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Sample records for spirometric measurements fvc

  1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease as Measured By FEVl, FVC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both subjects and control groups, we assessed ventilatory function using a vitalograph spirometer to measure FEVl, FVC, andFEVl/FVC ratio. Results: Amongst the control group, various respiratory symptoms were prevalent in 0-2% of subjects, while impaired FEVl and FVC values suggestive of an obstructive ventilatory ...

  2. A novel scoring system to measure radiographic abnormalities and related spirometric values in cured pulmonary tuberculosis.

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    Renata Báez-Saldaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite chemotherapy, patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis may result in lung functional impairment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a novel scoring system based on the degree of radiographic abnormalities and related spirometric values in patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: One hundred and twenty seven patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis were prospectively enrolled in a referral hospital specializing in respiratory diseases. Spirometry was performed and the extent of radiographic abnormalities was evaluated twice by each of two readers to generate a novel quantitative score. Scoring reproducibility was analyzed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and the Bland-Altman method. Multiple linear regression models were performed to assess the association of the extent of radiographic abnormalities with spirometric values. RESULTS: The intra-observer agreement for scoring of radiographic abnormalities (SRA showed an ICC of 0.81 (CI:95%, 0.67-0.95 and 0.78 (CI:95%, 0.65-0.92, for reader 1 and 2, respectively. Inter-observer reproducibility for the first measurement was 0.83 (CI:95%, 0.71-0.95, and for the second measurement was 0.74 (CI:95%, 0.58-0.90. The Bland-Altman analysis of the intra-observer agreement showed a mean bias of 0.87% and -0.55% and an inter-observer agreement of -0.35% and -1.78%, indicating a minor average systematic variability. After adjustment for age, gender, height, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and degree of dyspnea, the scoring degree of radiographic abnormalities was significantly and negatively associated with absolute and percent predicted values of FVC: -0.07 (CI:95%, -0.01 to -0.04; -2.48 (CI:95%, -3.45 to -1.50; and FEV1 -0.07 (CI:95%, -0.10 to -0.05; -2.92 (CI:95%, -3.87 to -1.97 respectively, in the patients studied. CONCLUSION: The extent of radiographic abnormalities, as evaluated through our novel scoring system, was inversely associated with spirometric values

  3. The multi-ethnic global lung initiative 2012 and Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reference values do not reflect spirometric measurements in Black boys and men from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rębacz-Maron, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    The interpretation of spirometric results of Black Africans according to reference standards based on data from outside their native environment may lead to the wrong conclusions. This article aims to characterize the ventilatory capacity of boys and men from Tanzania according to forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and FEV 1 /FVC based on the collected anthropological material and to compare them to NHANES III, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) African American predicted values and GLI2012 equations. The analysis included spirometric measurements of n = 295 participants from Tanzania. Pearson's correlation analysis and the backward stepwise multiple regression analysis were performed. FEV 1 , FVC, PEF and FEV 1 /FVC results were compared to the NHANES III African American predicted values as well as to the GLI2012 equations. FEV 1 measurements are lower than the reference values according to NHANES III and GLI2012 equations by 22·1% and 25·8%. FVC results fell short of the NHANES III predicted by 29·5% and of GLI2012 by 32·5%. The average %FEV 1 /FVC scores for the boys and men exceeded the recommended GLI2012 predicted by 10·5-15·2%. All the spirometric measurements included in the analysis were statistically significantly correlated with age, body height, sitting height, trunk length and body weight. The application of prediction formulae developed for non-African populations overestimates the values for Black Africans. The results of spirometric measurements are ecosensitive and dependent on various external (environmental) factors. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A genome-wide association study identifies risk loci for spirometric measures among smokers of European and African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Sharon M; Cho, Michael H; Young, Kendra; Hersh, Craig P; Castaldi, Peter J; McDonald, Merry-Lynn; Regan, Elizabeth; Mattheisen, Manuel; DeMeo, Dawn L; Parker, Margaret; Foreman, Marilyn; Make, Barry J; Jensen, Robert L; Casaburi, Richard; Lomas, David A; Bhatt, Surya P; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Crapo, James D; Beaty, Terri H; Laird, Nan M; Lange, Christoph; Hokanson, John E; Silverman, Edwin K

    2015-12-03

    Pulmonary function decline is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among smokers. Post bronchodilator FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio are considered the standard assessment of airflow obstruction. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 9919 current and former smokers in the COPDGene study (6659 non-Hispanic Whites [NHW] and 3260 African Americans [AA]) to identify associations with spirometric measures (post-bronchodilator FEV1 and FEV1/FVC). We also conducted meta-analysis of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC GWAS in the COPDGene, ECLIPSE, and GenKOLS cohorts (total n = 13,532). Among NHW in the COPDGene cohort, both measures of pulmonary function were significantly associated with SNPs at the 15q25 locus [containing CHRNA3/5, AGPHD1, IREB2, CHRNB4] (lowest p-value = 2.17 × 10(-11)), and FEV1/FVC was associated with a genomic region on chromosome 4 [upstream of HHIP] (lowest p-value = 5.94 × 10(-10)); both regions have been previously associated with COPD. For the meta-analysis, in addition to confirming associations to the regions near CHRNA3/5 and HHIP, genome-wide significant associations were identified for FEV1 on chromosome 1 [TGFB2] (p-value = 8.99 × 10(-9)), 9 [DBH] (p-value = 9.69 × 10(-9)) and 19 [CYP2A6/7] (p-value = 3.49 × 10(-8)) and for FEV1/FVC on chromosome 1 [TGFB2] (p-value = 8.99 × 10(-9)), 4 [FAM13A] (p-value = 3.88 × 10(-12)), 11 [MMP3/12] (p-value = 3.29 × 10(-10)) and 14 [RIN3] (p-value = 5.64 × 10(-9)). In a large genome-wide association study of lung function in smokers, we found genome-wide significant associations at several previously described loci with lung function or COPD. We additionally identified a novel genome-wide significant locus with FEV1 on chromosome 9 [DBH] in a meta-analysis of three study populations.

  5. A 2-year follow-up of spirometric parameters in workers of a tile and ceramic industry, Yazd, southeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrparvar, A H; Mirmohammadi, S J; Mostaghaci, M; Davari, M H; Hashemi, S H

    2013-04-01

    Respiratory diseases cause a considerable amount of morbidity and mortality in the world. Pulmonary function tests are important measures for the diagnosis and management of respiratory disorders. Workers in tile and ceramic industry are exposed to high amounts of respiratory pollutants. To identify the changes in spirometric parameters in a 2-year period among tile and ceramic workers in Yazd and compare it with a control group. The study was conducted in 5 tile and ceramic factories selected by cluster sampling between 2009 and 2011 in Yazd, southeastern Iran. Demographic data and spirometric parameters of participants were recorded. Spirometric parameters were significantly reduced during the 2 years. The largest decrease was observed in FVC (≈500 mL) in ball-mill and grinding after 2 years. Decrease in all spirometric parameters was significantly higher in industrial workers than office workers. Respiratory exposure in tile and ceramic industry can significantly affect pulmonary function tests.

  6. Examination of relationship between 30 second wingate test performance and spirometric respiratory functions in young adults

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    C Arslan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work has been planed to investigate whether the correlation between one of the important component of the sports performance spirometric respiratory function (SRF and 30 s Wingate Test (WT parameters of young adults who have different physical fitness level. Materials and Methods: This work included a total of 166 subjects those are 98 young boys (20.30±1.93 and 68 young girls (19.65±2.18. The subjects were divided into two groups namely regular exercises group (EG who make a regular exercises during 4.0±1.50 years and sedentary groups (SG. Both group’s subjects have similar age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI kg/m2. All the subjects were performed spirometric respiratory function test and WT power performance test. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS computer program and the groups were compared to each other by using Independent Samples t test calculation and the correlation relation levels were calculated by using linear regression analysis. Results: In the view of physical peculiarities, it has not been found any difference between research groups that EG and SG (P>0.05. In the meaning of the measured spirometric respiratory functions and WT power performance, with the advantage of making regular sports, according to SG groups, the boys and girls EG groups showed differences (P<0.05. The correlational relationship between the spirometric and WT power parameters; it has been observed significant correlation between peak power (PP, mean power (MP, peak power/weight (PP/Wkg, mean power/weight (MP/Wkg form WT parameters and VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC (% FEF25-75, PEF and MVV form respiration function (P<0.05 and P<0.001. On the other hand, it has not been found any significant correlation between WT anaerobic fatigue index (AFI % and respiratory functions (P<0.05. Conclusion: In this work, the tested spirometric respiratory functions have got an active role in the WT power parameters. It has been confirmed that

  7. Airway Measurement for Airway Remodeling Defined by Post-Bronchodilator FEV1/FVC in Asthma: Investigation Using Inspiration-Expiration Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Chae, Eun Jin; Kim, Tae-Bum; Cho, You Sook; Park, Chan-Sun; Seo, Joon Beom; Kim, Namkug; Moon, Hee-Bom

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Airway remodeling may be responsible for irreversible airway obstruction in asthma, and a low post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio can be used as a noninvasive marker of airway remodeling. We investigated correlations between airway wall indices on computed tomography (CT) and various clinical indices, including post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio, in patients with asthma. Methods Volumetric CT was performed on 22 stable asthma patients who were taking inhaled corticosteroids. Airway dim...

  8. Spirometric values in children and adolescents with short stature

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    Naiza Alessandra Dorneles

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several factors influence the pulmonary function values considered normal. In children of short stature, there are difficulties in interpreting the pulmonary function. OBJECTIVE: To assess spirometric values in children and adolescents with short stature and to identify a correction factor to adequately predict the expected values for this population. METHOD: A prospective selection of 77 patients was made, all with short stature and no respiratory disease. These patients were submitted to spirometry, transcutaneous hemoglobin oxygen saturation, chest perimeter measurement, and immediate hypersensitivity testing. Bone age was assessed by wrist X-rays. The data obtained by spirometry (FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75% were compared with those of Polgar and Promadhat (1971, predicted in three ways: a by actual height; b by height estimated at the 50th percentile for chronological age (CA; c by height estimated at the 50th percentile for bone age (BA. RESULTS: The mean height was 133.3 ± 13.2 cm, and the deficit in relation to the third percentile was 5.4 ± 6.0 cm. The values obtained for FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75%, were significantly higher than those predicted by actual height. The mean FEV1 obtained was 2.42 ± 0.71 L, and the predicted (actual height was 2.10 ± 0.64 L; according to the height estimated by BA and CA, the values were 2.27 and 2.86 L, respectively. The mean FVC1 was 2.20 ± 0.6 L, and the predicted was 1.90 ± 0.55 L. With the height estimated for bone age and chronologic age, the predicted values were 2.10 and 2.60 L, respectively. CONCLUSION: Children and adolescents with short stature have higher spirometric values than predicted for their actual height. These findings suggest that the height estimated at the 50th percentile for bone age can be used to evaluate pulmonary function.

  9. The Evaluation of Relationship between Spirometric Disorders and Methyl methacrylate in Dental Laboratories Personnel

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    E. Nadi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Methyl methacrylate (MMA, as a monomer of acrylic resin that has a wide variety of usages in denture fabrication, is considered as an air pollution indicator in the laboratories. Occupational exposure to these compound vapors can cause respiratory hypersensitivity, occupational asthma, eye and skin irritation and Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD. Therefore control of MMA exposure may promote the personnel’s health. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between spirometric disorders and methyl methacrylate in dental laboratories personnel.. Materials & Methods: In this case control study, exposure of time-weighted average (TWA and short-term exposure level (STEL were measured with MMA vapors in 39 randomly selected male employee (case group in 25 denture fabrication laboratories in Hamadan city. The air samples were collected by sorbent tubes containing chromosorb (XAD2( and analyzed by gas chromatograph equipped with FID detector based on NIOSH method. In addition 30 men whitout occupational exposure to air pollutants (control group were selected to compare the variation of spirometric parameters. Spirometric parameters of the case and control groups such as FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75 were measured by Vitalograph spirometer (model: 2120 on ATS method, after the standard questionnaire of respiratory diseases had been completed during an interview and medical examination..Results: The mean of MMA concentration was 132.87 ± 220.67 ppm for STEL and 1.95 ± 3.59 ppm for TWA.The relationship between MMA concentration in the STEL and TWA exposures was significant (P<0.05 and the relationship between MMA concentration and ventilation was significant just for STEL. In this study no relationship between MMA concentration and spirometric parameters in both STEL and TWA exposures was found. Also there was no significant difference between spirometric parameters of the case group and normal values of the

  10. Radiographic and spirometric findings in diatomaceous earth workers.

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    Harber, P; Dahlgren, J; Bunn, W; Lockey, J; Chase, G

    1998-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth is a noncrystalline form of silica; in processing, calcining leads to formation of cristobalite, a form of crystalline silica. Four hundred ninety-two currently employed diatomaceous earth workers in a large mine and processing facility had chest radiographs performed and interpreted by the International Labour Office (ILO) system. Two hundred sixty-seven subjects underwent spirometry testing. Exposure indices for total dust (largely diatomaceous earth) and cristobalite were reconstructed for each individual based upon personnel records. Analysis demonstrated the following prevalences of radiographic findings: 5% had ILO scores > or = 1/0, and 25% had scores of 0/1 or higher. Regression analyses showed that there was a relationship between both total cristobalite exposure and total dust (largely diatomaceous earth) exposure and the ILO score. Radiographic patterns are not typical of those of classic silicosis. Linear regression analyses for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio did not demonstrate a relationship between cumulative exposure and lung function. Such analyses were performed using all subjects and stratified by smoking status. There were differences in spirometric data according to radiographic ILO category, but the results were inconsistent and did not permit determining if physiologic changes are associated with radiographic change or if this is due to confounding. Overall, the study suggests that diatomaceous earth pneumoconiosis (radiographically defined) is an entity distinct from silicosis. Recent exposure levels may produce radiographic abnormalities but do not lead to demonstrable physiologic effect. The prevalence of the disorder has diminished markedly in response to modern dust control measures. Ongoing medical surveillance is recommended in workers with potential exposure to significant quantity of material.

  11. Morbidity and Mortality associated with the Restrictive Spirometric Pattern: a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Stefano; Sherrill, Duane L; Venker, Claire; Ceccato, Christina M; Halonen, Marilyn; Martinez, Fernando D

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that a restrictive pattern assessed with a single spirometry is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In this study, we sought to determine demographic, clinical, and mortality profiles of subjects with either a recurrent or inconsistent restrictive spirometric pattern assessed prospectively. Methods We analyzed data from 2048 adult participants in the population-based TESAOD study. Normal (FEV1/FVC ratio≥70% and FVC≥80% predicted), restrictive (FEV1/FVC≥70% and FVC<80% predicted), and obstructive (FEV1/FVC<70%) patterns were assessed at the enrollment survey (1972) and in eleven subsequent follow-up surveys up to 1996. Demographic and clinical characteristics were measured at enrollment and vital status and cause of death were assessed as of January 2005. Results Overall, 12% of participants had a restrictive spirometric pattern at enrollment. They were less likely to be males, to smoke and to have asthma, and had lower IgE levels as compared with subjects in the obstructive group. Among subjects with a restrictive pattern at enrollment, 38% developed an obstructive pattern during the follow-up. The remaining 62% had either a recurrent (restrictive pattern≥50% of follow-up surveys) or inconsistent (restrictive pattern<50% of follow-up surveys) longitudinal restrictive pattern. The recurrent and inconsistent restrictive groups had increased mortality risk for all-cause (adjHR: 1.7, 1.3–2.3; and 1.9, 1.4–2.6; respectively), heart disease (2.0, 1.3–3.1; and 2.7, 1.7–4.3), stroke (2.4, 0.9–6.3; and 3.5, 1.2–9.8), and diabetes (8.0, 2.9–21.8; and 6.0, 1.9–19.2). Conclusions The restrictive spirometric pattern identifies a pulmonary condition that is distinguishable from obstructive lung disease and associated with increased risk of life-threatening co-morbidities. PMID:20522846

  12. Discordance in Spirometric Interpretations Based on Korean and Non-Korean Reference Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Korean regression models for spirometric reference values are different from those of other ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was to evaluate discordance in spirometric interpretations based on using Korean reference equations versus non-Korean reference equations. Methods Spirometry was performed on 825 Korean male workers from April 2009 to November 2011. The spirometric patterns and disease severity were evaluated using two Korean equations (Choi's and Lee's) and three equations for Caucasians (NHANES III, Morris's, and Knudson's), and the results of Choi's equation were compared with the non-Korean equations. The spirometric patterns were defined as normal, restrictive, and mild and moderate obstructive. Results The mean differences in the FEV1% and FVC% between the two Korean equations were 2.0 ± 1.3% and 3.5 ± 2.2%, respectively. Morris's equation had the greatest difference in the FEV1% from Choi's equation: 32.9 ± 8.5%. Knudson's equation had the greatest difference in the FVC% from Choi's equation: 10.5 ± 6.5%. Conclusions The two Korean equations shared similar characteristics of spirometric interpretation. The spirometric interpretations of Choi's equation were significantly different from those of Morris's equation and Knudson's equation. PMID:24472140

  13. Study of computerized spirometric parameters of traffic police personnel of Saurashtra region, Gujarat, India

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    Amit H Makwana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Air pollution due to road traffic is a serious health hazard and air quality crisis in cities is mainly due to vehicular emission. Thus the persons who are continuously exposed are at an increased risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the extent of impairment in lung function in traffic police personnel compared to matched unexposed control group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the spirometric parameters of 100 traffic police personnel, aged 20-55 years, working in Saurashtra region, as compared to matched control group, consisting of 100 unexposed males. Measurement of lung volumes and capacities was done with SPIROEXCEL. The statistical analysis was carried out with Graph pad instat 3. Results: Traffic police personnel had significantly declined forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1, slow vital capacity (SVC and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV when compared with predictive normal values, which is probably due to exposure to vehicular exhaust. Comparison of test values between groups showed significantly reduced FVC, MVV and increased FEV1/FVC ratio and insignificantly declined FEV1 and SVC in cases as compared to controls. Traffic personnel with longer duration of exposure showed significantly reduced lung functions than those with shorter duration. Smokers showed lower test values as compared to non-smokers with significance only in unexposed group. Conclusion: The effect of pollution by vehicular exhausts may be responsible for these pulmonary function impairments and traffic police personnel should be offered personal protective or preventive measures.

  14. Reference equations for spirometric indices from a sample of the general adult population in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawibe, Ademola Emmanuel; Odeigah, Louis O; Saka, Mohammed J

    2017-03-06

    The increasing importance of pulmonary function testing in diagnosing and managing lung diseases and assessing improvement has necessitated the need for locally derived reference equations from a sample of the general Nigerian population. It was a cross sectional study in which we used linear regression models to obtain equations for reference values and lower limits of normal for spirometric indices in adult Nigerians from a sample of the general population aged 18-65 years (males) and 18-63 years (females). Seven hundred and twenty participants made up of 358 males and 362 females who satisfactorily completed the spirometric measurements using the ATS/ERS reproducibility and acceptability criteria were included in the analysis. The most important predictive variables were height and age. The values of the spirometic indices increase with increasing stature but decrease with increasing age in both sexes. The sex difference in all the indices is also apparent as all the indices, except FEV 1 /FVC, are higher in men than in women. Our values are higher than values obtained from previous studies in Nigeria (except FEV 1 /FVC) but the differences were not statistically significant. This suggests that although the values are increasing, the increase is yet to be significantly different from values obtained using the past equations. The implication of this is that there is need for periodic study to derive new equations so as to recognise when there is significant difference. There was no significant difference between values from our equations and those obtained from study among Ethiopians. Compared to report from Iran, our FVC and FEV 1 values (in males and females) as well as PEFR (in females) are significantly lower. Our values are also lower than values from Poland. We also observed disparities between our values and those of Afro Americans from the GLI study. Our findings show that it is important to always interpret ventilatory function tests in any individual by

  15. Regional variations in vital capacity in adult males in India: comparison of regression equations from four regions and impact on interpretation of spirometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Sunil K

    2009-01-01

    Information on variations in vital capacity predicted from various regional equations for adult males in India and on their impact on interpretation of spirometric data is not available. In a retrospective study, spirometry data of 1672 male patients, aged 15 years and above were studied. Predicted values of forced vital capacity (FVC), labelled as FVC(North), FVC(East), FVC(West) and FVC(South) were calculated from the available regional prediction equations. A prediction equation for FVC for south Indian adults above 40 years of age is not available. Spirometry data was interpreted using these and the extent of agreement between pairs of equations in detection of pattern of abnormality was analysed. The FVC(North) and FVC(East) were close and greater than FVC(West) and FVC(South), which were in turn, close to each other. Up to the age of 40 years, the FVC(North) exceeded FVC(East), FVC(West) and FVC(South) by 2.4%, 11.8% and 13.3%, respectively, while in the above 40 years age group, it exceeded FVC(East) and FVC(West) by 5.1% and 9.67%, respectively. The differences, however, decreased substantially with increasing FVCs and even reversed at higher values with FVC(East) tending to exceed FVC(North) in both the age groups, and FVC(West) tending to exceed FVC(North) in the above 40 years age group. While northern and eastern, and, western and southern equations gave acceptable differences (less than 5%) in interpretation of abnormality in spirometric data in patients up to 40 years of age, differences between other pairs of equations in this age group, and between all pairs in the above 40 years age group were large and unacceptable. Substantial variations exist in vital capacity predicted from various regional equations in adult males in India. In general, northern and eastern equations, and, western and southern equations yield closer values. While the northern Indian equation gives the highest predicted vital capacity, this is true only for lower values of vital

  16. Change in FVC and survival in chronic fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

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    Gimenez, Andrea; Storrer, Karin; Kuranishi, Lilian; Soares, Maria Raquel; Ferreira, Rimarcs Gomes; Pereira, Carlos A C

    2018-04-01

    The predictive value of the decline in FVC by ≥10% on survival in patients with fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis is unknown. Of 112 patients included, 66 (59%) had surgical lung biopsies. Patients with ≥10% decline in predicted FVC after 6-12 months had a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (median survival 53 months, 95% CI 37 to 69 vs 139 months, 95% CI 66 to 212 months, p=0.007). On multivariate analysis remained associated with increasing mortality: decline in FVC by ≥10% (HR 4.13, 95% CI 1.96 to 8.70, p=0.005), lower FVC% (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.05, p=0.003) and with decreasing mortality improvement with antigen avoidance (HR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.77, p=0.021). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Comparison of the Noise Robustness of FVC Retrieval Algorithms Based on Linear Mixture Models

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    Hiroki Yoshioka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The fraction of vegetation cover (FVC is often estimated by unmixing a linear mixture model (LMM to assess the horizontal spread of vegetation within a pixel based on a remotely sensed reflectance spectrum. The LMM-based algorithm produces results that can vary to a certain degree, depending on the model assumptions. For example, the robustness of the results depends on the presence of errors in the measured reflectance spectra. The objective of this study was to derive a factor that could be used to assess the robustness of LMM-based algorithms under a two-endmember assumption. The factor was derived from the analytical relationship between FVC values determined according to several previously described algorithms. The factor depended on the target spectra, endmember spectra, and choice of the spectral vegetation index. Numerical simulations were conducted to demonstrate the dependence and usefulness of the technique in terms of robustness against the measurement noise.

  18. Spirometric reference equations for Swedish adults.

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    Brisman, Jonas; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Olin, Anna-Carin; Torén, Kjell; Bake, Björn

    2017-11-01

    New spirometric reference equations for Swedish adults are required. Three different older sets of reference equations clinically used in Sweden have various drawbacks and the recently published 'The Global Lung Function 2012 (GLI) equations' have been shown not to be adequate for Swedish normal, healthy non-smokers. We have recently concluded that a piecewise linear model presented by Lubinski and Gólczewski accurately describes the distribution of spirometric variables in a large Swedish random population sample. This piecewise linear model also offers the important advantage of implementing easily physiologically interpretable coefficients. The present study aimed at presenting piecewise linear reference equations for Swedish adults based on a random population sample of 6685 individuals aged 25-75 years. Predicted normal values by the piecewise linear reference equations and lower limit normal (LLN) were compared with the three reference equations frequently used clinically in Sweden and the GLI equations. We found predicted normal values according to the present piecewise linear reference equations close to 100% predicted normal as expected, whereas the other equations either overestimated or underestimated normal subjects. Concerning LLN, the present equations, i.e. 1·645 × RSD, showed the least deviation from the expected 5% and, e.g., the GLI equations systematically identified too few subjects below LLN. We conclude that the present piecewise linear reference equations, based on a relatively large general population sample, ought to be considered for clinical use in Sweden. Application of 1·645 × RSD below predicted value gave an acceptably accurate LLN. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Sleep pattern in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and correlation among gasometric, spirometric, and polysomnographic variables

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    Santos Carlos Eduardo Ventura Gaio dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There are few studies on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD establishing differences between the functional parameters of the disease and sleep variables. The aim of the study was to describe the sleep pattern of these patients and to correlate spirometric, gasometric and polysomnographic variables. METHODS: Transversal study using COPD patients submitted to spirometry, arterial gasometry, and polysomnography. RESULTS: 21 male patients were studied with average age = 67 ± 9; 7 ± 4 average points in the Epworth sleepiness scale, average Tiffenau's index (FEV1/FVC = 54 ± 13.0%, average PaO2 = 68 ± 11 mmHg, average PaCO2 = 37 ± 6 mmHg. Sleep efficiency decreased (65 ± 16% with the reduction of slow wave sleep (8 ± 9% and rapid eye movement (REM sleep (15 ± 8%. Average T90 was 43 ± 41%. Average apnea-hypopnea index (AHI = 3 ± 5/h, where two patients (9.5% presented obstructive sleep apnea. A significant correlation was observed between PaO2 and T90 (p < 0.01, PaCO2 and T90 (p < 0.05, and AHI and the cardiac rate during REM (p < 0.01. A higher number of arousals and stage change was observed. There was no linear correlation between spirometric and polysomnographic variables. CONCLUSION: Poor sleep quality of these patients was characterized by low sleep efficiency, high number of awakenings and shift of stages. There were no correlations between the spirometric and polysomnographic variables.

  20. Overweight effect on spirometric parameters in adolescents undergoing exercise

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    Costa, Rayana de Oliveira; Silva, Juliana Pereira; Lacerda, Eliana Mattos; Dias, Rodrigo; Pezolato, Vitor Alexandre; da Silva, Carlos Alberto; Krinski, Kleverton; Correia, Marco Aurélio de Valois; Cieslak, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate effects of overweight on spirometric parameters in adolescents who underwent bronchial provocation test for exercise. Methods We included 71 male adolescents. The diagnosis of asthma was done based on participants’ clinical history and on the International Study Questionnaire Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, and the diagnosis of obesity was based on body mass index above 95th percentile. The bronchospasm induced by exercise was assessed using the run-walk test on a treadmill for eight minutes. The decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second > or equal to 10% before exercise was considered positive, and to calculate the intensity in exercise-induced bronchospasm we measured the maximum percentage of forced expiratory volume in one second and above the curve area. Data analysis was carried out using the Mann-Whitney U test and Friedman test (ANOVA), followed by Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). In addition, we used Fisher’s exact test to analyze the exercise-induced bronchospasm frequency. Results Significant differences were observed among obese adolescents in exercise-induced bronchospasm frequency (p=0,013) and in relation to time required for recovery after exercise (p=0,007). Conclusion Overweight can influence the increase in the exercise-induced bronchospasm frequency in non-asthmatic adolescents compared with eutrophic adolescents. PMID:27462892

  1. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 79 - FVC and FEV-1 Lower Limits of Normal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false FVC and FEV-1 Lower Limits of Normal... Normal Values Table 1—Caucasian Males FVC Lower Limit of Normal Values, Hankinson, et al. (1999) Heightin... Lower Limit of Normal Values, Hankinson, et al. (1999) Heightin inches Heightin centimeters Age in years...

  2. Predictive equations for spirometric reference values in a healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictive equations for spirometric reference values in a healthy adult suburban population in Tanzania. TORIL M. KNUDSEN1, ODD MØRKVE1, SAYOKI MFINANGA2 and JON A. HARDIE3, 4. 1Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Norway. 2National Institute for Medical Research, Muhimbili Medical ...

  3. [Spirometric and radiographic profile of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated and cured at the Department of Pulmonology of Brazzaville University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemba, E L P; Moyikoua, R; Ouedraogo, A R; Bopaka, R G; Koumeka, P P; Ossale Abacka, K B; Mboussa, J

    2017-10-01

    Tuberculosis is a real public health problem in Congo. Pulmonary localization can lead to sequelae of respiratory functional repercussions. Describe the spirometric and radiographic profile of patients treated with pulmonary tuberculosis treated and cured. This was a cross-sectional study that included 150 patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis with positive microscopy treated and cured in the Pulmonary Department of Brazzaville University Hospital. In which we performed a functional exploration (Spirometry) and a chest X-ray. The study took place from 1st January 2016 to 31st August 2016. The spirometry performed in all patients was pathological in 68.67% (103 cases/150) of the cases. Among them 74.76% (77 cases/103) had a restrictive profile (FEV1/FVC >70% and CVF 80%) and 15.53% (16 cases/103) a mixed syndrome (FVC <80% and FEV1/FVC <70%). Of the 150 chest radiographs performed, 120 or 80% were pathological; the degree of parenchymal stage III destruction represented 28.33%. There was a significant correlation between the degree of parenchymal destruction and the delay in treatment on the one hand and between the degree of parenchymal destruction and the different pulmonary volumes and volumes on the other hand. The prevention of these respiratory functional disorders is based on the prophylaxis of tuberculosis on early diagnosis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Responses of FEV6, FVC, and FET to inhaled bronchodilator in the adult general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundbäck Bo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of bronchodilator-induced change in forced vital capacity (FVC is dependent on forced expiratory time (FET in subjects with airflow limitation. Limited information is available on the concurrent responses of FVC, forced expiratory volume in six seconds (FEV6, and FET in the bronchodilation test among patients with obstructive airways disease or in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in FEV6, FVC, and FET, and their relationships in a standardized bronchodilation test in the general population. Methods We studied bronchodilation response in a general adult population sample of 628 individuals (260 men, 368 women with flow-volume spirometry. The largest FVC, the corresponding FET and the largest FEV6 both at the baseline and after 0.4 mg of inhaled salbutamol were selected for analysis. Results After administration of salbutamol FEV6 decreased on average -13.4 (95% CI -22.3 to -4.5 ml or -0.2% (-0.4% to 0.0% from the baseline. The 95th percentile of change in FEV6 was 169.1 ml and 5.0%. FVC decreased on average -42.8 (-52.4 to -33.3 ml or -1.0% (-1.2% to -0.7%. Concurrently FET changed on average -0.2 (-0.4 to 0.0 seconds or 0.4% (-1.4% to 2.3%. There were four subjects with an increase of FVC over 12% and only one of these was associated with prolonged FET after salbutamol. Changes in FEV6 and FVC were more frequently positive in subjects with reduced FEV1/FVC in baseline spirometry. Conclusion In general adult population, both FEV6 and FVC tended to decrease, but FET remained almost unchanged, in the bronchodilation test. However, those subjects with signs of airflow limitation at the baseline showed frequently some increase of FEV6 and FVC in the bronchodilation test without change in FET. We suggest that FEV6 could be used in assessment of bronchodilation response in lieu of FVC removing the need for regulation of FET during bronchodilation testing.

  5. Canadian prediction equations of spirometric lung function for Caucasian adults 20 to 90 years of age: Results from the Canadian Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) study and the Lung Health Canadian Environment (LHCE) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Wan C; Bourbeau, J; Hernandez, P

    2011-01-01

    -corrected FEV1, FVC and FEV1⁄FVC ratio were compared with other spirometry reference studies, mean values were similar, with the closest being derived from population-based studies. CONCLUSION: These spirometry reference equations, derived from randomly selected population-based cohorts with stringently......BACKGROUND: Currently, no reference or normative values for spirometry based on a randomly selected Canadian population exist. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present analysis was to construct spirometric reference values for Canadian adults 20 to 90 years of age by combining data collected from healthy...... with published regression equations showed that the best agreement was obtained from data derived from random populations. RESULTS: The best-fitting regression models for healthy, never-smoking, asymptomatic European-Canadian men and women 20 to 90 years of age were constructed. When age- and height...

  6. Overweight effect on spirometric parameters in adolescents undergoing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rayana de Oliveira; Silva, Juliana Pereira; Lacerda, Eliana Mattos; Dias, Rodrigo; Pezolato, Vitor Alexandre; Silva, Carlos Alberto da; Krinski, Kleverton; Correia, Marco Aurélio de Valois; Cieslak, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate effects of overweight on spirometric parameters in adolescents who underwent bronchial provocation test for exercise. We included 71 male adolescents. The diagnosis of asthma was done based on participants' clinical history and on the International Study Questionnaire Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, and the diagnosis of obesity was based on body mass index above 95th percentile. The bronchospasm induced by exercise was assessed using the run-walk test on a treadmill for eight minutes. The decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second > or equal to 10% before exercise was considered positive, and to calculate the intensity in exercise-induced bronchospasm we measured the maximum percentage of forced expiratory volume in one second and above the curve area. Data analysis was carried out using the Mann-Whitney U test and Friedman test (ANOVA), followed by Wilcoxon test (padolescentes submetidos ao teste de broncoprovocação por exercício. Participaram do estudo 71 adolescentes do sexo masculino. O diagnóstico de asma foi obtido por meio de histórico clínico e do questionário International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, e o de obesidade, pelo índice de massa corporal acima do percentil 95. Para avaliar o broncoespasmo induzido pelo exercício, utilizou-se o teste correr/caminhar em esteira ergométrica, com duração de 8 minutos, considerando positivo se diminuição do volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo >10% do valor pré-exercício e, para a intensidade do broncoespasmo induzido pelo exercício, foram utilizados o cálculo da queda percentual máxima do volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo e a área acima da curva. A análise dos dados foi realizada pelo teste U Mann-Whitney e pela ANOVA de Friedman, seguido do teste de Wilcoxon (padolescentes obesos. O excesso de peso pode influenciar no aumento da frequência de broncoespasmo induzido pelo exercício em adolescentes não asmáticos, quando

  7. Calculation Of Residual Volume By Spirometric Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hashemi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current practice to measure RV is either by BPG or helium dilution methods which may not be available in all clinics due to their cost. Methods: This paper outlines a method for both direct and indirect calculation of RV via PFT with acceptable sensitivity (81 %, 60% , specificity (71 %, 94% and validity (76%, 78% for obstructive and restrictive lung disease respectively at a much lower cost.

  8. Improved air trapping evaluation in chest computed tomography in children with cystic fibrosis using real-time spirometric monitoring and biofeedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Thomas; Buchvald, Frederik F; Green, Kent

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The quality of chest Computed Tomography (CT) images in children is dependent upon a sufficient breath hold during CT scanning. This study evaluates the influence of spirometric breath hold monitoring with biofeedback software on inspiratory and expiratory chest CT lung density measures......, using spirometric breath hold monitoring and biofeedback software (Copenhagen (COP)) or unmonitored breath hold manoeuvres (Gothenburg (GOT)). Inspiratory-expiratory lung density differences were calculated, and TA was scored to assess the difference between the two cohorts. RESULTS: Eighty-four chest...... CTs were evaluated. Mean (95%CI) change in inspiratory-expiratory lung density differences was 436 Hounsfield Units (HU) (408 to 464) in the COP cohort with spirometric breath hold monitoring versus 229 HU (188 to 269) in the GOT cohort with unmonitored breath hold manoeuvres (p

  9. Changes in the FEV1/FVC ratio during childhood and adolescence: an intercontinental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quanjer, P.H.; Stanojevic, S.; Stocks, J.; Hall, G.L.; Prasad, K.V.; Cole, T.J.; Rosenthal, M.; Perez-Padilla, R.; Hankinson, J.L.; Falaschetti, E.; Golshan, M.; Brunekreef, B.; Al-Rawas, O.; Kühr, J.; Trabelsi, Y.; Ip, M.S.M.

    2010-01-01

    In children, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) to forced vital capacity (FVC) is reportedly constant or falls linearly with age, whereas the ratio of residual volume (RV) to total lung capacity (TLC) remains constant. This seems counter-intuitive given the changes in airway

  10. WE-DE-209-03: Spirometric Motion Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, S.

    2016-01-01

    Breast radiation therapy is associated with some risk of lung toxicity as well as cardiac toxicity for left-sided cases. Radiation doses to the lung and heart can be reduced by using the deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique, in which the patient is simulated and treated during the deep inspiration phase of the breathing cycle. During DIBH, the heart is usually displaced posteriorly, inferiorly, and to the right, effectively expanding the distance between the heart and the breast/chest wall. As a result, the distance between the medial treatment field border and heart/lung is increased. Also, in a majority of DIBH patients, the air drawn into the thoracic cavity increases the total lung volume. The DIBH was discussed by an AAPM Task Group 10 years ago in the AAPM TG 76 report. However, DIBH is still not the standard of care in many clinics, which may be partially due to challenges associated with its implementation. Therefore, this seccion will focus primarily on how to clinically implement four different DIBH techniques: (1) Active Breathing Control, (2) Spirometric Motion Management, (3) 3D Surface Image-Guided, and (4) Self-held Breath Control with Respiratory Monitoring and Feedback Guidance. Learning Objectives: Describe the physical displacement of the heart and the change in lung volume during DIBH and discuss dosimetric consequences of those changes. Provide an overview of the technical aspects. Describe work flow for patient simulation and treatment. Give an overview of commissioning and routine. Provide practical tips for clinical implementation.

  11. The Short-Term Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Spirometric Indices in Chemical Warfare Victims Exposed to Mustard Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABCTRACT Introduction & Objective: Chronic respiratory diseases are the most prevalent late sequels of sulfur mustard gas injury among Iranian chemical warfare victims. Chest physiotherapy is one of the useful methods in care, cure and infection prevention of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effect of chest physiotherapy on spirometric indices in chemical warfare victims exposed to sulfur mustard gas. Materials & Methods: In this study, 27 of the chemical warfare victims with respiratory diseases were selected. Chest physiotherapy including postural drainage percussion and vibration were used in four positions for all patients. Pulmonary function test (PFT was obtained before (baseline, immediately and 20 minute after the chest physiotherapy. The SPSS software was used for the data analysis of the collected data. Results: Results of this study showed the significant effect (p<0.01 of chest physiotherapy upon forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1 (baseline mean, 44.19 immediately after intervention mean 47.3 and 20 minute after intervention mean 48.3 and forced vital capacity (FVC (baseline mean, 69.37 immediately after intervention mean, 73.67 20 minute after intervention 75.74. Chest physiotherapy had significant effect (p<0.01 in asthmatic bronchitis group and also had significant effect (p<0.05 in both severe and moderate groups. Conclusion: Chest physiotherapy was able to improve pulmonary function test indices in chemical warfare victims suffering from respiratory problems. The effect on asthmatic bronchitis group, as well as both severe and moderate groups, was significant.

  12. Renal Fractional Excretion of Sodium in Relation to Arterial Blood Gas and Spirometric Parameters in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Rezaeetalab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arterial gas derangement could change urinary sodium excretion in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD patients.There are very few and conflicting data in regards to the measurement of fractional excretion of sodium in COPD patients. The main aim of this study was to assess the relationship between renal fractional excretion of sodium(FeNa with arterial blood gas and spirometric parameters in COPD. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study performed on 40 consecutive stable COPD outpatients in 2 main general hospitals (Emam Reza, Ghaem in Mashhad/Iran between 2011 and 2012. We investigated the relationship of renal FeNa with arterial blood gas parameters including HCO3, PH, PaCO2 and PaO2, and spirometric parameters. Analysis was done by SPSS v16 with a statistically meaningful p value of less than 0.05. Results: Mean age was 65.97±10.77 SD years and female to male ratio was 0.26. A renal FeNa of less than 1% was presented in 27% patients. There was a significant, positive relationship between renal FeNa and PaO2 (P=0.005, r=0.456. The correlations between PaCO2, HCO3, PH and spirometric parameters were not seen (P>0.05, but there was a significant relationship between Urine Na and PaO2. Outstanding, it seems likely that kidneys of COPD patients are responsible for sodium retaining state particularly in the presence of hypoxemia. Conclusion: This study indicates that in COPD patients, PaO2 but not PaCO2 is related to renal FeNa which shows the probable role of hypoxemia on sodium output in COPD patients. However, some caution is needed for interpretation of the probable role of hypercapnia on sodium retention in COPD.

  13. Spirometric variability in smokers: transitions in COPD diagnosis in a five-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay; Petersen, Hans; Qualls, Clifford; Meek, Paula M; Vazquez-Guillamet, Rodrigo; Celli, Bartolome R; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2016-11-10

    Spirometrically-defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered progressive but its natural history is inadequately studied. We hypothesized that spirometrically-defined COPD states could undergo beneficial transitions. Participants in the Lovelace Smokers' Cohort (n = 1553), primarily women, were longitudinally studied over 5 years. Spirometric states included normal postbronchodilator spirometry, COPD Stage I, Unclassified state, and COPD Stage II+, as defined by GOLD guidelines. Beneficial transitions included either a decrease in disease severity, including resolution of spirometric abnormality, or maintenance of non-diseased state. 'All smokers' (n = 1553) and subgroups with normal and abnormal spirometry at baseline (n = 956 and 597 respectively) were separately analyzed. Markov-like model of transition probabilities over an average follow-up period of 5 years were calculated. Among 'all smokers', COPD Stage I, Unclassified, and COPD Stage II+ states were associated with probabilities of 16, 39, and 22 % respectively for beneficial transitions, and of 16, 35, and 4 % respectively for resolution. Beneficial transitions were more common for new-onset disease than for pre-existing disease (p smokers, men, or those with bronchial hyperresponsiveness but more common among Hispanics and smokers with excess weight. This observational study of ever smokers, shows that spirometrically-defined COPD states, may not be uniformly progressive and can improve or resolve over time. The implication of these findings is that the spirometric diagnosis of COPD can be unstable. Furthermore, COPD may have a pre-disease state when interventions might help reverse or change its natural history. NA.

