry, production of secondary compounds and herbivory. Foliar concentrations of individual phenols were higher in seedlings in the UV-B exclusion treatments. At both sites, removal of ambient UV-B led to increases in flavonoids and chlorogenic acid, and reduced herbivore activity. At Haliburton, ammonium nitrate fertilization led to further increases in foliar Mn. Nitrogen additions led to decreases in the concentrations of some flavonoids at both sites. It was concluded that the composition of the forest soil governs the response of seedlings when they are exposed to abiotic stressors. 63 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.

  5. Evaluación de lombricompuestos como sustrato de crecimiento de Acer Negundo l. en Río Turbio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Ayelen Cosio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de buscar una alternativa de uso a la deposición final de residuosbiodegradables (RB se procesaron las corrientes más significativas de RB para Río Turbio mediante el compostaje y vermicompostaje de los mismos; con el objetivo dedeterminar la factibilidad de uso de estos lombricompuestos como sustrato de crecimiento de Acernegundo L. Para esto se realizó un ensayo en invernadero con un diseño completamente aleatorizado donde se evaluaron los siguientes sustratos de crecimiento: 100 % lombricompuesto de conejo, 100 % lombricompuesto de RSUB, 50% lombricompuesto de conejo y 50% de turba, 50% lombricompuesto RSUB y 50% turba y 100% turba. Para estimar la factibilidad del uso de los lombricompuestos, en elmes de abril se tomaron datos sobre alturay diámetro de cuello de los plantines y número de plantas logradas por tratamiento. Se registraron diferencias significativas en las alturas de plantines para cada tratamiento. Los plantines de mayor tamaño se produjeron en las bandejas de los sustratos formados por 100 % turba, 100% lombricompuesto deconejo, 50% lombricompuesto de conejo y 50% turba, seguidos por 50%lombricompuesto RSUB y 50% turba, siendo los de menor tamaño los obtenidos mediante 100%lombricompuesto de RSUB. La calidad de los plantines obtenidos a partir de sustratos de crecimiento constituidos por lombricompuesto de conejo y turba son comparables, no así los obtenidos a partir de sustratos con lombricompuestos de RSUB. Sin embargo ypese aque se obtuvo un menor rendimiento con el sustrato de RSUB, su uso resultó factible para los fines perseguidos, teniendo en cuenta además, que su utilización presenta ventajas ambientales para Río Turbio.

  6. Antioxidant activity, inhibition of nitric oxide overproduction, and in vitro antiproliferative effect of maple sap and syrup from Acer saccharum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Grenon, Carole; Dussault, Catherine; Pichette, André

    2010-04-01

    Antioxidant activity, inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, and antiproliferative effect of ethyl acetate extracts of maple sap and syrup from 30 producers were evaluated in regard to the period of harvest in three different regions of Québec, Canada. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of maple sap and syrup extracts are, respectively, 12 +/- 6 and 15 +/- 5 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg. The antioxidant activity was also confirmed by a cell-based assay. The period of harvest has no statistically significant incidence on the antioxidant activity of both extracts. The antioxidant activity of pure maple syrup was also determined using the ORAC assay. Results indicate that the ORAC value of pure maple syrup (8 +/- 2 micromol of TE/mL) is lower than the ORAC value of blueberry juice (24 +/- 1 micromol of TE/mL) but comparable to the ORAC values of strawberry (10.7 +/- 0.4 micromol of TE/mL) and orange (10.8 +/- 0.5 micromol of TE/mL) juices. Maple sap and syrup extracts showed to significantly inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced NO overproduction in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Maple syrup extract was significantly more active than maple sap extract, suggesting that the transformation of maple sap into syrup increases NO inhibition activity. The highest NO inhibition induced by the maple syrup extracts was observed at the end of the season. Moreover, darker maple syrup was found to be more active than clear maple syrup, suggesting that some colored oxidized compounds could be responsible in part for the activity. Finally, maple syrup extracts (50% inhibitory concentration = 42 +/- 6 microg/mL) and pure maple syrup possess a selective in vitro antiproliferative activity against cancer cells.

  7. Simulated changes in biogenic VOC emissions and ozone formation from habitat expansion of Acer Rubrum (red maple)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewniak, Beth A; Snyder, Peter K; Twine, Tracy E; Steiner, Allison L; Wuebbles, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    A new vegetation trend is emerging in northeastern forests of the United States, characterized by an expansion of red maple at the expense of oak. This has changed emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), primarily isoprene and monoterpenes. Oaks strongly emit isoprene while red maple emits a negligible amount. This species shift may impact nearby urban centers because the interaction of isoprene with anthropogenic nitrogen oxides can lead to tropospheric ozone formation and monoterpenes can lead to the formation of particulate matter. In this study the Global Biosphere Emissions and Interactions System was used to estimate the spatial changes in BVOC emission fluxes resulting from a shift in forest composition between oak and maple. A 70% reduction in isoprene emissions occurred when oak was replaced with maple. Ozone simulations with a chemical box model at two rural and two urban sites showed modest reductions in ozone concentrations of up to 5–6 ppb resulting from a transition from oak to red maple, thus suggesting that the observed change in forest composition may benefit urban air quality. This study illustrates the importance of monitoring and representing changes in forest composition and the impacts to human health indirectly through changes in BVOCs. (paper)

  8. Monitoring the Soil Water Availability of Young Urban Trees in Hamburg, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titel, Selina; Gröngröft, Alexander; Eschenbach, Annette

    2017-04-01

    In large cities numerous trees have to be planted each year to replace died off or cut down trees or for greening of constructed roads and newly built quarters. The typical age of planted trees is between five and fifteen years. Often the planting takes place in special planting pits to stimulate the tree growth under the restricted urban conditions. Consequently, trees are surrounded by different soil substrates: the soil from the nursery in the root ball, the special planting pit substrate and the surrounding urban soil which is often anthropogenic influenced. Being relocated in the city, trees have to cope with the warmer urban climate, the soil sealing and compaction and the low water storage capacity of the substrate. All factors together increase the probability of dry phases for roadside trees. The aim of this study is to monitor the soil water availability at sites of planted roadside trees during the first years after planting. Therefore, a measuring design was developed, which works automatically and takes the complex below ground structure of the soil into account. This approach consists of 13 soil water tension sensors inside and outside of each planting pit up to one meter depth connected to a data logger. The monitoring devices will finally be installed at 20 roadside trees (amongst others Quercus cerris, Quercus robur, Acer platanoides 'Fairview') in Hamburg, Germany, to identify phases of drought stress. The young trees were mainly planted in spring 2016. Data of the first year of measurements show, that the water tension varied between the different soil substrates and the depth. In the first year of tree growth in the city, soil in the tree root ball became significantly drier than the surrounding soil material. In late summer 2016 the water tension in the topsoil had the potential to cause drought stress below some trees.

  9. Dynamics of Salix caprea L. populations during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falinski, J.B. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Bialowieza Geobotanical Station

    1998-02-01

    Broadleaved forest communities degenerated through strong pressure from large herbivores. Relief of this pressure led to regeneration, in particular of Salix caprea and other light/seeded pioneer trees: Populus tremula, Betula pendula and B. pubescens. This regeneration proceeded following conservation protection of degenerate stands in a nature reserve and later in Bialowieza National Park. The emergence and development of the Salix caprea population proceeded following the expansion of Picea abies, which coincided with the period of enhanced animal pressure on the broadleaved forest. Salix caprea filled all the gaps in the tree stand after the destruction of trees and undergrowth by herbivores (in the years 1892-1915). The species also appeared abundantly in old, at the time unforested, clearings and felled areas. Here, S. caprea developed large populations with certain trees in good condition, with a growth form typical of forest trees and attaining considerable heights. The majority of trees were 50/60 years old at the time of death, although some individuals reached 74 years of age. The process of extinction of the Salix population - observed over 19 years on permanent plots with marked trees - proceeded very quickly, especially in the first decade of observation. It led to the almost complete disappearance of S. caprea from the forest communities of Bialowieza National Park. The death of individual trees is preceded by impairment of their health and reduced annual increments in the last 4-9 years of their life. The development of populations of permanent constituents of the forest, notably Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra, under the canopy of light-seeded trees, and the absence of a new generation of pioneer trees points to the end of the process of regeneration in the forest communities of Bialowieza National Park 30 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  10. Uses of tree saps in northern and eastern parts of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the use of tree saps in northern and eastern Europe. Published accounts by travellers, ethnologists and ethnobotanists were searched for historical and contemporary details. Field observations made by the authors have also been used. The presented data shows that the use of tree sap has occurred in most north and eastern European countries. It can be assumed that tree saps were most used where there were extensive stands of birch or maple trees, as these two genera generally produce the largest amount of sap. The taxa most commonly used have been Betula pendula, B. pubescens, and Acer platanoides, but scattered data on the use of several other taxa are presented. Tree sap was used as a fresh drink, but also as an ingredient in food and beverages. It was also fermented to make light alcoholic products like ale and wine. Other folk uses of tree saps vary from supplementary nutrition in the form of sugar, minerals and vitamins, to cosmetic applications for skin and hair and folk medicinal use. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the only countries where the gathering and use of sap (mainly birch sap has remained an important activity until recently, due to the existence of large birch forests, low population density and the incorporation of sap into the former Soviet economic system. It is evident that gathering sap from birch and other trees was more widespread in earlier times. There are records indicating extensive use of tree saps from Scandinavia, Poland, Slovakia and Romania, but it is primarily of a historical character. The extraction of tree sap in these countries is nowadays viewed as a curiosity carried out only by a few individuals. However, tree saps have been regaining popularity in urban settings through niche trading.

  11. The Robin, Erithacus Rubecula (Passeriformes, Turdidae, As a Component of Autotrophic Consortia of Forest Cenoses, Northeast Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplygina A. B.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the robin, Erithacus rubecula Linnaeus, 1758 as a consort of autotrophic consortia is considered. It has been found that representatives of 9 higher taxa of animals (Mammalia, Aves, Gastropoda, Insecta, Arachnida, Acarina, Malacostraca, Diplopoda, Clitellata have trophic and topical links with the robin. At the same time, the robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753 (24.6 %, Tilia cordata Miller, 1768 (17.5 %, Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753 (22.8 %, Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753, and also by sedges (Carex sp. and grasses (Poaceae. The robin also belongs to the concentre of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and forms a complex trophic system. In the diet of its nestlings, there have been found 717 objects from 32 invertebrate taxa, belonging to the phylums Arthropoda (99.2 %, 31 species and Annelida (0.8 %, 1 species. The phylum Arthropoda was represented by the most numerous class Insecta (76.9 %, in which 10 orders (Lepidoptera (46.8 % dominates and 20 families were recorded, and also by the classes Arachnida (15.0 %, Malacostraca (5.3 % and Diplopoda (1.9 %. The invertebrate species composition was dominated by representatives of a trophic group of zoophages (14 species; 43.8 %; the portion of phytophages (7 species; 21.9 %, saprophages (18.7 %, and necrophages (15.6 % was the less. The highest number of food items was represented by phytophages (N = 717; 51 %, followed by zoophages (34 %, saprophages (12 %, and necrophages (3 %. The difference among study areas according to the number of food items and the number of species in the robin nestling diet is shown. In NNP “HF”, the highest number of food items was represented by phytophages - 47 % (N = 443, whereas zoophages were the most species-rich group (43.3 %, 13 species. In NNP “H”, phytophages also prevailed in

  12. Youth and Society: The Two Transitions. A Review of Australian Research on Young People in Work and Education. ACER Research Monograph No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakers, Catherine

    This literature review is part of a project designed to provide an in-depth picture of the experiences and views of long-term unemployed people in Australia. The review outlines what the research shows and says about the situation of young people (15-24 years) in work and education in the changing society of the 1980s in Australia. The book is…

  13. Shifts in the regeneration niche of an endangered tree (Acer opalus ssp. granatense) during ontogeny: Using an ecological concept for application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quero Perez, J.L.; Gómez-Aparicio, L.; Zamora, R.; Maestre, F.T.

    2008-01-01

    Most of our knowledge regarding ontogenetic niche shifts in plants has been derived from studies involving only two or unconnected life stages. Approaches covering a broader range of different life stages are still needed to fully understand the implications of ontogenetic niche shifts for plant

  14. Photosynthetic and growth response of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) mature trees and seedlings to calcium, magnesium, and nitrogen additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the forest floor, which can impede seedling survival.

  15. Stem wood properties of Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Acer saccharum saplings after three years of treatments to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seija Kaakinen; Katri Kostiainen; Fredrik Ek; Pekka Saranpaa; Mark E. Kubiske; Jaak Sober; David F. Karnosky; Elina Vapaavuori

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of elevated carbon dioxide [CO2] and ozone [O3] and their interaction on wood chemistry and anatomy of five clones of 3-year-old trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). Wood chemistry was studied also on paper birch (Betula papyrifera...

  16. Soil nitrogen availability and in situ nitrogen uptake by Acer rubrum L. and Pinus palustris Mill. in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant uptake of soil organic N in addition to inorganic N could play an important role in ecosystem N cycling as well as plant nutrition. We measured in situ plant uptake of organic and inorganic N by the dominant canopy species in two contrasting temperate forest ecosystems (bottomland floodplain ...

  17. Photosynthetic and Growth Response of Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum Marsh. Mature Trees and Seedlings to Calcium, Magnesium, and Nitrogen Additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Momen

    Full Text Available Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca and nitrogen (N by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max, apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe, and light compensation point (LCP. To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the forest floor, which can impede seedling survival.

  18. Solution-state NMR analysis of hydroxymethylated resorcinol cured in the presence of crude milled-wood lignin from Acer saccharum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle

    2017-01-01

    Resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives can reinforce stress fractures that appear from wood surface preparation. Researchers have found that applying the resorcinol-formaldehyde prepolymer, hydroxymethylated resorcinol is thought to plasticize lignin components and stabilize stress fractures through reactions with lignin subunits and hemicelluloses in wood. In this study, a...

  19. Rys historyczny i analiza dendrologiczna zespołu pałacowego Podzamcze w Bychawie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Dąbski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zespół pałacowy Podzamcze w Bychawie, z ruinami zamku, drewnianym dworem i budynkami gospodarczymi to jeden z ciekawszych zabytków regionu bychawskiego, wpisany na listę zabytków woj. lubelskiego. Budowę bychawskiego zamku rozpoczął Mikołaj Pilecki herbu Leliwa w 1539 roku. Zamek położony był na półwyspie, otoczony z trzech stron stawami, odcięty od lądu fosą i połączony z podzamczem mostem zwodzonym. Bychawa często zmieniała swoich właścicieli – byli nimi m.in. ród Myszkowskich z Pińczowa, Andrzej Leopold Ossowski, Dominik Stoiński, Karol Scipio del Campo, rodzina Łaniewskich. W XIX w. otoczenie pałacu obsadzono topolami włoskimi, cyprysami i żywotnikami. Pomiędzy pałacem a stawem znajdowały się tarasowe ogrody włoskie, a w dalszej części terenu rozciągał się park typu krajobrazowego, wzdłuż którego dróg poprowadzono szpalery i aleje drzew. Pałac opustoszał po pożarze, który miał miejsce w latach 80. XIX w. Obecnie stanowi malowniczą ruinę, niepozbawioną wartości historycznych. Drzewostan parkowy reprezentowany jest przez 21 taksonów, a największa liczba egzemplarzy należy do gatunków: Acer platanoides L. (89 szt., Fraxinus excelsior L. (80, Tilia cordata Mill. (54 i Populus alba L. (38. Wśród podszytu najliczniejsze grupy stanowią krzewy z gatunków: Sambucus nigra L., Cornus mas L., Salix purpurea L. i Corylus avellena L. Projekt rewaloryzacji obiektu powinien zmierzać do poprawy walorów estetycznych obszaru, ekspozycji wzgórza zamkowego z odtworzeniem zatartych osi widokowych, podkreślenia kulturowej i dydaktycznej funkcji miejsca oraz stworzenie dla mieszkańców przyjaznego i dostępnego terenu rekreacji.

  20. Linking ice accretion and crown structure: towards a model of the effect of freezing rain on tree canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Charles A; Lecigne, Bastien; Taugourdeau, Olivier; Greene, David F; Dauzat, Jean; Delagrange, Sylvain; Messier, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Despite a longstanding interest in variation in tree species vulnerability to ice storm damage, quantitative analyses of the influence of crown structure on within-crown variation in ice accretion are rare. In particular, the effect of prior interception by higher branches on lower branch accumulation remains unstudied. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that intra-crown ice accretion can be predicted by a measure of the degree of sheltering by neighbouring branches. Freezing rain was artificially applied to Acer platanoides L., and in situ branch-ice thickness was measured directly and from LiDAR point clouds. Two models of freezing rain interception were developed: 'IceCube', which uses point clouds to relate ice accretion to a voxel-based index (sheltering factor; SF) of the sheltering effect of branch elements above a measurement point; and 'IceTree', a simulation model for in silico evaluation of the interception pattern of freezing rain in virtual tree crowns. Intra-crown radial ice accretion varied strongly, declining from the tips to the bases of branches and from the top to the base of the crown. SF for branches varied strongly within the crown, and differences among branches were consistent for a range of model parameters. Intra-crown variation in ice accretion on branches was related to SF (R(2) = 0·46), with in silico results from IceTree supporting empirical relationships from IceCube. Empirical results and simulations confirmed a key role for crown architecture in determining intra-crown patterns of ice accretion. As suspected, the concentration of freezing rain droplets is attenuated by passage through the upper crown, and thus higher branches accumulate more ice than lower branches. This is the first step in developing a model that can provide a quantitative basis for investigating intra-crown and inter-specific variation in freezing rain damage. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of

  1. Аллелопатическая активность листового опада древесных растений, почвы и копролитов в парках г. Днепропетровск

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анжелина Илларионовна Крючкова

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available В работе рассматривается влияние аллелопатических свойств опада древесных растений и трофометаболической деятельности дождевых червей (Lumbricidae на аллелопатические свойства почвы под древесными породами Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L., Ulmus minor Mill. в парках г. Днепропетровск. Установлено, что трофометаболическая деятельность червей положительно влияет на аллелопатический статус почв.

  2. Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz B. Faliński

    2014-01-01

    (Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra under the canopy of light-seeded trees, and the non-creation of a new generation of pioneer species points to the imminent end of the process of regeneration in the forest communities of Białowieża National Park.

  3. Trophic-metabolic activity of earthworms (Lumbricidae as a zoogenic factor of maintaining reclaimed soils’ resistance to copper contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Kulbachko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination by heavy metals, first of all, influences biological and ecological conditions, and it is able to change the conservative soil features, such as humus content, aggregation, acidity and others, leading to partial or total diminishing of soil fertility and decrease in soil economic value. Zoogenic issues of soil protective capacity formation in conditions of heavy metal content rise under technogenesis have been studied. The article discusses the features of earthworm trophic-metabolic activity in the afforested remediated site (Western Donbass, Ukraine with different options of mixed soil bulk. Western Donbass is the large center of coal mining located in South-Western part of Ukraine. High rates of technical development in this region lead to surface subsidence, rising and outbreak of high-mineralized groundwater, and formation of dump pits of mine wastes. Remediated area is represented by the basement of mine wastes covered by 5 options of artificial mixed soil with different depth of horizons. The following tree species were planted on top of artificial soil: Acer platanoides L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Juniperus virginiana L. The main practical tasks were to define on the quantitative basis the buffer capacity of artificial mixed soil and earthworm excreta in relation to copper contamination and to compare its immobilization capacity in conditions of artificial forest plants in the territory of Western Donbass. It was proved that earthworm excreta had a great influence on soil immobilization capacity (particularly, on soil buffering to copper which increased for excreta in the following range: humus-free loess loam – top humus layer of ordinary chernozem. Immobilization efficiency of copper by earthworm excreta from ordinary chernozem bulk compared with baseline (ordinary chernozem was significantly higher. It should be noted that trophic-metabolic activity of earthworms plays very important role as a zoogenic factor

  4. Chemometrics in biomonitoring: Distribution and correlation of trace elements in tree leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deljanin, Isidora [Innovation Center of the Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia, (Serbia); Antanasijević, Davor, E-mail: dantanasijevic@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Innovation Center of the Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia, (Serbia); Bjelajac, Anđelika [Innovation Center of the Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia, (Serbia); Urošević, Mira Aničić [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia, (Serbia); Nikolić, Miroslav [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia); Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra; Ristić, Mirjana [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of 15 elements were measured in the leaf samples of Aesculus hippocastanum, Tilia spp., Betula pendula and Acer platanoides collected in May and September of 2014 from four different locations in Belgrade, Serbia. The objective was to assess the chemical characterization of leaf surface and in-wax fractions, as well as the leaf tissue element content, by analyzing untreated, washed with water and washed with chloroform leaf samples, respectively. The combined approach of self-organizing networks (SON) and Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) aided by Geometrical Analysis for Interactive Aid (GAIA) was used in the interpretation of multiple element loads on/in the tree leaves. The morphological characteristics of the leaf surfaces and the elemental composition of particulate matter (PM) deposited on tree leaves were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detector. The results showed that the amounts of retained and accumulated element concentrations depend on several parameters, such as chemical properties of the element and morphological properties of the leaves. Among the studied species, Tilia spp. was found to be the most effective in the accumulation of elements in leaf tissue (70% of the total element concentration), while A. hippocastanum had the lowest accumulation (54%). After water and chloroform washing, the highest percentages of removal were observed for Al, V, Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Sb (> 40%). The PROMETHEE/SON ranking/classifying results were in accordance with the results obtained from the GAIA clustering techniques. The combination of the techniques enabled extraction of additional information from datasets. Therefore, the use of both the ranking and clustering methods could be a useful tool to be applied in biomonitoring studies of trace elements. - Highlights: • Surface and in-wax fractions showed different trace element

  5. HEAVY METALS IN MAPLE AND DANDELION LEAVES FROM DIFERENT LAND-USE AREAS IN MOSCOW ’S EASTERN DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Vlasov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on extensive biogeochemical research conducted in Moscow’s Eastern Administrative District, where motor-vehicle traffic and heavy industry have resulted in some of the highest levels of pollution in the city. For this study, 26 samples of maple leaves (Acer platanoides and 49 samples of dandelion leaves (Taraxacum officinalewere collected on a regular grid at 500–700 m intervals. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Mo, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, As and Sb in these plants were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry after washing, drying and HNO3 + H2O2 digestion. Maples accumulated Sb9,7As4,6Mo2,2Fe2,0Zn1,5 Pb1,4Cu1,2, while dandelions accumulated Mo12,7Pb4,9Cd4,4Fe4,3As3,9Sb2,7Cu1,4 — normalized to concentrations in background samples from an unpolluted site west from Moscow. The plants’ geochemical specialization was detected and compared in the following land-use areas: industrial, traffic, recreational, agricultural, and high-, mid-, and low-rise residential development. For maples, the highest concentration factor levels were found in industrial areas, with accumulations of Sb19As2,4Mo1,7Zn1,7Fe1,5Cu1,4Pb1,4. These levels were 2–5 timeslower for maples in other land-use areas. Dandelions and maples do not accumulate Mnbecause of antagonism between Zn, Mo and Mn in soils. Copper is not concentrated byherbaceous species because of antagonism between Mo and Cu. Differences in  eochemical specialization were shown using the Sb/Mo ratio: in dandelions this was 5 times lower than in background samples, while in maples it was 4.5 times higher. A Zv ratio was used to evaluate the intensity of biogeochemical transformation in urban plants. The highest Zv ratios were found in plants near industrial zones and large roads.

  6. Propagação vegetativa de Platanus AcerIfolia Ait.: (I efeito de tipos fisiológicos das estacas e épocas de coleta no enraizamento de estacas Vegetative propagation of Platanus AcerIfolia Ait.: (I effect of physiological types of cuttings and times of the cuttings collection on rooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do tipo fisiológico da estaca e da época de coleta no enraizamento de estacas de Platanus acerifolia Ait. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma combinação bifatorial (4 x 4, representados por quatro tipos fisiológicos de estacas de ramos ("de ano", "do ano" basal, "do ano" mediana e "do ano" basal fina e quatro épocas de coleta (setembro/95, janeiro/96, março/96 e julho/96. A estaquia foi realizada em vasos contendo como substrato uma mistura de areia média e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1, v/v, ambas lavadas. O experimento foi conduzido por 110 dias em casa de vegetação com sistema de microaspersão intermitente. A melhor época de coleta das estacas para o enraizamento é em julho e as estacas de ramos "do ano" basais apresentam o maior potencial de enraizamento.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the physiological type of the cutting on rooting of Platanus acerifolia Ait. cuttings collected at different times. The treatments followed a 4 x 4 factorial scheme, involving four physiological types of the cuttings (hardwood, basal semi-herbaceous, middle semi-herbaceous, and thin basal semi-herbaceous, and four different times of the cuttings collection (September/95, January/96, March/96, and July/96. The cuttings were rooted in pots containing as substrate a mixture of medium sand + carbonised rice husk, 1:1 v/v, both washed. The experiment was conducted during 110 days under intermittent artificial mist conditions. The results indicate that the best time to collect cuttings to get rooting is in July, and basal semi-herbaceous cutting shows the best percentage on rooting.

  7. Time domain-nuclear magnetic resonance study of chars from southern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; Nicole Labbe; David Harper; Timothy Rials

    2006-01-01

    Chars from the thermal degradation of silver maple (Acer saccharinum), red maple (Acer rubrum), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and white oak (Quercus spp.), performed at temperatures from 250 to 350 oC, were examined using time domain-nuclear magnetic resonance...

  8. Procediment per a l'anàlisi i disseny mitjançant programari comercial d'estructures d'edificis construïts amb perfils lleugers d'acer

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Montalvo, Raúl

    2010-01-01

    El present document conté la memòria del Projecte final de carrera “Procediment per a l’anàlisi i disseny mitjançant programari comercial d’estructures d’edificis construïts amb perfils lleugers d’acer”, que té com a objectiu definir un procediment de modelat per estructures de tipologia “Teccon Evolution S.L.”, així com establir una sèrie de criteris per al càlcul d’aquestes estructures. L’estudi que es mostra en aquest document, pretén consolidar els coneixements adquirits en...

  9. Deposition velocities to Sorbus aria, Acer campestre, Populus deltoides x trichocarpa 'Beaupre', Pinus nigra and x Cupressocyparis leylandii for coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freer-Smith, P.H.; Beckett, K.P.; Taylor, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Trees are effective in the capture of particles from urban air to the extent that they can significantly improve urban air quality. As a result of their aerodynamic properties conifers, with their smaller leaves and more complex shoot structures, have been shown to capture larger amounts of particle matter than broadleaved trees. This study focuses on the effects of particle size on the deposition velocity of particles (Vg) to five urban tree species (coniferous and broadleaved) measured at two field sites, one urban and polluted and a second more rural. The larger uptake to conifers is confirmed, and for broadleaves and conifers Vg values are shown to be greater for ultra-fine particles (Dp<1.0 μm) than for fine and coarse particles. This is important since finer particles are more likely to be deposited deep in the alveoli of the human lung causing adverse health effects. The finer particle fraction is also shown to be transported further from the emission source; in this study a busy urban road. In further sets of data the aqueous soluble and insoluble fractions of the ultra-fines were separated, indicating that aqueous insoluble particles made up only a small proportion of the ultra-fines. Much of the ultra-fine fraction is present as aerosol. Chemical analysis of the aqueous soluble fractions of coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles showed the importance of nitrates, chloride and phosphates in all three size categories at the polluted and more rural location

  10. Use of waveform lidar and hyperspectral sensors to assess selected spatial and structural patterns associated with recent and repeat disturbance and the abundance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in a temperate mixed hardwood and conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ducey, Mark J.; Fast, A.; Martin, M.E.; Lepine, L.; Smith, M.-L.; Lee, T.D.; Dubayah, R.O.; Hofton, M.A.; Hyde, P.; Peterson, Birgit; Blair, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Waveform lidar imagery was acquired on September 26, 1999 over the Bartlett Experimental Forest (BEF) in New Hampshire (USA) using NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). This flight occurred 20 months after an ice storm damaged millions of hectares of forestland in northeastern North America. Lidar measurements of the amplitude and intensity of ground energy returns appeared to readily detect areas of moderate to severe ice storm damage associated with the worst damage. Southern through eastern aspects on side slopes were particularly susceptible to higher levels of damage, in large part overlapping tracts of forest that had suffered the highest levels of wind damage from the 1938 hurricane and containing the highest levels of sugar maple basal area and biomass. The levels of sugar maple abundance were determined through analysis of the 1997 Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) high resolution spectral imagery and inventory of USFS Northern Research Station field plots. We found a relationship between field measurements of stem volume losses and the LVIS metric of mean canopy height (r2 = 0.66; root mean square errors = 5.7 m3/ha, p < 0.0001) in areas that had been subjected to moderate-to-severe ice storm damage, accurately documenting the short-term outcome of a single disturbance event.

  11. Aprovechamiento de escorias blancas (LFS) y negras (EAFS) de acería eléctrica en la estabilización de suelos y en capas de firmes de caminos rurales

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega López, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    El trabajo que recoge la presente Tesis Doctoral estudia la idoneidad de un aprovechamiento integral de las escorias blancas de horno de cuchara (LFS) y de las escorias negras de horno eléctrico de arco (EAFS) en la estabilización de suelos arcillosos de mala calidad y en la formación de las capas del firme de caminos rurales. Para conseguir las propiedades resistentes adecuadas en terrenos naturales arcillosos sobre los que se construyen obras civiles, es preciso mezclarlos con materiale...

  12. Biogeochemical features of maple and dandelion in Eastern Administrative District of Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    Today more than half of world population and 73% of population in Russia live in cities. Moscow is the only one megacity in Russia with the population more than 11 million. The main source of technogenic impact in Moscow is transport. Plants can be used as indicators of urban environment heavy metals and metalloids (HM) pollution. Large scale biogeochemical research was done in Eastern Administrative District of Moscow. Apart from transport there are many industrial sources of pollution: metalworking, mechanical engineering, chemical, energetic and incinerator. This study focuses on detection of HM composition of woody plant leaves (maple - Acer platanoides) and herbaceous species leaves (dandelion - Taraxacum officinale). Plant material was collected on a regular greed with a step of 500-700 m. Background plants were sampled at 40 km west away from the city. Determination of Fe, Mn, Mo, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, Sb in plants was done using atomic absorption spectrometry after washing, drying and digestion with HNO3+H2O2. It was revealed that dandelion accumulates (index - concentration factors CF relatively background) Mo13Fe6Pb5Cd4.5As4Sb3, while maple Sb13As5.5Fe3Mo2Pb,Zn1.5. Geochemical specialization of plants in functional zones (industrial, transport, recreational, agricultural, residential areas with high-, middle- and low-rise buildings) was identified. The highest CF were determined for Mo in dandelion of all zones except industrial. In which the most accumulated elements are Fe and Mo, as well as Pb10As6Sb5Cu2. Arsenic is accumulated by dandelion in all zones. Copper is not concentrated by herbaceous species because of antagonism between Mo and Cu. The highest CF were determined for HM in maple of industrial zone. There trees concentrate Sb and As9Fe7Mo6Pb3Zn2. In the other zones levels of CF are lower in 2-5 times. Dandelion and maple don't accumulate Mn because of antagonism between Zn, Mo and Mn. Urban plants condition is estimated by the ratio between

  13. Soil and vegetation under Bison bonasus grazing in the Kaluzhskie Zaseki Reserve (Central European Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanina, Larisa; Bobrovsky, Maxim; Shashkov, Maxim; Ivanova, Natalia; Ivashchenko, Kristina

    2017-04-01

    Plant diversity and soil characteristics including soil macrofauna and microbial biomass were studied in two areas of the Reserve affected by grazing of semi-free-ranging European bison population during the decade. The study areas are surrounded by broad-leaved forest co-dominated by Quercus robur, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata, Ulmus glabra, Acer platanoides and A. campestre. Aiming to assess impacts of the bison population on soil and vegetation, we studied two series of conjugated biotopes: (1) a meadow with feeder, (2) a transition zone: the forest edge with damaged tree trunks, trampled soil and fragmented ground vegetation and (3) a forest without visible signs of bison activities. One biotope series was located on loamy soils and other one on sandy-loams. The following samplings of soil and vegetation were conducted in each biotope in two areas: (1) plant species list with their coverage in three vegetation layers in 5 square plots of 100 m2 was compiled; (2) earthworms were sampled in 8 monoliths of 25x25x35 cm and handy sorted to estimate earthworm diversity, number and biomass; (3) soil was also sampled from 0 to 10 cm soil depths with 4 replications to estimate soil physico-chemical characteristics and soil microbial biomass. Preliminary results showed relatively high ecological difference of the areas on loams and sandy-loams: soil on loams was richer in the main chemical elements, such as C, N, Ca and K. At that, in both areas, meadow soils were richer than forest soils in C, N, Ca, P and K. The highest values of C and N were observed in the transition zones and they were closed to values observed in the meadow soils. Total amount of exchangeable cations and Ca most strongly decreased from meadow to forest soils with the intermediate values in the transition zones. Despite the ecological differences of the areas, paired biotopes were similar to each other in structure of vegetation communities. For 10 years of grazing, forest vegetation was

  14. 78 FR 56192 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Arabis georgiana (Georgia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... (white ash), Acer barbatum (southern sugar maple), and Cercis canadensis (eastern redbud) with a rich... meadia (shooting star), Solidago auriculata (eared goldenrod), Symphyotrichum shortii (Short's aster...

  15. Molecular characterization and differential expression of two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we identified a pair of duplicated Or genes, AcerOr1 and AcerOr3, from the antennae of the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, and reported their molecular characterization and temporal expression profiles. The results showed that these two genes shared high similarity both in sequence and the gene structure.

  16. Effects of ice storm damage on hardwood survival and growth in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Turcotte; Thomas R. Elliott; Mary Ann Fajvan; Yong-Lak Park; Daniel A. Snider; Patrick C. Tobin

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, an ice storm occurred across four Mid-Atlantic states. This study investigated the effects of the ice-storm damage on growth and mortality of five tree species (Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, Quercus alba, Quercus prinus, and Quercus rubra) from three forest stands in the Wayne National Forest in Ohio. We remeasured the same...

  17. Necessity of angiotensin-converting enzyme-related gene for cardiac functions and longevity of Drosophila melanogaster assessed by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fang-Tsu; Chang, Cheng-Yi; Su, Ming-Tsan; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies have established the necessity of an angiotensin-converting enzyme-related (ACER) gene for heart morphogenesis of Drosophila. Nevertheless, the physiology of ACER has yet to be comprehensively understood. Herein, we employed RNA interference to down-regulate the expression of ACER in Drosophila's heart and swept source optical coherence tomography to assess whether ACER is required for cardiac functions in living adult flies. Several contractile parameters of Drosophila heart, including the heart rate (HR), end-diastolic diameter (EDD), end-systolic diameter (ESD), percent fractional shortening (%FS), and stress-induced cardiac performance, are shown, which are age dependent. These age-dependent cardiac functions declined significantly when ACER was down-regulated. Moreover, the lifespans of ACER knock-down flies were significantly shorter than those of wild-type control flies. Thus, we posit that ACER, the Drosophila ortholog of mammalian angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is essential for both heart physiology and longevity of animals. Since mammalian ACE2 controls many cardiovascular physiological features and is implicated in cardiomyopathies, our findings that ACER plays conserved roles in genetically tractable animals will pave the way for uncovering the genetic pathway that controls the renin-angiotensin system.

  18. Aluminum solubility and mobility in relation to organic carbon in surface soils affected by six tree species of the northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Fitzhugh, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We compared Al solubility and mobility in surface soils among six tree species (sugar maple [Acer saccharum], white ash [Fraxinus americana], red maple [Acer rubrum, L.], American beech [Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.], red oak [Quercus rubra, L.], and hemlock [Tsuga canadensis, Carr.]) in a mixed

  19. Time domain-nuclear magnetic resonance study of chars from southern hardwoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, Thomas; Labbe, Nicole; Harper, David; Rials, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Chars from the thermal degradation of silver maple (Acer saccharinum), red maple (Acer rubrum), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and white oak (Quercus spp.), performed at temperatures from 250 to 350 o C, were examined using time domain-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Prior to analysis, the chars were equilibrated under conditions insuring the presence of bound water only and both bound water and free water. Transverse relaxation times were found to be related to the moisture content of the chars, which varied with temperature. At elevated temperatures the number of signals assigned to free water decreased, indicative of an increase in pore size within the chars

  20. カエデ科植物の成分研究(第7報) : メゲスリノキ心材のクマリノリゲナンについて

    OpenAIRE

    古川, 尚子; 南雲, 清二; 井上, 隆夫; 永井, 正博; NAOKO, FURUKAWA; SEIJI, NAGUMO; TAKAO, INOUE; MASAHIRO, NAGAI; 星薬科大学薬学部; 星薬科大学薬学部; 星薬科大学薬学部; 星薬科大学医薬品化学研究所; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University

    1988-01-01

    From the wood of Acer nikoense MAXIM. (Aceraceae), two coumarinolignans (5 and 6) were isolated along with β-sitosterol and its glucoside, scopoletin and (+)-rhododendrol. Compounds 5 and 6 were identified as cleomiscosin A and aquillochin, respectively.

  1. 78 FR 28513 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Magazine Mountain Shagreen From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... the relative abundance (number of a particular species as a percentage of the total population of a... americana), sugar maple (Acer sacccharum), white ash (Fraxinus americana), and prickly gooseberry (Ribes...

  2. [Maples at the sub-Alpine vegetation belt: a long history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, F; Barbero, M

    2001-02-01

    Pollen analysis was carried out on lacustrine sediment of a small hollow (15 m x 25 m) at the treeless sub-Alpine belt (202 m) of the inner Maurienne valley in the northern French Alps. A 2,500-year-long maple settlement was demonstrared. Three AMS dates of terrestrial plant macroremains support the chronology. First, Betula and Salix spread prior to 9,000 C14 BP. The first pollen grains of Acer, Abies and Pinus cembra are quoted at 8,600 C14 BP. High frequencies of Alnus glutinosa/incana (20%) and Acer (10%) show that mixed communities of Acer and Alnus persisted above the mountainous Abies forest between 7,490 and 5,850 C14 BP. After 5,850 C14 BP, the decrease in Acer stands could be attributed to fire as suggested by the strong increase in Betula and by the delayed expansion of Pinus cembra.

  3. Response of maple sapwood to injury and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.C. Shortle; K.T. Smith; K.R. Dudzik; Sharon Parker

    1995-01-01

    In sapwood challenge experiments in Acer rubrum, columns of discolouration initiated by wounding and inoculation with pioneer fungi (Cephalosporium sp., Phialophora sp.) were similar in size to untreated wounds. Inoculation with decay fungi (Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor) produced...

  4. A study on crown interception with four dominant tree species: a direct measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang Li; Jianzhi Niu; Linus Zhang; Qingfu Xiao; Gregory E. McPherson; Natalie van Doorn; Xinxiao Yu; Baoyuan Xie; Salli Dymond; Jiao Li; Chen Meng; Ziteng Luo

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to concentrate on the rainfall interception process of individual trees for four common species in Beijing, China, which included needle species (Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis) and broadleaf species (Quercus variabilis and Acer truncatum)....

  5. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  6. Book Review Emotional Literacy By Patricia Sherwood (2008 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emotional Literacy: The Heart of Classroom Management. Camberwell, Victoria: Australian Council for Educational Research Limited (ACER). Paperback (176 pages). ISBN: 978-0-864-31809-1. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, September 2008, Volume 8, Edition 2 ...

  7. 7 CFR 301.92-2 - Restricted, regulated, and associated articles; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Phytophthora ramorum: Abies concolor White fir Abies grandis Grand fir Abies magnifica Red fir Acer circinatum... yew Taxus x media Yew Torreya californica California nutmeg Toxicodendron diversilobum Poison oak...

  8. Long-Term Simulated Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition Alters Leaf and Fine Root Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition has been suggested to increase forest carbon sequestration across much of the Northern Hemisphere; slower organic matter decomposition could contribute to this increase. At four sugar maple (Acer saccharum)-dominated northern hardwood forests, we p...

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of four genes encoding ethylene receptors associated with pineapple (Ananas comosus L. flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous ethylene, or ethephon, has been widely used to induce pineapple flowering, but the molecular mechanism behind ethephon induction is still unclear. In this study, we cloned four genes encoding ethylene receptors (designated AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b. The 5′ flanking sequences of these four genes were also cloned by self-formed adaptor PCR and SiteFinding-PCR, and a group of putative cis-acting elements was identified. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b belonged to the plant ERS1s and ETR2/EIN4-like groups. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AcETR2a and AcETR2b (subfamily 2 were more sensitive to ethylene treatment compared with AcERS1a and AcERS1b (subfamily 1. The relative expression of AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b was significantly increased during the earlier period of pineapple inflorescence formation, especially at 1-9 days after ethylene treatment (DAET, whereas AcERS1a expression changed less than these three genes. In situ hybridization results showed that bract primordia (BP and flower primordia (FP appeared at 9 and 21 DAET, respectively, and flowers were formed at 37 DAET. AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b were mainly expressed in the shoot apex at 1-4 DAET; thereafter, with the appearance of BP and FP, higher expression of these genes was found in these new structures. Finally, at 37 DAET, the expression of these genes was mainly focused in the flower but was also low in other structures. These findings indicate that these four ethylene receptor genes, especially AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b, play important roles during pineapple flowering induced by exogenous ethephon.

  10. Molecular recognition of floral volatile with two olfactory related proteins in the Eastern honeybee (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Zhang, Linya; Ni, Cuixia; Shang, Hanwu; Zhuang, Shulin; Li, Jianke

    2013-05-01

    The honeybee relies on its sensitive olfaction to perform the foraging activities in the field. In the antennal chemoreception system of honeybee, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory protein (CSPs) are major two protein families capable of binding with some plant volatiles and chemical ligands. However, the chemical binding interaction of plant odors with OBPs and CSPs in the honeybee olfactory system is still not clear yet. Hence, complex fluorescent spectra, ultraviolet absorption spectra, circular dichroism spectra and molecular docking were used to investigate the binding property of AcerASP2 (an OBP of Apis cerana) and AcerASP3 (a CSP of Apis cerana) with β-ionone, one of ordinary floral volatiles in botanical flower. As a result, β-ionone had a strong capability to quench the fluorescence that the two proteins produced, and their interaction was a dynamic process that was mainly driven by a hydrophobic force. AcerASP2 had a larger hydrophobic cavity than that of AcerASP3 and the conformation of AcerASP2 was changed less than AcerASP3 when binding with β-ionone. Our data suggests that OBPs like AcerASP2 might make a large contribution toward assisting the honeybee in sensing and foraging flowers, and A. cerana has evolved a good circadian rhythm to perceive a flower's odor following the fluctuation of temperature in the olfactory system. This significantly extends our knowledge on how to strengthen the honeybees' pollination service via manipulation of target proteins in the olfactory system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of Addenbrooke’s cognitive examination-revised to evaluate the patients’ state in general medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Nikolayevich Ivanets

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of cognitive impairments is of great importance in mental disorders detectable in general medical practice. Objective: to study whether Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination — Revised (ACE-R may be used in these patients. Patients and methods. The study was conducted in two steps at somatic hospitals and city polyclinics. It enrolled 130patients (36 men and 94 women with anxiety-depression spectrum disorders (ADSD, mild cognitive disorders (MCD and a concurrence of these conditions. The authors used the following psychometric scales: the hospital anxiety and depression scale; the mini-mental state examination; the frontal assessment battery; ACE-R; ten words learning test. The psychometric characteristics of ACE-R and the possibilities of its use were estimated to detect MCD. The differences in the spectrum of cognitive impairments were analyzed in patients with different types of ADSD. Results. ACE-R is shown to be an effective neuropsychological tool for the primary diagnosis, detection, and evaluation of MCD in the general medical network. The results of ACE-R use indicate that the spectrum of cognitive impairments has substantial differences in patients with different types of non-psychotic disorders.