  14. Medidas espirométricas em pessoas eutróficas e obesas nas posições ortostática, sentada e deitada Spirometric values of obese and non-obese subjects on orthostatic, sitting and supine positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsa Cristina Domingos-Benício

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Alguns autores demonstraram que a obesidade gera restrição pulmonar, levando a uma redução dos volumes pulmonares. Entretanto, ainda existem controvérsias acerca da existência dessa restrição e do possível mecanismo responsável por essa alteração. Frente a isso, esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do excesso de peso corporal na espirometria, em três diferentes posições corporais, avaliado pelo Índice de Massa Corpórea (IMC, percentual de gordura e relação cintura/quadril. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e seis universitários sedentários, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos, foram avaliados e distribuídos em cinco grupos, de acordo com o IMC. Os voluntários foram submetidos ao exame físico e à mensuração das pregas cutâneas e da circunferência da cintura e do quadril. CVF, VEF1 e VEF1/CVF foram avaliados em três diferentes posições - sentado, deitado e em pé. RESULTADOS: Quando comparados os valores obtidos e previstos entre os grupos, nenhuma diferença estatisticamente significante foi detectada. Quando comparadas as posições corporais, a posição deitada apresentou valores menores que as posições sentado e em pé (pBACKGROUND: It is possible that obesity could lead to pulmonary restriction with decreasing lung volumes. However, controversies about this restriction and its etiology still exist. Thus, the purpose of this report was to evaluate the effects of body weigh excess on spirometry, on three different body positions, evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI, percentage of fatness and the ratio of abdominal girth to hip breadth (AG/HB. METHODS: Forty-six sedentary volunteers, with ages between 20 and 40 years, were studied and distributed on five groups, based on BMI. Skin fold thickness and ratio of abdominal girth to hip breadth (AG/HB of the volunteers were measured. FVC, FEV1 and ratio of FEV1 to FVC were measured on three different body positions - sitting, supine and orthostatic positions

  15. [Markov process of vegetation cover change in arid area of northwest China based on FVC index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Chang, Shun-li; Shi, Qing-dong; Ma, Ke; Liang, Feng-chao

    2010-05-01

    Based on the fractional vegetation cover (FVC) data of 1982-2000 NOAA/AVHRR (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) images, the whole arid area of Northwest China was divided into three sub-areas, and then, the vegetation cover in each sub-area was classified by altitude. Furthermore, the Markov process of vegetation cover change was analyzed and tested through calculating the limit probability of any two years and the continuous and interval mean transition matrixes of vegetation cover change with 8 km x 8 km spatial resolution. By this method, the Markov process of vegetation cover change and its indicative significance were approached. The results showed that the vegetation cover change in the study area was controlled by some random processes and affected by long-term stable driving factors, and the transitional change of vegetation cover was a multiple Markov process. Therefore, only using two term image data, no matter they were successive or intervallic, Markov process could not accurately estimate the trend of vegetation cover change. As for the arid area of Northwest China, more than 10 years successive data could basically reflect all the factors affecting regional vegetation cover change, and using long term average transition matrix data could reliably simulate and predict the vegetation cover change. Vegetation cover change was a long term dynamic balance. Once the balance was broken down, it should be a long time process to establish a new balance.

  16. Relationships of methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) responsiveness to the postbronchodilator FEV₁/FVC ratio in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong In; Choi, Sun Hee; Lee, Ju Kyung; Kim, Jin-Tack; Koh, Young Yull

    2011-05-01

    Airway remodeling has been assumed to cause bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). A low postbronchodilator FEV₁/FVC ratio has been suggested to be a functional surrogate marker of airway remodeling in asthma. BHR is commonly assessed by bronchial challenges using direct or indirect stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare BHR to methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) with regard to their relationship with a marker of airway remodeling in children with asthma. Methacholine and AMP challenge tests were performed in 129 children with asthma, aged 12 years, and a provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV₁ (PC₂₀) was calculated for each challenge. All subjects also underwent pre- and postbronchodilator spirometry. A postbronchodilator FEV₁/FVC ratio below the lower limits of normal was used as a marker of airway remodeling. A low postbronchodilator FEV₁/FVC ratio was found in 17 subjects (13.2%). These subjects had a significantly lower methacholine PC₂₀ (geometric mean: 0.63 mg/mL, range of 1 SD: 0.17-2.29) than those (n = 112) with a normal postbronchodilator FEV₁/FVC ratio (2.42 mg/mL, 0.57-10.32, p = .000), whereas AMP PC₂₀ was similar between the two groups (22.1 mg/mL, 3.9-125.9 vs. 27.7 mg/mL, 4.2-183.5, p = .231). In the whole group of subjects, methacholine PC₂₀, but not AMP PC₂₀, correlated significantly with the postbronchodilator FEV₁/FVC ratio (r = 0.340, p = .000, and r = 0.056, p = .526, respectively). Our results provide evidence, though indirect, that BHR to methacholine is related to airway remodeling in children with asthma and suggest that BHR to methacholine may be a better marker of airway remodeling than BHR to AMP.

  17. Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Spirometric Values and Clinical Symptoms in Asthmatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Norouzy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is the 9th Islamic lunar month during which Muslims avoid eating and drinking from sunrise to sunset. The effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on asthma control is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on the spirometric variables and clinical symptoms on well-controlled asthmatic patients during Ramadan. Material and Methods: a cohort study was conducted in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi, Iran. Twenty-nine (19 females and 10 males well-controlled asthmatic patients aged 47 (12 years completed the study. The average duration of fasting was 26.5 days. Assessment of spirometric variables (daily peak expiratory flow, peak expiratory flow variability, peak expiratory flow home monitoring as well as asthma clinical symptoms including dyspnea, cough, wheezing, and chest tightness were carried out. Results: No significant changes in clinical symptoms were reported in asthmatic patients at the end of Ramadan fasting. Among spirometric variables, only peak expiratory flow improved after Ramadan (p <0.05. There was a reduction in the mean peak expiratory flow variability from 13% at the first week of fasting to 10% at the fourth week (p <0.05. Conclusion: In well-controlled asthmatic patients, Ramadan fasting resulted in improvement in peak expiratory flow and peak expiratory flow variability.

  18. Effects of Ramadan fasting on spirometric values and clinical symptoms in asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Norouzy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is the 9th  Islamic lunar month during which Muslims avoid eating and drinking from sunrise to sunset.  The effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on asthma control is controversial.  The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on the spirometric variables and clinical symptoms on well-controlled asthmatic patients during Ramadan. Material and Methods: a cohort study was conducted in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi, Iran. Twenty-nine (19 females and 10 males well-controlled asthmatic patients aged 47 (12 years completed the study.  The average duration of fasting was 26.5 days. Assessment of spirometric variables (daily peak expiratory flow, peak expiratory flow variability, peak expiratory flow home monitoring as well as asthma clinical symptoms including dyspnea, cough, wheezing, and chest tightness were carried out. Results: No significant changes in clinical symptoms were reported in asthmatic patients at the end of Ramadan fasting.  Among spirometric variables, only peak expiratory flow improved after Ramadan (p

  19. Pulmonary Functions are Impaired among Carpet Factory Workers: A Spirometric Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binaya SJB Rana

    2016-10-01

    using Medical International Research Spirolab II portable spirometer.  Results: The carpet factory workers had signi cantly less FEV1 (90.37 ±16.6 % vs. 103.89±9.79%, p<0.001, FVC (87.78 ± 15.48 % vs. 102.81 ± 8.41 %, p < 0.001 and PEFR (66.19 ± 20.29 % vs. 102.81 ± 11.09 %, p < 0.001 as compared to control group. Similarly the carpet factory workers had signi cantly higher FEV1/FVC ratio (89.96 ± 6.42 % vs. 87.12 ± 4.58 %, p = 0.007 as compared to control.  Conclusions: Carpet industry dusts exposure adversely affects pulmonary functions among its workers. The  ndings signi cant increase in the FEV1/FVC ratio and decrease in FEV1, FVC, and PEFR suggest that the effects are both restrictive and obstructive patterns of lung disease. Keywords: carpet industry; lung function; occupational health; pollution; spirometry.

  20. Subjects with Discordant Airways Obstruction: Lost between Spirometric Definitions of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Lamprecht

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the FEV1/FVC ratio declines with age, using the fixed ratio of 0.70 leads to overdiagnosis of COPD in older populations and underdiagnosis among young adults. Objective. To evaluate whether discordant obstructive cases (FEV1/FVC < 0.70 but ≥LLN are a healthy population or have clinical features that would place them at increased risk. Methods. We used post-bronchodilator spirometry data from the population-based Austrian Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD study. Those with post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio FVC ratio ≥LLN but <0.70 were defined as discordant obstructive cases. Results. Discordant obstructive cases were more likely to be older, male and never-smokers. Additionally they had less respiratory symptoms and less severe impairment of FEV1. However, discordant obstructive cases reported significantly more often a diagnosis of heart disease than subjects with normal lung function (27.2% vs 7.3%, P=.015. Conclusion. The clinical profile of discordant obstructive cases includes potentially important comorbid disease.

  1. Ventilation/perfusion SPECT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an evaluation by reference to symptoms, spirometric lung function and emphysema, as assessed with HRCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joegi, Jonas; Bajc, Marika; Ekberg, Marie; Jonson, Bjoern; Bozovic, Gracijela

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation which is not fully reversible. Despite the heterogeneity of COPD, its diagnosis and staging is currently based solely on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ). FEV 1 does not explain the underlying pathophysiology of airflow limitation. The relationship between FEV 1 , symptoms and emphysema extent is weak. Better diagnostic tools are needed to define COPD. Tomographic lung scintigraphy [ventilation/perfusion single photon emission tomography (V/P SPECT)] visualizes regional V and P. In COPD, relations between V/P SPECT, spirometry, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and symptoms have been insufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to investigate how lung function imaging and obstructive disease grading undertaken using V/P SPECT correlate with symptoms, spirometric lung function and degree of emphysema assessed with HRCT in patients with COPD. Thirty patients with stable COPD were evaluated with the Medical Research Council dyspnoea questionnaire (MRC) and the clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ). Spirometry was performed. The extent of emphysema was assessed using HRCT. V/P SPECT was used to assess V/P patterns, total reduction in lung function and degree of obstructive disease. The total reduction in lung function and degree of obstructive disease, assessed with V/P SPECT, significantly correlated with emphysema extent (r = 0.66-0.69, p < 0.0001) and spirometric lung function (r = 0.62-0.74, p < 0.0005). The correlation between emphysema extent and spirometric lung function was weaker. No correlation between MRC, CCQ and objective measurements was found. V/P SPECT is sensitive to early changes in COPD. V/P SPECT also has the possibility to identify comorbid disease. V/P SPECT findings show a significant correlation with emphysema extent and spirometric lung function. We therefore recommend that scintigraphic signs of COPD, whenever found, should be reported. V

  2. Ventilation/perfusion SPECT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an evaluation by reference to symptoms, spirometric lung function and emphysema, as assessed with HRCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joegi, Jonas; Bajc, Marika [Lund University, Skaane University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Institution of Clinical Sciences, Lund (Sweden); Ekberg, Marie [Lund University, Skaane University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Institution of Clinical Sciences, Lund (Sweden); Jonson, Bjoern [Lund University, Department of Clinical Physiology, Institution of Clinical Sciences, Lund (Sweden); Bozovic, Gracijela [Lund University, Skaane University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Institution of Clinical Sciences, Lund (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation which is not fully reversible. Despite the heterogeneity of COPD, its diagnosis and staging is currently based solely on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}). FEV{sub 1} does not explain the underlying pathophysiology of airflow limitation. The relationship between FEV{sub 1}, symptoms and emphysema extent is weak. Better diagnostic tools are needed to define COPD. Tomographic lung scintigraphy [ventilation/perfusion single photon emission tomography (V/P SPECT)] visualizes regional V and P. In COPD, relations between V/P SPECT, spirometry, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and symptoms have been insufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to investigate how lung function imaging and obstructive disease grading undertaken using V/P SPECT correlate with symptoms, spirometric lung function and degree of emphysema assessed with HRCT in patients with COPD. Thirty patients with stable COPD were evaluated with the Medical Research Council dyspnoea questionnaire (MRC) and the clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ). Spirometry was performed. The extent of emphysema was assessed using HRCT. V/P SPECT was used to assess V/P patterns, total reduction in lung function and degree of obstructive disease. The total reduction in lung function and degree of obstructive disease, assessed with V/P SPECT, significantly correlated with emphysema extent (r = 0.66-0.69, p < 0.0001) and spirometric lung function (r = 0.62-0.74, p < 0.0005). The correlation between emphysema extent and spirometric lung function was weaker. No correlation between MRC, CCQ and objective measurements was found. V/P SPECT is sensitive to early changes in COPD. V/P SPECT also has the possibility to identify comorbid disease. V/P SPECT findings show a significant correlation with emphysema extent and spirometric lung function. We therefore recommend that scintigraphic signs of COPD, whenever found, should be

  3. Fibrose cística em adultos: aspectos clínicos e espirométricos Cystic fibrosis in adults clinical and spirometric aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos M. Lemos

    2004-02-01

    data of patients with CF diagnosed in adulthood (over 16 years of age in Bahia, Brazil. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with cystic fibrosis diagnosed in adulthood were evaluated at the Reference Center of Cystic Fibrosis of the state of Bahia. Variables of interest were age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI, sputum culture, presence of sinusitis and bronchiectasis, spirometric tests with the best values performed for forced expiratory volume in the first second (% FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC and response to bronchodilators. RESULTS: Mean age of diagnosis was 31.1 ± 12.4 years. Of the patients, 53.4% were black and mulattos and the mean BMI was 18.7 ± 3.0 kg/m2. P. aeruginosa was present in 12 (43% of the total patients. The mean percentages ± SD of FVC and FEV1 were 58.9 ± 21.6% and 44.1 ± 23%, respectively. In the group of patients with presence of P. aeruginosa in the sputum cultures mean of the spirometry parameters were lower than those of the P. aeruginosa-free group. However, this difference achieved a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0007 only in FVC. CONCLUSIONS: In agreement with many authors, this study strengthen the point of view that CF must be investigated in patients with recurrent infections, sinusitis and bronchiectasis even in adulthood. Values of the percentages of FVC and FEV1 in relation to those foreseen were lower in patients bearers of P.aeruginosa thereby showing a higher deterioration of the pulmonary function.

  4. FEV 1 , FVC, FEV 1 /FVVC as predictors of rhinitis among saw mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on sociodemographic variables, symptoms of rhinitis, etc was obtained using a modified semi structured British medical research council questionnaire while respiratory function data was measured using a spirometry. Result: A total of 400 responds comprising of 200 saw mill workers and 200 controls participated in ...

  5. Validity and interpretation of spirometric recordings to diagnose COPD in UK primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothnie KJ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kieran J Rothnie,1,2 Joht S Chandan,3,4 Harry G Goss,4,5 Hana Müllerová,6 Jennifer K Quint1,2 1Respiratory Epidemiology, Occupational Medicine and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, 2Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, 3Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, University Hospitals Birmingham, Birmingham, 4Medical School, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University College London, 5Jersey General Hospital, St Helier, Jersey, 6Respiratory Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Uxbridge, UK Background: The diagnosis of COPD is dependent upon clinical judgment and confirmation of the presence of airflow obstruction using spirometry. Spirometry is now routinely available; however, spirometry incorrectly performed or interpreted can lead to misdiagnosis. We aimed to determine whether spirometry undertaken in primary care for patients suspected to have COPD was of sufficient quality and whether their spirometry was correctly interpreted.Methods: Two chest physicians re-read all spirometric readings for both quality of the procedure and interpretation, received as a part of COPD validation studies using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD. We then used logistic regression to investigate predictors of correct interpretation.Results: Spirometry traces were obtained for 306 patients, of which 221 (72.2% were conducted in primary care. Of those conducted in primary care, 98.6% (n=218 of spirometry traces were of adequate quality. Of those traces that were of adequate quality and conducted in primary care, and in whom a general practitioner (GP diagnosis of COPD had been made, 72.5% (n=218 were consistent with obstruction. Historical records for asthma diagnosis significantly decreased odds of correct interpretation.Conclusion: The quality of the spirometry procedure undertaken in primary care is high. However, this was not reflected in the

  6. Comparison of the Influence of Different Rehabilitation Programmes on Clinical, Spirometric and Spiroergometric Parameters in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řasová, K.; Havrdová, E.; Brandejský, P.; Zálišová, M.; Foubíková, B.; Martinková, Patrícia

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2006), s. 227-234 ISSN 1352-4585 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : aerobic training * fatigue * multiple sclerosis * neurorehabilitation * spirometric and spiroergometric parameters Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.773, year: 2006

  7. SPIROMETRIC RESPONSE TO OZONE (O3) IN YOUNG ADULTS AS A FUNCTION OF BODY MAASS INDEX (BMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies in murine models of obesity have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese vs. lean mice. To assess whether previous human ozone exposure data from our laboratory support an effect of BMI on the spirometric response to ozone we analyzed the post-O3 percent de...

  8. Spirometric evaluation of ventilatory function in adult male cigarette smokers in Sokoto metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isah, Muhammad D; Makusidi, Muhammad A; Abbas, Aminu; Okpapi, Juliana U; Njoku, Chibueze H; Abba, Abdullahi A

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a widespread social habit in Nigeria with extensive deleterious multisystemic effect. Ventilatory dysfunction is one of the cigarette smoking-related illnesses that affect the respiratory system. Spirometry is an investigative method that can be used for the early detection of ventilatory dysfunction even before the onset of the symptoms. A questionnaire adapted from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey was administered to collect demographic, clinical, and cigarette smoking data. Ventilatory function test was conducted using Clement Clarke (One Flow) Spirometer, version 1.3. The highest value of each ventilatory function index was chosen for analysis, and individual(s) with ventilatory dysfunction were subjected to post bronchodilator spirometry. For the purpose of this research, 150 participants who were currently cigarette smokers were enrolled, and 50 apparently healthy, age-matched individuals who were never smokers served as controls in the ratio of 3:1. Eighty percent of participants and 68% of controls were aged 40 years or below. The mean age of participants (34.27 ± 8.91 years) and the controls (35.08 ± 10.35 years) was not significantly different (P = 0.592). Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences between the mean anthropometric indices (weight: P = 0.663, height: P = 0.084, and body mass index: P = 0.099) of both participants and controls. The mean values of FEV1 (forced expiratory flow in one second) and FEV1/FVC (FVC=forced vital capacity) were lower in the participants compared to the controls, and this difference was statistically significant (P cigarette smoking and FEV1 (r = -0.237 and P = 0.004). Obstructive ventilatory defect was found among six study participants (4%) and two controls (4%). Cigarette smoking is associated with decline in ventilatory function test indices (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC) in adult males. Decline in FEV1 is directly related to pack

  9. Use of clinical characteristics to predict spirometric classification of obstructive lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe SJ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Steven J Pascoe,1 Wei Wu,2,3 Kathryn A Collison,1 Linda M Nelsen,4 Keele E Wurst,5 Laurie A Lee6 1Respiratory Medicines Development Center, GSK, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Biostatistics, PAREXEL International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 3Clinical Statistics, GSK, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 4Value Evidence and Outcomes, GSK, Collegeville, PA, USA; 5Epidemiology, GSK, Collegeville, PA, USA; 6Research and Development, GSK, Stevenage, UK Background: There is no consensus on how to define patients with symptoms of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. A diagnosis of asthma–COPD overlap (ACO syndrome has been proposed, but its value is debated. This study (GSK Study 201703 [NCT02302417] investigated the ability of statistical modeling approaches to define distinct disease groups in patients with obstructive lung disease (OLD using medical history and spirometric data.Methods: Patients aged ≥18 years with diagnoses of asthma and/or COPD were categorized into three groups: 1 asthma (nonobstructive; reversible, 2 ACO (obstructive; reversible, and 3 COPD (obstructive; nonreversible. Obstruction was defined as a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity <0.7, and reversibility as a post-albuterol increase in FEV1 ≥200 mL and ≥12%. A primary model (PM, based on patients’ responses to a health care practitioner-administered questionnaire, was developed using multinomial logistic regression modeling. Other multivariate statistical analysis models for identifying asthma and COPD as distinct entities were developed and assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA assessed the degree of overlap between groups.Results: The PM predicted spirometric classifications with modest sensitivity. Other analysis models performed with high discrimination (area under the ROC curve: asthma model, 0.94; COPD model, 0

  10. Spirometric assessment of lung transplant patients: one year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M. Pêgo-Fernandes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare spirometry data between patients who underwent single-lung or double-lung transplantation the first year after transplantation. INTRODUCTION: Lung transplantation, which was initially described as an experimental method in 1963, has become a therapeutic option for patients with advanced pulmonary diseases due to improvements in organ conservation, surgical technique, immunosuppressive therapy and treatment of post-operative infections. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of the 39 patients who received lung transplantation in our institution between August 2003 and August 2006. Twenty-nine patients survived one year post-transplantation, and all of them were followed. RESULTS: The increase in lung function in the double-lung transplant group was more substantial than that of the single-lung transplant group, exhibiting a statistical difference from the 1st month in both the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 and the forced vital capacity (FVC in comparison to the pre-transplant values (p <0.05. Comparison between double-lung transplant and single lung-transplant groups of emphysema patients demonstrated a significant difference in lung function beginning in the 3rd month after transplantation. DISCUSSION: The analyses of the whole group of transplant recipients and the sub-group of emphysema patients suggest the superiority of bilateral transplant over the unilateral alternative. Although the pre-transplant values of lung function were worse in the double-lung group, this difference was no longer significant in the subsequent months after surgery. CONCLUSION: Although both groups demonstrated functional improvement after transplantation, there was a clear tendency to greater improvement in FVC and FEV1 in the bilateral transplant group. Among our subjects, double-lung transplantation improved lung function.

  11. Genome-wide association analysis identifies six new loci associated with forced vital capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W. Loth (Daan); M.S. Artigas; S.A. Gharib (Sina); L.V. Wain (Louise); N. Franceschini (Nora); B. Koch (Beate); T.D. Pottinger (Tess); G.D. Smith; Q. Duan (Qing); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); M.K. Lee (Mi Kyeong); D.P. Strachan (David); A.L. James (Alan); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); V. Vitart (Veronique); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); N.J. Wareham (Nick); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); X.-Q. Wang (Xin-Qun); H. Trochet (Holly); M. Kähönen (Mika); C. Flexeder (Claudia); E. Albrecht (Eva); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); B. Thyagarajan (Bharat); A.C. Alves (Alexessander Couto); S. Enroth (Stefan); E. Omenaas (Ernst); P.K. Joshi (Peter); M. Fall (Magnus); A. Viñuela (Ana); L.J. Launer (Lenore); L.R. Loehr (Laura); M. Fornage (Myriam); G. Li (Guo); J.B. Wilk (Jemma); W. Tang (Wenbo); A. Manichaikul (Ani); L. Lahousse (Lies); T.B. Harris (Tamara); K.E. North (Kari); A.R. Rudnicka (Alicja); J. Hui (Jennie); X. Gu (Xiangjun); T. Lumley (Thomas); A.F. Wright (Alan); N. Hastie (Nick); S. Campbell (Susan); R. Kumar (Rajesh); I. Pin (Isabelle); R.A. Scott (Robert); K.H. Pietilainen (Kirsi Hannele); I. Surakka (Ida); Y. Liu (YongMei); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); H. Schulz (Holger); J. Heinrich (Joachim); G. Davies (Gail); J.M. Vonk (Judith); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A. Pouta (Anneli); A. Johansson (Åsa); S.H. Wild (Sarah); E. Ingelsson (Erik); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); H. Völzke (Henry); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); W. Gao (Wei); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); W.B. White (Wendy); S.S. Rich (Stephen); A. Hofman (Albert); T. Aspelund (Thor); D. Couper (David); L.J. Smith (Lewis); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); K. Lohman (Kurt); E.G. Burchard (Esteban); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Garcia (Melissa); B.R. Joubert (Bonnie); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); A.W. Musk (Arthur); C.R.W. Hansel (Christian); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); L. Zgaga (Lina); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); P. Navarro (Pau); I. Rudan (Igor); Y.-M. Oh (Yeon-Mok); S. Redline (Susan); D.L. Jarvis (Deborah); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); T. Rantanen (Taina); G.T. O'Connor (George); S. Ripatti (Samuli); R.J. Scott (Rodney); S. Karrasch (Stefan); H. Grallert (Harald); N.C. Gaddis (Nathan); J.M. Starr (John); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); R.L. Minster (Ryan); C.W. Lederer (Carsten); J. Pekkanen (Juha); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); H. Campbell (Harry); A.P. Morris (Andrew); S. Gläser (Sven); C.J. Hammond (Christopher); K.M. Burkart (Kristin); J.P. Beilby (John); S.B. Kritchevsky (Stephen); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); D.B. Hancock (Dana); O.D. Williams (Dale); O. Polasek (Ozren); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); I. Kolcic (Ivana); M.F. Petrini (Marcy); K.T. de Jong (Kim); M. Wjst (Matthias); W.H. Kim (Woo); D.J. Porteous (David J.); G. Scotland (Generation); B.H. Smith (Blair); A. Viljanen (Anne); M. Heliovaara (Markku); J. Attia (John); I. Sayers (Ian); R. Hampel (Regina); C. Gieger (Christian); I.J. Deary (Ian); H.M. Boezen (Marike); A.B. Newman (Anne); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); J.F. Wilson (James); L. Lind (Lars); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); A. Teumer (Alexander); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E. Melén (Erik); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); L.A. Lange (Leslie); R.G. Barr (Graham); K.R. Bracke (Ken); F.M. Verhamme (Fien); J. Sung (Joohon); P.S. Hiemstra (Pieter); P.A. Cassano (Patricia); A. Sood (Akshay); C. Hayward (Caroline); J. Dupuis (Josée); I.P. Hall (Ian); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); M.D. Tobin (Martin); S.J. London (Stephanie)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractForced vital capacity (FVC), a spirometric measure of pulmonary function, reflects lung volume and is used to diagnose and monitor lung diseases. We performed genome-wide association study meta-analysis of FVC in 52,253 individuals from 26 studies and followed up the top associations in

  12. Genome-wide association analysis identifies six new loci associated with forced vital capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loth, Daan W.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Gharib, Sina A.; Wain, Louise V.; Franceschini, Nora; Koch, Beate; Pottinger, Tess D.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Duan, Qing; Oldmeadow, Chris; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Strachan, David P.; James, Alan L.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Vitart, Veronique; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wang, Xin-Qun; Trochet, Holly; Kaonen, Mika; Flexeder, Claudia; Albrecht, Eva; Lopez, Lorna M.; de Jong, Kim; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Enroth, Stefan; Omenaas, Ernst; Joshi, Peter K.; Fall, Tove; Vinuela, Ana; Launer, Lenore J.; Loehr, Laura R.; Fornage, Myriam; Li, Guo; Wik, Jemma B.; Tang, Wenbo; Manichaikul, Ani; Lahousse, Lies; Harris, Tamara B.; North, Kari E.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Hui, Jennie; Gu, Xiangjun; Lumley, Thomas; Wright, Alan F.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Campbell, Susan; Kumar, Rajesh; Pin, Isabelle; Scott, Robert A.; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Surakka, Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Schulz, Holger; Heinrich, Joachim; Davies, Gail; Vonk, Judith M.; Wojczynski, Mary; Pouta, Anneli; Johansson, Asa; Wild, Sarah H.; Ingelsson, Erik; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Voezke, Henry; Hysi, Pirro G.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Morrison, Alanna C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Gao, Wei; Postma, Dirkje S.; White, Wendy B.; Rich, Stephen S.; Hofman, Albert; Aspelund, Thor; Couper, David; Smith, Lewis J.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Lohman, Kurt; Burchard, Esteban G.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Garcia, Melissa; Joubert, Bonnie R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Musk, A. Bill; Hansel, Nadia; Heckbert, Susan R.; Zgaga, Lina; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Navarro, Pau; Rudan, Igor; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Redline, Susan; Jarvis, Deborah L.; Rantanen, Taina; O'Connor, George T.; Ripatti, Samuli; Scott, Rodney J.; Karrasch, Stefan; Grallert, Harald; Gaddis, Nathan C.; Starr, John M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Minster, Ryan L.; Lederer, David J.; Pekkanen, Juha; Gyllensten, Ulf; Campbe, Harry; Morris, Andrew P.; Glaeser, Sven; Hammond, Christopher J.; Burkart, Kristin M.; Beilby, John; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Gucinason, Vilrnundur; Hancock, Dana B.; Williams, Dale; Polasek, Ozren; Zemunik, Tatijana; Kolcic, Ivana; Petrini, Marcy F.; Wjst, Matthias; Kim, Woo Jin; Porteous, David J.; Scotland, Generation; Smith, Blair H.; Villanen, Anne; Heliovaara, Markku; Attia, John R.; Sayers, Ian; Hampel, Regina; Gieger, Christian; Deary, Ian J.; Boezen, Hendrika; Newman, Anne; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wilson, James F.; Lind, Lars; Stricker, Bruno H.; Teumer, Alexander; Spector, Timothy D.; Melen, Erik; Peters, Marjolein J.; Lange, Leslie A.; Barr, R. Graham; Bracke, Ken R.; Verhamme, Fien M.; Sung, Joohon; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Cassano, Patricia A.; Sood, Akshay; Hayward, Caroline; Dupuis, Josee; Hall, Ian P.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Tobin, Martin D.; London, Stephanie J.

    Forced vital capacity (FVC), a spirometric measure of pulmonary function, reflects lung volume and is used to diagnose and monitor lung diseases. We performed genome-wide association study meta-analysis of FVC in 52,253 individuals from 26 studies and followed up the top associations in 32,917

  13. Childhood asthma and spirometric indices are associated with polymorphic markers of two vitamin D 25-hydroxylase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ting Fan; Wang, Susan Shuxin; Tang, Man Fung; Kong, Alice Pik-Shan; Sy, Hing Yee; Hon, Kam Lun; Chan, Juliana Chung-ngor; Wong, Gary Wing-kin

    2015-06-01

    Polymorphic markers of vitamin D pathway genes have been associated with asthma traits in different White populations. This study investigated the relationship between asthma phenotypes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of vitamin D receptor (VDR), vitamin D binding protein (GC), two 25-hydroxylases (CYP2R1 and CYP27A1), and 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) in Hong Kong Chinese children. 23 SNPs of the five vitamin D pathway genes were successfully genotyped in 914 asthmatic children and 1231 non-allergic controls. Genotypic and haplotypic associations with asthma phenotypes (diagnosis, spirometric indices, total IgE, and eosinophil percentage) were analyzed by multivariate regression. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction was used to detect epistatic interactions between SNPs for asthma phenotypes. Several SNPs of CYP27A1, CYP27B1, GC, and CYP2R1 were associated with asthma or spirometric indices, although only the association between FEV1 and CYP2R1 rs7935792 passed Bonferroni correction (p = 2.73 × 10(-4) ). Patients with CC genotype of rs7935792 had higher FEV1 than those with the other two genotypes. Asthma was also associated with TT haplotype of CYP27A1 and AGGATA haplotype of CYP2R1 (p = 0.021 and 0.024, respectively). Besides, strong association was found between FEV1 and GATAG of CYP2R1 (β = 13.37, p = 4.83 × 10(-4) ). GMDR failed to identify any 2-locus to 4-locus interaction that modulated asthma or spirometric indices. Several SNPs and haplotypes of CYP2R1 are associated with asthma diagnosis and FEV1 in children. Asthma is also modestly associated with a CYP27A1 haplotype. These two 25-hydroxylase genes may be genetic determinants for asthma phenotypes in children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Asynchrony in respiratory movements between the pulmonary lobes in patients with COPD: continuous measurement of lung density by 4-dimensional dynamic-ventilation CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashiro T

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tsuneo Yamashiro,1 Hiroshi Moriya,2 Shin Matsuoka,3 Yukihiro Nagatani,4 Maho Tsubakimoto,1 Nanae Tsuchiya,1 Sadayuki Murayama1 On behalf of the ACTIve Study Group 1Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Radiology, Ohara General Hospital, Fukushima-City, Fukushima, Japan; 3Department of Radiology, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan; 4Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan Purpose: Four-dimensional dynamic-ventilation CT imaging demonstrates continuous movement of the lung. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between interlobar synchrony in lung density and spirometric values in COPD patients and smokers, by measuring the continuous changes in lung density during respiration on the dynamic-ventilation CT. Materials and methods: Thirty-two smokers, including ten with COPD, underwent dynamic-ventilation CT during free breathing. CT data were continuously reconstructed every 0.5 sec. Mean lung density (MLD of the five lobes (right upper [RU], right middle [RM], right lower [RL], left upper [LU], and left lower [LL] was continuously measured by commercially available software using a fixed volume of volume of interest which was placed and tracked on a single designated point in each lobe. Concordance between the MLD time curves of six pairs of lung lobes (RU-RL, RU-RM, RM-RL, LU-LL, RU-LU, and RL-LL lobes was expressed by cross-correlation coefficients. The relationship between these cross-correlation coefficients and the forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1.0/FVC values was assessed by Spearman rank correlation analysis. Results: In all six pairs of the pulmonary lobes, the cross-correlation coefficients of the two MLD curves were significantly positively correlated with FEV1.0/FVC (ρ =0.60–0.73, P<0.001. The mean value of the six

  15. Resposta a broncodilatador na espirometria: que parâmetros e valores são clinicamente relevantes em doenças obstrutivas? Spirometric response to bronchodilators: which parameters and values are clinically relevant in obstructive diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO RODRIGUES JR.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Respostas estatísticas dos parâmetros funcionais são largamente utilizadas após administração de broncodilatador (Bd nos laboratórios de função pulmonar em doenças com obstrução ao fluxo aéreo. Sua relevância clínica é discutível. Objetivo: Determinar que parâmetros espirométricos refletem a melhora na tolerância ao exercício e na dispnéia em resposta a broncodilatador em doenças pulmonares obstrutivas. Métodos: 50 pacientes com DPOC e/ou asma (VEF1/CVF = 41 ± 11% realizaram manobras de CV lenta e forçada, VVM e um teste de caminhada em corredor de seis minutos após treinamento, antes e após salbutamol, 400mcg fornecido por spray com espaçador. As respostas a broncodilatador foram expressas em valores absolutos, como incremento em relação ao valor inicial e em relação aos valores previstos. Resposta após Bd foi considerada clinicamente significante quando a distância percorrida se elevou 30m ou mais e/ou a dispnéia foi reduzida dois ou mais pontos com qualquer aumento na caminhada. Resultados: 32 pacientes foram considerados respondedores (R e 18 não respondedores (NR. Como a distância caminhada em seis minutos se correlacionou com a idade (rs = --0,38; p 15% do inicial e 0,3L e da CV > 15% da inicial e 0,4L separaram os respondedores com valor preditivo positivo (VPP em torno de 90%. Conclusão: A melhora do VEF1, CVF e VVM não prediz melhora na capacidade de exercício após Bd. Esta é melhor refletida por aumentos na CI e/ou CV acima de 15% dos valores iniciais.In lung function laboratories, statistical responses after bronchodilators (Bd administration are widely used in patients with airflow limitation. However, their clinical relevance is debatable. Objective: To determine which spirometric parameters best reflect improvement in both exercise tolerance and exertional dyspnea in response to bronchodilators in obstructive lung diseases. Methods: Fifty patients with persistent asthma and/or COPD (FEV1

  16. Optimal Clinical Time for Reliable Measurement of Transcutaneous CO2 with Ear Probes: Counterbalancing Overshoot and the Vasodilatation Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Christian; Canturri, Elisa; Moreno, Amalia; Espuelas, Humildad; Vigil, Laura; Luján, Manel

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the optimal clinical reading time for the transcutaneous measurement of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and transcutaneous CO2 (TcPCO2) in awake spontaneously breathing individuals, considering the overshoot phenomenon (transient overestimation of arterial PaCO2). EXPERIMENTAL SECTION: Observational study of 91 (75 men) individuals undergoing forced spirometry, measurement of SpO2 and TcPCO2 with the SenTec monitor every two minutes until minute 20 and arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. Overshoot severity: (a) mild (0.1–1.9 mm Hg); (b) moderate (2–4.9 mm Hg); (c) severe: (>5 mm Hg). The mean difference was calculated for SpO2 and TcPCO2 and arterial values of PaCO2 and SpO2. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between monitor readings and blood values was calculated as a measure of agreement. RESULTS: The mean age was 63.1 ± 11.8 years. Spirometric values: FVC: 75.4 ± 6.2%; FEV1: 72.9 ± 23.9%; FEV1/FVC: 70 ± 15.5%. ABG: PaO2: 82.6 ± 13.2; PaCO2: 39.9.1 ± 4.8 mmHg; SaO2: 95.3 ± 4.4%. Overshoot analysis: overshoot was mild in 33 (36.3%) patients, moderate in 20 (22%) and severe in nine (10%); no overshoot was observed in 29 (31%) patients. The lowest mean differences between arterial blood gas and TcPCO2 was −0.57 mmHg at minute 10, although the highest ICC was obtained at minutes 12 and 14 (>0.8). The overshoot lost its influence after minute 12. For SpO2, measurements were reliable at minute 2. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal clinical reading measurement recommended for the ear lobe TcPCO2 measurement ranges between minute 12 and 14. The SpO2 measurement can be performed at minute 2. PMID:22315552

  17. Optimal Clinical Time for Reliable Measurement of Transcutaneous CO2 with Ear Probes: Counterbalancing Overshoot and the Vasodilatation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Luján

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the optimal clinical reading time for the transcutaneous measurement of oxygen saturation (SpO and transcutaneous CO2 (TcPCO2 in awake spontaneously breathing individuals, considering the overshoot phenomenon (transient overestimation of arterial PaCO2. EXPERIMENTAL SECTION: Observational study of 91 (75 men individuals undergoing forced spirometry, measurement of SpO2 and TcPCO2 with the SenTec monitor every two minutes until minute 20 and arterial blood gas (ABG analysis. Overshoot severity: (a mild (0.1–1.9 mm Hg; (b moderate (2–4.9 mm Hg; (c severe: (>5 mm Hg. The mean difference was calculated for SpO2 and TcPCO2 and arterial values of PaCO2 and SpO2. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC between monitor readings and blood values was calculated as a measure of agreement. RESULTS: The mean age was 63.1 ± 11.8 years. Spirometric values: FVC: 75.4 ± 6.2%; FEV1: 72.9 ± 23.9%; FEV1/FVC: 70 ± 15.5%. ABG: PaO2: 82.6 ± 13.2; PaCO2: 39.9.1 ± 4.8 mmHg; SaO2: 95.3 ± 4.4%. Overshoot analysis: overshoot was mild in 33 (36.3% patients, moderate in 20 (22% and severe in nine (10%; no overshoot was observed in 29 (31% patients. The lowest mean differences between arterial blood gas and TcPCO2 was –0.57 mmHg at minute 10, although the highest ICC was obtained at minutes 12 and 14 (>0.8. The overshoot lost its influence after minute 12. For SpO2, measurements were reliable at minute 2. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal clinical reading measurement recommended for the ear lobe TcPCO2 measurement ranges between minute 12 and 14. The SpO2 measurement can be performed at minute 2.

  18. Genome-wide association analysis identifies six new loci associated with forced vital capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Daan W.; Artigas, María Soler; Gharib, Sina A.; Wain, Louise V.; Franceschini, Nora; Koch, Beate; Pottinger, Tess; Smith, Albert Vernon; Duan, Qing; Oldmeadow, Chris; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Strachan, David P.; James, Alan L.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Vitart, Veronique; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wang, Xin-Qun; Trochet, Holly; Kähönen, Mika; Flexeder, Claudia; Albrecht, Eva; Lopez, Lorna M.; de Jong, Kim; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Enroth, Stefan; Omenaas, Ernst; Joshi, Peter K.; Fall, Tove; Viňuela, Ana; Launer, Lenore J.; Loehr, Laura R.; Fornage, Myriam; Li, Guo; Wilk, Jemma B.; Tang, Wenbo; Manichaikul, Ani; Lahousse, Lies; Harris, Tamara B.; North, Kari E.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Hui, Jennie; Gu, Xiangjun; Lumley, Thomas; Wright, Alan F.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Campbell, Susan; Kumar, Rajesh; Pin, Isabelle; Scott, Robert A.; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Surakka, Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Schulz, Holger; Heinrich, Joachim; Davies, Gail; Vonk, Judith M.; Wojczynski, Mary; Pouta, Anneli; Johansson, Åsa; Wild, Sarah H.; Ingelsson, Erik; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Völzke, Henry; Hysi, Pirro G.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Morrison, Alanna C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Gao, Wei; Postma, Dirkje S.; White, Wendy B.; Rich, Stephen S.; Hofman, Albert; Aspelund, Thor; Couper, David; Smith, Lewis J.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Lohman, Kurt; Burchard, Esteban G.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Garcia, Melissa; Joubert, Bonnie R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Musk, A. Bill; Hansel, Nadia; Heckbert, Susan R.; Zgaga, Lina; van Meurs, Joyce B.J.; Navarro, Pau; Rudan, Igor; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Redline, Susan; Jarvis, Deborah; Zhao, Jing Hua; Rantanen, Taina; O’Connor, George T.; Ripatti, Samuli; Scott, Rodney J.; Karrasch, Stefan; Grallert, Harald; Gaddis, Nathan C.; Starr, John M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Minster, Ryan L.; Lederer, David J.; Pekkanen, Juha; Gyllensten, Ulf; Campbell, Harry; Morris, Andrew P.; Gläser, Sven; Hammond, Christopher J.; Burkart, Kristin M.; Beilby, John; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hancock, Dana B.; Williams, O. Dale; Polasek, Ozren; Zemunik, Tatijana; Kolcic, Ivana; Petrini, Marcy F.; Wjst, Matthias; Kim, Woo Jin; Porteous, David J.; Scotland, Generation; Smith, Blair H.; Viljanen, Anne; Heliövaara, Markku; Attia, John R.; Sayers, Ian; Hampel, Regina; Gieger, Christian; Deary, Ian J.; Boezen, H. Marike; Newman, Anne; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wilson, James F.; Lind, Lars; Stricker, Bruno H.; Teumer, Alexander; Spector, Timothy D.; Melén, Erik; Peters, Marjolein J.; Lange, Leslie A.; Barr, R. Graham; Bracke, Ken R.; Verhamme, Fien M.; Sung, Joohon; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Cassano, Patricia A.; Sood, Akshay; Hayward, Caroline; Dupuis, Josée; Hall, Ian P.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Tobin, Martin D.; London, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Forced vital capacity (FVC), a spirometric measure of pulmonary function, reflects lung volume and is used to diagnose and monitor lung diseases. We performed genome-wide association study meta-analysis of FVC in 52,253 individuals from 26 studies and followed up the top associations in 32,917 additional individuals of European ancestry. We found six new regions associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8) with FVC in or near EFEMP1, BMP6, MIR-129-2/HSD17B12, PRDM11, WWOX, and KCNJ2. Two (GSTCD and PTCH1) loci previously associated with spirometric measures were related to FVC. Newly implicated regions were followed-up in samples of African American, Korean, Chinese, and Hispanic individuals. We detected transcripts for all six newly implicated genes in human lung tissue. The new loci may inform mechanisms involved in lung development and pathogenesis of restrictive lung disease. PMID:24929828

  19. Spirometric abnormalities associated with chronic bronchitis, asthma, and airway hyperresponsiveness among boilermaker construction workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, R.; Eisen, E,A,; Pothier, L,; Lewis, D,; Bledsoe, T,; Christiani, D.C. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (United States). School of Public Health

    2002-06-01

    In a 2-year longitudinal study of boilermaker construction workers, authors found a significant association between working at oil-fired, coal-fired, and gas-fired industries during the past year and reduced lung function. In the present study, authors investigated whether chronic bronchitis, asthma, or baseline methacholine airway responsiveness can explain the heterogeneity in lung function response to boilermaker work. Exposure was assessed with a work history questionnaire. Spirometry was performed annually to assess lung function. A generalized estimating equation approach was used to account for the repeated-measures design. One hundred eighteen boilermakers participated in the study. Self-reported history of chronic bronchitis and asthma were associated with a larger FEV1 reduction in response to workplace exposure at coal-fired and gas-fired industries. Although a high prevalence (39%) of airway hyperresponsiveness (provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEVI of {lt} 8 mg/mL) among boilermakers was found, there was no consistent pattern of effect modification by airway responsiveness. Conclusions: Although chronic bronchitis and asthma were associated with a greater loss in lung function in response to hours worked as a boilermaker, and therefore they acted as effect modifiers of the exposure-lung function relationship, airway hyperresponsiveness did not. However, the high prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness found in the cohort may be a primary consequence of long-term workplace exposure among boilermakers.

  20. Radiotherapy of lung cancer: the inspiration breath hold with a spirometric monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.; Oozeer, R.; Le Thanh, H.; Chastel, D.; Doyen, J.C.; Chauvet, B.; Reboul, F.

    2002-01-01

    A CT acquisition during a free breathing examination generates images of poor quality. It creates an uncertainty on the reconstructed gross tumour volume and dose distribution. The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of a breath hold method applied in all preparation and treatment days. Five patients received a thoracic radiotherapy with the benefit of this procedure. The breathing of the patient was measured with a spirometer. The patient was coached to reproduce a constant level of breath-hold in a deep inspiration. Video glasses helped the patients to fix the breath-hold at the reference level. The patients followed the coaching during preparation and treatment, without any difficulty. The better quality of the CT reconstructed images resulted in an easier contouring. No movements of the gross tumour volume lead to a better coverage. The deep breath hold decreased the volume of irradiated lung. This method improves the reproducibility of the thoracic irradiation. The decrease of irradiated lung volume offers prospects in dose escalation and intensity modulation radiotherapy. (authors)

  1. The Concave Shape of the Forced Expiratory Flow-Volume Curve in 3 Seconds Is a Practical Surrogate of FEV1/FVC for the Diagnosis of Airway Limitation in Inadequate Spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Chunhong; Zhang, Yi; Xiao, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Spirometry is important for the differential diagnosis of dyspnea. However, some patients cannot exhale for ≥6 s to achieve the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society criteria. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the reliability of a new parameter that quantifies the degree of concavity in the first 3 s to define airway limitation as a surrogate for the FEV 1 /FVC. Four hundred spirometry test results were selected through complete random sampling. The new parameter, termed the AUC 3 /AT 3 , was calculated as the area under the descending limb of the expiratory flow-volume curve before the end of the first 3 s (AUC 3 ) divided by the area of the triangle before the end of the first 3 s (AT 3 ). The AUC 3 /AT 3 was compared with the FEV 1 /FVC using Pearson's correlation analysis. The level of agreement between the AUC 3 /AT 3 and the FEV 1 /FVC in the detection of airway obstruction was analyzed using the kappa statistic. We also compared the diagnostic accuracy of the new index with that of the FEV 1 /forced expiratory volume in the first 3 s (FEV 3 ). There was a strong correlation (r = 0.88, P < .001) between the AUC 3 /AT 3 and the FEV 1 /FVC. There was also strong agreement between the AUC 3 /AT 3 and the FEV 1 /FVC in the detection of obstruction with kappa indices of 0.72 (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] criterion) and 0.67 (lower limit of normal criterion), and these values were greater than those obtained for the FEV 1 /FEV 3 . The AUC 3 /AT 3 also exhibited acceptable sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. The diagnostic accuracies of the AUC 3 /AT 3 were 86.3% (GOLD criterion) and 83.8% (lower limit of normal criterion), which were greater than the 76.0 and 74.0% obtained for the FEV 1 /FEV 3 , respectively. The AUC 3 /AT 3 can be utilized as a surrogate parameter for the FEV 1 /FVC when patients cannot complete a 6-s expiratory effort. Additionally, the

  2. Study of respiratory function in the elderly with different nutritional and cognitive status and functional ability assessed by plethysmographic and spirometric parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippi, Francesco; Tana, Francesco; Vanzati, Simona; Balzarini, Barbara; Galetti, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    From a sample of 265 elderly subjects (age 80.2 +/- 6.8 years) admitted to a geriatric care unit, free from cardiac and respiratory diseases, with normal chest X-ray and gas analysis, 53 subjects were selected and their respiratory functions (assessed by spirometric parameters and airway resistance 'Raw') were studied to correlate them with nutritional status, cognitive impairment, independence in everyday life activities and mood disorders, assessed, respectively, by the Mini Nutritional Assessment, rapid Mini Mental State test (MMSr), activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) evaluation, Barthel Index and Cornell Depression Scale. The enrolled subjects were able to perform normally a forced expiration, although most of them committed errors in this test, according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria. Thus, about 32% started at lung volume0.12 s); in 62% of the subjects expiration time was too short and in 58% the terminal plateau was cognitive and nutritional status did not seem to have any influence on spirometric performance; MMSr score was related to compliance with ATS criteria for acceptability of the forced manoeuvre; mental and mood disorders, nutritional conditions and disability did not seem to have any influence on error rates. Our data show that our geriatric enrolled patients were able to perform an imperfect, often unfinished, but acceptable forced expiration; dynamic index values were related to disability, while the errors in starting the test were related to the mental conditions.

  3. Spiroergometric and Spirometric Parameters in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Are there any Links between these Parameters and Fatigue, Depression, Neurological Impairment, Disability, Handicap and Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řasová, K.; Brandejský, P.; Havrdová, E.; Zálišová, M.; Rexová, Patrícia

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2005), s. 213-221 ISSN 1352-4585 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 1641/2002-IV-GA UK Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : fatigue * multiple sclerosis * spirometric and spiroergometric parameters Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.832, year: 2005

  4. Comparison of the fixed ratio and the Z-score of FEV1/FVC in the elderly population: a long-term mortality analysis from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh DK

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dong Kyu Oh,1 Seunghee Baek,2 Sei Won Lee,1 Jae Seung Lee,1 Sang-Do Lee,1 Yeon-Mok Oh1 1Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Background and objective: Despite the ongoing intense debate on the definition of airflow limitation by spirometry in the elderly population, there have only been few studies comparing the fixed ratio and the Z-score of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC in terms of long-term mortalities. In this study, we aimed to identify the proper method for accurately defining the airflow limitation in terms of long-term mortality prediction in the elderly population. Methods: Data were collected from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the US. Non-Hispanic Caucasians aged 65–80 years were included. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves of both methods were plotted and compared for 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities. Results: Of 1,331 subjects, the mean age was 71.7 years and 805 (60.5% were males. For the 10-year all-cause mortality, the area under the curve (AUC of the fixed ratio was significantly greater than that of the Z-score of FEV1/FVC, but both showed poor prediction performance (0.633 vs 0.616, p<0.001. For the 10-year respiratory and COPD mortalities, both the fixed ratio and the Z-score of FEV1/FVC showed comparable prediction performance with greater AUCs (0.784 vs 0.778, p=0.160, and 0.896 vs 0.896, p=0.971, respectively. Interestingly, the conventional cutoff of 0.7 in the fixed ratio was consistently higher than the optimal for the 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities (0.70 vs 0.69, 0.62, and 0.61, respectively

  5. Body posture and pulmonary function in mouth and nose breathing children: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana de Moura Milanesi

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Mouth breathing can lead to changes in body posture and pulmonary function. However, the consequences are still inconclusive and a number of studies are controversial. Objective: Evaluate and correlate spirometric parameters and postural measures in mouth breathing children, and compare them to nose breathers. Methods: two groups of 6 to 12 year-old children were evaluated: mouth breathers (MB, n = 55 and nose breathers (NB, n = 45. Spirometry and body posture analysis using photogrammetry (SAPo 0.68® v were carried out. The following spirometric measures were evaluated: peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio (% and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF 25-75%. Biophotogrammetric measures analyzed were: horizontal alignment of acromions (HAA and anterior superior iliac spine (HAASIS, Charpy angle, horizontal alignment of the head (HAH, cervical lordosis (CL, thoracic kyphosis (TK, lumbar lordosis (LL, cervical distance (CD and lumbar distance (LD. Results: There were no intergroup differences in spirometric and postural variables. Positive and moderate correlations were found between CL and CD measures with PEF, FEV1, FVC and FEF 25-75%, while weak correlations were observed between lumbar lordosis and PEF, FEV1 and FVC. Conclusion: The breathing mode had no influence on postural and respiratory measures. However, greater forward head posture, with smaller cervical lordosis, was related to higher lung volumes and flows in both groups.

  6. Gender differences in first and secondhand smoke exposure, spirometric lung function and cardiometabolic health in the old order Amish: A novel population without female smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert M; Dransfield, Mark T; Eberlein, Michael; Miller, Michael; Netzer, Giora; Pavlovich, Mary; Pollin, Toni I; Scharf, Steven M; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sin, Don; Mitchell, Braxton D

    2017-01-01

    Due to their relatively homogeneous lifestyle and living environment, the Amish offer a novel opportunity to study the health associations of tobacco smoke exposure, particularly secondhand smoke. We hypothesized that secondhand smoke exposure is associated with worse pulmonary and cardiometabolic health. We examined cross-sectional data on 3568 Amish study participants, including tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure from family members included in the study. Thirty-four percent of Amish men reported ever smoking. Of this proportion, 64% used cigars, 46% cigarettes, and 21% pipes. Less than 1% of women reported ever smoking. Smoking was associated with lower spirometric lung function, higher body mass index, lower HDL cholesterol, higher heart rate, lower ankle-brachial index, and larger aortic diameter in men. A greater number of sources of secondhand smoke exposure (defined from the total of spouses, parents, and siblings who smoke) was associated with higher body mass index (p = 0.03) and with higher fasting glucose in men (p = 0.01), but not in women (p = 0.007 for sex*secondhand smoke interaction). Secondhand smoke exposure was also associated with reduced HDL cholesterol only in women (p = 0.002) and a lower heart rate only in men (p = 0.006). Smoking habits among the Old Order Amish are notable for the absence of female participation and a high proportion of cigar and pipe use. Smoking is associated with decreased spirometric indices of lung function and increased cardiovascular risk in this population and secondhand smoke exposure is associated with a greater burden of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Sex differences in correlations could reflect differences in exposure patterns, mechanisms, or susceptibilities.

  7. Gender differences in first and secondhand smoke exposure, spirometric lung function and cardiometabolic health in the old order Amish: A novel population without female smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert M.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Eberlein, Michael; Miller, Michael; Netzer, Giora; Pavlovich, Mary; Pollin, Toni I.; Scharf, Steven M.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sin, Don; Mitchell, Braxton D.

    2017-01-01

    Due to their relatively homogeneous lifestyle and living environment, the Amish offer a novel opportunity to study the health associations of tobacco smoke exposure, particularly secondhand smoke. We hypothesized that secondhand smoke exposure is associated with worse pulmonary and cardiometabolic health. We examined cross-sectional data on 3568 Amish study participants, including tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure from family members included in the study. Thirty-four percent of Amish men reported ever smoking. Of this proportion, 64% used cigars, 46% cigarettes, and 21% pipes. Less than 1% of women reported ever smoking. Smoking was associated with lower spirometric lung function, higher body mass index, lower HDL cholesterol, higher heart rate, lower ankle-brachial index, and larger aortic diameter in men. A greater number of sources of secondhand smoke exposure (defined from the total of spouses, parents, and siblings who smoke) was associated with higher body mass index (p = 0.03) and with higher fasting glucose in men (p = 0.01), but not in women (p = 0.007 for sex*secondhand smoke interaction). Secondhand smoke exposure was also associated with reduced HDL cholesterol only in women (p = 0.002) and a lower heart rate only in men (p = 0.006). Smoking habits among the Old Order Amish are notable for the absence of female participation and a high proportion of cigar and pipe use. Smoking is associated with decreased spirometric indices of lung function and increased cardiovascular risk in this population and secondhand smoke exposure is associated with a greater burden of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Sex differences in correlations could reflect differences in exposure patterns, mechanisms, or susceptibilities. PMID:28362870

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Reduction of Spirometric Lung Function Tests in Habitually Smoking Healthy Young Adults: It’s Correlation with Pack Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumangala M Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent smoking and the subsequent health problems are a major concern today. However there are very few studies done on spirometric lung functions and its relation with pack years in young adult habitual smokers who are apparently healthy. Aims and Objectives: The present study is undertaken to assess the change in lung functions in apparently healthy young adult habitual smokers compared to their age matched controls. Materials and Methods: A random sample of apparently healthy young adult habitual smokers (n=40 and nonsmokers (n=40 between age group17-35 years with history suggesting of pack years of 2-10 years were selected from students & employee’s of B.L.D.E.U’s Sri B.M. Patil Medical College,Hospital & Research Centre Bijapur (Karnataka, India. Spirometric lung functions recorded were forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, FEV1%, Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and Maximal expiratory pressure (MEP. Results: The results suggested that inapparently healthy habitual smokers there was significant decrease in FEV1 (L (-13.34%, p<0.001, FEV1 % (-10.76%, p<0.001, PEFR (-45.26%, p<0.0001 and MEP (-35.51%, p<0.0001 compared to nonsmokers and decrease in FEV1 was negatively correlated withpack years in smokers (r2=0.063, p=0.001. Reduced lung functions and negative correlation to pack years may be attributed todecreased airway diameter & reflex broncho- constriction in response to inhaled smoke particles. Conclusions: In conclusion young adulthabitual smokers who were apparently healthy are more prone for respiratory dysfunction than their nonsmoker counterparts. FEV1 reduction in relation to pack years acts as an important determinant for detecting lung dysfunction in the early stage of the disease. As the risk of having smoking related diseases depends mainly on number of pack years, it is suggested that quitting smoking earliest helps to get greatest health benefits in apparently healthy young adult habitual smokers.

  9. Estimating prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Southern Cone of Latin America: how different spirometric criteria may affect disease burden and health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Edgardo; Irazola, Vilma E; Gutierrez, Laura; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Lanas, Fernando; Calandrelli, Matías; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Mores, Nora; Serón, Pamela; Lee, Allison; He, Jiang; Rubinstein, Adolfo L

    2017-12-11

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. The study aimed to determine and compare the prevalence of COPD in the general population aged 45-74 years old according to fixed ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) thresholds in four cities in the Southern Cone of Latin America. The Pulmonary Risk in South America (PRISA) study used a 4-stage stratified sampling method to select 5814 participants from 4 cities in the Southern Cone of Latin America (Bariloche and Marcos Paz, Argentina; Temuco, Chile; and Pando-Barros Blancos, Uruguay). Data on demographic information, medical history, risk factors, pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry were obtained using a standard protocol. According to GOLD, COPD was defined as a post-bronchodilator ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) over forced vital capacity (FVC) less than 70%. The LLN threshold was defined as the lower fifth percentile for predicted FEV1/FVC, and was evaluated as an alternative COPD definition. Overall COPD prevalence was 9.3% (95% CI 8.4, 10.2%), and men had a higher prevalence [11.8% (95% CI 10.3, 13.3%)] than women [7.3% (95% CI 6.2, 8.3%)] with the fixed ratio. Overall COPD prevalence using LLN was 4.7% (95% CI 4.1, 5.3%), higher in men: 5.8% (95% CI 4.7, 6.8%) than women: 3.9% (95% CI 3.1, 4.7%). COPD prevalence was significantly higher among those who were older, had Latin America.

  10. Validity of physician-diagnosed COPD in relation to spirometric definitions of COPD in a general population aged 50–64 years – the SCAPIS pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torén K

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kjell Torén,1,2 Nicola Murgia,1,2 Anna-Carin Olin,1 Jan Hedner,3 John Brandberg,4 Annika Rosengren,5 Göran Bergström51Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Section of Occupational Medicine, Respiratory Diseases and Toxicology, University of Perugia, Italy; 3Department of Medicine/Lung Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 4Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 5Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden Background: In epidemiological studies, items about physician-diagnosed COPD are often used. There is a lack of validation and standardization of these items.Materials and methods: In a general population-based study, 1,050 subjects completed a questionnaire and performed spirometry, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC after inhalation of 400 µg of salbutamol. COPD was defined as the ratio of FEV1/FVC <0.7 after bronchodilation. Physician-diagnosed COPD was defined as an affirmative answer to the single item: “Have you ever had COPD diagnosed by a physician?”, physician-diagnosed COPD/emphysema as an affirmative answer to any of the two single items; “Have you ever had COPD diagnosed by a physician?” or “Have you ever been told by a physician that you have emphysema?”, physician-diagnosed chronic bronchitis as an affirmative answer to; “Have you ever been told by a physician that you have chronic bronchitis?” and physician-diagnosed COPD, emphysema or chronic bronchitis was defined as an affirmative answer to either of the three items above.Results: For the single item about physician-diagnosed COPD, the sensitivity was around 0.11 and the specificity was almost 0.99 in relation to COPD. The sensitivity of the combined items about COPD

  11. Determinação da eficiência do VEF6 como substituto da CVF na triagem diagnóstica da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica através da comparação entre as relações VEF1/CVF e VEF1/VEF6 Determination of the efficacy of FEV6 as a surrogate for FVC in the diagnostic screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through the comparison of FEV1/FVC and FEV1/FEV6 ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Cavalcanti Lundgren

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a eficácia do uso do volume expiratório forçado nos primeiros seis segundos (VEF6 como substituto da capacidade vital forçada (CVF na triagem diagnóstica da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC através da comparação entre as medidas da relação VEF1/CVF e as medidas da relação VEF1/VEF6. MÉTODOS: No ano de 2003, durante o Dia Mundial da DPOC, realizamos uma campanha de triagem diagnóstica da DPOC. Os participantes da campanha respondiam ao questionário clínico do projeto Global Initiative for -Obstructive Lung Disease e aqueles que apresentavam pelo menos três respostas positivas submetiam-se a espirometria. RESULTADOS: Um total de 134 indivíduos respondeu positivamente a três questões e realizou espirometria. Destes, 59 foram excluídos: 45 por serem não fumantes e 14 pelo fato de seus exames não obedecerem aos critérios da American Thoracic Society para espirometria de qualidade. O número de resultados abaixo de 70% foi similar para VEF1/CVF e para VEF1/VEF6. A sensibilidade de VEF1/VEF6 para o diagnóstico de obstrução de vias aéreas definida por VEF1/CVF abaixo de 70% foi de 92% e a especificidade foi de 99%. O valor preditivo positivo foi de 100% e o valor preditivo negativo foi de 98%. O teste de correlação de Kendall mostrou r = 0,99 (p OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of using forced expiratory volume in six seconds (FEV6 as a surrogate for forced vital capacity (FVC in the diagnostic screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD by comparing FEV1/FVC ratios with FEV1/FEV6 ratios. METHODS: In November of 2003, on World COPD Day, we conducted a campaign of diagnostic screening for COPD. The participants completed the clinical questionnaire of the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease, and those who responded affirmatively to at least three questions underwent spirometry. RESULTS: A total of 134 individuals responded to three questions affirmatively and

  12. [Measuring breathing pattern in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by electrical impedance tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balleza, Marco; Calaf, Núria; Feixas, Teresa; González, Mercedes; Antón, Daniel; Riu, Pere J; Casan, Pere

    2009-07-01

    The measurement of breathing pattern in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) requires the use of a mathematical calibration model incorporating not only anthropometric characteristics (previously evaluated in healthy individuals) but probably functional alterations associated with COPD as well. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between EIT measurements and spirometry parameters, static lung volumes, and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) in a group of male patients to develop a calibration equation for converting EIT signals into volume signals. We measured forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)), FEV(1)/FVC, residual volume, total lung capacity, DLCO, carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (KCO) and standard anthropometric parameters in 28 patients with a FEV(1)/FVC ratio of <70%. We then compared tidal volume measurements from a previously validated EIT unit and a standard pneumotachometer. The mean (SD) lung function results were FVC, 72 (16%); FEV(1), 43% (14%); FEV(1)/FVC, 42% (9%); residual volume, 161% (44%); total lung capacity, 112% (17%); DLCO, 58% (17%); and KCO, 75% (25%). Mean (SD) tidal volumes measured by the pneumotachometer and the EIT unit were 0.697 (0.181)L and 0.515 (0.223)L, respectively (P<.001). Significant associations were found between EIT measurements and CO transfer parameters. The mathematical model developed to adjust for the differences between the 2 measurements (R(2)=0.568; P<.001) was compensation factor=1.81# - 0.82# height (m)# -0.004 x KCO (%). The measurement of breathing pattern by EIT in patients with COPD requires the use of a previously calculated calibration equation that incorporates not only individual anthropometric characteristics but gas exchange parameters as well.

  13. Chronic tuberculous empyema: relationships between preoperative CT findings and postoperative improvement measured by pulmonary function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.J.; Im, J.-G.; Goo, J.M.; Lee, H.J.; You, S.Y.; Song, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate whether preoperative computed tomography (CT) findings correlate with postoperative improvements in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume during 1 s (FEV1) in persons who have undergone unilateral decortication because of unilateral chronic tuberculous empyema. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out of 67 individuals who had undergone decortication because of chronic tuberculous empyema between January 1996 and December 2000. Of these, 13 subjects who had had preoperative chest CT and preoperative and postoperative pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were included in the investigation. On preoperative CT, the degree of volume reduction of the affected side was compared with that of the contralateral normal lung. The relative volume of empyema was calculated by dividing the volume occupied by the empyema by the sum of the total volume of the ipsilateral lung and the empyema volume. The thicknesses of pleura and extrapleural fat in the involved hemithorax were measured by CT at their thickest points, and the degree of atelectasis adjacent to the empyema in the diseased lung was assessed and classified. These five CT parameters and the ages of the patients were compared with preoperative and postoperative FVC and FEV1 changes. RESULTS: A significant negative correlation was found between FVC changes and the relative volume of the affected lung (FVC: p=0.039, RS=-0.58). FVC and FEV1 were found to be significantly and positively correlated with the relative volume of the empyema (FVC: p=0.005, RS=0.72; FEV1: p=0.014, RS=0.66) and the degree of atelectasis (FVC: p=0.007, RS=0.71; FEV1: p=0.029, RS=0.60) by Spearman's nonparametric correlation test. Other CT parameters and the ages of the patients were not found to be correlated with PFT changes. CONCLUSION: The relative volume of the affected side, the relative volume of empyema and the degree of atelectasis can predict improvements in FVC and FEV1 after decortication in patients

  14. Effects of equipment and technique on peak flow measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Driscoll B Ronan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different lung function equipment and different respiratory manoeuvres may produce different Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF results. Although the PEF is the most common lung function test, there have been few studies of these effects and no previous study has evaluated both factors in a single group of patients. Methods We studied 36 subjects (PEF range 80–570 l/min. All patients recorded PEF measurements using a short rapid expiration following maximal inspiration (PEF technique or a forced maximal expiration to residual volume (FVC technique. Measurements were made using a Wright's peak flow meter, a turbine spirometer and a Fleisch pneumotachograph spirometer. Results The mean PEF was 8.7% higher when the PEF technique was used (compared with FVC technique, p Conclusion Peak flow measurements are affected by the instruction given and by the device and Peak Flow scale used. Patient management decisions should not be based on PEF measurement made on different instruments.

  15. Association between Traffic Air Pollution and Reduced Forced Vital Capacity: A Study Using Personal Monitors for Outdoor Workers.

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    Ubiratan Paula Santos

    Full Text Available The effects of outdoor air pollution on lung function in adults are still controversial.Evaluate the effects of exposure to different levels of traffic-generated PM2.5 on workers' lung functions in São Paulo, Brazil.To cover a wide range of exposures, 101 non-smoking workers from three occupations (taxi drivers, traffic controllers, and forest rangers were selected for the study. After clinical evaluation, the participants were scheduled to attend four consecutive weekly visits in which they received a 24-hour personal PM2.5 sampler and had lung function tests measured on the following day. The association between the spirometric variables and the averaged PM2.5 levels was assessed using robust regression models adjusted for age, waist circumference, time at the job, daily work hours, diabetes or hypertension and former smoking habits.Relative to workers in the lowest exposed group (all measures 39.6 μg/m3 showed a reduction of predicted FVC (-12.2%; CI 95%: [-20.0% to -4.4%], a marginal reduction of predicted FEV1 (-9.1%; CI 95%: [-19.1% to 0.9%] and an increase of predicted FEF25-75%/FVC (14.9%; CI 95%: [2.9% to 26.8%] without changes of FEV1/FVC.Exposure to vehicular traffic air pollution is associated with a small but significant reduction of FVC without a reduction of FEV1/FVC.

  16. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-González Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Methods/design Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited. On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Discussion Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and

  17. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Alvarez, Mar; Torán-Monserrat, Pere; Muñoz-Ortiz, Laura; Negrete-Palma, Antonio; Montero-Alia, Juan José; Jiménez-González, Mercedes; Zurilla-Leonarte, Elena; Marina-Ortega, Victoria; Olle-Borque, Montserrat; Valentin-Moya, Esther; Cortada-Cabrera, Anna; Tena-Domingo, Alexis; Martínez-González, Silvia; Vila-Palau, Victoria; Ramos-Ordoñez, Adriana; Rotllant-Estelrich, Guida; Forcada-Vega, Carme; Borrell-Thió, Eulàlia

    2011-06-28

    Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited.On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and may improve the opportunities of other preventive actions to

  18. Impact of Forced Vital Capacity Loss on Survival after the Onset of Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahil; Pavlisko, Elizabeth N.; Finlen Copeland, C. Ashley; Reynolds, John M.; Snyder, Laurie D.; Palmer, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Emerging evidence suggests a restrictive phenotype of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) exists; however, the optimal approach to its diagnosis and clinical significance is uncertain. Objectives: To evaluate the hypothesis that spirometric indices more suggestive of a restrictive ventilatory defect, such as loss of FVC, identify patients with distinct clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features, including worse survival. Methods: Retrospective, single-center analysis of 566 consecutive first bilateral lung recipients transplanted over a 12-year period. A total of 216 patients developed CLAD during follow-up. CLAD was categorized at its onset into discrete physiologic groups based on spirometric criteria. Imaging and histologic studies were reviewed when available. Survival after CLAD diagnosis was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Measurements and Main Results: Among patients with CLAD, 30% demonstrated an FVC decrement at its onset. These patients were more likely to be female, have radiographic alveolar or interstitial changes, and histologic findings of interstitial fibrosis. Patients with FVC decline at CLAD onset had significantly worse survival after CLAD when compared with those with preserved FVC (P < 0.0001; 3-yr survival estimates 9% vs. 48%, respectively). The deleterious impact of CLAD accompanied by FVC loss on post-CLAD survival persisted in a multivariable model including baseline demographic and clinical factors (P < 0.0001; adjusted hazard ratio, 2.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.86–4.04). Conclusions: At CLAD onset, a subset of patients demonstrating physiology more suggestive of restriction experience worse clinical outcomes. Further study of the biologic mechanisms underlying CLAD phenotypes is critical to improving long-term survival after lung transplantation. PMID:24325429

  19. Exposure to industrial air pollutant emissions and lung function in children: Canadian Health Measures Survey, 2007 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Suzy L; Coates, Allan L; To, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with adverse effects on children's lung function. Few studies have examined lung function in relation to industrial emissions of air pollutants. This cross-sectional study was based on 2,833 respondents aged 6 to 18 for whom spirometry data were collected by the Canadian Health Measures Survey, 2007 to 2011. The weighted sum of industrial air emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOₓ) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) within 25 km of the respondent's residence was derived using National Pollutant Release Inventory data. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the relationship between NOₓ and PM2.5 emissions and forced vital capacity (FVC), the forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV₁), and the ratio of the two (FEV₁/FVC). Industrial air emissions of NOₓ were not significantly associated with lung function among males or females. Emissions of PM2.5 were negatively associated with FEV₁ and FEV₁/FVC, but not FVC, among males. PM2.5 was not significantly related to lung function among females. The associations that emerged between lung function and industrial emissions of PM2.5 among males were consistent with airway obstruction. Further research is warranted to investigate the gender differences observed in this study.

  20. Increase in prevalence and severity of asthma in young adults in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind Frausing; Rappeport, Y; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    -35 years were sampled from the general population living in a defined area of central Copenhagen. The first examination took place in 1976-8 and comprised 1034 subjects (response rate 67.2%). A new sample comprising 1104 subjects (response rate 62.6%) from exactly the same area was examined 15 years later...... in 1991-4. All participants answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and diseases and performed spirometric tests with measurement of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC). RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported asthma increased from 1.5% in the first...

  1. FEV6 and FEV1/FEV6 in Japanese participants of the community-based annual health check: the Takahata study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Yoko; Osaka, Daisuke; Abe, Shuichi; Inoue, Sumito; Tokairin, Yoshikane; Igarashi, Akira; Yamauchi, Keiko; Kimura, Tomomi; Sato, Michiko; Aida, Yasuko; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Kawata, Sumio; Kato, Takeo; Kubota, Isao

    2011-01-01

    Forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV(6)) is becoming a substitute of forced vital capacity (FVC). However, the Japanese predictive equation for FEV(6) has not been established, and the validity for the use of FEV(1)/FEV(6) for diagnosing airflow limitation in Japanese has not been confirmed. Subjects aged 40 or older, who had participated in a community-based health check in Takahata, Japan, from 2004 through 2005, were enrolled. The smoking histories of these subjects were investigated using a self-reporting questionnaire. FVC, FEV(1), and FEV(6) were measured using spirometric machines. Predictive equations of FEV(6) were obtained from never-smoking subjects without history of pulmonary diseases by multiple linear regression assay. FEV(6) and FEV(1)/FEV(6) were significantly correlated with FVC (r=0.998, pvalues of percent predicted (%) FEV(6) and FEV(1)/FEV(6) for discrimination of having the restrictive lung disorder determined by %FVC limitation determined by FEV(1)/FVC value =0.832, negative predictive value =1.000; FEV(1)/FEV(6): sensitivity=0.942; specificity=0.971; PPV=0.787; NPV=0.993). When the 5th percentile the lower limit of normal values was used as criterion for discrimination of having airflow limitation, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of FEV(1)/FEV(6) were 0.932, 0.985, 0.808, and 0.995, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that %FEV(6) and FEV(1)/FEV(6) are excellent substitutes for %FVC and FEV(1)/FVC, respectively. We confirmed the validity of the use of FEV(6) and FEV(1)/FEV(6) for identifying pulmonary diseases in Japanese individuals.

  2. Patterns of pulmonary dysfunction in asbestos workers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kales Stefanos N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restrictive patterns of pulmonary function abnormalities associated with asbestos exposure are well described. Studies are less consistent, however, regarding the association of asbestos inhalation with airway dysfunction and obstructive impairment. Methods We compared pulmonary function test results between 277 chrysotile exposed workers (22% non-smokers and 177 unexposed controls (50.3% non-smokers. Information on exposure and smoking were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Standardized spirometric and DCLO Measurement methods were utilized. CXRs were read based on ILO pneumoconiosis guidelines. Results Asbestos exposed subjects had significantly reduced FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and DLCO. Restricting the analysis to non-smokers, asbestos workers still had about 3% lower FEV1/FVC ratio than controls, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. Among exposed workers, the presence of radiographic evidence of asbestosis further lowered FVC and DLCO but not FEV1/FVC compared to asbestos exposure without radiographic asbestosis. Additionally, smoking asbestos workers had significantly lower DLCO compared to non-smoking workers. Conclusion Asbestos exposure, especially when radiographic evidence of interstitial fibrosis from asbestosis is present, leads to significant decreases in FVC, FEV1 and the DLCO. However, asbestos exposure alone is not significantly associated with a reduction of the FEV1/FVC. Smoking-asbestos workers had significantly lower DLCO than their non-smoking counterparts. Whether asbestos interacts with smoking additively or synergistically on DLCO needs further investigation. Similarly, further studies are needed to assess the progression and clinical significance of asbestos induced airway dysfunction.

  3. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  4. Clearance of technetium-99m-labeled DTPA in hyperthyroidism without clinical evidence of lung disease, and relation to pulmonary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guldiken, S.; Tugrul, A.; Altiay, G.; Hacimahmutoglu, S.; Durmus-Altun, G.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms of dyspnea and exercise intolerance have not been fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the clearance rate of technetium-99m diethyltriaminepentaaceticacid (Tc-99m DTPA) from lungs in hyperthyroid patients without clinical evidence of lung disease and to explore the interactions between their Tc-99m DTPA radioaerosol lung scintigraphy, spirometric measurements, and the levels of thyroid hormones. We studied 19 hyperthyroid patients and 16 sex- and age-matched controls. Thyroid hormone levels were assessed. Spirometric lung function tests, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and the clearance rate of Tc-99m DTPA were performed in all participants. Ratio of DLCO value to the alveolar ventilation (DLCO/VA) and the means of half-time (T 1/2 ) of Tc-99m DTPA clearance rate, which were used to evaluate alveolar-capillary membrane permeability, were calculated. There were no statistical differences between spirometric parameters (vital capacity (VC), force vital capacity (FVC), one second forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 )/FVC, mean forced expiratory flow during the middle of FVC (FEF 25-75)) of the two groups (p>0.05). Although the mean FEV 1 level was significantly lower in the hyperthyroid patients than the control subjects (p 1 was only less than 80 percent of the predicted value. No significant difference in the means of DLCO, DLCO/VA or T 1/2 values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance was observed between the two groups (p>0.05). In hyperthyroid patients, there was a positive relation between DLCO/VA, DLCO/VA% and T 1/2 values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance (p 1/2 values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance in hyperthyroid group (p>0.05). We conclude that increased thyroid hormones have no effect on permeability of alveolar-capillary membrane in hyperthyroid patients. (author)

  5. Comparação da variação de resposta ao broncodilatador através da espirometria em portadores de asma ou doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica Comparison of spirometric changes in the response to bronchodilators of patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Correia Silvestri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O diagnóstico diferencial entre asma e doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC através da resposta aos broncodilatadores inalatórios na espirometria ainda é controverso. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar quais variáveis espirométricas melhor diferenciam asma de DPOC. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado entre abril de 2004 e janeiro de 2006, comparando-se os parâmetros espirométricos de 103 pacientes asmáticos, não fumantes, com os de 108 pacientes portadores de DPOC, fumantes de mais de 10 anos-maço. Todos os pacientes tinham mais de 40 anos e apresentavam doença estável no momento do exame. RESULTADOS: O volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 pré-broncodilatador foi igual nos dois grupos (VEF1 = 51%, mas os portadores de DPOC eram mais velhos (66 ± 9 anos vs. 59 ± 11 anos, p 10% constitui o melhor parâmetro espirométrico para diferenciar asma de DPOC.OBJECTIVE: Making the differential diagnosis between asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD based on the response to inhaled bronchodilators by means of spirometry is controversial. The objective of this study was to identify the most useful spirometric variables in order to distinguish between asthma and COPD. METHODS: Retrospective study conducted from April of 2004 to January of 2006, comparing the spirometric parameters of 103 nonsmoking patients with asthma to those of 108 patients with COPD who were smokers for more than 10 pack-years. All of the patients included in the study were older than 40 and presented stable disease at the time of the test. RESULTS:Initial forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 was the same in the two groups (pre-bronchodilator VEF1 = 51%. However, patients with COPD were older (66 ± 9 years vs. 59 ± 11 years, p 10% is the best spirometric parameter to distinguish asthma from COPD.

  6. Spirometry, rapid FEV1 decline, and lung cancer among asbestos exposed heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jason W; Au, David H; Barnett, Matt J; Goodman, Gary E

    2007-12-01

    We assessed whether spirometric measurements are associated with the development of accelerated FEV(1) decline and lung cancer among active and previous smokers with a wide range of lung function. Bivariate and multivariate analyses that adjusted for age, intervention arm, smoking status at enrollment and smoking history, years exposed to asbestos, and evidence of asbestosis were used to assess whether baseline FEV(1) and FEV(1)/FVC ratio were associated with accelerated FEV(1) decline and incident lung cancer. The 3,041 participants enrolled from 1985 to 1994 were followed through April 30, 2005. Baseline FEV(1)/FVC ratio80%. Lung cancer risk among participants with baseline airflow obstruction and FEV(1)80% (psmokers. These data indicate an FEV(1)/FVCsmokers is significantly associated with faster airflow loss, and an increased risk for developing lung cancer, even among those individuals with a normal FEV(1).

  7. Use of the forced-oscillation technique to estimate spirometry values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shoichiro Yamamoto,1 Seigo Miyoshi,1 Hitoshi Katayama,1 Mikio Okazaki,2 Hisayuki Shigematsu,2 Yoshifumi Sano,2 Minoru Matsubara,3 Naohiko Hamaguchi,1 Takafumi Okura,1 Jitsuo Higaki1 1Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, Hypertension, and Nephrology, 2Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Sumitomo Besshi Hospital, Niihama, Japan Purpose: Spirometry is sometimes difficult to perform in elderly patients and in those with severe respiratory distress. The forced-oscillation technique (FOT is a simple and noninvasive method of measuring respiratory impedance. The aim of this study was to determine if FOT data reflect spirometric indices.Patients and methods: Patients underwent both FOT and spirometry procedures prior to inclusion in development (n=1,089 and validation (n=552 studies. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify FOT parameters predictive of vital capacity (VC, forced VC (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1. A regression equation was used to calculate estimated VC, FVC, and FEV1. We then determined whether the estimated data reflected spirometric indices. Agreement between actual and estimated spirometry data was assessed by Bland–Altman analysis.Results: Significant correlations were observed between actual and estimated VC, FVC, and FEV1 values (all r>0.8 and P<0.001. These results were deemed robust by a separate validation study (all r>0.8 and P<0.001. Bias between the actual data and estimated data for VC, FVC, and FEV1 in the development study was 0.007 L (95% limits of agreement [LOA] 0.907 and -0.893 L, -0.064 L (95% LOA 0.843 and -0.971 L, and -0.039 L (95% LOA 0.735 and -0.814 L, respectively. On the other hand, bias between the actual data and estimated data for VC, FVC, and FEV1 in the validation study was -0.201 L (95% LOA 0.62 and -1.022 L, -0.262 L (95% LOA 0.582 and -1.106 L, and

  8. Radionuclide assessment of peripheral hemodynamics: a new technique for measurement of forearm blood volume and flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todo, Y.; Tanimoto, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Iwasaki, T.

    1986-02-01

    A new peripheral hemodynamic measurement system using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells has been developed. This method was carried out on 22 normal subjects, 29 with coronary artery disease, and two with dilated cardiomyopathy. Peripheral hemodynamic indices obtained from this method included forearm blood volume (FBV), venous capacity (FVC), venous capacity index (VCI), blood flow (FBF), and vascular resistance (FVR), and were compared with the central hemodynamic parameters of left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP), cardiac output (CO), and total systemic vascular resistance (TSVR) obtained with an invasive technique. The normal values were FBV 8.54 +/- 2.04 ml/100 ml; FVC 4.54 +/- 1.23 ml/100 ml; VCI 65.5 +/- 3.8%; FBF 4.26 +/- 0.56 ml/100 ml/min; and FVR 20.9 +/- 4.4 mmHg/ml/100 ml/min. These values were in good agreement with the values reported using conventional plethysmography. The 16 patients with congestive heart failure (NYHA Class II or III) showed significantly lower FBV, FVC, and FBF values and significantly higher VCI and FVR values than the healthy subjects. Capacitance vessel parameters (FBV, FVC, and VCI) and LVFP, FBF and CO, and FVR and TSVR each showed significant correlation; reproducibility was also good. The advantages of this method are (a) the detector does not come in contact with the region being measured; (b) it is possible to ascertain the absolute quantity of blood in the tissue; (c) extravasation of the plasma component can be ignored; and (d) data processing is simple.