  12. Identification of methylenecyclopropyl acetic acid in serum of European horses with atypical myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votion, D-M; van Galen, G; Sweetman, L; Boemer, F; de Tullio, P; Dopagne, C; Lefère, L; Mouithys-Mickalad, A; Patarin, F; Rouxhet, S; van Loon, G; Serteyn, D; Sponseller, B T; Valberg, S J

    2014-03-01

    It is hypothesised that European atypical myopathy (AM) has a similar basis as seasonal pasture myopathy in North America, which is now known to be caused by ingestion of hypoglycin A contained in seeds from the tree Acer negundo. Serum from horses with seasonal pasture myopathy contained the conjugated toxic metabolite of hypoglycin A, methylenecyclopropyl acetic acid (MCPA). Retrospective study on archived samples. 1) To determine whether MCPA-carnitine was present in serum of European horses confirmed to have AM; 2) to determine whether Acer negundo or related Acer species were present on AM pastures in Europe. Concentrations of MCPA-carnitine were analysed in banked serum samples of 17 AM horses from Europe and 3 diseased controls (tetanus, neoplasia and exertional rhabdomyolysis) using tandem mass spectrometry. Atypical myopathy was diagnosed by characteristic serum acylcarnitine profiles. Pastures of 12 AM farms were visited by experienced botanists and plant species were documented. Methylenecyclopropyl acetic acid-carnitine at high concentrations (20.39 ± 17.24 nmol/l; range 0.95-57.63 nmol/l; reference: <0.01 nmol/l) was identified in serum of AM but not disease controls (0.00 ± 0.00 nmol/l). Acer pseudoplatanus but not Acer negundo was present on all AM farms. Atypical myopathy in Europe, like seasonal pasture myopathy in North America, is highly associated with the toxic metabolite of hypoglycin A, MCPA-carnitine. This finding coupled with the presence of a tree of which seeds are known to also contain hypoglycin A indicates that ingestion of Acer pseudoplatanus is the probable cause of AM. This finding has major implications for the prevention of AM. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Valorización de la escoria LD como árido en hormigones y ladrillos cerámicos: estabilización de la cal libre con cenizas volantes

    OpenAIRE

    Lausín González, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    La escoria de acería LD es un residuo inerte que se genera en grandes cantidades en la siderurgia, concretamente en el convertidor BOF durante el proceso de transformación del arrabio en acero. La escoria de acería LD se caracteriza por ser un árido limpio, denso, anguloso y de gran dureza, pero inestable debido a su alto contenido en cal libre. Debido a esta inestabilidad su reciclado como árido no es posible, por lo que es enviado principalmente a vertederos. En el desarr...

  14. Plant species first recognised as naturalised or naturalising for New South Wales in 2004 and 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Hosking, John R.; Conn, Barry J.; Lepschi, Brendan J.; Barker, Clive H.

    2013-01-01

    Information is provided on the taxonomy and distribution of 62 taxa of naturalised or naturalising plantsm newly recorded for the state of New South Wales during the period 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2005 and 1 species treated in the 2002 revised Flora of New South Wales Volume 2 but overlooked in an earlier paper of this series. Of these taxa, 17 are new records for Australia (prefaced with a †). The 62 taxa are: Acer palmatum, †Acer saccharinum, Achillea filipendulina, Acokanthera oblon...

  15. Forest Microclimate Characteristics Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Vegetation in Panama Panama soil moisture, canopy openness, seed germination , seed recruitment 70 Williams- Linera 1990b Vegetation Structure...earlier. The dominant species were Pseudotsuga menziesii, Abies grandis, Abies concolor, Pinus ponderosa, Pinus contorta, Picea engelmanii, and Larix...Forest in northern Wiscon- sin in a 50-yr-old pine stand. Common species included: Pinus resinosa, Pinus bansiana, Betula papyrifera, Acer rubrum

  16. Allelopathic effects of juglone on germination and growth of several herbaceous and woody species

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Rietveld

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine juglone sensitivity of 16 species (Trifolium incarnatum, Coronilla varia, Vicia villosa, Lespedeza stipulacea, L. cuneata, Acer ginnala, Caragana arboreseens, Elaegnus angustifolia, E. umbellata, Lonieera maackii, Quercus alba, Fraxinus americana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Alnus glutinosa, Pinus strobus...

  17. Nest-location and nest-survival of black-chinned hummingbirds in New Mexico: A comparison between rivers with differing levels of regulation and invasion of nonnative plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Deborah M. Finch; Scott H. Stoleson

    2014-01-01

    We compared plants used as sites for nests and survival of nests of black-chinned hummingbirds (Archilochus alexandri) along two rivers in New Mexico. Along the free-flowing Gila River which was dominated by native plants, most nests were constructed in boxelder (Acer negundo). Along the flow-restricted Middle Rio Grande which was dominated by nonnative plants, most...

  18. Effects of several physiochemical factors on cell growth and gallic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of gallic acid in cell suspension culture of Acer ginnala Maxim was studied. Some physiochemical factors and chemical substances effect on the cell growth and the production of gallic acid were investigated. Cells harvested from plant tissue culture were extracted and applied to high performance liquid ...

  19. 3-Methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one for area and individual tree protection against spruce beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack in the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew Hansen; A. Steven Munson; Darren C. Blackford; Andrew D. Graves; Tom W. Coleman; L. Scott. Baggett

    2017-01-01

    We tested 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH) and an Acer kairomone blend (AKB) as repellent semiochemicals for area and single tree protection to prevent spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) attacks at locations in Utah and New Mexico. In the area protection study, we compared host infestation rates of MCH applications at three densities (20, 40, and 80 g MCH...

  20. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Champion, loc. cit., p. 242). In the “western oak-fir forest”, which is represented at Deoban in the. Chakrata division, Jaunsar, it occurs with Abies Pindrow, Picea Morinda,. Q. dilatata, Acer Caesium, Ilex dipyrena, Rosa macrophylla, Rubus niveus,. Lonicera angustifolia, Viburnum fatens, Salix elegans, Rhamnus purpurea,.

  1. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph N.T. Darbah; Wendy S. Jones; Andrew J. Burton; John Nagy; Mark E. Kubiske

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O3) concentration (110-490 nmol mol-1) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O3 pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine...

  2. The content of mineral elements on whole blood and hair in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... M. sifanicus. Cornus bretschneideri, Lonicera chrysabtha, Cerasus tomentosa,. Lonicera ferdinandii, Crataegus kansuensis, Acer tetramerum var. betulifolium, Prunus salicina, Corylus mandshurica and Tamarix ramosissima) were collected; 1000 g from each plant, weighted, dried in the shade ground and ...

  3. Catalogue of wood plants of the Mountain Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalibekov Marat

    2017-12-01

    The following genera are the most widespread, according to their type and species variety: Malus (167 taxa, Pyrus (78, Armeniaca (65, Sorbus (59, Lonicera (53, Cerasus (46, Rosa (43, Juniperus (43, Rubus (41, Acer (37, Ribes (33. The collection includes 22 species of woody plants included in the Red Books of Russia and Dagestan.

  4. Annual cycle of shoot development in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Gregory

    1980-01-01

    Cytohistology and the development and morphogenesis of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) shoots were studied. Three types were recognized: short shoots, long shoots entirely preformed in the bud (Epf long), and long shoots partially preformed in the bud (heterophyllous). The three shoot types varied not only in the size and number of internodes...

  5. Green lumber grade yields from black cherry and red maple factory grade logs sawed at band and circular mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Yaussy

    1989-01-01

    Multivariate regression models were developed to predict green board-foot yields (1 board ft. = 2.360 dm 3) for the standard factory lumber grades processed from black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) factory grade logs sawed at band and circular sawmills. The models use log...

  6. Potential causes of the pear thrips outbreak in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack C. Schultz

    1991-01-01

    No one knows what caused the 1988 outbreak of pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), in sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marsh., in the northeastern United States. As an entomologist and ecologist who knows even less about this insect than most of the authors of this volume, I cannot presume to understand the causes of this...

  7. Forest composition change in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Peilin. Yang

    2011-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in the eastern United States are believed to be experiencing a species composition change, but most evidence is anecdotal or localized. We used U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis data to quantify the annual changes of three common genera: Acer (maple), carya (hickory), and Quercus...

  8. The rate of value increase for black cherry, red maple,and white ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted J. Grisez; Joseph J. Mendel; Joseph J. Mendel

    1972-01-01

    In this paper we present the dollar values and value increases, as well as the rates of value increase, for three of the most important tree species of the Allegheny Plateau of New York and Pennsylvania: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and white ash (Fraxinus americana L.).

  9. Preliminary results of sugar maple carbohydrate and growth response under vacuum and gravity sap extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Isselhardt; Timothy D. Perkins; Abby K. van den Berg; Paul G. Schaberg

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have increased the amount of sugar-enriched sap that can be extracted from sugar maple (Acer saccharum). This pilot study quantified overall sugar removal and the impacts of vacuum (60 cm Hg) and gravity sap extraction on residual nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations and on stem and twig growth. Vacuum...

  10. Antifreeze proteins enable plants to survive in freezing conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. Acaenamagellanica. Prickly burr. Doucet et al. 2000. 2. Acer saccharoides. Maple. Doucet et al. 2000. 3. Agrostistenuis. Creeping bentgrass. Doucet et al. 2000. 4. Alliarapetiolata. Garlic mustard. Urrutia et al. 1992. 5. Ammopiptanthusmongolicus. Evergreen legume. Wang et al. 2003. 6. Aster cordifolius. Wood aster.

  11. Influence of topographic aspect, precipitation and drought on radial growth of four major tree species in an Appalachian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta Fekedulegn; Ray R., Jr. Hicks; J.J. Colbert

    2003-01-01

    This study used dated and measured tree-ring data to examine relationships between radial growth, topographic aspect, and precipitation for four hardwood species, yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), northern red oak ( L.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), and red maple (Acer rubum...

  12. Litter Species Composition and Topographic Effects on Fuels and Modeled Fire Behavior in an Oak-Hickory Forest in the Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Dickinson; Todd F. Hutchinson; Mark Dietenberger; Frederick Matt; Matthew P. Peters; Jian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Mesophytic species (esp. Acer rubrum) are increasingly replacing oaks (Quercus spp.) in fire-suppressed, deciduous oak-hickory forests of the eastern US. A pivotal hypothesis is that fuel beds derived from mesophytic litter are less likely than beds derived from oak litter to carry a fire and, if they do, are more likely to...

  13. Stem girdling manipulates leaf sugar concentrations and anthocyanin expression in sugar maples trees during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.F. Murakami; P.G. Schaberg; J.B. Shane

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the effects of sugar accumulation on red color development of foliage during autumn, we compared carbohydrate concentration, anthocyanin expression and xylem pressure potential of foliage on girdled versus non-girdled (control) branches of 12 mature, open-grown sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees. Half of the study trees...

  14. Development of fall foliage color in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abby K. Van den Berg; John R. Donnelly; Paula F. Murakami; Paul G. Schaberg

    2001-01-01

    Fall foliage development is important to tourism and culture in the Northeast. However, few data exist on the control of the timing and brilliance of fall color. In this study, leaf tissue from 16 sugar maples (Acer saccharum) was collected periodically from June 30 through October 27, 1999 and analyzed for foliar nutrient, moisture and carbohydrate...

  15. Effects of uneven-aged and diameter-limit management on West Virginia tree and wood quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wiemann; Thomas M. Schuler; John E. Baumgras

    2004-01-01

    Uneven-aged and diameter-limit management were compared with an unmanaged control on the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia, to determine how treatment affects the quality of red oak (Quercus rubra L.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Periodic harvests slightly increased stem lean, which often...

  16. Effect of Moisture Sorption State on Vibrational Properties of Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianxiong Lu; Jiali Jiang; Yiqiang Wu; Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the vibrational properties and corresponding anisotropicity in wood during different states of moisture sorption. Samples of maple (Acer spp.) and red oak (Quercus rubra Michx.f.) were moisture conditioned by the adsorption process from an ovendried state and by the desorption process...

  17. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to the Functional Assessment of Forested Wetlands in Alluvial Valleys of East Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    laurel oak (Q. laurifolia), Shumard oak (Q. shumardii), elms ( Ulmus sp.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), southern magnolia (Magnolia...plant species as the low-gradient riverine subclass. However, species such as American elm ( Ulmus americana), slippery elm ( Ulmus rubra), winged elm... Ulmus alata), cedar elm ( Ulmus crassifolia), river birch, box-elder (Acer negundo), hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) can be

  18. Building improved models of sugar maple mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry; Patrick L. Zimmerman

    2012-01-01

    The decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the northern United States is causing concern, and several studies have identified soil properties that are linked to the observation of dead/dying trees. Unfortunately, the sample of trees supporting these studies is purposive in nature; soil properties are assessed only on those plots where dead...

  19. Tree species effects on calcium cycling: The role of calcium uptake in deep soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Smits, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Soil acidity and calcium (Ca) availability in the surface soil differ substantially beneath sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) trees in a mixed forest in northwestern Connecticut. We determined the effect of pumping of Ca from deep soil (rooting zone below 20-cm

  20. Potential contributions of figured wood to the practice of sustainable forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2006-01-01

    The birdseye grain of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) can showcase the potential of figured wood in sustainable forestry. This poorly understood but valuable grain abnormality commands such a premium that its presence alone can influence timber management. Good forestry and logging practices can help assure that quality birdseye maple logs are not relegated to low-...

  1. A sugar maple planting study in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Clayton M. Carl

    1970-01-01

    Past attempts to establish sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by planting have generally met with little success. The failures have been blamed mainly on competition by other vegetation and on damage done by animals. Finding an effective way to establish sugar maple seedlings is a key part in the research being carried on in Vermont by the USDA Forest Service to...

  2. The influence of chemical characteristics of precipitation on tree health in Banjica Forest (Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most represented tree species in the Banjica Forest are Acer negundo, Quercus robur, Acer pseudoplatanus, Populus nigra, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Fraxinus ornus and Robinia pseudoacacia. According to the ICP Forests combined assessment (degree of defoliation and decolorization, endangered species are Populus nigra (64.3% of heavily damaged trees, Quercus robur (45.5%, Fraxinus pennsylvanica (37.0% and Acer negundo (26.6%, while the situation is much better for Acer pseudoplatanus and Fraxinus ornus. For Robinia pseudoacacia, 83% of trees are without decolorization, however, defoliation is established. In the period from April to October 2009, the average pH of rainwater was 5.46, and 5.18 in the period from November 2009 to March 2010. The concentration of SO42- in the period from April to October 2009 amounted to an average of 24.21 mg/l, and 28.87 mg/l in the period from November 2009 to March 2010. The concentration of SO42- and pH values is a possible explanation for the condition of the trees. [Acknowledgments. The results are a part of the project III47007 funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  3. 78 FR 64977 - Certain Computer and Computer Peripheral Devices, and Components Thereof, and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http...,847 (``the '847 patent''). The complaint further alleges the existence of a domestic industry. The..., Taiwan (``Acer''); Canon Inc. of Toyko, Japan; Hewlett-Packard Company of Palo Alto, California (``HP...

  4. Comparative measurements of transpiration an canopy conductance in two mixed deciduous woodlands differing in structure and species composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Mathias; Rosier, Paul T.W.; Morecroft, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    a continuous hazel (Corylus avellana L.) understory. Wytham Woods, which had an LAI of 3.6, was dominated by ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and had only a sparse understory. Annual canopy transpiration was 367 mm for Grimsbury Wood and 397 mm for Wytham Woods. These values...

  5. Concentrations of Ca and Mg in early stages of sapwood decay in red spruce, eastern hemlock, red maple, and paper birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jody Jellison; Jon Connolly; Jonathan Schilling

    2007-01-01

    The decay of coarse woody debris is a key component in the formation of forest soil and in the biogeochemical cycles of Ca and Mg. We tracked changes in density and concentration of Ca and Mg in sapwood of red maple (Acer rubrum L.), red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), and...

  6. Calcium and aluminum impacts on sugar maple physiology in a northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua M. Halman; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Linda H. Pardo; Timothy J. Fahey

    2013-01-01

    Forests of northeastern North America have been exposed to anthropogenic acidic inputs for decades, resulting in altered cation relations and disruptions to associated physiological processes in multiple tree species, including sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.). In the current study, the impacts of calcium (Ca) and aluminum (Al) additions on mature...

  7. Population dynamics of sugar maple through the southern portion of its range: implications for range migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin L. Hart; Christopher M. Oswalt; Craig M. Turberville

    2014-01-01

    The range of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) is expected to shift northward in accord with changing climate. However, a pattern of increased sugar maple abundance has been reported from sites throughout the eastern US. The goal of our study was to examine the stability of the sugar maple southern range boundary by analyzing its demography through...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moto, FCO. Vol 11, No 1 (2014) - Articles Antidepressant properties of aqueous acerate from Gladiolus Dalenii corms. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  9. Effects of tornado damage, prescribed fire, and salvage logging on natural oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration in a xeric southern USA Coastal Plain oak/pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery B. Cannon; J. Stephen Brewer

    2013-01-01

    Due in large part to fire exclusion, many oak-dominated (Quercus spp.) forests, woodlands, and savannas throughout eastern North America are being replaced by less diverse forest ecosystems. In the interior coastal plain of the southern United States, these forests are dominated in the mid- and understory by mesophytic species such as Acer...

  10. Association of red coloration with senescence of sugar maple leaves in autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.G. Schaberg; P.F. Murakami; M.R. Turner; H.K. Heitz; G.J. Hawley

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the association of red coloration with senescence in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) leaves by assessing differences in leaf retention strength and the progression of the abscission layer through the vascular bundle of green, yellow, and red leaves of 14 mature open-grown trees in October 2002. Computer image analysis confirmed...

  11. Vegetation of loess bluff ravines in the Jackson Purchase Region of Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    William S. Bryant

    1993-01-01

    Forest vegetation of some loess bluff ravines in the Jackson Purchase Region of Kentucky was sampled. A total of 27 tree species comprised the mixed mesophytic association with Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia and Liquidambar styraciflua as the dominants. This assemblage of species agrees with that reported for...

  12. Cold-season patterns of reserve and soluble carbohydrates in sugar maple and ice-damaged trees of two age classes following drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. L. Wong; K. L. Baggett; A. H. Rye

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of summer drought on the composition and profiles of cold-season reserve and soluble carbohydrates in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees (50-100 years old or ~200 years old) in which the crowns were nondamaged or damaged by the 1998 ice storm. The overall cold season reserve...

  13. Foliar nutrient analysis of sugar maple decline: retrospective vector diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor R. Timmer; Yuanxin Teng

    1999-01-01

    Accuracy of traditional foiiar analysis of nutrient disorders in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) is limited by lack of validation and confounding by nutrient interactions. Vector nutrient diagnosis is relatively free of these problems. The technique is demonstrated retrospectively on four case studies. Diagnostic interpretations consistently...

  14. Temporal Variability of Stream Macroinvertebrate Abundance and Biomass Following Pesticide Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Hutchens; Keun Chung; J. Bruce Wallace

    1998-01-01

    We determined the extent of macroinvertebrate recovery in a former pesticide-treated stream (FTS) relative to a reference stream (RS) by examining macroinvertebrate colonizing red maple (Acer rubrum L.) litter bags between 5 to 10 y following pesticide treatment. Mean abundance and biomass, varibility in abundance and biomass (using the coefficient...

  15. Life Satisfaction of Young Australians: Relationships between Further Education, Training and Employment and General and Career Satisfaction. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth Research Report 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Kylie; McMillan, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Prepared by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) under an agreement with the Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), this report has three broad aims: (1) To describe the relationship between life satisfaction and participation in a range of post-school education, training and labour market…

  16. A stocking diagram for midwestern eastern cotonwood-silver maple-American sycamore bottomland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Larsen; Daniel C. Dey; Thomas. Faust

    2010-01-01

    A stocking diagram for Midwestern bottomland eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marsh.)-silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.)-American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) forests was developed following the methods of S.F. Gingrich (1967. Measuring and evaluating stocking and stand density in upland...

  17. Environmental monitoring of soil conditioner effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated photosynthetic reactions in Acer campestre L. in a multi-factorial field experiment near Hodonín, Southern Moravia, Czech Republic. In this experiment, selected plots were amended with three different supplementary soil substances, that is, zeolite, lignite, and hydroabsorbent Agrisorb, and were compared ...

  18. Effects of defoliation and drought on root food reserves in sugar maple seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Parker; Johnson Parker

    1970-01-01

    The artificial defoliation of sugar maple (Acer. saccharum Marsh.) can cause a marked decline in root food reserves, especially starch, and an increase in the levels of the reducing sugars, fructose and glucose. Defoliation can also bring on the dieback-decline syndrome in sugar maples (Parker and Houston 1968). Two experiments designed to examine this question were...

  19. Influence of experimental snow removal on root and canopy physiology of sugar maple trees in a northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel P. Comerford; Paul G. Schaberg; Pamela H. Templer; Anne M. Socci; John L. Campbell; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2013-01-01

    Due to projected increases in winter air temperatures in the northeastern USA over the next 100 years, the snowpack is expected to decrease in depth and duration, thereby increasing soil exposure to freezing air temperatures. To evaluate the potential physiological responses of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) to a reduced snowpack, we measured...

  20. Hypoglycin A Concentrations in Maple Tree Species in the Netherlands and the Occurrence of Atypical Myopathy in Horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, C.M.; Van Leeuwen, Robbert; Van Raamsdonk, L.W.D.; Mol, H.G.J.

    BACKGROUND: Atypical myopathy (AM) in horses is caused by the plant toxin hypoglycin A, which in Europe typically is found in the sycamore maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus). Owners are concerned about whether their horses are in danger if they graze near maple trees. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To measure

  1. Hypoglycin A in maple trees in the Netherlands and the risk of equine atypical myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, C.M.; van Leeuwen, Robbert; Mol, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The Acer (maple) genus of trees comprises over 120 species worldwide. Some of these contain the plant-toxin hypoglycin-A which has been proven to be a cause of the highly fatal condition called atypical myopathy (AM) in horses and ponies. In an earlier study of maple-tree samples (leaves and seeds)

  2. Hypoglycin A Concentrations in Maple Tree Species in the Netherlands and the Occurrence of Atypical Myopathy in Horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, C.M.; Leeuwen, van R.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Mol, H.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atypical myopathy (AM) in horses is caused by the plant toxin hypoglycin A, which in Europe typically is found in the sycamore maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus). Owners are concerned about whether their horses are in danger if they graze near maple trees. Hypothesis/Objectives: To

  3. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…

  4. Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and hardwood regeneration after thinning natural shortleaf pine forests in southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anup KC; Thomas B. Lynch; James M. Guldin

    2016-01-01

    Understory pine and hardwood regeneration in the Ozark and Ouachita National Forests were measured in 1995 for the first time following thinning and hardwood control at plot establishment 1985-87. Red maple (Acer rubrum), shortleaf pine and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) were the most frequently recorded species. Understory shortleaf pine stems have declined...

  5. 77 FR 20047 - Certain Computer and Computer Peripheral Devices and Components Thereof and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... respondents Acer Inc. of Taiwan; Brother Industries, Ltd. of Japan; Canon Inc. of Japan; Dane- Elec Memory of France; Dell Inc. of TX; Falcon Northwest Computer Systems, Inc. of OR; Fujitsu Limited of Japan; Jasco...; Newegg Inc. of CA; Rosewell Inc. of CA; Sabrent of CA; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of Korea; Seiko...

  6. Effects of pine sawdust, hardwood sawdust, and peat on bareroot soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Koll; Martin F. Jurgensen; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three organic amendments on soil properties and seedling growth at the USDA Forest Service JW Toumey Nursery in Watersmeet, MI. Pine sawdust (red pine, Pinus resinosa), hardwood sawdust (maple [Acer spp.] and aspen [Populus spp.]), and peat were individually incorporated into a loamy sand nursery soil in August 2006, and soil properties...

  7. Are leaf breakdown rates a useful measure of stream integrity along an agricultural landuse gradient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.M. Hagen; J.R. Webster; E.F. Benfield

    2006-01-01

    Biological indicators often are used to assess and manage water quality in anthropogenically altered stream systems. Leaf breakdown has the potential to be a good indicator of stream integrity because it integrates a varietyof biological, chemical, and physical conditions. Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) leaf breakdown rates were measured along a gradient...

  8. Effect of manganese on endomycorrhizal sugar maple seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; Carolyn J. McQuattie

    2002-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) toxicity may play an important role in the poor survival of seedlings in declining sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) stands in northern Pennsylvania. To determine the effect of Mn on the growth of sugar maple seedlings, 1-year-old seedlings inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and growing in sand-vermiculite-...

  9. Foliar chemistry of sugar maple: a regional view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Hallett; Stephen B. Horsley; Robert P. Long; Scott W. Bailey; Thomas J. Hall

    1999-01-01

    Forest health and monitoring issues have become major focus of scientists and research institutions in Europe and North America during the last decade because of wide-spread forest decline symptoms in Europe, high elevation spruce/fir decline in eastern North America and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) decline in Quebec, and the United States....

  10. Influence of geologic and pedologic factors on health of sugar maple on the Allegheny Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott W. Bailey; Stephen B. Horsley; Robert P. Long; Richard A. Hallett

    1999-01-01

    Decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) has been a problem on the Allegheny Plateau of Pennsylvania since the mid-1980's (Kolb and McCormick 1993; Williams et al. 1996). Horsley et al. (this volume) found that declining stands were distinguished from non-declining stands by a combination of repeated insect defoliation and low foliar...

  11. Health of eastern North American sugar maple forests and factors affecting decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen B. Horsley; Robert P. Long; Scott W. Bailey; Richard A. Hallett; Philip M. Wargo

    2002-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is a keystone species in the forests of the northeastern and Midwestern United States and eastern Canada. Its sustained health is an important issue in both managed and unmanaged forests. While sugar maple generally is healthy throughout its range, decline disease of sugar maple has occurred sporadically during the past...

  12. Linking environmental gradients, species composition, and vegetation indicators of sugar maple health in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen B. Horsley; Scott W. Bailey; Todd E. Ristau; Robert P. Long; Richard A. Hallett

    2008-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) decline has occurred throughout its range over the past 50 years, although decline symptoms are minimal where nutritional thresholds of Ca, Mg, and Mn are met. Here, we show that availability of these elements also controls vascular plant species composition in northern hardwood stands and we identify indicator...

  13. Influence of nutrition and stress on sugar maple at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Hallett; Scott W. Bailey; Stephen B. Horsley; Robert P. Long

    2006-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) decline disease on the Allegheny Plateau (region 1) resulted in high levels of mortality during the 1990s. Sugar maple was predisposed to decline because of an imbalance in Mg, Ca, and Mn nutrition and incited to decline by repeated defoliation. We sampled 33 stands in New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire (region 2...

  14. Associations of calcium and aluminum with the growth and health of sugar maple trees in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; James W. Tilley; Gary J. Hawley; Donald H. DeHayes; Scott W. Bailey

    2006-01-01

    We compared tree growth and crown condition with soil and foliar elemental composition in 14 sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) stands in VT, USA, to evaluate if deficiencies or imbalances in cation nutrition were associated with growth and health reductions in native stands. The Till Source Model (TSM) was used to select study sites potentially...

  15. Distribution and abundance of Anoplophora glabripennis in stands of its native host in South Korea and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Williams; Hai-Poong Lee

    2003-01-01

    Following up on our discovery in 2000 that Acer mono is a native host of Anoplophora glabripennis, we spent eight weeks searching for the beetle in natural forest stands in South Korea and China. We wanted to assess the distribution and abundance of beetles in closed forest stands of native hosts.

  16. Partitioning and analyzing temporal variability of wash and bed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    leads to reduction in storage capacity of dams, increases flood risk, deteriorates water quality and ultimately results .... results showed that the capacity of bed material load transport was controlled by hydraulic conditions ... oped mainly for livestock grazing in uplands. Land covers comprise Fagus orientalis, Alnus sp., Acer.

  17. Predictors of financial capacity performance in older adults using the Financial Competence Assessment Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachana, Nancy A; Byrne, Gerard J; Wilson, Jill; Tilse, Cheryl; Pinsker, Donna M; Massavelli, Bronwyn; Vearncombe, Katharine J; Mitchell, Leander K

    2014-06-01

    Declines in financial capacity in later life may arise from both neurocognitive and/or psychiatric disorders. The influence of socio-demographic, cognitive, health, and psychiatric variables on financial capacity performance was explored. Seventy-six healthy community-dwelling adults and 25 older patients referred for assessment of financial capacity were assessed on pertinent cognitive, psychiatric, and financial capacity measures, including Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R), Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), selected Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) items, Financial Competence Assessment Inventory (FCAI), and Social Vulnerability Scale (SVS). The internal consistency of the debt management subscale of the FCAI was relatively poor in our sample. Financial capacity performance differed between controls and patients. In our sample, performance on the FCAI was predicted by Mini-Mental State Examination, IQCODE, and GAI, but not by ACE-R, GDS, NPI items, or SVS (adjusted R(2) = 0.7059). Anxiety but not depression predicted financial capacity performance, possibly reflecting relatively low variance of depressive symptoms in this sample. Current cognitive decline as measured by the informant-rated IQCODE was more highly correlated to financial capacity than either educational attainment or ACE-R scores. Lack of significance of ACE-R data may reflect the instrument's decreased sensitivity to domains relevant to financial capacity, compared with more detailed neuropsychological assessment tools. The FCAI displayed fairly robust psychometric properties apart from the debt management subscale.

  18. 78 FR 56245 - Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Communications, Inc. of San Diego, California; LG Electronics, Inc. of Seoul, Korea; LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc... Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U... wireless consumer electronics devices and components thereof imported by respondents Acer, Inc. of Taipei...

  19. Metal uptake by young trees from dredged brackish sediment : Limitations and possibilities for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Jan; Vervaeke, Pieter; de Schrijver, A.; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2004-01-01

    Five tree species (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn., Fraxinus excelsior L., Populus alba L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L.) were planted on a mound constructed of dredged sediment. The sediment originated from a brackish river mouth and was slightly polluted with heavy metals. This

  20. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  1. Impacts of Different Mobile User Interfaces on Students’ Satisfaction for Learning Dijkstra’s Shortest Path Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Seraj

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental study of learning Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm on mobile devices. The aim of the study is to investigate and compare the impacts of two different mobile screen user interfaces on students’ satisfaction for learning the technical subject. A mobile learning prototype was developed for learning Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm on Apple iPhone 4 operated on iPhone operating system (iOS, and Acer Inconia Tab operated on an Android operating system. Thirty students, who are either currently studying or had previously studied Computer Networks, were recruited for the usability trial. At the end of each single session, students’ satisfaction interacting with the two mobile devices was measured using QUIS questionnaire. Although there is no significant difference in students’ satisfaction between the two different mobile screen interfaces, the subjective findings indicate that Acer Inconia Tab gained higher scores as compared to Apple iPhone 4.

  2. Assisted Migration as a Management Tool in Coastal Ecosystems Threatened by Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    intermediate elevation zone was dominated by a mixture of hardwoods (e.g., Acer rubrum), slash pine ( Pinus elliottii) and a diverse understory layer (e.g...species. The highest elevation zone was dominated by a sparse canopy of slash pine and occasional longleaf pine ( Pinus palustris), and infrequent patches...openings persist, but may also require multiple, recurrent additions of propagules such that suitable environmental conditions and germination cues

  3. Flood Control Wild Rice River - South Branch and Felton Ditch, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    work and • S are sufficiently warmed for germination of seed earlier than the soils of the plain. The spring runoff from the flats in the lake bottom...High-bush ccaqnberry Vibernu’ opulus var. americanum Ho.aeysuck le Lonicera dioica I ronwood Ostrya virginiana Jack Pine Pinus banks jana Juneberry...Name Scientific Name Red pine Pinus resinosa Rose Rosa blanda Silverberry Eleagnus argentea Silver maple Acer saccharinum Snow-berry Symphoricarpos alba

  4. Environmental Assessment: Addressing Expanded Herbicide Applications and the Relocation of Dry Chemical Testing at Niagra Falls Air Reserve Station, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    pre-emergent (i.e., stops plant germination ) or post-emergent herbicide for the control ofbroadleafweeds in agriculture, and for control of woody...Barricade. Barricade controls susceptible weeds by preventing growth and development of newly germinated seeds. It is a selective pre-emergent herbicide...the installation include white pine ( Pinus strobus), Scotch pine ( Pinus sylvestris), green ash (Fraxinus lanceolata) , red maple (Acer rubrum), and

  5. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (L...

  6. Sequences of epicuticular wax structures along stems in four selected tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewski Dominik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wax layer formation accompanies the processes of epidermis and cuticle formation. To examine these changes, observationsalong current-year long shoots of four woody species (Acer negundo, A. rufinerve, Gymnocladus dioica, and Gingko biloba were made. Long shoots are suitable objects for such observations, because from the same stem, several samples can be obtained that represent a well-defined sequence of fragments of different ages.

  7. Invasive species in phytocenosis of Sterlitamak town (Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovanov, Ya M.; Abramova, L. M.; Petrov, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    There were 69 invasive and potentially invasive species in the flora of Sterlitamak in the Bashkortostan Republic (Russia). Eight are in the most dangerous types of invasive species. The greatest danger is represented by: Acer negundo, Ambrosia trifida, Elodea canadensis and Xanthium albinum. Within the boundaries of Sterlitamak, 21 syntaxa (13 associations and 8 derivated communities) are invasive species. This phytocenosis in an urban environment can be prime targets for plant quarantine actions.

  8. Fort Bragg Old Post Historic District Landscape Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Tuscarora—a powerful Indian group to the north—inhibited early colonial development on the entire In- ner Coastal Plain of North Carolina until its...W-0/F-P M,P,CP s AnJelandlier canadensis Jlllebel!y W-0/F-P P,CP F,N,L Acer sacdlarum SUg:r Maple MIF-S M s Alnelatldlie! lae ~ Allegheny Servicebeny

  9. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  10. Comparative analysis of methods for modelling the short-term probability distribution of extreme wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2016-01-01

    extrapolation techniques: the Weibull, Gumbel and Pareto distributions and a double-exponential asymptotic extreme value function based on the ACER method. For the successful implementation of a fully automated extrapolation process, we have developed a procedure for automatic identification of tail threshold...... levels, based on the assumption that the response tail is asymptotically Gumbel distributed. Example analyses were carried out, aimed at comparing the different methods, analysing the statistical uncertainties and identifying the factors, which are critical to the accuracy and reliability...

  11. Notes à La Flore de Corse, XXV

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanmonod, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    These “notes” deal with 110 noteworthy taxa amongst which 21 are new to the island's flora. One of these taxa is native: Reseda alba subsp. hookeri and 20 are introduced: Abies pinsapo, Acer ×coriaceum, Albizia julibrissin, Arundo micrantha, Azolla filiculoides, Bolboschoenus laticarpus, Digitaria ciliaris, Digitaria violascens, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. globulus, Genista januensis subsp. lydia, Hedera helix subsp. maroccana, Morus kagayamae, Oenothera rosea, Paspalum vaginatum, Puccinelli...

  12. Inventory of epiphytic macrolichens on trees used in urban arborization in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Nogueira; Cristine Gobel Donha; Patrícia Wolf Veiga; Sionara Eliasaro

    2009-01-01

    The floristic composition of epiphytic macrolichens on the following tree species used in urban arborization in Curitiba was analysed: Acer negundo, Lagerstroemia indica, Ligustrum lucidum, Parapiptadenia rigida, Cassia leptophylla, Syagrus romanzoffi ana, Tabebuia alba, Tabebuia chrysotricha, Tabebuia heptaphylla, and Tipuana tipu. A total of 84 species are reported, from which 14 are recorded for the fi rst time in Paraná State and Flavoparmelia soredians is recorded for the fi rst time in ...

  13. Stimulatory effects of aluminum on growth of sugar maple seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; Carolyn J. McQuattie

    2002-01-01

    To determine the effect of aluminum (Al) on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), seedlings were grown in sand irrigated with nutrient solution (pH 3.8) containing 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg L-1 Al. Seedling growth was enhanced at 2.5 and 5mgL-1 Al. Although higher levels of Al reduced calcium (Ca) and...

  14. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Bochnia, M.; Ziegler, J.; Sander, J.; Uhlig, A.; Schaefer, S.; Vollstedt, S.; Glatter, M.; Abel, S.; Recknagel, S.; Schusser, G. F.; Wensch-Dorendorf, M.; Zeyner, A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates) of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study wa...

  15. Planetary Pledge Pyramid, Facebook Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Create an Advert X Alt skal væk NU Macbook Air solgt til 370,- kr. Acer Ferrari ONE 200 solgt til 374,- kr. på Ziinga.dk. - Klik her – Like Unlike You like this. X Mindstep | Useful Training® Interesseret i NLP og i at forbedre din bundlinie markant? Nyt NLP Business Practitioner hold i Århus, 19...

  16. Do ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal temperate tree species systematically differ in root order-related fine root morphology and biomass?

    OpenAIRE

    Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    While most temperate broad-leaved tree species form ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses, a few species have arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). It is not known whether EM and AM tree species differ systematically with respect to fine root morphology, fine root system size and root functioning. In a species-rich temperate mixed forest, we studied the fine root morphology and biomass of three EM and three AM tree species from the genera Acer, Carpinus, Fagus, Fraxinus, and Tilia searching for principal dif...

  17. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril disrupts the motility activation of sperm from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Sumiharu; Kawasaki, Saori; Kawasaki, Hideki; Kamei, Kaeko

    2017-11-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (also known as peptidyl dicarboxypeptidase A, ACE, and EC 3.4.15.1), which is found in a wide range of organisms, cleaves C-terminal dipeptides from relatively short oligopeptides. Mammalian ACE plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. However, the precise physiological functions of insect ACE homologs have not been understood. As part of our effort to elucidate new physiological roles of insect ACE, we herein report a soluble ACE protein in male reproductive secretions from the silkmoth, Bombyx mori. Seminal vesicle sperm are quiescent in vitro, but vigorous motility is activated by treatment with either a glandula (g.) prostatica homogenate or trypsin in vitro. When seminal vesicle sperm were pre-incubated with captopril, a strong and specific inhibitor of mammalian ACE, and then stimulated to initiate motility by the addition of the g. prostatica homogenate or trypsin, the overall level of acquired motility was reduced in an inhibitor-concentration-dependent manner. In the course of this project, we detected ACE-related carboxypeptidase activity that was inhibited by captopril in both the vesicular (v.) seminalis of the noncopulative male reproductive tract and in the spermatophore that forms in the female bursa copulatrix at the time of mating, just as in an earlier report on the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea, which belongs to a different lepidopteran species (Ekbote et al., 2003a). Two distinct genes encoding ACE-like proteins were identified by analysis of B. mori cDNA, and were named BmAcer and BmAcer2, respectively [the former was previously reported by Quan et al. (2001) and the latter was first isolated in this paper]. RT-qPCR and Western blot analyses indicated that the BmAcer2 was predominantly produced in v. seminalis and transferred to the spermatophore during copulation, while the BmAcer was not detected in the adult male reproductive organs. A recombinant protein of BmAcer2 (devoid of a signal

  18. The effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAZIYEH RAFEIE JAHED

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rafeie Jahed R, Hosseini SM, Kooch Y. 2014. The effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region, Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 206-214. In the present work, we studied the effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region of northern Iran. Natural forest stands (including Acer velutinum Bioss., Zelkova carpinifolia (Pall, Parrotia persica (DC. C.A.Mey, Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey., Carpinus betulus L, Mixed planted stand (including Acer velutinum, Ulmus carpinifolia G. Suckow Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey, Carpinus betulus L., Tilia begonifolia Scop. Subsp. caucasia (Rupr. Loria; maple (Acer velutinum Bioss plantation, pine (Pinus taeda L. plantation and also clear-cut region (control were considered in this research. Soil samples were collected at two different depths, i.e., 0-15 and 15-30 cm, and characterized with respect to organic carbon (C, total nitrogen (N, available nutrient elements (P, K, Ca and Mg; pH and soil texture. The results showed that the highest amount of total N was found in mixed plantation. The highest amount of available P was detected in maple plantation and pine plantation had the highest available K and organic C than other treatments. The highest and the lowest available Ca and Mg were found in natural forest and control area, respectively. In addition, it was observed that nutrients accumulate in upper layers of the soil. Hardwood stands have been more successful than the conifers stands, so this should be considered in the sustainable management of forests.

  19. How Does Temperature Impact Leaf Size and Shape in Four Woody Dicot Species? Testing the Assumptions of Leaf Physiognomy-Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, M.; Royer, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The physiognomy (size and shape) of fossilized leaves has been used to reconstruct the mean annual temperature of ancient environments. Colder temperatures often select for larger and more abundant leaf teeth—serrated edges on leaf margins—as well as a greater degree of leaf dissection. However, to be able to accurately predict paleotemperature from the morphology of fossilized leaves, leaves must be able to react quickly and in a predictable manner to changes in temperature. We examined the extent to which temperature affects leaf morphology in four tree species: Carpinus caroliniana, Acer negundo, Ilex opaca, and Ostrya virginiana. Saplings of these species were grown in two growth cabinets under contrasting temperatures (17 and 25 °C). Compared to the cool treatment, in the warm treatment Carpinus caroliniana leaves had significantly fewer leaf teeth and a lower ratio of total number of leaf teeth to internal perimeter; and Acer negundo leaves had a significantly lower feret diameter ratio (a measure of leaf dissection). In addition, a two-way ANOVA tested the influence of temperature and species on leaf physiognomy. This analysis revealed that all plants, regardless of species, tended to develop more highly dissected leaves with more leaf teeth in the cool treatment. Because the cabinets maintained equivalent moisture, humidity, and CO2 concentration between the two treatments, these results demonstrate that these species could rapidly adapt to changes in temperature. However, not all of the species reacted identically to temperature changes. For example, Acer negundo, Carpinus caroliniana, and Ostrya virginiana all had a higher number of total teeth in the cool treatment compared to the warm treatment, but the opposite was true for Ilex opaca. Our work questions a fundamental assumption common to all models predicting paleotemperature from the physiognomy of fossilized leaves: a given climate will inevitably select for the same leaf physiognomy

  20. An analysis of Eemian climate in Western and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagwijn, W. H.

    On the basis of 31 pollen diagrams and additional data for botanical macrofossils an analysis is made of the Last Interglacial (Eemian) climatic history in Western and Central Europe. The main tool for this analysis is the climatic indicator species method. Only selected woody species are used for the quantification of data. Partial climatic range diagrams are presented for: Abies alba, Acer monspessulanum, Acer tataricum, Buxus sempervirens, Tilia tomentosa. The problem of time correlation and pollen zonation of the Eemian is discussed. The climatic analysis itself is based on an improved version of the indicator species method. In this version not every site is analysed for its climatic values. Instead maps and tables on the migrational history of Hedera, Ilex, Buxus, Abies and species of Acer, Tilia and Abies are the basis for climatic maps showing respectively January and July isotherms for the periods of the Corylus zone (E4a) and the Carpinus zone (E5). It is concluded that mean January temperatures were as much as 3°C higher at Amsterdam (The Netherlands), than at present, and mean temperatures in July were 2°C higher. However, the thermal maximum in winter was later (zone E5) than the summer thermal maximum (zone E4a). Winter temperatures changed parallel to rise and fall of global sea-level. Precipitation changes are more difficult to estimate. In the first part of the Eemian precipitation must have been relatively low, but from zone E4b onward it increased to higher values, reaching 800 mm and probably substantially more in zones E5 and E6. Hence the Eemian climate was in its beginning relatively more contintental, and later (from E4b onward) more oceanic. However, as compared with the Holocene, the Eemian climate was, generally speaking, more oceanic.

  1. mudo brasileño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Silva-Escobar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un recorrido histórico y crítico acer- ca del cine mudo brasileño y ver las relaciones significantes y significativas que éste mantiene con la modernidad y la cultura brasileña a través de un conjunto de representaciones y discursos que el cine hace circular masiva- mente. Sostengo que con el cine mudo se da inicio a un imaginario social que contribuye a sustentar la matriz civilizadora de la modernidad: indus- trialización, urbanización, tecnología, racionalización.

  2. Guía para la identificación de mamíferos y reptiles marinos de Panamá : Material práctico para la identificación de las principales especies avistadas en Panamá.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Los mamíferos y reptiles marinos, a pesar de ser relativamente frecuentes en nuestras aguas, son animales poco conocidos por el público en general. Esto es debido a que viven en un ambiente tridimensional al cual la mayoría de las personas sólo tiene acceso brevemente y sólo desde la superficie. La habilidad de identificar estos animales a menudo se considera el primer paso para apreciar y comprender la importancia de su conservación. Es también la clave para mejorar nuestro conocimiento acer...