  9. Validation of Global Lung Function Initiative and All Ages Reference Equations for Forced Spirometry in Healthy Spanish Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín de Vicente, Carlos; de Mir Messa, Inés; Rovira Amigo, Sandra; Torrent Vernetta, Alba; Gartner, Silvia; Iglesias Serrano, Ignacio; Carrascosa Lezcano, Antonio; Moreno Galdó, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Recent publication of multi-ethnic spirometry reference equations for subjects aged from 3-95 years aim to avoid age-related discontinuities and provide a worldwide standard for interpreting spirometric test results. To assess the agreement of the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI-2012) and All ages (FEV 0.5 ) reference equations with the Spanish preschool lung function data. To verify the appropriateness of these reference values for clinical use in Spanish preschool children. Spirometric measurements were obtained from children aged 3 to 6 years attending 10 randomly selected schools in Barcelona (Spain). Stanojevic's quality control criteria were applied. Z-scores were calculated for the spirometry outcomes based on the GLI equations. If the z-score (mean) of each parameter was close to 0, with a maximum variance of ± 0.5 from the mean and a standard deviation of 1, the GLI-2012 equations would be applicable in our population. Of 543 children recruited, 405 (74.6%) were 'healthy', and of these, 380 were Caucasians. Of these 380, 81.6% (169 females, 141 males) performed technically acceptable and reproducible maneuvers to assess FEVt, and 69.5% achieved a clear end-expiratory plateau. Z-scores for FVC, FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC, FEV 0.75 , FEV 0.75 /FVC, FEV 0.5 , FEF 75 and FEF 25-75 all fell within ± 0.5, except for FEV 1 /FVC (0.53 z-scores). GLI equations are appropriate for Spanish preschool children. These data provide further evidence to support widespread application of the GLI reference equations. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Computed tomography measurement of rib cage morphometry in emphysema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Sverzellati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factors determining the shape of the human rib cage are not completely understood. We aimed to quantify the contribution of anthropometric and COPD-related changes to rib cage variability in adult cigarette smokers. METHODS: Rib cage diameters and areas (calculated from the inner surface of the rib cage in 816 smokers with or without COPD, were evaluated at three anatomical levels using computed tomography (CT. CTs were analyzed with software, which allows quantification of total emphysema (emphysema%. The relationship between rib cage measurements and anthropometric factors, lung function indices, and %emphysema were tested using linear regression models. RESULTS: A model that included gender, age, BMI, emphysema%, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%, and forced vital capacity (FVC% fit best with the rib cage measurements (R(2 = 64% for the rib cage area variation at the lower anatomical level. Gender had the biggest impact on rib cage diameter and area (105.3 cm(2; 95% CI: 111.7 to 98.8 for male lower area. Emphysema% was responsible for an increase in size of upper and middle CT areas (up to 5.4 cm(2; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.8 for an emphysema increase of 5%. Lower rib cage areas decreased as FVC% decreased (5.1 cm(2; 95% CI: 2.5 to 7.6 for 10 percentage points of FVC variation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that simple CT measurements can predict rib cage morphometric variability and also highlight relationships between rib cage morphometry and emphysema.

  11. The Assessment of Cough in a Sarcoidosis Clinic Using a Validated instrument and a Visual Analog Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Marc A; Chopra, Amit; Conuel, Edward; Koutroumpakis, Efstratios; Schafer, Christopher; Austin, Adam; Zhang, Robert; Cao, Kerry; Berry, Rani; Khan, Malik M H S; Modi, Aakash; Modi, Ritu; Jou, Stephanie; Ilyas, Furqan; Yucel, Recai M

    2017-10-01

    Cough is a common symptom of pulmonary sarcoidosis. We analyzed the severity of cough and factors associated with cough in a university sarcoidosis clinic cohort. Consecutive patients completed the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) and a cough visual analog scale (VAS). Clinical and demographic data were collected. Means of the LCQ were analyzed in patients who had multiple visits in terms of constant variables (e.g., race, sex). 355 patients completed the LCQ and VAS at 874 visits. Cough was significantly worse in blacks than whites as determined by the LCQ-mean (16.5 ± 2.6 vs. 17.8 ± 3.0, p Cough was worse in women than men as measured by the VAS-mean (2.7 ± 2.9 vs. 2.2 ± 2.7, p = 0.002), one of the LCQ-mean domains (LCQ-Social-mean 5.4 ± 0.9 vs. 5.2 ± 1.0, p = 0.03), but not the total LCQ-mean score. Cough was not significantly different by either measure in terms of smoking status, age, or spirometric parameter (FVC % predicted, FEV1 % predicted, FEV1/FVC). In a multivariable linear regression analysis, cough was significantly worse in blacks than whites and in pulmonary sarcoidosis than non-pulmonary sarcoidosis with both cough measures, in women than men for the VAS only, and not for spirometric parameters, Scadding stage, or age. The LCQ and VAS were strongly correlated. In a large university outpatient sarcoidosis cohort, cough was worse in blacks than whites. Cough was not statistically significantly different in terms of age, spirometric measures, Scadding stage, or smoking status. The LCQ correlated strongly with a visual analog scale for cough.

  12. Six-Minute Walk Test as a Measure of Walking Capacity in Ambulatory Individuals With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjak, Mohammed; Langford, Velma; Holsten, Scott; Rozario, Nigel; Patterson, Charity G Moore; Bravver, Elena; Bockenek, William L; Brooks, Benjamin R

    2017-11-01

    To determine the validity of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) as an outcome measure to evaluate walking capacity in ambulatory patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Observational study. Multidisciplinary ALS clinic at an academic medical center. Patients with ALS (N=186) who ambulate without (stage I) or with (stage II) an assistive device. Not applicable. Walking distance obtained from the 6MWT. Participants performed the 6MWT, 25-foot walk test (25FWT), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, lower extremity maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R), and forced vital capacity (FVC). Walking capacity was reduced to 66% predicted of healthy subjects (75.2%±22% in stage I; 42.6%±22% in stage II). The 6MWT correlated with all other outcome measures in ambulatory patients with ALS (25FWT: r=-.74, P≤.0001; TUG test: r=-.80, P≤.0001; MVIC: r=.64, P≤.0001; percent predicted FVC: r=.25, P≤.0007; ALSFRS-R: r=.52, P≤.0001; ALSFRS-R gross motor subscore: r=.71, P≤.0001). When ambulatory patients with ALS were stratified by stage of ambulation, the 6MWT was associated with all other outcome measures in stage I (25FWT: r=-.56, P≤.0001; TUG test: r=-.66, P≤.0001; MVIC: r=.51, P≤.0001; percent predicted FVC: r=.40, P≤.02; ALSFRS-R: r=.52, P≤.0001; ALSFRS-R gross motor subscore: r=.61, P≤.0001). In stage II, the 6MWT correlated with the 25FWT (r=-.83, P≤.0001), TUG test (r=-.77, P≤.0001), MVIC (r=.47, P≤.0001), and ALSFRS gross motor subscore (r=.61, P≤.0001), but not with percent predicted FVC (r=.09, P≤.513) or ALSFRS-R (r=.21, P≤.141). The 6MWT is a valid measure of walking capacity of ambulatory patients with ALS that is associated with measures of lower extremity muscle strength and function in both stages of ambulation. The discordance between the 6MWT with the ALSFRS-R and percent predicted FVC in stage II ambulatory patients with ALS indicates that the 6MWT is an independent measure

  13. Efecto del pedaleo de brazos sobre el sistema cardiorrespiratorio de las personas con tetraplejia. (Effect of armcrank pedaling on the cardiorespiratory system of the people with tetraplegia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Brizuela Costa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivos: Determinar el efecto de un programa de entrenamiento de pedaleo de brazos (PB estacionario, sobre el sistema cardiorrespiratorio de personas con tetraplejia. Método: Se estudiaron 11 participantes con tetraplejia por lesión medular (LM de origen traumático a niveles entre C4 y C6. Se midieron variables espirométricas (VC, FVC y MVV y de Variabilidad de la Frecuencia Cardíaca VFC (HR, STDHR, RMSSD, LF, HF y HRVPOWER, antes y después de 8 semanas de entrenamiento. Resultados: Todas las variables mostraron cambios significativos (p Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect, in subjects with tetraplejia, of a stationary armcrank pedaling (AP training program on their cardiorespiratory system. Method: 11 participants with tetraplegia, originated by traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI at levels between C4 and C6, were included in the study. Spirometric (VC, FVC and MVV and Heart Rate Variability (HRV indices (HR, STDHR, RMSSD, LF, HF, HRVPOWER were measured before and after an 8 weeks of armcrank pedaling training program. Results: Spirometric and HRV variables showed changes (p

  14. Virtual respiratory system for interactive e-learning of spirometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tomalak

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in computer simulation technology offers new possibilities for modern medicine. On one hand – virtual organs can help to create animal or human models for research, on the other hand – e-learning or distant learning through Internet is now possible. The aim of our work was to create a system for interactive learning of spirometry (SILS, enabling students or physicians to observe spirometric measurements (flow-volume modified by setting level and kind of abnormalities within the respiratory system. SILS is based on a virtual respiratory system presented previously in several papers. Its main features are: separation of the lungs and chest; anatomical division of the lungs; division of airway resistance into transmural pressure dependent (Rp and lung volume dependent (Rv parts. The one mathematical formula that represents Rp describes both flow limitation (forced expiration and dependence of Raw on lungs volume (small airflows. The output of system are spirometric parameters (as FEV1, FVC, FEV1%FVC and a flow–volume loop constructed according to results of simulation of forced expiration for the chosen abnormality kind and level. As a result – this system may be used in teaching process in medical schools and postgraduate education. We offer access to a basic version of SILS for students and physicians at: www.spirometry.ibib.waw.pl and www.zpigichp.edu.pl. As we expect feedback from users, it is possible to modify user interface or model features to comply with users' requests.

  15. O efeito da obesidade sobre parâmetros espirométricos em adolescentes submetidos à broncoprovocação por exercício - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i1.6476 The effect of obesity on spirometric parameters in adolescents subjected to exercise bronchoprovocation - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i1.6476

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Bento Radominski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da obesidade sobre parâmetros espirométricos em adolescentes submetidos ao teste de broncoprovocação por exercício físico. Estudo transversal, descritivo e correlacional, composto por 15 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos. O diagnóstico de asma foi realizado por meio de histórico clínico e questionário ISAAC, e a obesidade, pelo IMC acima do percentil 95. Utilizou-se o teste de broncoprovocação com exercício físico para avaliação da asma induzida pelo exercício (AIE, considerando-se positiva a diminuição do volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 > 10% do valor pré-exercício e a intensidade da AIE foi calculada pela queda percentual máxima do VEF1 (% QuedaMax VEF1. Foram utilizados o teste t independente ou U de Mann-Whitney e a correlação de Spearman rho (p máx VEF1 (p = 0,034. Houve relação moderada negativa para a QuedaMax VEF1 com os leucócitos, e do % QuedaMax VEF1 com os leucócitos. Pode-se concluir que as variáveis espirométricas apresentam moderada correlação com as inflamações sistêmicas da obesidade. Palavras-chave: adolescente; asma induzida pelo exercício; obesidade.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of obesity on spirometric parameters in adolescents subjected to a physical exercise bronchoprovocation test. It was a cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational study composed of 15 adolescents of both genders. The diagnosis of asthma was made by clinical history and ISAAC questionnaire, and obesity by BMI above the 95th percentile. The bronchoprovocation test with physical exercise was used for assessment of exercise induced asthma (EIA, considering positive a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 > 10% of pre-exercise, and the intensity was calculated by the EIA maximum percentage fall in FEV1 (% Fallmax FEV1. We used the independent t test or Mann-Whitney U test and the Spearman rho correlation (p 1

  16. Respiratory Function Under Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy in Patients With Spastic Tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishima, Haruhiko; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Goto, Yuko; Oshino, Satoru; Maruo, Tomoyuki; Tani, Naoki; Khoo, Hui Ming; Hosomi, Koichi; Hirata, Masayuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2016-08-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy is an effective treatment for patients with severe spasticity. However, the effect of ITB therapy on respiratory function has not been reported in detail. In this study we quantitatively analyzed the effects of ITB on the respiratory function of patients with spastic tetraplegia. We retrospectively reviewed 23 patients who were administrated ITB therapy from January 2009 to December 2012. Six of these 23 patients, who had spastic tetraplegia and were able to undergo spirometric testing, were included this study. The spasticity derived from cervical spinal cord injury in four patients and cerebral palsy (CP) in two patients. Patients' Ashworth Scale scores and spirometer measurements obtained before and 1-6 months after the start of ITB therapy were evaluated and compared. Before ITB therapy, %FVC of all six patients was below 80%, and a restrictive respiratory disorder was diagnosed in five patients and a combined respiratory disorder in one patient. Ashworth Scale scores for both the lower and upper extremities improved significantly with ITB therapy. Forced vital capacity (FVC), %FVC, and forced expiratory volume at one sec also improved significantly with ITB therapy. Respiratory disorders were indeed present in our SCI and CP patients with spastic tetraplegia, and the respiratory function of these patients improved with ITB therapy. Our results suggest that ITB therapy is safe and efficacious in patients with spastic tetraplegia and respiratory dysfunction. © 2016 International Neuromodulation Society.

  17. Local sympathetic stimulation not only have local effects in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, K; Dogan, D; Celik, M; Kaya, E; Kadan, M; Isik, H; Ocal, N; Doganci, S; Yildirim, V; Demirkilic, U

    2015-01-01

    Many other organs and system can be affected in the course of Primary Raynaud's Phenomenon (RP). Simultaneously increased vasospasm in the pulmonary vascular bed may likely affect the pulmonary function. Therefore, we investigated the effect of Raynaud's phenomenon on the respiratory functions in this study. Between March 2014 and December 2014, 30 patients with the diagnosis of PRP more than two years and 32 age-sex matched healthy controls were enrolled into this study. Cold stimulation test (CST) was performed. Pulmonary function test were performed following 30 minutes after CST and spirometric measurements were calculated. There were no statistically significant differences between two groups regarding their demographic and clinical data. Mean duration of symptoms from onset to present was 3.01 ± 1.05 years. Patients with Primary RP had significantly lower FVC and higher FEV1/FVC values compared to the control groups (p = 0.015 and p=0.045, respectively). We found that statistically significant decrease of FVC values in patients with Primary RP compared to the healthy controls could be a impaired innervation of pulmonary system and a predictor of pulmonary vasospasm and/or pulmonary Raynaud's phenomenon, which may develop in future periods.

  18. Long-range correlations of serial FEV1 measurements in emphysematous patients and normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, A; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Madsen, F

    1998-01-01

    are autocorrelated. The purpose of this study was to describe the correlation structure in time series of FEV1 measurements. Nineteen patients with severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (phenotype PiZ) and moderate to severe emphysema and two subjects with normal lungs were followed for several years with daily self...... patients was approximately 0.35 for short intervals and decreased almost exponentially with a half time of 38 days. Between 3 and 4 mo, the autocorrelation function became negative. It reached a minimum of -0.1 at approximately 8 mo and then increased toward zero over the following 12 mo....... The autocorrelation function in the two normal subjects showed a similar pattern, but with a faster decay toward zero. In the patients, the power spectrum had a peak at 1 cycle/wk and showed a 1/f pattern, where f is frequency, with a slope of -0.88 at lower frequencies. We conclude that serial spirometric...

  19. Enkle spirometrimålinger i en generell mannlig befolkning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjur Humerfelt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGFormålet var å evaluere deltagelsen ved enkle spirometrimålinger utført av menn fra den generelle befolkningenog å studere mulige prediktorer for ikke å oppnå godkjent test.Alle menn i alderen 29-46 år bosatt i Hordaland fylke samt Sauda kommune (N=45 380 ble invitert til entverrsnittsundersøkelse i 1988-90. Luftveissymptomer, røykevaner og sivil status ble besvart via spørreskjemaog målinger av forsert ekspiratorisk volum ved ett sekund (FEV 1 og forsert vital kapasitet (FVC bleutført med Vitalograph belg-spirometre.I alt deltok 29 611 menn (65% i studien. Spirometrimålinger ble utført hos 91% av de fremmøtte og avdisse var det kun 1,6% som ikke klarte å oppnå tre godkjente registreringer med ≤300 ml mellom de tohøyeste FVC verdiene. Andelen uten tre godkjente målinger var hyppigere hos aldri-røykere, ugifte og hospersoner med luftveissymptomer enn hos hhv. røykere, gifte og asymptomatiske menn.Konklusjon  Simple spirometry in a general male population.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYIn this general population study we wanted to evaluate the participation of simple spirometry and to identifypredictors of spirometric test failure.All men aged 29-46 years living in western Norway (N=45,380 were invited to a cross sectional communitysurvey. Respiratory symptoms, smoking habits and marital status were obtained from self-administeredquestionnaires and measurements of FEV 1 and FVC were performed using dry-wedge bellow spirometers.Altogether 29,611 subjects (65% participated in this survey. Spirometric recordings were obtained in91% of the attendants (n=26,803 of whom 1.6% failed the acceptability criterion of ≤300 ml between thetwo highest of three FVC values. Spirometric failures were more prevalent in never smokers, single men andsubjects with respiratory symptoms than in ever-smokers, married and asymptomatic subjects, respectively.Conclusions  : In men aged 29-46 years, spirometric test failures

  20. Comparison of forced expiratory spirometric flow changes following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group B received intrathecal anaesthesia 15 mgs of bupivacaine with 0.5 ml of normal saline and Group BF received 15 mgs of bupivacaine with 0.5 ml of fentanyl (25 μg) intrathecally. The patients were instructed about the performance of the spirometry on the previous evening of the surgery. Forced vital capacity, forced ...

  1. Predictive equations for spirometric reference values in a healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants performed spirometry and answered questionnaires regarding respiratory symptoms and socioeconomic conditions. Anthropometric data were collected. Selection of subjects for generation of reference values followed American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommendations. Data were analyzed using multiple ...

  2. Spirometric system anna 1, breathing and baroreflex sensitivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kára, T.; Jurák, Pavel; Souček, M.; Davies, L. P.; Francis, D. P.; Toman, J.; Halámek, Josef

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 18, 4-Suppl. (2000), s. S229 ISSN 0263-6352. [International Society of Hypertension /18./ - Scientific Meeting. 20.08.2000-24.08.2000, Chicago] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  3. Diagnosing asthma in general practice with portable exhaled nitric oxide measurement – results of a prospective diagnostic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laux Gunter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO for the diagnosis of asthma in general practice. Methods Prospective diagnostic study with 160 patients attending 10 general practices for the first time with complaints suspicious of obstructive airway disease (OAD. Patients were referred to a lung function laboratory for diagnostic investigation. The index test was FENO measured with a portable FENO analyser based on electrochemical sensor. The reference standard was the Tiffeneau ratio (FEV1/VC as received by spirometric manoeuvre and/or results of bronchial provocation. Bronchial provocation with methacholine was performed to determine bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR in the event of inconclusive spirometric results. Results 88 (55% were female; their average age was 43.9 years. 75 (46.9% patients had asthma, 25 (15.6% had COPD, 8 (5.0% had an overlap of COPD and asthma, and 52 (32.5% had no OAD. At a cut-off level of 46 parts per billion (ppb (n = 30; 18.8%, sensitivity was 32% (95%CI 23–43%, specificity 93% (95%CI 85–97%, positive predictive value (PPV 80% (95%CI 63–91%, negative predictive value (NPV 61% (95%CI 52–69% when compared with a 20% fall in FEV1 from the baseline value (PC20 after inhaling methacholine concentration ≤ 16 mg/ml. At 76 ppb (n = 11; 6.9% specificity was 100% (95%CI 96–100% and PPV was 100% (95%CI 72–100. At a cut-off level of 12 ppb (n = 34; 21.3%, sensitivity was 90% (95%CI 79–95%, specificity 25% (95%CI 17–34%, PPV 40% (95%CI 32–50, NPV 81% (95%CI 64–91% when compared with a 20% fall of FEV1 after inhaling methacholine concentration ≤ 4 mg/ml. Three patients with unsuspicious spirometric results have to be tested with FENO to save one bronchial provocation test. Conclusion Asthma could be ruled in with FENO > 46 ppb. Mild and moderate to severe asthma could be ruled out with FENO ≤ 12 ppb. FENO measurement with

  4. Measurement of lung volume by lung perfusion scanning using SPECT and prediction of postoperative respiratory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andou, Akio; Shimizu, Nobuyosi; Maruyama, Shuichiro

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of lung volume by lung perfusion scanning using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and its usefulness for the prediction of respiratory function after lung resection were investigated. The lung volumes calculated in 5 patients by SPECT (threshold level 20%) using 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA), related very closely to the actually measured lung volumes. This results prompted us to calculate the total lung volume and the volume of the lobe to be resected in 18 patients with lung cancer by SPECT. Based on the data obtained, postoperative respiratory function was predicted. The predicted values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1.0 ), and maximum vital volume (MVV) showed closer correlations with the actually measured postoperative values (FVC, FEV 1.0 , MVV : r=0.944, r=0.917, r=0.795 respectively), than the values predicted by the ordinary lung perfusion scanning. This method facilitates more detailed evaluation of local lung function on a lobe-by-lobe basis, and can be applied clinically to predict postoperative respiratory function. (author)

  5. Efficacy of lung ventilation scintigram and exercise pulmonary hemodynamic measurement to evaluate operability for pulmonary resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneda, Masanori; Hayashi, Takashi; Hiraiwa, Takane; Sakai, Takashi; Namikawa, Shoji; Kusakawa, Minoru.

    1989-01-01

    Preoperative evaluation of patients with lung cancer should include data concerning both resectability and operability. Operability addresses the question how much pulmonary tissue can be safely removed. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an efficacy of the lung ventilation scintigram and measurement of exercise change in pulmonary hemodynamic parameters by detecting respiratory and circulatory reserve of pulmonary function. Predicted postoperative forced vital capacity (FVC) were calculated from the data of lung scintigram and preoperative spirometry by means of subsegmental formula. Accuracy of prediction was confirmed by spirometry 6 months after the operation. Correlation coefficient between predicted value and actually measured one was R=0.95, and simple regression formula was y=0.98x-10.4. It was recommended that the lower limit should be setted at 40% by the calculated postoperative %FVC. Exercise test were performed by means of bicycle ergometer with the measurement of pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac output. Pulmonary arterial resistance index (PARI) were also calculated. In younger group rise of pulmonary arterial pressure during exercise was gentle, and PARI was settled between 150 to 200 in high output state. But in older group rise of pulmonary aerial pressure was steep and PARI was over 200 in some cases, just like the case of COLD. It should be recommended to set the upper limit of PARI at 400 in maximum exercise. (author)

  6. Influence of the diving wetsuit on standard spirometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, Nico A. M.; Sterk, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A well-fitting wetsuit exerts a pressure on the body that may influence spirometry. This pressure is expected to reduce the forced vital capacity (FVC) due to hampered inspiration. Since the shape of the spirometric flow curve should not be changed by the pressure effects of the

  7. Cyst-based measurements for assessing lymphangioleiomyomatosis in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, P., E-mail: pechinlo@mednet.edu.ucla; Brown, M. S.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Goldin, J. G. [Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Argula, R.; Strange, C. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a new family of measurements made on individual pulmonary cysts extracted from computed tomography (CT) for assessing the severity of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Methods: CT images were analyzed using thresholding to identify a cystic region of interest from chest CT of LAM patients. Individual cysts were then extracted from the cystic region by the watershed algorithm, which separates individual cysts based on subtle edges within the cystic regions. A family of measurements were then computed, which quantify the amount, distribution, and boundary appearance of the cysts. Sequential floating feature selection was used to select a small subset of features for quantification of the severity of LAM. Adjusted R{sup 2} from multiple linear regression and R{sup 2} from linear regression against measurements from spirometry were used to compare the performance of our proposed measurements with currently used density based CT measurements in the literature, namely, the relative area measure and the D measure. Results: Volumetric CT data, performed at total lung capacity and residual volume, from a total of 49 subjects enrolled in the MILES trial were used in our study. Our proposed measures had adjusted R{sup 2} ranging from 0.42 to 0.59 when regressing against the spirometry measures, with p < 0.05. For previously used density based CT measurements in the literature, the best R{sup 2} was 0.46 (for only one instance), with the majority being lower than 0.3 or p > 0.05. Conclusions: The proposed family of CT-based cyst measurements have better correlation with spirometric measures than previously used density based CT measurements. They show potential as a sensitive tool for quantitatively assessing the severity of LAM.

  8. Evaluation of three scales of dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhabra, S K; Gupta, A K; Khuma, M Z

    2009-01-01

    The Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) scale, baseline dyspnea index (BDI) and the oxygen cost diagram (OCD) are widely used tools for evaluation of limitation of activities due to dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is, however, limited information on how these relate with each other and with multiple parameters of physiological impairment. To study the interrelationships between MMRC, BDI and OCD scales of dyspnea and their correlation with multiple measures of physiological impairment. A retrospective analysis of pooled data of 88 male patients with COPD (GOLD stages 2, 3 and 4) was carried out. Dyspnea was evaluated using the MMRC, BDI and OCD scales. Physiological impairment was assessed by spirometry (FVC % predicted and FEV 1 % predicted), arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis and measurement of the 6-min walk distance (6MWD). The interrelationships between MMRC, BDI and OCD scales were moderately strong. The BDI and OCD scores had strong correlations with ABG abnormalities, weak correlations with spirometric parameters but none with 6MWD. MMRC grades were significantly associated with BDI and OCD scores but did not show clear associations with spirometric parameters, ABG abnormalities and 6MWD. The MMRC grades of dyspnea and the BDI and OCD scales are moderately interrelated. While the BDI and OCD scales have significant associations with parameters of physiological impairment, the MMRC scale does not. (author)

  9. Effects of indoor air pollution on lung function of primary school children in Kuala Lumpur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizi, B.H.; Henry, R.L. (National Univ. of Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia))

    1990-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 7-12 year-old primary school children in Kuala Lumpur city, lung function was assessed by spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements. Spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements were successfully performed in 1,214 and 1,414 children, respectively. As expected, the main predictors of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were standing height, weight, age, and sex. In addition, lung function values of Chinese and Malays were generally higher than those of Indians. In multiple regression models which included host and environmental factors, asthma was associated with significant decreases in FEV1, FEF25-75, and PEFR. However, family history of chest illness, history of allergies, low paternal education, and hospitalization during the neonatal period were not independent predictors of lung function. Children sharing rooms with adult smokers had significantly lower levels of FEF25-75. Exposures to wood or kerosene stoves were, but to mosquito repellents were not, associated with decreased lung function.

  10. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. Bekkers (Marga); A.H. Wijga (Alet); U. Gehring (Ulrike); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); B. Brunekreef (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and

  11. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B.; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Background: In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and large WC, with

  12. Impact of Restless Legs Syndrome on the Sleep Quality in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal İn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is well known that various sleep disorders are common in cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, restless legs syndrome (RLS has not been extensively studied in these patients. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of RLS and its impact on sleep quality in patients with COPD. Methods: The study included a total of 50 patients with COPD with a mean age of 67.2±7.7 years; 39 (78% were male. The RLS diagnosis was made based on the questionnaire items standardized by the International RLS study group. Dyspnea severity (mMRC, quality of life (CAT, sleep quality [Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI], and daytime sleepiness [Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS] were evaluated using certain specific questionnaires. The subjects were studied in two groups: RLS-positive and RLS-negative groups. Results: In the study population, RLS was detected in 17 (34% patients. It was found that the RLS-positive subjects had a longer disease duration (p=0.006, a higher hospital admission rate (p=0.008, and lower spirometric values (p=0.023 for FVC; p=0.001 for FEV1. The CAT score was significantly higher in the RLS-positive group (p=0.019. The RLS-positive group had higher PSQI and ESS scores (p<0.001 for both. There were negative correlations between PSQI, ESS scores, and spirometric measures (FVC and FEV1, whereas PSQI and ESS scores had positive correlations with disease duration, mMRC, and CAT scores. Conclusion: In our study, it was observed that RLS is a common condition in patients with COPD. As the duration and severity of COPD increases, RLS becomes more prevalent and sleep quality deteriorates.

  13. Reference values for spirometry in Chinese aged 4-80 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wenhua; Gao, Yi; Hao, Chuangli; Wang, Ning; Ai, Tao; Liu, Chuanhe; Xu, Yongjian; Kang, Jian; Yang, Lan; Shen, Huahao; Guan, Weijie; Jiang, Mei; Zhong, Nanshan; Zheng, Jinping

    2017-11-01

    Although there are over 1.34 billion Chinese in the world, nationwide spirometric reference values for Chinese are unavailable, which is usually based on Caucasian conversion. The aim of this study was to establish spirometric reference values for Chinese with a national wide sample. We enrolled healthy non-smokers in 24 centers in Northeast, North, Northwest, Southwest, South, East and Central China from January 2007 to June 2010. Spirometry was performed according to American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines. Reference equations were established using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV 1 /FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF). Popular Caucasian reference values adjusted with ethnic conversion factors were validated with Chinese measured spirometry data. The present study also compared with other published Chinese equations for spirometry. A total of 7,115 eligible individuals aged 4 to 80 years (50.9% females) were recruited. Reference equations against age and height by gender were established, including predicted values and lower limits of normal (LLNs). Validated with Chinese data, the mean percentage differences of Caucasian reference values adjusted with ethnic conversion factors were -10.2% to 1.8%, and the percentages of total subjects under LLNs were 0.1% to 8.9%. Compared with this study, the percentage differences of previous Chinese studies ranged from -17.8% to 11.4%, which were found to significantly overestimate or underestimate lung function. This study established new reference values for better interpretation of spirometry in Chinese aged 4 to 80 years, while Caucasian references with adjustment were inappropriate for Chinese.

  14. Early wheeze as reported by mothers and lung function in 4-year-olds. Prospective cohort study in Krakow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Perera, Frederica P; Mroz, Elzbieta; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Flak, Elzbieta; Edwards, Susan; Majewska, Renata; Sowa, Agata

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to check the hypothesis that early wheezing as reported by mothers would be associated with reduced lung function in 4-year olds. Study participants were recruited prenatally, as part of a prospective cohort study on the respiratory health of young children exposed to various ambient air pollutants. After delivery, infants were followed over 4 years and the interviewers visited participants at their home to record respiratory symptoms every 3 months in the child's first 2 years of life and every 6 months in the 3rd and 4th years. In the 4th year of follow-up, children were invited for standard lung function testing by spirometry quantified by forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV(1)), and forced expiratory volume in 0.5 sec (FEV(0.5)) levels. Out of 258 children attending spirometry testing 139 performed at least two acceptable exhalation efforts. Cohort children with acceptable spirometric measurements did not differ with respect to wheezing experience and exposure characteristics from those without. The study shows that episodic wheeze was reported in 28.1% of 4-year olds, 6.5% had transient wheeze, and 4.3% had recurrent wheeze. There was an increased frequency of wheezing symptoms and their duration in transient and recurrent wheezers. Adjusted multivariable regression models for gender and height showed that children who reported more than two episodes of wheezing at any point over the follow-up had FVC values lower by 120.5 ml (P = 0.016) and FEV(1) values lower by 98.3 ml (P = 0.034) compared to those who did not report any wheezing; children experiencing more than 10 wheezing days by age 4 showed FVC deficit of 87.4 ml (P = 0.034) and FEV(1) values of 65.7 ml (P = 0.066). The ratios of FEV(1)/FVC%, and FEV(0.5)/FVC% were neither associated with wheezing episodes nor wheezing days. In recurrent wheezers, lung function decrement amounted to 207 ml of FVC, 175 ml of FEV(1), and 104 ml of FEV(0.5). In

  15. EARLY WHEEZE AS REPORTED BY MOTHERS AND LUNG FUNCTION IN FOUR-YEAR-OLDS. PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY IN KRAKOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Perera, Frederica P.; Mroz, Elzbieta; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Flak, Elzbieta; Edwards, Susan; Majewska, Renata; Sowa, Agata

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to check the hypothesis that early wheezing as reported by mothers would be associated with reduced lung function in 4-year-olds. Study participants were recruited prenatally, as part of a prospective cohort study on the respiratory health of young children exposed to various ambient air pollutants. After delivery, infants were followed over four years and the interviewers visited participants at their home to record respiratory symptoms every three months in the child’s first two years of life and every 6 months in the third and fourth years. In the fourth year of follow-up, children were invited for standard lung function testing by spirometry quantified by FVC, FEV1 and FEV05 levels. Out of 258 children attending spirometry testing 139 performed at least two acceptable exhalation efforts. Cohort children with acceptable spirometric measurements did not differ with respect to wheezing experience and exposure characteristics from those without. The study shows that episodic wheeze was reported in 28.1% of 4-year-olds, 6.5% had transient wheeze and 4.3% had recurrent wheeze. There was an increased frequency of wheezing symptoms and their duration in transient and recurrent wheezers. Adjusted multivariable regression models for gender and height showed that children who reported more than 2 episodes of wheezing at any point over the follow-up had FVC values lower by 120.5 mL (p = 0.016) and FEV1 values lower by 98.3 mL (p = 0.034) compared to those who did not report any wheezing; children experiencing more than 10 wheezing days by age 4 showed FVC deficit of 87.4 mL (p = 0.034) and FEV1 values of 65.7 mL (p = 0.066) The ratios of FEV1/FVC% and FEV05/FVC% were neither associated with wheezing episodes nor wheezing days. In recurrent wheezers lung function decrement amounted to 207 mL of FVC, 175 mL of FEV1 and 104 mL of FEV05. In conclusion, our findings show that wheezing experience during early postnatal life may be associated with

  16. Computer-Aided Tomographic Analysis of Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. Correlation with Pulmonary Physiologic Tests and Patient-Centred Measures of Perceived Dyspnea and Functional Disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Salaffi

    Full Text Available This study was designed (a to evaluate an improved quantitative lung fibrosis score based on a computer-aided diagnosis (CaM system in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc,-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD, (b to investigate the relationship between physiologic parameters (forced vital capacity [FVC] and single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO], patient-centred measures of dyspnea and functional disability and CaM and visual reader-based (CoVR methods, and (c to identify potential surrogate measures from quantitative and visual HRCT measurement.126 patients with SSc underwent chest radiography, HRCT and PFTs. The following patient-centred measures were obtained: modified Borg Dyspnea Index (Borg score, VAS for breathing, and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI. HRCT abnormalities were scored according to the conventional visual reader-based score (CoVR and by a CaM. The relationships among the HRCT scores, physiologic parameters (FVC and DLCO, % predicted results and patient-centred measures, were calculated using linear regression analysis and Pearson's correlation. Multivariate regression models were performed to identify the predictor variables on severity of pulmonary fibrosis.Subjects with limited cutaneous SSc had lower HAQ-DI scores than subjects with diffuse cutaneous SSc (p <0.001. CaM and CoVR scores were similar in the 2 groups. In univariate analysis, a strong correlation between CaM and CoVR was observed (p <0.0001. In multivariate analysis the CaM and CoVR scores were predicted by DLco, FVC, Borg score and HAQ-DI. Age, sex, disease duration, anti-topoisomerase antibodies and mRSS were not significantly associated with severity of pulmonary fibrosis on CaM- and CoVR methods.Although a close correlation between CaM score results and CoVR total score was found, CaM analysis showed a more significant correlation with DLco (more so than the FVC, patient-centred measures of perceived

  17. Relationships between values of antibodies to several connective tissue disease autoantigens and pulmonary function in a Japanese general population: the Takahata study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nakano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism in the pathogenesis of respiratory dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between pulmonary function and serum antibodies to several connective tissue disease autoantigens (ACTDA levels, which has not been investigated in a general population. METHODS: Blood sampling and spirometry were performed for subjects (n = 3,257 aged ≥40 years who participated in a community-based annual health check in Takahata, Japan, from 2004 to 2006. ACTDA was measured by enzyme immunoassay, and subjects with ACTDA values ≥20 were defined as positive. RESULTS: In males, there were significant inverse relationships between logarithmically transformed ACTDA values and spirometric parameters, including % predicted values for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 and maximal midexpiratory flow (MMF as well as FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that except for the relationship between ACTDA and FEV1/FVC, these relationships were still significant after adjustment for Brinkman index (a measure of inhaled cigarette consumption. The prevalence of positive ACTDA was greater in male never-smokers with mixed ventilation disorders and relatively severe airflow obstruction (% predicted FEV1 below the median value. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmunity may be involved in the mechanism of impaired pulmonary function in the general population.

  18. Chronic adaptations of lung function in breath-hold diving fishermen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Diniz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to verify and analyze the existence of chronic adaptations of lung function in freediving fishermen whose occupation is artisanal fishing. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 11 breath-hold diving fishermen and 10 non-breath-hold diving fishermen (control from the village of Bitupitá in the municipality of Barroquinha (Ceará - Brazil. Anthropometric measurements, chest and abdominal circumferences as well as spirometric and respiratory muscle strength tests were conducted according to the specifications of the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS. In order to compare the measured values versus the predicted values, Student t test was used in the case of parametric test and Wilcoxon test in the case of nonparametric test. To compare the inter-group means Student t test was used for parametric test and Mann-Whitney test for the nonparametric one. The level of significance was set at α = 5%. Results: The forced vital capacity (FVC (4.9±0.6 l vs. 4.3±0.4 l and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 (4.0±0.5 l vs. 3.6±0.3 l were, respectively, higher in the group of divers compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.05. Furthermore, in the group of free divers, the measured FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratios were significantly greater than the predicted ones. No differences were found between the measured respiratory pressures. Conclusions: These results indicate that breath-hold diving seems to produce chronic adaptations of the respiratory system, resulting in elevated lung volumes with no airway obstruction.

  19. Effects of occupational exposures and smoking on lung function in tile factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Maritta S; Sripaiboonkij, Penpatra; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relations of occupational exposures in tile industry to lung function and to evaluate potential interaction between smoking and tile dust exposure containing silica. A cross-sectional study of 232 workers (response rate 100%) in a tile factory and 76 office workers (response rate 73%) from four factories in Thailand was conducted in 2006-2007. Participants answered a questionnaire and performed spirometry. Factory workers had lower spirometric functions than office workers, especially those with high dust exposure. There was a dose-response relation between duration of dust exposure and FEV1 and FVC, the adjusted effect of ≥ 21 years of exposure on FEV1 being -240 ml (-100 to -380) and on FVC -300 ml (-140 to -460). The adverse effect of dust on lung function was larger in current smokers suggesting synergism between smoking and tile dust exposure. This study provides evidence that long-term exposure to dust in tile industry is related to lung function reduction. There was a suggestion of synergistic effect between dust exposure and smoking. Tile factories should consider measures to reduce dust exposure and arrange spirometry surveillance for workers with such exposure. Smoking cessation should be promoted to prevent harmful effects of occupational tile dust exposure.