  3. El lago de tota

    OpenAIRE

    Borrero H., José I.

    2012-01-01

    Puesto que el lago de Tola constituye hoy en día la única fuente de abastecimiento de agua para nuestra máxima industria nacional, como es Acerías de Paz del Río, porque esta industria depende en un ciento por ciento del lago de Tota para su desarrollo actual y ensanches futuros, según concepto de sus directivas además por ser este un lugar de incomparable belleza al cual debe dársele la importancia que merece, se ha resuelto escribir estas líneas, en las cuales el lector encontrará esbozados...

  4. PHENOECOLOGY STUDIES ON SOME ANEMOPHILE LIGNEOUS MAGNOLIATAE FROM TIMIŞOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faur

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence show that weather changes in the recent years manifested through warming-up conditions in the spring months in many European regions. Our researches focussed on the blooming phenophasic comparison in eight species of anemophile ligneous Magnoliatae (Acer, Alnus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Morus, Tilia, Ulmus between years 1950-1959 and 2000-2002. Studies show that data of season start in ligneous Magnoliatae pollen progressively became more early in the last 50 years as a response to climate changes.

  5. Archaeological Investigations at the North Cove, Site Harlan County Lake, Harlan County, Nebraska: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    hazelnut Populus cf. balsamifera balsam poplar Populus cf. tremuloides quaking aspen Acer neaundo boxelder Cornus cf. canadensis bunchber ry CraC. ovata...Physalis hederifolia ground cherry Solanum Interius nightshade Lygopus- Mentha L. americanus bugleweed M. arvensis mint Stachys tj S. palustris hedge...Salix 1.7 0.6 0.7 Corylus 0.3 0.8 0.5 Populus balsamifera 1.0 0.8 1.6 Populus tremuloides 2.4 2.9 2.6 Ac9 negundo 1.0 0.2 0.5 C cf. canadensis 0.0 0.0 0.2

  6. Fungi and pests of woody plants in the Botanical Garden of Vilnius University

    OpenAIRE

    Grigaliūnaitė, Banga

    2011-01-01

    2003–2011 m. Vilniaus universiteto Botanikos sode tirta 45 genčių sumedėjusių augalų fitosanitarinė būklė. Nustatytos 109 grybų rūšys. Plačiau išplitę ir kiekvienais metais aptinkami yra patogeniniai Diaphorte, Diplodia, Exobasidium, Erysiphe, Gymnosporangium, Guignardia, Laphodermium, Mycosphaerella, Monilinia, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Plasmopara, Rhytisma, Thedgonia genčių grybai ir kenkėjai lapinukai (Phyllobius). Labiausiai pažeidžiami šių genčių augalai: Acer, Aesculus,...

  7. Liquidus Temperature of SrO-Al2O3-SiO2 Glass-Forming Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abel, Brett M.; Morgan, James M.; Mauro, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the important role of strontium aluminosilicate glasses in various technologies, there is no available phase diagram for this ternary system in the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database. Establishing the liquidus surface (liquidus temperature Tliq and primary devitrification phase...... with the phase diagrams for CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 and MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 systems, we have found that for the highest [RO]/[Al2O3] ratios, Tliq exhibits a minimum value for R = Ca. Based on the phase diagram established here, the composition of glass materials, for example, for liquid crystal display substrates, belonging...

  8. CRE answer to the European Commission public consultation on the new electricity market design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Philippe de

    2015-01-01

    On July 15, 2015, the European Commission launched a public consultation on the new Electricity Market Design. All National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs), and CRE in particular, contributed to the joint ACER-CEER response to the consultation. CRE supports this joint response, and further develops some topics in this document, building on its particular experience in the implementation of the internal energy market: implementation of the network codes, in particular those regarding the markets, development of demand-side flexibility, development of interconnections, and alignment of fragmented balancing markets

  9. Inventário de macroliquens epífitos sobre árvores utilizadas na arborização urbana em Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil: Subsídio para biomonitoramento urbano

    OpenAIRE

    Sionara Eliasaro; Patrícia Wolf Veiga; Cristine Gobel Donha; Lucas Nogueira

    2009-01-01

    Foi analisada a composição de comunidades de macroliquens epífitos sobre as seguintes espécies arbόreas utilizadas na arborização urbana em Curitiba: Acer negundo, Lagerstroemia indica, Ligustrum lucidum, Parapiptadenia rigida, Cassia leptophylla, Syagrus romanzoffian, Tabebuia alba, Tabebuia chrysotricha, Tabebuia heptaphylla e Tipuana tipu. Registrou-se um total de 84 espécies, sendo 14 citadas pela primeira vez para o estado do Paraná e Flavoparmelia soredians citada pela primeira vez para...

  10. Stomatal acclimation to vapour pressure deficit doubles transpiration of small tree seedlings with warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchin, Renée M.; Broadhead, Alice A.; Bostic, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Future climate change is expected to increase temperature (T) and atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) in many regions, but the effect of persistent warming on plant stomatal behaviour is highly uncertain. We investigated the effect of experimental warming of 1.9-5.1 °C and increased VPD of 0...... chamber VPD. Warming increased mean water use of Carya by 140% and Quercus by 150%, but had no significant effect on water use of Acer. Increased water use of ring-porous species was attributed to (1) higher air T and (2) stomatal acclimation to VPD resulting in higher gs and more sensitive stomata...

  11. ANALISIS EKUITAS MEREK LAPTOP PADA MAHASISWA INSTITUT PERTANIAN BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujang Sumarwan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The brand has role in bridging between consumer’s expectations and company’s promises. Prestigious brand can be said that it has strong brand equity. This research had objective to analyze brand equity of laptop product among students of Bogor Agricultural University. Meanwhile, this research had detail purposes are: (1 to analyze usage behavior of laptop product, (2 to analyze brand equity elements (brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, and brand loyalty among students of Bogor Agricultural University, and (3 to find out the correlation between top of mind and laptop brand that used by students of Bogor Agricultural University. This research used cross sectional study design with total sample were 200 students. The determination of total samples in each faculty used proportional sampling. The process to select sample was executed by convenience sampling that was selection of  the samples based on availability to fill up the questionnaire and interview that appropriated with the quota in each faculty. The brand of laptop that most used and possessed is Acer. The most possessed of laptop by sample during 10 months until 18 months. The most way of buying laptop was bought by parents in new product. On the brand awareness elements of brand product, Acer generally get the better spot then followed by Toshiba, HP Compaq, and Axioo. The testing of brand association with using Cochran test showedthat the smallest association was obtained to Acer brand. It caused the other brand, such as Toshiba, HP Compaq, and Axioo hadall associations that adhere to consumers. The perceived quality that was tested by Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI, referred that index satisfaction of samples about Acer, Toshiba, and Axioo brand had satisfied level. Meanwhile, the samples that used HP Compaq had very satisfied level. The Importance Performance Analysis (IPA showed that only Toshiba brand that was the most excellent in which none atribute which

  12. Final Environmental Assessment, Conversion of Forest Land to Road Right-of-Way, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    devorpmI-imeS tnerruC yradnuoB esaB 000,4000,3000,2000,10 teeF Wattendorf Memorial Hwy E012005024ATL\\Tree115.ai Figure 2-3 Conversion of Forest Land...devorpmI-imeS tnerruC 000,4000,3000,2000,10 teeF Wattendorf Memorial Hwy E012005024ATL\\Tree116.ai Figure 2-4 Conversion of Forest Land to Road Right-of...maples (Acer spp.), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum), and blueberries (Vaccinium spp.). 3.4.4 Sensitive Species

  13. Comparison of leaf water use efficiency of oak and sycamore in the canopy over two growing seasons

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Victoria J.; Morecroft, Michael D.; Morison, James I.L.

    2010-01-01

    The seasonal trends in water use efficiency of sun and shade leaves of mature oak (Quercus robur) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) trees were assessed in the upper canopy of an English woodland. Intrinsic water use efficiency (net CO2 assimilation rate/leaf conductance, A/g) was measured by gas exchange and inferred from C isotope discrimination (δ13C) methods. Shade leaves had consistently lower δ13C than sun leaves (by 1–2‰), the difference being larger in sycamore. Buds had distinct sun ...

  14. Role of six European tree species and land-use legacy for nitrogen and water budgets in forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis Christiansen, Jesper; Vesterdal, Lars; Callesen, Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    -year-old common garden design with stands of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior), European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) replicated at two sites...... leaching of N was significantly higher at Mattrup than at Vallø. Accordingly, the sites differed in soil properties in relation to rates and dynamics of N cycling. We conclude that tree species affect the N cycle differently but the legacy of land use exerted a dominant control on the N cycle within...

  15. Mitochondrial function is altered in horse atypical myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Hélène; Boemer, François; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Amory, Hélène; Baise, Etienne; Cassart, Dominique; van Loon, Gunther; Marcillaud-Pitel, Christel; Votion, Dominique-M

    2016-09-01

    Equine atypical myopathy in Europe is a fatal rhabdomyolysis syndrome that results from the ingestion of hypoglycin A contained in seeds and seedlings of Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple). Acylcarnitine concentrations in serum and muscle OXPHOS capacity were determined in 15 atypical myopathy cases. All but one acylcarnitine were out of reference range and mitochondrial respiratory capacity was severely decreased up to 49% as compared to 10 healthy controls. The hallmark of atypical myopathy thus consists of a severe alteration in the energy metabolism including a severe impairment in muscle mitochondrial respiration that could contribute to its high death rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Responsabilidade civil do Estado por omissão estatal

    OpenAIRE

    Hupffer,Haide Maria; Naime,Roberto; Adolfo,Luiz Gonzaga Silva; Corrêa,Iose Luciane Machado

    2012-01-01

    Constituição Federal de 1988 é um divisor de águas ao assumir-se como Constituição Ambiental, provocando uma ruptura em relação ao conceito de responsabilidade civil. Partindo de uma abordagem qualitativa, dialética e jurisprudencial, este artigo analisa o Princípio Responsabilidade desenvolvido por hans jonas e realiza um diálogo com o instituto da responsabilidade civil ambiental, identificando, com apoio na legislação constitucional e infraconstitucional, as controvérsias doutrinárias acer...

  17. Resistencia a la compresión y reología de cementantes ambientalmente amigables

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Lizarazo Marriaga; Peter Claisse

    2009-01-01

    Siendo la producción de cemento responsable de aproximadamente el 9% de la producción industrial de gases de invernadero, y en pro de generar materiales alternativos, en este artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación encaminada a de- sarrollar cementantes que potencialmente representen una alternativa ambientalmente sostenible en la construcción civil. Com- binaciones de escoria granulada de alto horno, escoria de acería obtenida mediante un proceso de oxígeno básico, polvo ...

  18. Predicting the potential distribution in China of Euwallacea fornicates (Eichhoff) under current and future climate conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Xuezhen; Jiang, Chao; Chen, Linghong; Qiu, Shuang; Zhao, Yuxiang; Wang, Tao; Zong, Shixiang

    2017-01-01

    Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) is an important forest pest that has caused serious damage in America and Vietnam. In 2014, it attacked forests of Acer trialatum in the Yunnan province of China, creating concern in China?s Forestry Bureau. We used the CLIMEX model to predict and compare the potential distribution for E. fornicates in China under current (1981?2010) and projected climate conditions (2011?2040) using one scenario (RCP8.5) and one global climate model (GCM), CSIRO-Mk3-6-0. Unde...

  19. Screening for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease: Comparison of the Italian Versions of Three Neuropsychological Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Federico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is frequent in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Recently proposed criteria for MCI in PD (PD-MCI indicate level I diagnosis based on abbreviated assessment and level II based on comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. The study explored the sensitivity and specificity of the Italian versions of three neuropsychological tests for level I diagnosis of PD-MCI. We recruited 100 consecutive PD patients. After screening for inclusion criteria, 43 patients were included. The sensitivity and specificity of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, and the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R in comparison to level II diagnosis of PD-MCI were examined. PD-MCI was diagnosed (level II in 51% of patients. Disease duration was significantly longer and PD motor scales were more severely impaired in MCI group. The receiver-operator characteristics curve documented nonsignificant difference in the performance of the three tests, with slight advantage of MMSE (corrected data. The time of administration favored MMSE. In Italian-speaking PD patients, MMSE might represent a good screening tool for PD-MCI, because of the shorter time of administration and the performance comparable to those of MoCA and ACE-R. Further studies are needed to validate the new PD-MCI criteria across different languages and cultures.

  20. Host preferences and differential contributions of deciduous tree species shape mycorrhizal species richness in a mixed Central European forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Christa; Seven, Jasmin; Polle, Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Mycorrhizal species richness and host ranges were investigated in mixed deciduous stands composed of Fagus sylvatica, Tilia spp., Carpinus betulus, Acer spp., and Fraxinus excelsior. Acer and Fraxinus were colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizas and contributed 5% to total stand mycorrhizal fungal species richness. Tilia hosted similar and Carpinus half the number of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal taxa compared with Fagus (75 putative taxa). The relative abundance of the host tree the EM fungal richness decreased in the order Fagus > Tilia > Carpinus. After correction for similar sampling intensities, EM fungal species richness of Carpinus was still about 30-40% lower than that of Fagus and Tilia. About 10% of the mycorrhizal species were shared among the EM forming trees; 29% were associated with two host tree species and 61% with only one of the hosts. The latter group consisted mainly of rare EM fungal species colonizing about 20% of the root tips and included known specialists but also putative non-host associations such as conifer or shrub mycorrhizas. Our data indicate that EM fungal species richness was associated with tree identity and suggest that Fagus secures EM fungal diversity in an ecosystem since it shared more common EM fungi with Tilia and Carpinus than the latter two among each other.

  1. Methods to Improve Survival and Growth of Planted Alternative Species Seedlings in Black Ash Ecosystems Threatened by Emerald Ash Borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Bolton

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerald ash borer (EAB continues to spread across North America, infesting native ash trees and changing the forested landscape. Black ash wetland forests are severely affected by EAB. As black ash wetland forests provide integral ecosystem services, alternative approaches to maintain forest cover on the landscape are needed. We implemented simulated EAB infestations in depressional black ash wetlands in the Ottawa National Forest in Michigan to mimic the short-term and long-term effects of EAB. These wetlands were planted with 10 alternative tree species in 2013. Based on initial results in the Michigan sites, a riparian corridor in the Superior Municipal Forest in Wisconsin was planted with three alternative tree species in 2015. Results across both locations indicate that silver maple (Acer saccharinum L., red maple (Acer rubrum L., American elm (Ulmus americana L., and northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L. are viable alternative species to plant in black ash-dominated wetlands. Additionally, selectively planting on natural or created hummocks resulted in two times greater survival than in adjacent lowland sites, and this suggests that planting should be implemented with microsite selection or creation as a primary control. Regional landowners and forest managers can use these results to help mitigate the canopy and structure losses from EAB and maintain forest cover and hydrologic function in black ash-dominated wetlands after infestation.

  2. Elemental concentrations in deposited dust on leaves along an urbanization gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Edina; Baranyai, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Cserháti, Csaba; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2014-08-15

    Environmental health is an essential component of the quality of life in modern societies. Monitoring of environmental quality and the assessment of environmental risks are often species based on the elemental concentration of deposited dust. Our result suggested that stomata size and distribution were the most important factors influencing the accumulation of air contaminants in leaves. We found that the leaves' surfaces of Acer negundo and Celtis occidentalis were covered by a large number of trichomes, and these species have proven to be suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution difficult; these can be overcome using bioindicator species. Leaves of Padus serotina, Acer campestre, A. negundo, Quercus robur and C. occidentalis were used to assess the amount of deposited dust and the concentration of contaminants in deposited dust in and around the city of Debrecen, Hungary. Samples were collected from an urban, suburban and rural area along an urbanization gradient. The concentrations of Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sr and Zn were determined in deposited dust using ICP-OES. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to explore the morphological structure and dust absorbing capacity of leaves. We found significant differences in dust deposition among species, and dust deposition correlated with trichomes' density. Principal component analysis (PCA) also showed a total separation of tree. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. New and remarkable microfungi in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Christiaans, B; Brassmann, M; Balakirew, S

    2004-01-01

    During our investigation on microfungi in North Rhine Westphalia in the years 2002 and 2003 we were able to collect and identify some new and rare species of microfungi as parasites and saprophytes on wild and ornamental plants. Some of these like Erysiphe elevata (BURILL.) U. BRAUN & S. TAKAMATSU COMB. NOV. [=Microsphaera elevata BURILL.] on Catalpa bignonioides WALT., Erysiphe syringae-japonicae (U. BRAUN) U. BRAUN & S. TAKAMATSU [= Microsphaera syringae-japonicae U. BRAUN, M. aceris BUNKINA. KOMAROVSKIE CHTENIYA, Erysiphe acerina U. BRAUN & S. TAKAMATSU] on Acer campestre L. and Acer barinerve L., Mycosphaerella iridis (DESM.) SCHROET., Ectostroma iridis FR. and Volutella melaloma BERK. & BR on Iris pseudacorus L., Puccinia doronicella P. SYD. & SYD. on Doronicum columnae TEN., Ascochyta lamiorum SACC. S.L. I=A. phlomidis BUB. & WROB.) on Phlomis tuberosa L., Colletotrichum gloeosporides (PENZ.) SACC. on Passiflora coerulea L., Oidium hortensiae JOERST on Hydrangea macrophylla (THUNB.) SER., Puccinia horiana P. HENN. on Chrysanthemum vulgare (L.) BERNH., Lophodermium pinastri (SCHRAD.) CHEV., Leptostroma pinorum SACC., Sclerophoma pythiophila (CDA) HOHN., Lichenoconium boreale (KARST.) PETRAK. & SYD., Anthostomella formosa KIRSCHST. and Sphaeropsis sapinae (FR.) DYKO & SUTTON on Pinus nigra L. are new for Germany. All samples are located in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha.

  4. An expert botanical feature extraction technique based on phenetic features for identifying plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshang Kolivand

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new method to recognise the leaf type and identify plant species using phenetic parts of the leaf; lobes, apex and base detection. Most of the research in this area focuses on the popular features such as the shape, colour, vein, and texture, which consumes large amounts of computational processing and are not efficient, especially in the Acer database with a high complexity structure of the leaves. This paper is focused on phenetic parts of the leaf which increases accuracy. Detecting the local maxima and local minima are done based on Centroid Contour Distance for Every Boundary Point, using north and south region to recognise the apex and base. Digital morphology is used to measure the leaf shape and the leaf margin. Centroid Contour Gradient is presented to extract the curvature of leaf apex and base. We analyse 32 leaf images of tropical plants and evaluated with two different datasets, Flavia, and Acer. The best accuracy obtained is 94.76% and 82.6% respectively. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique without considering the commonly used features with high computational cost.

  5. Allometric biomass equations for 12 tree species in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaijiang; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Fousseni, Folega; Wang, Jinsong; Dai, Haijun; Yang, Song; Zuo, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Understanding forest carbon budget and dynamics for sustainable resource management and ecosystem functions requires quantification of above- and below-ground biomass at individual tree species and stand levels. In this study, a total of 122 trees (9-12 per species) were destructively sampled to determine above- and below-ground biomass of 12 tree species (Acer mandshuricum, Acer mono, Betula platyphylla, Carpinus cordata, Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, Maackia amurensis, P. koraiensis, Populus ussuriensis, Quercus mongolica, Tilia amurensis and Ulmus japonica) in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests of Northeastern China, an area of the largest natural forest in the country. Biomass allocation was examined and biomass models were developed using diameter as independent variable for individual tree species and all species combined. The results showed that the largest biomass allocation of all species combined was on stems (57.1%), followed by coarse root (21.3%), branch (18.7%), and foliage (2.9%). The log-transformed model was statistically significant for all biomass components, although predicting power was higher for species-specific models than for all species combined, general biomass models, and higher for stems, roots, above-ground biomass, and total tree biomass than for branch and foliage biomass. These findings supplement the previous studies on this forest type by additional sample trees, species and locations, and support biomass research on forest carbon budget and dynamics by management activities such as thinning and harvesting in the northeastern part of China.

  6. Cognitive function in schizophrenia and its association with socio-demographics factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti T Talreja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric illness consisting primarily of positive and negative symptoms. However, cognitive deficits in various domains have been consistently replicated in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and to correlate the same with sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods: Cognitive function in 100 patients with schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM IV-TR criteria attending the psychiatry outpatient department (OPD of Department of Psychiatry, SBKS MIRC was assessed using Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination Revised (ACER rating scale and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and sociodemographic details was obtained using semistructured proforma. Data was analyzed by Chi-square and t-test. Results: About 70% patients of schizophrenia were found to have cognitive dysfunction for attention, concentration, memory, language, and executive function. Positive symptoms were associated with memory (P2 years and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with impairment in two domains of ACER: Language and memory. Conclusion: The study findings depict that persistent cognitive deficits are seen in patients with schizophrenia. Its correlation with sociodemographic factors showed that patients with >2 years of illness and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with language and memory impairment. Our study recommends that the neurocognitive impairment should be included in the DSM-V diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.

  7. The use of cerebroprotein hydrolysate in dementia: A case series of 25 cases seen in a tertiary general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosam Phirke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebroprotein hydrolysate (Cerebrolysin is a pharmacological and neurotrophic agent that has been used widely in the management of various forms of dementia. Purpose: The present paper presents a retrospective chart review of 25 patients with dementia visiting a tertiary general hospital psychiatry unit who received cerebroprotein hydrolysate as an add on treatment for dementia. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients were administered 20 doses of cerebroprotein hydrolysate intravenously at a dose of 60 mg in 250 ml normal saline over 1-2 h after a test dose on 20 consecutive days. The cognitive assessment was done before the first injection and after the last dose using the Adenbrook′s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACER and the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE. Results: There was significant improvement in scores on the ACER and MMSE, although the final scores remained in the dementia range. None of the patients experienced any major side effects. Conclusions: Cerebroprotein thus is a useful pharmacological option in the management of dementia and warrants further study and exploration.

  8. Phase Equilibria and Crystallography of Ceramic Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Ng, W; Roth, R S; Vanderah, T A; McMurdie, H F

    2001-01-01

    Research in phase equilibria and crystallography has been a tradition in the Ceramics Division at National Bureau of Standards/National Institute of Standatrds and Technology (NBS/NIST) since the early thirties. In the early years, effort was concentrated in areas of Portland cement, ceramic glazes and glasses, instrument bearings, and battery materials. In the past 40 years, a large portion of the work was related to electronic materials, including ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, ionic conductors, dielectrics, microwave dielectrics, and high-temperature superconductors. As a result of the phase equilibria studies, many new compounds have been discovered. Some of these discoveries have had a significant impact on US industry. Structure determinations of these new phases have often been carried out as a joint effort among NBS/NIST colleagues and also with outside collaborators using both single crystal and neutron and x-ray powder diffraction techniques. All phase equilibria diagrams were included in Phase Diagrams for Ceramists, which are collaborative publications between The American Ceramic Society (ACerS) and NBS/NIST. All x-ray powder diffraction patterns have been included in the Powder Diffraction File (PDF). This article gives a brief account of the history of the development of the phase equilibria and crystallographic research on ceramic oxides in the Ceramics Division. Represented systems, particularly electronic materials, are highlighted.

  9. Tree Species Identity Shapes Earthworm Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schelfhout

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are key organisms in forest ecosystems because they incorporate organic material into the soil and affect the activity of other soil organisms. Here, we investigated how tree species affect earthworm communities via litter and soil characteristics. In a 36-year old common garden experiment, replicated six times over Denmark, six tree species were planted in blocks: sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus, beech (Fagus sylvatica, ash (Fraxinus excelsior, Norway spruce (Picea abies, pedunculate oak (Quercus robur and lime (Tilia cordata. We studied the chemical characteristics of soil and foliar litter, and determined the forest floor turnover rate and the density and biomass of the earthworm species occurring in the stands. Tree species significantly affected earthworm communities via leaf litter and/or soil characteristics. Anecic earthworms were abundant under Fraxinus, Acer and Tilia, which is related to calcium-rich litter and low soil acidification. Epigeic earthworms were indifferent to calcium content in leaf litter and were shown to be mainly related to soil moisture content and litter C:P ratios. Almost no earthworms were found in Picea stands, likely because of the combined effects of recalcitrant litter, low pH and low soil moisture content.

  10. Distribution and trends of mercury in deciduous tree cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwik, Eden I.H.; Campbell, Linda M.; Mierle, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of total mercury (THg) within common deciduous trees and the applicability of tree cores as biomonitors of historical environmental THg trends were assessed for both contaminated and reference sites around Kingston, Ontario. Samples were collected from Acer spp., Quercus spp. Populus spp. and Salix spp. Bark and wood THg concentrations were found to be highly correlated whereas soil and wood THg concentrations were not. There were no temporal relationships for THg in dated tree rings corresponding with any other known environmental Hg trends. The shoreline speciess, Populus and Salix spp., had the greatest bark and wood Hg concentrations reaching 18 ng/g, significantly higher than for inland trees Quercus and Acer spp. with maximum values of 7 and 1.2 ng/g for bark and wood respectively. While tree cores cannot be reliably used as temporal THg biomonitors, there is promise for tree species such as Populus spp and Salix spp as spatial indicators of local long-term Hg contamination. - Total mercury trends in several deciduous trees did not follow expected environmental trends. Shoreline species (willow and popular) had higher wood THg than inland species (oak and maple).

  11. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  12. La reconversión industrial de la siderúrgica integrada en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Carolina Barreto Bernal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La reconversión industrial en Colombia tiene su origen como iniciativa política, buscando modernizar y preparar su aparato productivo, ante la entrada de competidores atraídos por el cambio de modelo económico. Los autores pretenden explicar los principales cambios y transformaciones surgidas en el proceso de reconversión industrial del país, particularmente el caso de Acerías Paz del Río, mediante la implementación de un método hermenéutico y la técnica de análisis documental. Como resultado de la revisión se puede establecer que los procesos de reconversión están relacionados con las formas de gestión organizacional y la disposición de la estructura de capital de la empresa. Para la empresa Acerías el proceso de reconversión resultaría importante para apalancar su perdurabilidad, no obstante las dificultades a las cuales tuvo que hacer frente la gestión de la compañía.

  13. Simulation and Effectiveness Analysis on One versus One Beyond Visual Range Air Combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyu Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of one versus one beyond visual range (BVR air combat model has been established, which includes functional models of radar, missile and fighter and the process of several combat stages. Air combat effectiveness ratio (ACER is defined to analyse the result. The 2k factor design method is used to design combat test case and analyses the influence of three factors (fighter stealth character, missile range and flight height on ACER. Simulation result reveals that when RCS of one fighter is reduced from 0dBm2 to -10dBm2 which cannot remarkably affect the opposition fighter’s radar detection distance and missile launch distance, the RCS factor has small influence and the missile range factor has great influence. When RCS of one fighter is reduced from -10dBm2 to -20dBm2, the opposition fighter’s radar detection distance will be reduced and lead the result of its missile launch distance be less than its missile range. Compared with the former case, the effect of RCS factor increases and the effect of missile range factor decreases. However, the effect of height is not significant.

  14. RANCANGAN SISTEM PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN DALAM MENENTUKAN PILIHAN PRODUK LAPTOP MENGGUNAKAN METODE SIMPLE ADDITIVE WEIGHT (SAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Susilowati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan perkembangan zaman, kebutuhan masyarakatpun semakin meningkat. Begitu pula dengan kebutuhan akan teknologi.Teknologi diciptakan  untuk memberi kemudahan kepada manusia, salah satu contohnya adalah Laptop (komputer jinjing. Perkembangan produk laptop pada saat ini sudah berkembang begitu pesat dan banyak sekali persaingan. Banyaknya produk laptop yang ditawarkan, akan membuat konsumen bingung dalam hal pemilihan produk. Konsumen akan lebih selektif dan teliti untuk memutuskan dan kemudian membeli dari beberapa pilihan produk laptop yang ada. Untuk membantu konsumen dalam menentukan pilihan produk laptop, maka dibutuhkan sebuah sistem pengambilan keputusan menggunakan FMADM (Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decission Making dengan metode SAW (Simple additive Weight. Metode ini digunakan untuk menentukan sebuah alternatif pilihan berdasarkan bobot dan kriteria yang sudah ditentukan. Kemudian dilakukan proses perankingan yang akan menentukan alternatif yang terbaik, yaitu produk laptop yang sesuai dengan keinginan konsumen. Dalam penelitian ini, diberikan 4 alternatif pilihan produk laptop yaitu Laptop merk Acer, Toshiba, Asus dan HP. Setelah dilakukan proses normalisasi untuk tiap – tiap kriteria, dan perkalian hasil normalisasi dengan bobot untuk setiap kriteria, maka didapatkan  produk Laptop merk Acer sebagai produk pilihan karena mempunyai niali akhir terbasar yaitu 0,91.

  15. An expert botanical feature extraction technique based on phenetic features for identifying plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivand, Hoshang; Fern, Bong Mei; Rahim, Mohd Shafry Mohd; Sulong, Ghazali; Baker, Thar; Tully, David

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to recognise the leaf type and identify plant species using phenetic parts of the leaf; lobes, apex and base detection. Most of the research in this area focuses on the popular features such as the shape, colour, vein, and texture, which consumes large amounts of computational processing and are not efficient, especially in the Acer database with a high complexity structure of the leaves. This paper is focused on phenetic parts of the leaf which increases accuracy. Detecting the local maxima and local minima are done based on Centroid Contour Distance for Every Boundary Point, using north and south region to recognise the apex and base. Digital morphology is used to measure the leaf shape and the leaf margin. Centroid Contour Gradient is presented to extract the curvature of leaf apex and base. We analyse 32 leaf images of tropical plants and evaluated with two different datasets, Flavia, and Acer. The best accuracy obtained is 94.76% and 82.6% respectively. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique without considering the commonly used features with high computational cost.

  16. An expert botanical feature extraction technique based on phenetic features for identifying plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Bong Mei; Rahim, Mohd Shafry Mohd; Sulong, Ghazali; Baker, Thar; Tully, David

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to recognise the leaf type and identify plant species using phenetic parts of the leaf; lobes, apex and base detection. Most of the research in this area focuses on the popular features such as the shape, colour, vein, and texture, which consumes large amounts of computational processing and are not efficient, especially in the Acer database with a high complexity structure of the leaves. This paper is focused on phenetic parts of the leaf which increases accuracy. Detecting the local maxima and local minima are done based on Centroid Contour Distance for Every Boundary Point, using north and south region to recognise the apex and base. Digital morphology is used to measure the leaf shape and the leaf margin. Centroid Contour Gradient is presented to extract the curvature of leaf apex and base. We analyse 32 leaf images of tropical plants and evaluated with two different datasets, Flavia, and Acer. The best accuracy obtained is 94.76% and 82.6% respectively. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique without considering the commonly used features with high computational cost. PMID:29420568

  17. ANALYSIS POSITIONING OF NOTEBOOK PRODUCED BY HEWLETT PACKARD (HP IN BALI PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Sri Ariyani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays notebook is not a luxurious thing any more, but has been one of  the things that should be obligatorily owned by high school student, university student, and practitioners. The competition among the notebooks has been getting tight. The reason is that they have been produced with almost similar attributes, qualities, and design but different prices. This study aims at (1 identifying the similarity between the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp and those produced by its competitors such as, IBM, Sony, Acer and Toshiba, (2 identifying the consumers perception of the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp and of those produced by its competitors, (3 identifying what is the superiority of the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp compared with the superiority of those produced by its competitors, and (4 identifying what strategy is relevant in strengthening the positioning of the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp. The samples were determined by purposive sampling, and the respondents employed totaled 100 spreading over Denpasar City. To achieve maximum result, Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS was applied as the instrument of analysis to identify the similarity among the notebooks and Correspondence Analysis (CA was employed as the instrument of analysis to identify the superiority of each variable of every notebook. The result of the study show that the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp is perceived to resemble those produced by IBM, Sony, and Toshiba. This means that the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp competes against those produced by IBM, Sony, and Toshiba, and that it does not compete against that produced by Acer. The notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp is superior in the variables of product varieties, post sales, distribution channels, and promotion. The notebook produced by IBM superior in the variable product quality, while that produced by Sony is superior in the variable of product  design

  18. Constructing post-carbon institutions: Assessing EU carbon reduction efforts through an institutional risk governance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBelle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines three different governance approaches the European Union (EU) and Member States (MS) are relying on to reach a low carbon economy by 2050. Current governance literature explains the operational methods of the EU's new governance approach to reduce carbon emissions. However, the literature neglects to account for the perceived risks that inhibit the roll-out of new low carbon technology. This article, through a novel approach, uses a grounded theoretical framework to reframe traditional risk literature and provides a connection to governance literature in order to assess the ability of EU governance mechanisms to reduce carbon emissions. The empirical research is based on responses from European energy stakeholders who participated in a Delphi method discussion and in semi-structured interviews; these identified three essential requirements for carbon emissions to be reduced to near zero by 2050: (1) an integrated European energy network, (2) carbon pricing and (3) demand reduction. These features correspond to institutionalized responses by the EU and MS: the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER); European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and energy efficiency directives and policies integrated into existing MS institutions. The theoretical and empirical findings suggest that governance by facilitation (energy efficiency) fails to induce significant investment and new policy approaches and cannot be relied on to achieve requisite reductions in demand. Governance by negotiation (ACER) and governance by hierarchy (EU ETS) do reduce risks and may encourage the necessary technological uptake. The term ‘risk governance’ is used to explain the important role governance plays in reducing risks and advancing new technology and thereby lowering carbon emissions in the energy sector. - Highlights: ► This article assesses the role of EU institutions in reducing carbon emissions by 2050. ► Empirical research is based on Delphi

  19. The effects of vermicompost products on the germination of the seeds of some forest trees and shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sezgin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to pre-treat the seeds in order to overcome the germination inhibition. In addition to this pre-treatment, germination inhibition should be overcome in vitro conditions. In this study, the seeds of Robinia pseudoacacia L, Pinus nigra J.F Arnold, Pinus sylvestris L, Acer negundo L, Capparis sipinosa L and Lycium europaeum L were treated with various concentrations of vermicompost tea for germination. It was observed that the seeds incubated for four weeks had better germination than those not in the vermicompost environment. Vermicompost and its products, which affect germination positively, have been proved to be both practical and useful product that can be used in nursery studies.

  20. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Vidic, Andreas; Bogyó, Dávid; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2011-05-01

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. STUDY ON POLLEN VIABILITY AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina ŞTEFLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the relationship between pollen viability and atmospheric pollution (in polluted and non-polluted conditions. The study was carried out in the city of Timisoara. Two areas, with different intensity of road traffic (very high and absent but all characterized by the presence of the same plant species, were selected. The pollen of herbaceous spontaneous species, arboreal species and a shrub species was used (Robinia pseudacacia, Aesculus x carnea, Catalpa bignonioides, Albizzia julibrissin, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Malva neglecta, Ranunculus acer, Trifolium repens, Cichorium intybus. The pollen of these species was treated with TTC (2, 3, 5 Tryphenil-Tetrazolium-Chloride staining solution and viability was then estimated by light microscopy. The results of the mean pollen viability percentage of the examined species are reported. Pollen viability of herbaceous plants is significantly different between the two environments.

  2. Detection of Inulin, a Prebiotic Polysaccharide, in Maple Syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiadong; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P; Rowley, David C

    2016-09-28

    Maple syrup is a widely consumed plant-derived natural sweetener produced by concentrating xylem sap collected from certain maple (Acer) species. During thermal evaporation of water, natural phytochemical components are concentrated in maple syrup. The polymeric components from maple syrup were isolated by ethanol precipitation, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography and structurally characterized by glycosyl composition analysis, glycosyl linkage analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Among the maple syrup polysaccharides, one neutral polysaccharide was characterized as inulin with a broad molecular weight distribution, representing the first isolation of this prebiotic carbohydrate from a xylem sap. In addition, two acidic polysaccharides with structural similarity were identified as arabinogalactans derived from rhamnogalacturonan type I pectic polysaccharides.

  3. Fossil plants from Romanian deposits of Bacles, Dolj District, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae T̡icleanu

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available From the Middle Romanian lacustrine deposits of the Oltenia province, the authors describe the youngest fossil flora known until now in Oltenia. The inventory of the fossil flora includes the following taxa: Taxodium dubium, ?Platanus platanifolia, Ulmus laevis, Quercus roburoides, Q. cf. muehlenbergii, Carya serraefolia, Acer cf. tricuspidatum and Salix sp. In the Bâcleş fossil flora, Glyptostrobus europaeus, which is a thermophilous and shows a high frequency in all Oltenia area till the XV-th coal seam, is absent. Consequently, having in view the high frequency of Taxodium dubium, which indicate temperate climate conditions, the other consider that the fossil flora from Bâcleş is much more younger and marks an important cooling. From palaeofloristic point of view, the study of Bâcleş fossil flora is indicative for river meadow forest and, probably, flat plain forest environments.

  4. Animal and plant remains in a tomb in test-pit 1/05, outside the fortified imperial palace Felix Romuliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the excavations of a tomb located outside the defence walls of the imperial palace, Felix Romuliana, animal and plant remains were collected the analysis of which is the subject of the present study. The faunal remains include the bones and teeth of domestic animals - mule (Equus caballus x Equus asinus, domestic ox (Bos taurus, sheep (Ovis aries, sheep or goat (Ovis/Capra, pig (Sus domesticus and dog (Canis familiaris, a few remains of wild animals - red deer (Cervus elaphus and fox (Vulpes vulpes, and bone of a bird. Until now, no remains of mule have been discovered on sites originating from the classical period at the territory of Serbia. As for plant remains, pieces of carbonized oak wood (Quercus and maple wood (Acer were found, as well as a carbonized seed of a cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera vinifera and a tiny fruit of goosegrass (Galium aparine.

  5. Use of steel slag as a new material for roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Díaz, R.; Romero Farfán, M.; Cardenas, J.; Forero, J.

    2017-12-01

    This research paper aims to analyse the behaviour of MDC-19 hot dense asphalt mixtures with steel slag as coarse aggregate, by using asphalt 80-100, in order to verify if this residue has suitable characteristics that allow its use. The physical and mechanical characterization was accomplished using phosphorous slag from the company Acerías Paz del Río S.A. The working formula was then determined for each mixture using the RAMCODES methodology, the briquettes were produced in the laboratory and then, the design verification was performed. Taking into account the results obtained, it is concluded that the use of phosphorous slag as coarse aggregate in asphalt mixtures is workable, since acceptable design parameters and verification are obtained that meet the specifications for use as a rolling layer.

  6. New contribution in the study of the Pontian flora from Batoti (Mehedinti county

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    Florina Diaconu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In Early Pontian deposits from Batoţi (Mehedinţi county has been described a macroflora formed, until now, of 35 taxa, many other being in course of determination. By this paper the floristic epitome is filled with other 10 taxa: Pinus sp. binae, Magnolia sp. aff. M. acuminata Linné, Sassafras subtriloba (Konno Tanai et Onoe, Ostrya sp. aff. O. virginiana (Miller C. Koch, Castanea gigas (Goepp. Iljinsk., Quercus cf. meuhlenbergii Engelmann, Juglans acuminata Al. Braun, Acer tricuspidatum Bronn, A. cf. campestre L. and Berchemia multinervis (Al. Br. Heer. The stage of knowledge of the Pontian flora from Batoţi contains 45 taxa. Trough the listed taxa the degree of confidence of the paleoecologycal and paleophytocenotical rendering grows.

  7. Tree Species Identity Shapes Earthworm Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelfhout, Stephanie; Mertens, Jan; Verheyen, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Earthworms are key organisms in forest ecosystems because they incorporate organic material into the soil and affect the activity of other soil organisms. Here, we investigated how tree species affect earthworm communities via litter and soil characteristics. In a 36-year old common garden...... of soil and foliar litter, and determined the forest floor turnover rate and the density and biomass of the earthworm species occurring in the stands. Tree species significantly affected earthworm communities via leaf litter and/or soil characteristics. Anecic earthworms were abundant under Fraxinus, Acer...... and Tilia, which is related to calcium-rich litter and low soil acidification. Epigeic earthworms were indifferent to calcium content in leaf litter and were shown to be mainly related to soil moisture content and litter C:P ratios. Almost no earthworms were found in Picea stands, likely because...

  8. Karyotypes, B-chromosomes and meiotic abnormalities in 13 populations of Alebra albostriella and A. wahlbergi (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Kuznetsova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work 13 populations of the leafhopper species Alebra albostriella (Fallén, 1826 (6 populations and A. wahlbergi (Boheman, 1845 (7 populations (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae from Greece were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosomal complements and meiosis in 41 males of A. albostriella sampled from Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris and in 21 males of A. wahlbergi sampled from C. sativa, Acer opalus and Ulmus sp. The species were shown to share 2n = 22 + X(0 and male meiosis of the chiasmate preductional type typical for Auchenorrhyncha. In all populations of A. albostriella and in all but two populations of A. wahlbergi B chromosomes and/or different meiotic abnormalities including the end-to-end non-homologous chromosomal associations, translocation chains, univalents, anaphasic laggards besides aberrant sperms were encountered. This study represents the first chromosomal record for the genus Alebra and one of the few population-cytogenetic studies in the Auchenorrhyncha.

  9. Neogene wetland vegetation based on a leaf assemblage from the Bełchatów Lignite Mine (Central Poland

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    Worobiec Grzegorz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Well-preserved leaf macroremains collected in the Bełchatów Lignite Mine (Central Poland were investigated. Fossil leaves of Acer, Dicotylophyllum, Fagus, Eucommia, Laria, Laurophyllum, Liquidambar, Pinus, Populus, Pterocarya, Quercus, Salix, Salvinia, Taxodium, Ulmus, Vitis, and Zelkova, and fossil fruit of Eucommia were found in fossil assemblage KRAM-P 218 formed in a fluvial sedimentary environment. The fossil assemblage is dominated by plant remains of riparian vegetation of bottomland hardwood forest type. Some taxa point to the presence of mesophytic upland communities. The floristic composition points to warm temperate climate with mild winters, comparable to Cfa type (warm temperate, fully humid with hot summer in the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Mean annual temperature of 13.5-16.5°C was reconstructed by the coexistence approach method. Middle to late Miocene age (late Sarmatian to early Pannonian is suggested for the plant-bearing deposits.

  10. What is the $Wb\\bar{b}, Zb\\bar{b}$ or $t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}$ irreducible background to the light Higgs boson searches at LHC?

    CERN Document Server

    Kersevan, Borut P; Kersevan, Borut Paul

    2002-01-01

    The W b anti-b, Z b anti-b and t anti-t b anti-b production at LHC are irreducible backgrounds for possible observability of the Standard Model (SM) and Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) light Higgs boson respectively in the associated WH, ZH and t anti-t H production followed by the H -> b anti-b decay. We present a comparison of the background estimates as obtained with (a) complete massive matrix element implemented in AcerMC Monte Carlo generator and (b) PYTHIA implementation of the inclusive W, Z, and t anti-t production, followed by the parton showering mechanism. Both approaches lead to a production of the final state of interest, but differ in the approximations used. We concentrate on the comparison of these approaches for the background to the light Higgs boson searches at LHC.

  11. Estudi de la viabilitat de l'ús de paviments rígids reforçats amb fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Agustí i Garcia, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Durant els últims anys s’han produït grans avenços en la tecnologia de paviments de formigó que han permès que aquests anessin guanyant força enfront els paviments asfàltics convencionals i que diversos països desenvolupats apostessin per ells en la construcció d’autovies. A més a més, la constant investigació sobre el formigó reforçat amb fibres ha fet que aquest s’anés convertint en una alternativa real al formigó reforçat amb barres d’acer i que el seu ús s’estengués en diverses solucions ...

  12. Plant species evaluated for new crop potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Ninety-two plant species from various regions of the USA were screened for their energy-producing potential. Samples were analysed for oil, polyphenol, hydrocarbon and protein. Oil fractions of some species were analysed for classes of lipid constituents and yields of unsaponifiable matter and fatty acids were determined. Hydrocarbon fractions of some species were analysed for rubber, gutta and waxes. Average MW and MW distribution of rubber and gutta were determined. Complete analytical data for 16 species is presented. Large quantities of oil were obtained from Philadelphus coronarius, Cacalia muhlenbergii, Lindera benzoin and Koelreuteria paniculata. High yields of polyphenols came from Acer ginnala, Cornus obliqua and Salix caprea and maximum yields of hydrocarbon and protein were from Elymus virginicus and Lindera benzoin, respectively.