  20. Direct assessment of lung function in COPD using CT densitometric measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Suicheng; Leader, Joseph; Gur, David; Pu, Jiantao; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Qihang; Sciurba, Frank; Kminski, Naftali

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be directly predicted using CT densitometric measures and assess the underlying prediction errors as compared with the traditional spirometry-based measures. A total of 600 CT examinations were collected from a COPD study. In addition to the entire lung volume, the extent of emphysema depicted in each CT examination was quantified using density mask analysis (densitometry). The partial least square regression was used for constructing the prediction model, where a repeated random split-sample validation was employed. For each split, we randomly selected 400 CT exams for training (regression) purpose and the remaining 200 exams for assessing performance in prediction of lung function (e.g., FEV1 and FEV1/FVC) and disease severity. The absolute and percentage errors as well as their standard deviations were computed. The averaged percentage errors in prediction of FEV1, FEV1/FVC%, TLC, RV/TLC% and DLco% predicted were 33%, 17%, 9%, 18% and 23%, respectively. When classifying the exams in terms of disease severity grades using the CT measures, 37% of the subjects were correctly classified with no error and 83% of the exams were either correctly classified or classified into immediate neighboring categories. The linear weighted kappa and quadratic weighted kappa were 0.54 (moderate agreement) and 0.72 (substantial agreement), respectively. Despite the existence of certain prediction errors in quantitative assessment of lung function, the CT densitometric measures could be used to relatively reliably classify disease severity grade of COPD patients in terms of GOLD. (paper)

  1. Reference values for spirometry, including vital capacity, in Japanese adults calculated with the LMS method and compared with previous values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Masaru; Kobayashi, Hirosuke; Quanjer, Philip H; Omori, Hisamitsu; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Kanazawa, Minoru

    2014-07-01

    Reference values for lung function tests should be periodically updated because of birth cohort effects and improved technology. This study updates the spirometric reference values, including vital capacity (VC), for Japanese adults and compares the new reference values with previous Japanese reference values. Spirometric data from healthy non-smokers (20,341 individuals aged 17-95 years, 67% females) were collected from 12 centers across Japan, and reference equations were derived using the LMS method. This method incorporates modeling skewness (lambda: L), mean (mu: M), and coefficient of variation (sigma: S), which are functions of sex, age, and height. In addition, the age-specific lower limits of normal (LLN) were calculated. Spirometric reference values for the 17-95-year age range and the age-dependent LLN for Japanese adults were derived. The new reference values for FEV(1) in males are smaller, while those for VC and FVC in middle age and elderly males and those for FEV(1), VC, and FVC in females are larger than the previous values. The LLN of the FEV(1)/FVC for females is larger than previous values. The FVC is significantly smaller than the VC in the elderly. The new reference values faithfully reflect spirometric indices and provide an age-specific LLN for the 17-95-year age range, enabling improved diagnostic accuracy. Compared with previous prediction equations, they more accurately reflect the transition in pulmonary function during young adulthood. In elderly subjects, the FVC reference values are not interchangeable with the VC values. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Results of a two-year pilot study of clinical outcome measures in collagen VI- and laminin alpha2-related congenital muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilleur, Katherine G; Jain, Minal S; Hynan, Linda S; Shieh, Ching-Yi; Kim, Eunice; Waite, Melissa; McGuire, Michelle; Fiorini, Courtney; Glanzman, Allan M; Main, Marion; Rose, Kristy; Duong, Tina; Bendixen, Roxanna; Linton, Melody M; Arveson, Irene C; Nichols, Carmel; Yang, Kelly; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Wagner, Kathryn R; North, Kathryn; Mankodi, Ami; Grunseich, Christopher; Hartnett, Elizabeth J; Smith, Michaele; Donkervoort, Sandra; Schindler, Alice; Kokkinis, Angela; Leach, Meganne; Foley, A Reghan; Collins, James; Muntoni, Francesco; Rutkowski, Anne; Bönnemann, Carsten G

    2015-01-01

    Potential therapies are currently under development for two congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) subtypes: collagen VI-related muscular dystrophy (COL6-RD) and laminin alpha 2-related dystrophy (LAMA2-RD). However, appropriate clinical outcome measures to be used in clinical trials have not been validated in CMDs. We conducted a two-year pilot study to evaluate feasibility, reliability, and validity of various outcome measures, particularly the Motor Function Measure 32, in 33 subjects with COL6-RD and LAMA2-RD. In the first year, outcome measures tested included: Motor Function Measure 32 (MFM32), forced vital capacity (FVC) percent predicted sitting, myometry, goniometry, 10-meter walk, Egen Klassification 2, and PedsQL(TM) Generic and Neuromuscular Cores. In the second year, we added the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA), Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (HFMS), timed functional tests, Measure of Activity Limitations (ACTIVLIM), Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST), and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) fatigue subscale. The MFM32 showed strong inter-rater (0.92) and internal consistency (0.96) reliabilities. Concurrent validity for the MFM32 was supported by large correlations (range 0.623-0.936) with the following: FVC, NSAA, HFMS, timed functional tests, ACTIVLIM, and QUEST. Significant correlations of the MFM32 were also found with select myometry measurements, mainly of the proximal extremities and domains of the PedsQL(TM) scales focusing on physical health and neuromuscular disease. Goniometry measurements were less reliable. The Motor Function Measure is reliable and valid in the two specific subtypes of CMD evaluated, COL6-RD and LAMA2-RD. The NSAA is useful as a complementary outcome measure in ambulatory individuals. Preliminary concurrent validity of several other clinical outcome measures was also demonstrated for these subtypes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Results of a Two-Year Pilot Study of Clinical Outcome Measures in Collagen VI-related Myopathy and LAMA2-related Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilleur, Katherine G.; Jain, Minal S.; Hynan, Linda S.; Shieh, Ching-Yi; Kim, Eunice; Waite, Melissa; McGuire, Michelle; Fiorini, Courtney; Glanzman, Allan M.; Main, Marion; Rose, Kristy; Duong, Tina; Bendixen, Roxanna; Linton, Melody M.; Arveson, Irene C.; Nichols, Carmel; Yang, Kelly; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.; Wagner, Kathryn R.; North, Kathryn; Mankodi, Ami; Grunseich, Christopher; Hartnett, Elizabeth J.; Smith, Michaele; Donkervoort, Sandra; Schindler, Alice; Kokkinis, Angela; Leach, Meganne; Foley, A. Reghan; Collins, James; Muntoni, Francesco; Rutkowski, Anne; Bönnemann, Carsten G

    2016-01-01

    Potential therapies are currently under development for two congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) subtypes: Collagen VI Related Myopathy (COL6-RM) and Laminin α2-related dystrophy (LAMA2-RD). However, appropriate clinical outcome measures to be used in clinical trials have not been validated in CMDs. We conducted a two-year pilot study to evaluate feasibility, reliability, and validity of various outcome measures, particularly the Motor Function Measure 32, in 33 subjects with COL6-RM and LAMA2-RD. In the first year, outcome measures tested included: Motor Function Measure 32 (MFM32), forced vital capacity (FVC) percent predicted sitting, myometry, goniometry, 10-meter walk, Egen Klassification 2, and PedsQL™ Generic and Neuromuscular Cores. In the second year, we added the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA), Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (HFMS), timed functional tests, Measure of Activity Limitations (ACTIVLIM), Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST), and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) fatigue subscale. The MFM32 showed strong inter-rater (0.92) and internal consistency (0.96) reliabilities. Concurrent validity for the MFM32 was supported by large correlations (range 0.623–0.936) with the following: FVC, NSAA, HFMS, timed functional tests, ACTIVLIM, and QUEST. Significant correlations of the MFM32 were also found with select myometry measurements, mainly of the proximal extremities and domains of the PedsQL™ scales focusing on physical health and neuromuscular disease. Goniometry measurements were less reliable. The Motor Function Measure is reliable and valid in the two specific subtypes of CMD evaluated, COL6-RM and LAMA2-RD. The NSAA is useful as a complementary outcome measure in ambulatory individuals. Preliminary concurrent validity of several other clinical outcome measures was also demonstrated for these subtypes. PMID:25307854

  4. Peripheral airway impairment measured by oscillometry predicts loss of asthma control in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yixin; Aledia, Anna S; Galant, Stanley P; George, Steven C

    2013-03-01

    We previously showed that impulse oscillometry (IOS) indices of peripheral airway function are associated with asthma control in children. However, little data exist on whether dysfunction in the peripheral airways can predict loss of asthma control. We sought to determine the utility of peripheral airway impairment, as measured by IOS, in predicting loss of asthma control in children. Fifty-four children (age, 7-17 years) with controlled asthma were enrolled in the study. Spirometric and IOS indices of airway function were obtained at baseline and at a follow-up visit 8 to 12 weeks later. Physicians who were blinded to the IOS measurements assessed asthma control (National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines) on both visits and prescribed no medication change between visits. Thirty-eight (70%) patients maintained asthma control between 2 visits (group C-C), and 16 patients had asthma that became uncontrolled on the follow-up visit (group C-UC). There was no difference in baseline spirometric results between the C-C and C-UC groups, except for FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio (86% vs 82%, respectively; P IOS results, including resistance of the respiratory system at 5 Hz (R5; 6.4 vs 4.3 cm H2O · L(-1) · s), frequency dependence of resistance (difference of R5 and resistance of the respiratory system at 20 Hz [R5-20]; 2.0 vs 0.7 cm H2O · L(-1) · s), and reactance area (13.1 vs 4.1 cm H2O · L(-1)), of group C-UC were significantly higher than those of group C-C (P operating characteristic analysis showed baseline R5-20 and reactance area effectively predicted asthma control status at the follow-up visit (area under the curve, 0.91 and 0.90). Children with controlled asthma who have increased peripheral airway IOS indices are at risk of losing asthma control. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of birth weight on the level of lung function and lung function decline in the general adult population. The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported an association between low birth weight and low adult lung function, but findings have not been consistent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether birth weight is associated with both the level and the decline in adult lung function in general......'s age at birth, parity, prematurity, multiple pregnancy, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and lung symptoms as covariates. RESULTS: Birth weight was positively associated with spirometric variables. For a 1 kg increase in birth weight, FEV1 increased by 86 ml (CI95%: 34-139) and FVC by 88 ml (CI95......1 and FVC. CONCLUSION: Low birth weight was significantly associated with lower adult FEV1 and FVC but not with the decline in these variables during a 5-year observation. Although FEV1/FVC ratio was not related to birth weight, persons with low birth weight experienced a steeper decline...

  6. Impact of active and passive smoking as risk factors for asthma and COPD in women presenting to primary care in Syria: first report by the WHO-GARD survey group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Yousser; Shaaban, Rafea; Al-Zahab, Bassam Abou; Khaltaev, Nikolai; Bousquet, Jean; Dubaybo, Basim

    2013-01-01

    The burden of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) is alarming. International studies suggest that women with CRD are undersurveyed and underdiagnosed by physicians worldwide. It is unclear what the prevalence of CRD is in the general population of Syria, particularly among women, since there has never been a survey on CRD in this nation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of different patterns of smoking on CRD in women. We extracted data on smoking patterns and outcome in women from the Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases survey. Using spirometric measurements before and after the use of inhaled bronchodilators, we tracked the frequency of CRD in females active and passive narghile or cigarette smokers presenting to primary care. We administered the questionnaire to 788 randomly selected females seen during 1 week in the fiscal year 2009-2010 in 22 primary care centers in six different regions of Syria. Inclusion criteria were age >6 years, presenting for any medical complaint. In this cross-sectional study, three groups of female subjects were evaluated: active smokers of cigarettes, active smokers of narghiles, and passive smokers of either cigarettes or narghiles. These three groups were compared to a control group of female subjects not exposed to active or passive smoking. Exposure to active cigarette smoke but not narghile smoke was associated with doctor-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, neither cigarette nor narghile active smoking was associated with increased incidence of spirometrically diagnosed COPD. Paradoxically, exposure to passive smoking of either cigarettes or narghiles resulted in association with airway obstruction, defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 70% according to the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria; association with FEV1 < 80% predicted, evidencing moderate to severe GOLD spirometric grade

  7. Impact of active and passive smoking as risk factors for asthma and COPD in women presenting to primary care in Syria: first report by the WHO-GARD survey group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yousser Mohammad,1 Rafea Shaaban,1 Bassam Abou Al-Zahab,2 Nikolai Khaltaev,3 Jean Bousquet,4,5 Basim Dubaybo6 1National Center for Research in Chronic Respiratory Diseases, Tishreen University School of Medicine, Latakia, Syria; 2Ministry of Health, Damascus, Syria; 3Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Department of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospital, Hôpital Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier, France; 5Inserm, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Respiratory and Environmental Epidemiology Team, Villejuif, France; 6Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA Background: The burden of chronic respiratory disease (CRD is alarming. International studies suggest that women with CRD are undersurveyed and underdiagnosed by physicians worldwide. It is unclear what the prevalence of CRD is in the general population of Syria, particularly among women, since there has never been a survey on CRD in this nation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of different patterns of smoking on CRD in women. Materials and methods: We extracted data on smoking patterns and outcome in women from the Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases survey. Using spirometric measurements before and after the use of inhaled bronchodilators, we tracked the frequency of CRD in females active and passive narghile or cigarette smokers presenting to primary care. We administered the questionnaire to 788 randomly selected females seen during 1 week in the fiscal year 2009–2010 in 22 primary care centers in six different regions of Syria. Inclusion criteria were age >6 years, presenting for any medical complaint. In this cross-sectional study, three groups of female subjects were evaluated: active smokers of cigarettes, active smokers of narghiles, and passive smokers of either cigarettes or narghiles

  8. A comparison of peak expiratory flow measured from forced vital capacity and peak flow meter manoeuvres in healthy volunteers

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    Agarwal Dipti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spirometry measures the mechanical function of lungs, chest wall and respiratory muscles by assessing the total volume of air exhaled from total lung capacity to residual volume. Spirometry and peak flow measurements have usually been carried out on separate equipments using different expiratory maneuvers. Aims: The present study was carried out to determine whether there is a significant difference between peak expiratory flow (PEF derived from a short sharp exhalation (PEF maneuver and that derived from a full forced vital capacity (FVC maneuver in healthy volunteers. Settings: A medical college and tertiary level hospital. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out during the period from January 2006 to July 2006. The study included 80 healthy volunteers with no coexisting illnesses, who were in the 15-45 years age group and belonging to either sex. They were asked to perform two sets of PEF and FVC maneuvers using the same turbine spirometer; the order was randomly assigned.th Statistical Analysis: The difference between PEF obtained from a peak flow maneuver (PEFPF and that obtained from a forced vital capacity maneuver (PEFVC in healthy volunteers was analyzed separately for males and females, as well as for both groups combined, and statistical significance of its correlations with study data parameters was analyzed.th Results: The difference between PEF obtained from a peak flow maneuver (PEFPF and that obtained from a forced vital capacity maneuver (PEFVC was statistically significant ( P < 0.001 in males and in females separately and also for both groups combined. PEFPF (517.25 ± 83.22 liters/min was significantly greater than PEFVC (511.09 ± 83.54 liters/min, as found on combined group mean analysis. However, the difference was small (6.16 + 7.09 liters/min. Conclusions: FVC maneuver can be used over spirometers to detect the PEF; and on follow-up subsequently, the same maneuver should be used to derive PEF

  9. Measures for Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; A.D., Jackson; Lautrup, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    Are some ways of measuring scientific quality better than others? Sune Lehmann, Andrew D. Jackson and Benny E. Lautrup analyse the reliability of commonly used methods for comparing citation records.......Are some ways of measuring scientific quality better than others? Sune Lehmann, Andrew D. Jackson and Benny E. Lautrup analyse the reliability of commonly used methods for comparing citation records....

  10. Can the single-breath helium dilution method predict lung volumes as measured by whole-body plethysmography?

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    Patrícia Chaves Coertjens

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare TLC and RV values obtained by the single-breath helium dilution (SBHD method with those obtained by whole-body plethysmography (WBP in patients with normal lung function, patients with obstructive lung disease (OLD, and patients with restrictive lung disease (RLD, varying in severity, and to devise equations to estimate the SBHD results.METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving 169 individuals, of whom 93 and 49 presented with OLD and RLD, respectively, the remaining 27 having normal lung function. All patients underwent spirometry and lung volume measurement by both methods.RESULTS: TLC and RV were higher by WBP than by SBHD. The discrepancy between the methods was more pronounced in the OLD group, correlating with the severity of airflow obstruction. In the OLD group, the correlation coefficient of the comparison between the two methods was 0.57 and 0.56 for TLC and RV, respectively (p < 0.001 for both. We used regression equations, adjusted for the groups studied, in order to predict the WBP values of TLC and RV, using the corresponding SBHD values. It was possible to create regression equations to predict differences in TLC and RV between the two methods only for the OLD group. The TLC and RV equations were, respectively, ∆TLCWBP-SBHD in L = 5.264 − 0.060 × FEV1/FVC (r2= 0.33; adjusted r2 = 0.32 and ∆RVWBP-SBHD in L = 4.862 − 0.055 × FEV1/FVC (r2= 0.31; adjusted r2 = 0.30.CONCLUSIONS: The correction of TLC and RV results obtained by SBHD can improve the accuracy of this method for assessing lung volumes in patients with OLD. However, additional studies are needed in order to validate these equations.

  11. Quality of Life and Bronchial Hyper-Responsiveness in Subjects With Bronchiectasis: Validation of the Seattle Obstructive Lung Disease Questionnaire in Bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcun, Emel; Arslan, Mesut; Ekici, Aydanur; Ekici, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Bronchiectasis can adversely affect quality of life. However, the tests examining quality of life in bronchiectasis are not sufficient. We examined the validity of a measure designed for COPD, the Seattle Obstructive Lung Disease Questionnaire (SOLQ), in bronchiectasis. In addition, we aimed to compare the quality of life of subjects with bronchiectasis and bronchial hyper-responsiveness with that of those without to identify the effective factors. We studied 78 subjects with clinically stable bronchiectasis and 41 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Subjects were assessed by the SOLQ. A detailed history, physical examination, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and spirometric measurements were obtained. Cronbach α coefficients, which reflected internal consistency, were >0.70 for all SOLQ components except for treatment satisfaction. SOLQ component scores correlated with all of the component scores of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, confirming their concurrent validity. All SOLQ scores correlated positively with percent-of-predicted FEV1, whereas the physical function, treatment satisfaction, and emotional function correlated negatively with the exacerbation frequency in Pearson analysis. Emotional and physical functions were positively associated with percent-of-predicted FEV1 in linear regression analysis. Compared with subjects without bronchial hyper-responsiveness, those with bronchial hyper-responsiveness had lower FEV1/FVC and more exacerbations/y. Compared with bronchiectasis subjects without bronchial hyper-responsiveness, those with bronchial hyper-responsiveness had significantly lower SOLQ, physical function, and coping skills scores but not emotional function and treatment satisfaction. The SOLQ is a valid instrument for determining quality of life in subjects with bronchiectasis. Subjects with

  12. Respiratory muscle hemodynamic and metabolic adaptations to 16 weeks of training in varsity soccer players: near-infrared spectroscopy measurements during lung function tests (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. Luke; Grob, Tanya; Sandhu, Komal; Schwab, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mobile, wireless near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instruments can be used during standard lung function tests to measure adaptations in respiratory muscle metabolism over weeks to months. In eight varsity soccer players at 0 weeks and after 16 weeks of routine training, commercially available mobile, wireless NIRS instruments were used to measure oxygenation and hemodynamics in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM, accessory inspiration muscle). During maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and forced vital capacity (FVC) maneuvers we determined peak or antipeak changes relative to baseline in oxygenation and hemodynamics: Δ%Sat (muscle oxygen saturation), ΔtHb (total hemoglobin), ΔO2Hb (oxygenated hemoglobin), and ΔHHb (deoxygenated hemoglobin). Subjects reported that the average training load was 13.3 h/week during the 16 study weeks, compared to 10.4 h/week during 12 prior weeks. After 16 weeks of training compared to 0 weeks we found statistically significant increases in SCM Δ%Sat (57.7%), ΔtHb (55.3%), and ΔO2Hb (56.7%) during MEP maneuvers, and in SCM Δ%Sat (64.8%), ΔtHb (29.4%), and ΔO2Hb (51.6%) during FVC maneuvers. Our data provide preliminary evidence that NIRS measurements during standard lung function tests are sufficiently sensitive to detect improvements or declines in respiratory muscle metabolism over periods of weeks to months due to training, disease, and rehabilitation exercise.

  13. Using the lower limit of normal for the FEV(1)/FVC ratio reduces the misclassification of airway obstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanney, M. P.; Ruppel, G.; Enright, P. L.; Pedersen, O. F.; Crapo, R. O.; Miller, M. R.; Jensen, R. L.; Falaschetti, E.; Schouten, J. P.; Hankinson, J. L.; Stocks, J.; Quanjer, P. H.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The prevalence of airway obstruction varies widely with the definition used. Objectives: To study differences in the prevalence of airway obstruction when applying four international guidelines to three population samples using four regression equations. Methods: We collected predicted values

  14. Measurement Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jun Hui; Kim, Hyeong Cheol

    2001-08-15

    This book deals with conception of measurement such as measuring and test, instrument for measurement, and types and methods of measuring, general things for precision measurement like indicator, gauge standard and Abbe's principle, measuring instrument such as vernier calipers, micrometer calipers, each gage, an optical instrument, and 3D instrument, choice and using of measuring instrument on length measurement, angle measurement, and side measurement, application and calculation for measuring using trigonometrical function, sin law, and the Pythagorean Theorem.

  15. Measure for measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The present system of measures for length, weight and capacity (volume) originates from scientific ideas expressed during the French Revolution in 1789. The history of a compatible unit of length, however, turns out to be less of a scientific but rather of a political character. Here reports to the Philosophical Magazine made in the first quarter of the nineteenth century are used to trace the cultural split between meters and inches, and between kilograms and pounds, that can be experienced in many parts of the world.

  16. The effect of time-of-day and chest physiotherapy on multiple breath washout measures in children with clinically stable cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldby, Christian; Green, Kent; Rosthøj, Susanne; Kongstad, Thomas; Philipsen, Lue; Buchvald, Frederik; Skov, Marianne; Pressler, Tania; Gustafsson, Per; Nielsen, Kim G

    2018-01-01

    In this pilot study we investigated daytime variation of multiple breath nitrogen washout (N2MBW) measures in children with clinically stable cystic fibrosis. To our knowledge the effect of time-of-day on multiple breath washout measures in patients with cystic fibrosis has not previously been reported. Furthermore, we assessed the influence of chest physiotherapy on N2MBW measures. Ten school children with cystic fibrosis performed N2MBW followed by spirometry and plethysmography in the morning and afternoon at three visits that were one month apart. Chest physiotherapy was performed immediately before the afternoon measurements at visit 2 and immediately before morning and afternoon measurements at visit 3. The influence of time-of-day and chest physiotherapy on the measures was evaluated using linear mixed models. There were adequate quality data from 8 children with median age (range) 9.6 (6.0; 15.1) years. Baseline lung clearance index (LCI) (range) was 9.0 (7.1; 13.0) and baseline FEV1% predicted was 97.5 (78.5; 117.9). No N2MBW measures were significantly influenced by time-of-day or chest physiotherapy. LCI (95% confidence interval) decreased non-significantly 0.05 (-0.32; 0.22) during the day and increased non-significantly 0.08 (-0.26; 0.42) after chest physiotherapy. All spirometric measures were unaffected by time-of-day and chest physiotherapy. For plethysmographic measures FRCpleth decreased significantly (pphysiotherapy performed immediately prior to N2MBW had no consistent or significant influence on N2MBW measures. However, we emphasize that further studies of the effect of both daytime variation and the effect of chest physiotherapy on multiple breath washout measures are warranted.

  17. [Measurement of Rho-kinase in peripheral blood monocytes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension related to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Wu, Shangjie; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2012-05-01

    To determine effects of the RhoA/Rho kinase signaling pathway on patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension related to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases by testing levels of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1(ROCK1) in peripheral blood monocytes in healthy subjects, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), and patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension related to COPD. Ten healthy subjects (Group A), 10 patients with COPD (Group B), and 10 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension related to COPD (Group C) were enrolled, all of whom were hospitalized in the Third Hospital of Changsha between Dec. 2010 and Apr. 2011. Twenty milliliters of blood was collected from each subject. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated by Percoll and, monocytes were incubated. Levels of ROCK1 in the three groups were measured by ELISA. The pulmonary function was measured by spirometric tests, and the pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) was detected by color Doppler echocardiogram. 1)The PASP in Group C was significantly higher than that of Groups A and B(P0.05). Rho kinase plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The ROCK1 may be a marker of the severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension related to COPD.

  18. [Factors impacting the growth and nutritional status of cystic fibrosis patients younger than 10 years of age who did not undergo neonatal screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortencio, Taís Daiene Russo; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Hessel, Gabriel; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate by clinical and laboratory parameters how cystic fibrosis (CF) affects growth and nutritional status of children who were undergoing CF treatment but did not receive newborn screening. A historical cohort study of 52 CF patients younger than 10 years of age were followed in a reference center in Campinas, Southeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were abstracted from medical records until March/2010, when neonatal screening program was implemented. Between September/2009 and March/2010, parental height of the 52 CF patients were also measured. Regarding nutritional status, four patients had Z-scores ≤ -2 for height/age (H/A) and body mass index/age (BMI/A). The following variables were associated with improved H/A ratio: fewer hospitalizations, longer time from first appointment to diagnosis, longer time from birth to diagnosis and later onset of respiratory disease. Forced vital capacity [FVC(%)], forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of FVC [FEF25-75(%)], forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1(%)], gestational age, birth weight and early respiratory symptoms were associated with IMC/A. Greater number of hospitalizations, diagnosis delay and early onset of respiratory disease had a negative impact on growth. Lower spirometric values, lower gestational age, lower birth weight, and early onset of respiratory symptoms had negative impact on nutritional status. Malnutrition was observed in 7.7% of cases, but 23% of children had nutritional risk. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Reference values of fractional excretion of exhaled nitric oxide among non-smokers and current smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torén, Kjell; Murgia, Nicola; Schiöler, Linus; Bake, Björn; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2017-08-25

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE NO ) is used to assess of airway inflammation; diagnose asthma and monitor adherence to advised therapy. Reliable and accurate reference values for FE NO are needed for both non-smoking and current smoking adults in the clinical setting. The present study was performed to establish reference adult FE NO values among never-smokers, former smokers and current smokers. FE NO was measured in 5265 subjects aged 25-75 years in a general-population study, using a chemiluminescence (Niox ™) analyser according to the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Atopy was based on the presence of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to common inhalant allergens (measured using Phadiatop® test). Spirometry without bronchodilation was performed and forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC values were obtained. After excluding subjects with asthma, chronic bronchitis, spirometric airway obstruction and current cold, 3378 subjects remained. Equations for predictions of FE NO values were modelled using nonparametric regression models. FE NO levels were similar in never-smokers and former smokers, and these two groups were therefore merged into a group termed "non-smokers". Reference equations, including the 5th and 95th percentiles, were generated for female and male non-smokers, based on age, height and atopy. Regression models for current smokers were unstable. Hence, the proposed reference values for current smokers are based on the univariate distribution of FE NO and fixed cut-off limits. Reference values for FE NO among respiratory healthy non-smokers should be outlined stratified for gender using individual reference values. For current smokers separate cut-off limits are proposed.

  20. Spirometry in Healthy Subjects: Do Technical Details of the Test Procedure Affect the Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipoli, Luciana; Martinez, Larissa; Donária, Leila; Probst, Vanessa Suziane; Moreira, Graciane Laender; Pitta, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Spirometry should follow strict quality criteria. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommends the use of a noseclip; however there are controversies about its need. ATS also indicates that tests should be done in the sitting position, but there are no recommendations neither about position of the upper limbs and lower limbs nor about who should hold the mouthpiece while performing the maneuvers: evaluated subject or evaluator. Objectives To compare noseclip use or not, different upper and lower limbs positions and who holds the mouthpiece, verifying if these technical details affect spirometric results in healthy adults. Methods One hundred and three healthy individuals (41 men; age: 47 [33–58] years; normal lung function: FEV1/FVC = 83±5, FEV1 = 94 [88–104]%predicted, FVC = 92 [84–102]%predicted) underwent a protocol consisting of four spirometric comparative analysis in the sitting position: 1) maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) with vs without noseclip; 2) FVC performed with vs without upper limbs support; 3) FVC performed with lower limbs crossed vs lower limbs in neutral position; 4) FVC, slow vital capacity and MVV comparing the evaluated subject holding the mouthpiece vs evaluator holding it. Results Different spirometric variables presented statistically significant difference (p<0.05) when analysing the four comparisons; however, none of them showed any variation larger than those considered as acceptable according to the ATS reproducibility criteria. Conclusions There was no relevant variation in spirometric results when analyzing technical details such as noseclip use during MVV, upper and lower limb positions and who holds the mouthpiece when performing the tests in healthy adults. PMID:25244437

  1. Comparison between actual and predicted postoperative stair-climbing test, walk test and spirometric values in patients undergoing lung resection Comparação dos testes de escada, caminhada e espirometria preditos com os obtidos no pós-operatório de ressecções pulmonares

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    Marcos Vinícius Cataneo Pancieri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess whether the tests - Forced Expiratory Volume at one second (FEV1, 6-minute walk test (6MWT and stair-climbing test (SCT showed proportional changes after the resection of functioning lung. METHODS: Candidates for pulmonary resection were included. Spirometry, 6MWT and SCT were performed preoperatively (pre and at least 3 months after surgery (pos. SCT was performed on a staircase with a total ascent height of 12.16m. The time taken to climb the total height the fastest possible was defined as stair-climbing time (SCt. Number of functioning segments lost, was used to calculated predicted postoperative (ppo tests values. Pre, ppo and pos values for each test were compared. Data were analyzed by repeated-measure ANOVA with significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. Pulmonary resection results ranged from gain of 2 functioning segments to loss of 9. Pre, ppo and pos values were the following: preFEV1 = 2.6±0.8L, ppo FEV1 =2.3±0.8L, and pos FEV1=2.3±0.8L, (pre FEV1 > ppo FEV1 = pos FEV1; pre6MWT = 604±63m, ppo6MWT= 529±103m, pos6MWT= 599±74m (pre6MWT = pos6MWT > ppo6MWT; preSCt = 32.9±7.6s, ppoSCt = 37.8±12.1s, posSCt = 33.7±8.5s (preSCt = posSCt OBJETIVO: Verificar se os testes: Volume Expiratório Forçado no 1º segundo (VEF1, Teste de Caminhada de 6 minutos (TC6 e Teste de Escada (TE se alteram proporcionalmente ao pulmão funcionante ressecado. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos pacientes candidatos a toracotomia para ressecção pulmonar. No pré-operatório (pré e no mínimo três meses após a cirurgia (pós, realizaram espirometria, TC6 e TE. O TE foi realizado em escada com 12,16m de altura. O tempo para subir todos os degraus o mais rápido possível foi chamado tempo de escada (tTE. Os cálculos dos valores dos testes preditos para o pós-operatório (ppo foram realizados conforme o número de segmentos funcionantes perdidos. Os valores pré, ppo e pós foram comparados entre si para

  2. Spouse selection and environmental effects on spouse correlation in lung function measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuiman, Matthew W; Divitini, Mark L; Bartholomew, Helen C

    2005-01-01

    Concordance between spouses may be due to partner selection factors and/or the effects of marriage/environment. The extent to which partner selection factors contribute to spouse concordance has important implications for heritability studies. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude of spouse correlation in lung function measures and its relationship to duration of marriage. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data collected over the period 1969 to 1995 for 2615 couples from the Busselton Health Study have been analyzed using the program FISHER. Unadjusted correlations were around 0.45 for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and 0.25 for FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) and were reduced to 0.05 and 0.10, respectively, after adjustment for age, height, and smoking. No trend with marriage duration was apparent in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses but there was a significant downward trend in the correlations with age at marriage. The findings indicate that observed correlations in lung function measures are mostly due to partner selection factors and that partner selection factors have greater influence for couples that marry at younger ages. Family studies that aim to identify and separate genetic from other influences on lung function measures should not regard the mother-father correlation as due to common environment effects.

  3. Clinical Utility of Additional Measurement of Total Lung Capacity in Diagnosing Obstructive Lung Disease in Subjects With Restrictive Pattern of Spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun; Chang, Boksoon; Kim, Kyunga; Song, Won Jun; Chon, Hae Ri; Kang, Hyung Koo; Kim, Jung Soo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Koh, Won-Jung; Park, Hye Yun

    2016-04-01

    Total lung capacity (TLC), forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% (FEF25-75%), peak expiratory flow (PEF), or post-bronchodilator volume response is recommended to detect obstructive abnormalities in the lung. The present study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of these pulmonary function test (PFT) parameters to diagnose obstructive lung disease in subjects with a restrictive pattern of spirometry. A retrospective study was conducted in 64 subjects with a restrictive pattern of spirometry (normal FEV1/FVC and low FVC) out of 3,030 patients who underwent all pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry and lung volume measurement between April 2008 and December 2010. After subjects were clinically classified into those with obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, and mixed lung disease, the agreements between the clinical diagnosis and PFT classification according to TLC, FEF(25-75%), PEF, and post-bronchodilator response criteria were compared. Of 64 subjects, 18 (28.1%) were classified with obstructive lung disease, 39 (60.9%) had restrictive lung disease, 1 (1.6%) had mixed lung disease, and 6 (9.4%) had no clinical lung disease. Among the 58 subjects with clinical lung disease, 22 (37.9%), 37 (63.8%), 33 (56.9%), and 3 (5.2%) were classified as having obstructive pattern based on TLC, FEF25-75%, PEF, and post-bronchodilator response criteria, respectively. The kappa coefficients for the agreement between the clinical classification and PFT classification using TLC, FEF25-75%, PEF, and post-bronchodilator response criteria in 58 subjects were 0.59, 0.18, 0.17, and spirometry, when obstructive lung disease is clinically suspected. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  4. Poor sleep quality has an adverse effect on childhood asthma control and lung function measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Youn Ho; Choi, Sun Hee; Jang, Sun Jung; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Jee, Hye Mi; Kim, Mi Ae; Chae, Kyu Young; Han, Man Yong

    2017-08-01

    It is unclear as to whether sleep respiratory breathing disorder (SRBD) is a risk factor for uncontrolled asthma in children. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether SRBD may have an adverse effect on childhood asthma control and lung function measures. This was a cross-sectional study of 220 children with well-controlled (n = 108), partly controlled (n = 92), and uncontrolled asthma (n = 20) according to the Global Initiative for Asthma guideline. SRBD was assessed using the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ). The association of SRBD with partly controlled/uncontrolled asthma was investigated on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of 220 children with asthma, 43 (19.6%) had SRBD: well-controlled, 16.7% (18/108); partly controlled, 21.7% (20/92); and uncontrolled, 25.0% (5/20; P = 0.54). There was a significant difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC; P = 0.007) and childhood asthma control test (C-ACT) score (P asthma control status, but not in PSQ score (P = 0.18). Children with obstructive sleep apnea (PSQ >0.33) had a lower C-ACT score compared with controls (PSQ ≤0.33; 19.6 ± 5.1 vs 22.0 ± 4.2, P = 0.002). PSQ score was negatively correlated with FEV 1 /FVC (r = -0.16, P = 0.02). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, high PSQ score increased the odds of having partly controlled/uncontrolled asthma by 9.12 (95% CI: 1.04-79.72, P = 0.046) after adjusting for confounding factors. SRBD is an independent risk factor for partly controlled/uncontrolled asthma and has an adverse effect on lung function measures in children. Further research is warranted to determine whether the improvement of sleep quality may also enhance level of asthma control and lung function in children. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. A 12-week, randomized, parallel-group, proof-of-concept study of tulobuterol patch and salmeterol inhaler as add-on therapy in adult-onset mild-to-moderate asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hideki; Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ito, Isao; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Takeda, Tomoshi; Nakaji, Hitoshi; Tajiri, Tomoko; Iwata, Toshiyuki; Nagasaki, Tadao; Mishima, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Patch formulation of tulobuterol has been used in asthma treatment as a long-acting β 2 -agonist (LABA) through sustained skin absorption. Its treatment efficacy, especially in small airways, remains poorly understood. The study aim was to investigate LABA add-on effects of tulobuterol patch (TP) and salmeterol inhaler (SA) on pulmonary function, asthma control and health status. Patients who had adult-onset under-control asthma, despite taking inhaled corticosteroids, were enrolled in a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, proof-of-concept study of 12-week add-on treatment with TP (n=16) or SA (n=17). Spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS), exhaled nitric oxide levels, and clinical questionnaires of asthma control, health status (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire: SGRQ), and symptoms were evaluated every 4 weeks. Add-on treatment of SA significantly improved the spirometric indices of small airway obstruction (forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC: FEF 25-75 , and maximum expiratory flow at 25% of FVC: MEF 25 ) and IOS indices of whole respiratory resistance (resistance at 5 Hz) as compared to TP. In intra-group comparisons, add-on treatment of TP improved the scores of the asthma control test and the total SGRQ, as well as the symptom and impact components of the SGRQ. SA add-on treatment improved FEV 1 and IOS parameters of resistance at 20 Hz and reactance at 5 Hz. Neither of the treatments improved exhaled nitric oxide levels. In conclusion, add-on treatment of TP improved asthma control and health status, whereas SA improved pulmonary function measures associated with large and small airway involvement among patients with adult-onset mild-to-moderate asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Oscillometric and Spirometric Bronchodilator Response in Preschool Children with and without Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ho Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bronchodilator responses (BDR are routinely used in the diagnosis and management of asthma; however, their acceptability and repeatability have not been evaluated using quality control criteria for preschool children.

  7. Smoking and spirometric values in third year medical students: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    10.5867/medwave.2015.03.6124

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO El presente estudio tiene por objetivo conocer la frecuencia de tabaquismo y su relación con los indicadores de la función respiratoria, además de los hábitos y las actitudes respecto al consumo de cigarrillos en estudiantes de tercer año de la carrera de Medicina del Instituto Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Fundación Héctor A. Barceló, sede Santo Tomé, Corrientes, Argentina. MÉTODOS Estudio de corte transversal y analítico, con estudiantes de tercer año de la carrera de Medicina, durante las dos primeras semanas de octubre de 2014. Se agruparon en fumadores y no fumadores realizándose la espirometría mediante espirómetro computarizado Flowmax 2, según los parámetros de la Asociación Americana de Tórax. Se aplicó un cuestionario con 36 preguntas incluyendo el test de Fagerström. RESULTADOS En los 227 alumnos se observó una edad promedio de 22,5 ± 3,81 años siendo el 52,9% mujeres y el 47,1% varones. El 26,4% eran fumadores con predominio de varones y con un mayor consumo de cigarrillos que las mujeres. Un 5% de los fumadores presentó patrón espirométrico obstructivo con una asociación significativa (p = 0,017 entre el fumar y la alteración espirométrica. El 25% de los varones y el 8,4% de las mujeres, presentaron un grado de dependencia física media o alta al tabaco. El 18,6% de los no fumadores habían dejado de fumar desde hace un año o más principalmente para mejorar su salud. CONCLUSIÓNES Es importante incentivar a los estudiantes a dejar de fumar, así como la toma de conciencia de que fumar cerca de otras personas o estar cerca de fumadores es perjudicial para la salud. El futuro médico debe conocer las consecuencias asociadas al hábito de fumar y la importancia de prevenir y concientizar a los pacientes actuando como modelo a seguir desde los inicios en sus estudios de la Medicina.

  8. The American Thoracic Society’s Spirometric Criteria Alone is Inadequate in Asthma Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Gjevre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of asthma is based on clinical symptoms, physical examination and pulmonary function tests, and can be very challenging. Most patients with asthma have a significant postbronchodilator response on spirometry indicating airway hyperresponsiveness. However, having a significant bronchodilator response by itself is not diagnostic of asthma. The definition of a ‘significant’ response has also been controversial. Many respirologists use the American Thoracic Society (ATS postbronchodilator response criteria of 12% (provided it is 200 mL or greater improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (or forced vital capacity from the baseline spirometry.

  9. SPIROMETRIC EVALUATION OF LUNG FUNCTION OF COAL WORKERS WORKING AT MACH (BOLAN DISTRICT)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Sarwar, Muhammad Younis, Shafi Muhammad, Tanzeel Ahmed*, Muhammad Siddique, Bashir Ahmed, Munir Ahmed, Jahanzaib

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the coal dust effect on lung function among coal workers and non-coal workers. This was case-control study. The 144 male coal workers and non-coal workers, 20-50 years more than one year of working skill were selected. Study was carried out in the Mach, Bolan district in Balochistan, Pakistan. The Spirometer and selfdesigned survey form were used. The interview was accompanied and information was documented in the survey form and Spirometry was done for coal workers and non-coal w...

  10. Correlation of ultra-low dose chest CT findings with physiologic measures of asbestosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manners, David [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Wong, Patrick; Murray, Conor; Teh, Joelin [Royal Perth Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Perth (Australia); Kwok, Yi Jin [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Nedlands, WA (Australia); De Klerk, Nick; Franklin, Peter [University of Western Australia, School of Population Health, Perth, WA (Australia); Alfonso, Helman; Reid, Alison [Curtin University, School of Public Health, Perth, WA (Australia); Musk, A.W.B. [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nedlands, WA (Australia); University of Western Australia, School of Population Health, Perth, WA (Australia); University of Western Australia, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Perth, WA (Australia); Brims, Fraser J.H. [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nedlands, WA (Australia); University of Western Australia, School of Population Health, Perth, WA (Australia); Curtin University, Curtin Medical School, Perth (Australia)

    2017-08-15

    The correlation between ultra low dose computed tomography (ULDCT)-detected parenchymal lung changes and pulmonary function abnormalities is not well described. This study aimed to determine the relationship between ULDCT-detected interstitial lung disease (ILD) and measures of pulmonary function in an asbestos-exposed population. Two thoracic radiologists independently categorised prone ULDCT scans from 143 participants for ILD appearances as absent (score 0), probable (1) or definite (2) without knowledge of asbestos exposure or lung function. Pulmonary function measures included spirometry and diffusing capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO). Participants were 92% male with a median age of 73.0 years. CT dose index volume was between 0.6 and 1.8 mGy. Probable or definite ILD was reported in 63 (44.1%) participants. Inter-observer agreement was good (k = 0.613, p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant correlation between the ILD score and both forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = -0.17, p = 0.04 and r = -0.20, p = 0.02). There was a strong correlation between ILD score and DLCO (r = -0.34, p < 0.0001). Changes consistent with ILD on ULDCT correlate well with corresponding reductions in gas transfer, similar to standard CT. In asbestos-exposed populations, ULDCT may be adequate to detect radiological changes consistent with asbestosis. (orig.)

  11. Correlation of ultra-low dose chest CT findings with physiologic measures of asbestosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manners, David; Wong, Patrick; Murray, Conor; Teh, Joelin; Kwok, Yi Jin; De Klerk, Nick; Franklin, Peter; Alfonso, Helman; Reid, Alison; Musk, A.W.B.; Brims, Fraser J.H.

    2017-01-01

    The correlation between ultra low dose computed tomography (ULDCT)-detected parenchymal lung changes and pulmonary function abnormalities is not well described. This study aimed to determine the relationship between ULDCT-detected interstitial lung disease (ILD) and measures of pulmonary function in an asbestos-exposed population. Two thoracic radiologists independently categorised prone ULDCT scans from 143 participants for ILD appearances as absent (score 0), probable (1) or definite (2) without knowledge of asbestos exposure or lung function. Pulmonary function measures included spirometry and diffusing capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO). Participants were 92% male with a median age of 73.0 years. CT dose index volume was between 0.6 and 1.8 mGy. Probable or definite ILD was reported in 63 (44.1%) participants. Inter-observer agreement was good (k = 0.613, p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant correlation between the ILD score and both forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = -0.17, p = 0.04 and r = -0.20, p = 0.02). There was a strong correlation between ILD score and DLCO (r = -0.34, p < 0.0001). Changes consistent with ILD on ULDCT correlate well with corresponding reductions in gas transfer, similar to standard CT. In asbestos-exposed populations, ULDCT may be adequate to detect radiological changes consistent with asbestosis. (orig.)

  12. PIKO-6® vs. forced spirometry in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Larios-Castañeda, Pablo José; Miguel-Reyes, José Luis; Briseño, David Martínez; Flores-Campos, Roberto; Sáenz-López, Juan Arturo; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis

    2014-12-01

    The PIKO-6® is an electronic device that measures forced expiratory volume at seconds 1 (FEV1) and 6 (FEV6) of a forced vital capacity (FVC) maneuver. This device could aid in diagnosing obstructive respiratory diseases. To determine the concordance of FEV1, FEV6, and the FEV1/FEV6 quotient achieved with PIKO-6® versus spirometric values from asthmatic patients, and compare results with measures from healthy children. A cross-sectional study with asthmatic and healthy 6-to-14-year-old children, all of whom performed a forced spirometry as well as a PIKO-6® test. The study included 82 subjects (58 asthmatics, 24 healthy children). Except for the functional parameters, the basal characteristics of the two groups were similar. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for FEV1 was 0.938 (P spirometry was lower in patients with partially controlled or uncontrolled asthma compared to controlled or healthy children. The broad limits of agreement show that the FEV1, FEV6, and FEV1/FEV6 obtained with the PIKO-6® are not interchangeable with spirometry results. Longitudinal evaluations of asthma patients are necessary to assess the utility of PIKO-6®. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cardio-respiratory response of young adult Indian male subjects to stress: Effects of progressive muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and anxiety have become an integral part of our lives. Of late, this has resulted in the increase in incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. Objectives: To assess the effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR on young adult males and its role in the modulation of cardio-respiratory response on exposure to stress. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital. Undergraduate male students under stress were chosen for the study. Fasting blood samples were drawn to analyze sugar and lipid profile, followed by anthropometric measurements and ECG. In the resting condition, blood pressure, pulse rate, and spirometric parameters; forced vital capacities (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV 1 % were measured. Then, they were made to exercise with bicycle ergometer and post exercise, the vital parameters were recorded. All subjects were given a training of Jacobson′s Progressive Muscular Relaxation and asked to practice this technique for 3 months. All parameters were re-evaluated. Results: Significant decreases in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels of subjects were seen after PMR training. Exercise-induced rise in heart rate and blood pressure were also significantly less in subjects following PMR training. Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation helps in modulation of heart rate, blood pressure, and lipid profile in healthy normal adult male individuals.

  14. Leukotriene-B4 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate and lung function after thirty minutes of breathing technically dried compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Birger; Struck, Niclas; Mutzbauer, Till S; Schotte, Ulrich; Langfeldt, Norbert; Tetzlaff, Kay

    2002-01-01

    In previous studies it had been shown that leukotriene-B4 [LTB4] concentrations in the exhaled breath mirror the inflammatory activity of the airways if the respiratory tract has been exposed to occupational hazards. In diving the respiratory tract is exposed to cold and dry air and the nasopharynx, as the site of breathing-gas warming and humidification, is bypassed. The aim of the present study was to obtain LTB4-concentrations in the exhaled breath and spirometric data of 17 healthy subjects before and after thirty minutes of technically dried air breathing at normobar ambient pressure. The exhaled breath was collected non-invasively, via a permanently cooled expiration tube. The condensate was measured by a standard enzyme immunoassay for LTB4. Lung function values (FVC, FEV1, MEF 25, MEF 50) were simultaneously obtained by spirometry. The measured pre- and post-exposure LTB4- concentrations as well as the lung function values were in the normal range. The present data gave no evidence for any inflammatory activity in the subjects' airways after thirty minutes breathing technically dried air.