  13. Contribution of bacterial cell nitrogen to soil humic fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, R.; Barro, L.

    1981-01-01

    Living cells of Serratia marcescens, uniformly labelled with 15 N, were added to samples of maple (Acer saccharum) and black spruce (Picea mariana) forest soils. After different periods of incubation from zero time to 100 days, the soils were subjected to alkali-acid and phenol extraction to provide humic acid, fulvic acid, humin and 'humoprotein' fractions. Significant amounts of the cell nitrogen were recovered in the humic and fulvic acids immediately after addition. After incubation, less cell nitrogen appeared in the humic acid and more in the fulvic acid. The amount of cell nitrogen recovered in the humin fraction increased with incubation. Roughly 5 to 10 per cent of the added cell nitrogen was found as amino acid nitrogen from humoprotein in a phenol extract of the humic acid. The data are consistent with the occurrence of co-precipitation of biologically labile biomass nitrogen compounds with humic polymers during the alkaline extraction procedure involved in the humic-fulvic fractionation. (orig.)

  14. Composition of Atlantic forest in northern Carpathian foothills, from a charcoal record from a Neolithic domestic site at Żerków (Poland: The relevance of oak and hazel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskal-Del Hoyo Magdalena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of firewood remains from the foothills of the Western Carpathians in Poland yielded information about the history of forest communities growing in the vicinity of human settlements in the Atlantic period. The anthracological material was collected at Żerków, a Neolithic site of the Linear Band Pottery culture, situated on the highest parts of a hill covered by fertile soil. The anthracological assemblage was dominated by Quercus and Corylus avellana, followed by Acer and Maloideae, suggesting that those taxa probably were significant constituents of the local forest during the Atlantic period. Based on the ecological requirements of the identified taxa, such communities occupied areas of more open canopy, but it is unclear whether the material reflects the composition of the primeval forest or rather the presence of open canopy created by human impacts on local ecosystems during the period of settlement.

  15. Synthesis of the PHYTENER project. Development of phyto-remediation on soils contaminated by metals for energy purposes: ecologic viability, social interest and economic assessment. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidar, Geraldine; Detriche, Sebastien; Douay, Francis; Fourrier, Herve; Louvel, Brice; Pelfrene, Aurelie; Pourrut, Bertrand; Nsanganwimana, Florien; Pruvot, Christelle; Waterlot, Christophe; Muchembled, Jerome; Comont, Eric; Statnik, Corinne; Demuynck, Sylvain; Grumiaux, Fabien; Lemiere, Sebastien; Lepretre, Alain; Pernin, Celine; Pauwels, Jean-Francois; Therssen, Eric; Deram, Annabelle; Hayet, Audrey; Billet, Sylvain; Firmin, Stephane; Fontaine, Joel; Labidi, Sonia; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Shirali, Pirouz; Tisserand, Benoit; Verdin, Anthony; Cazier, Fabrice; Dorothee, Dewaele; Genevray, Paul; Scheifler, Renaud; Proix, Nicolas; Retailleau, Julien; Richard, Antoine; Blarel, Jacques; Lefevre, Benoit; Billaut, Geoffrey; Cadiere, Frederique; Collet, Bastien; Faure, Olivier; Lamy, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    This publication proposes a synthesis of results obtained within a multi-disciplinary research programme, Phytener, performed between 2009 and 2013. This programme notably considered the case of ancient mining sites and of the associated soil contaminations (by cadmium, lead or zinc), and the study of the use of phyto-technologies for a better management of highly contaminated agricultural spaces. These studies addressed management modes based on phyto-remediation (assisted or not) of cadmium, lead and zinc, with the implication of two biomass production sectors: wood (with the following species: Robinia pseudoacacia, Alnus glutinosa, Quercus ilex and Acer pseudoplatanus) and an herbaceous vegetation (Miscanthus x giganteus). The objective was then to assess the ecologic viability of the proposed management modes, to contribute to a sustainable redevelopment of agriculture, and to give back an economic interest to disqualified agricultural soils while meeting environmental, economic and social demands. Thus, the authors present the experimental approach and discuss the obtained results

  16. Nuclear data evaluation and group constant generation for reactor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Do; Gil, Choong Sup [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-01

    In nuclear or shielding design analysis for reactors including nuclear facilities, nuclear data are one of the primary importances. Research project for nuclear data evaluation and their effective applications has been continuously performed. The objectives of this project are (1) to compile the latest evaluated nuclear data files, (2) to establish their processing code systems, and (3) to evaluate the multigroup constant library using the newly compiled data files and the code systems. As the results of this project, JEF-2.2 which is latest version of Joint Evaluated File developed at OECD/NEA was compiled and COMPLOT and EVALPLOT utility codes were installed in personal computer, which are able to draw ENDF/B-formatted nuclear data for comparison and check. Computer system (NJOY/ACER) for generating continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP library was established and the system was validated by analyzing a number of experimental data. (Author).

  17. Alcohol and epigenetic regulation: Do the products of alcohol metabolism drive epigenetic control of gene expression in alcohol-related disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Hoek, Jan B

    2018-03-13

    Epigenetic regulation, the persistent change in the gene regulatory state following a transient environmental perturbation, has become increasingly prominent in accounting for the consequences of exposure to addictive substances, including alcohol (ethanol). The purpose of this Virtual Issue is to draw attention to some of the recent advances in our understanding of how consumption of alcohol impacts the epigenetic landscape and causes such persistent changes in the regulation of gene expression and cellular function that affect behavior or disease susceptibility well after the alcohol challenge has occurred. Articles that recently appeared in ACER are placed in the context of the broader relevant literature and emerging opportunities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Nave industrial de hormigón dedicada al almacenamiento de muebles

    OpenAIRE

    García Pérez, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Al present projecte s’analitza l’estructura d’una nau industrial de dos pisos situada al polígon industrial de Badalona estudiant, bàsicament, la secció adequada dels pilars. Els materials que s’utilitzaran seran formigó i acer. A més a més s’analitzen les sabates, donant-les unes dimensions que s’adeqüin a les sol·licitacions trobades i compleixin la normativa, seguint la EHE-08. D’altra banda s’estudien les instal·lacions principals de la nau com l’ il·luminació, ventilació, elèctrica...

  19. Lignin-Furfural Based Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajakta Dongre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lignin recovered from the hot-water extract of sugar maple (Acer saccharum is used in this study to synthesize adhesive blends to replace phenol-formaldehyde (PF resin. Untreated lignin is characterized by lignin content and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis. The molecular weight distribution of the lignin and the blends are characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC. The effect of pH (0.3, 0.65 and 1, ex situ furfural, and curing conditions on the tensile properties of adhesive reinforced glass fibers is determined and compared to the reinforcement level of commercially available PF resin. The adhesive blend prepared at pH = 0.65 with no added furfural exhibits the highest tensile properties and meets 90% of the PF tensile strength.

  20. Wood Species Identification, A Challenge of Scientific Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina TIMAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood species identification is an important step in the scientific approach of conservation of the wooden cultural heritage. The paper refers to the microscopic identification of the wooden species for two artisanal objects, investigated for conservation purposes. A previous macroscopic analysis of these objects, after thorough cleaning of the surfaces offered some basic information on the possible wood species involved, but due to the degradation of the support this was not conclusive for some elements of these objects, so that relevant samples were taken out, prepared and investigated. The identified wooden species were: poplar (Populus spp, sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus, fir and beech (Fagus sylvatica. This identification was based on the microscopic keys of wood identification, reference microscopic slides of the respective wood species and microscopic measurements followed by data processing employing the ImageJ software.

  1. Version 2.0 of the European Gas Model. Changes and their impact on the German gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmert, David; Petrov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    In January 2015 ACER, the European Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators, presented an updated version of its target model for the inner-European natural gas market, also referred to as version 2.0 of the Gas Target Model. During 2014 the existing model, originally developed by the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) and launched in 2011, had been analysed, revised and updated in preparation of the new version. While it has few surprises to offer, the new Gas Target Model contains specifies and goes into greater detail on many elements of the original model. Some of the new content is highly relevant to the German gas sector, not least the deliberations on the current key issues, which are security of supply and the ability of the gas markets to function.

  2. Biological observations for invasive and exotic insect species Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Hizal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, invasive and exotic insect species have been frequently found in Turkey. Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771 was first recorded in Şile (Istanbul province county, Turkey, in June 2014 and later in Zeytinburnu (the garden of the Abdi Ipekçi Sports Complex and the surrounding in July in the same year. This study was conducted in these two counties in particular between June 2014 and July 2016 with the aims of making remarks on an earlier misidentification of Anoplophora species and determining the life cycle and the host plants in Istanbul, Turkey. It was noted that the record of A. glabripennis in Istanbul was a misidentification of A. chinensis. It took 1 year to complete its generation. The primary host plant of this insect was found to be Acer negundo.

  3. Aplicabilidad de un concreto de escoria activada alcalinamente como material protector del acero de refuerzo

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson de Jesús Torres Gómez, William A. Aperador Ch., Enrique Vera López,Rubi Mejía de Gutiérrez

    2011-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados del análisis electroquímico de las  barras  de  acero  embebidas  en  un  concreto  no convencional usado internacionalmente para reparación de estructuras. Este concreto utiliza materiales de desecho de otros procesos; en este caso específico se empleó escoria siderúrgica de  la empresa Acerías Paz del Río S.A. Se estudio el comportamiento frente a la corrosión generada por  los iones cloruro, con el uso de la técnica de resistencia lineal a la polarización LPR y ...

  4. Bayesian analysis for uncertainty estimation of a canopy transpiration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, S.; Mackay, D. S.; Clayton, M. K.; Kruger, E. L.; Ewers, B. E.

    2007-04-01

    A Bayesian approach was used to fit a conceptual transpiration model to half-hourly transpiration rates for a sugar maple (Acer saccharum) stand collected over a 5-month period and probabilistically estimate its parameter and prediction uncertainties. The model used the Penman-Monteith equation with the Jarvis model for canopy conductance. This deterministic model was extended by adding a normally distributed error term. This extension enabled using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations to sample the posterior parameter distributions. The residuals revealed approximate conformance to the assumption of normally distributed errors. However, minor systematic structures in the residuals at fine timescales suggested model changes that would potentially improve the modeling of transpiration. Results also indicated considerable uncertainties in the parameter and transpiration estimates. This simple methodology of uncertainty analysis would facilitate the deductive step during the development cycle of deterministic conceptual models by accounting for these uncertainties while drawing inferences from data.

  5. Isotope studies to determine dry deposition of sulfate to deciduous and coniferous trees: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted at two locations near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with radioactive 35 S (87 day half-life) to examine the cycling behavior of sulfur in yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), red maple (Acer rubrum), and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) trees. Some findings pertain to methods development for estimating dry deposition of sulfur to forest canopies and the magnitude of sulfur emissions from natural sources (Task II). We will determine through field studies, the internal cycling, storage, and biogenic emission of sulfur, as traced by 35 SO 4 2- , in environments impacted by atmospheric sulfate deposition; and will determine through isotope dilution studies, the contribution of foliar leaching and dry deposition to net throughfall (NTF) sulfate concentrations beneath deciduous and coniferous trees in such environments. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Disturbance-mediated accelerated succession in two Michigan forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Marc D.; Scott, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    In northern lower Michigan, logging accelerated sugar maple (Acer saccharum) dominance in a northern white cedar (Thuja occidentals) community, and clear-cutting and burning quickly converted certain sites dominated by mature jack pine (Pinus banksiana) to early-succesional hardwoods, including Prunus, Populus, and Quercus. In both forest types the succeeding hardwoods should continue to increase in the future at the expense of the pioneer conifer species. In the cedar example, sugar maple was also increasing a an undisturbed, old-growth stand, but at a much reduced rate than in the logged stand. Traditionally, disturbance was through to set back succession to some earlier stage. However, out study sites and at least several other North American forest communities exhibited accelerated succession following a wide range of disturbances, including logging fire, ice storms, wind-throw, disease, insect attack, and herbicide spraying.

  7. Interculturalidad y ciencias de la educación en lengua de señas chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina-Alejandra-de-Lourdes Becerra-Sepúlveda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Los paradigmas de intervención orales para la cultura sorda afectan la percepción sobre la lengua de señas Chilena . Esto provoca debates emanados de una subvaloración, dadas sus particularidades visuales: iconicidad e isomorfismo, subvaloración nacida de una incomprensión en la lectura de investigaciones internacionales (por escasez de estudios nacionales, especialmente acerca del lenguaje corporeizado. Esto se contradice con nuevas investigaciones en psicolingüística cognitiva acer-ca de embodied cognition . El abordaje de la LSCh a partir de nuevas teorías atraviesa la interculturalidad y educación a fin de proponerse la metáfora de “la cultura en el cuerpo” como modalidad de estudio contemporáneo.

  8. Do David and Goliath Play the Same Game? Explanation of the Abundance of Rare and Frequent Invasive Alien Plants in Urban Woodlands in Warsaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidziński, Artur; Mędrzycki, Piotr; Kołaczkowska, Ewa; Ciurzycki, Wojciech; Marciszewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1) assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2) comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species. We hypothesized that the abundance of frequent species would be explained better than that of rare ones and that both rare and frequent species share a common hierarchy of the most important determinants. We found 15 taxa in almost two thirds of 1040 plots with a total number of 1068 occurrences. There were recorded 6 taxa of high frequency-Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens parviflora and Solidago spp.-and 9 taxa of low frequency: Acer saccharinum, Amelanchier spicata, Cornus spp., Fraxinus spp., Parthenocissus spp., Syringa vulgaris, Echinocystis lobata, Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria spp. Random Forest's models' quality grows with the number of occurrences of frequent taxa but not of the rare ones. Both frequent and rare taxa share a similar hierarchy of predictors' importance: Land use > Tree stand > Seed source and, for frequent taxa, Forest properties as well. We conclude that there is an 'explanation jump' at higher species frequencies, but rare species are surprisingly similar to frequent ones in their determinant's hierarchy, with differences conforming with their respective stages of invasion.

  9. Reconsidering the European regulation of merchant transmission investment in light of the third energy package: The role of dominant generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauteclocque, Adrien de; Rious, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of merchant transmission investment (MTI) has become an important issue in the EU electricity sector, subsequent to the granting of authorizations by European authorities to five merchant projects: BritNed, Estlink, the East West Cables, NorGer and recently a merchant line connecting Italy and Austria. The creation of a new Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) at the EU level, which has decision-making powers on MTI, therefore presents a unique opportunity to question and re-design the current European policy. This paper shows that the recent decisions concerning MTI may suffer a strong bias against dominant electricity generators while incumbent Transmission System Operators (TSOs) or new entrant TSOs are generally favored by national regulators and the European Commission (EC). This strategy is misguided as it fails to recognize both the new incentives of generators to develop MTI and the conflict of interest between the regulated and non-regulated activities of incumbent TSOs. Letting dominant generators undertake MTI is indeed generally beneficial as long as potential abuses of dominance are mitigated. To deter possible anti-competitive effects, we propose a new and feasible allocation of regulatory powers based on a clear demarcation between the market monitoring powers of ACER and the antitrust powers of the EC. - Highlights: → We compare TSOs and generators as merchant transmission investors in Europe. → We find a bias among regulators against the involvement of generators. → The conflict of interest with the regulated activities of TSOs is under-estimated. → Investment by generators is preferable provided market manipulation is deterred. → We propose a new allocation of regulatory powers to make it possible.

  10. The greening of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Pramod; Kumar, Lalit; Shabani, Farzin; Atreya, Kishor

    2017-12-01

    The possible disruption of climate change (CC) on the ecological, economic and social segments of human interest has made this phenomenon a major issue over the last couple of decades. Mountains are fragile ecosystems, projected to endure a higher impact from the increased warming. This study presents modelled CC projections with respect to the suitability for the growth of nine near-treeline plant species of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau through niche modelling technique using CLIMEX and estimates their potential future distribution and the extent of greening in the region. Two global climate models, CSIRO-MK 3.0 (CS) and MIROCH-H (MR) were used under IPCC A1B and A2 emission scenarios for the year 2050 and 2100. The results indicate that climatic suitability of the nine species expands towards higher elevations into areas that are currently unsuitable while currently suitable areas in many regions become climatically unsuitable in the future. The total climatically suitable area for the nine species at current time is around 1.09 million km2, with an additional 0.68 and 0.35 million km2 becoming suitable by 2050 and 2100 respectively. High elevation belts, especially those lying above 3500 m, will see more climatically suitable areas for the nine species in the future. Cold stress is the main factor limiting current distribution and its decrease will affect the overall expansion of climatic suitability in the region. Impacts on nature conservation and water and food security could be expected from such shift of climatic suitability in the region. The species includes (i) Abies spectabilis, (ii) Acer campbellii, (iii) Betula utilis, (iv) Juniperus indica, (v) Quercus semecarpifolia, (vi) Tsuga dumosa, (vii) Rhododendron campanulatum, (viii) Ephedra gerardiana, and (ix) Cassiope fastigiata. The species list from top to bottom are (i) Abies spectabilis, (ii) Acer campbellii, (iii) Betula utilis, (iv) Juniperus indica, (v) Quercus semecarpifolia, (vi) Tsuga

  11. Permeabilidad del arbolado urbano a la radiación solar: Estudio de dos especies representativas en entornos urbanos de baja densidad del Área Metropolitana de Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Edith Arboit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es generar conocimientos que permitan determinar la influencia del arbolado urbano, público o privado, sobre el potencial solar de los entornos urbano- edilicios de baja densidad del Área Metropolitana de Mendoza (AMM. El estudio de la permeabilidad del arbolado urbano ha sido desarrollado para situaciones típicas del área de Capital, Mendoza, representada por especies como: Plátano 21,80%, Morera 32,7%, Fresno europeo 20,95% y Paraíso 2,72% (Cantón, 1994-2000. Sin embargo para determinar la permeabilidad arbórea de entornos urbanos de baja densidad del AMM, en una primera etapa fue necesario realizar una recolección muestral que permitió identificar la presencia de ejemplares no evaluados como Acer 9,95% y Paraíso sombrilla 8,37%. En una segunda etapa, se elaboró un plan de mediciones para un ciclo anual, sobre un conjunto de 8 ejemplares por especie seleccionada. Los resultados obtenidos indican una reducción de la energía solar disponible, del 52,88% al 75,93% en la estación de invierno y del 85,96% al 98,38 % en verano para Acer y Paraíso Sombrilla respectivamente. El estudio ha permitido avanzar en la determinación del potencial solar en ambientes urbanos considerando la permeabilidad de dos especies arbóreas representativas del AMM.

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in uncomplicated alcohol-withdrawal syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vikram K.; Girish, K.; Lakshmi, Pandit; Vijendra, R.; Kumar, Ajay; Harsha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the first-line drugs in alcohol-withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) agonist, controls withdrawal symptoms without causing significant adverse effects. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in the management of uncomplicated AWS. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, open label, standard controlled, parallel group study of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in 60 participants with uncomplicated AWS. Clinical efficacy was measured by the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for alcohol (CIWA-Ar) scores. Lorazepam was used as supplement medication if withdrawal symptoms could not be controlled effectively by the study drugs alone. Both direct and indirect medical costs were considered and the CEA was analyzed in both patient's perspective and third-party perspective. Results: The average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER) in patient's perspective of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide was Rs. 5,308.61 and Rs. 2,951.95 per symptom-free day, respectively. The ACER in third-party perspective of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide was Rs. 895.01 and Rs. 476.29 per symptom-free day, respectively. Participants on chlordiazepoxide had more number of symptom-free days when compared with the baclofen group on analysis by Mann-Whitney test (U = 253.50, P = 0.03). Conclusion: Both study drugs provided relief of withdrawal symptoms. Chlordiazepoxide was more cost-effective than baclofen. Baclofen was relatively less effective and more expensive than chlordiazepoxide. PMID:25097273

  13. Levantamento das autorizações de corte de árvores de Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A arborização urbana, apesar de ser onerosa para a municipalidade, face aos elevados custos advindos de sua produção e manutenção, melhora a paisagem e a qualidade de vida dos cidadãos. A escolha das espécies mais adequadas para esta finalidade pode contribuir para a redução destes custos pela menor necessidade de corte de árvores adultas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as principais espécies arbóreas alvo das autorizações de corte em Curitiba, para subsidiar ações futuras que visem à otimização dos recursos financeiros. Para tanto, foram avaliados os pedidos de autorização de corte de árvores, disponíveis no Sistema Informatizado da Secretaria de Meio Ambiente da Prefeitura Municipal de Curitiba, no período de 01/07/2008 a 01/07/2009. Os doze bairros selecionados para análise localizavam-se no entorno de dois quilômetros do centro da cidade. Dos 1.034 pedidos submetidos no referido período, apenas 19,6% receberam autorização de corte, com destaque para quatro espécies, que responderam por 45,8% das autorizações de corte emitidas. As principais espécies, cujo corte foi autorizado, foram Alfeneiro (Ligustrum lucidum, em virtude de comprometimento fitossanitário, Acer (Acer negundo e Extremosa (Lagerstroemia indica, devido à morte do indivíduo, e Ficus (Ficus benjamina, devido a danos causados às edificações.

  14. Investigation of Different Forest Type’s Structure with Applying Nearest Neighbor Indices (Case Study: Gorazon District, Kheyrud Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Alijani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To implement correct management of forest ecosystems, enough information in relation to the structures of tree species is necessary. In this study, the structures of trees species in Fagus, Fagus-Carpinus, Carpinus-Fagus and Carpinus-Quercus types were investigated and compared in Hyrcanian forest. The data used in this study was collected from 239 plots with an area of 1000 m2 in Gorazbon district of Kheyrud forest, and Crancod (ver. 1.3 software was employed to calculate the uniform angle (Wi, Mingling (DMi, DBH dominance (TDi and Height dominance (THi indices. The result of uniform angle index showed a random positioning for the trees in the studied types. Also, the result of mingling index showed a low mixture for four studied types. The result of this index indicated an intra-specific competition for Fagus orientalis and Carpinus betulus and an inter-specific competition for other species. The average value of DBH and Height dominance indices showed a relative similarity among the studied types. The result of these indices showed that some species such as Acer velutinum,، Tilia begonifolia and Alnus subcordata are dominant and species including Ulmus glabra and Diospyros lotus are dominated. The comparing of similar species structure showed a non significant difference for positioning, DBH and height dominance features in different types. Also, this comparison showed a significant difference in mingling feature of Carpinus betulus, Fagus orientalis, Acer velutinum, Tilia begonifolia, and also deadwoods in the studied types. The utilized indices in this study had a high ability in the description of forest types' structures and also the ecological features of trees species.

  15. Leaf gas exchange performance and the lethal water potential of five European species during drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Feifel, Marion; Karimi, Zohreh; Schuldt, Bernhard; Choat, Brendan; Jansen, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Establishing physiological thresholds to drought-induced mortality in a range of plant species is crucial in understanding how plants respond to severe drought. Here, five common European tree species were selected (Acer campestre L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Carpinus betulus L., Corylus avellana L. and Fraxinus excelsior L.) to study their hydraulic thresholds to mortality. Photosynthetic parameters during desiccation and the recovery of leaf gas exchange after rewatering were measured. Stem vulnerability curves and leaf pressure-volume curves were investigated to understand the hydraulic coordination of stem and leaf tissue traits. Stem and root samples from well-watered and severely drought-stressed plants of two species were observed using transmission electron microscopy to visualize mortality of cambial cells. The lethal water potential (ψlethal) correlated with stem P99 (i.e., the xylem water potential at 99% loss of hydraulic conductivity, PLC). However, several plants that were stressed beyond the water potential at 100% PLC showed complete recovery during the next spring, which suggests that the ψlethal values were underestimated. Moreover, we observed a 1 : 1 relationship between the xylem water potential at the onset of embolism and stomatal closure, confirming hydraulic coordination between leaf and stem tissues. Finally, ultrastructural changes in the cytoplasm of cambium tissue and mortality of cambial cells are proposed to provide an alternative approach to investigate the point of no return associated with plant death. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Incorporating interspecific competition into species-distribution mapping by upward scaling of small-scale model projections to the landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui; Swift, D Edwin

    2017-01-01

    There are a number of overarching questions and debate in the scientific community concerning the importance of biotic interactions in species distribution models at large spatial scales. In this paper, we present a framework for revising the potential distribution of tree species native to the Western Ecoregion of Nova Scotia, Canada, by integrating the long-term effects of interspecific competition into an existing abiotic-factor-based definition of potential species distribution (PSD). The PSD model is developed by combining spatially explicit data of individualistic species' response to normalized incident photosynthetically active radiation, soil water content, and growing degree days. A revised PSD model adds biomass output simulated over a 100-year timeframe with a robust forest gap model and scaled up to the landscape using a forestland classification technique. To demonstrate the method, we applied the calculation to the natural range of 16 target tree species as found in 1,240 provincial forest-inventory plots. The revised PSD model, with the long-term effects of interspecific competition accounted for, predicted that eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), white birch (Betula papyrifera), red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) would experience a significant decline in their original distribution compared with balsam fir (Abies balsamea), black spruce (Picea mariana), red spruce (Picea rubens), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). True model accuracy improved from 64.2% with original PSD evaluations to 81.7% with revised PSD. Kappa statistics slightly increased from 0.26 (fair) to 0.41 (moderate) for original and revised PSDs, respectively.

  17. Comparison of budburst dynamics between species on altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davi, H.; Gillmann, M.; Ibanez, T.

    2009-04-01

    Phenology of plants is a key ecosystem parameter controlling carbon and water fluxes and also acting on the dynamics of communities. This parameter is highly sensitive to the climate and consequently is often used as a proxy of global change. In this paper, we attempt to analyse the dynamics of budburst every week for seven species (Fagus sylvatica L., Acer opalus Mill , Sorbus aria L., Quercus pubescens Willd. Abies alba Mill., Pinus sylvestris L., Pinus nigra Arnold) in two altitudinal gradients, one in a northern slope and one in a southern slope in the Ventoux mountain. The originality of this work is to assess not only the budburst date but to more precisely analyse the dynamics of budburst and its variation with altitude according to the species. Two important results are highlighted. First, the dynamics of budburst changes according to the species. Three distinct patterns can be drawn, a rapid sigmoid increase for the deciduous species, a short sigmoid increase for the pines and an intermediate curve for silver fir. These dynamics can be slowing down for coniferous when frost arises during the budburst. The second topic is the link between budburst and temperature by analysing respectively the year, the altitudinal and the aspect (north and south) effects. In 2007, budburst occurs earlier for Fagus, Acer, and Abies, it does not change for pines and is delayed for Sorbus. Date of beech budburst is the same between north and south in spite of higher temperature in south. The altitude effect on budburst varies greatly according to species and the year with a weak effect on Fagus and a stronger effect for the others species showing a threshold at 1200 m. By analysing the mean of temperatures at each altitude, we conclude that temperature effect acts differently between years or between altitudes. To conclude, we highlighted the complex effect of temperatures on budburst varying between species and situations.

  18. Simulating soil organic carbon stock as affected by land cover change and climate change, Hyrcanian forests (northern Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Azam; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Massah Bavani, Ali Reza; Jafari, Mostafa; Francaviglia, Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) contains a considerable portion of the world's terrestrial carbon stock, and is affected by changes in land cover and climate. SOC modeling is a useful approach to assess the impact of land use, land use change and climate change on carbon (C) sequestration. This study aimed to: (i) test the performance of RothC model using data measured from different land covers in Hyrcanian forests (northern Iran); and (ii) predict changes in SOC under different climate change scenarios that may occur in the future. The following land covers were considered: Quercus castaneifolia (QC), Acer velutinum (AV), Alnus subcordata (AS), Cupressus sempervirens (CS) plantations and a natural forest (NF). For assessment of future climate change projections the Fifth Assessment IPCC report was used. These projections were generated with nine Global Climate Models (GCMs), for two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) leading to very low and high greenhouse gases concentration levels (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 respectively), and for four 20year-periods up to 2099 (2030s, 2050s, 2070s and 2090s). Simulated values of SOC correlated well with measured data (R 2 =0.64 to 0.91) indicating a good efficiency of the RothC model. Our results showed an overall decrease in SOC stocks by 2099 under all land covers and climate change scenarios, but the extent of the decrease varied with the climate models, the emissions scenarios, time periods and land covers. Acer velutinum plantation was the most sensitive land cover to future climate change (range of decrease 8.34-21.83tCha -1 ). Results suggest that modeling techniques can be effectively applied for evaluating SOC stocks, allowing the identification of current patterns in the soil and the prediction of future conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of low density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering therapy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes in Korea: single-pill regimen (amlodipine/atorvastatin versus double-pill regimen (amlodipine+atorvastatin

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    Ji-Hyun Park

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Single-pill combination therapy (amlodipine/atorvastatin might be more effective than double-pill therapy (amlodipine+atorvastatin in patients with diabetes and concomitant hypertension requiring statin therapy. We compared the cost-effectiveness of a single-pill with that of double-pill for control of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels, with the ultimate goal of cardiovascular disease prevention, in these patients using a cost-effectiveness analysis model that considered medication adherence. METHODS: Effectiveness was defined as the percentage (% attainment of target LDL-C levels (<100 mg/dL based on adherence for each therapy. Adherence was defined as compliance to medication (≥80% proportion of days covered. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to determine the proportion of patients who were adherent and target goal attainment based on adherence level. The annual medication costs were based on the adherence levels for each regimen. The average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER was calculated as the cost per % attainment of the target LDL-C level. RESULTS: The ACER for the single-pill regimen was lower than for the double-pill regimen (4,123 vs. 6,062 Korean won per 1% achievement of target goal. Compared with the double-pill, the medication costs were approximately 32% lower with the single-pill. CONCLUSION:A single-pill for reductions in LDL-C is cost-effective compared with double-pill in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Pharmacotherapy for Hematemesis-Melena Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Hepatic Cirrhosis

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    Doddy de Queljoe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute variceal haemorrhage is a complication of cirrhosis that can be life threatening. It is a pharmacist’s duty to ensure therapeutic and pharmaceutical care which is not only safe and effective for the patient but also is cost-effective in order to attain improvement of the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, pharmacoeconomic evaluation especially cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA, which compares costs and consequences of drug therapy, is needed. This study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic cost-effectiveness of hematemesis-melena treatment in hepatic cirrhotic patients. METHODS: A total of 42 patients receiving vitamin K and vitamin K-transamin were studied retrospectively from patients’ medical records in 2 years and analyzed with cost-effectiveness grid and average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER based on Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP Score. RESULTS: Cost-effectiveness grid was dominant for vitamin K in patients with CTP Score A. ACER analysis showed a lower score for vitamin K in all patients included CTP Score classification. There was no significant difference in duration of cessation of bleeding treatment in patients with vitamin K compared with vitamin K-transamin in patients with CTP Score A and B, while significant difference was found in patients with CTP Score C. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin K appeared to be more cost effective as compared with vitamin K-transamin in all patients. The use of vitamin K had greater benefit than the combination with transamin in all patients and CTP Score classification, and thus should be considered as a primary therapy. Therefore, transamin addition as an alternative therapy for hepatic cirrhosis patients with hematemesis-melena should be considered. KEYWORDS: CEA, cost-effectiveness analysis, child-turcotte-pugh score, hepatic cirrhosis, hematemesismelena, vitamin K, transamin.

  1. Evaluation of morphological and chemical aspects of different wood species by spectroscopy and thermal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Lisa, Gabriela; Sakata, Yusaku

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find the most convenient procedure to make an easy differentiation between various kinds of wood. The wood samples used were: fir (Acer alba), poplar (Populus tremula), lime (Tillia cordata), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), walnut (Juglans regia), beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur). The methods of investigation used were FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. By FT-IR spectroscopy, was observed that the ratio values of lignin/carbohydrate IR bands for wood decreases with increasing the average wood density, showing a decrease in lignin content. Also, the calculated values of lignin percentage from the FT-IR spectra are in very good correlation with the values from literature. Following the deconvolution process of the X-ray diffraction patterns, it was found that the degree of crystallinity, the apparent lateral crystallite size, the proportion of crystallite interior chains and cellulose fraction tend to increase with increasing of the wood density. Thermal analysis is able to give information about degradation temperatures for the principal components of different wood samples. The shape of DTG curves depends on the wood species that cause the enlargement of the peaks or the maxima of the decomposition step varies at larger or smaller temperatures ranges. The temperatures and weight loss percentage are particular for each kind of wood. This study showed that analytical methods used have the potential to be important sources of information for a quick evaluation of the chemical composition of wood samples.

  2. Structured self monitoring of blood glucose in Iranian people with type 2 diabetes; A cost consequence analysis

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    Aghili Rokhsareh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG is considered as a key factor in management of people with diabetes which is a growing and cost demanding health problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of comprehensive patient management using structured SMBG on metabolic control as well as its cost consequence analysis. Methods Sixty subjects were recruited in an observational study for a period of 6 months. They were provided with the ACCU-CHEK 360° View tool to fill in the values of the 7-point blood glucose profiles in three consecutive days during the study on a monthly basis. Changes in metabolic control were assessed by HbA1c and lipid profile measurement at the beginning and at the end of the study. In addition, cost consequence analysis was done considering different level of health care professionals with or without insurance coverage. The Average Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ACER as well as Cost saving analysis were calculated and compared. Results The analysis showed significant reduction in HbA1c during the 6-month period in all subjects (P = 0.000. Furthermore, a positive effect was observed on lipid profile. The cost of endocrinologist’s visit in private sector was estimated to be 265.76 USD while this figure was149.15 USD for general practitioner in public sector with insurance coverage. Total complications and mortality cost saving was 154.8 USD. The lowest ACER was calculated for intervention with general practitioner in public sector with insurance coverage. Conclusion Structured SMBG results in significant improvement of glycemic status. Moreover, it is more cost saving in public sector with insurance coverage. It seems that general practitioner visits with insurance coverage is the most affordable option for people with type 2 diabetes.

  3. The synthesis and origin of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II – insights from nucleotide sugar formation and diversity

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    Maor eBar-Peled

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence showing that the structurally complex pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II exists in the primary cell wall as a borate cross-linked dimer and that this dimer is required for the assembly of a functional wall and for normal plant growth and development. The results of several studies have also established that RG-II structure and cross-linking is conserved in vascular plants and that RG-II likely appeared early in the evolution of land plants. Two features that distinguish RG-II from other plant polysaccharides are that RG-II contains 13 different glycoses linked to each other by 22 different glycosidic linkages and that RG-II is the only polysaccharide known to contain apiose and aceric acid. Thus, one key event in land plant evolution was the emergence of genes encoding nucleotide sugar-biosynthetic enzymes that generate the activated forms of apiose and aceric acid required for RG-II synthesis. Many of the genes involved in the generation of the nucleotide sugars used for RG-II synthesis have been functionally characterized. By contrast, only one putative glycosyltransferase involved in the assembly of RG-II has been identified. Here we provide an overview of the formation of the activated sugars required for RG-II synthesis and point to the possible cellular and metabolic processes that could be involved in assembling and controlling the formation of a borate cross-linked RG-II molecule. We discuss how nucleotide sugar synthesis is compartmentalized and how this may control the flux of precursors to facilitate and regulate the formation of RG-II.

  4. Seasonal pasture myopathy/atypical myopathy in North America associated with ingestion of hypoglycin A within seeds of the box elder tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, S J; Sponseller, B T; Hegeman, A D; Earing, J; Bender, J B; Martinson, K L; Patterson, S E; Sweetman, L

    2013-07-01

    We hypothesised that seasonal pasture myopathy (SPM), which closely resembles atypical myopathy (AM), was caused by ingestion of a seed-bearing plant abundant in autumn pastures. To identify a common seed-bearing plant among autumn pastures of horses with SPM, and to determine whether the toxic amino acid hypoglycin A was present in the seeds and whether hypoglycin metabolites were present in SPM horse serum or urine. Twelve SPM cases, 11 SPM pastures and 23 control farms were visited to identify a plant common to all SPM farms in autumn. A common seed was analysed for amino acid composition (n = 7/7) by GC-MS and its toxic metabolite (n = 4/4) identified in conjugated form in serum [tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)] and urine [gas chromatography (GC) MS]. Serum acylcarnitines and urine organic acid profiles (n = 7) were determined for SPM horses. Seeds from box elder trees (Acer negundo) were present on all SPM and 61% of control pastures. Hypoglycin A, known to cause acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD), was found in box elder seeds. Serum acylcarnitines and urine organic acid profiles in SPM horses were typical for MADD. The hypoglycin A metabolite methylenecyclopropylacetic acid (MCPA), known to be toxic in other species, was found in conjugated form in SPM horse serum and urine. Horses with SPM had longer turn-out, more overgrazed pastures, and less supplemental feeding than control horses. For the first time, SPM has been linked to a toxin in seeds abundant on autumn pastures whose identified metabolite, MCPA, is known to cause acquired MADD, the pathological mechanism behind SPM and AM. Further research is required to determine the lethal dose of hypoglycin A in horses, as well as factors that affect annual seed burden and hypoglycin A content in Acer species in North America and Europe. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Modeled effects of soil acidification on long-term ecological and economic outcomes for managed forests in the Adirondack region (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Jesse PhD.; Beier, Colin M.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is among the most ecologically and economically important tree species in North America, and its growth and regeneration is often the focus of silvicultural practices in northern hardwood forests. A key stressor for sugar maple (SM) is acid rain, which depletes base cations from poorly-buffered forest soils and has been associated with much lower SM vigor, growth, and recruitment. However, the potential interactions between forest management and soil acidification – and their implications for the sustainability of SM and its economic and cultural benefits – have not been investigated. In this study, we simulated the development of 50 extant SM stands in the western Adirondack region of NY (USA) for 100 years under different soil chemical conditions and silvicultural prescriptions. We found that interactions between management prescription and soil base saturation will strongly shape the ability to maintain SM in managed forests. Below 12% base saturation, SM did not regenerate sufficiently after harvest and was replaced mainly by red maple (Acer rubrum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia). Loss of SM on acid-impaired sites was predicted regardless of whether the shelterwood or diameter-limit prescriptions were used. On soils with sufficient base saturation, models predicted that SM will regenerate after harvest and be sustained for future rotations. We then estimated how these different post-harvest outcomes, mediated by acid impairment of forest soils, would affect the potential monetary value of ecosystem services provided by SM forests. Model simulations indicated that a management strategy focused on syrup production – although not feasible across the vast areas where acid impairment has occurred – may generate the greatest economic return. Although pollution from acid rain is declining, its long-term legacy in forest soils will shape future options for sustainable forestry and ecosystem stewardship in the northern

  6. The importance of mercury in leaves, bark and wood of eight tree species across four northeastern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, R. D.; Yang, Y.; Driscoll, C. T.; Montesdeoca, M.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) deposition affects forests even in remote areas, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known, in part because concentrations of Hg in wood are often below the analytical detection limit by ICP-OES. We analyzed Hg in wood, bark, and foliage of 8 tree species across four sites (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME) in the northeastern USA, using thermal decomposition, catalytic conversion, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (USEPA Method 7473). The hardwood species, namely American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall.), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.), had lower Hg concentrations (averaging 7.7 ng g-1 in bark and 16.3 ng g-1 in foliage) than the conifers, namely red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and white pine (Pinus strobus L.) (averaging 22.5 ng g-1 in bark and 28.6 ng g-1 in foliage) (p < 0.001). Yellow birch had especially high Hg in wood (2.5 ng g-1) (p < 0.001); the other species averaged 1.4 ng g-1. The Hg content of aboveground biomass, estimated from modeled tree biomass and species composition at each site, declined from the west to the east. Wood is important to Hg budgets in spite of low concentrations, because of its large mass. With the proper analytical methods, it is possible to estimate pools and fluxes of Hg in forest vegetation.

  7. Do David and Goliath Play the Same Game? Explanation of the Abundance of Rare and Frequent Invasive Alien Plants in Urban Woodlands in Warsaw, Poland.

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    Artur Obidziński

    Full Text Available Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1 assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2 comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species. We hypothesized that the abundance of frequent species would be explained better than that of rare ones and that both rare and frequent species share a common hierarchy of the most important determinants. We found 15 taxa in almost two thirds of 1040 plots with a total number of 1068 occurrences. There were recorded 6 taxa of high frequency-Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens parviflora and Solidago spp.-and 9 taxa of low frequency: Acer saccharinum, Amelanchier spicata, Cornus spp., Fraxinus spp., Parthenocissus spp., Syringa vulgaris, Echinocystis lobata, Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria spp. Random Forest's models' quality grows with the number of occurrences of frequent taxa but not of the rare ones. Both frequent and rare taxa share a similar hierarchy of predictors' importance: Land use > Tree stand > Seed source and, for frequent taxa, Forest properties as well. We conclude that there is an 'explanation jump' at higher species frequencies, but rare species are surprisingly similar to frequent ones in their determinant's hierarchy, with differences conforming with their respective stages of invasion.

  8. Sapling growth as a function of light and landscape-level variation in soil water and foliar nitrogen in Northern Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobe, Richard K

    2006-02-01

    Interspecific differences in sapling growth responses to soil resources could influence species distributions across soil resource gradients. I calibrated models of radial growth as a function of light intensity and landscape-level variation in soil water and foliar N for saplings of four canopy tree species, which differ in adult distributions across soil resource gradients. Model formulations, characterizing different resource effects and modes of influencing growth, were compared based on relative empirical support using Akaike's Information Criterion. Contrary to expectation, the radial growth of species associated with lower fertility (Acer rubrum and Quercus rubra) was more sensitive to variation in soil resources than the high fertility species Acer saccharum. Moreover, there was no species tradeoff between growth under high foliar N versus growth under low foliar N, which would be expected if growth responses to foliar N mediated distributions. In general, there was functional consistency among species in growth responses to light, foliar N, and soil water availability, respectively. Foliar N influenced primarily high-light growth in F. grandifolia, A. rubrum, and Q. rubra (but was not significant for A. saccharum). In A. saccharum and A. rubrum, for which soil water availability was a significant predictor, soil water and light availability simultaneously limited growth (i.e., either higher light or water increased growth). Simple resource-based models explained 0.74-0.90 of growth variance, indicating a high degree of determinism. Results suggest that nitrogen effects on forest dynamics would be strongest in high-light early successional communities but that water availability influences growth in both early successional and understory environments.

  9. Elemental concentrations in deposited dust on leaves along an urbanization gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Edina, E-mail: edina.simon@gmail.com [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Baranyai, Edina [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Agilent Atomic Spectroscopy Partner Laboratory, University of Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Braun, Mihály [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Herteleni Laboratory of Environmental Studies, 4026 Debrecen, Bem tér 18/C (Hungary); Cserháti, Csaba [Department of Solid State Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 2 (Hungary); Fábián, István [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Tóthmérész, Béla [HAS-UD Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Research Group, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary)

    2014-08-15

    Environmental health is an essential component of the quality of life in modern societies. Monitoring of environmental quality and the assessment of environmental risks are often species based on the elemental concentration of deposited dust. Our result suggested that stomata size and distribution were the most important factors influencing the accumulation of air contaminants in leaves. We found that the leaves' surfaces of Acer negundo and Celtis occidentalis were covered by a large number of trichomes, and these species have proven to be suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution difficult; these can be overcome using bioindicator species. Leaves of Padus serotina, Acer campestre, A. negundo, Quercus robur and C. occidentalis were used to assess the amount of deposited dust and the concentration of contaminants in deposited dust in and around the city of Debrecen, Hungary. Samples were collected from an urban, suburban and rural area along an urbanization gradient. The concentrations of Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sr and Zn were determined in deposited dust using ICP–OES. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to explore the morphological structure and dust absorbing capacity of leaves. We found significant differences in dust deposition among species, and dust deposition correlated with trichomes' density. Principal component analysis (PCA) also showed a total separation of tree. - Highlights: • Dust is used as indicators of the accumulation of inorganic pollutants. • Scanning EM was used to explore the morphological structure of leaves. • Amount of dust deposited of leaves correlated with trichomes' density. • A. negundo, C. occidentalis and Q. robur are suitable to indicate air contaminants. • A. negundo and C. occidentalis are suitable to decrease the amount of dust in air.

  10. Incorporating interspecific competition into species-distribution mapping by upward scaling of small-scale model projections to the landscape.