  15. Temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003400.htm Temperature measurement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The measurement of body temperature can help detect illness. It can also monitor ...

  16. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  17. Impact of direct substitution of arm span length for current standing height in elderly COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothirat C

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Nittaya Phetsuk Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Arm span length is related to standing height and has been studied as a substitute for current standing height for predicting lung function parameters. However, it has never been studied in elderly COPD patients. Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of substituting arm span length for current standing height in the evaluation of pulmonary function parameters and severity classification in elderly Thai COPD patients. Materials and methods: Current standing height and arm span length were measured in COPD patients aged >60 years. Postbronchodilator spirometric parameters, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1, and ratio of FEV1/FVC (FEV1%, were used to classify disease severity according to global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria. Predicted values for each parameter were also calculated separately utilizing current standing height or arm span length measurements. Student’s t-tests and chi-squared tests were used to compare differences between the groups. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: A total of 106 COPD patients with a mean age of 72.1±7.8 years, mean body mass index of 20.6±3.8 kg/m2, and mean standing height of 156.4±8.3 cm were enrolled. The mean arm span length exceeded mean standing height by 7.7±4.6 cm (164.0±9.0 vs 156.4±8.3 cm, P<0.001, at a ratio of 1.05±0.03. Percentages of both predicted FVC and FEV1 values based on arm span length were significantly lower than those using current standing height (76.6±25.4 vs 61.6±16.8, P<0.001 and 50.8±25.4 vs 41.1±15.3, P<0.001. Disease severity increased in 39.6% (42/106 of subjects using arm span length over current standing height for predicted lung function. Conclusion: Direct substitution of

  18. Measurement evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Boros, A

    1990-01-01

    The information obtained about a measured object is called ``crude'' measurement information and must be related to the conditions under which the measurement took place. Using ``crude'' measurement information as a starting point, evaluation produces physically correctly interpreted data with their estimated (or corrected) error. Although a number of works deal with the evaluation of measurements, they either appeared a long time ago or serve essentially different aims. This book gives a comprehensive and current overview on the basic principles, aids, devices, and methods in the eval

  19. Variability in childhood allergy and asthma across ethnicity, language, and residency duration in El Paso, Texas: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Erik R; Gonzales, Melissa; Ross, Mary; Neas, Lucas M

    2009-12-08

    We evaluated the impact of migration to the USA-Mexico border city of El Paso, Texas (USA), parental language preference, and Hispanic ethnicity on childhood asthma to differentiate between its social and environmental determinants. Allergy and asthma prevalence was surveyed among 9797 fourth and fifth grade children enrolled in the El Paso Independent School District. Parents completed a respiratory health questionnaire, in either English or Spanish, and a sub-sample of children received spirometry testing at their school. Here we report asthma and allergy outcomes across ethnicity and El Paso residency duration. Asthma and allergy prevalence increased with longer duration of El Paso residency independent of ethnicity and preferred language. Compared with immigrants who arrived in El Paso after entering first grade (18%), lifelong El Paso residents (68%) had more prevalent allergy (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.32 - 2.24), prevalent asthma (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24 - 2.46), and current asthma (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.37 - 2.95). Spirometric measurements (FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75) also declined with increasing duration of El Paso residency (0.16% and 0.35% annual reduction, respectively). These findings suggest that a community-wide environmental exposure in El Paso, delayed pulmonary development, or increased health of immigrants may be associated with allergy and asthma development in children raised there.

  20. Association between physical activity in daily life and pulmonary function in adult smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriane Lilian Barboza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL is associated with pulmonary function in adult smokers. Methods: We selected 62 adult smokers from among the participants of an epidemiological study conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil. The subjects underwent forced spirometry for pulmonary function assessment. The level of PADL was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and triaxial accelerometry, the device being used for seven days. The minimum level of PADL, in terms of quantity and intensity, was defined as 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Correlations between the studied variables were tested with Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. We used linear multiple regression in order to analyze the influence of PADL on the spirometric variables. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Evaluating all predictors, corrected for confounding factors, and using pulmonary function data as outcome variables, we found no significant associations between physical inactivity, as determined by accelerometry, and spirometric indices. The values for FVC were lower among the participants with arterial hypertension, and FEV1/FVC ratios were lower among those with diabetes mellitus. Obese participants and those with dyslipidemia presented with lower values for FVC and FEV1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is no consistent association between physical inactivity and pulmonary function in adult smokers. Smoking history should be given special attention in COPD prevention strategies, as should cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities.

  1. The recent multi-ethnic global lung initiative 2012 (GLI2012) reference values don't reflect contemporary adult's North African spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Helmi; El Attar, Mohamed Nour; Hadj Mabrouk, Khaoula; Ben Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Abdelghani, Ahmed; Bousarssar, Mohamed; Limam, Khélifa; Maatoug, Chiraz; Bouslah, Hmida; Charrada, Ameur; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2013-12-01

    The applicability of the recent multi-ethnic reference equations derived by the ERS Global Lung Initiative (ERS/GLI) in interpreting spirometry data in North African adult subjects has not been studied. To ascertain how well the recent ERS/GLI reference equations fit contemporary adult Tunisian spirometric data. Spirometric data were recorded from 1192 consecutive spirometry procedures in adults aged 18-60 years. Reference values and lower limits of normality (LLN) were calculated using the local and the ERS/GLI reference equations. Applied definitions: large airway obstructive ventilatory defect (LAOVD): FEV1/FVC contemporary Tunisian spirometry. Using Tunisian reference equations, 71.31%, 6.71% and 19.04% of spirometry records were interpreted as normal, and as having, LAOVD and TRVD, respectively. Using the ERS/GLI reference equations, these figures were respectively, 85.82%, 4.19% and 8.39%. The mean ± SD Z-scores for the contemporary healthy North African subject's data were -0.55 ± 0.87 for FEV1, -0.62 ± 0.86 for FVC and 0.10 ± 0.73 for FEV1/FVC. The present study don't recommend the use of the recent ERS/GLI reference equations to interpret spirometry in North African adult population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Paul; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Ylinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory. The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4....

  3. Measuring competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    J. Peter Neary

    2005-01-01

    An earlier version was presented at the Conference on Macroeconomic Perspectives in Honour of Brendan M. Walsh, held at University College Dublin on 7 October, 2005 This paper reviews alternative approaches to measuring an economy?s cost competitiveness and proposes some new measures inspired by the economic theory of index numbers. The indices provide a theoretical benchmark for estimated real effective exchange rates, but differ from standard measures in that they are based on marginal r...

  4. Measuring Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, R W G

    2011-01-01

    The classic authority on colour measurement now fully revised and updated with the latest CIE recommendations The measurement of colour is of major importance in many commercial applications, such as the textile, paint, and foodstuff industries; as well as having a significant role in the lighting, paper, printing, cosmetic, plastics, glass, chemical, photographic, television, transport, and communication industries. Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of Measuring Colour has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources; colorimetry

  5. Mechanical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Venkateshan, S P

    2015-01-01

    The first edition of this book was co-published by Ane Books India, and CRC Press in 2008. This second edition is an enlarged version of the web course developed by the author at IIT Madras, and also a modified and augmented version of the earlier book.  Major additions/modifications presented are in the treatment of errors in measurement, temperature measurement, measurement of thermo-physical properties, and data manipulation. Many new worked examples have been introduced in this new and updated second edition. 

  6. Measuring colour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, R. W. G; Pointer, Michael, Ph. D

    2011-01-01

    ... industries.Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of [start italics]Measuring Colour[end italics] has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources...

  7. Environmental Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  8. Horizon measures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Eugene

    2016-11-28

    In this paper we seek to answer the following question: where do contour lines and visible contour lines (silhouette) tend to occur in a 3D surface. Our study leads to two novel shape descriptors, the horizon measure and the visible horizon measure, which we apply to the visualization of 3D shapes including archeological artifacts. In addition to introducing the shape descriptors, we also provide a closed-form formula for the horizon measure based on classical spherical geometry. To compute the visible horizon measure, which depends on the exact computation of the surface visibility function, we instead of provide an image-based approach which can process a model with high complexity within a few minutes.

  9. Lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossan, D.B.; Warburton, E.K.

    1974-01-01

    Lifetime measurements are discussed, concentrating on the electronic technique, the recoil distance method (RDM), and the Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). A brief review of several indirect timing techniques is given, and their specific advantages and applicability are considered. The relationship between lifetimes of nuclear states and the nuclear structure information obtained from them is examined. A short discussion of channeling and microwave methods of lifetime measurement is presented. (23 figures, 171 references) (U.S.)

  10. Anthropomorphic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    1998-01-01

    Based on decisions taken during the Research Coordination Meetings in Mito City 1988 and Bombay 1991, the participants were requested to provide data on physical measurement parameters of body height, body weight, sitting height, head circumference, neck circumference, chest circumference, chest width and chest depth which represented the age groups as newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years and adult 20-50 years. Accordingly, physical measurement data was obtained by participants from 9 countries

  11. Measuring needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Murianni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in measuring the health of populations, through measuring the demand and offers of health care, is deeply rooted in history. Population health indicators in use today are built upon from mortality measures from the 1500s; regular census information starting from the 1800s; civil registration records of vital statistics commencing in the 1850s; regular national surveys, which were first initiated in the 1950s; and health system and other administrative databases used widely since the 1960s. The ancient Greeks believed that the God of medicine had two daughters: Hygeia and Panacea, the first was the goddess of prevention and wellness, while the second was the goddess of treatment. Thus suggesting that people have long believed that there is more to health than health care. Today the actual concept of population health recognizes many interconnected aspects of society, the environment, and individuals all contributing to health. To increase opportunities for comparability, more valid, comprehensive and standardized ways of measuring and reporting on population health indicators are needed. The use of health indicators contributes to overall population health goals, namely improving the health populations, reducing health inequalities and measuring the performance of health care system. The objective of performance assessment is to provide governments and populations with information about the state of their health care system.

  12. Against 'measurement'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, John

    1990-01-01

    This author of this article rails against the term ''measurement'' as it is commonly used in quantum mechanics. Many terms such as this are full of common place, everyday associations which are entirely inappropriate to the quantum world and lead to misunderstanding even amongst physicists. Measurement implies, at least for laboratory experiments, that the complexities of the real world have been simplified to the minimum number of variables. This can never be so for quantum mechanics where the act of measurement is intrinsic to the result, where even the mind of the observer plays a part. Three books on quantum mechanics are reviewed in an attempt to present a more precise comprehension of the meaning inside quantum mechanics. (UK)

  13. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...... the fatigue loads, the rotor, blades and tower moments are presented. The fatigue loads are evaluated using rainflow counting described in detail in Ref. [1]. The 1Hz equivalent load ranges are calculated at different wind speeds. All information regarding the instrumentation is collected in [ref 4] and [ref...

  14. Microwave Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, A D

    2007-01-01

    The IET has organised training courses on microwave measurements since 1983, at which experts have lectured on modern developments. Their lecture notes were first published in book form in 1985 and then again in 1989, and they have proved popular for many years with a readership beyond those who attended the courses. The purpose of this third edition of the lecture notes is to bring the latest techniques in microwave measurements to this wider audience. The book begins with a survey of the theory of current microwave circuits and continues with a description of the techniques for the measureme

  15. SAFETY MEASURES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; Tel. 75152

    2001-01-01

    Following the recent terrorist attacks, the French authorities have introduced increased-vigilance measures («Vigipirate renforcé») as part of their prevention of terrorism campaign and have expressed the wish to extend these measures to the French part of the CERN site. The Organization has acceded to this request with the understanding that its international status will be respectd and has granted the French Gendarmerie right of access to the Prévessin site and to the LEP/LHC sites on French territory.

  16. AMS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) ia an ultrasensitive analysis technique using a system based on a nuclear particle accelerator and its beam transport system to detect and measure individual 14 C ions.. In AMS a 14 C abundance is obtained by comparing the measurement rates of 14 C and 13 C ions. This is not as simple as it sounds. The enormous difference in the numbers of the two isotopes makes it very hard to uniquely detect 14 C ions. For modern samples, those with the most 14 C, some 10 10 13 C ions leave the source for every 14 C ion. However, the use of an accelerator and various high energy techniques makes it possible to the detect the 14 C and to reject the 13 C. in order to achieve this high rejection efficiency the injection magnet is set to transmit only one isotope, namely 14 C. However, a subsequent measurement of 13 C must be made. The number and the rate of arrival of 13 C ions is such that individual ions cannot be measured, instead a 13 C current is measured in a Faraday cup. It is possible to alternate the injection magnet field between that to transmit 14 C and that to transmit 13 C. This method is known as slow cycling but suffers from significant dead (not useful) periods while the magnet field is changed and stabilises. Furthermore and more significantly, during this dead time changes in ion source output may occur distorting the 14 C/ 13 C ratio. We instead employ a method known as fast cycling which involves rapidly increasing the energy of the 13 C ions as they enter the injection magnet. This is achieved by the use of a high voltage (6.7 kV) pulser. We can also inject 12 C by this method although a 14.7 kV pulse is required. The switching time from one carbon isotope to another is only a fraction of a millisecond in this fast cycling method. Hence one has quasi-simultaneous measurement of 14 C and 13 C. Measurements of the 14 C/ 13 C ratio from a sample are always compared to the same ratio from an internationally accepted standard

  17. Measuring phase with Stokes measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements Angela Dudley1, Giovanni Milione2, Robert Alfano2 and Andrew Forbes1. 1 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa. 2 Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers, Physics Department, City College of New York,160 Convent Ave., New... polarimetry I45° IR I135° IL S2 S3 tan-1 S2 S3 * : Control the phase between & Stokes polarimetry involves four separate measurements * Independently control the phase between & Requirements for a digital adaptation of Stokes polarimetery: 45° I45° U...

  18. The Glittre-ADL test reflects functional performance measured by physical activities of daily living in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Karloh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background The Glittre-ADL test (TGlittre is a valid and reliable test for the evaluation of functional capacity and involves multiple physical activities of daily living (PADL, which are known to be troublesome to patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. However, it is still unknown if this test is also able to reflect the functional performance of patients with COPD. Objective To investigate whether the TGlittre reflects the functional performance of COPD patients and whether the necessary time to complete the TGlittre and the PADL varies according to disease severity. Method Thirty-eight patients with COPD (age 65, SD=7 years; forced expiratory volume in the first second 41.3, SD=15.2% predicted underwent anthropometric and lung function assessments and were submitted to the TGlittre and PADL measurement. Results TGlittre performance correlated significantly (p<0.05 with PADL variables, such as time sitting (r=0.50, walking (r=-0.46, number of steps taken (r=–0.53, walking movement intensity (r=–0.66, walking energy expenditure (r=-0.50, and total energy expenditure (r=–0.33. TGlittre performance was not significantly different in patients among the Global Initiative for COPD (GOLD spirometric stages, but walking and sitting time were significantly lower and greater, respectively, in severe and very severe patients compared to those with moderate disease (p<0.05. Conclusion The performance on the TGlittre correlates with walking and sitting time and other real life PADL measurements. The severity of the disease is associated with the differences in the level of physical activity in daily life more than in functional capacity.

  19. Measuring Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Volij; David Frankel

    2004-01-01

    We propose a set of axioms for the measurement of multigroup school segregation. They are motivated by two criteria: do ethnic groups have similar distributions across schools? And are schools ethnically representative of their district? Our axioms are satisfied by a unique ordering. It is represented by the Mutual Information index. This index, originally proposed by Henri Theil, has a more intuitive decomposition than other indices. As an application, we find that segregation between distri...

  20. When Measurement Benefits the Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-23

    TSP Mentor Coach and a certified Scrum Master. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...groups than they have today. Capers Jones InfoQ Interview March 30, 2014 http://www.infoq.com/articles/Jones-measuring- agile -adoption Can

  1. Epigenome-wide association study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung function in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hong, Yoonki; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Woo Jin; London, Stephanie J

    2017-07-01

    To identify differentially methylated probes (DMPs) and regions (DMRs) in relation to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung function traits. We performed an epigenome-wide association study of COPD and spirometric parameters, including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC, in blood DNA using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 (n = 100, a Korean COPD cohort). We found one significant DMP (cg03559389, DIP2C) and 104 significant DMRs after multiple-testing correction. Of these, 34 DMRs mapped to genes differential expressed with respect to the same trait. Five of the genes were associated with more than two traits: CTU2, USP36, ZNF516, KLK10 and CPT1B. We identified novel differential methylation loci related to COPD and lung function in blood DNA in Koreans and confirmed previous findings in non-Asians. Epigenetic modification could contribute to the etiology of these phenotypes.

  2. Measuring memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A

    1988-01-01

    Three broad approaches to the measurement of memory functioning will be described. The first of these involves using memory as a general indicator of any dysfunction in the central nervous system. This approach will be illustrated using Sternberg's short-term memory scanning paradigm. Its strengths are that such tests are often very sensitive, but they are often very difficult to interpret both theoretically and in practical terms. A second approach is to use a range of tasks selected so as to tap different aspects of human memory. Such an approach is of considerably more theoretical interest, and is discussed in more detail by Eysenck (this volume). Its weaknesses are that theories of memory are still changing relatively quickly, and that mapping such results onto memory outside the laboratory is often complex. A third approach is to attempt a more direct measure of everyday memory. The use of questionnaires for this purpose will be critically discussed, and a new test of everyday memory will be described. This test, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, correlates well with observations of memory lapses in patients, and appears to offer a promising new line of development.

  3. Measuring Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy Related to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Karteroliotis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Background: Social cognitive theory describes self-efficacy and proxy efficacy as influences on fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC). Proxy efficacy was defined as a child's confidence in his or her skills and abilities to get others to act in one's interests to provide fruit and vegetable (FV) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to…

  4. Measuring Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben

    The Danish Day Care Facilities Act (2015), which provides the curriculum on which day care education is based, does not stipulate very clearly what children should learn and therefore how educational processes in preschools should be organised. This means that we must accept that there are large...... local differences in the quality of day care facilities in Denmark (Nordahl et al, 2012; Hansen et al, 2016) and also that we in fact have little knowledge of whether the desired politically determined targets are being met or not and what the quality is really like. In order to measure the quality...... of preschool in Denmark a new research project using the ECERS 3 instrument has been launched. This could capture quality from a global quality standard’s perspective, building the basis for a further investigation of practice in Danish early childhood provisions and centers in a more narrow approach...

  5. MEASURING APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohman, T.P.; Weissbourd, B.W.

    1959-02-17

    An ion chamber assembly is presented for measuring neutron emission of a relatively slow rate from a radioactive sample. The detecting apparatus comprises a container filled with neutron slowing material and having a cavity where a neutron source may be located centrally in the container. A plurality of ion chamber units are disposed equidistantly from the source and from each other for detecting the neutron radiation. Each of the ion chamber units has an ion chamber and a second chamber of substantially the same diameter as the ion chamber and in end-to-end relationship therewith. The second chamber contains paraffin and an axially disposed lead-in conductor for the ion chamber central electrode. The preamplifier circuit whose input is connected to the lead-in conductor is housed in a third container arranged in end-to-end relationship with the second chamber.

  6. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV1 at 12 years of age; the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H; de Jongste, Johan C; Smit, Henriette A; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and large WC, with

  7. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV1 at 12 years of age; the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B.; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Background: In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and large WC, with

  8. A new approach to assess COPD by identifying lung function break-points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Göran; Jarenbäck, Linnea; Peterson, Stefan; Ankerst, Jaro; Bjermer, Leif; Tufvesson, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    COPD is a progressive disease, which can take different routes, leading to great heterogeneity. The aim of the post-hoc analysis reported here was to perform continuous analyses of advanced lung function measurements, using linear and nonlinear regressions. Fifty-one COPD patients with mild to very severe disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I-IV) and 41 healthy smokers were investigated post-bronchodilation by flow-volume spirometry, body plethysmography, diffusion capacity testing, and impulse oscillometry. The relationship between COPD severity, based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and different lung function parameters was analyzed by flexible nonparametric method, linear regression, and segmented linear regression with break-points. Most lung function parameters were nonlinear in relation to spirometric severity. Parameters related to volume (residual volume, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity [diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide], diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume) and reactance (reactance area and reactance at 5Hz) were segmented with break-points at 60%-70% of FEV1. FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) and resonance frequency had break-points around 80% of FEV1, while many resistance parameters had break-points below 40%. The slopes in percent predicted differed; resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz had a linear slope change of -5.3 per unit FEV1, while residual volume had no slope change above and -3.3 change per unit FEV1 below its break-point of 61%. Continuous analyses of different lung function parameters over the spirometric COPD severity range gave valuable information additional to categorical analyses. Parameters related to volume, diffusion capacity, and reactance showed break-points around 65% of FEV1, indicating that air trapping starts to dominate in moderate COPD (FEV1 =50%-80%). This may have an

  9. A new approach to assess COPD by identifying lung function break-points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Göran Eriksson,1,* Linnea Jarenbäck,1,* Stefan Peterson,2 Jaro Ankerst,1 Leif Bjermer,1 Ellen Tufvesson11Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 2Regional Cancer Center South, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: COPD is a progressive disease, which can take different routes, leading to great heterogeneity. The aim of the post-hoc analysis reported here was to perform continuous analyses of advanced lung function measurements, using linear and nonlinear regressions.Patients and methods: Fifty-one COPD patients with mild to very severe disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV and 41 healthy smokers were investigated post-bronchodilation by flow-volume spirometry, body plethysmography, diffusion capacity testing, and impulse oscillometry. The relationship between COPD severity, based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, and different lung function parameters was analyzed by flexible nonparametric method, linear regression, and segmented linear regression with break-points.Results: Most lung function parameters were nonlinear in relation to spirometric severity. Parameters related to volume (residual volume, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity [diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide], diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume and reactance (reactance area and reactance at 5Hz were segmented with break-points at 60%–70% of FEV1. FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC and resonance frequency had break-points around 80% of FEV1, while many resistance parameters had break-points below 40%. The slopes in percent predicted differed; resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz had a linear slope change of -5.3 per unit FEV1, while residual volume had no slope change above and -3.3 change per unit FEV1 below its break-point of 61

  10. Changes in pulmonary function after definitive radiotherapy for NSCLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytte, Tine; Bentzen, Søren M; Brink, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    a negative impact on FVC. Long-term FEV1 and FVC were analyzed using linear regression. Treatment year and V60 had a significant impact on loss of FEV1. V60 had a significant impact on FVC changes. CONCLUSION: In this study, early PF change reached a plateau at 6months after the start of radiotherapy......INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with early and long-term pulmonary function (PF) changes after definitive radiotherapy for NSCLC patients. PF was measured by spirometry i.e. forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1), and forced vital capacity (FVC...

  11. Electricity electron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Sung, Rak Jin

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with measurement of electricity and electron. It is divided into fourteen chapters, which depicts basic of electricity measurement, unit and standard, important electron circuit for measurement, instrument of electricity, impedance measurement, power and power amount measurement, frequency and time measurement, waveform measurement, record instrument and direct viewing instrument, super high frequency measurement, digital measurement on analog-digital convert, magnetic measurement on classification by principle of measurement, measurement of electricity application with principle sensors and systematization of measurement.

  12. [The levels of oxidant and antioxidant in patients with COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuntaş, Elif; Turgut, Teyfik; Ilhan, Necip; Deveci, Figen; Muz, Hamdi M; Celik, Ilhami

    2003-01-01

    It is determinate that oxidant-antioxidant imbalance is responsible for pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and smoking is playing a part in the pathogenesis. It was aimed to investigate the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in smokers and pathogenesis of COPD and their relations with lung functions. This study was done prospectively in Firat University Medical Faculty, Department of Chest Diseases. The levels of plasma malonyldialdehyde (MDA), erythrocyte reducted glutathione (GSH) and erythrocyte catalase were studied in 20 patients with COPD, in 20 smokers and in 20 nonsmokers. All of the cases were male. Pulmonary function tests were done to all cases and the predicted values of FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC were measured. The levels of plasma MDA: 1.44 +/- 0.23 nmol/mL, 1.51 +/- 0.27 nmol/mL and 1.29 +/- 0.13 nmol/mL, the levels of erythrocyte GSH: 0.33 +/- 0.13 micromol/g.Hb, 0.34 +/- 0.17 micromol/g.Hb and 0.44 +/- 0.14 micromol/g.Hb and the levels of catalase were 22.82 +/- 17.47 k/g.Hb, 32.88 +/- 22.36 k/g.Hb and 55.73 +/- 26.56 k/g.Hb in patients with COPD, smokers and healthy nonsmokers respectively. There was no significance in each three parameters between smokers and patients with COPD. A significant difference was observed in each three parameters between nonsmokers and patients with COPD (MDA: p= 0.001, GSH: p= 0.028 and catalase: pstudy, there was an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance systemically in smokers and in patients with COPD. However, decreasing in the antioxidant capacity and/or increasing in the oxidant capacity either not correlate with spirometric measurements of airway obstruction in smokers or in patients with COPD were observed. We concluded that the use of cigarette increased oxidative stress by causing plasma lipid peroxidation and imbalance in erythrocyte antioxidant capacity.

  13. The impact of different spirometric definitions on the prevalence of airway obstruction and their association with respiratory symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Miller, Martin R; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2017-01-01

    versus fixed ratio on the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and examine the association between respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction defined by LLN and fixed ratio. 12 449 twins aged 40-80 years participated in a nationwide survey using the Danish Twin Registry...

  14. Comparison and Validation of Long Time Serial Global GEOV1 and Regional Australian MODIS Fractional Vegetation Cover Products Over the Australian Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Ding

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fractional vegetation cover (FVC is one of the most critical parameters in monitoring vegetation status. Comprehensive assessment of the FVC products is critical for their improvement and use in land surface models. This study investigates the performances of two major long time serial FVC products: GEOV1 and Australian MODIS. The spatial and temporal consistencies of these products were compared during the 2000–2012 period over the main biome types across the Australian continent. Their accuracies were validated by 443 FVC in-situ measurements during the 2011–2012 period. Our results show that there are strong correlations between the GEOV1 and Australian MODIS FVC products over the main Australian continent while they exhibit large differences and uncertainties in the coastal regions covered by dense forests. GEOV1 and Australian MODIS describe similar seasonal variations over the main biome types with differences in magnitude, while Australian MODIS exhibit unstable temporal variations over grasslands and shifted seasonal variations over evergreen broadleaf forests. The GEOV1 and Australian MODIS products overestimate FVC values over the biome types with high vegetation density and underestimate FVC in sparsely vegetated areas and grasslands. Overall, the GEOV1 and Australian MODIS FVC products agree with in-situ FVC values with a RMSE around 0.10 over the Australian continent.

  15. Fixed ratio or lower limit of normal for the FEV1/VC ratio: relation to symptoms and extended lung function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollmer, Per; Frantz, Sophia; Engström, Gunnar; Dencker, Magnus; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Nihlén, Ulf

    2017-05-01

    There is no general agreement on the spirometric definition of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The global initiative for obstructive lung disease recommends a fixed ratio between forced expiratory volume in one-second (FEV 1 ) and forced vital capacity (FVC) of System (IOS) and answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and diseases. Seventy subjects fulfilled both spirometric COPD criteria (FR+LLN+), 62 subjects the fixed ratio criterion (FR+) only. Of the remaining 318 subjects, 236 were ever smokers (N-ES). Significant differences between all groups were seen for FEV 1 and D L,CO . Significant differences between groups were also seen for residual volume (RV) and RV/total lung capacity. For IOS, variables and symptoms increasingly abnormal values were seen from never smokers to FR+LLN+. This study shows that subjects meeting both spirometric COPD criteria frequently have symptoms and findings at extended lung function tests compatible with the diagnosis. Also subjects meeting the fixed ratio criterion only tend to have more symptoms and lung function findings compatible with COPD than ever-smoking subjects with FEV 1 /VC > 0·7. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Inspiratory muscle training improves aerobic capacity and pulmonary function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drăgoi, Răzvan-Gabriel; Amaricai, Elena; Drăgoi, Mihai; Popoviciu, Horatiu; Avram, Claudiu

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of inspiratory muscle training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Randomized controlled study. Rheumatic Rehabilitation Centre. A total of 54 ankylosing spondylitis patients, all males, were randomized to a conventional exercise training associated with an inspiratory muscle training group, or to a conventional exercise training group. Group 1 (27 patients) performed eight weeks of conventional exercise training (supervised weekly group sessions followed by a home-based exercise programme) associated with inspiratory muscle training sessions. Group 2 (27 patients) received eight weeks of conventional exercise training only. Resting pulmonary function (forced vital capacity - FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second - FEV1); effort ventilatory efficiency (lowest ventilatory equivalent ratio for oxygen and carbon dioxide - VE/VO2 and VE/VCO2) and aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake - VO2peak) were assessed at baseline and after eight weeks of exercise-based intervention. After eight weeks follow-up, patients in Group 1 had a significant increased chest expansion and VO2peak compared with Group 2 (3.6 ±0.8 cm vs. 3.2 ±0.5 cm, P = 0.032; 2.0 ±0.5 l/min vs. 1.8 ±0.3 l/min, P = 0.033). There were no significant differences of spirometric measurements, except FVC which significantly improved in patients who performed inspiratory muscle training (82.7 ±5.1% vs. 79.5 ±3.5%, P = 0.014). VE/VCO2 also improved significantly in Group 1 (26.6 ±3.6 vs. 29.2 ±4.7, P = 0.040). Ankylosing spondylitis patients who performed eight weeks of inspiratory muscle training associated to conventional exercise training had an increased chest expansion, a better aerobic capacity, resting pulmonary function and ventilatory efficiency than those who performed conventional exercise training only. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Influência da adequação postural em cadeira de rodas na função respiratória de pacientes com amiotrofia espinhal tipo II Influence of wheelchair positioning aids on the respiratory function of patients with type II spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanda André Collange

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou determinar a influência da adequação postural em cadeira de rodas na função respiratória de pacientes com amiotrofia espinhal tipo II (AME. Doze pacientes (idades entre 7 e 24 anos com diagnóstico de AME II, confirmado por achados clínicos e análise genética, participaram do estudo. Os parâmetros respiratórios - volume minuto (VM, volume corrente (VC, capacidade vital forçada (CVF, pressões inspiratória (PImáx e expiratória (PEmáx máximas e pico de fluxo expiratório (PFE - na cadeira de rodas individual, com adaptações, e em uma cadeira de rodas padrão, isto é, sem reclinação ou inclinação. Os resultados mostram valores melhores estatisticamente significativos de todos os parâmetros respiratórios (VM, p=0,002; VC, p=0,003; CVF, p=0,017; PImáx, p=0,002; PEmáx, p=0,006; e PFE, p=0,007 nas medidas tomadas na cadeira adaptada para a postura adequada. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adequação postural em cadeira de rodas influencia positivamente a função respiratória de pacientes com AME tipo II.This study aimed at determining the influence of adequate wheelchair positioning aids on the respiratory function in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA type II patients. Twelve patients (aged 7 to 24 with SMA diagnosed by clinical findings and confirmed by genetic analysis, who owned wheelchairs with positioning aids, underwent spirometric assessment - as to minute volume (MV, tidal volume (TV, forced vital capacity (FVC, maximum inspiratory (IPmax and expiratory (EPmax pressures, and peak expiratory flow (PEF - both on their own wheelchair and on a standard wheelchair with no recline or tilt. Results show significantly better values in all assessed parameters (MV, p=0.002; TV, p=0.003; FVC, p=0.017; IPmax, p=0.002, EPmax, p=0.006; and PEF, p=0.007 of measures taken at the patient's own chair, with positioning aids. These results allow for concluding that wheelchair positioning aids may positively

  18. Sixteen new lung function signals identified through 1000 Genomes Project reference panel imputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artigas, Maria Soler; Wain, Louise V.; Miller, Suzanne; Kheirallah, Abdul Kader; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Ntalla, Ioanna; Shrine, Nick; Obeidat, Ma'en; Trochet, Holly; McArdle, Wendy L.; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Hui, Jennie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Joshi, Peter K.; Teumer, Alexander; Albrecht, Eva; Imboden, Medea; Rawal, Rajesh; Lopez, Lorna M.; Marten, Jonathan; Enroth, Stefan; Surakka, Ida; Polasek, Ozren; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Granell, Raquel; Hysi, Pirro G.; Flexeder, Claudia; Mahajan, Anubha; Beilby, John; Bosse, Yohan; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Campbell, Harry; Gieger, Christian; Glaeser, Sven; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Grallert, Harald; Hammond, Chris J.; Harris, Sarah E.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heliovaara, Markku; Henderson, John; Hocking, Lynne; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Ingelsson, Erik; Johansson, Asa; Kemp, John P.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumar, Ashish; Lind, Lars; Melen, Erik; Musk, Arthur W.; Navarro, Pau; Nickle, David C.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Raitakari, Olli T.; Ried, Janina S.; Ripatti, Samuli; Schulz, Holger; Scott, Robert A.; Sin, Don D.; Starr, John M.; Vinuela, Ana; Voelzke, Henry; Wild, Sarah H.; Wright, Alan F.; Zemunik, Tatijana; Jarvis, Deborah L.; Spector, Tim D.; Evans, David M.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Vitart, Veronique; Kahonen, Mika; Gyllensten, Ulf; Rudan, Igor; Deary, Ian J.; Karrasch, Stefan; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Heinrich, Joachim; Stubbe, Beate; Wilson, James F.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; James, Alan L.; Morris, Andrew P.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hayward, Caroline; Sayers, Ian; Strachan, David P.; Hall, Ian P.; Tobin, Martin D.; Deloukas, Panos; Hansell, Anna L.; Hubbard, Richard; Jackson, Victoria E.; Marchini, Jonathan; Pavord, Ian; Thomson, Neil C.; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2015-01-01

    Lung function measures are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In 38,199 European ancestry individuals, we studied genome-wide association of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC with 1000 Genomes Project (phase 1)-imputed

  19. Spirometry Reference Equations from the HCHS/SOL (Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVange, Lisa; Davis, Sonia M; Hankinson, John; Enright, Paul; Wilson, Rebbecca; Barr, R Graham; Aldrich, Thomas K; Kalhan, Ravi; Lemus, Hector; Ni, Ai; Smith, Lewis J; Talavera, Gregory A

    2017-10-15

    Accurate reference values for spirometry are important because the results are used for diagnosing common chronic lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, estimating physiologic impairment, and predicting all-cause mortality. Reference equations have been established for Mexican Americans but not for others with Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. To develop spirometry reference equations for adult Hispanic/Latino background groups in the United States. The HCHS/SOL (Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos) recruited a population-based probability sample of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years living in the Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. Participants self-identified as being of Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, or Central or South American background. Spirometry was performed using standardized methods with central quality control monitoring. Spirometric measures from a subset of 6,425 never-smoking participants without respiratory symptoms or disease were modeled as a function of sex, age, height, and Hispanic/Latino background to produce background-specific reference equations for the predicted value and lower limit of normal. Dominican and Puerto Rican Americans had substantially lower predicted and lower limit of normal values for FVC and FEV 1 than those in other Hispanic/Latino background groups and also than Mexican American values from NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). For patients of Dominican and Puerto Rican background who present with pulmonary symptoms in clinical practice, use of background-specific spirometry reference equations may provide more appropriate predicted and lower limit of normal values, enabling more accurate diagnoses of abnormality and physiologic impairment.

  20. Six minute walk test in respiratory diseases: A university hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ameri Hatem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Six minutes walk test (6MWT, is a sub-maximal exercise test, used as a clinical indicator of the functional capacity, in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Its safety, validity, reliability and its correlation with several physiological instruments, are well studied. However, there are no published data on 6MWT, in the Saudi population. We are reviewing our experience with 6MWT and assessing its safety and its correlation with pulmonary function variables, in patients with pulmonary diseases, in our local population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We consecutively studied patients with pulmonary diseases, who underwent 6MWT and pulmonary function test in King Khalid University Hospital, from June 2003 to December 2004. The 6MWTs were conducted according to the American Thoracic Society guidelines. Spirometry, lung volumes and diffusion capacity measurements were correlated with the absolute walked distance. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty nine tests were performed. All patients were of the Saudi community (59% female, with mean age of 43±15 years. Out of 129 patients, 65 patients had proven respiratory diagnosis. In all patients, the test were performed with no serious complications. The six minute walk distance (6MWD had correlation with patient′s height (r=+0.40, P < 0.001, but not with patients′ weight, BMI, borg scale, or oxygen saturation. The 6MWD correlated significantly with Dlco (r=+0.52, P < 0.01, FVC (r=+0.46, r< 0.001 and had a weaker relation with FEV1 (r=+0.31, P < 0.05. The test had no significant correlation with lung volumetric parameters (TLC, FRC and RV. CONCLUSION: 6MWT is simple and safe test in evaluating patients with chronic pulmonary diseases in the Saudi population. In our study, 6MWD showed correlation with spirometric parameters and diffusion capacity. Further studies are needed to evaluate 6MWT in a more homogenous patients′ population.

  1. Cross sectional analysis of respiratory symptoms in an injection drug user cohort: the impact of obstructive lung disease and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Shruti H

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use is associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and with obstructive lung diseases (OLD. Understanding how HIV and OLD may impact respiratory symptoms among injection drug users (IDUs is important to adequately care for this high-risk population. We characterized the independent and joint effects of HIV and OLD on respiratory symptoms of a cohort of inner-city IDUs. Methods Demographics, risk behavior and spirometric measurements were collected from a cross-sectional analysis of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Link to the IntraVenous Experience study, an observational cohort of IDUs followed in Baltimore, MD since 1988. Participants completed a modified American Thoracic Society respiratory questionnaire and the Medical Research Council (MRC dyspnea score to assess respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, wheezing and dyspnea. Results Of 974 participants, 835 (86% were current smokers and 288 (29.6% were HIV-infected. The prevalence of OLD (FEV1/FVC ≤ 0.70 was 15.5%, and did not differ by HIV status. OLD, but not HIV, was associated with increased frequency of reported respiratory symptoms. There was a combined effect of OLD and HIV on worsening of MRC scores. OLD and HIV were independently associated with an increased odds of reporting an MRC ≥ 2 (OR 1.83 [95%CI 1.23-2.73] and 1.50 [95%CI 1.08-2.09], respectively. COPD, but not HIV, was independently associated with reporting an MRC ≥ 3 (OR 2.25 [95%CI 1.43-3.54] and 1.29 [95%CI 0.87-1.91], respectively. Conclusions While HIV does not worsen cough, phlegm or wheezing, HIV significantly increases moderate but not severe dyspnea in individuals of similar OLD status. Incorporating the MRC score into routine evaluation of IDUs at risk for OLD and HIV provides better assessment than cough, phlegm and wheezing alone.

  2. Application of measurement of lung volumes from MSCT images in evaluation of pulmonary function of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuang; Chen Liang; Du Jimin; Hua Shucheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the application value of lung volumes from 64 multi-slice CT (MSCT) images in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and study the correlation between lung volumes measured by MSCT and pulmonary function test (PFT) results. Methods: 24 patients clinically diagnosed with COPD (COPD group) and 22 healthy people (control group) were selected and underwent both chest MSCT scans and PFT within one week. The total lung was scanned at full inspiration and full expiration with MSCT, respectively. The total lung volumes were measured by CT Pulmo software (Siemens, Forchheim, Germany). The quantitative total lung volumes from MSCT images were compared with PFT and SPSS13.0 was applied to assess the correlation. Results: Compared with control group, the full inspiration volume (Vin) (P<0.05), the full expiration volume (Vex) (P<0.05), and Vex/Vin (P<0.01) were elevated, while Vin-Vex was declined obviously in COPD group (P<0.05). Vin was in positive correlation with total lung capacity (TLC) (r= 0.923, P<0.01) and Vex was also in positive correlation with residual volume (RV) (r= 0.912, P<0.05), as well as Vin-Vex with vital capacity (VC) (r=0.763, P<0.01) and Vex/Vin with RV/TLC (r= 0.754, P<0.01). The Vex showed best correlation with FEV1% and FEV1/FVC (r=-0.616, P<0.01; r=-0.543, P<0.05). Vin, Vex and Vex/Vin were significantly elevated in patients with COPD compared with those in control group. Conclusion: Lung volumes obtained from MSCT images show a strong correlation with PFT results in patients with COPD. Lung volumes measured from MSCT images can be used to evaluate the pulmonary function in patients with COPD. (authors)

  3. Efeito da obesidade na função ventilatória Impact of obesity on ventilatory function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perran Boran

    2007-04-01

    of excess body weight, with no history of asthma or other atopic diseases were studied and compared to a control group of 50 normal weight children controlled for age and sex. The mean age of patients was 9.7±2.5 years (7 to 15 years. Anthropometric measurements and spirometry were performed in all subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 were used as measures of ventilatory function. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in FEV1%, FVC% and FEV1%/FVC% by study group (p > 0.05. Only three patients had obstructive abnormalities documented on their pulmonary function tests (two had moderately severe and one had mild obstructive abnormalities. No correlation was observed between pulmonary function parameters and anthropometric measurements. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that pulmonary function test parameters of the mildly obese children were similar to those of the normal weight children. Anthropometric measurements had no significant effect on spirometric measurements in children as they did on adults.

  4. The organizational measurement manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wealleans, David

    2001-01-01

    ... Relationship of process to strategic measurements Summary 37 36Contents 19/10/2000 1:23 pm Page vi vi THE ORGANIZATIONAL MEASUREMENT MANUAL 4 PART 2 ESTABLISHING A PROCESS MEASUREMENT PROGRAMME...

  5. Measurements on Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    1996-01-01

    Background material for measurements of hearing for grammar school pupils. The note gives the necessary background for the exercise 'Measurement on Hearing'. The topics comprise sound and decibel, the ear, basic psychoacoustics, hearing threshold, audiometric measurement methods, speech and speech...

  6. Measuring Test Measurement Error: A General Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Test-based accountability as well as value-added asessments and much experimental and quasi-experimental research in education rely on achievement tests to measure student skills and knowledge. Yet, we know little regarding fundamental properties of these tests, an important example being the extent of measurement error and its implications for…

  7. Software product quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Godliauskas, Eimantas

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses Ruby product quality measures, suggesting three new measures for Ruby product quality measurement tool Rubocop to measure Ruby product quality characteristics defined in ISO 2502n standard series. This paper consists of four main chapters. The first chapter gives a brief view of software product quality and software product quality measurement. The second chapter analyses object oriented quality measures. The third chapter gives a brief view of the most popular Ruby qualit...