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    Mark Baah-Acheamfour

    Full Text Available There are a number of overarching questions and debate in the scientific community concerning the importance of biotic interactions in species distribution models at large spatial scales. In this paper, we present a framework for revising the potential distribution of tree species native to the Western Ecoregion of Nova Scotia, Canada, by integrating the long-term effects of interspecific competition into an existing abiotic-factor-based definition of potential species distribution (PSD. The PSD model is developed by combining spatially explicit data of individualistic species' response to normalized incident photosynthetically active radiation, soil water content, and growing degree days. A revised PSD model adds biomass output simulated over a 100-year timeframe with a robust forest gap model and scaled up to the landscape using a forestland classification technique. To demonstrate the method, we applied the calculation to the natural range of 16 target tree species as found in 1,240 provincial forest-inventory plots. The revised PSD model, with the long-term effects of interspecific competition accounted for, predicted that eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis, American beech (Fagus grandifolia, white birch (Betula papyrifera, red oak (Quercus rubra, sugar maple (Acer saccharum, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides would experience a significant decline in their original distribution compared with balsam fir (Abies balsamea, black spruce (Picea mariana, red spruce (Picea rubens, red maple (Acer rubrum L., and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis. True model accuracy improved from 64.2% with original PSD evaluations to 81.7% with revised PSD. Kappa statistics slightly increased from 0.26 (fair to 0.41 (moderate for original and revised PSDs, respectively.

  11. Multi-decade biomass dynamics in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest, Michigan, USA

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    Kerry D. Woods

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trends in living aboveground biomass and inputs to the pool of coarse woody debris (CWD in an undisturbed, old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest in northern MI were estimated from multi-decade observations of permanent plots. Growth and demographic data from seven plot censuses over 47 years (1962–2009, combined with one-time measurement of CWD pools, help assess biomass/carbon status of this landscape. Are trends consistent with traditional notions of late-successional forests as equilibrial ecosystems? Specifically, do biomass pools and CWD inputs show consistent long-term trends and relationships, and can living and dead biomass pools and trends be related to forest composition and history? Aboveground living biomass densities, estimated using standard allometric relationships, range from 360–450 Mg/ha among sampled stands and types; these values are among the highest recorded for northeastern North American forests. Biomass densities showed significant decade-scale variation, but no consistent trends over the full study period (one stand, originating following an 1830 fire, showed an aggrading trend during the first 25 years of the study. Even though total above-ground biomass pools are neither increasing nor decreasing, they have been increasingly dominated, over the full study period, by very large (>70 cm dbh stems and by the most shade-tolerant species (Acer saccharum and Tsuga canadensis.CWD pools measured in 2007 averaged 151 m3/ha, with highest values in Acer-dominated stands. Snag densities averaged 27/ha, but varied nearly ten-fold with canopy composition (highest in Tsuga-dominated stands, lowest in Acer-dominated; snags constituted 10–50% of CWD biomass. Annualized CWD inputs from tree mortality over the full study period averaged 1.9–3.2 Mg/ha/yr, depending on stand and species composition. CWD input rates tended to increase over the course of the study. Input rates may be expected to increase over longer

  12. Paleoecology and Paleoenvironmental Interpretations of the Late Cretaceous Lower Cantwell Formation, Denali National Park, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsich, C. S.; Salazar Jaramillo, S.; Jacobus, R. T.; McCarthy, P. J.; Fowell, S. J.; Fiorillo, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    The level of diversity of an ancient high-latitude fauna or flora is of interest not just for the study of species evolution and paleogeographic migration patterns, but also for the imminent response to an amplified climate change rate. Climate modelers thus focus increasingly on proxies of Polar Regions. A rich floral and faunal record indicative of a warm high-latitude paleoclimate is presently emerging from the late Campanian-Maastrichtian lower Cantwell Formation in Denali National Park, south-central Alaska. This thick (up to 4000m) alluvial fan succession was deposited during the latest accretionary phase of the Wrangellia terrane to the former southern margin of Alaska. Facies descriptions from outcrops near Sable Mountain and Polychrome Mountain record heterogeneous and laterally discontinuous lithologies characteristic of alluvial and marginal alluvial fan environments: braided channel, sandy channel, crevasse splay, sheetflood, floodplain, and lacustrine. Trace and plant fossils occur predominantly at lithological boundaries. The vertebrate fossil record encompasses tracks that can be attributed to fishes, pterosaurs, large and small non-avian theropods, birds, hadrosaurs, and ceratopsians. Hadrosaur footprints are abundant and record populations with multiple generations present. The pterosaur tracks constitute the northernmost fossil occurrence for these flying reptiles. Bird traces range from small, shore-wading bird tracks to those of a large crane-like bird. Diverse invertebrate tracks include freshwater bivalve, ostracode and gastropod trails, crayfish burrows, beetle and mole cricket tracks, wood borings and feeding traces on angiosperm leaves. Plant impression fossils represent dicotyledonous angiosperm leaves referable to nymphaealean, menispermoid, platanoid, trochodendroid and higher hamamelid groups; magnoliid seeds; diverse broad-leaved and blade-like monocot leaf fragments; the leafy shoots, leaves, cones, seeds and wood of cupressaceous and

  13. Description of an establishment event by the invasive Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis in a suburban landscape in the northeastern United States.

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    Helen Hull-Sanders

    Full Text Available The establishment of non-native species is commonly described as occurring in three phases: arrival, establishment, and dispersal. Both arrival and dispersal by the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky, a xylophagous Cerambycid native to China and the Korean peninsula, has been documented for multiple locations in both North America and Europe, however the transitional phase, establishment, is not well understood for this species due to the need to rapidly remove populations to prevent dispersal and assist eradication, and the evident variation in the behavior of populations. Here we describe the dynamics of an establishment event for the Asian longhorned beetle in a small, isolated population within the regulated quarantine zone near Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. These data were collected during an opportunity afforded by logistical limits on the Cooperative Asian Longhorned Beetle Eradication Program administered by state, federal, and local government partners. Seventy-one infested red maple (Acer rubrum trees and 456 interspersed un-infested trees were surveyed in an isolated, recently established population within a ~0.29 ha stand in a suburban wetland conservation area in which nearly 90% of the trees were host species, and nearly 80% were Acer rubrum. Tree-ring analyses show that within this establishing population, Asian longhorned beetles initially infested one or two A. rubrum, before moving through the stand to infest additional A. rubrum based not on distance or direction, but on tree size, with infestation biased towards trees with larger trunk diameters. Survey data from the larger landscape suggest this population may have generated long-distance dispersers (~1400 m, and that these dispersal events occurred before the originally infested host trees were fully exploited by the beetle. The distribution and intensity of damage documented in this population suggest dispersal here may have been spatially more

  14. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer air temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in northeastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samartin, S. V.; Heiri, O.; Boltshauser-Kaltenrieder, P.; Tinner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation and climate during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). In Europe large areas north of 40°N were entirely covered by continental ice-sheets and widespread permafrost, with temperatures around 10-20°C lower than at present, whereas further south aridity and temperatures 7-10°C cooler than today occurred. Cool climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the LGM radically reduced forest extent and diversity in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. The Euganian Hills in northeastern Italy are supposed to be one of the northernmost refugia of thermophilous mixed oak forest species (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea) as well of some temperate mesophilous species (e.g. Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba) in Europe. In this study we present the first European chironomid-based quantitative temperature reconstruction for the LGM and address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of Quercetum mixtum species between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a lake on the border of the Euganean Hills in northeastern Italy, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial July air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Our results suggest that July air temperatures never fell below 10°C which are considered necessary for forest growth. In general, mild climatic conditions prevailed between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP with temperatures ranging from ca. 11°C to 15.7°C. The expansion of thermophilous trees such as Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea (Quercetum mixtum) between ca. 30'000-23'000 cal yr BP can most likely be explained by climate

  15. Characterization of biomass burning: Fourier transform infrared analysis of wood and vegetation combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Diomaris

    The Fourier transform infrared examination of the combustion products of a selection of forest materials has been undertaken in order to guide future detection of biomass burning using satellite remote sensing. Combustion of conifer Pinus strobus (white pine) and deciduous Prunus serotina (cherry), Acer rubrum (red maple), Friglans nigra (walnut), Fraxinus americana (ash), Betula papyrifera (birch), Querus alba (white oak) and Querus rubra (red oak) lumber, in a Meeker burner flame at temperatures of 400 to 900 degrees Fahrenheit produces a broad and relatively flat signal with a few distinct peaks throughout the wavelength spectra (400 to 4000 cm-1). The distinct bands located near wavelengths of 400-700, 1500-1700, 2200-2400 and 3300-3600 cm-1 vary in intensity with an average difference between the highest and lowest absorbing species of 47 percent. Spectral band differences of 10 percent are within the range of modern satellite spectrometers, and support the argument that band differences can be used to discriminate between various types of vegetation. A similar examination of soot and smoke derived from the leaves and branches of the conifer Pinus strobus and deciduous Querus alba (white oak), Querus rubra (red oak), Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Acer rubrum (maple) and Tilea americana (American basswood) at combustion temperatures of 400 to 900 degrees Fahrenheit produce a similar broad spectrum with a shift in peak location occurring in peaks below the 1700 cm-1 wavelength. The new peaks occur near wavelengths of 1438-1444, 875 and 713 cm-1. This noted shift in wavelength location may be indicative of a fingerprint region for green woods distinguishable from lumber through characteristic biomass suites. Temperature variations during burning show that the spectra of low temperature smoldered aerosols, occurring near 400 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit, may be distinguished from higher temperature soot aerosols that occur above 600 degrees Fahrenheit. A

  16. Large scale patterns of genetic variation and differentiation in sugar maple from tropical Central America to temperate North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Rodriguez, Yalma L; Platt, William J; Urbatsch, Lowell E; Foltz, David W

    2015-11-19

    Geological events in the latter Cenozoic have influenced the distribution, abundance and genetic structure of tree populations in temperate and tropical North America. The biogeographical history of temperate vegetation that spans large ranges of latitude is complex, involving multiple latitudinal shifts that might have occurred via different migration routes. We determined the regional structuring of genetic variation of sugar maple (Acer saccharum subsp. saccharum) and its only subspecies in tropical America (Acer saccharum subsp. skutchii) using nuclear and chloroplast data. The studied populations span a geographic range from Maine, USA (46°N), to El Progreso, Guatemala (15°N). We examined genetic subdivisions, explored the locations of ancestral haplotypes, analyzed genetic data to explore the presence of a single or multiple glacial refugia, and tested whether genetic lineages are temporally consistent with a Pleistocene or older divergence. Nuclear and chloroplast data indicated that populations in midwestern USA and western Mexico were highly differentiated from populations in the rest of the sites. The time of the most recent common ancestor of the western Mexico haplotype lineage was dated to the Pliocene (5.9 Ma, 95% HPD: 4.3-7.3 Ma). Splits during the Pleistocene separated the rest of the phylogroups. The most frequent and widespread haplotype occurred in half of the sites (Guatemala, eastern Mexico, southeastern USA, and Ohio). Our data also suggested that multiple Pleistocene refugia (tropics-southeastern USA, midwestern, and northeastern USA), but not western Mexico (Jalisco), contributed to post-glacial northward expansion of ranges. Current southern Mexican and Guatemalan populations have reduced population sizes, genetic bottlenecks and tend toward homozygosity, as indicated using nuclear and chloroplast markers. The divergence of western Mexican populations from the rest of the sugar maples likely resulted from orographic and volcanic barriers

  17. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

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    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa, i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi

  18. Retrieval deficiency in brain activity of working memory in amnesic mild cognitive impairment patients: A brain event-related potentials study

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    Binyin eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early stage of Alzheimer disease (AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, working memory (WM deficiency is prominent and could be attributed to failure in encoding, maintenance or retrieval of information. However, evidence for a retention or retrieval deficit remains equivocal. It is also unclear what cognitive mechanism in working memory is impaired in MCI or early AD. We enrolled forty-six subjects from our Memory Clinics and community, with 24 amnesic MCI patients and 22 normal subjects. After neurological and cognitive assessments, they performed a classic delayed match to sample task with simultaneous event-related potential (ERP recorded. The ERPs in encoding and retrieval epoch during WM were analyzed separately. The latency and amplitude of every ERP component were compared between two groups, and then analyzed to explore their relationship with neuropsychological performance. Finally, the locations of maximal difference in cortex were calculated by standard low-resolution tomographic analysis. A total of five components were found: P1, N1, P2, N2 and P300. The amplitude of P2 and P300 was larger in normal subjects than in MCI patients only during retrieval, not encoding epoch, while the latency did not show statistical difference. The latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were similar in two groups. P2 amplitude in the retrieval epoch positively correlated with memory test (auditory verbal learning test and visual spatial score of Chinese Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, while P300 amplitude correlated with ACE-R. The activation difference in P2 time range was maximal at medial frontal gyrus. However, the difference in cortex activation during P300 time range did not show significance. The amplitude of P2 indicated deficiency in memory retrieval process, potentially due to dysfunction of central executive in WM model. Regarding the location of P2 during WM task, medial frontal plays important role in memory

  19. Experiencias en el empleo de refractarios en la siderurgia No integral

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    Laraudogoitia, J. J.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available SIDENOR INDUSTRIAL S.L. is a steelmaking company producing special steel long products, devoted to a high extent for automotive applications. Production facilities at Sidenor Basauri plant include electric arc furnace, secondary metallurgy station (two ladle furnaces sharing a vacuum tank degasser and continuous casting process followed by direct rolling. The refractory consumption at Basauri plant facilities is concentrated in the steelmaking shop with 97% out of total consumption. Regarding the steelmaking shop, refractory consumption has the following distribution: 50% continuous casting, 35% ladle and 15% electric arc furnace and rest of applications. The refractory material suitability is defined in SIDENOR from three points of view: - Quality level aimed for final products - Total cost, taking into account purchase price, installation cost, running cost and energetic consumption associated to its use - Emissions environmental impact due to drying and preheating of refractory products The characterisation of the refractory material performance is done in three different levels: - Steady state working conditions (wearing, spalling, thermal insulation, air tightness… - Theoretical study and measurements from thermal and environmental point of view - Sudden and none predicted failures.

    SIDENOR INDUSTRIAL S.L. es una empresa siderúrgica fabricante de productos largos de acero especial, dirigidos en un alto porcentaje al mercado de automoción. En las instalaciones que SIDENOR posee en Basauri, el proceso de fabricación se desarrolla vía horno eléctrico de arco, metalurgia secundaria (horno cuchara y estación de vacío en tanque y colada continua, seguido de un proceso de laminación directa sin acondicionado previo. Para las instalaciones consideradas el empleo de material refractario se concentra fundamentalmente en la acería, con un 97% del refractario total. Considerando el consumo de acería, el 50% corresponde a colada

  20. Northern long-eared bat day-roosting and prescribed fire in the central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W. Mark; Silvis, Alexander; Johnson, Joshua B.; Edwards, John W.; Karp, Milu

    2016-01-01

    The northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis Trovessart) is a cavity-roosting species that forages in cluttered upland and riparian forests throughout the oak-dominated Appalachian and Central Hardwoods regions. Common prior to white-nose syndrome, the population of this bat species has declined to functional extirpation in some regions in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic, including portions of the central Appalachians. Our long-term research in the central Appalachians has shown that maternity colonies of this species form non-random assorting networks in patches of suitable trees that result from long- and short-term forest disturbance processes, and that roost loss can occur with these disturbances. Following two consecutive prescribed burns on the Fernow Experimental Forest in the central Appalachians, West Virginia, USA, in 2007 to 2008, post-fire counts of suitable black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.; the most selected species for roosting) slightly decreased by 2012. Conversely, post-fire numbers of suitable maple (Acer spp. L.), primarily red maple (Acer rubrum L.), increased by a factor of three, thereby ameliorating black locust reduction. Maternity colony network metrics such as roost degree (use) and network density for two networks in the burned compartment were similar to the single network observed in unburned forest. However, roost clustering and degree of roost centralization was greater for the networks in the burned forest area. Accordingly, the short-term effects of prescribed fire are slightly or moderately positive in impact to day-roost habitat for the northern long-eared bat in the central Appalachians from a social dynamic perspective. Listing of northern long-eared bats as federally threatened will bring increased scrutiny of immediate fire impacts from direct take as well as indirect impacts from long-term changes to roosting and foraging habitat in stands being returned to historic fire-return conditions. Unfortunately, definitive

  1. Intensive versus Guideline Blood Pressure and Lipid Lowering in Patients with Previous Stroke: Main Results from the Pilot 'Prevention of Decline in Cognition after Stroke Trial' (PODCAST Randomised Controlled Trial.

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    Philip M Bath

    Full Text Available Stroke is associated with the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. We assessed the effect of intensive blood pressure (BP and/or lipid lowering on cognitive outcomes in patients with recent stroke in a pilot trial.In a multicentre, partial-factorial trial, patients with recent stroke, absence of dementia, and systolic BP (SBP 125-170 mmHg were assigned randomly to at least 6 months of intensive (target SBP <125 mmHg or guideline (target SBP <140 mmHg BP lowering. The subset of patients with ischaemic stroke and total cholesterol 3.0-8.0 mmol/l were also assigned randomly to intensive (target LDL-cholesterol <1.3 mmol/l or guideline (target LDL-c <3.0 mmol/l lipid lowering. The primary outcome was the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R.We enrolled 83 patients, mean age 74.0 (6.8 years, and median 4.5 months after stroke. The median follow-up was 24 months (range 1-48. Mean BP was significantly reduced with intensive compared to guideline treatment (difference -10·6/-5·5 mmHg; p<0·01, as was total/LDL-cholesterol with intensive lipid lowering compared to guideline (difference -0·54/-0·44 mmol/l; p<0·01. The ACE-R score during treatment did not differ for either treatment comparison; mean difference for BP lowering -3.6 (95% CI -9.7 to 2.4, and lipid lowering 4.4 (95% CI -2.1 to 10.9. However, intensive lipid lowering therapy was significantly associated with improved scores for ACE-R at 6 months, trail making A, modified Rankin Scale and Euro-Qol Visual Analogue Scale. There was no difference in rates of dementia or serious adverse events for either comparison.In patients with recent stroke and normal cognition, intensive BP and lipid lowering were feasible and safe, but did not alter cognition over two years. The association between intensive lipid lowering and improved scores for some secondary outcomes suggests further trials are warranted.ISRCTN ISRCTN85562386.

  2. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnia, M; Ziegler, J; Sander, J; Uhlig, A; Schaefer, S; Vollstedt, S; Glatter, M; Abel, S; Recknagel, S; Schusser, G F; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Zeyner, A

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates) of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to further confirm the causality between HGA occurrence and disease outbreak by seed sampling during an outbreak and the determination of i) HGA in seeds and of ii) HGA and MCPA-conjugates in urine and serum of diseased horses. Furthermore, cograzing healthy horses, which were present on AM affected pastures, were also investigated. AM-pastures in Germany were visited to identify seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus and serum (n = 8) as well as urine (n = 6) from a total of 16 diseased horses were analyzed for amino acid composition by LC-ESI-MS/MS, with a special focus on the content of HGA. Additionally, the content of its toxic metabolite was measured in its conjugated form in body fluids (UPLC-MS/MS). The seeds contained 1.7-319.8 μg HGA/g seed. The content of HGA in serum of affected horses ranged from 387.8-8493.8 μg/L (controls horses on AM-pastures showed higher serum (108.8 ± 83.76 μg/L) and urine concentrations (26.9 ± 7.39 μg/L) compared to control horses, but lower concentrations compared to diseased horses. The range of MCPA-carnitine and creatinine concentrations found in diseased horses in serum and urine were 0.17-0.65 mmol/L (controls horses were higher compared to controls. Thus, the causal link between HGA intoxication and disease outbreak could be further substantiated, and the early detection of HGA in cograzing horses, which are clinically normal, might be a promising step in prophylaxis.

  3. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bochnia

    Full Text Available Hypoglycin A (HGA in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to further confirm the causality between HGA occurrence and disease outbreak by seed sampling during an outbreak and the determination of i HGA in seeds and of ii HGA and MCPA-conjugates in urine and serum of diseased horses. Furthermore, cograzing healthy horses, which were present on AM affected pastures, were also investigated. AM-pastures in Germany were visited to identify seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus and serum (n = 8 as well as urine (n = 6 from a total of 16 diseased horses were analyzed for amino acid composition by LC-ESI-MS/MS, with a special focus on the content of HGA. Additionally, the content of its toxic metabolite was measured in its conjugated form in body fluids (UPLC-MS/MS. The seeds contained 1.7-319.8 μg HGA/g seed. The content of HGA in serum of affected horses ranged from 387.8-8493.8 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L, and in urine from 143.8-926.4 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L, respectively. Healthy cograzing horses on AM-pastures showed higher serum (108.8 ± 83.76 μg/L and urine concentrations (26.9 ± 7.39 μg/L compared to control horses, but lower concentrations compared to diseased horses. The range of MCPA-carnitine and creatinine concentrations found in diseased horses in serum and urine were 0.17-0.65 mmol/L (controls < 0.01, and 0.34-2.05 μmol/mmoL (controls < 0.001, respectively. MCPA-glycine levels in urine of cograzing horses were higher compared to controls. Thus, the causal link between HGA intoxication and disease outbreak

  4. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yatağan basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    , Sapindaceae (Acer), Ulmaceae (Cedrelospermum, Ulmus, Zelkova), and Zingiberales (Spirematospermum). In addition, more than two thousand plant macrofossils were collected in the course of repeated field trips, including remains of Pinaceae, Berberidiaceae (Mahonia), Betulaceae (Alnus, Carpinus), Buxaceae (Buxus), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus), Lauraceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae (Myrica), Rosaceae, Salicaceae (Populus, Salix), Sapindaceae (Acer), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Typhaceae (Typha), Ulmaceae (Zelkova). A combined analysis integrating these rich and diverse plant macro- and microfossil records will lead to a better understanding and refined reconstruction of the vegetation in the Yatağan basin during the middle to late Miocene.

  5. Fungal Responses to Anthropogenic N Deposition: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, L.; Gutknecht, J.; Kennedy, P.

    2017-12-01

    Fungi mediate primary productivity via the decay of organic matter and the formation of mycorrhizal associations. Short-term experimental manipulations reveal that nitrogen (N) addition slows decomposition and decreases plant reliance on fungal symbionts. However, it remains unclear if the responses observed in experimental systems apply to natural forests, where the addition of N via atmospheric deposition has taken place over much longer time periods. To address this discrepancy, we measured N concentration and isotopic composition in leaf and sporocarp tissue of herbarium specimens collected over the last 120 years in the Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota, USA. We selected specimens from two fungal genera (Marasmius, Amanita) and two plant genera (Acer, Betula) due to their differing ability to form ectomycorrhizal associations as well as extensive representation in the UMN Bell Museum collections (1890 - 2010). Independent of taxonomy and mycorrhizal association, we observed consistent and significant decreases in foliar δ15N and sporocarp δ15N values through time (mixed effects model; b = -0.046; F = 42.0; P < 0.001). Furthermore, N concentration significantly decreased over the last 12 decades in Betula leaves (ectomycorrhizal host; r2 = 0.24; P = 0.003) and was marginally significant in Marasmius sporocarps (saprotrophic fungi ; r2 = 0.10 P = 0.085), despite no significant change in Amanita (ectomycorrhizal fungi) or Acer (non-mycorrhizal host) N content. The declining foliar δ15N and foliar N concentrations suggest that despite significant atmospheric N input during the latter half of the 20th century, soil N availability in MN forests has actually declined. Furthermore, concomitant declines in foliar and sporocarp δ15N did not indicate a shrinking fungal role in temperate forest N cycling. We hypothesize that interactions among global change agents (i.e., N deposition and elevated atmospheric CO2) may be leading to enhanced ecosystem N

  6. Tree phyllosphere bacterial communities: exploring the magnitude of intra- and inter-individual variation among host species

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    Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The diversity and composition of the microbial community of tree leaves (the phyllosphere varies among trees and host species and along spatial, temporal, and environmental gradients. Phyllosphere community variation within the canopy of an individual tree exists but the importance of this variation relative to among-tree and among-species variation is poorly understood. Sampling techniques employed for phyllosphere studies include picking leaves from one canopy location to mixing randomly selected leaves from throughout the canopy. In this context, our goal was to characterize the relative importance of intra-individual variation in phyllosphere communities across multiple species, and compare this variation to inter-individual and interspecific variation of phyllosphere epiphytic bacterial communities in a natural temperate forest in Quebec, Canada. Methods We targeted five dominant temperate forest tree species including angiosperms and gymnosperms: Acer saccharum, Acer rubrum, Betula papyrifera, Abies balsamea and Picea glauca. For one randomly selected tree of each species, we sampled microbial communities at six distinct canopy locations: bottom-canopy (1–2 m height, the four cardinal points of mid-canopy (2–4 m height, and the top-canopy (4–6 m height. We also collected bottom-canopy leaves from five additional trees from each species. Results Based on an analysis of bacterial community structure measured via Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S gene, we demonstrate that 65% of the intra-individual variation in leaf bacterial community structure could be attributed to the effect of inter-individual and inter-specific differences while the effect of canopy location was not significant. In comparison, host species identity explains 47% of inter-individual and inter-specific variation in leaf bacterial community structure followed by individual identity (32% and canopy location (6%. Discussion Our results suggest that

  7. CHANGES IN THE ACTIVE FLOODPLAIN VEGETATION OF THE SZIGETKÖZ

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    I. HAHN

    2011-04-01

    , a 30 m wide belt of white willow (Salix alba has developed. Above this, a zone of water-demanding tall forb community has established which tolerates temporary inundation. Further away up to the original shoreline, a strip of vegetation composed of box elder (Acer negundo has appeared. Unlike the white willow belt, this zone developed slowly. At first, knee-high box elder saplings vegetated in the dry grassland, but once their roots has reached permanently wet soil layers, their growth has greatly accelerated. In the former riverbed, the mass appearance of invasive plants (Acer negundo, Ailanthus altissima, Solidago gigantea, Aster lanceolatus, Fallopia x bohemica raises serious concerns for nature protection.

  8. Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A

    2010-11-01

    In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively.

  9. Physiological, morphological and allocational plasticity in understory deciduous trees: importance of plant size and light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagrange, Sylvain; Messier, Christian; Lechowicz, Martin J; Dizengremel, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    In a 4-year study, we investigated changes in leaf physiology, crown morphology and whole-tree biomass allocation in seedlings and saplings of shade-tolerant sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and intermediate shade-tolerant yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) growing in natural understory light (0.5 to 35% of full sunlight) or in understory light reduced by 50% with shade nets to simulate the effect of gap closure. Leaf physiological parameters were mainly influenced by the light gradient, whereas crown morphological and whole-tree allocational parameters were mainly influenced by tree size. No single physiological, morphological or allocational trait was identified that could explain the difference in shade tolerance between the species. Yellow birch had higher growth rates, biomass allocation to branches and leaf physiological plasticity and lower crown morphological plasticity in unmodified understory light than sugar maple. Sugar maple did not display significant physiological plasticity, but showed variation with tree size in both crown morphology and whole-tree biomass allocation. When sugar maple was small, a greater proportion of whole-tree biomass was allocated to roots. However, physiological differences between the species decreased with decreasing light and most morphological and allocational differences tended to disappear with increasing tree size, suggesting that many species differences in shade-tolerance are expressed mainly during the seedling stage. Understory trees of both species survived for 4 years under shade nets, possibly because of higher plasticity when small and the use of stored reserves when taller. Copyright 2004 Heron Publishing

  10. Measurement of top quark pairs production cross-section in the semi-leptonic channel with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Di Sipio, Riccardo; Bruni, G; Bellagamba, L

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is about three major aspects of the identification of top quarks. First comes the understanding of their production mechanism, their decay channels and how to translate theoretical formulae into programs that can simulate such physical processes using Monte Carlo techniques. In particular, the author has been involved in the introduction of the POWHEG generator in the framework of the ATLAS experiment. POWHEG is now fully used as the benchmark program for the simulation of ttbar pairs production and decay, along with MC@NLO and AcerMC: this will be shown in chapter one. The second chapter illustrates the ATLAS detectors and its sub-units, such as calorimeters and muon chambers. It is very important to evaluate their efficiency in order to fully understand what happens during the passage of radiation through the detector and to use this knowledge in the calculation of final quantities such as the ttbar production cross section. The last part of this thesis concerns the evaluation of this quantity d...

  11. Preparation and characterisation of biodegradable pollen-chitosan microcapsules and its application in heavy metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargın, İdris; Kaya, Murat; Arslan, Gulsin; Baran, Talat; Ceter, Talip

    2015-02-01

    Biosorbents have been widely used in heavy metal removal. New resources should be exploited to develop more efficient biosorbents. This study reports the preparation of three novel chitosan microcapsules from pollens of three common, wind-pollinated plants (Acer negundo, Cupressus sempervirens and Populus nigra). The microcapsules were characterized (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis) and used in removal of heavy metal ions: Cd(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II). Their sorption capacities were compared to those of cross-linked chitosan beads without pollen grains. C. sempervirens-chitosan microcapsules exhibited better performance (Cd(II): 65.98; Cu(II): 67.10 and Zn(II): 49.55 mg g(-1)) than the other microcapsules and the cross-linked beads. A. negundo-chitosan microcapsules were more efficient in Cr(III) (70.40 mg g(-1)) removal. P. nigra-chitosan microcapsules were found to be less efficient. Chitosan-pollen microcapsules (except P. nigra-chitosan microcapsules) can be used in heavy metal removal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical and chemical properties of some imported woods and their degradation by termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R; Sundararaj, R

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood.

  13. Pixel Strength and Digitization of Radiographs

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    B Aarthi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a pilot study to compare the digitized images of panoramic radiographs with the original film images for perceived clarity and diagnostic quality, and to make comparison amongst the digitized film images captured by a digital camera at different resolution settings to assess if differences in clarity and/or diagnostic quality existed. Eight orthopantomograms were photographed using a digital camera, Nikon Finepix S7000, at four different resolution settings - 1 M pix, 3 M pix, 6M pix and 12 M pix respectively. These thirty two digital images were transferred to a laptop computer, Acer Travelmate 290 E, saved as JPEG files and viewed using ′Planmeca Dimaxis′ software. Five observers made comparison between the film and digitized images and also amongst the images digitized with various pixel strengths. Images were ranked for clarity and diagnostic quality. Data was analyzed using statistical tests. Results indicated no significant difference in clarity and diagnostic quality between conventional radiographs and their corresponding digitized images. The images digitized with the highest resolution were better than those digitized with the other lower resolutions.

  14. Habitat diversity of the Multicolored Asian ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in agricultural and arboreal ecosystems: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandereycken, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, native to Asia, is an invasive species in many European and American countries. Initially introduced as a biological control agent against aphids and coccids in greenhouses, this alien species rapidly invaded many habitats such as forests, meadows, wetlands, and agricultural crops. This paper reviews the habitats (forests, crops, herbs, gardens and orchards where H. axyridis has been observed, either during insect samplings or as part of Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs. Studies have referenced H. axyridis on 106 plant taxa (35 arboreal species, 21 crop species, 27 herbaceous species, 11 ornamental species, and 12 orchard species and have identified 89 plant-prey relationships (34 arboreal species, 16 crop species, 13 herbaceous species, 10 ornamental species, and 16 orchard species in different countries. Harmonia axyridis is more abundant in forest areas, principally on Acer, Salix, Tilia and Quercus, than in agroecosystems. Some plant species, such as Urtica dioica L., which surround crops, contain large numbers of H. axyridis and could constitute important reserves of this alien species in advance of aphid invasions into crops. This review highlights the polyphagy and eurytopic aspect of H. axyridis.

  15. New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part I--ascomycotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2004-01-01

    During our observations in the SE part of the Carnic Alps in the year 2003 we were able to collect and identify 35 ascomycetes on trees and dead wood. Among these one can find numerous ascomycetes of different orders e.g. Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes and Discomycetes. Some species like Botryosphaeria ribis GROSENLUCHER & DUGGAR on Ribes alpinum L., Dothiora pyrenophora (FR.) FR. on Sorbus aucuparia L., Gemmamyces piceae (BORTH.) CASAGO. on Picea excelsa (LAM.) LINK, Glomerella montana (SACC.) v. ARX & E. MULLER on Sesleria caerulea (L.) ARD, Hymenoscyphus immutabilis (Fuck.) Dennis on Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Hysterographium fraxini (PERS. Ex. FR.) de Not. on Fraxinus ornus L., Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) DENNIS [= Trichascyphella willkommii (Hartig) NANNF.] on Larix decidua MILL.,Leptosphaeria lycopodina (Mont.) SACC. on Lycopodium annotinum L., Mollisia adenostylidis REHM. on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Pezicula cinnamomea (DC.)SACC. [ana: Cryptosporiopsis quercina PETRAK] on Quercus robur L., Pyrenopeziza petiolaris (A. & S. Ex FR.) NANNF. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Tapesia rosae (PERS.) FUCKEL on Rosa canina L., are new for this area. All specimen are deposited in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha.

  16. Low Light Availability Associated with American Beech Is the Main Factor for Reduced Sugar Maple Seedling Survival and Growth Rates in a Hardwood Forest of Southern Quebec

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    Alexandre Collin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have reported a marked increase in American beech dominance (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. relative to sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh. in late successional forests of North America. However, many factors have been proposed to explain this sudden shift in tree species composition. We investigated the microsite factors responsible for maple regeneration failure under maple-beech stands, focusing on both light availability and soil conditions. The survival and growth of maple seedlings planted in the natural soil and in pots with enriched soil were monitored for two years, as well as foliar nutrition and herbivory damages of natural seedlings. The results indicate that low light availability associated with the presence of beech is the primary factor leading to maple regeneration failures. Soil nutrient availability and foliar nutrition of natural seedlings did not differ between forest types. Yet, the results indicate that factors such as allelopathy and preferential herbivory on maple seedlings under beech could be superimposed effects that hinder maple regeneration. Under similar forests, a control of beech sapling abundance in the understory followed by selection cutting could be one way to promote and maintain maple populations in the longer term.

  17. Graph Transformation and Designing Parallel Sparse Matrix Algorithms beyond Data Dependence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.X. Lin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms are often parallelized based on data dependence analysis manually or by means of parallel compilers. Some vector/matrix computations such as the matrix-vector products with simple data dependence structures (data parallelism can be easily parallelized. For problems with more complicated data dependence structures, parallelization is less straightforward. The data dependence graph is a powerful means for designing and analyzing parallel algorithms. However, for sparse matrix computations, parallelization based on solely exploiting the existing parallelism in an algorithm does not always give satisfactory results. For example, the conventional Gaussian elimination algorithm for the solution of a tri-diagonal system is inherently sequential, so algorithms specially for parallel computation has to be designed. After briefly reviewing different parallelization approaches, a powerful graph formalism for designing parallel algorithms is introduced. This formalism will be discussed using a tri-diagonal system as an example. Its application to general matrix computations is also discussed. Its power in designing parallel algorithms beyond the ability of data dependence analysis is shown by means of a new algorithm called ACER (Alternating Cyclic Elimination and Reduction algorithm.

  18. The effect of microbial inocula on the growth of black locust, Siberian elm and silver maple seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnal-Jafari Timea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development of forest plants depend mostly on the soil microbial activity since no mineral or organic fertilizers are applied. Microbial processes can be activated and conditions for plants development improved with the introduction of selected microorganisms in the soil. With the aim of obtaining quality planting material in a shorter period of time, the effects of Azotobacter chroococcum and Streptomyces sp. on the early growth of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila and silver-leaf maple (Acer dasycarpum were investigated in this study. Microorganisms were applied individually and in a mixture (1:1. Plant height was measured on the 90th, 120th and 180th day after planting. Plant diameter, as well as the number of actinomycetes and azotobacters was measured at the end of the vegetation period (180 days after planting. Applied microorganisms had a positive effect on the seedling height in all three plant species, with the best effect found in the black locust. Effectiveness of applied microorganisms on seedling diameter was the highest in the silver-leaf maple. The largest number of azotobacters was found in the rhizosphere of black locust. Number of microorganisms from both groups was increased in the inoculated variants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43002

  19. MOSSES AS BIOINDICATORS OF AIR POLLUTION ALONG AN URBAN–AGRICULTURAL TRANSECT IN THE CREDIT RIVER WATERSHED, SOUTHERN ONTARIO, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cowden

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The activities associated with urbanization, such as vehicular traffic and industrial processes, lead to elevated emissions of atmospheric pollutants. Measuring the spatial extent of these pollutants is pivotal to identifying areas of concern and assessing mitigation measures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen using moss species along an urban–agricultural transition in the Credit River Watershed, southern Ontario. Thirteen species of moss were collected from Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum dominated forest stands across the study area, with only one moss species (Atrichum altercristatum commonly occurring. Heavy metal concentrations were variable between species; the Coefficient of Variation (CV for the majority of metals (Al, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, As, Sb and Pb was greater than ~50% across species. Nonetheless, metals exhibited similar trends, with the highest concentrations for Fe, followed by Al > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni > V > As > Cd > Sb > Hg across species. Heavy metal concentrations in Atrichum altercristatum exhibited lower variability between sites, with CV < 33% for most metals (Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Hg. Further, many metal concentrations were strongly correlated (e.g., Al, V, Cr, Fe, and As; r ≤ 0.90 suggesting common emission sources, such as wind blown dust from agricultural activities or vehicular traffic, both predominant throughout the watershed.

  20. Tree species and soil nutrient profiles in old-growth forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Alison; Perakis, Steven S.

    2011-01-01

    Old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest provide a unique opportunity to examine tree species – soil relationships in ecosystems that have developed without significant human disturbance. We characterized foliage, forest floor, and mineral soil nutrients associated with four canopy tree species (Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh)) in eight old-growth forests of the Oregon Coast Range. The greatest forest floor accumulations of C, N, P, Ca, Mg, and K occurred under Douglas-fir, primarily due to greater forest floor mass. In mineral soil, western hemlock exhibited significantly lower Ca concentration and sum of cations (Ca + Mg + K) than bigleaf maple, with intermediate values for Douglas-fir and western redcedar. Bigleaf maple explained most species-based differences in foliar nutrients, displaying high concentrations of N, P, Ca, Mg, and K. Foliar P and N:P variations largely reflected soil P variation across sites. The four tree species that we examined exhibited a number of individualistic effects on soil nutrient levels that contribute to biogeochemical heterogeneity in these ecosystems. Where fire suppression and long-term succession favor dominance by highly shade-tolerant western hemlock, our results suggest a potential for declines in both soil Ca availability and soil biogeochemical heterogeneity in old-growth forests.

  1. The leaf phenophase of deciduous species altered by land pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiaoke; Jiang, Bo; Li, Li

    2018-02-01

    It has been widely reported that the urban environment alters leaf and flowering phenophases; however, it remains unclear if land pavement is correlated with these alterations. In this paper, two popular deciduous urban trees in northern China, ash (Fraxinus chinensis) and maple (Acer truncatum), were planted in pervious and impervious pavements at three spacings (0.5 m × 0.5 m, 1.0 m × 1.0 m, and 2.0 m × 2.0 m apart). The beginning and end dates of the processes of leaf budburst and senescence were recorded in spring and fall of 2015, respectively. The results show that leaf budburst and senescence were significantly advanced in pavement compared to non-pavement lands. The date of full leaf budburst was earlier by 0.7-9.3 days for ash and by 0.3-2.3 days for maple under pavements than non-pavements, respectively. As tree spacing increases, the advanced days of leaf budburst became longer. Our results clearly indicate that alteration of leaf phenophases is attributed to land pavement, which should be taken into consideration in urban planning and urban plant management.

  2. Incidence of bark- and wood-boring insects in firewood: a survey at Michigan's Mackinac Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Robert A; Petrice, Toby R; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2010-10-01

    Firewood is a major pathway for the inadvertent movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. After discovery of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southeastern Michigan in 2002, quarantines were enacted including prohibition of transporting firewood across the Mackinac Bridge between Michigan's Lower and Upper peninsulas. Drivers are required to surrender firewood before crossing the bridge. We surveyed recently surrendered firewood in April, July, and September 2008 and categorized it by genus, cross-sectional shape (whole, half, or quarter), approximate age (years since it was a live tree), presence of bark, and evidence of bark- and wood-boring insects. The 1045 pieces of firewood examined represented 21 tree genera: primarily Acer (30%), Quercus (18%), Fraxinus (15%), Ulmus (12%), Betula (5%), and Prunus (5%). Live borers (Bostrichoidea, Brentidae, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Cossidae, Curculionidae [Scolytinae and non-Scolytinae], and Siricidae) were found in 23% of the pieces and another 41% had evidence of previous borer infestation. Of the 152 Fraxinus firewood pieces, 13% had evidence of past A. planipennis infestation, but we found no live A. planipennis. We discuss national "don't move firewood" campaigns and U.S. imports of fuelwood. During 1996-2009, the United States imported fuelwood valued at > dollars U.S. 98 million from 34 countries.

  3. Scientific Literacy and Student Attitudes: Perspectives from PISA 2006 science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger; McCrae, Barry

    2011-01-01

    International assessments provide important knowledge about science education and help inform decisions about policies, programmes, and practices in participating countries. In 2006, science was the primary domain for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), supported by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). Compared to the school curriculum orientation of Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS), PISA provides a perspective that emphasises the application of knowledge to science and technology-related life situations. The orientation of PISA includes both knowledge and attitudes as these contribute to students' competencies that are central to scientific literacy. In addition to students' knowledge and competencies, the 2006 PISA survey gathered data on students' interest in science, support for scientific enquiry, and responsibility towards resources and environments. The survey used both a non-contextualised student questionnaire and contextualised questions. The latter is an innovative approach which embedded attitudinal questions at the conclusion of about two-thirds of the test units. The results presented in this article make connections between students' attitudes and interests in science and scientific literacy.

  4. Potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for the characterisation of maple syrup flavours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneton, Bernard; Clément, Alain; Lagacé, Luc

    2013-10-01

    Maple syrup has high maket value. It is produced in North East America from the heat-evaporated sap of Acer saccharum Marshall. For marketing purposes, there is interest in defining its flavour profile in a consistent and repeatable manner. An experiment was undertaken to explore the potential of autofluorescence of maple syrup induced at 275 and 360 nm to characterise flavours. A mixed data factor analysis revealed two independent groups of variables. One represents early season woody and late season empyreumatic flavours. The other is related to off-flavour, confectionery and maple flavours. Maple and confectionery flavours are subtle, difficult to distinguish and opposed to off-flavour. There were clear relationships among the two groups and fluorescence profiles. For each of the five basic flavours, discriminant models based on partial least squares regressions were developed. For each sample of syrup, flavours combined to form flavour profiles, and the results from the five discriminant models were aggregated to reproduce these profiles. For excitation at 275 nm, the woody/off-flavour and confectionery/empyreumatic/maple flavour profiles were classified correctly 86 and 78% of the time (cross-validation) respectively. Induced autofluorescence spectra were shown to contain information related to maple syrup flavours. This fluorescence-flavour relationship is not considered quantitative yet, and further research avenues are proposed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Environmental studies in two communes of Santiago de Chile by the analysis of magnetic properties of particulate matter deposited on leaves of roadside trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, David; Aguilar, Bertha; Fuentealba, Raúl; Préndez, Margarita

    2017-03-01

    Emissions from motor vehicles are considered to be one of the main sources of airborne particulate matter in Santiago. International researchers have shown that particulate matter contains metal oxides and magnetic particles, both of which are emitted mainly from vehicles exhaust pipes. On the other hand, trees are effective in reducing such contamination, so that they act as passive collectors of particulate matter. This work presents the results obtained from the first magnetic study of the particulate matter collected in two areas of the city of Santiago de Chile. Magnetic susceptibility and Saturation Isothermic Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) were determined in leaves from abundant urban trees and from urban dust samples. Results indicate that most of the samples contain ferromagnetic minerals with magnetite (Fe3O4) as the main carrier. Values of magnetic susceptibility (SI ×10-6 m3/kg) in the range 0.04-0.24 for leaves and in the range 10-45 for urban dust were determinated. In one of the city areas studied, significant correlation between the particulate matter deposited on leaves of Platanus orientalis and measured traffic flows was obtained. In addition, it was possible to estimate that the species Platanus orientalis and Acer negundo have a better ability to capture particulate matter than the species Robinia pseudoacacia.

  6. Photosynthetic Pigments as Parameters/Indicators of Tree Tolerance to Urban Environment (Plovdiv, Bulgaria

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    Slaveya Petrova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As polluted air is a stress factor that contributes to the decline of trees in urban areas, we aimed to investigate the complex impact of anthropogenic activity on chlorophylls and carotenoids content of four tree species (Acer heldreichii Boiss., Tilia tomentosa Moench, Fraxinus excelsior L. and Pinus nigra L.. Seedlings were purchased from certified greenery and planted by us at four selected sites in the city of Plovdiv (Bulgaria during spring of 2015. Leaf samples were taken monthly and photosynthetic pigments content was measured immediately after sampling. Results of this preliminary study confirmed that pigment levels in plants varied between species, locations and seasons. Although an extension to the above work is necessary to quantify possible differences between the levels at which photosynthetic components are affected, it is obvious that both ratios chlorophyll a/b and chlorophylls/carotenoids could serve as very useful indicators of stress level. Because of the non-specificity in pigment reaction to different type of anthropogenic impact, we recommended to apply a combination among pigments concentration and another parameters (morphological, biochemical, physiological for the targets of biomonitoring.

  7. Actively station: Effects on global cognition of mature adults and healthy elderly program using eletronic games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nascimento Ordonez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies show that aging is accompanied by decline in cognitive functions but also indicate that interventions, such as training on electronic games, can enhance performance and promote maintenance of cognitive abilities in healthy older adults. Objective: To investigate the effects of an electronic game program, called Actively Station, on the performance of global cognition of adults aged over 50 years. Methods: 124 mature and elderly adults enrolled in the "Actively Station" cognitive stimulation program of São Caetano do Sul City, in the State of São Paulo, participated in training for learning of electronic games. Participants were divided into two groups: training group (TG n=102 and control group (CG n=22. Protocol: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R, the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q, the scale of frequency of forgetfulness, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI, the Global Satisfaction with Life Scale, and two scales on learning in the training. Results: The cognitive performance of the TG improved significantly after the program, particularly in the domains of language and memory, and there was a decrease on the anxiety index and frequency of memory complaints, when compared to the CG. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the acquisition of new knowledge and the use of new stimuli, such as electronic games, can promote improvements in cognition and mood and reduce the frequency of memory complaints.

  8. Silencio en la contratación. Análisis del Código Civil peruano y de la Convención de Viena sobre compraventa interna- cional de mercaderías

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cárdenas Rodríguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se enfoca el rol del silencio en la celebración de contratos. Más que un estudio de teoría general, se busca un acer- camiento práctico a la aplicación de la normativa del Derecho peruano y de la Convención de Viena. Para ello se incluyen alusiones a pronunciamientos jurisprudenciales sobre: contratos de seguro, fianza y compraventa internacional. Se brinda especial atención a los casos donde exista un uso para el comercio o una práctica entre las partes de contratación sin respuesta expresa. Asimismo, se explica la importancia de la buena fe en la calificación del silencio circunstanciado, pues en ocasiones se deriva de ella un deber o una carga de hablar en caso de que no se quiera que se dote al silencio de valor positivo conducente a la conclusión del contrato. Finalmente, se resalta el papel de la buena fe y la costumbre en pos de una actitud flexible frente a novedosos supuestos y perma- nentes exigencias que impone la práctica.

  9. Molecular phylogeny reveals a core clade of Rhytismatales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H; Johnston, P R; Park, D; Minter, D W

    2011-01-01

    Rhytismatales (Leotiomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota) are an order of mostly plant-associated ascomycetes with a global distribution. Well known taxa include the Rhytisma tar spots on Acer spp. and several needle-cast pathogens in genera Lophodermium and Meloderma. Critical studies are lacking at all taxonomic ranks from order to species, and in particular the genus taxonomy in the order has been criticized for being unnatural. We used nuclear LSU and mitochondrial SSU sequences in Bayesian phylogenetic analyses to define a core clade of Rhytismatales sensu stricto. Some of the genera traditionally placed within the Rhytismatales, Ascodichaena, Marthamyces, Mellitiosporium, Potebniamyces, Propolis and Pseudophacidium, are shown to be phylogenetically distinct, all related to various other taxa at present placed in the polyphyletic Helotiales. Within the core clade only Cudonia, Spathularia and Terriera are supported as monophyletic. The large genera Coccomyces, Hypoderma and Lophodermium all are polyphyletic as are a few smaller genera. The traditionally used characters of ascoma and spore shape are shown to be unreliable for the delimitation of monophyletic genera but in some cases can be useful when combined with other characters. In this study we provide 72 new nrLSU and 64 new mtSSU sequences. Together with publicly available sequences data for 103 specimens representing 91 species of Rhytismatales are now available. Despite this taxon sampling intensity is still too low to propose an alternative generic taxonomy.

  10. Vascular flora of the Prometanj site (Mokra Gora, northern Prokletije Mt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radak Boris Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic research of the Prometanj site, located in the northwestern part of Mokra Gora Mt. along the right bank of the Ibar River, was conducted during 2011. A total of 340 species and five subspecies of vascular plant taxa were registered. Families with the largest number of species were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, while the most numerous genera were Trifolium, Acer, Campanula, Geranium, Veronica, Ranunculus and Vicia. Floral elements of analyzed plant taxa were grouped into ten areal types, with domination of Central European and Eurasian and significant participation of Mediterranean-Submediterranean. The biological spectrum was characterized by the dominance of hemicryptophytes. Five strictly protected and 43 protected species were registered. Prometanj is the only remaining locality in Serbia for tertiary species Adenophora liliifolia. Floristic research of Prometanj should be extended to entire area of Mokra Gora Mt. together with the Ibar River gorge, in order to explore the whole botanical richness of this area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173030

  11. Análisis post-mortem de materiales refractarios alúmina-magnesia-carbono de uso siderúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A. Calvo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realiza el estudio post-mortem de un ladrillo alúmina-magnesia-carbono (AMC usado en el piso de una cuchara de acería, utilizando microscopía electrónica de barrido acoplada a espectroscopia de energía dispersiva (MEB/EES, difracción de rayos X (DRX, análisis térmico diferencial y termogravimétrico (ATD/ATG, y medidas de densidad y porosidad. Se cortaron muestras a diferentes distancias respecto a la cara de trabajo del ladrillo y los resultados se comparan con los obtenidos en la caracterización del material virgen (sin uso, con el objetivo de determinar la degradación del refractario en servicio. Se observó la formación de nuevas fases que evidencian la interacción con la escoria durante el servicio del material. También se determinó que la resina usada como ligante piroliza en servicio, que el material post-mortem conserva al menos parte del contenido inicial de grafito, y que la magnesia contenida en el refractario reacciona por completo durante el uso del ladrillo, produciendo espinela MgAl2O4.

  12. Comparative behavior of three long-lived radionuclides in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with studies in three forest ecosystems in eastern Tennessee, an area of rich temperate deciduous forests, sometimes referred to as mixed mesophytic forests. Two of these forest ecosystems were contaminated as a result of waste disposal operations. The third was experimentally tagged with millicurie quantities of 137 Cs. One of these ecosystems is a floodplain forest that is typical of this region. This forest has been growing on alluvial soils since 1944. Prior to that time the area was a temporary holding pond within White Oak Creek which received radioactive effluents from ORNL. Radiocesium was deposited in the pond sediments as were 90 Sr, 239 Pu, 241 Am, and other radionuclides. The dam which created the pond failed in late 1944, and the area was allowed to revert to natural conditions. The result was the development of a floodplain forest consisting of three different forest communities. The soils are fertile alluvials representative of bottomlands. The overstory tree species are principally ash, sycamore, boxelder, willow, and sweetgum (Fraxinus americana L., Plantanus occidentalis L., Acer negundo L., Salix nigra Marsh, and Liquidambar styraciflua L., respectively)

  13. EI Emilio: niño y educación

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    MARTHA SOLEDAD MONTERO GONZÁLEZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En elpresente artículo sepretende mostrar latrayectoria propuesta por Rousseau para hablar de laconcepción de niño y de la concepción de educación en su obra "El Emilio". Fsta obra, publicada porJuan Jacoba Rousseau, en1762, centra supreocupación enlaeducación del individuo, cuyo referente está enlaformación del niño durante suinfancia, suadolescenciaysujuventud. Afirma que todo "está bien enelniño alsalir de las manos del autor de lanaturalezayque todo degenera enlas manos del hombre" (Rousseau, 2008:8. Con esta a6rmación sedainicio, eneste texto, alatrayectoria recorrida por Rousseau a propósito de suconcepción de niño yde educación. Él concibe alniño como un sernatural, alseñalar que laeducación procurada por el hombre, en general, es un contrasentido. Puesto que el mismo hombre se preocupa más de "doblegar, des6guraryapartar" (4 alniño de simismo, contrariandosunaíuraleza mediante elmecanismo de laautoridad, que debe saüsíacer sus necesidades para complementar loque lehace falta.

  14. Effects of Repeated Growing Season Prescribed Fire on the Structure and Composition of Pine–Hardwood Forests in the Southeastern Piedmont, USA

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    Matthew J. Reilly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of repeated growing season prescribed fire on the structure and composition of mixed pine–hardwood forests in the southeastern Piedmont region, Georgia, USA. Plots were burned two to four times over an eight-year period with low intensity surface fires during one of four six-week long periods from early April to mid-September. Density of saplings (0.25–11.6 cm diameter at breast height was significantly reduced after one or two fires during the first four-year period. Sapling density declined with additional burning over the next four years, but density of mesic hardwoods including sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua and red maple (Acer rubrum remained relatively high (~865 stems ha−1. Repeated burning had little effect on density or basal area of trees (≥11.7 cm dbh and changes in overstory structure were limited to small increases in the quadratic mean diameter of all trees and pines. We found little evidence to suggest differential effects on structure or composition due to timing of burn within the growing season. Although repeated growing season burning alters midstory structure and composition, burning alone is unlikely to result in immediate shifts in overstory composition or structure in mixed pine–hardwood forests of the southeastern Piedmont region.

  15. Hardwood re-sprout control in hydrologically restored Carolina Bay depression wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Lee, Justin

    2009-06-01

    Carolina bays are isolated depression wetlands located in the upper coastal plain region of the eastern Unites States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches as a result of agricultural conversion. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna species. Previous bay restoration projects have identified woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. Three bays were hydrologically restored on the Savannah River Site, SC, by plugging drainage ditches. Residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays were harvested and the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change was monitored. A foliar herbicide approved for use in wetlands (Habitat® (Isopropylamine salt of Imazapyr)) was applied on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acer rubrum L.), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), and water oak (Quercus nigra L.) sprouting. The effectiveness of the foliar herbicide was tested across a hydrologic gradient in an effort to better understand the relationship between depth and duration of flooding, the intensity of hardwood re-sprout pressure, and the need for hardwood management practices such as herbicide application.

  16. Plasticity in bundle sheath extensions of heterobaric leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Douglas J; McInerney, Francesca A; Kouwenberg, Lenny L R; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A

    2012-07-01

    Leaf venation is linked to physiological performance, playing a critical role in ecosystem function. Despite the importance of leaf venation, associated bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) remain largely unstudied. Here, we quantify plasticity in the spacing of BSEs over irradiance and precipitation gradients. Because physiological function(s) of BSEs remain uncertain, we additionally explored a link between BSEs and water use efficiency (WUE). We sampled leaves of heterobaric trees along intracrown irradiance gradients in natural environments and growth chambers and correlated BSE spacing to incident irradiance. Additionally, we sampled leaves along a precipitation gradient and correlated BSE spacing to precipitation and bulk δ(13)C, a proxy for intrinsic WUE. BSE spacing was quantified using a novel semiautomatic method on fresh leaf tissue. With increased irradiance or decreased precipitation, Liquidambar styraciflua decreased BSE spacing, while Acer saccharum showed little variation in BSE spacing. Two additional species, Quercus robur and Platanus occidentalis, decreased BSE spacing with increased irradiance in growth chambers. BSE spacing correlated with bulk δ(13)C, a proxy for WUE in L. styraciflua, Q. robur, and P. occidentalis leaves but not in leaves of A. saccharum. We demonstrated that BSE spacing is plastic with respect to irradiance or precipitation and independent from veins, indicating BSE involvement in leaf adaptation to a microenvironment. Plasticity in BSE spacing was correlated with WUE only in some species, not supporting a function in water relations. We discuss a possible link between BSE plasticity and life history, particularly canopy position.

  17. Insect herbivores increase mortality and reduce tree seedling growth of some species in temperate forest canopy gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkepile, Deron E.; Parker, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Insect herbivores help maintain forest diversity through selective predation on seedlings of vulnerable tree species. Although the role of natural enemies has been well-studied in tropical systems, relatively few studies have experimentally manipulated insect abundance in temperate forests and tracked impacts over multiple years. We conducted a three-year experiment (2012–2014) deterring insect herbivores from seedlings in new treefall gaps in deciduous hardwood forests in Maryland. During this study, we tracked recruitment of all tree seedlings, as well as survivorship and growth of 889 individual seedlings from five tree species: Acer rubrum, Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus spp., Liriodendron tulipifera, and Liquidambar styraciflua. Insect herbivores had little effect on recruitment of any tree species, although there was a weak indication that recruitment of A. rubrum was higher in the presence of herbivores. Insect herbivores reduced survivorship of L. tulipifera, but had no significant effects on A. rubrum, Fraxinus spp., F. grandifolia, or L. styraciflua. Additionally, insects reduced growth rates of early pioneer species A. rubrum, L. tulipifera, and L. styraciflua, but had little effect on more shade-tolerant species F. grandifolia and Fraxinus spp. Overall, by negatively impacting growth and survivorship of early pioneer species, forest insects may play an important but relatively cryptic role in forest gap dynamics, with potentially interesting impacts on the overall maintenance of diversity. PMID:28344904

  18. Airborne pollen spectrum and hay fever type prevalence in Vinnitsa, central Ukraine

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    Victoria Valeriivna Rodinkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main pollen spectrum in relation to patients’ sensitivity determined in the ambient air of Vinnitsa city located in central Ukraine. The study performed by gravimetric sampling in the years 1999–2000 and by volumetric sampling in the years 2009–2014 showed that Urtica, Betula, Pinus, Alnus, Fraxinus, Ambrosia, Artemisia, Juglans, Carpinus, Populus, Quercus, Acer, Salix, Poaceae, Amarathaceae, and Polygonaceae pollen grains are prevalent among the airborne allergen types in the urban atmosphere. The principal pollen types remain the same but over time their quantities have changed. The relative abundance of Carpinus and Amaranthaceae airborne pollen decreased while the fraction of Urtica pollen increased in the last decade. From 50 to 69 pollen types were determined in the ambient air depending on the season. From 24 to 27 pollen types represented woody plants and from 22 to 46 pollen types belonged to the herbaceous plants. A considerable decrease in herbal pollen types is noted in the Vinnitsa air at present. It was shown that children were sensitive to weed pollen grains, including ragweed, mugwort, and grass, while adults were more sensitive to tree and grass pollen grains. Further studies of the pollen spectrum in the ambient air of this city are required in order to control the hay fever symptoms.

  19. Arboriculture for quality timber production with hardwood: results after 20 years from planting

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    Barreca L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, production forestry plantations has been developed using typical forest tree species, or species of agricultural interest, such as walnut and cherry. The use of these species in a context different than the traditional one put a number of problems not easy to solve. The present study has considered some timber-quality plantations of hardwoods species (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Prunus avium L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Juglans regia L. established on the Serre Catanzaresi (VV, with the aim of assessing the achievements obtained both in quantitative (growth and qualitative (shape of the stems, degree of branching terms. The results of the analyses carried out revealed that the studied plantations are an interesting example of possibilities and limits of cultivation of commonly used hardwoods in relation to the practices adopted. The observed differences are mainly related to the different species used. Some of them (sycamore and wild cherry guaranteed satisfactory results, others (ash and walnut showed severe limitations, due to the poor quality of planting material, the incompatibility between the species needs and site characteristics, or because these species usually constitute mixed populations.

  20. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood. PMID:23906349

  1. Economic Cost-Analysis of the Impact of Container Size on Transplanted Tree Value

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    Lauren M. Garcia Chance

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The benefits and costs of varying container sizes have yet to be fully evaluated to determine which container size affords the most advantageous opportunity for consumers. To determine value of the tree following transplant, clonal replicates of Vitex agnus-castus L. [Chaste Tree], Acer rubrum L. var. drummondii (Hook. & Arn. ex Nutt. Sarg. [Drummond Red Maple], and Taxodium distichum (L. Rich. [Baldcypress] were grown under common conditions in each of five container sizes 3.5, 11.7, 23.3, 97.8 or 175.0 L, respectively (#1, 3, 7, 25 or 45. In June 2013, six trees of each container size and species were transplanted to a sandy clay loam field in College Station, Texas. To determine the increase in value over a two-year post-transplant period, height and caliper measurements were taken at the end of nursery production and again at the end of the second growing season in the field, October 2014. Utilizing industry standards, initial costs of materials and labor were then compared with the size of trees after two years. Replacement cost analysis after two growing seasons indicated a greater increase in value for 11.7 and 23.3 L trees compared to losses in value for some 175.0 L trees. In comparison with trees from larger containers, trees from smaller size containers experienced shorter establishment times and increased growth rates, thus creating a quicker return on investment for trees transplanted from the smaller container sizes.

  2. A paleoecological reconstruction of the Late Glacial and Holocene based on multidisciplinary studies at Steregoiu site (Gutai Mts., Romania

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    Angelica Feurdean

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution analyses of pollen, mineral magnetic properties, loss of ignition, lithostratigraphy and AMS 14C measurements of lake sediments and peat deposits accumulated in the former crater lake of Steregoiu (Gutâiului Mts., NW Romania, gave new and important information about vegetation and climate changes from the period GS-2 to the present. During the Lateglacial, three cold events were recorded: before 14,700 cal. years BP (GS-2, 14,050–13,800 cal. years BP (GI-1d, 12,900-11,500 cal. years BP (GS-1, and a warm climatic event between 13,800-12,950 cal. years BP (GI-1c to GL-1a. The Late Glacial/Holocene transition around 11,500 cal. years BP, was determined by an expansion of Betula, Alnus and Picea, followed by a rapid and strong expansion of Ulmus. At 10,700 cal. years BP, dense and highly diverse forests with Ulmus, Quercus, Tilia, Fraxinus and a few Acer and Corylus individuals dominated the area. Corylus and Picea were the dominant species in the forests from 10,150 to 8,500 cal. years BP. The first occurrence of single Fagus pollen grains was around 8,000 cal years BP. Only at 4,700 cal year BP Fagus and Carpinus became widespread and established trees in the local woodlands.

  3. Geoarchaeological investigations at Sormás-Török-földek, in Southwestern Transdanubia, Hungary

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    Katalin NÁFRÁDI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive and detailed picture was gained about the historical events and the natural environment of Southwestern Hungary at the beginning of the 5th millennia BC. Wood charcoal analysis provided site-related information about the natural milieu of the site. Anthracological analysis has not been carried out in Southwestern Hungary so far, whereby more than 3600 fragments of charred wood remains were identified. Our dataset was compared to pollen analytical, archaeobotanical and archaeological data to create a more accurate vegetation picture for this period of time and to reconstruct the utilization of wood during Middle and Late Neolithic.Charcoal assemblage reflects the composition of the woodland around the site. Based on the results a thermophilous Quercus forest mixed with Fagus, Fraxinus, Acer, Alnus and Ulmus existed in the study site during the Middle and Late Neolithic and different types of wood were used for fire wood and for construction purposes as well. Anthracological analysis of samples from Sormás-Török-földek enabled a more accurate vegetation reconstruction for the study site by the comparison to previously known pollen analytical data and added extra information regarding the local vegetation and wood utilization for the Middle and Late Neolithic.

  4. Seasonal variation of bacterial endophytes in urban trees

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    Shu Yi eShen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes, non-pathogenic bacteria residing within plants, contribute to the growth and development of plants and their ability to adapt to adverse conditions. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these bacteria, it is necessary to understand the extent to which endophytic communities vary between species and over time. The endophytes of Acer negundo, Ulmus pumila and Ulmus parvifolia were sampled over three seasons and analyzed using culture dependent and independent methods (culture on two media, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and tagged pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal amplicons. The majority of culturable endophytes isolated were Actinobacteria, and all the samples harbored Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Frigoribacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacilllus and Sphingomonas species. Regardless of culture medium used, only the culturable communities obtained in the winter for A. negundo could be distinguished from those of Ulmus spp.. In contrast, the nonculturable communities were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, particularly Erwinia, Ralstonia and Sanguibacter spp.. The presence and abundance of various bacterial classes and phyla changed with the changing seasons. Multivariate analysis on the culture independent data revealed significant community differences between the endophytic communities of A. negundo and Ulmus spp., but overall season was the main determinant of endophytic community structure. This study suggests investigations of the studies ofendophytic populations of urban trees should expect to find significant seasonal and species-specific community differences and sampling should proceed accordingly.

  5. Mud-plastered granary-baskets at a Celtic Oppidum near Čarnok (Vojvodina, Serbia

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    Medović Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Celtic Oppidum near Čarnok (Bačka, Vojvodina, Serbia remains of four mud-plastered granarybaskets were discovered. They are all dated to the period Gomolava VI-B (first half of the 1st century B.C.. Hulled barley and broomcorn millet were stored in the granary-baskets. The mesh of the granary-baskets was composed of young branches of oak tree (Quercus, common English elm tree (Ulmus cf. campestris L., poplar / willow (Populus / Salix, purgin buckthorn (Rhamnus cf. cathartica L., wayfaring tree (Viburnum cf. lantana L., spindle tree (Euonymus cf. europaeus L., barberry (Berberis vulgaris L. and a Pomoidae-tree. At least four different tree taxa were used for basket making. Construction of two-thousand-year old mud-plastered granary-baskets from the Pannonian plain is very similar to that of traditional granaries in some present-day villages in Africa. Additionally, one non-plastered basket was also discovered at Oppidum. It was build out of maple (Acer, barberry, buckthorn (Rhamnus and branches of a pomaceous fruits tree (Pomoidae. .

  6. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture.

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    Andrew Maxwell Phineas Jones

    Full Text Available Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL, thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP, a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies.

  7. Nutritional Value of Seaweed to Ruminants

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    Roger D. Applegate

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared the nutritional quality (apparent digestible dry matter (ADDM, crude protein, total phenolics, gross energy, of 3 seaweed species (Alaria esculenta, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosis to that of 3 woody browse species{Acer rubrum, Thuja occidentalis, Abies balsamea, lichen (Usnea spp., and winter rye (Secale cereals for ruminants. The ADDM's of the 3 seaweeds (63-80% DM were 11-167% DM higher and crude protein contents (12.1-14.6% DM were 68-186% DM higher than the 3 browse species. Seaweeds had lower total phenolics (5.5-10.3% DM and gross energy (12-15 KJ/g DM, and moderate digestible energy (DE contents (9-10 KJ/g DM compared to the browse species. The 3 browse species had ADDM's of 30-57% DM, crude protein contents of 5.1-7.2% DM, total phenolic concentrations of 11.6-16.4% DM, and DE contents of 6-12 KJ/g DM. Winter rye and lichen had the lowest total phenolic concentrations (1.3 and 1.9% DM of forages examined, and had lower ADDM's (35 and 40% DM, DE contents (6-7 KJ/g DM, and crude protein (7.8 and 5.7% DM than seaweeds. The relatively high DE and protein contents of seaweed may explain high deer densities of Maine coastal islands where browse availability and use appears to be low.

  8. Pollen loads and specificity of native pollinators of lowbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan-Deserres, J; Girard, M; Chagnon, M; Fournier, V

    2014-06-01

    The reproduction of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) is closely tied to insect pollination, owing to self-incompatibility. Many species are known to have greater pollination efficiency than the introduced Apis mellifera L., commonly used for commercial purposes. In this study, we measured the pollen loads of several antophilous insect species, mostly Apoidea and Syrphidae, present in four lowbush blueberry fields in Lac-St-Jean, Québec. To measure pollen loads and species specificity toward V. angustifolium, we net-collected 627 specimens of pollinators, retrieved their pollen loads, identified pollen taxa, and counted pollen grains. We found that the sizes of pollen loads were highly variable among species, ranging from a few hundred to more than 118,000 pollen grains per individual. Bombus and Andrena species in particular carried large amounts of Vaccinium pollen and thus may have greater pollination efficiency. Also, two species (Andrena bradleyi Viereck and Andrena carolina Viereck) showed nearly monolectic behavior toward lowbush blueberry. Finally, we identified alternative forage plants visited by native pollinators, notably species of Acer, Rubus, Ilex mucronata, Ledum groenlandicum, and Taraxacum. Protecting these flowering plants should be part of management practices to maintain healthy pollinator communities in a lowbush blueberry agroecosystem.

  9. Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettler, C.; Gebhardt, G.; Stock, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary's thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.) [de

  10. Decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of 15N-labeled leaf, root, and twig litter in temperate coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huysen, Tiff L.; Harmon, Mark E.; Perakis, Steven S.; Chen, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Litter nutrient dynamics contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems. We examined how site environment and initial substrate quality influence decomposition and nitrogen (N) dynamics of multiple litter types. A 2.5-year decomposition study was installed in the Oregon Coast Range and West Cascades using 15N-labeled litter from Acer macrophyllum, Picea sitchensis, and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Mass loss for leaf litter was similar between the two sites, while root and twig litter exhibited greater mass loss in the Coast Range. Mass loss was greatest from leaves and roots, and species differences in mass loss were more prominent in the Coast Range. All litter types and species mineralized N early in the decomposition process; only A. macrophyllum leaves exhibited a net N immobilization phase. There were no site differences with respect to litter N dynamics despite differences in site N availability, and litter N mineralization patterns were species-specific. For multiple litter × species combinations, the difference between gross and net N mineralization was significant, and gross mineralization was 7–20 % greater than net mineralization. The mineralization results suggest that initial litter chemistry may be an important driver of litter N dynamics. Our study demonstrates that greater amounts of N are cycling through these systems than may be quantified by only measuring net mineralization and challenges current leaf-based biogeochemical theory regarding patterns of N immobilization and mineralization.

  11. Holocene vegetation history and fire regimes of Pseudotsuga menziesii forests in the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve, southwestern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer D.; Lacourse, Terri

    2013-05-01

    Pollen analysis of a 9.03-m-long lake sediment core from Pender Island on the south coast of British Columbia was used to reconstruct the island's vegetation history over the last 10,000 years. The early Holocene was characterized by open mixed woodlands with abundant Pseudotsuga menziesii and a diverse understory including Salix and Rosaceae shrubs and Pteridium aquilinum ferns. The establishment of Quercus garryana savanna-woodland with P. menziesii and Acer macrophyllum followed deposition of the Mazama tephra until ~ 5500 cal yr BP, when these communities gave way to modern mixed P. menziesii forest. Charcoal analyses of the uppermost sediments revealed low charcoal accumulation over the last 1300 years with a mean fire return interval (mFRI) of 88 years. Fires were more frequent (mFRI = 50 yr) during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) with warm, dry conditions facilitating a higher fire frequency than during the Little Ice Age, when fires were infrequent. Given the projected warming for the next 50-100 years, land managers considering the reintroduction of fire to the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve may want to consider using the mFRI of the MCA as a baseline reference in prescribed burning strategies.

  12. A data-mining approach to spacer oligonucleotide typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebban, M; Mokrousov, I; Rastogi, N; Sola, C

    2002-02-01

    The Direct Repeat (DR) locus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a suitable model to study (i) molecular epidemiology and (ii) the evolutionary genetics of tuberculosis. This is achieved by a DNA analysis technique (genotyping), called sp acer oligo nucleotide typing (spoligotyping ). In this paper, we investigated data analysis methods to discover intelligible knowledge rules from spoligotyping, that has not yet been applied on such representation. This processing was achieved by applying the C4.5 induction algorithm and knowledge rules were produced. Finally, a Prototype Selection (PS) procedure was applied to eliminate noisy data. This both simplified decision rules, as well as the number of spacers to be tested to solve classification tasks. In the second part of this paper, the contribution of 25 new additional spacers and the knowledge rules inferred were studied from a machine learning point of view. From a statistical point of view, the correlations between spacers were analyzed and suggested that both negative and positive ones may be related to potential structural constraints within the DR locus that may shape its evolution directly or indirectly. By generating knowledge rules induced from decision trees, it was shown that not only the expert knowledge may be modeled but also improved and simplified to solve automatic classification tasks on unknown patterns. A practical consequence of this study may be a simplification of the spoligotyping technique, resulting in a reduction of the experimental constraints and an increase in the number of samples processed.

  13. The European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD module and the new facet Family/Family life: reliability and validity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Manuela; Sousa, Liliana B; Simões, Mário R

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the European Portuguese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Older Adults Module (WHOQOL-OLD). The European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD includes a new identified facet, Family/Family life. A convenience sample of older adults was recruited (N = 921). The assessment protocol included demographics, self-perceived health, depressive symptoms (GDS-30), cognitive function (ACE-R), daily life activities (IAFAI), health status (SF-12) and QoL (WHOQOL-Bref, EUROHIS-QOL-8 and WHOQOL-OLD). The internal consistency was excellent for the total 24-item WHOQOL-OLD original version and also for the final 28-item European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD version. The test-retest reliability for total scores was good. The construct validity of the European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD was supported in the correlation matrix analysis. The results indicated good convergent/divergent validity. The WHOQOL-OLD scores differentiated groups of older adults who were healthy/unhealthy and without/mild/severe depressive symptoms. The new facet, Family/Family life, presented evidence of good reliability and validity parameters. Comparatively to international studies, the European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD version showed similar and/or better psychometric properties. The new facet, Family/Family life, introduces cross-cultural specificity to the study of QoL of older adults and generally improves the psychometric robustness of the WHOQOL-OLD.

  14. Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Study of Leaf Extracts from 18 Indigenous Tree Species in Taiwan

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    Shang-Tse Ho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts from the leaves of 18 indigenous tree species in Taiwan. Results revealed that, among 18 species, Acer oliverianum exhibited the best free radical scavenging activities. The IC50 values were 5.8 and 11.8 μg/mL on DPPH radical and superoxide radical scavenging activities, respectively. In addition, A. oliverianum also exhibited the strongest ferrous ion chelating activity. Based on a bioactivity-guided isolation principle, the resulting methanolic crude extracts of A. oliverianum leaves were fractionated to yield soluble fractions of hexane, EtOAc, BuOH, and water. Of these, the EtOAc fraction had the best antioxidant activity. Furthermore, 8 specific phytochemicals were isolated and identified from the EtOAc fraction. Among them, 1,2,3,4,6-O-penta-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose had the best free radical scavenging activity. These results demonstrate that methanolic extracts and their derived phytochemicals of A. oliverianum leaves have excellent antioxidant activities and thus they have great potential as sources for natural health products.

  15. Agricultural, domestic and handicraft folk uses of plants in the Tyrrhenian sector of Basilicata (Italy

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    Guarrera Paolo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research was carried out into agricultural and domestic-handicraft uses in folk traditions in the Tyrrhenian sector of the Basilicata region (southern Italy, as it is typically representative of ethnobotanical applications in the Mediterranean area. From the point of view of furnishing a botanical support for the study of local "material culture" data was collected through field interviews of 49 informants, most of whom were farmers. Results The taxa cited are 60, belonging to 32 botanical families, of which 18 are employed for agricultural uses and 51 for domestic-handicraft folk uses. Data show a diffuse use of plants for many purposes, both in agricultural (present uses 14%; past uses 1% and for domestic-handicraft use (present uses 40%; past uses 45%; most of the latter are now in decline. Conclusion 60 data look uncommon or typical of the places studied. Some domestic-handicraft folk uses are typical of southern Italy (e.g. the use of Ampelodesmos mauritanicus for making ties, ropes, torches, baskets or that of Acer neapolitanum for several uses. Other uses (e.g. that of Inula viscosa and Calamintha nepeta for peculiar brooms, and of Origanum heracleoticum for dyeing wool red are previously unpublished.

  16. Ecophysiological and seasonal variations in Cd, Pb, Zn, and Ni concentrations in the leaves of urban deciduous trees in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baycu, Guelriz; Tolunay, Doganay; Ozden, Hakan; Guenebakan, Suereyya

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni were measured in the leaves of 7 species of deciduous trees, from the urban sites of Istanbul, in both the Spring and Autumn seasons. We detected some differences in the heavy metal concentrations of the control and urban site samples of identical species. Highest concentrations of Cd were detected in Populus, Pb in Aesculus and Robinia, Zn in Populus, and Ni in Robinia and Fraxinus. Lowest chlorophyll content and highest peroxidase (POD) activity was found in the urban site samples of Acer. We have found a positive correlation between the increase in the POD activity and the Pb concentration in Populus. Generally, the tree species investigated in this study, are considered to have different tolerance levels to heavy metal pollution. The data obtained show that the chlorophyll content and the POD activity may be used as heavy metal stress biomarkers in the urban trees. - Ecophysiological changes in the urban trees may be used as heavy metal stress biomarkers

  17. Effects of flood inundation and invasion by Phalaris arundinacea on nitrogen cycling in an Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Whitney; DeJager, Nathan R.; Strauss, Eric A.; Thomsen, Meredith

    2017-01-01

    Although floodplains are thought to serve as important buffers against nitrogen (N) transport to aquatic systems, frequent flooding and high levels of nutrient availability also make these systems prone to invasion by exotic plant species. Invasive plants could modify the cycling and availability of nutrients within floodplains, with effects that could feedback to promote the persistence of the invasive species and impact N export to riverine and coastal areas. We examined the effect of flooding on soil properties and N cycling at a floodplain site in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River with 2 plant communities: mature native forest (Acer saccharinum) and patches of an invasive grass (Phalaris arundinacea). Plots were established within each vegetation type along an elevation gradient and sampled throughout the summers of 2013 and 2014. Spatial trends in flooding resulted in higher soil organic matter, porosity, and total nitrogen and carbon in low elevations. Nutrient processes and NH4+ and NO3− availability, however, were best explained by vegetation type and time after flooding. Phalaris plots maintained higher rates of nitrification and higher concentrations of available NH4+ and NO3−. These results suggest that invasion by Phalarismay make nitrogen more readily available and could help to reinforce this species' persistence in floodplain wetlands. They also raise the possibility that Phalaris may decrease floodplain N storage capacity and influence downstream transport of N to coastal zones.

  18. THE COPĂCEL HILL FOREST, BETWEEN BĂLA AND ERCEA, A FUTURE RESERVE OF MUREŞ COUNTY

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    OROIAN SILVIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest lies in the region known as the “Transylvanian Plain”, on the Copăcel hill, between Băla and Ercea. The specific landscape of this region is characterized by medium altitude hills, with wide and soft slopes. In this forest, the presence of the Delphinium simonkaianum Pawł. var. psilocarpum (Simk. Pawł species, a threatened endemic taxon, was reported in 1953. In 2011, this globally threatened taxon was identified, after 58 years, on the upper side of the Copăcel slope, in a mixed oak and hornbeam forest. These oak and hornbeam mixtures are the result of impacts exerted on oak forests. The identified association, Melampyro bihariensis-Carpinetum (Borza 1941 Soó 1964 em. Coldea 1975, has three distinct layers: the arborescent layer dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea, along with Quercus robur, Prunus avium, Acer campestre, Ulmus glabra, etc., with good canopy cover (0.8-0.9; the shrub layer, represented by species such as: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, etc., is relatively poor in individuals, which are present particularly in forest clearings or at the edge of the forest. Grass synusia is well developed, sometimes forming an almost continuous cover (Asarum europaeum, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis glomerata ssp. aschersoniana, Galium odoratum, Melampyrum bihariense, Stellaria holostea, Aconitum anthora, Aconitum moldavicum, Lilium martagon, Arum orientale.

  19. Effects of dry-deposited sulphur dioxide on fungal decomposition of angiosperm tree leaf litter. 3. Decomposition rates and fungal respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsham, K.K.; Boddy, L.; Frankland, J.C.; Ineson, P. (York University, York (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology)

    1992-09-01

    Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), birch (Betula spp.), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) leaf litters from a virtually non-polluted and a heavily sulphur dioxide polluted woodland were fumigated with environmentally-realistic concentrations (0.010-0.030 [mu]l l[sup -1]) of SO[sub 2] for 16-68 wk in an open-air field fumigation experiment. Fumigation inhibited the respiration (CO[sub 2] evolution) and decomposition rates of the leaf litters. However, there were few differences in the responses between leaf litters from the two woodlands. In addition, pure cultures of four saprotrophic fungi were grown individally on irradiated hazel litter and exposed to c. 0.030 [mu]l l[sup -1] of gaseous SO[sub 2] for 28 d in the laboratory. The gas inhibited the respiration of Phoma exigua Desm. and Phoma macrostoma Mont. but not the respiration of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fres.) de Vries or Coniothyrium quercinum Sacc. var. glandicola Grove. These results in part substantiated findings of previous experiments examining the effects of SO[sub 2] on the structures of saprotrophic fungal communities. The effects of SO[sub 2] on fungal decomposition of angiosperm tree leaf litter as possible causes of forest decline are discussed.

  20. The effect of fire frequency on local cembra pine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genries, A; Mercier, L; Lavoie, M; Muller, S D; Radakovitch, O; Carcaillet, C

    2009-02-01

    It has been predicted that global climate change will lead to increasing drought in the Alps during the 21st century, as well as an increased fire risk, fires being currently rare in these mountains. Herein we describe fire frequency reconstruction using high-resolution analyses of macroscopic sedimentary charcoal, pollen, and plant macrofossils. Sediments were sampled from a subalpine pond within the dry western French Alps. Results show that the early-Holocene expansion of Pinus cembra (7200 calibrated years BP) occurred in Acer/Alnus incana/Betula woodlands, which were affected by fires with moderate mean fire-free intervals (MFFI = 173 +/- 61 yr [mean +/- SE]). Superposed Epoch Analyses show that the abundance of P. cembra macroremains decreased significantly after burning, although they never disappeared entirely. Statistics suggest that fires spread through cembra pine communities; they were not stand-replacing fires but mainly surface fires, probably killing nonreproductive pines. An increase in fire frequency occurred 6740 years ago, when four fires appear to have occurred within 140 years. These fires may have been associated with a regional drought and could have affected the composition of the subalpine forest by depleting the local P. cembra population in the short-term. The predicted increase in drought in the future could, therefore, affect the cembra pine ecosystem in the Alps if fire frequency is reduced to intervals of less than 80 years.

  1. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E.; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A.; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-10-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species.

  2. Fire History of Appalachian Forests of the Lower St-Lawrence Region (Southern Quebec

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    Serge Payette

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar maple (Acer saccharum forests are among the main forest types of eastern North America. Sugar maple stands growing on Appalachian soils of the Lower St-Lawrence region are located at the northeastern limit of the northern hardwood forest zone. Given the biogeographical position of these forests at the edge of the boreal biome, we aimed to reconstruct the fire history and document the occurrence of temperate and boreal trees in sugar maple sites during the Holocene based on soil macrocharcoal analysis. Despite having experienced a different number of fire events, the fire history of the maple sites was broadly similar, with two main periods of fire activity, i.e., early- to mid-Holocene and late-Holocene. A long fire-free interval of at least 3500 years separated the two periods from the mid-Holocene to 2000 years ago. The maple sites differ with respect to fire frequency and synchronicity of the last millennia. According to the botanical composition of charcoal, forest vegetation remained relatively homogenous during the Holocene, except recently. Conifer and broadleaf species coexisted in mixed forests during the Holocene, in phase with fire events promoting the regeneration of boreal and temperate tree assemblages including balsam fir (Abies balsamea and sugar maple.

  3. The effects of gap size on some microclimate variables during late summer and autumn in a temperate broadleaved deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Latif, Zulkiflee; Blackburn, George Alan

    2010-03-01

    The creation of gaps can strongly influence forest regeneration and habitat diversity within forest ecosystems. However, the precise characteristics of such effects depend, to a large extent, upon the way in which gaps modify microclimate and soil water content. Hence, the aim of this study was to understand the effects of gap creation and variations in gap size on forest microclimate and soil water content. The study site, in North West England, was a mixed temperate broadleaved deciduous forest dominated by mature sessile oak (Quercus petraea), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) with some representatives of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus). Solar radiation (I), air temperature (T(A)), soil temperature (T(S)), relative humidity (h), wind speed (v) and soil water content (Psi) were measured at four natural treefall gaps created after a severe storm in 2006 and adjacent sub-canopy sites. I, T(A), T(S), and Psi increased significantly with gap size; h was consistently lower in gaps than the sub-canopy but did not vary with gap size, while the variability of v could not be explained by the presence or size of gaps. There were systematic diurnal patterns in all microclimate variables in response to gaps, but no such patterns existed for Psi. These results further our understanding of the abiotic and consequent biotic responses to gaps in broadleaved deciduous forests created by natural treefalls, and provide a useful basis for evaluating the implications of forest management practices.

  4. Insecticidal Activities of Bark, Leaf and Seed Extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

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    Hans J. Overgaard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis], a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis, and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis. The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female, but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides.

  5. Diet and nutrient balance of red panda in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, Saroj; Coogan, Sean C. P.; Aryal, Achyut; Raubenheimer, David

    2015-10-01

    We identified the winter plant species consumed by red panda in the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve of eastern Nepal and compared this to the early-summer diet which was determined previously by Panthi et al. (2012). In addition, we estimated the proximate nutritional content of the leaves identified in red panda diet for both seasons, and we used nutritional geometry to explore macronutrient balance of leaves from the two different sampling periods. We identified six different plants in winter scats, which were the same as found in the previously determined early-summer diet. Arundinaria spp. bamboos were the main species found (82.1 % relative frequency), followed by Acer spp. (6.3 %), Betula utilis (4.6 %), Quercus semicarpifolia (3.7 %), Berberis spp. (1.3 %), and lichens (1.0 %), leaving 2.0 % unidentified. Geometric analysis suggested that the macronutrient balance of seasonal diets were similar in nutrient balance to the most frequently consumed Arundinaria spp. Differences in macronutrient balance may indicate seasonal nutrient preferences, such as increased carbohydrate intake in winter for thermogenesis, and increased protein and lipid intake in early summer to support reproduction and lactation; however, these differences may also indicate differences in resource availability. Habitat conserved for red panda in the region should include sufficient Arundinaria spp. as well as lesser consumed plants which may serve as complimentary foods.

  6. Conversion trials in mixed coppices of Gargano (Puglia, Italy: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Six plots have been drawn in an mixed aged coppice stand, 40 years after last coppicing; they represent a typical expression of Doronico-Carpinetum phytosociological association and they are characteristic of many woods of Gargano’s territory, composed by Quercus cerris L. (turkey oak, Quercus pubescens Willd. (downy oak, Acer opalus Mill. (italian maple, Carpinus betulus L. (european hornbeam, Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. (hop hornbeam. Compared treatments are: natural evolution of the coppice without thinning versus two thinning regimes with different intensity, both aimed to convert the stands into high forests. 1200 and 1600 stems per hectare were released in the conversion plots. Plots, control and treated in 2001, have been measured before and immediately after thinning and remeasured five years later. At the present time, stands are characterized by a basically monolayered structure, in which turkey oak is prevalent in term of basal area. Moreover in thinned areas, losses on the released shoots number are unimportant both in absolute and in percent terms; in control plot, instead, competition by plants of upper storey on the dominated ones means high values of mortality.

  7. A Quantitative Index of Forest Structural Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Cale

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest health is a complex concept including many ecosystem functions, interactions and values. We develop a quantitative system applicable to many forest types to assess tree mortality with respect to stable forest structure and composition. We quantify impacts of observed tree mortality on structure by comparison to baseline mortality, and then develop a system that distinguishes between structurally stable and unstable forests. An empirical multivariate index of structural sustainability and a threshold value (70.6 derived from 22 nontropical tree species’ datasets differentiated structurally sustainable from unsustainable diameter distributions. Twelve of 22 species populations were sustainable with a mean score of 33.2 (median = 27.6. Ten species populations were unsustainable with a mean score of 142.6 (median = 130.1. Among them, Fagus grandifolia, Pinus lambertiana, P. ponderosa, and Nothofagus solandri were attributable to known disturbances; whereas the unsustainability of Abies balsamea, Acer rubrum, Calocedrus decurrens, Picea engelmannii, P. rubens, and Prunus serotina populations were not. This approach provides the ecological framework for rational management decisions using routine inventory data to objectively: determine scope and direction of change in structure and composition, assess excessive or insufficient mortality, compare disturbance impacts in time and space, and prioritize management needs and allocation of scarce resources.