  8. Theory of Effectiveness Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullock, Richard K

    2006-01-01

    .... Currently, however, there is no formal foundation for formulating effectiveness measures. This research presents a new framework for effectiveness measurement from both a theoretical and practical view...

  9. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  10. Influence of Anti-TNF and Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs Therapy on Pulmonary Forced Vital Capacity Associated to Ankylosing Spondylitis: A 2-Year Follow-Up Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Daniel Rocha-Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of anti-TNF agents plus synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs versus DMARDs alone for ankylosing spondylitis (AS with reduced pulmonary function vital capacity (FVC%. Methods. In an observational study, we included AS who had FVC% <80% at baseline. Twenty patients were taking DMARDs and 16 received anti-TNF + DMARDs. Outcome measures: changes in FVC%, BASDAI, BASFI, 6-minute walk test (6MWT, Borg scale after 6MWT, and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire at 24 months. Results. Both DMARDs and anti-TNF + DMARDs groups had similar baseline values in FVC%. Significant improvement was achieved with anti-TNF + DMARDs in FVC%, at 24 months, when compared to DMARDs alone (P=0.04. Similarly, patients in anti-TNF + DMARDs group had greater improvement in BASDAI, BASFI, Borg scale, and 6MWT when compared to DMARDs alone. After 2 years of follow-up, 14/16 (87.5% in the anti-TNF + DMARDs group achieved the primary outcome: FVC% ≥80%, compared with 11/20 (55% in the DMARDs group (P=0.04. Conclusions. Patients with anti-TNF + DMARDs had a greater improvement in FVC% and cardiopulmonary scales at 24 months compared with DMARDs. This preliminary study supports the fact that anti-TNF agents may offer additional benefits compared to DMARDs in patients with AS who have reduced FVC%.

  11. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  12. Completely random signed measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmund, Gunnar

    Completely random signed measures are defined, characterized and related to Lévy random measures and Lévy bases.......Completely random signed measures are defined, characterized and related to Lévy random measures and Lévy bases....

  13. αs Measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The strong coupling constant, s, has been determined from many pure inclusive and semi-inclusive measurements. All these measurements, measured at different scales, are consistent among each other and the measurements can be combined to give s()=0.118 ± 0.003.

  14. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to a draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2.......The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to a draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2....

  15. Inspector measurement verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.S.; Crouch, R.

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  16. Radioactive measurements in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsa, S.

    1979-01-01

    The book reviews the industrial applications of radioactive isotopes. The introduction refreshes the reader's knowledge of radioactive decay, radioactive radiations and measuring techniques. Then the special problems of threshold detection, level indication, thickness measurements, measurements of layer thickness applying beta-reflexion, density measurements, humidity measurements, and the determination of the composition of different materials are detailed. In each chapter the principle of a given technique, the available equipment, the possibilities of controlling systems and results of concrete measurements are discussed. The last chapter deals with the practical aspects of the industrial installation of radioactive measuring systems. (L.E.)

  17. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate that the agricul......Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  18. Measurement of communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book is one of series of information communication, which deals with measurement of communication. It is divided into six chapters. The contents are foundation of measurement with classification and principle, Basic measurement on current, voltage, electric resistance, power and impedance, measurement of communication line with way by L3 tester, BW tester and pulse tester, measurement of optical fiber cable of equipment and method, Test and measurement of information communication equipment about test of modulator and use, measurement of cable broadcasting equipment on transmission level and main transmission equipment.

  19. Respiratory outcomes of ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) as a surrogate measure of near-roadway exposures among bicyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Youn; Gilbreath, Susan; Barakatt, Edward

    2017-02-08

    Studies have shown a consistent association between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. In particular, exposure can be high for cyclists who travel near roadways. The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between short-term exposure of near-road traffic emissions and acute changes in lung function among individuals who frequently bike in the Sacramento and Davis areas in California. Ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) was used as a surrogate for near-roadway exposure in this study since the main source of this pollutant is from motor vehicle exhaust. Thirty-two bicyclists were recruited and completed two rides on separate days during the study period of March-June, 2008. One ride was on a high traffic route paralleling a section of Interstate 80 (I-80)/Interstate Business 80 (I-80B), and a second one was on a low traffic route, such as bike paths away from major highways. The participant's lung function was measured before and after each ride, and UFPM exposure was measured during the rides using a condensation particle counter (CPC). In the final linear mixed-effect model using median UFPM concentrations as the main exposure, we observed that lung function change (post-ride minus baseline measurements) shifted in the negative direction. Lung function changed by 216 mL for FVC and 168 mL for FEV 1 , respectively, for an interquartile range (IQR: 12,225 to 36,833 number of particles/cm 3 ) increase of UFPM concentration after adjusting for other covariates of age, sex, wind direction, and day of the week. This study found significant associations between increased levels of UFPM concentrations as a proxy for near road traffic pollution, and decrements in lung function measurements. Our results are related to short-term exposures, and the long-term health effects of cycling near heavy traffic require further research. Our study suggests the need to reduce traffic pollution, particularly near roads. Cyclists

  20. Equipment for temperature measurements

    OpenAIRE

    HORELICA, Josef

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with theoretical description, practical connection of temperature measuring instruments and how they function while measuring the temperature. This document explaines basic concepts of temperature, temperature scales and temperature measuring. Further there are introduced standard types of sensors used in these measuring intruments. This document includes a picture presentation in PowerPoint, where an aggregate table of sensors and an application of these sensors in measuring ...

  1. Measuring worker productivity: frameworks and measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Dorcas; Bombardier, Claire; Escorpizo, Reuben; Zhang, Wei; Lacaille, Diane; Boonen, Annelies; Osborne, Richard H; Anis, Aslam H; Strand, C Vibeke; Tugwell, Peter S

    2009-09-01

    Worker productivity is a combination of time off work (absenteeism) due to an illness and time at work but with reduced levels of productivity while at work (also known as presenteeism). Both can be gathered with a focus on application as a cost indicator and/or as an outcome state for intervention studies. We review the OMERACT worker productivity groups' progress in evaluating measures of worker productivity for use in arthritis using the OMERACT filter. Attendees at OMERACT 9 strongly endorsed the importance of work as an outcome in arthritis. Consensus was reached (94% endorsement) for fielding a broader array of indicators of absenteeism. Twenty-one measures of at-work productivity loss, ranging from single item indicators to multidimensional scales, were reviewed for measurement properties. No set of at-work productivity measures was endorsed because of variability in the concepts captured, and the need for a better framework for the measurement of worker productivity that also incorporates contextual issues such as job demands and other paid and unpaid life responsibilities. Progress has been made in this area, revealing an ambivalent set of results that directed us back to the need to further define and then contextualize the measurement of worker productivity.

  2. Lost in interpretation: should the highest VC value be used to calculate the FEV1/VC ratio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortis S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spyridon FortisDepartment of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Occupational Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USAAirflow obstruction or obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD is defined as low forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 to vital capacity (VC ratio. VC can be measured in various ways, and the definition of “low FEV1/VC” ratio varies.     VC can be measured during forced expiration before bronchodilators (forced vital capacity [FVC] and after bronchodilators (post-FVC, and during slow expiration (slow vital capacity [SVC] and during inspiration (inspiratory vital capacity [IVC]. Theoretically, in a healthy person, VC values should be the same regardless of the maneuver used. Nevertheless, SVC is usually larger than FVC except in patients with no OVD and body mass index <25 kg/m2.1 In obstructive lung diseases, FVC may be reduced, which may result in an increase of FEV1/FVC ratio and misdiagnosis.2 For that reason, American Thoracic Society–European Respiratory Society recommends using SVC or IVC to calculate the FEV1/VC ratio.2 Approximately, 10% of smokers have FEV1% predicted <80% and FEV1/FVC >70%, a pattern known as preserved ratio impaired spirometry.3 Of all the subjects with FVC below the lower limit of normal (LLN and FEV1/FVC > LLN, only 64% have restriction in lung volumes. The rest 36% have a nonspecific Pulmonary Function Test pattern.4 Approximately, 15% of patients with this nonspecific PFT pattern develop OVD in follow-up PFTs.4 It is possible that a portion of patients with obstructive lung disease remain underdiagnosed when FVC is used to compute FEV1/FVC ratio.View the original paper by Torén and colleagues.

  3. Basic pulmonary function tests in pig farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Slaviša M.

    2004-01-01

    absence of important alterations in the basic spirometric measures in this and the majority of the previous studies suggests that early airway injuries may not be readily apparent using spirometric measures of lung function. CONCLUSION In contrast to other world studies, our study comprised an important number of women farmers, but alterations associated to sex were not found. To asses the lung function in these pig farmers after several years may be of great importance.

  4. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  5. MDS Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the quality measures displayed on Nursing Home Compare, excluding Measures of Rehospitalization, Emergency Room Visit, and Community Discharge. Each row...

  6. In praise of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermin, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A quantum computer provides a toy universe in which to reexamine many aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum metaphysics. In particular measurement, against which John Bell unleashed one of his most elegant polemics, plays a transparent role. Since all measurements can be constructed out of identical 1-Qbit measurement gates, such obscurity as there is in the notion of measurement reduces to the obscurity, if any, of the elementary 1-Qbit gate. The 1-Qbit measurement gate is insufficiently celebrated. Without it the quantum computer has, in Abner Shimony's admirable words, 'no foreign policy'. Without it no computation has been done. without it no computation can begin. Without it there can be no error correction. Measurement takes coherence away but measurement also gives coherence. Praised be measurement. (author)

  7. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos Here are some ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and ... The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. In general, if you're doing ...

  9. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  10. Structural Measures - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals and the availability of structural measures at that hospital. A structural measure reflects the environment in which hospitals care for patients....

  11. Estimation of measurement variances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The estimation of measurement error parameters in safeguards systems is discussed. Both systematic and random errors are considered. A simple analysis of variances to characterize the measurement error structure with biases varying over time is presented

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  13. Implementing Safety Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Required risk mitigation measures for soil fumigants protect handlers, applicators, and bystanders from pesticide exposure. Measures include buffer zones, sign posting, good agricultural practices, restricted use pesticide classification, and FMPs.

  14. Software engineering measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Munson, PhD, John C

    2003-01-01

    By demonstrating how to develop simple experiments for the empirical validation of theoretical research and showing how to convert measurement data into meaningful and valuable information, this text fosters more precise use of software measurement in the computer science and software engineering literature. Software Engineering Measurement shows you how to convert your measurement data to valuable information that can be used immediately for software process improvement.

  15. Foundations of measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Suppes, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Foundations of Measurement offers the most coherently organized treatment of the topics and issues central to measurement. Much of the research involved has been scattered over several decades and a multitude of journals--available in many instances only to specialties. With the publication of Volumes two and three of this important work, Foundations of Measurement is the most comprehensive presentation in the area of measurement.

  16. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  17. Efficient magnetic field measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Iwan; Moonen, Niek; Buesink, Frits; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Measuring magnetic fields of equipment under test at low frequencies which is received by loop antennas using an EMI receiver with small bandwidths takes much time and can even reach a week for a standard measurement. This waste in time could be avoided by applying time domain measurements.

  18. Measurement of Color Texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, M.A.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Deprettere, E.F.; Belloum, A.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.; van der Stappen, F.

    2002-01-01

    In computer vision, measurement of image properties such as color or texture is essential. However, existing methods for measuring color and texture in combination are not well-defined neither from a measurement theoretical basis nor from a physical point of view. We propose a solid framework for

  19. Top quark measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of top quarks from Run-I and Run-II of the LHC are presented. Results on dif- ferential and inclusive top quark production cross sections, measured by the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments, and measurements of top quark properties and mass are reported.

  20. Measurement System & Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A major part of the sensors has been installed by others (see [1]) the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this report...

  1. Measurement System & Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A part of the sensors has been installed by others, the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this report, are only valid...

  2. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  3. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  4. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  5. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  6. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  7. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  8. Measurement System & Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A part of the sensors has been installed by others, the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this report, are only val...

  9. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  10. Measurement Science for Engineers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Korsten, Maarten J.; Olthuis, Wouter

    2004-01-01

    This volume, from an international authority on the subject, deals with the physical and instrumentation aspects of measurement science, the availability of major measurement tools, and how to use them. This book not only lays out basic concepts of electronic measurement systems, but also provides

  11. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  12. Manometer Measures Gas Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Simple apparatus measures time required for gas to displace known volume of water. Apparatus determines amount of gas generated in lead/acid cell during charging by measuring time required for gas to displace measured volume of water between markes in slanted manometer.

  13. Standards for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  14. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    , the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  15. Power Curve Measurements, REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    , the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  16. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  17. Measure free martingales and martingale measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    assumes values both less than and greater than ftk (q). The following theorem is a consequence of our considerations in this paper. Theorem. Let ,ft,t ∈ T, be a measure free martingale where T is countable and each ft is bounded. Assume that the functions ft,t ∈ T, separate points of . Then there is a compact metric space.

  18. Precision electroweak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarteau, M.

    1996-11-01

    Recent electroweak precision measurements fro e + e - and p anti p colliders are presented. Some emphasis is placed on the recent developments in the heavy flavor sector. The measurements are compared to predictions from the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. All results are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The indirect constraint on the top quark mass from all measurements is in excellent agreement with the direct m t measurements. Using the world's electroweak data in conjunction with the current measurement of the top quark mass, the constraints on the Higgs' mass are discussed

  19. Performance Measurement und Environmental Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Anke

    2000-01-01

    Die Zielsetzung der vorliegenden Dissertationsschrift besteht in der Entwicklung einer systematisierten Vorgehensweise, eines Controllingmodells, zur unternehmensinternen Umweltleistungsmessung. Das entwickelte Environmental Performance Measurement (EPM)-Modell umfaßt die fünf Stufen Festlegung der Ziele der Umweltleistungsmessung (1. Stufe), Erfassung der Umwelteinflüsse nach der ökologischen Erfolgsspaltung (2. Stufe), Bewertung der Umwelteinflüsse auf der Grundlage des qualitätszielbezogen...

  20. Evaluation of accountability measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacic, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) is programmatically responsible to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) for providing independent review and evaluation of accountability measurement technology in DOE nuclear facilities. This function is addressed in part through the NBL Safegaurds Measurement Evaluation (SME) Program. The SME Program utilizes both on-site review of measurement methods along with material-specific measurement evaluation studies to provide information concerning the adequacy of subject accountability measurements. This paper reviews SME Program activities for the 1986-87 time period, with emphasis on noted improvements in measurement capabilities. Continued evolution of the SME Program to respond to changing safeguards concerns is discussed

  1. Reliability of goniometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, D C; Azen, S P; Lin, C M; Spence, C; Baron, C; Lee, L

    1978-11-01

    This study determined the intratester and intertester variability and reliability of goniometric measurements taken by four physical therapists on upper and lower extremity motions of normal male subjects. The same subjects were measured once weekly for four weeks by testers with varied experience in goniometry. Data were analyzed by analyses of variance with repeated measures. Intratester variation for all measurements was less than intertester variation. Further, intertester variation was less for the three upper extremity motions than for those of the lower extremity. These findings indicate the necessity for using the same tester when effects of treatment are evaluated. When the same tester measures the same movement, increases in joint motion of at least three to four degrees determine improvement for either the upper or lower extremity. When more than one tester, however, measures the same movement, increases in joint motion should exceed five degrees for the upper extremity and six degrees for the lower extremity to determine improvement.

  2. Decoherence and quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Namiki, Mikio; Pascazio, Saverio

    1997-01-01

    The quantum measurement problem is one of the most fascinating and challenging topics in physics both theoretically and experimentally. It involves deep questions and the use of very sophisticated and elegant techniques. After analyzing the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics and of the Copenhagen interpretation, this book reviews the most important approaches to the measurement problem and rigorously reformulates the "collapse of the wave function" by measurement, as a dephasing process quantitatively characterized by an order parameter (called the decoherence parameter), according to

  3. Betatron tune measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the comparative review of the methods for the betatron tune measurement in cyclic accelerators of synchrotrons type, the research of these methods is carried out from the point of view of their applicability to Nuclotron. Both methods using measurement of the statistical fluctuations of the beam current (Schottky noise) and methods using coherent beam excitation have been discussed. The emphasis is on the final results of importance for the tune measurement practice. Signal processing is briefly discussed too

  4. Mechanical ventilatory constraints during incremental exercise in healthy and cystic fibrosis children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Benoit; Leclair, Erwan; Thevenet, Delphine; Beghin, Laurent; Gottrand, Frédéric; Fabre, Claudine

    2014-03-01

    To analyze breathing pattern and mechanical ventilatory constraints during incremental exercise in healthy and cystic fibrosis (CF) children. Thirteen healthy children and 6 children with cystic fibrosis volunteered to perform an incremental test on a treadmill. Exercise tidal flow/volume loops were plotted every minute within a maximal flow/volume loop (MFVL). Expiratory flow limitation (expFL expressed in %Vt) was evaluated and end-expiratory and end-inspiratory lung volumes (EELV and EILV) were estimated from expiratory reserve volume relative to vital capacity (ERV/FVC) and from inspiratory reserve volume relative to vital capacity (IRV/FVC). During the incremental exercise, expFL was first observed at 40% of maximal aerobic speed in both groups. At maximal exercise, 46% of healthy children and 83% of CF children presented expFL, without significant effect of cystic fibrosis on the severity of expFL. According to the two-way ANOVA results, both groups adopted similar breathing pattern and breathing strategies as no significant effect of CF has been revealed. But, according to one-way ANOVA results, a significant increase of ERV/FVC associated with a significant decrease of IRV/FVC from resting value shave been observed in healthy children at maximal exercise, but not in CF children. The hypothesis of this study was based on the assumption that mild cystic fibrosis could induce more frequent and more severe mechanical ventilatory constraints due to pulmonary impairment and breathing pattern disturbances. But, this study did not succeed to highlight an effect of mild cystic fibrosis on the mechanical ventilatory constraints (expFL and dynamic hyperinflation) that occur during an incremental exercise. This absence of effect could be due to the absence of an impact of the disease on spirometric data, breathing pattern regulation during exercise and breathing strategy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Respirable quartz dust exposure and airway obstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüske, Irene; Thiering, Elisabeth; Heinrich, Joachim; Huster, Katharina M; Nowak, Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Studies on exposure to respirable quartz dust at the workplace and the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were selected into a systematic review and meta-analysed to obtain an overall estimate of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) reduction. PubMed and Embase were searched from 1970 to 2010. In total, 257 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were identified that reported on inorganic dust exposure and had available lung function data. Of the 55 publications which met our inclusion criteria, 11 reported on associations with occupational exposure to respirable quartz dust. The combined average effect estimate of respirable quartz dust on spirometric parameters was obtained using a random effects model meta-analysis. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed via the I(2) statistic. Most studies found a significant negative association of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC related to increasing exposure to crystalline quartz at the workplace. One study found an effect only for smokers, and one did not observe such an effect at all. The meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed that the mean ratio FEV1 to FVC was reduced and FEV1 of workers exposed to respirable quartz dust was 4.6% less than predicted compared with workers with no/low exposure. Both results showed a statistically significant difference. Occupational exposure to respirable quartz dust was associated with a statistically significant decrease in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC, revealing airway obstruction consistent with COPD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. The attribute measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  7. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  8. Dynamic Inertia Measurement Method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critically important inertia measurements are complex and expensive to obtain due to the extensive fixturing and custom instrumentation of conventional techniques....

  9. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  10. Magnetic field measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Shigemitsu; Abe, Mitsushi.

    1996-01-01

    If signal voltages are integrated with lapse of time in a thermonuclear device, erroneous voltages are also integrated with lapse of time thereby resulting in occurrence of measuring errors increased with lapse of time, and continuous measurement for magnetic fields at high accuracy for a long period of time has been difficult. Then, a movable coil is disposed in the magnetic fields to be measured in order to directly measure the magnetic fields at the periphery of the plasmas, and electric current is supplied to the coil and resulted electromagnetic force is measured to obtain a magnetic field. If electric current is supplied to the coil in the magnetic fields, electromagnetic force (rotational torque) directly in proportion to the magnetic fields is generated. If the electromagnetic force is measured, magnetic fields can be determined directly without using an integrator. If a resistor wire is disposed on one end of the coil so that the resistor wire extends/shrinks by the electromagnetic force and changes the resistance value, the electromagnetic force can be determined from the magnetic fields based on the change of the resistance values. Since the measurement using magnetic fields does not require semiconductor devices which are sensitive to radiation, and the magnetic fields can be measured directly, the measurement can be conducted at a constant accuracy even for a long period of time. (N.H.)

  11. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  12. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G P; Cooksey, C C; Yoon, H W; Hanssen, L M; Podobedov, V B; Vest, R E; Arp, U; Miller, C C

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  13. Radioisotope measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva Ruibal, Jose

    2007-01-01

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author) [es

  14. Luminosity measurement at AMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A precise measurement of a luminosity is required by experiments with high statistics. The largest sources of a systematic error of a luminosity measurement are an alignment of the tube chambers which measure a polar angle of Bhabha events and a higher order correction for the Bhabha cross section calculation. We describe a resent study for these uncertainties and how to reduce the systematic errors from these sources. The total systematic error of the luminosity measurement of 1.8% can be reduced to 1.0% by this study. (author)

  15. Young Measures and Compactness in Measure Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Florescu, Liviu C

    2012-01-01

    Many problems in science can be formulated in the language of optimization theory, in which case an optimal solution or the best response to a particular situation is required. In situations of interest, such classical optimal solutions are lacking, or at least, the existence of such solutions is far from easy to prove. So, non-convex optimization problems may not possess a classical solution because approximate solutions typically show rapid oscillations. This phenomenon requires the extension of such problems' solution often constructed by means of Young measures. This book is written to int

  16. Measure free martingales and martingale measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M G Nadkarni and B Rajeev with respect to which ft ,t ∈ T, is a martingale, i.e., for any finite subset t1 < t2 < ··· < tk of T,. Eμ(ftk |ft1 ,ft2 ,...,ftk−1. ) = ftk−1 a.e.. Let M denote the set of probability measures μ on such that ft ,t ∈ T, is a martingale with respect toμ. Note that we have not assumed any continuity properties forft(ω), ...

  17. Is COPD a Progressive Disease? A Long Term Bode Cohort Observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P de-Torres

    Full Text Available The Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD defines COPD as a disease that is usually progressive. GOLD also provides a spirometric classification of airflow limitation. However, little is known about the long-term changes of patients in different GOLD grades.Explore the proportion and characteristics of COPD patients that change their spirometric GOLD grade over long-term follow-up.Patients alive for at least 8 years since recruitment and those who died with at least 4 years of repeated spirometric measurements were selected from the BODE cohort database. We purposely included the group of non survivors to avoid a "survival selection" bias. The proportion of patients that had a change (improvement or worsening in their spirometric GOLD grading was calculated and their characteristics compared with those that remained in the same grade.A total of 318 patients were included in the survivor and 217 in the non-survivor groups. Nine percent of survivors and 11% of non survivors had an improvement of at least one GOLD grade. Seventy one percent of survivors and non-survivors remained in the same GOLD grade. Those that improved had a greater degree of airway obstruction at baseline.In this selected population of COPD patients, a high proportion of patients remained in the same spirometric GOLD grade or improved in a long-term follow-up. These findings suggest that once diagnosed, COPD is usually a non-progressive disease.

  18. Improving Estimates of Grassland Fractional Vegetation Cover Based on a Pixel Dichotomy Model: A Case Study in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Linear spectral mixture analysis (SMA is commonly used to infer fractional vegetation cover (FVC, especially for pixel dichotomy models. However, several sources of uncertainty including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI saturation and selection of endmembers inhibit the effectiveness of SMA for the estimation of FVC. In this study, Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Landsat 8/Operational Land Imager (OLI remote sensing data for the early growing season and in situ measurement of spectral reflectance are used to determine the value of endmembers including VIsoil and VIveg, with equally weighted RVI and NDVI measures used in combination to minimize the inherent biases in pure NDVI-based FVC. Their ability to improve estimates of grassland FVC is analyzed at different resolutions. These are shown to improve FVC estimates over NDVI-based SMA models using fixed values for the endmembers. Grassland FVC changes for Inner Mongolia, China from 2000 to 2013 are then monitored using the MODIS data. The results show that changes in most grassland areas are not significant, but in parts of Hulunbeier, south Tongliao, middle Xilin Gol and Erdos, grassland FVC has increased significantly.

  19. Reference values for spirometry in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane F; Pereira, Carlos A C; Rizzo, José A; Brito, Murilo C A; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2013-01-01

    Reference values for lung function tests differ in samples from different countries, including values for preschoolers. The main objective of this study was to derive reference values in this population. A prospective study was conducted through a questionnaire applied to 425 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years, from schools and day-care centers in a metropolitan city in Brazil. Children were selected by simple random sampling from the aforementioned schools. Peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volumes (FEV1, FEV0.50), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75) and FEV1/FVC, FEV0.5/FVC and FEF25-75/FVC ratios were evaluated. Of the 425 children enrolled, 321 (75.6%) underwent the tests. Of these, 135 (42.0%) showed acceptable results with full expiratory curves and thus were included in the regression analysis to define the reference values. Height and gender significantly influenced FVC values through linear and logarithmic regression analysis. In males, R(2) increased with the logarithmic model for FVC and FEV1, but the linear model was retained for its simplicity. The lower limits were calculated by measuring the fifth percentile residues. Full expiratory curves are more difficult to obtain in preschoolers. In addition to height, gender also influences the measures of FVC and FEV1. Reference values were defined for spirometry in preschool children in this population, which are applicable to similar populations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....

  1. Measuring regional authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, G.W.; Hooghe, E.A.E.B.; Schakel, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out a conceptual basis for measuring regional authority and engages basic measurement issues. Regional authority is disaggregated into two domains (self-rule and shared rule) and these are operationalised in eight dimensions. The article concludes by examining the robustness of

  2. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...

  3. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid is measured in an apparatus comprising a variable wavelength coherent light source (16), a sample chamber (12), a wavelength controller (24), a light sensor (20), a data recorder (26) and a computation apparatus (28), by - directing...

  4. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  5. Measure free martingales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    E-mail: rlk@isid.ac.in; nadkarni@math.mu.ac.in. MS received 19 October 2004. Abstract. We give a necessary and sufficient condition on a sequence of functions on a set under which there is a measure on which renders the given sequence of functions a martingale. Further such a measure is unique if we impose a natural ...

  6. Measure free martingales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We give a necessary and sufficient condition on a sequence of functions on a set under which there is a measure on which renders the given sequence of functions a martingale. Further such a measure is unique if we impose a natural maximum entropy condition on the conditional probabilities.

  7. Measuring News Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksl, Adam; Ashley, Seth; Craft, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    News media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism. This study measured levels of news media literacy among 500 teenagers using a new scale measure based on Potter's model of media literacy and adapted to news media specifically. The adapted model posits that news media literate individuals…

  8. Regularities of multifractal measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal. Hausdorff measure and packing measure in Rd . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next ...

  9. Regularities of multifractal measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...

  10. Measuring irradiation creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelah, I.

    1981-03-01

    Simulation of fusion-neutron induced damage by beams of light ions is discussed. It is suggested that accelerated creep measurements to determine ''end of life'' of materials may be done by the application of thermal treatment and thermal creep measurements. (author)

  11. Measuring Mobile Phone Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boase, Jeff; Ling, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine how well two types of self-report measures adequately operationalize frequency of mobile phone use by comparing them to server log data. Our self-report measures of voice and SMS text messaging activity are drawn from a nationally representative survey of adults living...

  12. Measuring Authoritative Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertesvag, Sigrun K.

    2011-01-01

    High quality measurements are important to evaluate interventions. The study reports on the development of a measurement to investigate authoritative teaching understood as a two-dimensional construct of warmth and control. Through the application of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) the factor structure…

  13. Low Absorbance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.; Williams, A. M.

    1983-10-01

    The application of low absorption measurements to dilute solute determination requires specific instrumental characteristics. The use of laser intracavity absorption and thermal lens calorimetry to measure concentration is shown. The specific operating parameters that determine sensitivity are delineated along with the limits different measurement strategies impose. Finally areas of improvement in components that would result in improve sensitivity, accuracy, and reliability are discussed. During the past decade, a large number of methods have been developed for measuring the light absorbed by transparent materials. These include measurements on gases, liquids, and solids. The activity has been prompted by a variety of applications and a similar variety of disciplines. In Table 1 some representative examples of these methods is shown along with their published detection limits.1 It is clear that extraordinarily small absorbances can be measured. Most of the methods can be conveniently divided into two groups. These groups are those that measure the transmission of the sample and those that measure the light absorbed by the sample. The light absorbed methods are calorimetric in character. The advantages and disadvantages of each method varies depending on the principal application for which they were developed. The most prevalent motivation has been to characterize the bulk optical properties of transparent materials. Two examples are the development of extremely transparent glasses for use as fiber optic materials and the development of substrates for high power laser operation.

  14. Auditing measurement control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, F.P.; Brouns, R.J.

    1979-10-01

    Requirements and a general procedure for auditing measurement control programs used in special nuclear material accounting are discussed. The areas of measurement control that need to be examined are discussed and a suggested checklist is included to assist in the preparation and performance of the audit

  15. Viscosity measuring using microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Patrick Ian

    2001-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the viscosity of a fluid uses a micromachined cantilever mounted on a moveable base. As the base is rastered while in contact with the fluid, the deflection of the cantilever is measured and the viscosity determined by comparison with standards.

  16. Regularities of Multifractal Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...

  17. Higgs Measurement from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Using run-I data record by ATLAS detector, many searches on the higgs decay modes have been done. Also some properties measurement of the Higgs Boson has been done. This talk will summarise the recent result of Higgs search and measurement from ATLAS.

  18. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  19. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  20. Magnetic field measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Shigemitsu; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Jun-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    In order to directly measure the magnetic fields in the vicinity of plasmas in a thermonuclear device, electric current is supplied to a conductor intersecting magnetic fields, and the position of the conductor is changed by generated electromagnetic forces, and the positional change of the conductor is measured to determine the magnetic fields. Namely, if electric current is supplied to the conductor crossing the magnetic fields, electromagnetic forces directly in proportion to the magnetic fields exert on the object. If the forces are measured, magnetic fields can be determined directly without using an integrator. If springs are attached to the conductor undergoing electromagnetic forces, as a method of measuring electromagnetic forces, since the distortion is in proportion to the electromagnetic forces, magnetic fields can be determined, for example, by changing the position of a contact of a variable resistor interlocking with the positional change of the spring. Since a semiconductor device which is sensitive to radiation is not necessary and the magnetic fields can be measured directly in this method for the measurement of the magnetic fields, the measurement can be conducted at a constant accuracy even in a long period of time. The device of the present invention can measure magnetic fields with no drift components of the integrator, has excellent radiation-resistance and can improve the plant safety. (N.H.)

  1. Dynamics via measurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Generators f for σ -algebras can be used to view the dynamics of an invertible measurable transformation T in terms of the range values of f ∘ T . Such generators are the norm rather than the exception. Related measurable and quantitative methods of estimating a function from the behavior of ergodic averages are also discussed.

  2. Informational aesthetics measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigau, Jaume; Feixas, Miquel; Sbert, Mateu

    2008-01-01

    The Birkhoff aesthetic measure of an object is the ratio between order and complexity. Informational aesthetics describes the interpretation of this measure from an information-theoretic perspective. From these ideas, the authors define a set of ratios based on information theory and Kolmogorov complexity that can help to quantify the aesthetic experience.

  3. Measuring Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2007-01-01

    How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic...

  4. Measures of Pleasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMeasuring culture originated in cultural anthropology, but all social sciences contributed to comparative cultural studies. Tracing critical approaches towards a measurement of cultural values one is bound to strip the biases and stereotypes bare and to invade numerous academic fiefs.

  5. Theory of Effectiveness Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Operations Research Society, January 2003. Hill, Raymond , Gregory A. McIntyre, Thomas R. Tighe, and Richard K. Bullock, “Some Experiments with Agent...Measurement, Physica-Verlag, Wurzburg, 1971. Pinker, Aron , Aryeh H. Samuel, and Robert Batcher, “On Measures of Effectiveness,” PHALANX, pp 8-12

  6. Mechanical Measurements Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    The CERN mechanical measurements team check the sensors on one of the ATLAS inner detector end-caps using high precision measurement equipment. Remote checks like this must be made on these sensitive detector components before they can be transported to make sure that all systems are working correctly.

  7. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I.; Thomas, M.; Buchroeder, H.; Brummer, C. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G. [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  8. Measuring static complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Goertzel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “pattern” is introduced, formally defined, and used to analyze various measures of the complexity of finite binary sequences and other objects. The standard Kolmogoroff-Chaitin-Solomonoff complexity measure is considered, along with Bennett's ‘logical depth’, Koppel's ‘sophistication'’, and Chaitin's analysis of the complexity of geometric objects. The pattern-theoretic point of view illuminates the shortcomings of these measures and leads to specific improvements, it gives rise to two novel mathematical concepts--“orders” of complexity and “levels” of pattern, and it yields a new measure of complexity, the “structural complexity”, which measures the total amount of structure an entity possesses.

  9. Measurement of academic entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian K

    2013-10-01

    Members of Generation Y, or Millennials, have been accused of being lazy, whiny, pampered, and entitled, particularly in the college classroom. Using an equity theory framework, eight items from a measure of work entitlement were adapted to measure academic entitlement in a university setting in three independent samples. In Study 1 (n = 229), confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit to a unidimensional structure for the data. In Study 2 (n = 200), the questionnaire predicted unique variance in university satisfaction beyond two more general measures of dispositional entitlement. In Study 3 (n = 161), the measure predicted unique variance in perceptions of grade fairness beyond that which was predicted by another measure of academic entitlement. This analysis provides evidence of discriminant, convergent, incremental, concurrent criterion-related, and construct validity for the Academic Equity Preference Questionnaire.

  10. Measurement uncertainty and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Willink, Robin

    2013-01-01

    A measurement result is incomplete without a statement of its 'uncertainty' or 'margin of error'. But what does this statement actually tell us? By examining the practical meaning of probability, this book discusses what is meant by a '95 percent interval of measurement uncertainty', and how such an interval can be calculated. The book argues that the concept of an unknown 'target value' is essential if probability is to be used as a tool for evaluating measurement uncertainty. It uses statistical concepts, such as a conditional confidence interval, to present 'extended' classical methods for evaluating measurement uncertainty. The use of the Monte Carlo principle for the simulation of experiments is described. Useful for researchers and graduate students, the book also discusses other philosophies relating to the evaluation of measurement uncertainty. It employs clear notation and language to avoid the confusion that exists in this controversial field of science.

  11. W mass measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Andari, Nansi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A first measurement of the W-boson mass at the LHC is presented based on about 4.6 fb^-1 of proton–proton collision data recorded in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector. The measured value is 80370±19 MeV, consistent with the Standard Model prediction, with the combined values measured at the LEP and Tevatron colliders, and with the world average. The ATLAS result equals in precision the previous best measurement of the W mass, performed by the CDF collaboration. The CMS results for the W-like measurement of the Z boson mass using dimuon events are also shown. An overview of the analyses is shown with a special emphasis on the evaluation of the experimental systematic uncertainties, as well as on the uncertainties due to the modelling of the vector boson production and decay.

  12. Measuring Nursing Care Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    The value of nursing care as well as the contribution of individual nurses to clinical outcomes has been difficult to measure and evaluate. Existing health care financial models hide the contribution of nurses; therefore, the link between the cost and quality o nursing care is unknown. New data and methods are needed to articulate the added value of nurses to patient care. The final results and recommendations of an expert workgroup tasked with defining and measuring nursing care value, including a data model to allow extraction of key information from electronic health records to measure nursing care value, are described. A set of new analytic metrics are proposed.

  13. Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iufer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

  14. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  15. Measures with symmetry properties

    CERN Document Server

    Schindler, Werner

    2003-01-01

    Symmetries and invariance principles play an important role in various branches of mathematics. This book deals with measures having weak symmetry properties. Even mild conditions ensure that all invariant Borel measures on a second countable locally compact space can be expressed as images of specific product measures under a fixed mapping. The results derived in this book are interesting for their own and, moreover, a number of carefully investigated examples underline and illustrate their usefulness and applicability for integration problems, stochastic simulations and statistical applications.

  16. Genus four superstring measures

    OpenAIRE

    Cacciatori, Sergio L.; Piazza, Francesco Dalla; van Geemen, Bert

    2008-01-01

    A main issue in superstring theory are the superstring measures. D'Hoker and Phong showed that for genus two these reduce to measures on the moduli space of curves which are determined by modular forms of weight eight and the bosonic measure. They also suggested a generalisation to higher genus. We showed that their approach works, with a minor modification, in genus three and we announced a positive result also in genus four. Here we give the modular form in genus four explicitly. Recently S...

  17. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  18. Measuring autocratic regime stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers measure regime stability in autocratic contexts using a variety of data sources that capture distinct concepts. Often this research uses concepts developed for the study of democratic politics, such as leadership change or institutionalized authority, to construct measures of regime breakdown in non-democratic contexts. This article assesses whether the measure a researcher chooses influences the results they obtain by examining data on executive leadership, political authority, and autocratic regimes. We illustrate the conceptual differences between these variables by extending recent studies in the literature on the political consequences of non-tax revenue and unearned foreign income.

  19. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  20. Dynamic Rod Worth Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.A.; Chapman, D.M.; Hill, D.J.; Grobmyer, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic rod worth measurement (DRWM) technique is a method of quickly validating the predicted bank worth of control rods and shutdown rods. The DRWM analytic method is based on three-dimensional, space-time kinetic simulations of the rapid rod movements. Its measurement data is processed with an advanced digital reactivity computer. DRWM has been used as the method of bank worth validation at numerous plant startups with excellent results. The process and methodology of DRWM are described, and the measurement results of using DRWM are presented

  1. Measurements of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, F.P.; Geusebroek, M.; Kos, G.P.A.; Van Egmond, B.F.

    2005-02-01

    For Euromate measurements are performed at 21 December 2004, in order to characterize their new smoking chamber 'rookabri S+G2'. At location gas analysis and particle measurements are performed. A number of off-line sampled organic smoke trace compounds were analysed at our laboratory. Sampling and measurements were performed at different smoke levels with 0, 2, 4 and 6 smoking volunteers. The smoke-abri is a specially designed space for smokers in which the environment is cleared from tobacco smoke and odor [nl

  2. RF impedance measurement calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this note is not to explain all of the available calibration methods in detail. Instead, we will focus on the calibration methods of interest for RF impedance coupling measurements and attempt to explain: (1). The standards and measurements necessary for the various calibration techniques. (2). The advantages and disadvantages of each technique. (3). The mathematical manipulations that need to be applied to the measured standards and devices. (4). An outline of the steps needed for writing a calibration routine that operated from a remote computer. For further details of the various techniques presented in this note, the reader should consult the references

  3. Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Zaida do Rego; Albuquerque Filho, Alfredo Pereira Leite de; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Coletta, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins

    2012-01-01

    To report the cases of four patients with bronchiolitis caused by exposure to artificial butter flavoring at a cookie factory in Brazil. We described the clinical, tomographic, and spirometric findings in the four patients, as well as the lung biopsy findings in one of the patients. All four patients were young male nonsmokers and developed persistent airflow obstruction (reduced FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1 at 25-44% of predicted) after 1-3 years of exposure to diacetyl, without the use of personal protective equipment, at a cookie factory. The HRCT findings were indicative of bronchiolitis. In one patient, the surgical lung biopsy revealed bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by giant cells. Bronchiolitis resulting from exposure to artificial flavoring agents should be included in the differential diagnosis of airflow obstruction in workers in Brazil.

  4. Prognostic value of nutritional status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, C; Prescott, E; Lange, P

    1999-01-01

    Study. In total, 1,218 men and 914 women, aged 21 to 89 yr, with airway obstruction defined as an FEV(1)-to-FVC ratio of less than 0.7, were included in the analyses. Spirometric values, BMI, smoking habits, and respiratory symptoms were assessed at the time of study enrollment, and mortality from COPD...... and from all causes during 17 yr of follow-up was analyzed with multivariate Cox regression models. After adjustment for age, ventilatory function, and smoking habits, low BMI was predictive of a poor prognosis (i.e., higher mortality), with relative risks (RRs) in underweight subjects as compared......, with the lowest risk occurring in normal-weight to overweight subjects, whereas in severe COPD, mortality continued to decrease with increasing BMI (test for trend: p

  5. Impact of Birth Weight and Smoking on Lung Function in Patients with Asthma, COPD, and Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaszek, Bernard; Pawłowicz, Robert; Lindner, Karolina; Dobek, Rafał; Panaszek, Konrad; Obojski, Andrzej; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Ichnowski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight (BW) is an important factor for determining the development of the respiratory system. The majority of research analyzed the impact of BW on lung function in youth. BW influence and smoking on lung function in adults with asthma and COPD is an interesting issue. The aim of the study was to investigate relationships between BW, smoking, and lung function in adult healthy individuals and diagnosed with asthma or COPD. Four hundred seventy-nine subjects were divided into 5 groups: 123 healthy non-smokers, 180 healthy smokers, 72 non-smoking asthmatics, 57 smoking asthmatics, and 47 COPD patients. Relationships between 4 BW quartiles and lung function was analyzed with respect to smoking. Impact analyzes of BW, smoking, and asthma on FVC% revealed that asthma is the only significant differentiating factor in this spirometric parameter (p smoking.

  6. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pulmonary Function and Muscle Strength: The Chinese Twin Study of Aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Xiaocao; Xu, Chunsheng; Wu, Yili

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on predictors of decline in daily functioning, including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), handgrip, and five-times-sit-to-stand test (FTSST), have not been addressed in the aging Chinese population. We performed classical twin...... was moderate for FEV1, handgrip, and FTSST (55-60%) but insignificant for FVC. Only FVC showed moderate control, with shared environmental factors accounting for about 50% of the total variance. In contrast, all measures of pulmonary function and muscle strength showed modest influences from the unique...