  8. Fluctuating Asymmetry of Plant Leaves: Batch Processing with LAMINA and Continuous Symmetry Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Graham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike landmark methods for estimating object asymmetry, continuous symmetry measures (CSM can be used to measure the symmetry distance (ds of inconsistent objects, such as plant leaves. Inconsistent objects have no homologous landmarks, no consistent topology, no quantitative consistency, and sometimes no matching points. When CSM is used in conjugation with LAMINA Leaf Shape Determination software, one can quickly and efficiently process a large number of scanned leaves. LAMINA automatically generates equally-spaced points around the perimeter of each leaf and the resulting x-y coordinates are normalized to average centroid size prior to estimating ds using a fold, average, unfold algorithm. We estimated shape asymmetry of leaves of three species of flowering plants: Ligustrum sinense (Chinese Privet, Rubus cuneifolius (blackberry, and Perilla frutescens (Perilla, as well as individual leaves from a few species of oaks (Quercus and maples (Acer. We found that 100 to 200 equally-spaced points worked well for all three of the main species. Measurement error accounted for a small proportion of the asymmetry variation. Nevertheless, measurement error was great enough to generate some negative size scaling after normalization to average centroid size.

  9. Resistencia a la compresión y reología de cementantes ambientalmente amigables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Lizarazo Marriaga

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Siendo la producción de cemento responsable de aproximadamente el 9% de la producción industrial de gases de invernadero, y en pro de generar materiales alternativos, en este artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación encaminada a de- sarrollar cementantes que potencialmente representen una alternativa ambientalmente sostenible en la construcción civil. Com- binaciones de escoria granulada de alto horno, escoria de acería obtenida mediante un proceso de oxígeno básico, polvo de horno de cemento y residuo de demolición de divisiones de yeso fueron usados para optimizar la resistencia a la compresión y obtener cinco mezclas de concreto con cementantes hechos parcial o totalmente con residuos industriales. Los resultados obteni- dos muestran que las resistencias de las mezclas compuestas de cemento Portland y residuos industriales son adecuadas para u- na cantidad importante de aplicaciones en construcción civil, y aunque para las mezclas formadas completamente por residuos industriales se presentó una importante disminución en la resistencia a la compresión, los resultados obtenidos mostraron un gran potencial para determinadas aplicaciones industriales. Adicionalmente a la resistencia a la compresión, a dichas mezclas se les determinaron sus propiedades reológicas definiendo sus características de flujo y trabajabilidad.

  10. Models to predict the start of the airborne pollen season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Consolata; Caramiello, Rosanna; Migliavacca, Mirco; Busetto, Lorenzo; Mercalli, Luca; Colombo, Roberto; Richardson, Andrew D.

    2015-07-01

    Aerobiological data can be used as indirect but reliable measures of flowering phenology to analyze the response of plant species to ongoing climate changes. The aims of this study are to evaluate the performance of several phenological models for predicting the pollen start of season (PSS) in seven spring-flowering trees ( Alnus glutinosa, Acer negundo, Carpinus betulus, Platanus occidentalis, Juglans nigra, Alnus viridis, and Castanea sativa) and in two summer-flowering herbaceous species ( Artemisia vulgaris and Ambrosia artemisiifolia) by using a 26-year aerobiological data set collected in Turin (Northern Italy). Data showed a reduced interannual variability of the PSS in the summer-flowering species compared to the spring-flowering ones. Spring warming models with photoperiod limitation performed best for the greater majority of the studied species, while chilling class models were selected only for the early spring flowering species. For Ambrosia and Artemisia, spring warming models were also selected as the best models, indicating that temperature sums are positively related to flowering. However, the poor variance explained by the models suggests that further analyses have to be carried out in order to develop better models for predicting the PSS in these two species. Modeling the pollen season start on a very wide data set provided a new opportunity to highlight the limits of models in elucidating the environmental factors driving the pollen season start when some factors are always fulfilled, as chilling or photoperiod or when the variance is very poor and is not explained by the models.

  11. Fagaceae pollen from the early Cenozoic of West Greenland: revisiting Engler's and Chaney's Arcto-Tertiary hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Grimm, Guido W; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup; Pedersen, Asger Ken; Denk, Thomas

    In this paper we document Fagaceae pollen from the Eocene of western Greenland. The pollen record suggests a remarkable diversity of the family in the early Cenozoic of Greenland. Extinct Fagaceae pollen types include Eotrigonobalanus , which extends at least back to the Paleocene, and two ancestral pollen types with affinities to the Eurasian Quercus Group Ilex and the western North American Quercus Group Protobalanus. In addition, modern lineages of Fagaceae are unambiguously represented by pollen of Fagus, Quercus Group Lobatae/Quercus, and three Castaneoideae pollen types. These findings corroborate earlier findings from Axel Heiberg Island that Fagaceae were a dominant element at high latitudes during the early Cenozoic. Comparison with coeval or older mid-latitude records of modern lineages of Fagaceae shows that modern lineages found in western Greenland and Axel Heiberg likely originated at lower latitudes. Further examples comprise (possibly) Acer , Aesculus , Alnus , Ulmus , and others. Thus, before fossils belonging to modern northern temperate lineages will have been recovered from older (early Eocene, Paleocene) strata from high latitudes, Engler's hypothesis of an Arctic origin of the modern temperate woody flora of Eurasia, termed 'Arcto-Tertiary Element', and later modification by R. W. Chaney and H. D. Mai ('Arcto-Tertiary Geoflora') needs to be modified.

  12. Tree Species Classification By Multiseasonal High Resolution Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elatawneh, Alata; Wallner, Adelheid; Straub, Christoph; Schneider, Thomas; Knoke, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Accurate forest tree species mapping is a fundamental issue for sustainable forest management and planning. Forest tree species mapping with the means of remote sensing data is still a topic to be investigated. The Bavaria state institute of forestry is investigating the potential of using digital aerial images for forest management purposes. However, using aerial images is still cost- and time-consuming, in addition to their acquisition restrictions. The new space-born sensor generations such as, RapidEye, with a very high temporal resolution, offering multiseasonal data have the potential to improve the forest tree species mapping. In this study, we investigated the potential of multiseasonal RapidEye data for mapping tree species in a Mid European forest in Southern Germany. The RapidEye data of level A3 were collected on ten different dates in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. For data analysis, a model was developed, which combines the Spectral Angle Mapper technique with a 10-fold- cross-validation. The analysis succeeded to differentiate four tree species; Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus). The model success was evaluated using digital aerial images acquired in the year 2009 and inventory point records from 2008/09 inventory. Model results of the multiseasonal RapidEye data analysis achieved an overall accuracy of 76%. However, the success of the model was evaluated only for all the identified species and not for the individual.

  13. Seasonal Effect on Tree Species Classification in an Urban Environment Using Hyperspectral Data, LiDAR, and an Object- Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Matthew; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2008-05-06

    The objective of the current study was to analyze the seasonal effect on differentiating tree species in an urban environment using multi-temporal hyperspectral data, Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data, and a tree species database collected from the field. Two Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA) hyperspectral images were collected, covering the Summer and Fall seasons. In order to make both datasets spatially and spectrally compatible, several preprocessing steps, including band reduction and a spatial degradation, were performed. An object-oriented classification was performed on both images using training data collected randomly from the tree species database. The seven dominant tree species (Gleditsia triacanthos, Acer saccharum, Tilia Americana, Quercus palustris, Pinus strobus and Picea glauca) were used in the classification. The results from this analysis did not show any major difference in overall accuracy between the two seasons. Overall accuracy was approximately 57% for the Summer dataset and 56% for the Fall dataset. However, the Fall dataset provided more consistent results for all tree species while the Summer dataset had a few higher individual class accuracies. Further, adding LiDAR into the classification improved the results by 19% for both fall and summer. This is mainly due to the removal of shadow effect and the addition of elevation data to separate low and high vegetation.

  14. Widespread occurrence of expressed fungal secretory peroxidases in forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Pecyna, Marek J; Barbi, Florian; Kapturska, Danuta; Krüger, Dirk; Zak, Donald R; Marmeisse, Roland; Vandenbol, Micheline; Hofrichter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secretory peroxidases mediate fundamental ecological functions in the conversion and degradation of plant biomass. Many of these enzymes have strong oxidizing activities towards aromatic compounds and are involved in the degradation of plant cell wall (lignin) and humus. They comprise three major groups: class II peroxidases (including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, versatile peroxidase and generic peroxidase), dye-decolorizing peroxidases, and heme-thiolate peroxidases (e.g. unspecific/aromatic peroxygenase, chloroperoxidase). Here, we have repeatedly observed a widespread expression of all major peroxidase groups in leaf and needle litter across a range of forest ecosystems (e.g. Fagus, Picea, Acer, Quercus, and Populus spp.), which are widespread in Europe and North America. Manganese peroxidases and unspecific peroxygenases were found expressed in all nine investigated forest sites, and dye-decolorizing peroxidases were observed in five of the nine sites, thereby indicating biological significance of these enzymes for fungal physiology and ecosystem processes. Transcripts of selected secretory peroxidase genes were also analyzed in pure cultures of several litter-decomposing species and other fungi. Using this information, we were able to match, in environmental litter samples, two manganese peroxidase sequences to Mycena galopus and Mycena epipterygia and one unspecific peroxygenase transcript to Mycena galopus, suggesting an important role of this litter- and coarse woody debris-dwelling genus in the disintegration and transformation of litter aromatics and organic matter formation.

  15. Widespread occurrence of expressed fungal secretory peroxidases in forest soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Kellner

    Full Text Available Fungal secretory peroxidases mediate fundamental ecological functions in the conversion and degradation of plant biomass. Many of these enzymes have strong oxidizing activities towards aromatic compounds and are involved in the degradation of plant cell wall (lignin and humus. They comprise three major groups: class II peroxidases (including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, versatile peroxidase and generic peroxidase, dye-decolorizing peroxidases, and heme-thiolate peroxidases (e.g. unspecific/aromatic peroxygenase, chloroperoxidase. Here, we have repeatedly observed a widespread expression of all major peroxidase groups in leaf and needle litter across a range of forest ecosystems (e.g. Fagus, Picea, Acer, Quercus, and Populus spp., which are widespread in Europe and North America. Manganese peroxidases and unspecific peroxygenases were found expressed in all nine investigated forest sites, and dye-decolorizing peroxidases were observed in five of the nine sites, thereby indicating biological significance of these enzymes for fungal physiology and ecosystem processes. Transcripts of selected secretory peroxidase genes were also analyzed in pure cultures of several litter-decomposing species and other fungi. Using this information, we were able to match, in environmental litter samples, two manganese peroxidase sequences to Mycena galopus and Mycena epipterygia and one unspecific peroxygenase transcript to Mycena galopus, suggesting an important role of this litter- and coarse woody debris-dwelling genus in the disintegration and transformation of litter aromatics and organic matter formation.

  16. Inventory of epiphytic macrolichens on trees used in urban arborization in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The floristic composition of epiphytic macrolichens on the following tree species used in urban arborization in Curitiba was analysed: Acer negundo, Lagerstroemia indica, Ligustrum lucidum, Parapiptadenia rigida, Cassia leptophylla, Syagrus romanzoffi ana, Tabebuia alba, Tabebuia chrysotricha, Tabebuia heptaphylla, and Tipuana tipu. A total of 84 species are reported, from which 14 are recorded for the fi rst time in Paraná State and Flavoparmelia soredians is recorded for the fi rst time in Brazil. Parmeliaceae was the best represented family, with 45 species distributed in nine genera, followed by Physciaceae with 24 species in six genera. The native tree species showed greater lichen species richness and a higher number of exclusive lichen species than the exotic tree species. The highest lichen species richness was found in Tabebuia chrysotricha with 62 taxa, followed by Syagrus romanzoffi ana with 47. Candelaria concolor, Canoparmelia crozalsiana, Canoparmelia texana, Dirinaria applanata, Dirinaria confl uens, Heterodermia obscurata, Myelochroa lindmanii, Parmotrema pilosum, Physcia poncinsii, Punctelia borreri, Punctelia reddenda, Pyxine subcinerea, Ramalina celastri and Ramalina peruviana are suggested as macrolichen species with the greatest potential for future biomonitoring studies of air quality in Curitiba.

  17. Insect herbivores increase mortality and reduce tree seedling growth of some species in temperate forest canopy gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P. Lemoine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Insect herbivores help maintain forest diversity through selective predation on seedlings of vulnerable tree species. Although the role of natural enemies has been well-studied in tropical systems, relatively few studies have experimentally manipulated insect abundance in temperate forests and tracked impacts over multiple years. We conducted a three-year experiment (2012–2014 deterring insect herbivores from seedlings in new treefall gaps in deciduous hardwood forests in Maryland. During this study, we tracked recruitment of all tree seedlings, as well as survivorship and growth of 889 individual seedlings from five tree species: Acer rubrum, Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus spp., Liriodendron tulipifera, and Liquidambar styraciflua. Insect herbivores had little effect on recruitment of any tree species, although there was a weak indication that recruitment of A. rubrum was higher in the presence of herbivores. Insect herbivores reduced survivorship of L. tulipifera, but had no significant effects on A. rubrum, Fraxinus spp., F. grandifolia, or L. styraciflua. Additionally, insects reduced growth rates of early pioneer species A. rubrum, L. tulipifera, and L. styraciflua, but had little effect on more shade-tolerant species F. grandifolia and Fraxinus spp. Overall, by negatively impacting growth and survivorship of early pioneer species, forest insects may play an important but relatively cryptic role in forest gap dynamics, with potentially interesting impacts on the overall maintenance of diversity.

  18. Response of a forest ecotone to ionizing radiation. Progress report, 15 October 1974--14 October 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.G.

    1975-01-01

    Compositional and structural characteristics of three forest types, including aspen dominated, maple-birch dominated and an intervening ecotone, were studied before and after chronic γ irradiation in northern Wisconsin. Irradiation occurred during the summer of 1972. By the summer of 1973 the density of viable tree seedlings at 10 m from the radiation source was substantially reduced in all three areas relative to the preirradiation densities of 1971. Re-establishment of tree seedlings has, as of June 1975, been prevented by the vigorous development of ground vegetation. At 20 m, the density of seedlings in the three areas increased during the period between 1971 and 1973 in response to the partially opened canopy. The overall density of seedlings of Populus tremuloides and Acer rubrum increased markedly in the three areas and P. tremuloides invaded some areas in which it had not been found prior to irradiation. By 1974 many of the seedlings at 20 m had reached the sapling size-class. Viable trees greater than 2.5 cm, dbh were eliminated at 10 m in all three areas by June 1974 and were reduced in density of 20 m. Leaf litter production was reduced by up to 94 percent at 10 m and 64 percent at 20 m during the period between 1971 and 1973 in the irradiated areas. (U.S.)

  19. Phytopatological monitoring of Inonotus rickii and GPS-GIS applications, Rome, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriondo M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant disease management may be improved by collecting, storing, manipulating, analysing and displaying epidemiological information using a Geographic Information System (GIS, a useful tool to evaluate plant disease problems in a spatial context. In this study, GIS analysis was applied along with global positioning systems (GPS to integrate field data-collected with the spatial distribution of the pathogen Inonotus rickii. This pathogen provokes a decay of sapwood/heartwood and cankers, determining a progressive crown dieback and structural weakness of the trees, therefore increasing risk of branch breaks and tree failures. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical countries and it has already been recorded in many areas in Rome on Acer negundo, Albizia julibrissin, Koelreuteria paniculata, Celtis australis and Platanus x acerifolia. A survey was carried out in different boulevards of A. negundo and A. julibrissin with the aim of evaluating disease symptoms such as sparse foliage, dead twigs and branches, wood decay and presence of fungal structures. In this survey, I. rickii was recorded also on Robinia pseudoacacia, which is a new host. The study allowed to obtain thematic maps showing the spatial distribution of all infected trees, as well as the presence of anamorph and/or teleomorph structures of the fungus. Moreover, a map representing the incidence of the pathogen in different boulevards was obtained. The usefulness of GIS analysis in studies aimed to support and refine management strategies for disease control in urban trees is discussed.

  20. Agricultural, domestic and handicraft folk uses of plants in the Tyrrhenian sector of Basilicata (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Giovanni; Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Caneva, Giulia

    2005-07-29

    Research was carried out into agricultural and domestic-handicraft uses in folk traditions in the Tyrrhenian sector of the Basilicata region (southern Italy), as it is typically representative of ethnobotanical applications in the Mediterranean area. From the point of view of furnishing a botanical support for the study of local "material culture" data was collected through field interviews of 49 informants, most of whom were farmers. The taxa cited are 60, belonging to 32 botanical families, of which 18 are employed for agricultural uses and 51 for domestic-handicraft folk uses. Data show a diffuse use of plants for many purposes, both in agricultural (present uses 14%; past uses 1%) and for domestic-handicraft use (present uses 40%; past uses 45%); most of the latter are now in decline. 60 data look uncommon or typical of the places studied. Some domestic-handicraft folk uses are typical of southern Italy (e.g. the use of Ampelodesmos mauritanicus for making ties, ropes, torches, baskets or that of Acer neapolitanum for several uses). Other uses (e.g. that of Inula viscosa and Calamintha nepeta for peculiar brooms, and of Origanum heracleoticum for dyeing wool red) are previously unpublished.

  1. Establishing trees on cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bussières

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Four major tree-planting trials on cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada were surveyed in 2002, in order to evaluate the potential use of trees in rehabilitation following horticultural peat extraction. At one of the sites, an experiment to determine the appropriate fertilisation rate for trees planted on cut-over peatlands was also conducted over several years. Tree performance was assessed by measuring survival, total height and annual growth of red maple (Acer rubrum L., tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi Koch., black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P., jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. and hybrid poplar (Populus spp.. Establishment and growth of tamarack and black spruce in cut-over peatlands showed good potential when compared to performance in conventional forestry plantations. Red maple and jack pine gave poor productivity but promising survival, whilst hybrid poplar plantings failed. Adding nutrients was essential for growth but dosages above 122.5 g of 3.4N-8.3P-24.2K per tree gave no further improvement. Therefore, several different tree species can be planted to reclaim cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada, so long as the appropriate species are chosen and nutrients are provided.

  2. An integrated tool to assess the role of new planting in PM10 capture and the human health benefits: A case study in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Sinnett, Danielle; Peachey, Christopher; Chalabi, Zaid; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Fletcher, Tony; Leonardi, Giovanni; Grundy, Chris; Azapagic, Adisa; Hutchings, Tony R.

    2009-01-01

    The role of vegetation in mitigating the effects of PM 10 pollution has been highlighted as one potential benefit of urban greenspace. An integrated modelling approach is presented which utilises air dispersion (ADMS-Urban) and particulate interception (UFORE) to predict the PM 10 concentrations both before and after greenspace establishment, using a 10 x 10 km area of East London Green Grid (ELGG) as a case study. The corresponding health benefits, in terms of premature mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, as a result of the reduced exposure of the local population are also modelled. PM 10 capture from the scenario comprising 75% grassland, 20% sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and 5% Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was estimated to be 90.41 t yr -1 , equating to 0.009 t ha -1 yr -1 over the whole study area. The human health modelling estimated that 2 deaths and 2 hospital admissions would be averted per year. - A combination of models can be used to estimate particulate matter concentrations before and after greenspace establishment and the resulting benefits to human health.

  3. Vegetation history reconstructed from anthracology and pollen analysis at the rescue excavation of the MO Motorway, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Náfrádi, Katalin; Bodor, Elvira; Törőcsik, Tünde; Sümegi, Pál

    2011-12-01

    The significance of geoarchaeological investigations is indisputable in reconstructing the former environment and in studying the relationship between humans and their surroundings. Several disciplines have developed during the last few decades to give insight into earlier time periods and their climatic conditions (e.g. palynology, malacology, archaeobotany, phytology and animal osteology). Charcoal and pollen analytical studies from the rescue excavation of the MO motorway provide information about the vegetation changes of the past. These methods are used to reconstruct the environment of the former settlements and to detect the human impact and natural climatic changes. The sites examined span the periods of the Late-Copper Age, Late-Bronze Age, Middle-Iron Age, Late-Iron Age, Sarmatian period, Late Sarmatian period, Migration period, Late-Migration period and Middle Ages. The vegetation before the Copper Age is based only on pollen analytical data. Anthracological results show the overall dominance of Quercus and a great number of Ulmus, Fraxinus, Acer, Fagus, Alnus and Populus/Salix tree fossils, as well as the residues of fruit trees present in the charred wood assemblage.

  4. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kilgo

    2005-04-20

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.

  5. Habitat Complexity of Stream Leaf Packs: Effects on Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Leaf Litter Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetz, C. R.; Vanhaitsma, D. L.; Breen, M. J.

    2005-05-01

    We investigated two attributes of leaf-pack complexity (i.e., leaf-pack mass and leaf surface area) on fish predation, colonization of benthic macroinvertebrates, and leaf breakdown rates in a coldwater Michigan stream. We manipulated three factors using a factorial design: fish (exclusion or control cage), leaf-pack mass (1, 3, or 5 g dry mass), and leaf surface area (10 cm leaf width). Acer leaves were fastened into leaf packs. Exclusion cages had mesh on all sides; control cages lacked mesh on two sides to provide access to fishes. Two replicate leaf packs were randomly collected after 25-31 d from two sections of the stream (n = 4). Common shredders were Gammarus, Pycnopsyche, and Lepidostoma. We did not detect a significant effect of fish predation on benthic macroinvertebrates or leaf breakdown (i.e., mass loss). Colonization of benthic macroinvertebrates appeared proportional to leaf-pack mass but was unaffected by the surface area of leaves. Leaf breakdown was more rapid among leaf packs with fewer leaves (i.e., leaves with large surface area and leaf packs with low mass) and greater numbers of shredders. We suspect that physical fragmentation is the primary mechanism for higher breakdown rates among leaf packs with fewer leaves.

  6. THE CLASS QUERCO-FAGETEA SYLVATICAE IN SICILY: AN EXAMPLE OF BOREO-TEMPERATE VEGETATION IN THE CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Brullo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of the class Querco-Fagetea sylvaticae in Sicily, based on literature data and unpublished relevés, is presented. This class groups the mesophilous woods characterized by the dominance of deciduous trees (e.g. Fagus sylvatica, Quercus sp. pl., Acer sp. pl., and more rarely by conifers (Taxus baccata, Pinus nigra subsp. calabrica, as well as by other broadleaved trees, such as Betula aetnensis, Populus tremula, Castanea sativa. In Sicily, these woody communities are widespread in the northern and north-eastern districts of the island, chiefly on the highest peaks (Madonie, Nebrodi, Peloritani, and Etna. This class is represented in Sicily by two, both floristically and ecologically well differentiated orders: Fagetalia sylvaticae, with the sole alliance Geranio versicoloris-Fagion sylvaticae, and Quercetalia pubescenti-petraeae, with the endemic alliance Pino calabricae-Quercion congestae. On the whole, 22 associations have been recognized within the class Querco-Fagetea and for each of them nomenclature, floristic assessment, ecology, syndinamic relationships, and chorology are examined.

  7. Possible similarities between the folk medicine historically used by First Nations and American Indians in North America and the ethnoveterinary knowledge currently used in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl

    2016-11-04

    This paper compares sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary remedies in British Columbia with First Nations folk medicine. In 2003, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. The data was then compared with historical documents on First Nations plant use. Exact parallels between First Nations/native American folk medicine and ethnoveterinary remedies used for farm animals and horses were Acer macrophyllum Pursh, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Lonicera involucrata (Richardson) Banks ex Spreng., used as stimulants and tonics for goats; Achlys tripylla DC. as a fly repellent in barns, Alnus rubra Bong., for rabbits' dental care, Berberis repens Lindl., Rumex crispus L., to treat sores and rashes on horses, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson for stomach problems and Bovista pila Berk. and M. A. Curtis and Dolichousnea longissima (Ach.) Articus used on wounds. This study revealed the parallel uses between sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary medicines in British Columbia and the folk medicines used by the First Nations peoples and by native American groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive impairment and Charles Bonnet syndrome: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Gregor; Harper, Robert; Allen, Harry; Baldwin, Robert; Burns, Alistair

    2018-01-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is a common cause of visual hallucinations in older people. The relationship between CBS and cognitive impairment is unclear, but anecdotal reports exist of dementia emerging in patients diagnosed with CBS. This work set out to determine if there is an increased incidence of dementia, and increased severity of cognitive impairment, in people with CBS compared to controls from the same clinical setting. People over 65 attending low-vision and glaucoma clinics, and a cohort of age-matched controls, underwent a psychiatric assessment. The cohorts were followed up after one year. Mild cognitive impairment was present in 2/12 CBS participants and 2/10 controls. Partial insight was seen in nine CBS participants. Two participants with CBS, and no controls, developed dementia at follow-up. No significant differences in performance on the ACE-R were found between the groups. Both participants who developed dementia had partial insight and hallucinations of familiar figures at diagnosis of CBS, and one had mild cognitive impairment. Reassurance that CBS is universally benign may be misplaced. Some people given this diagnosis go on to develop dementia. Cognitive testing at the point of diagnosis was unable to identify those at risk of this outcome. Partial insight, the presence of Mild Cognitive Impairment, and hallucinations of familiar figures at diagnosis of CBS may confer an increased risk of subsequent dementia diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Contribution of foliar leaching and dry deposition to sulfate in net throughfall below deciduous trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Bondietti, E.A.; Lomax, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted at Walker Branch Watershed, Tennessee in 1986 with radioactive 35 S to quantify the contribution of foliar leaching and dry deposition to sulfate (SO 4 2- ) in net throughfall (NTF). Two red maple (Acer rubrum) and two yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) trees (12-15 m tall) were radiolabeled by stem well injection. Total S and 35 S were measured in leaves; 35 S and SO 4 2- were measured in throughfall (THF). The contribution of foliar leaching to SO 4 2- in NTF, THF minus incident precipitation, was estimated by isotope dilution of 35 S in NTF arising from nonradioactive S in dry deposition. The per cent contribution of foliar leaching to SO 4 2- in NTF was greatest during the week following isotope labeling and during the period of autumn leaf fall. During the growing season, foliar leaching accounted for 80% of the SO 4 2- in NTF beneath the study trees. Dry deposition of S to these tree species can be reasonably approximated during summer from the measurement of SO 4 2- flux in NTF. (author)

  10. Sample preservation for determination of organic compounds: microwave versus freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, M.; Lied, W.; Meyer, A.J.; Richter, A.; Schiller, P.; Schwitte, H.

    1996-01-01

    In search of a reliable drying method, which might be used even under field conditions, microwave drying was compared to freeze-drying of plant material. Leaves of Ananas comosus and Avicennia germinans as well as buds and phloem of Acer pseudoplatanus were used and checked for one or more of the following substances: sugars, sugar alcohols, organic and amino acids, total nitrogen, and glycinebetaine. With most samples good agreement was achieved between the two drying methods. Only in the case of the Ananas comosus leaves, which exhibited low pH and high water content, did appreciable differences occur in organic and amino acids. Besides that, sucrose was the compound most susceptible to alterations, which was especially evident when leaves of Sambucus nigra were dried in the two different compartments (condenser compartment, drying bell jar) of the freeze-dryer in use. For Ananas comosus leaf samples it was shown that microwaving can also be used prior to extraction of tissue sap. (author)

  11. Vegetation history of the English chalklands: a mid-Holocene pollen sequence from the Caburn, East Sussex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Martyn P.; Hamilton, Sue

    2000-03-01

    A pollen diagram has been produced from the base of the Caburn (East Sussex) that provides a temporally and spatially precise record of vegetation change on the English chalklands during the mid-Holocene (ca. 7100 to ca. 3800 cal. yr BP). During this period the slopes above the site appear to have been well-wooded, with vegetation analogous to modern Fraxinus-Acer-Mercurialis communities in which Tilia was also a prominent constituent. However, scrub and grassland taxa such as Juniperus communis, Cornus sanguinea and Plantago lanceolata are also regularly recorded along with, from ca. 6000 cal. yr BP onwards, species specific to Chalk grassland (e.g. Sanguisorba minor). This supports suggestions that elements of Chalk grassland persisted in lowland England through the Holocene. Such communities are most likely to have occupied the steepest slopes, although the processes that maintained them are unclear. Human interference with vegetation close to the site may have begun as early as ca. 6350 cal. yr BP and initially involved a woodland management practice such as coppicing. From the primary Ulmus decline (ca. 5700 cal. yr BP) onwards, phases of limited clearance accompanied by cereal cultivation occurred. Taxus baccata was an important component of the woodland which regenerated between these phases.

  12. Establishment Success of Coexisting Native and Exotic Trees Under an Experimental Gradient of Irradiance and Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, Noelia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia

    2011-10-01

    The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant . Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

  13. Late Wisconsinan Vegetation and Environment of the Tunica Hills Region, Louisiana/Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stephen T.; Givens, Charles R.

    1994-05-01

    Pollen, plant macrofossil, and radiocarbon-dating studies of seven exposures of fluvial sediments in the Tunica Hills region of southeastern Louisiana and southwestern Mississippi provide new information on late Wisconsinan vegetation, flora, and environment of the region. The assemblages date between 25,250 and 17,530 yr B.P. Pollen and macrofossil assemblages are dominated by Picea, which comprises 40-70% of the pollen assemblages. Abies and Larix pollen and macrofossils are absent, in contrast to sites to the north in the central Mississippi Valley. Deciduous hardwoods ( Quercus, Fagus, Fraxinus, Carya, Juglans nigra, Acer, Ulmus) are minor components of both pollen and macrofossil assemblages. Radiocarbon dates of Picea and Quercus wood indicate that these two genera grew contemporaneously in the region. Regional upland forests were dominated by Picea. Picea cones and cone fragments are not typical of any extant North American species, and probably represent either an extinct species or an extinct variety or subspecies of Picea glauca. Late Wisconsinan climate of the region was cooler than present, but not necessarily as cool as implied by P. glauca or other "boreal" taxa.

  14. Recognition of Time-Equivalent Leaf-Based Signals of Atmospheric CO2 and El Niño Variability in Florida Wetland Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F.; Dilcher, D. L.; Visscher, H.; Kuerschner, W. M.

    2001-12-01

    Trees are equipped with a plastic phenotype, capable of sustained adjustment of numbers of leaf stomata to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. With high temporal resolution and accuracy, stomatal frequency data demonstrate that Holocene climate evolution has been influenced by century-scale CO2 fluctuations. Apart from adapting to changes in atmospheric CO2, leaf-epidermal properties are known to be sensitive to environmental factors such as water availability. In long-lived hygrophilous plants, epidermal tissue expansion is likely to be significantly influenced by changes in water availability. Concurrent analysis of the leaf morphology in CO2 sensitive trees (Myrica, Quercus, Acer) and a water-stress sensitive fern species (Osmunda regalis) from leaf assemblages preserved in peat deposits in Florida (USA), reveal distinct temporal changes in epidermal properties over the past 130 years. Stomatal frequency changes in the deciduous trees reflects the human induced CO2 increase. Epidermal-cell density changes in fern leaves, could well be interpreted in terms of El Niño / La Niña related precipitation trends. By quantifying the leaf morphological adaptation to known environmental conditions during historical times, a new paleobotanical proxy for past precipitation changes is introduced. Hence, in ENSO-sensitive regions, analysis of buried leaf assemblages offers the unique possibility of a direct recognition of time-equivalent leaf-based signals of paleo-atmospheric CO2 and El Niño variability.

  15. Effects of Climate Change on Litter Production in a Quercetum petraeae-cerris Forest in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOTROCZÓ, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a global problem. During the last century the increase of annual averagetemperature was 0.68°C, while the decrease of annual average of precipitation was 83 mm in Hungary.According to the long term meteorological data of Síkfkút forest ILTER site the annual averagetemperature increased while average of yearly precipitation decreased, the forest climate becamewarmer and dryer. These processes could considerably contribute to forest decline, not only in theQuercetum petraeae-cerris stand of Síkfkút, but everywhere in the country. Species composition andstructure of the forest have changed considerably, as 68% of sessile oak (Quercus petraea and 16% ofTurkey oak (Quercus cerris have died. Forest decline resulted in the breaking up of the formerlyclosed canopy, and consequently, in the formation of gaps in the forest. In the gaps, a secondary canopy developed with tree species of less forestry value. As a consequence, mass regeneration of field maple (Acer campestre appeard in the gaps. The formation of gaps accelerated the warming and aridity of forests. In the article we answer the following question: how did climatic change and changing forest structure influence the leaf-litter production in the last four decades?

  16. A Review of the Characteristics of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill. and Their Implications for Silviculture in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanguy De Jaegere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tilia cordata Mill. is a minor European broadleaved species with a wide but scattered distribution. Given its scarcity and low value in the wood market, it has received little attention from researchers and forest managers. This review summarizes the main aspects of T. cordata ecology and growth. Its main limiting factor is its need for warm summer temperatures to ensure successful seed production. It has a height growth pattern relatively similar to that of Acer pseudoplatanus L., with a slight delay in the early stages. Yield tables report great productivity, especially in eastern Europe. T. cordata used to be a major species in Europe, in contrast to its present distribution, but it is very likely to receive renewed interest in the future. Indeed, with the potential change of competition between species in some regions and the need for important diversification in others, T. cordata may play an important role in forest adaptation to climate change, especially owing to its wide ecological tolerance and its numerous ecosystem services. It is necessary to increase our knowledge about its regeneration and its responses to environmental and silvicultural factors, to establish clear management recommendations.

  17. TOUCH INTERACTION WITH 3D GEOGRAPHICAL VISUALIZATION ON WEB: SELECTED TECHNOLOGICAL AND USER ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Herman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of both 3D visualization and devices with touch displays is increasing. In this paper, we focused on the Web technologies for 3D visualization of spatial data and its interaction via touch screen gestures. At the first stage, we compared the support of touch interaction in selected JavaScript libraries on different hardware (desktop PCs with touch screens, tablets, and smartphones and software platforms. Afterward, we realized simple empiric test (within-subject design, 6 participants, 2 simple tasks, LCD touch monitor Acer and digital terrain models as stimuli focusing on the ability of users to solve simple spatial tasks via touch screens. An in-house testing web tool was developed and used based on JavaScript, PHP, and X3DOM languages and Hammer.js libraries. The correctness of answers, speed of users’ performances, used gestures, and a simple gesture metric was recorded and analysed. Preliminary results revealed that the pan gesture is most frequently used by test participants and it is also supported by the majority of 3D libraries. Possible gesture metrics and future developments including the interpersonal differences are discussed in the conclusion.

  18. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell Phineas; Saxena, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies.

  19. Effects of tannin source and concentration from tree leaves on two species of tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Julia E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation in and around freshwater ecosystems can affect aquatic organisms through the production of secondary compounds, which are retained in leaves after senescence and are biologically active. Tannins can be toxic to tadpoles, but the plant source of tannins and tannin concentration have been confounded in experimental designs in previous studies. To examine the effects of the concentration and source of tannins (tree species), we examined the effects of 4 factors on tadpole survival, growth, and development: tannin source (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Quercus alba], or sugar maple [Acer saccharum]); tannin concentration (including a control); diet protein level; and tadpole species (American toad [Anaxyrus americanus] and spring peepers [Pseudacris crucifer]). Tannin source and concentration affected spring peeper survival, but American toads had uniformly high survival. Spring peepers had a lower survival rate in high tannin concentrations of oak leachate but a high survival rate in both concentrations of sugar maple leachate. These differences in survival did not correspond with changes in dissolved oxygen, and no effect of dietary protein level on tadpole performance was observed. The presence of plant leachate resulted in increased tadpole growth in both species, but the mechanism for this finding is unclear. The results of the present study show that tannin concentration and source are important factors for tadpole performance, adding further evidence that plant chemistry can affect aquatic organisms. © 2014 SETAC.

  20. Mechanism Underlying the Spatial Pattern Formation of Dominant Tree Species in a Natural Secondary Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Jia

    Full Text Available Studying the spatial pattern of plant species may provide significant insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain stand stability. To better understand the dynamics of naturally regenerated secondary forests, univariate and bivariate Ripley's L(r functions were employed to evaluate intra-/interspecific relationships of four dominant tree species (Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Larix gmelinii and Acer mono and to distinguish the underlying mechanism of spatial distribution. The results showed that the distribution of soil, water and nutrients was not fragmented but presented clear gradients. An overall aggregated distribution existed at most distances. No correlation was found between the spatial pattern of soil conditions and that of trees. Both positive and negative intra- and interspecific relationships were found between different DBH classes at various distances. Large trees did not show systematic inhibition of the saplings. By contrast, the inhibition intensified as the height differences increased between the compared pairs. Except for Larix, universal inhibition of saplings by upper layer trees occurred among other species, and this reflected the vertical competition for light. Therefore, we believe that competition for light rather than soil nutrients underlies the mechanism driving the formation of stand spatial pattern in the rocky mountainous areas examined.

  1. Elderly online: effects of a digital inclusion program in cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Cachioni, Meire

    2011-01-01

    There is little empirical data about the impact of digital inclusion on cognition among older adults. This paper aimed at investigating the effects of a digital inclusion program in the cognitive performance of older individuals who participated in a computer learning workshop named "Idosos On-Line" (Elderly Online). Forty-two aged individuals participated in the research study: 22 completed the computer training workshop and 20 constituted the control group. All subjects answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and completed the Addenbrooke's cognitive examination, revised (ACE-R), which examines five cognitive domains: orientation and attention, memory, verbal fluency, language, and visuo-spatial skills. It was noted that the experimental group's cognitive performance significantly improved after the program, particularly in the language and memory domains, when compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the acquisition of new knowledge and the use of a new tool, that makes it possible to access the Internet, may bring gains to cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Significado físico del correlador de n puntos en perturbaciones cosmológicas

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    Heíner R. S. Cogollo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Los avances realizados en materia de mediciones en la temper atu- ra de la radiación cósmica de fondo (RCF prometen cotas de me dición, en particular en la amplitud del espectro P ζ de la perturbación primordial en la curvatura ζ , su respectivo índice espectral n ζ , y nivel de no gaussianidad f NL , que permitirían una mayor discriminación entre modelos co smológicos inflacionarios propuestos para la explicación del origen de la estructura a gran escala de nuestro Universo. La herramienta utilizada p ara indagar acer- ca de las propiedades estadísticas de las anisotropías en la temperatura de la RCF y los modelos teóricos construidos para describir tal es anisotropías, son los correladores de n puntos en perturbaciones cosmológicas tales como ζ . Este trabajo pretende interpretar el significado del corre lador de n puntos en perturbaciones cosmológicas, poniendo de manifiesto su c ontenido físico como un promedio espacial. Como consecuencia se obtiene una expresión para P ζ , y se analizan las implicaciones de esta interpretación en e l cálculo de f NL .

  3. Predicting the potential distribution in China of Euwallacea fornicates (Eichhoff) under current and future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xuezhen; Jiang, Chao; Chen, Linghong; Qiu, Shuang; Zhao, Yuxiang; Wang, Tao; Zong, Shixiang

    2017-04-19

    Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) is an important forest pest that has caused serious damage in America and Vietnam. In 2014, it attacked forests of Acer trialatum in the Yunnan province of China, creating concern in China's Forestry Bureau. We used the CLIMEX model to predict and compare the potential distribution for E. fornicates in China under current (1981-2010) and projected climate conditions (2011-2040) using one scenario (RCP8.5) and one global climate model (GCM), CSIRO-Mk3-6-0. Under both current and future climate conditions, the model predicted E. fornicates to be mainly distributed in the south of China. Comparing distributions under both climate conditions showed that the area of potential distribution was projected to increase (mainly because of an increase in favourable habitat) and shift to the north. Our results help clarify the potential effect of climate change on the range of this forest pest and provide a reference and guide to facilitate its control in China.

  4. Vegetation survey of Four Mile Creek wetlands. [Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1990-11-01

    A survey of forested wetlands along upper Four Mile Creek was conducted. The region from Road 3 to the creek headwaters was sampled to evaluate the composition of woody and herbaceons plant communities. All sites were found to fall into either the Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum) -- Persea borbonia (Red Bay) or Nyssa sylvatica -- Acer rubrum (Red Maple) types. These community types are generally species-rich and diverse. Previous studies (Greenwood et al., 1990; Mackey, 1988) demonstrated contaminant stress in areas downslope from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. In the present study there were some indications of contaminant stress. In the wetland near H-Area, shrub basal area, ground cover stratum species richness, and diversity were low. In the area surrounding the F-Area tree kill zone, ground cover stratum cover and shrub basal area were low and ground cover stratum species richness was low. The moderately stressed site at F-Area also showed reduced overstory richness and diversity and reduced ground cover stratum richness. These results could, however, be due to the very high basal area of overstory trees in both stressed F-Area sites that would reduce light availability to understory plants. No threatened or endangered plant species were found in the areas sampled. 40 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Aplicabilidad de un concreto de escoria activada alcalinamente como material protector del acero de refuerzo

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    Robinson de Jesús Torres Gómez, William A. Aperador Ch., Enrique Vera López,Rubi Mejía de Gutiérrez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del análisis electroquímico de las  barras  de  acero  embebidas  en  un  concreto  no convencional usado internacionalmente para reparación de estructuras. Este concreto utiliza materiales de desecho de otros procesos; en este caso específico se empleó escoria siderúrgica de  la empresa Acerías Paz del Río S.A. Se estudio el comportamiento frente a la corrosión generada por  los iones cloruro, con el uso de la técnica de resistencia lineal a la polarización LPR y pulso galvanostático GPT. Simultáneamente, se compararon los resultados con otras probetas  fabricadas  con  cemento  Portland  tipo  I.  Se realizaron mediciones con  intervalos de veinte días durante nueve  meses  y  finalmente  se  establecieron  las características protectoras del concreto.

  6. Sustained by First Nations: European newcomers' use of Indigenous plant foods in temperate North America

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    Nancy J. Turner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Peoples of North America have collectively used approximately 1800 different native species of plants, algae, lichens and fungi as food. When European explorers, traders and settlers arrived on the continent, these native foods, often identified and offered by Indigenous hosts, gave them sustenance and in some cases saved them from starvation. Over the years, some of these species – particularly various types of berries, such as blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp., wild raspberries and blackberries (Rubus spp., and wild strawberries (Fragaria spp., and various types of nuts (Corylus spp., Carya spp., Juglans spp., Pinus spp., along with wild-rice (Zizania spp. and maple syrup (from Acer saccharum – became more widely adopted and remain in use to the present day. Some of these and some other species were used in plant breeding programs, as germplasm for hybridization programs, or to strengthen a crop's resistance to disease. At the same time, many nutritious Indigenous foods fell out of use among Indigenous Peoples themselves, and along with their lessened use came a loss of associated knowledge and cultural identity. Today, for a variety of reasons, from improving people's health and regaining their cultural heritage, to enhancing dietary diversity and enjoyment of diverse foods, some of the species that have dwindled in their use have been “rediscovered” by Indigenous and non-Indigenous Peoples, and indications are that their benefits to humanity will continue into the future.

  7. Stable carbon isotope ratios and intrinsic water-use efficiency of Miocene fossil leaves compared to modern congeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, J.D.; Zhang, J.; Rember, W.C.; Jennings, D.; Larson, P. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Miocene fossil leaves of forest trees were extracted from the Clarkia, Idaho fossil beds and their stable carbon isotope ratios were analyzed. Fossils had higher lignin concentrations and lower cellulose concentrations that modern leaves due to diagenesis and the HF used to extract the fossils. Therefore, [delta][sup 13]C of extracted fossil lignin was compared to that of modern lignin. Fossil lignin [delta][sup 13]C was significantly different from that of congeneric modern leaves (paired t-test, P<0.0001), but was 1.9% less negative. Gymnosperms (Metasequoia, Taxodium) were less negative than angiosperms (e.g., Magnolia, Quercus, Acer, Persea), but no difference between evergreen and deciduous species was detected. Using published estimates of the concentration and [delta][sup 13]C of atmospheric CO[sub 2] during the Miocene was estimated the CO[sub 2] partial pressure gradient across the stomata (intrinsic water-use efficiency). Intrinsic water-use efficiency was at least 70% higher during this past [open quotes]greenhouse[close quotes] period than at present.

  8. Decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of (15)N-labeled leaf, root, and twig litter in temperate coniferous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huysen, Tiff L; Harmon, Mark E; Perakis, Steven S; Chen, Hua

    2013-12-01

    Litter nutrient dynamics contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems. We examined how site environment and initial substrate quality influence decomposition and nitrogen (N) dynamics of multiple litter types. A 2.5-year decomposition study was installed in the Oregon Coast Range and West Cascades using (15)N-labeled litter from Acer macrophyllum, Picea sitchensis, and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Mass loss for leaf litter was similar between the two sites, while root and twig litter exhibited greater mass loss in the Coast Range. Mass loss was greatest from leaves and roots, and species differences in mass loss were more prominent in the Coast Range. All litter types and species mineralized N early in the decomposition process; only A. macrophyllum leaves exhibited a net N immobilization phase. There were no site differences with respect to litter N dynamics despite differences in site N availability, and litter N mineralization patterns were species-specific. For multiple litter × species combinations, the difference between gross and net N mineralization was significant, and gross mineralization was 7-20 % greater than net mineralization. The mineralization results suggest that initial litter chemistry may be an important driver of litter N dynamics. Our study demonstrates that greater amounts of N are cycling through these systems than may be quantified by only measuring net mineralization and challenges current leaf-based biogeochemical theory regarding patterns of N immobilization and mineralization.

  9. Morphological and molecular identification of phytophthora species from maple trees in Serbia

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    Milenković Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the study performed with aims to determine the presence and diversity of Phytophthora species on maple trees in Serbia. Due to high aggressiveness and their multicyclic nature, presence of these pathogens is posing significant threat to forestry and biodiversity. In total, 29 samples of water, soil and tissues were taken from 10 different localities, and six different maple hosts were tested. After the isolation tests, 17 samples from five different maple hosts were positive for the presence of Phytophthora spp., and 31 isolates were obtained. After the detailed morphological and physiological classification, four distinct groups of isolates were separated. DNA was extracted from selected representative isolates and molecular identification with sequencing of ITS region was performed. Used ITS4 and ITS6 primers successfully amplified the genomic DNA of chosen isolates and morphological identification of obtained isolates was confirmed after the sequencing. Four different Phytophthora species were detected, including P. cactorum, P. gonapodyides, P. plurivora and P. lacustris. The most common isolated species was homothallic, and with very variable and semipapillate sporangia, P. plurivora with 22 obtained isolates. This is the first report of P. plurivora and P. gonapodyides on A. campestre, P. plurivora and P. lacustris on Acer heldreichii and first report of P. lacustris on A. pseudoplatanus and A. tataricum in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008

  10. Phylogenetic Relationships among Species of Phellinus sensu stricto, Cause of White Trunk Rot of Hardwoods, from Northern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Brazee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Species in Phellinus s.s. are some of the most important wood-decaying fungal pathogens in northern temperate forests, yet data on species incidence in North America remains limited. Therefore, phylogenetic analyses were performed using four loci (ITS, nLSU, tef1 and rpb2 with isolates representing 13 species. Results of phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference revealed that eight species of Phellinus s.s. occur in North America, and include: P. alni, P. arctostaphyli, P. betulinus, P. lundellii, P. nigricans, P. tremulae and two undescribed species, P. NA1 and P. NA2. Meanwhile, P. tuberculosus, P. igniarius s.s., P. populicola, P. laevigatus s.s. and P. orienticus were not detected and appear restricted to Europe and/or Asia. The tef1 dataset outperformed all other loci used and was able to discriminate among all 13 of the currently known Phellinus s.s. species with significant statistical support. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS region performed well but a high level of intraspecific variation could lead to inflated taxa recognition. Phellinus alni exhibited the broadest host range, as demonstrated previously, and appears to be the most common species in northern hardwood (Acer-Betula-Fagus, northern floodplain (Fraxinus-Populus-Ulmus and coastal alder (Alnus forests of North America.

  11. Impact of Hot-Water Extraction on Acetone-Water Oxygen Delignification of Paulownia Spp. and Lignin Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A hardwood-based biorefinery process starting with hot-water extraction (HWE is recommended in order to remove most of the hemicelluloses/xylans before further processing. HWE may be followed by delignification in acetone/water in the presence of oxygen (AWO for the production of cellulose and lignin. In this study, the HWE-AWO sequence was evaluated for its effectiveness at removing lignin from the fast-growing species Paulownia tomentosa (PT and Paulownia elongata (PE, in comparison with the reference species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum, SM. HWE might lead to a remarkable increase in lignin accessibility, and as a result, a greater AWO delignification degree was observed for extracted PT, PE, and SM than for unextracted ones. Organosolv lignin was recovered from the spent liquor of AWO delignification of PT with/without prior HWE and characterized to evaluate the benefits of HWE on the lignin structure and purity. The lignin recovered from the spent liquor of HWE-AWO sequence is of higher purity and lighter color than that recovered from the AWO spent liquor. These properties along with low sulfur content are desirable for lignin high-value applications.

  12. Urban tree effects on soil organic carbon.

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    Jill L Edmondson

    Full Text Available Urban trees sequester carbon into biomass and provide many ecosystem service benefits aboveground leading to worldwide tree planting schemes. Since soils hold ∼75% of ecosystem organic carbon, understanding the effect of urban trees on soil organic carbon (SOC and soil properties that underpin belowground ecosystem services is vital. We use an observational study to investigate effects of three important tree genera and mixed-species woodlands on soil properties (to 1 m depth compared to adjacent urban grasslands. Aboveground biomass and belowground ecosystem service provision by urban trees are found not to be directly coupled. Indeed, SOC enhancement relative to urban grasslands is genus-specific being highest under Fraxinus excelsior and Acer spp., but similar to grasslands under Quercus robur and mixed woodland. Tree cover type does not influence soil bulk density or C∶N ratio, properties which indicate the ability of soils to provide regulating ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling and flood mitigation. The trends observed in this study suggest that genus selection is important to maximise long-term SOC storage under urban trees, but emerging threats from genus-specific pathogens must also be considered.

  13. Factors affecting soil fauna feeding activity in a fragmented lowland temperate deciduous woodland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake E Simpson

    Full Text Available British temperate broadleaf woodlands have been widely fragmented since the advent of modern agriculture and development. As a result, a higher proportion of woodland area is now subject to edge effects which can alter the efficiency of ecosystem functions. These areas are particularly sensitive to drought. Decomposition of detritus and nutrient cycling are driven by soil microbe and fauna coactivity. The bait lamina assay was used to assess soil fauna trophic activity in the upper soil horizons at five sites in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire: two edge, two intermediate and one core site. Faunal trophic activity was highest in the core of the woodland, and lowest at the edge, which was correlated with a decreasing soil moisture gradient. The efficiency of the assay was tested using four different bait flavours: standardised, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., oak (Quercus robur L., and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.. The standardised bait proved the most efficient flavour in terms of feeding activity. This study suggests that decomposition and nutrient cycling may be compromised in many of the UK's small, fragmented woodlands in the event of drought or climate change.

  14. ПРЕДВАРИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ИТОГИ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ ДЕНДРОФЛОРЫ ГОРОДА АКТОБЕ (КАЗАХСТАН

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Utarbayeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Дендрофлора города Актобе насчитывает 71 видов и форм, относящихся к 40 родам и 18 семействам. Доминирующими по числу видов являются семейства Rosaceae, Salicaceae, и Pinaceae. Их суммарное участие в составе дендрофлоры г. Актобе - 56,3%. Основу озеленения города составляют 7 видов деревьев: Populus tremula, Ulmus pinnato-ramosa, U. scabra, U.Laevis, Acer negundo, Caragana arborescens, Syringa vulgaris. Из кустарников чаще встречаются шиповники гололистый, рыхлый и вишня кустарниковая. Во время исследований были выявлены инфекционные заболевания деревьев и кустарников. В 12 видах деревьев и кустарников было обнаружено 17 видов грибов. Наиболее распространенными заболеваниеми являются мучнистая роса, ржавчина и пятнистости, а наиболее поражаемые виды Ulmus pinnato-ramosa, Acer negundo, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Populus nigra.

  15. Vegetation indicators of transformation in the urban forest ecosystems of "Kuzminki-Lyublino" Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyvolova, Anna; Trifonova, Tatiana; Bykova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems in the city are at the same time a component of its natural environment and part of urban developmental planning. It imposes upon urban forests a large functional load, both environmental (formation of environment, air purification, noise pollution reducing, etc.) and social (recreational, educational) which defines the special attitude to their management and study. It is not a simple task to preserve maximum accessibility to the forest ecosystems of the large metropolises with a minimum of change. The urban forest vegetates in naturally formed soil, it has all the elements of a morphological structure (canopy layers), represented by natural species of the zonal vegetation. Sometimes it is impossible for a specialist to distinguish between an urban forest and a rural one. However, the urban forests are changing, being under the threat of various negative influences of the city, of which pollution is arguably the most significant. This article presents some indicators of structural changes to the plant communities, which is a response of forest ecosystems to an anthropogenic impact. It is shown that the indicators of the transformation of natural ecosystems in the city can be a reduction of the projective cover of moss layer, until its complete absence (in the pine forest), increasing the role of Acer negundo (adventive species) in the undergrowth, high variability of floristic indicators of the ground herbaceous vegetation, and a change in the spatial arrangement of adventive species. The assessment of the impact of the urban environment on the state of vegetation in the "Kuzminki-Lyublino" Natural-Historical Park was conducted in two key areas least affected by anthropogenic impacts under different plant communities represented by complex pine and birch forests and in similar forest types in the Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve. The selection of pine forests as a model is due to the fact that, according to some scientists, pine (Pinus

  16. Steel desulphurization with synthetic slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heput, T.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, sulphur is considered a harmful element for steel quality, reason why all the technological steps are being taken in order to eliminate it from the metal bath. This paper deals with the influence of the chemical composition, on the slag quantity and of the bath stirring condition upon the desulphurization process in the casting ladle by treatment with synthetic slag. The experiments were made at an open-hearth plant with the steel tapping in two ladles (the desulphurization was made with synthetic slag at one ladle while the other one was considered standard and at the electric steel plant and for the synthetic slag formation a mix was used, made, according to several receipts, of: lime (50-75%, fluorine (0-17%, bauxite (0-32% and aluminous slag (8-22%. The data were processed in the calculation programs EXCEL and MATLAB, which resulted in a series of correlations between the desulphurization degree and the chemical composition of the slag, respectively the slag quantity both for the charges bubbled with Argon and the unbubbled ones.

    En general, el azufre es considerado un elemento nocivo para la calidad del acero y, por eso, en la práctica, se toman todas las medidas de orden tecnológico para su eliminación del baño metálico. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la composición química, de la cantidad de escoria y del estado de agitación del baño sobre el proceso de desulfuración en la cuchara para fundir por tratamiento con escoria sintética. Los experimentos se han realizado en una acería evacuando el acero en dos ollas (en una cuchara se efectuó la desulfuración con escoria sintética y a la otra se consideró como patrón y en un acería eléctrica y para la formación de la escoria sintética se utilizó una mezcla producida según muchas recetas, formada por: cal (50-75%, fluorina (0-17%, bauxita (0-32% y escoria aluminosa (8-22%. Los datos han sido procesados en los programas de c

  17. Can urban tree roots improve infiltration through compacted subsoils for stormwater management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartens, Julia; Day, Susan D; Harris, J Roger; Dove, Joseph E; Wynn, Theresa M

    2008-01-01

    Global land use patterns and increasing pressures on water resources demand creative urban stormwater management. Strategies encouraging infiltration can enhance groundwater recharge and water quality. Urban subsoils are often relatively impermeable, and the construction of many stormwater detention best management practices (D-BMPs) exacerbates this condition. Root paths can act as conduits for water, but this function has not been demonstrated for stormwater BMPs where standing water and dense subsoils create a unique environment. We examined whether tree roots can penetrate compacted subsoils and increase infiltration rates in the context of a novel infiltration BMP (I-BMP). Black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees, and an unplanted control, were installed in cylindrical planting sleeves surrounded by clay loam soil at two compaction levels (bulk density = 1.3 or 1.6 g cm(-3)) in irrigated containers. Roots of both species penetrated the more compacted soil, increasing infiltration rates by an average of 153%. Similarly, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) trees were grown in CUSoil (Amereq Corp., New York) separated from compacted clay loam subsoil (1.6 g cm(-3)) by a geotextile. A drain hole at mid depth in the CUSoil layer mimicked the overflow drain in a stormwater I-BMP thus allowing water to pool above the subsoil. Roots penetrated the geotextile and subsoil and increased average infiltration rate 27-fold compared to unplanted controls. Although high water tables may limit tree rooting depth, some species may be effective tools for increasing water infiltration and enhancing groundwater recharge in this and other I-BMPs (e.g., raingardens and bioswales).

  18. Drought enhances symbiotic dinitrogen fixation and competitive ability of a temperate forest tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzburger, Nina; Miniat, Chelcy Ford

    2014-04-01

    General circulation models project more intense and frequent droughts over the next century, but many questions remain about how terrestrial ecosystems will respond. Of particular importance, is to understand how drought will alter the species composition of regenerating temperate forests wherein symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants play a critical role. In experimental mesocosms we manipulated soil moisture to study the effect of drought on the physiology, growth and competitive interactions of four co-occurring North American tree species, one of which (Robinia pseudoacacia) is a symbiotic N2-fixer. We hypothesized that drought would reduce growth by decreasing stomatal conductance, hydraulic conductance and increasing the water use efficiency of species with larger diameter xylem vessel elements (Quercus rubra, R. pseudoacacia) relative to those with smaller elements (Acer rubrum and Liriodendron tulipifera). We further hypothesized that N2 fixation by R. pseudoacacia would decline with drought, reducing its competitive ability. Under drought, growth declined across all species; but, growth and physiological responses did not correspond to species' hydraulic architecture. Drought triggered an 80% increase in nodule biomass and N accrual for R. pseudoacacia, improving its growth relative to other species. These results suggest that drought intensified soil N deficiency and that R. pseudoacacia's ability to fix N2 facilitated competition with non-fixing species when both water and N were limiting. Under scenarios of moderate drought, N2 fixation may alleviate the N constraints resulting from low soil moisture and improve competitive ability of N2-fixing species, and as a result, supply more new N to the ecosystem.

  19. Tree species' responses to throughfall removal experiments superimposed on a natural drought event in two contrasting humid temperate forests in New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Katie; McIntire, Cameron; Coble, Adam; Vandeboncoeur, Matthew; Rustad, Lindsay; Templer, Pamela; Absbjornsen, Heidi

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is likely to affect Northeastern U.S. forests through the increased frequency and severity of drought events. However, our understanding of how these humid temperate forests will respond to moderate to extreme droughts is limited. Given the important role that these forests play in providing ecosystem services and in supplying forest products, enhancing our knowledge about the impacts of drought is critical to guiding forest management and climate change adaptation efforts. We conducted 50% throughfall removal experiments at two contrasting sites in the Northeastern US (Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest and Thompson Farm, NH, USA), which were superimposed on the severe natural drought occurring in August-September 2016. Preliminary analysis suggests that the two sites respond differently to simulated drought. Pinus strobus trees at Thompson Farm reduced their transpiration rates in response to both the natural and experimental drought, particularly evident during a 5-day period at the height of the drought were transpiration nearly ceased. Both P. strobus and Quercus rubra trees increased their water use efficiency in response to reduced soil water availability, with Q. rubra allowing its midday water potential to reach more negative values, consistent with its more drought tolerant strategy compared to P. strobus. In contrast, we did not detect any significant differences in tree transpiration rates or growth in the dominant tree species, Acer rubrum, in response to the experimental drought treatment at Hubbard Brook. However, both soil respiration and fine root biomass production were lower in the drought treatment plots relative to the control plots at Hubbard Brook. We plan to continue these throughfall removal experiments for at least two more years to better understand the implications of future drought in these humid temperate forests and identify differences in species' physiological adaptations and threshold responses.

  20. [Effects of light quality on the seed germination of main tree species in a secondary forest ecosystem of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Yan, Qiao-Ling

    2012-10-01

    This paper explored the effects of light quality on the seed germination of five dominant tree species (Larix kaempferi, Phellodendron amurense, Acer mono, Fraxinus mandshurica, and Pinus koraiensis) in a secondary forest ecosystem of Northeast China, based on the experiments with the seeds of the five tree species in laboratory and those of the P. koraiensis and L. kaempferi in the field. Four treatments of different light quality were designed in laboratory (taking dark as the control), and three treatments of R/FR (the ratio of red light and far red light intensity) were installed in the field. The laboratory experiment showed that light quality had less effect on the seed germination of L. kaempferi, but the seed germination rates of the other four tree species were significantly different under the treatments of different light quality. P. amurense had the highest seed germination rate under white light, whereas A. mono, F. mandshurica, and P. koraiensis had the highest one under the alternative irradiation with red light and far red light (R-FR-R). In consistence with the results in laboratory, the seed germination rate of P. koraiensis in the field decreased with decreasing R/FR ratio, while that of L. kaempferi was less affected. Under natural condition, the R-FR-R fluctuated with the activity of sun-fleck, and the seed germination patterns of A. mono, F. mandshurica, and P. koraiensis could be the adaptation to the sun-fleck environment in forest stand. The germination of large seeds was significantly affected by light quality.

  1. Assessing future suitability of tree species under climate change by multiple methods: a case study in southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Walentowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared results derived using three different approaches to assess the suitability of common tree species on the Franconian Plateau in southern Germany under projected warmer and drier climate conditions in the period 2061-2080. The study area is currently a relatively warm and dry region of Germany. We calculated species distribution models (SDMs using information on species’ climate envelopes to predict regional species spectra under 63 different climate change scenarios. We complemented this with fine-scale ecological niche analysis using data from 51 vegetation surveys in seven forest reserves in the study area, and tree-ring analysis (TRA from local populations of five tree species to quantify their sensitivity to climatic extreme years. The SDMs showed that predicted future climate change in the region remains within the climate envelope of certain species (e.g. Quercus petraea, whilst for e.g. Fagus sylvatica, future climate conditions in one third of the scenarios are too warm and dry. This was confirmed by the TRA: sensitivity to drought periods is lower for Q. petraea than for F. sylvatica. The niche analysis shows that the local ecological niches of Quercus robur and Fraxinus excelsior are mainly characterized by soils providing favorable water supply than by climate, and Pinus sylvestris (planted is strongly influenced by light availability. The best adapted species for a warmer and potentially drier climate in the study region are Acer campestre, Sorbus torminalis, S. aria, Ulmus minor, and Tilia platyphyllos, which should therefore play a more prominent role in future climate-resilient mixed forest ecosystems.

  2. Photosynthetic responses to understory shade and elevated carbon dioxide concentration in 4 northern hardwood tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefcik, L.T.; Zak, D.R.; Ellsworth, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    Stimulation of photosynthesis in response to elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) varies among tree species and species groups. In this study, seedling responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations and solar irradiance over 2 growing seasons were investigated for shade tolerant Acer saccharum Marsh.; Fagus grandifolia J.F. Ehrh; and shade-intolerant Prunus serotina. Seedlings were exposed to a combination of elevated and ambient concentrations of CO 2 and understory shade in open-top chambers placed in a forest understory. It was observed that the elevated CO 2 treatment increased mean light-saturated net photosynthetic rates by 63 per cent in the shade-tolerant species and 67 per cent in the shade-intolerant species. When measured at the elevated CO 2 , long-term enhancement of photosynthesis was 10 per cent lower than the instantaneous enhancement observed in ambient-CO 2 -grown plants. As the growth irradiance increased, proportional enhancement due to elevated CO 2 decreased from 97 per cent for plants grown in deep shade to 47 per cent for plants grown in moderate shade. Results indicated that in nitrogen (N) limited northern temperate forests, trees grown in deep shade may display greater photosynthetic gains from a CO 2 enriched atmosphere than trees growing in more moderate shade, due to greater down-regulation. It was concluded that if elevated CO 2 levels promote the survival of shade-intolerant species in dim understory light, the future composition and dynamics of successional forest communities may be altered. 70 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  3. General functions to transform associate data to host data, and their use in phylogenetic inference from sequences with intra-individual variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm Guido W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amongst the most commonly used molecular markers for plant phylogenetic studies are the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS. Intra-individual variability of these multicopy regions is a very common phenomenon in plants, the causes of which are debated in literature. Phylogenetic reconstruction under these conditions is inherently difficult. Our approach is to consider this problem as a special case of the general biological question of how to infer the characteristics of hosts (represented here by plant individuals from features of their associates (represented by cloned sequences here. Results Six general transformation functions are introduced, covering the transformation of associate characters to discrete and continuous host characters, and the transformation of associate distances to host distances. A pure distance-based framework is established in which these transformation functions are applied to ITS sequences collected from the angiosperm genera Acer, Fagus and Zelkova. The formulae are also applied to allelic data of three different loci obtained from Rosa spp. The functions are validated by (1 phylogeny-independent measures of treelikeness; (2 correlation with independent host characters; (3 visualization using splits graphs and comparison with published data on the test organisms. The results agree well with these three measures and the datasets examined as well as with the theoretical predictions and previous results in the literature. High-quality distance matrices are obtained with four of the six transformation formulae. We demonstrate that one of them represents a generalization of the Sørensen coefficient, which is widely applied in ecology. Conclusion Because of their generality, the transformation functions may be applied to a wide range of biological problems that are interpretable in terms of hosts and associates. Regarding cloned sequences, the formulae have a high potential to

  4. Evaluation of the Potential Use of Agricultural and Forestial Waste in Spawn Production of Medicinal Mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Spawn quality plays an important role in successful production of medicinal mushrooms. In this study, firstly, to determine the optimum temperature for mycelia growth of G. lucidum, four basal media, including seeds of wheat, barley, millet and Abies sp. wood chip were studied separately at 25±1˚C and 29±1˚C. In the second section, in order to achieve suitable the mycelia growth, barley, wheat and millet seeds were mixed with different ratios of agriculture waste including wheat bran (10, 20 and 30% dry weight and millet peel (20, 40 and 60% dry weight and also Abies sp wood chips (20, 30, 50 and 60% dry weight as forestial waste. In the final section, several forestial waste including sawdusts (Platanus orientalis, Acer sp, Robinia peseudoacacia, Ailanthus altissima, Fagus orientals, Alnus subcordata and Populas alba were used as medium for spawn production. In the first experiment, a higher mycelia growth rate (8.92 mm/day was obtained by applying wheat seed at 29±1˚C. In the second experiment, the results showed that higher mycelia growth rate was obtained by using wheat with 10% wheat bran (9.66 mm/day. In the final section of spawn production, R. peseudoacacia sawdust (C/N=25.84 was generated higher growth rate (9.36 mm/day. Also, using supplements containing nitrogen (N such as sawdust and bran, encourage mycelium growth and with increasing C/N ratios more than 61.3 decreased growth rate due to reduce N amount.

  5. Apraxia and motor dysfunction in corticobasal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, James R; Hornberger, Michael; Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C; Hodges, John R

    2014-01-01

    Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is characterized by multifaceted motor system dysfunction and cognitive disturbance; distinctive clinical features include limb apraxia and visuospatial dysfunction. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used to study motor system dysfunction in CBS, but the relationship of TMS parameters to clinical features has not been studied. The present study explored several hypotheses; firstly, that limb apraxia may be partly due to visuospatial impairment in CBS. Secondly, that motor system dysfunction can be demonstrated in CBS, using threshold-tracking TMS, and is linked to limb apraxia. Finally, that atrophy of the primary motor cortex, studied using voxel-based morphometry analysis (VBM), is associated with motor system dysfunction and limb apraxia in CBS. Imitation of meaningful and meaningless hand gestures was graded to assess limb apraxia, while cognitive performance was assessed using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R), with particular emphasis placed on the visuospatial subtask. Patients underwent TMS, to assess cortical function, and VBM. In total, 17 patients with CBS (7 male, 10 female; mean age 64.4+/- 6.6 years) were studied and compared to 17 matched control subjects. Of the CBS patients, 23.5% had a relatively inexcitable motor cortex, with evidence of cortical dysfunction in the remaining 76.5% patients. Reduced resting motor threshold, and visuospatial performance, correlated with limb apraxia. Patients with a resting motor threshold apraxia correlated with atrophy of the pre-motor and parietal cortices. Cortical dysfunction appears to underlie the core clinical features of CBS, and is associated with atrophy of the primary motor and pre-motor cortices, as well as the thalamus, while apraxia correlates with pre-motor and parietal atrophy.

  6. Visualizing the Stability of Char: Molecular- to Micron-scale Observations of Char Incubated in a Tropical Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, K. A.; Ramon, C.; Weber, P. K.; Torn, M. S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Nico, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    The persistence of pyrogenic materials (hereafter referred to as char) in terrestrial ecosystems is of interest both from a carbon cycle modelling perspective and a climate change mitigation standpoint. However, the fate of newly introduced char in soils remains unclear. Recent reviews attempting to summarize trends in char decomposition have come to differing conclusions, further stressing the complexity of factors dictating char stability in soils. The current dataset specifically addresses the stability of char additions to a tropical clay-rich soil, possible priming effects, and interactions among char, microbial communities and the mineral matrix. 13C- and 15N-labeled Acer rubrum(red maple) wood was combusted at 400°C and added to surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (20-30 cm) soils from the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Soils were incubated for 13 and 345 days at 26°C. Following incubation, intact microaggregates were frozen and cryosectioned into thin sections of approximately 5 μm thickness and mounted on gold-coated quartz slides. Thin sections were examined by synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), and high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS). The combination of these μm to nm scale techniques allowed us to create corresponding spatial maps of native organic matter, char, and mineral phase distribution, track spatial variability in organic matter molecular structure, and dispersion of 13C and 15N isotopic labels. We present preliminary results indicating a high degree of stability of char in these wet tropical soils throughout the incubation period, suggesting that applied char may persist for long periods of time in similar soils.

  7. Predicting tree biomass growth in the temperate-boreal ecotone: is tree size, age, competition or climate response most important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jane R.; Finley, Andrew O.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    As global temperatures rise, variation in annual climate is also changing, with unknown consequences for forest biomes. Growing forests have the ability to capture atmospheric CO2and thereby slow rising CO2 concentrations. Forests’ ongoing ability to sequester C depends on how tree communities respond to changes in climate variation. Much of what we know about tree and forest response to climate variation comes from tree-ring records. Yet typical tree-ring datasets and models do not capture the diversity of climate responses that exist within and among trees and species. We address this issue using a model that estimates individual tree response to climate variables while accounting for variation in individuals’ size, age, competitive status, and spatially structured latent covariates. Our model allows for inference about variance within and among species. We quantify how variables influence aboveground biomass growth of individual trees from a representative sample of 15 northern or southern tree species growing in a transition zone between boreal and temperate biomes. Individual trees varied in their growth response to fluctuating mean annual temperature and summer moisture stress. The variation among individuals within a species was wider than mean differences among species. The effects of mean temperature and summer moisture stress interacted, such that warm years produced positive responses to summer moisture availability and cool years produced negative responses. As climate models project significant increases in annual temperatures, growth of species likeAcer saccharum, Quercus rubra, and Picea glauca will vary more in response to summer moisture stress than in the past. The magnitude of biomass growth variation in response to annual climate was 92–95% smaller than responses to tree size and age. This means that measuring or predicting the physical structure of current and future forests could tell us more about future C dynamics than growth

  8. Determination of Tree and Understory Water Sources and Residence Times Using Stable Isotopes in a Southern Appalachian Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A. N.; Knoepp, J.; Miniat, C.; Oishi, A. C.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    The development of accurate hydrologic models is key to describing changes in hydrologic processes due to land use and climate change. Hydrologic models typically simplify biological processes associated with plant water uptake and transpiration, assuming that roots take up water from the same moisture pool that feeds the stream; however, this assumption is not valid for all systems. Novel combinations of climate and forest composition and structure, caused by ecosystem succession, management decisions, and climate variability, will require a better understanding of sources of water for transpiration in order to accurately estimate impact on forest water yield. Here we examine red maple (Acer rubrum), rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum), tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), and white oak (Quercus alba) trees at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, a long-term hydrological and ecological research site in western NC, USA, and explore whether source water use differs by species and landscape position. We analyzed stable isotopes of water (18O and 2H) in tree cores, stream water, soil water, and precipitation using laser spectrometry and compare the isotopic composition of the various pools. We place these results in broader context using meteorological and ecophysiological data collected nearby. These findings have implications for plant water stress and drought vulnerability. They also contribute to process-based knowledge of plant water use that better captures the sensitivity of transpiration to physical and biological controls at the sub-catchment scale. This work aims to help establish novel ways to model transpiration and improve understanding of water balance, biogeochemical cycling, and transport of nutrients to streams.

  9. Effect of controlled inoculation with specific mycorrhizal fungi from the urban environment on growth and physiology of containerized shade tree species growing under different water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Alessio; Frangi, Piero; Amoroso, Gabriele; Piatti, Riccardo; Faoro, Marco; Bellasio, Chandra; Ferrini, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of selected mycorrhiza obtained in the urban environment on growth, leaf gas exchange, and drought tolerance of containerized plants growing in the nursery. Two-year-old uniform Acer campestre L., Tilia cordata Mill., and Quercus robur L. were inoculated with a mixture of infected roots and mycelium of selected arbuscular (maple, linden) and/or ectomycorrhiza (linden, oak) fungi and grown in well-watered or water shortage conditions. Plant biomass and leaf area were measured 1 and 2 years after inoculation. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and water relations were measured during the first and second growing seasons after inoculation. Our data suggest that the mycelium-based inoculum used in this experiment was able to colonize the roots of the tree species growing in the nursery. Plant biomass was affected by water shortage, but not by inoculation. Leaf area was affected by water regime and, in oak and linden, by inoculation. Leaf gas exchange was affected by inoculation and water stress. V(cmax) and J(max) were increased by inoculation and decreased by water shortage in all species. F(v)/F(m) was also generally higher in inoculated plants than in control. Changes in PSII photochemistry and photosynthesis may be related to the capacity of inoculated plants to maintain less negative leaf water potential under drought conditions. The overall data suggest that inoculated plants were better able to maintain physiological activity during water stress in comparison to non-inoculated plants.

  10. Living part on soil bioengineering structures in Appennino Tosco-emiliano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastini, Enrico; Preti, Federico; Dani, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    From analisys headed up in soil bioengineered areas in different parts of Tuscany, the suitest root systems in slope stabilization turn out to be those spreading from seed-born plants, while adventitious roots from cuttings are often absent in the part more distant from the neck, and in some cases are insufficient to grant life support just in case of minor stress conditions. Genus Alnus shows it's adaptation capability to restore initial restoration steps and to create renovation prerequisites for other species through ammending litter production and symbiosis for nitrogen fixation with Frankia genus bacteria; other similar symbiosis (with Rhizobium and fungi) are carried out by Robinia pseudacacia. Soil fecundity increase is confirmed by the following entrance of more demanding species, as Ostrya carpinifolia and Acer pseudoplatanus at the tree level, Urtica dioica and Rubus Ulmifolius (nitrophilouses) at grass level. In the project phase it ought to imagine a well-structured implant, including rooted plants, cuttings and posibly a seed mix of colonising species aiming to form a germplasm on the structure itself in order to sprout whenever the local conditions allow it. Verifying that many after developed species came from ornithocore dissemination (Ficus carica, Pinus spp., Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra), lead to toughts about bedding out bird-attracting species on structures in order to realise a faster (and maybe more complex) succession development. This higher velocity could grant in a shorter period the production of a root mass spread in a more disomogeneous and complex pattern than that deriving from cuttings disposed in the traditional way; such a variability could allow a better interaction with other biological factors in the soil (bacteria, fungi, nematodes, ...) that are important for the plant nutrient cicle (Ohsowski et al., 2012) and then the constituion of an articulate, long-term system.

  11. Relative Preference and Localized Food Affect Predator Space Use and Consumption of Incidental Prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler E Schartel

    Full Text Available Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds (Prunus dulcis; highly profitable and maple seeds (Acer saccharum; less profitable. We estimated mouse population densities with trapping webs, quantified mouse consumption rates of these incidental prey items, and measured local mouse activity with track plates. We predicted that 1 mouse activity would be elevated near full feeders, but depressed at intermediate distances from the feeder, 2 consumption of both incidental prey would be high near feeders providing less-preferred food and, 3 consumption of incidental prey would be contingent on predator preference for prey relative to feeders providing more-preferred food. Mouse densities increased significantly from pre- to post-experiment. Mean mouse activity was unexpectedly greatest in control treatments, particularly <15 m from the control (empty feeder. Feeders with highly preferred food (sunflower seeds created localized refuges for incidental prey at intermediate distances (15 to 25m from the feeder. Feeders with less-preferred food (corn generated localized high risk for highly preferred almonds <10 m of the feeder. Our findings highlight the contingent but predictable effects of locally abundant food on risk experienced by incidental prey, which can be positive or negative depending on both spatial proximity and relative preference.

  12. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Bi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC, total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and antioxidant activity (DPPH. The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62–18.99 mg/g are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55–24.99 mg/g. However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g. Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL. Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs.

  13. Species-specific Mechanisms Contributing to the Mesophication of Upland Oak Stands in the Absence of Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babl, E. K.; Alexander, H. D.; Siegert, C. M.; Willis, J. L.; Berry, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Upland oak forests of the eastern United States are shifting dominance towards shade-tolerant, fire-intolerant species. This shift is hypothesized to be driven by anthropogenic fire suppression and lead to mesophication, a positive feedback loop where shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species (i.e. mesophytes) create a cool, moist understory, reducing forest flammability and promoting their own proliferation at the expense of pyrophytic, shade-intolerant species such as oaks. There have been few empirical studies identifying mechanisms of mesophication, and these studies have yet to extensively explore potential mesophytes other than red maple (Acer rubrum). To address this issue, we sampled four hypothesized mesophytes (A. rubrum, A. saccharum, Carya glabra, and Fagus grandifolia) and two upland oak species (Quercus alba and Q. montana) across a gradient of sizes (20-60 cm DBH) in western Kentucky. We quantified canopy, bark, and leaf litter traits among upland oaks and mesophytes that may lead to differences in forest flammability. Preliminary results show that mesophytes had thinner and smoother bark than upland oaks and an increased canopy volume (normalized to stem volume), traits known to influence water movement through the canopy and understory microclimate. Maple leaf litter also decomposed faster, which could decrease fuel loads; after 6 months, red and sugar maple leaf litter lost 37% of original mass compared to 32%, 22%, and 14% mass loss in hickory, oak, and American beech litter, respectively. Furthermore, volumetric soil moisture of the soil organic layer beneath the canopies of mesophytes was 62% moister two days following a rainfall event compared to oaks. These differences in soil organic layer water retention after rainfall could lead to fuel discontinuity. These findings suggest that mesophytes may alter future forest flammability through their bark, canopy, and leaf litter traits which may modify fuel moisture, loads, and continuity and that a

  14. Ionic liquids influence on the surface properties of electron beam irradiated wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, Catalin; Patachia, Silvia; Doroftei, Florica; Parparita, Elena; Vasile, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Wood veneers impregnated with three imidazolium-based ionic liquids and irradiated with electron beam were studied by FTIR-ATR, SEM/EDX, AFM, contact angle and image analysis. • ILs preserve the surface properties of the wood (surface energy, roughness, color) upon irradiation, in comparison with the reference wood, but the surface composition is changed by treatment with IL-s, mainly with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. • Under electron beam irradiation covalent bonding of the imidazolium moiety to wood determines a higher resistance to water penetration and spreading on the surface. - Abstract: In this paper, the influence of three imidazolium-based ionic liquids (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) on the structure and surface properties of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) veneers submitted to electron beam irradiation with a dose of 50 kGy has been studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, as well as image, scanning electron microscopy/SEM/EDX, atomic force microscopy and contact angle analysis. The experimental results have proven that the studied ionic liquids determine a better preservation of the structural features of wood (cellulose crystallinity index and lignin concentration on the surface) as well as some of surface properties such as surface energy, roughness, color upon irradiation with electron beam, in comparison with the reference wood, but surface composition is changed by treatment with imidazolium-based ionic liquids mainly with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. Also, under electron beam irradiation covalent bonding of the imidazolium moiety to wood determines a higher resistance to water penetration and spreading on the surface

  15. Impact of an Alien Invasive Shrub on Ecology of Native and Alien Invasive Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Gardner, Allison M; Bara, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-01

    We examined how leaf litter of alien invasive honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii Rupr.) either alone or in combination with leaf litter of one of two native tree species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), affects the ecology of Culex restuans Theobald, Ochlerotatus triseriatus Say, and Ochlerotatus japonicus Theobald. Experimental mesocosms containing single species litter or a mixture of honeysuckle and one of two native tree species litter were established at South Farms and Trelease Woods study sites in Urbana, IL, and examined for their effect on 1) oviposition site selection by the three mosquito species, and 2) adult production and body size of Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus. There were no significant effects of study site and leaf treatment on Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus oviposition preference and adult production. In contrast, significantly more Cx. restuans eggs rafts were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Significantly larger adult females of Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Combining honeysuckle litter with native tree species litter had additive effects on Cx. restuans oviposition preference and Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus body size, with the exception of honeysuckle and northern red oak litter combination, which had antagonistic effects on Oc. triseriatus body size. We conclude that input of honeysuckle litter into container aquatic habitats may alter the life history traits of vector mosquito species. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Pigmentiphaga aceris sp. nov., isolated from tree sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Dong

    2017-09-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative bacterial strains, SAP-32T and SAP-36, were isolated from sap drawn from the Acer pictum from Mount Halla in Jeju, Republic of Korea. The organisms were strictly aerobic, non-sporulating, motile rods and showed growth at 10-30 °C, pH 7-8 and with 0-2 % NaCl. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The predominant fatty acids were C16 : 0, cyclo-C17 : 0, summed feature 3 and C18 : 0. The polar lipids contained phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophosphoglycolipid, an unknown glycolipid, an unknown phospholipid and two unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that SAP-32T and SAP-36 formed a distinct cluster with members of the genus Pigmentiphaga within the family Alcaligenaceae. Both strains showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 100 % to each other. The closest relatives of the isolates were Pigmentiphaga daeguensis (97.08 % sequence similarity), Pigmentiphaga kullae (97.01 %) and Pigmentiphaga litoralis (96.73 %). On the basis of data from phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, SAP-32T (=KCTC 52619T=DSM 104039T) and SAP-36 (=KCTC 52620=DSM 104072) represent members of a novel species of the genus Pigmentiphaga, for which the name Pigmentiphaga aceris sp. nov. is proposed.

  17. Projected change in climate thresholds in the Northeastern U.S.: implications for crops, pests, livestock, and farmers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, L. [Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Hayhoe, K. [Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Petzoldt, C. [Integrated Pest Management Program, Cornell University, Geneva, NY (United States); Seaman, A. [Integrated Pest Management Program, Cornell University, Geneva, NY (United States); Wolfe, D. W. [Department of Horticulture, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Most prior climate change assessments for U.S. agriculture have focused on major world food crops such as wheat and maize. While useful from a national and global perspective, these results are not particularly relevant to the Northeastern U.S. agriculture economy, which is dominated by dairy milk production, and high-value horticultural crops such as apples (Malus domestica), grapes (vitis vinifera), sweet corn (Zea mays var. rugosa), cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), and maple syrup (sugar maple, Acer saccharum). We used statistically downscaled climate projections generated by the HadCM3 atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, run with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change future emissions scenarios Alfi (higher) and B1 (lower), to evaluate several climate thresholds of direct relevance to agriculture in the region. A longer (frostfree) growing season could create new opportunities for farmers with enough capital to take risks on new crops (assuming a market for new crops can be developed). However, our results indicate that many crops will have yield losses associated with increased frequency of high temperature stress, inadequate winter chill period for optimum fruiting in spring, increased pressure from marginally over-wintering and/or invasive weeds, insects, or disease, or other factors. Weeds are likely to benefit more than cash crops from increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Projections of thermal heat index values for dairy cows indicate a substantial potential negative impact on milk production. At the higher compared to lower emissions scenario, negative climate change effects will occur sooner, and impact a larger geographic area within the region. Farmer adaptations to climate change will not be cost- or risk-free, and the impact on individual farm families and rural communities will depend on commodity produced, available capital, and timely, accurate climate projections.

  18. Light compensation points in shade-grown seedlings of deciduous broadleaf tree species with different successional traits raised under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, M; Hida, T; Eguchi, N; Tobita, H; Utsugi, H; Uemura, A; Kitaoka, S; Koike, T

    2016-01-01

    We measured leaf photosynthetic traits in shade-grown seedlings of four tree species native to northern Japan, raised under an elevated CO2 condition, to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 on shade tolerance of deciduous broadleaf tree species with different successional traits. We considered Betula platyphylla var. japonica and Betula maximowicziana as pioneer species, Quercus mongolica var. crispula as a mid-successional species, and Acer mono as a climax species. The plants were grown under shade conditions (10% of full sunlight) in a CO2 -regulated phytotron. Light compensation points (LCPs) decreased in all tree species when grown under elevated CO2 (720 μmol·mol(-1) ), which were accompanied by higher apparent quantum yields but no photosynthetic down-regulation. LCPs in Q. mongolica and A. mono grown under elevated CO2 were lower than those in the two pioneer birch species. The LCP in Q. mongolica seedlings was not different from that of A. mono in each CO2 treatment. However, lower dark respiration rates were observed in A. mono than in Q. mongolica, suggesting higher shade tolerance in A. mono as a climax species in relation to carbon loss at night. Thus, elevated CO2 may have enhanced shade tolerance by lowering LCPs in all species, but the ranking of shade tolerance related to successional traits did not change among species under elevated CO2 , i.e. the highest shade tolerance was observed in the climax species (A. mono), followed by a gap-dependent species (Q. mongolica), while lower shade tolerance was observed in the pioneer species (B. platyphylla and B. maximowicziana). © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Canopy soil bacterial communities altered by severing host tree limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody R. Dangerfield

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Trees of temperate rainforests host a large biomass of epiphytic plants, which are associated with soils formed in the forest canopy. Falling of epiphytic material results in the transfer of carbon and nutrients from the canopy to the forest floor. This study provides the first characterization of bacterial communities in canopy soils enabled by high-depth environmental sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Canopy soil included many of the same major taxonomic groups of Bacteria that are also found in ground soil, but canopy bacterial communities were lower in diversity and contained different operational taxonomic units. A field experiment was conducted with epiphytic material from six Acer macrophyllum trees in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA to document changes in the bacterial communities of soils associated with epiphytic material that falls to the forest floor. Bacterial diversity and composition of canopy soil was highly similar, but not identical, to adjacent ground soil two years after transfer to the forest floor, indicating that canopy bacteria are almost, but not completely, replaced by ground soil bacteria. Furthermore, soil associated with epiphytic material on branches that were severed from the host tree and suspended in the canopy contained altered bacterial communities that were distinct from those in canopy material moved to the forest floor. Therefore, the unique nature of canopy soil bacteria is determined in part by the host tree and not only by the physical environmental conditions associated with the canopy. Connection to the living tree appears to be a key feature of the canopy habitat. These results represent an initial survey of bacterial diversity of the canopy and provide a foundation upon which future studies can more fully investigate the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of these communities.

  20. Species-specific trajectories of nitrogen isotopes in Indiana hardwood forests, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. McLauchlan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans have drastically altered the global nitrogen (N cycle, and these alterations have begun to affect a variety of ecosystems. In North America, N deposition rates are highest in the central US, yet there are few studies that examine whether N availability has been increasing to different tree species in the forests of the region. To determine the species-specific trajectories of N availability in secondary temperate forests experiencing high N deposition, we measured the N concentrations and composition of stable N isotopes in wood of four tree species from six hardwood forest remnants in northern Indiana, USA. Annual nitrogen deposition rates averaged 5.8 kg ha−1 from 2000 to 2008 in this region. On average, wood δ15N values in Quercus alba have been increasing steadily over the past 100 years. In contrast, wood δ15N values have been declining in three other hardwood species – Acer saccharum, Carya ovata, and Fagus grandifolia – over the same time period. The species-specific trends suggest a change in the partitioning of ammonium and nitrate among species, due to an increase in nitrification rates over time. With no apparent net change in wood δ15N over the past century at the stand level, there is currently little evidence for consistent trends in stand-level N availability over time in the Indiana forests.