  7. Is the bronchodilator test an useful tool to measure asthma control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Galván, Marta; Javier Alvarez Gutiérrez, Francisco; Romero Falcón, Auxiliadora; Romero Romero, Beatriz; Sáez, Antonia; Medina Gallardo, Juan Francisco

    2017-05-01

    Asthma control includes the control of symptoms and future risk. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of the degree of spirometric reversibility of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) as the target parameter of control. Patients with bronchial asthma were followed up for one year. The clinical, functional, inflammatory and control parameters of the asthma were collected. The area under the curve (AUC) was estimated to establish the cutoff point of the post-bronchodilator FEV 1 reversibility in relation to non-control asthma. In the univariate analysis, the differences between groups were studied based on the degree of estimated reversibility. Factors with a significance asthma found in our work was ≥10%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement theory for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya

    2003-01-01

    The emphasis of this textbook is on industrial applications of Statistical Measurement Theory. It deals with the principal issues of measurement theory, is concise and intelligibly written, and to a wide extent self-contained. Difficult theoretical issues are separated from the mainstream presentation. Each topic starts with an informal introduction followed by an example, the rigorous problem formulation, solution method, and a detailed numerical solution. Each chapter concludes with a set of exercises of increasing difficulty, mostly with solutions. The book is meant as a text for graduate students and a reference for researchers and industrial experts specializing in measurement and measurement data analysis for quality control, quality engineering and industrial process improvement using statistical methods. Knowledge of calculus and fundamental probability and statistics is required for the understanding of its contents.

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  10. Gas flowrate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, Madeleine.

    1978-05-01

    The main types of gas flowmeters, especially those which are used for laboratory measurements are reviewed. Modeling, design recommendations, calibration methods and expected accuracy are discussed for each flowmeter. Different types and trademarks are given in two tables [fr

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  12. Theory of Effectiveness Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullock, Richard K

    2006-01-01

    Effectiveness measures provide decision makers feedback on the impact of deliberate actions and affect critical issues such as allocation of scarce resources, as well as whether to maintain or change existing strategy...

  13. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust...

  14. Measuring Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Chester A.; Barrett, Kristin Burrows

    1992-01-01

    Describes four experiments that enable students to explore the phenomena of evaporation and condensation and determine the relative humidity by measuring air temperature and dew point on warm September days. Provides tables to calculate saturation points and relative humidity. (MDH)

  15. Environmental Measurements and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  16. Measure Evaluation Dataverse

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The MEASURE Evaluation Dataverse is a collection of innovative evaluation data sets assembled in order to increase the evidence-base on program impact and evaluate...

  17. Dilepton Measurements with CERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin,A.; Rehak, P. et al.

    2007-07-09

    We report on dilepton measurements for central Pb on Au collisions at the top CERN SPS energy with the upgraded CERES experiment. The dilepton mass spectrum of 2000 data with improved mass resolution shows an enhancement over the expectation from hadron decays that is well described by a model including a strong broadening of the {rho} spectral function. The measured excess yield excludes the dropping mass scenario. We also report on the {phi} meson measured simultaneously both in the K{sup +}K{sup -} and in the dilepton decay channel for the first time in high energy heavy-ion collisions. An excellent agreement is found between the rapidity densities and the shape of the measured transverse momentum spectrum. The data rule out a possible enhancement of the {phi} yield in the leptonic over hadronic channel by a factor larger than 1.6 at 95% CL. CERES results are in agreement with NA49 results.

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  19. Measuring soil salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Marcus; Doyle, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity is a form of land degradation in which salts accumulate in the soil profile to an extent that plant growth or infrastructure are negatively affected. A range of both field and laboratory procedures exist for measuring soil salinity. In the field, soil salinity is usually inferred from apparent electrical conductivity (EC(a)) using a range of devices, depending on the required depth of analysis, or size of the survey area. Field measurements of EC(a) require calibration to the actual salt content by laboratory analysis. In the laboratory, soil salinity is usually assessed by determining either the total soluble salts by evaporation of a soil water extract (TSS), or by determining the electrical conductivity (EC) of either a 1:5 distilled water:soil dilution, or a saturated paste extract. Although procedures for measuring soil salinity appear relatively straightforward, differences in methodology have considerable influence on measured values and interpretation of results.

  20. Measure, integral and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Capiński, Marek

    2004-01-01

    Measure, Integral and Probability is a gentle introduction that makes measure and integration theory accessible to the average third-year undergraduate student. The ideas are developed at an easy pace in a form that is suitable for self-study, with an emphasis on clear explanations and concrete examples rather than abstract theory. For this second edition, the text has been thoroughly revised and expanded. New features include: · a substantial new chapter, featuring a constructive proof of the Radon-Nikodym theorem, an analysis of the structure of Lebesgue-Stieltjes measures, the Hahn-Jordan decomposition, and a brief introduction to martingales · key aspects of financial modelling, including the Black-Scholes formula, discussed briefly from a measure-theoretical perspective to help the reader understand the underlying mathematical framework. In addition, further exercises and examples are provided to encourage the reader to become directly involved with the material.

  1. Dilepton measurements with CERES

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, A; Agakichiev, G; Andronic, A; Antonczyk, D; Appelshäuser, H; Bielcíkováe, V; Biel, J; Braun-Munzinger, P; Busch, O; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kalisky, M; Kniege, S; Kushpil, V; Ludolphs, W; Maas, A; Milosevic, J; Miskowiec, D; Ortega, R; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O; Petracek, V; Ploskon, M; Radomski, S; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Schuchmann, S; Sedykh, S; Shimansky, S; Soualah, R; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsiledakis, G; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2008-01-01

    We report on dilepton measurements for central Pb on Au collisions at the top CERN SPS energy with the upgraded CERES experiment. The dilepton mass spectrum of 2000 data with improved mass resolution shows an enhancement over the expectation from hadron decays that is well described by a model including a strong broadening of the $\\rho$ spectral function. The measured excess yield excludes the dropping mass scenario. We also report on the $\\phi$ meson measured simultaneously both in the $K^+K^-$ and in the dilepton decay channel for the first time in high energy heavy-ion collisions. An excellent agreement is found between the rapidity densities and the shape of the measured tranverse momentum spectrum. The data rule out a possible enhancement of the $\\phi$ yield in the leptonic over hadronic channel by a factor larger than 1.6 at 95% CL. CERES results are in agreement with NA49 results.

  2. Health System Measurement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...

  3. In situ measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, D.E.

    1980-11-24

    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop hairpin configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. Measurement means are provided for obtaining for each pair the electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner means sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  4. JSSG - SPACED RECEIVER MEASUREMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The height of ionospheric irregularities was measured by several laboratories belonging to the Joint Satellite Studies Group, using spaced receiver techniques. The method of analysis and results obtained are presented. (Author)

  5. Measuring multifactor productivity growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wölfl, A.; Hájková, Dana

    -, 2007/5 (2007), s. 1-45 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multifactor productivity growth * GDP growth * measuring Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/17/39522985.pdf

  6. Control Measure Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Measure Dataset is a collection of documents describing air pollution control available to regulated facilities for the control and abatement of air...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  8. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Baik, Seong Hoon; Hong, Seok Kyung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-01-01

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  9. Statistical Measures of Marksmanship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    .... This report describes objective statistical procedures to measure both rifle marksmanship accuracy, the proximity of an array of shots to the center of mass of a target, and marksmanship precision...

  10. Wake field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, L.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the concept of Wakefields and Machine Impedance are introduced. Several measurements technique of these quantities either in the laboratory before installation or from beam observation are presented

  11. Uncertainty and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, P.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores how the quantum mechanics uncertainty relation can be considered to result from measurements. A distinction is drawn between the uncertainties obtained by scrutinising experiments and the standard deviation type of uncertainty definition used in quantum formalism. (UK)

  12. Essentials of measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kubrusly, Carlos S

    2015-01-01

    Classical in its approach, this textbook is thoughtfully designed and composed in two parts. Part I is meant for a one-semester beginning graduate course in measure theory, proposing an “abstract” approach to measure and integration, where the classical concrete cases of Lebesgue measure and Lebesgue integral are presented as an important particular case of general theory. Part II of the text is more advanced and is addressed to a more experienced reader. The material is designed to cover another one-semester graduate course subsequent to a first course, dealing with measure and integration in topological spaces. The final section of each chapter in Part I presents problems that are integral to each chapter, the majority of which consist of auxiliary results, extensions of the theory, examples, and counterexamples. Problems which are highly theoretical have accompanying hints. The last section of each chapter of Part II consists of Additional Propositions containing auxiliary and complementary results. Th...

  13. Littoral Measurements Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Barny units measure ocean currents and sea surface heights on continental shelves and in ocean straits. SEPTR units are similar to Barnys but also record...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  15. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test measures the strength and endurance of your abdominal muscles. Here's how to do the test: Lie on ... and Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  17. Performance Measurement at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes empirical approaches to testing the reliability, validity, and organizational effectiveness of student evaluations of teaching (SET) as a performance measurement instrument in knowledge management at the institutional level of universities. Departing from Weber’s concept...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  19. Quality Measurement Impact Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services is required to assess the impact of consensus-endorsed quality and efficiency measures used in federal...

  20. Tomographic multiphase flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sætre, C.; Johansen, G.A.; Tjugum, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of multiphase flow of gas, oil and water is not at all trivial and in spite of considerable achievements over the past two decades, important challenges remain (). These are related to reducing measurement uncertainties arising from variations in the flow regime, improving long term stability and developing new means for calibration, adjustment and verification of the multiphase flow meters. This work focuses on the first two issues using multi gamma beam (MGB) measurements for identification of the type of flow regime. Further gamma ray tomographic measurements are used for reference of the gas/liquid distribution. For the MGB method one Am-241 source with principal emission at 59.5 keV is used because this relatively low energy enables efficient collimation and thereby shaping of the beams, as well as compact detectors. One detector is placed diametrically opposite the source whereas the second is positioned to the side so that this beam is close to the pipe wall. The principle is then straight forward to compare the measured intensities of these detectors and through that identify the flow pattern, i.e. the instantaneous cross-sectional gas-liquid distribution. The measurement setup also includes Compton scattering measurements, which can provide information about the changes in the water salinity for flow segments with high water liquid ratio and low gas fractions. By measuring the transmitted intensity in short time slots (<100ms), rapid regime variations are revealed. From this we can select the time sections suitable for salinity measurements. Since the salinity variations change at the time scale of hours, a running average can be performed to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Recent results of this work will be presented here. - Highlights: ► Multiphase flow gas-fraction and flow regime measurements by multi gamma ray beams. ► High-speed gamma ray tomograph as reference for the flow pattern and gas fraction. ► Dual modality

  1. Positive Rates and Factors Associated with Abnormal Lung Function of Greenhouse Workers in China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojun; Gao, Panjun; Gu, Yishuo; Xiao, Pei; Liu, Mengxuan; Chen, Juan; Cen, Yacai; Ma, Wenjun; Li, Tao

    2017-08-24

    Since the number of greenhouse workers are increasing in China, this observational cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate lung function and discuss the potential risk factors, to provide evidence in the surveillance of greenhouse workers' health. 678 greenhouse workers in Gansu Province, China were enrolled. A questionnaire which included demographic and occupational information was used. Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁), and FEV₁:FVC ratios (FEV₁/FVC), maximal expiratory flow after 50% of the FVC has not been exhaled (MEF 50 ), maximal expiratory flow after 25% of the FVC has not been exhaled (MEF 25 ) and maximal mid-expiratory flow curve (MMEF) were measured as lung function indicators. The mean values and standard deviations (SDs) of VC% predicted, FVC% predicted, FEV₁% predicted and FEV₁/FVC ratio were 106.07 ± 13.36, 107.60 ± 13.95, 97.19 ± 14.80 and 89.76 ± 10.78 respectively. The positive rates of above four and abnormal lung ventilation function were 2.9%, 2.8%, 11.2%, 4.6% and 6.5% respectively. Gender, age, BMI and number of greenhouses owned were influence factors of lung ventilation function ( p greenhouses owned were influence factors for small airway function ( p greenhouse might influence lung function of the workers. Small airway function indicators could be used as priority indicators for the surveillance of greenhouse workers' health.

  2. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  3. Rc measurements at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudot, J.

    1996-08-01

    The partial width R c is a basic observable in Z physics. Within the Standard Model its value is accurately predicted and other experimental measurements at LEP involve its knowledge. The DELPHI and OPAL collaborations have presented several R c measurements. All methods are based on charmed hadron reconstruction and b/c separation. The LEP average, computed by the LEP Electroweak Heavy Flavor Working Group, is presented. (author)

  4. Lebesgue measure and gambling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanovei, V G; Linton, Tom; Uspensky, Vladimir A

    2008-01-01

    Lebesgue measure of point sets is characterized in terms of the existence of various strategies in a certain coin-flipping game. 'Rational' and 'discrete' modifications of this game are investigated. We prove that if one of the players has a winning strategy in a game of this type depending on a given set P subset or equal [0,1], then this set is measurable. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  5. Noise-Measuring Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test.......A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test....

  6. Simulation with complex measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu, T.D.; Griffin, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation of statistical and quantum systems suffers from the sign problem when the generating function measures are indefinite or are complex, such as lattice quantum chromodynamics with finite temperature and density and chiral gauge theory. A new approach is proposed which yields statistical errors smaller than the crude Monte Carlo using absolute values of the original measures. The one-dimensional complex-coupling Ising model is employed as an illustration. 2 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  7. Safeguards and physics measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and physics measurements involves gamma and neutron dosimetry, calibrations and irradiations, electronic support, metrology of various samples including internal contamination of human beings, of waste barrels and of fissile materials, neutron activation analysis, and radioisotope source preparation. The document reports on the main activities and achievements of the sections 'Instrumentation, Calibration and Dosimetry' and 'Safeguards and Nuclear Physics Measurements'

  8. Measuring fluid pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for measuring the pressure of a fluid having characteristics that make it unsuitable for connection directly to a pressure gauge. The method is particularly suitable for the periodic measurement of the pressure of a supply of liquid Na to Na-lubricated bearings of pumps for pumping Na from a reservoir to the bearing via a filter, the reservoir being contained in a closed vessel containing an inert blanket gas, such as Ar, above the Na. (UK)

  9. Measurement of optical glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.

    1978-11-01

    The possibilities of measurement of the optical glasses parameters needed in building optical devices especially in lasers devices are presented. In the first chapter the general features of the main optical glasses as well as the modalities of obtaining them are given. Chapter two defines the optical glass parameters, and the third chapter describes the measuring methods of the optical glass parameters. Finally, the conclusions which point out the utilization of this paper are presented. (author)

  10. Lebesgue measure and gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoveĭ, V. G.; Linton, Tom; Uspensky, Vladimir A.

    2008-12-01

    Lebesgue measure of point sets is characterized in terms of the existence of various strategies in a certain coin-flipping game. 'Rational' and 'discrete' modifications of this game are investigated. We prove that if one of the players has a winning strategy in a game of this type depending on a given set P\\subseteq \\lbrack 0,1 \\rbrack , then this set is measurable. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  11. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  12. Critique of protective measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Dass, N.D.; Qureshi, T.

    1999-01-01

    The recently proposed idea of open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurement of a quantum state is critically examined, and generalized. Earlier criticisms of the idea are discussed, and their relevance to the proposal assessed. Several constraints on measuring apparatus required by open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurements are discussed, with emphasis on how they may restrict their experimental feasibility. Though open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurements result in an unchanged system state and a shift of the pointer proportional to the expectation value of the measured observable in the system state, the actual reading of the pointer position gives rise to several subtleties. We propose several schemes for reading the pointer position, both when the apparatus is treated as a classical system as well as when its quantum aspects are taken into account, that address these issues. The tiny entanglement which is always present due to deviation from extreme adiabaticity in realistic situations is argued to be the weakest aspect of the proposal. Because of this, one can never perform a protective measurement on a single quantum system with absolute certainty. This clearly precludes an ontological status for the wave function. Several other conceptual issues are also discussed. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  13. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  14. Measurement quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The quality of a radiation protection program can be no better than the quality of the measurements made to support it. In many cases, that quality is unknown and is merely implied on the basis of a calibration of a measuring instrument. If that calibration is inappropriate or is performed improperly, the measurement result will be inaccurate and misleading. Assurance of measurement quality can be achieved if appropriate procedures are followed, including periodic quality control actions that demonstrate adequate performance. Several national measurement quality assurance (MQA) programs are operational or under development in specific areas. They employ secondary standards laboratories that provide a high-quality link between the National Bureau of Standards and measurements made at the field use level. The procedures followed by these secondary laboratories to achieve MQA will be described, as well as plans for similar future programs. A growing general national interest in quality assurance, combined with strong specific motivations for MQA in the area of ionizing radiation, will provide continued demand for appropriate national programs. Such programs must, however, employ procedures that are cost effective and must be developed with participation by all affected parties

  15. Statistical measures of unsustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Robert U.

    1996-01-01

    Statistical measures are needed to reveal at a glance how far (or near) various countries are to meeting the conditions of long-run sustainability, and how conditions are changing on a year-to-year basis (i.e., whether sustainability is being approached or not). The scheme proposed in this paper presents numerical comparisons of energy and materials use in the real world vis a vis an ideal case where all of the identifiable criteria for sustainability are satisfied. Apart from population stabilization, five general but quantifiable criteria for sustainability are suggested, including (1) stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, (2) stabilization of acidity (pH) in rainfall, (3) reduction of dissipative uses, and wastes, of heavy metals to natural mobilization rates, or lower, (4) elimination of agriculture based on pumping 'fossil' water from non-renewable aquifers and (5) elimination of loss of arable land because of salination or erosion. Other criteria, such as preservation of biodiversity and socio-economic equity between countries and generations might be added to the list. They introduce more difficult measurement problems, however, which are not considered further in the paper. Having fixed the list of criteria, the next step is to identify measures that either go to zero or unity, as the system approaches more and more closely to sustainability, at least in the limited sense defined above. Various types of measures of sustainability/unsustainability can be developed, viz. (1) measures of relative dependence of the economy on non-renewable sources of energy and materials, (2) measures of the productivity of energy and materials consumed by the economic system and (3) measures of dissipative loss, especially of toxic and hazardous substances. Specific examples of each type are discussed

  16. Thermal Testing Measurements Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wagner

    2002-09-26

    The purpose of the Thermal Testing Measurements Report (Scientific Analysis Report) is to document, in one report, the comprehensive set of measurements taken within the Yucca Mountain Project Thermal Testing Program since its inception in 1996. Currently, the testing performed and measurements collected are either scattered in many level 3 and level 4 milestone reports or, in the case of the ongoing Drift Scale Test, mostly documented in eight informal progress reports. Documentation in existing reports is uneven in level of detail and quality. Furthermore, while all the data collected within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Thermal Testing Program have been submitted periodically to the Technical Data Management System (TDMS), the data structure--several incremental submittals, and documentation formats--are such that the data are often not user-friendly except to those who acquired and processed the data. The documentation in this report is intended to make data collected within the YMP Thermal Testing Program readily usable to end users, such as those representing the Performance Assessment Project, Repository Design Project, and Engineered Systems Sub-Project. Since either detailed level 3 and level 4 reports exist or the measurements are straightforward, only brief discussions are provided for each data set. These brief discussions for different data sets are intended to impart a clear sense of applicability of data, so that they will be used properly within the context of measurement uncertainty. This approach also keeps this report to a manageable size, an important consideration because the report encompasses nearly all measurements for three long-term thermal tests. As appropriate, thermal testing data currently residing in the TDMS have been reorganized and reformatted from cumbersome, user-unfriendly Input-Data Tracking Numbers (DTNs) into a new set of Output-DTNs. These Output-DTNs provide a readily usable data structure

  17. Reactor power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichige, Masayuki; Ishige, Takanori.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for measuring a power such as of a nuclear fission reactor or a thermonuclear reactor by utilizing a light emitting phenomenon by radiation rays of gases. Namely, a measuring vessel sealed with a gas scintillator is inserted to the inside of a reactor. The measuring vessel is optically connected to a photoelectric convertor. The photoelectric convertor is electrically connected with a signal processing device. With such a constitution, gases sealed in the measuring vessel are ionized by radiation rays released in proportion to the power of the reactor to cause scintillation emission. The light is converted into electric signals by the photoelectric convertor. Reactor power can be monitored by the signal processing device having the electric signals as an input. According to the present invention, since the gas scintillation detector is used, the device is simplified and time responsiveness can be improved. As a result, the function of the reactor power measuring device can be improved. (I.S.)

  18. Measurements of fireball onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Brett; Barnat, Edward V.; Baalrud, Scott D.; Hopkins, Matthew M.; Yee, Benjamin T.

    2018-04-01

    Laser-based measurements of the characteristic features of fireball onset and stabilization in response to a stepped voltage applied to an anode immersed in a low pressure (100 mTorr) helium afterglow are reported. These include spatial and temporal evolution of metastable species, electron density, and electric field magnitude as measured by planar laser induced fluorescence, laser-collision induced fluorescence, and laser-induced fluorescence-dip spectroscopy, respectively. These measurements are found to be in qualitative agreement with recent particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical models [Scheiner et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 113520 (2017)]. The measurements validate the simulations and models in which fireball onset was predicted to follow from the trapping of electrons born from electron impact ionization within a potential well created by a buildup of ions in the sheath. The experimental measurements also demonstrate transient features following the onset that were not present in previous simulations. New simulation results are presented which demonstrate that these features are associated with the abruptness of the voltage step used to initiate fireball onset. An abrupt step in the anode bias causes rapid displacement of ions and an associated plasma potential response following the sheath and fireball expansion.

  19. Geophysical borehole measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, K.-Aa.; Duran, O.

    1978-01-01

    A well logging program has been carried out in Sweden in order to investigate the rock properties at depth. The perpose of the investigation is to find out if radioactive waste can be disposed in Sweden. The walls of the borehole have been inspected with a TV-camera. This method has a very high resolution and can detect very small fractures (less than 1 mm). It can also be used to evaluate the orientation of the fractures. The borehole's deviation has been measured with an inclinometer. Natural gamma and induced polarisation measurements have been used to characterize the variation in bedrock composition. The results show that changes in composition are often connected with changes in rock qualities, such as fracture frequency. The resistivity of the borehole fluid has been measured in order to get information about the variation in fluid salinity. Abrupt changes in salinity are connected with major fracture zones. This borehole fluid leaks into the hole from the fractures. In the first 100 m of the borehole measurable permeabilit ies can be obtained of very small fractures (less than 1 mm) are situated between the packers. At depths about 300 m and below, measurable permeabilities are connected with large open fracture zones

  20. Fast-scintillator measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, W.R.; Slaughter, D.R.; Lerche, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors are investigating scintillators because their fast timing properties may be applied to the development of neutron diagnostics. Measuring the history of a target burn by direct observation of DT neutrons requires a time resolution of 20 ps. An instrument designed to measure the plasma ion temperature by neutron time of flight, when the flight path is less than or equal to 1m, requires a detector system with resolution of 60 to 100 ps. Fast plastic scintillators like NE111, BC-422, and SG180 typically have decay constants of about 1400 ps. With quenching, the decay constant can be decreased to about 700 ps - still to slow for the instruments that they would like to build. One yet-unexploited property of fast scintillators is their rise time. In 1984, they began experiments designed to measure scintillator rise times. For our application - the measurement of target burn histories - they are especially concerned with the temporal width of the sample excitation pulse, the temporal resolution of our measurement system, and the need to characterize the excitation pulse and the scintillator output simultaneously. Application of plastic scintillators to a neutron streak camera is described

  1. Measuring past a micron...

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    Infinity: That is the name of the new ultra-precision machine used by CERN's Metrology Service to measure the copper components for the CLIC accelerating structures. This project is the result of a collaboration between CLIC and the EN Department. Curious to find out more? Read on because there’ll be an opportunity for you to get a very close look at Infinity!    Infinity, the new, ultra-precise, measuring machine, is currently in operation at the CERN Metrology Service. The CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) radiofrequency structures will operate under very high electric fields (100 MV/m). They should be manufactured within minimal mechanical tolerances. To validate the quality of these components, they have to be measured with a precision that far exceeds the machining tolerances, i.e. 0.3 microns. No “ordinary” measuring machine can achieve this precision, but Infinity, the newly developed high-precision three-dimensional measuring machine i...

  2. Inmate punishments: Disciplinary measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Ivan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the verdict has become formal and enforceable, and the defendant a convict, sentence execution procedure follows. If the defendant is sentenced to prison, the next step to be taken is the referral institution for execution of sentence of imprisonment. Rules of conduct in the institutions for execution of imprisonment are strictly regulated by legislation governing the rights and obligations of prisoners. Conducts that are prohibited in institutions shall be prescribed as a disciplinary offense, and appropriate disciplinary measures are to be imposed. The subject of this paper are disciplinary measures stipulated by the Law on Execution of Criminal Sanctions of the Republic of Serbia. The paper gives an overview of five disciplinary measures that can be imposed for serious or minor disciplinary offenses. In particular, author focuses his attention to indicating that the imposition and execution of disciplinary measures, are not regulated by Law in the best possible way, so that, in practice, certain problems arise in the application of these measures.

  3. Grid-Enabled Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  4. Measuring reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Gary S

    2013-09-20

    Despite significant changes in the treatment of common eye conditions like cataract and age-related macular degeneration, reading difficulty remains the most common complaint of patients referred for low vision services. Clinical reading tests have been widely used since Jaeger introduced his test types in 1854. A brief review of the major developments in clinical reading tests is provided, followed by a discussion of some of the main controversies in clinical reading assessment. Data for the Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) study demonstrate that standardised clinical reading tests are highly predictive of reading performance under natural, real world conditions, and that discrepancies between self-reported reading ability and measured reading performance may be indicative of people who are at a pre-clinical stage of disability, but are at risk for progression to clinical disability. If measured reading performance is to continue to increase in importance as a clinical outcome measure, there must be agreement on what should be measured (e.g. speed or comprehension) and how it should be measured (e.g. reading silently or aloud). Perhaps most important, the methods for assessing reading performance and the algorithms for scoring reading tests need to be optimised so that the reliability and responsiveness of reading tests can be improved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural power flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  6. Production measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    2017-01-01

    The $\\text{LHC}b$ detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring heavy quark and quarkonia production properties. In addition, the new system of forward shower counters installed upstream and downstream has begun to be used, therefore the experiment is being suited to measure central exclusive production. The $\\text{LHC}b$ measurements of inclusive and differential cross-sections of the production of $J/\\psi$ resonance and $J/\\psi$ pairs, as well bottom quarks and $Z^0$ boson, based on Run 2 datasets are summarized. Finally, results on the prompt production of open charm hadrons and the exclusive production of charmonium are discussed.

  7. Measuring marketing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, J; Michaelis, T

    1987-09-01

    The most frequent question about the marketing function in hospitals today is, What are we getting for our money? To answer this, marketing directors must convince the board first of the need for marketing, then of marketing's effectiveness. To measure marketing effectiveness, some basic needs are a staff, equipment, cooperation between departments, utilization data, and a research budget. Some steps to be followed include developing a marketing data base--consisting of demographic projections, demand projections, and market share--testing a marketing strategy through experimentation, documenting the expected results and measurement techniques, and calculating the expected return on investments. In dealing with those "impossible-to-measure" cases, such as a physician who is not advertising but finds that a competitor is, a decision tree can help determine whether to advertise and how much to spend by indicating what the return on investment might be.

  8. MEASURES OF OCCUPATIONAL MISMATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Mihaela MAER MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research developed in this paper is based on micro data available in Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC. The research aimed to estimate the size of both forms of labour market mismatch: education mismatch and skill mismatch. The first measure of job mismatch is based on workers’ self-assessment. The second one uses the PIAAC assessment regarding the proficiency for each skill dimension (literacy, numeracy and problem solving in technology rich environments. The labor market mismatch was measured for Spain and Italy datasets for the higher education graduates whose occupations are included in Major Group two Professionals, according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations. The estimation results showed that the two measures of labour market mismatch are not correlated.

  9. Measuring efficiency in logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Milovan Andrejić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic market and environmental changes greatly affect operating of logistics systems. Logistics systems have to realize their activities and processes in an efficient way. The main objective of this paper is to analyze different aspects of efficiency measurement in logistics and to propose appropriate models of measurement. Measuring efficiency in logistics is a complex process that requires consideration of all subsystems, processes and activities as well as the impact of various financial, operational, environmental, quality and other factors. The proposed models have a basis in the Data Envelopment Analysis method. They could help managers in decision making and corrective actions processes. The tests and results of the model show the importance of input and output variables selection.

  10. Magnet measurement workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-01

    This report covers the deliberations of the participants the workshop and some subsequent contributions. Section III, the report of the rotating coil group, includes a summary table of the major measuring systems in use today, with separate sections on each. Section IV is the summary report of the group that addressed other measuring techniques. Because one of the limits of all the techniques being considered is electronic data acquisition, Section V addresses this topic. A set of issues relevant to magnetic field measurements of SSC dipoles was raised and addressed during the workshop. These are included as Section VI. Section VII includes a complete list of attendees with their addresses and a separate list of the members of the two working groups.

  11. B meson lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, M.

    1989-01-01

    The lifetime of hadrons containing b-quark has been the subject of extensive experimental work and theoretical speculation; its importance is due to implications on some of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model, such as the top quark mass and the mixing angles. Since the pioneer measurements of the MAC and MARK II collaborations at PEP in 1983 the progress has been impressive; but many issues still remain open and await further study. In this paper the field's present status is discussed. An overview of the theoretical motivations for this measurements in the Standard Model framework is done. Then the experimental techniques used are reviewed, emphasizing the most recent measurements. A comparison of the results obtained is done and systematic errors are discussed. In conclusion there are some remarks on the further developments foreseen in the near future

  12. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, Jon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Braase, Lori [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hurley, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonks, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gofryk, Krzysztof [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fielding, Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knight, Collin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meyer, Mitch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  13. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR

  14. Enhanced Microfluidic Electromagnetic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovangrandi, Laurent (Inventor); Ricco, Antonio J. (Inventor); Kovacs, Gregory (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for enhanced microfluidic impedance spectroscopy include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. Flow in the channel is laminar. A dielectric constant of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than a dielectric constant of the core fluid. Electrical impedance is measured in the channel between at least a first pair of electrodes. In some embodiments, enhanced optical measurements include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. An optical index of refraction of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than an optical index of refraction of the core fluid. An optical property is measured in the channel.

  15. Enterprise performance measurement systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milija Bogavac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement systems are an extremely important part of the control and management actions, because in this way a company can determine its business potential, its market power, potential and current level of business efficiency. The significance of measurement consists in influencing the relationship between the results of reproduction (total volume of production, value of production, total revenue and profit and investments to achieve these results (factors of production spending and hiring capital in order to achieve the highest possible quality of the economy. (The relationship between the results of reproduction and investment to achieve them quantitatively determines economic success as the quality of the economy. Measuring performance allows the identification of the economic resources the company has, so looking at the key factors that affect its performance can help to determine the appropriate course of action.

  16. The measurement of sparkle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, A.; Bayón, S.

    2015-04-01

    Sparkle is a non-uniform texture effect consisting of very bright spots distributed on a dark surround. To date the only commercially-available instrument able to quantify sparkle is BYK-mac. This instrument allows sparkle parameters to be obtained, which should correlate with the visual experience. However, the measurands corresponding to these parameters are not clearly defined and they cannot be measured by any other instruments. In this article, we describe a procedure to measure quantities of well-defined sparkle measurands. We present experimental results at a combination of well-distributed illumination/viewing geometries within the incident plane. From this study, four descriptors are derived which may be correlated with visual attributes of sparkle. Finally, the procedure to estimate the perceived sparkle at any given surround luminance from the measured sparkle quantities is explained.

  17. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynier, Yvan [Meylan, FR; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  18. Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    -Nürnberg, Chair for Quality Management and Manufacturing-Oriented Metrology (Germany). 'Metro-E-Learn' project proposes to develop and implement a coherent learning and competence chain that leads from introductory and foundation e-courses in initial manufacturing engineering studies towards higher....... Machine tool testing 9. The role of manufacturing metrology for QM 10. Inspection planning 11. Quality management of measurements incl. Documentation 12. Advanced manufacturing measurement technology The present report (which represents the section 2 - Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty – of the e-learning......This report is made as a part of the project ‘Metro-E-Learn: European e-Learning in Manufacturing Metrology’, an EU project under the program SOCRATES MINERVA (ODL and ICT in Education), Contract No: 101434-CP-1-2002-1-DE-MINERVA, coordinated by Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen...

  19. Measuring ambivalence to science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, P. L.

    Ambivalence is a psychological state in which a person holds mixed feelings (positive and negative) towards some psychological object. Standard methods of attitude measurement, such as Likert and semantic differential scales, ignore the possibility of ambivalence; ambivalent responses cannot be distinguished from neutral ones. This neglect arises out of an assumption that positive and negative affects towards a particular psychological object are bipolar, i.e., unidimensional in opposite directions. This assumption is frequently untenable. Conventional item statistics and measures of test internal consistency are ineffective as checks on this assumption; it is possible for a scale to be multidimensional and still display apparent internal consistency. Factor analysis is a more effective procedure. Methods of measuring ambivalence are suggested, and implications for research are discussed.

  20. TRUNCATED RANDOM MEASURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-12

    tV e −u/γ ] = ( 1 + te−u/γ )−1 and ∫ J(u, t)du = γ log ( eu/γ + t ) . Using the antiderivative to evaluate the integrals in the formula for BK... Journal of Statistics, 26(2):283–297, 1998. J. F. C. Kingman. Completely random measures. Pacific Journal of Mathematics, 21(1):59–78, 1967. T S Ferguson...Random discrete distributions. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society B, 37(1): 1–22, 1975. Anders Brix. Generalized gamma measures and shot-noise cox

  1. Three measures of longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the trend over time in the measures of "typical" longevity experienced by members of a population: life expectancy at birth, and the median and modal ages at death. The article also analyzes trends in record values observed for all three measures. The record life expectancy...... at birth increased from a level of 44 years in Sweden in 1840 to 82 years in Japan in 2005. The record median age at death shows increasing patterns similar to those observed in life expectancy at birth. However, the record modal age at death changes very little until the second half of the twentieth...

  2. Intercalibration of transuranic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.

    1982-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the coordinated research programme on Transuranic Cycling Behaviour in the Marine Environment has been to achieve the comparability of the measurement results among the laboratories from different countries participating in the programme. In order to fulfil this objective, the intercalibration exercises of transuranic measurements using sea water and sediment samples were organized by the Monaco Laboratory within the duration of the programme in 1979-1981. The sediment and sea water samples were collected respectively by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre of India and the Hydrographic Institute of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the present report the results of these intercalibration exercises are surveyed

  3. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  4. Fission gas measuring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok.

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Fission gas measuring technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Strain and temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, P.A.E.; Fowler, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    A method of non-invasively measuring strain and temperature of an object, substantially simultaneously, using neutrons of selected energy levels is described. A pulsed neutron source is made to emit thermal and epithermal neutrons in a collimated beam directed at the object. Temperature is monitored by observing the thermal Doppler broadening of resonances in the neutron transmission characteristic for the epithermal neutrons and strain is measured from observations made of changes to the thermal neutron diffraction pattern. The object may be a gas turbine blade or a thrust bearing. (author)

  7. Productivity and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Spring, Martin

    This study explores conceptually how performance measurement as discussed in the literature, enables or constrains the ability to manage and improve productivity. It uses an inter-disciplinary literature review to identify five areas of concern relating productivity accounting to the ability...... to improve productivity: “Productivity representation”; “productivity incentives”, “productivity intervention”; “productivity trade-off or synergy” and “productivity strategy and context”. The paper discusses these areas of concern and expands our knowledge of how productivity and performance measurement...

  8. Temperature measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltman, B.G.; Eckerman, K.F.; Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1975-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) material is exposed to a known amount of radiation and then exposed to the environment where temperature measurements are to be taken. After a predetermined time period, the TLD material is read in a known manner to determine the amount of radiation energy remaining in the TLD material. The difference between the energy originally stored by irradiation and that remaining after exposure to the temperature ofthe environment is a measure of the average temperature of the environment during the exposure. (U.S.)

  9. Probability and Measure

    CERN Document Server

    Billingsley, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition "It is, as far as I'm concerned, among the best books in math ever written....if you are a mathematician and want to have the top reference in probability, this is it." (Amazon.com, January 2006) A complete and comprehensive classic in probability and measure theory Probability and Measure, Anniversary Edition by Patrick Billingsley celebrates the achievements and advancements that have made this book a classic in its field for the past 35 years. Now re-issued in a new style and format, but with the reliable content that the third edition was revered for, this

  10. Simulations with complex measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, J.K.; Kieu, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    A method is proposed to handle the sign problem in the simulation of systems having indefinite or complex-valued measures. In general, this new approach, which is based on renormalisation blocking, is shown to yield statistical errors smaller that the crude Monte Carlo method using absolute values of the original measures. The improved method is applied to the 2D Ising model with temperature generalised to take on complex values. It is also adapted to implement Monte Carlo Renormalisation Group calculations of the magnetic and thermal critical exponents. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  12. Planimetric determination of lung volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, M.; Maurer, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    The total volume of the lungs was determined by digital planimetry in 102 patients with emphysema and 33 normal controls aged between 30 and 79 years. The results were compared with the findings obtained from spirometric measurements. Mean values showed a significant relationship to age, body size and body surface. Planimetrically determined lung volume did not show a linear relationship with age, but increased after 60 years. Beyong 60 years, spirometric findings were lower because of an increase in the number of patients with emphysema. The results have shown that digital planimetry is a useful addition to spirometry. (orig.) [de

  13. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  14. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Glaucia Nency; Ruas, Gualberto; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; Jamami, Luciana Kawakami; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires; Jamami, Mauricio

    2010-05-01

    To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05), Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph meters were 428 (263-688 L/min), 450 (350-800 L/min), 420 (310-720 L/min), 380 (300-735 L/min), 400 (310-685 L/min) and 415 (335-610 L/min), respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone(R) (p<0.001) and Galemed (p<0.01) meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  15. Serial HRCT lung changes after 3-field radiation treatment of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, G.C.; Kwong, D.L.W.; Chan, K.N.; Ngan, H.; Lock, D.T.W.; Lam, W.K.; Chan, F.L.; Au, G.; Tsang, K.W.T

    2000-11-01

    AIMS: To document serial high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features of lung injury after 3-field radiotherapy for breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty women who received opposing tangential chest wall and supraclavicular field (SCF) irradiation after breast surgery were recruited. Thoracic HRCT was performed before and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after radiotherapy (RT). Lung injury at 3 months was quantified by applying a scoring system to each HRCT section. Findings were correlated with spirometric lung function tests. RESULTS: There was HRCT evidence of lung injury in 27 (90%) women at 1 month and in all 30 patients at 3 months. Spirometric lung function declined post-RT (P < 0.05), correlating with an increased SCF acute lung injury score at 3 months [r = -0.54 and -0.46, P 0.01 and 0.03 for forced expiratory volume in 1st (FEV{sub 1}) and forced vital capacity (FVC), respectively]. Lung injury on HRCT progressed from ground glass opacification at 1 month to nodular consolidation (3 months), increasing linear densities (6 months), and finally to residual subpleural linear and dense opacities (12 months). CONCLUSION: There is a high incidence of lung injury associated with 3-field radiotherapy for breast cancer, with concurrent SCF irradiation increasing the risk of lung damage and functional impairment. A characteristic sequence of HRCT changes is seen in most patients receiving this type of radiotherapy. Ooi, G.C. (2000)

  16. INFLUENCES OF ASTHMA AND HOUSEHOLD ENVIRONMENT ON LUNG FUNCTION OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined influences of asthma and household environment (passive smoking, gas stove use, and having a dog or cat), on seven measures of spirometric lung function in 8-16 yearold subjects, as measured in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). ...

  17. Effects of a single dose inhlaed corticosteroid on the dynamics of airway obstruction after excercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.M.M.; Nieland, H.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; van Aalderen, W.M.C.; Thio, B.J.; de Jongh, Franciscus H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is defined as a transient narrowing of the airways induced by exercise. Repetitive measurements of spirometric parameters, such as FEV1 and expiratory flows, and forced oscillation technique (FOT) measurements can be used to analyze the dynamics

  18. Measurement Science and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, C. Victor

    The need for training and retraining is a central element in current discussions about the economy of the United States. This paper is designed to introduce training practitioners to some new concepts about how measurement science can provide a new framework for assessing progress and can add new discipline to the development, implementation, and…

  19. Standard Weights and Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 8. Standard Weights and Measures. Vasant Natarajan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 8 August 2001 pp 44-59. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/08/0044-0059. Author Affiliations.

  20. Graphs Generated by Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Assari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a graph is assigned to any probability measure on the σ-algebra of Borel sets of a topological space. Using this construction, it is proved that given any number n (finite or infinite there exists a nonregular graph such that its clique, chromatic, and dominating number equals n.

  1. Investigations on freeform measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; Costacurta, A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This report is made as a part of the project Easytrac, an EU project under the programme: Competitive and Sustainable Growth: Contract No: G6RD-CT-2000-00188, coordinated by UNIMETRIK S.A. (Spain). The project is concerned with low uncertainty calibrations on coordinate measuring machines...

  2. Measuring the chargino parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    After the supersymmetric particles have been discovered, the priority will be to determine independently the fundamental parameters to reveal the structure of the underlying supersymmetric theory. In my talk I discuss how the chargino sector can be reconstructed completely by measuring the cross-sections with polarized ...

  3. Measurement of Humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The project COMET provides a multimedia training package for metrology and measurement. The package is developed by a consortium of 10 institutes from 7 European countries. It consists of 31 modules, each dealing with a particular aspect of metrology, and is available in English, German, French and

  4. Measuring Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Christopher; Bensimon, Estela Mara; Dowd, Alicia C.; Kleiman, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Student success is at the heart of both institutional effectiveness and the community college mission, yet measuring such success at community colleges is problematic. This article highlights three efforts to grapple with this problem--a multistate work group of system- and state-level policymakers to create an improved set of student success…

  5. New measurements techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni

    uncertainties to the measurement process. Optical techniques may help overcoming this problem because the sensing element is not a bulky instrument, but a beam of light that does not change the properties of sound. Optical methods are thus non-invasive and can thereby enhance the current state of the art...

  6. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.S.; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.

    2014-01-01

    n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  7. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  8. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  9. Fuzzy measures and integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mesiar, Radko

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 156 (2005), s. 365-370 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/04/1026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fuzzy measures * fuzzy integral * regular fuzzy integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.039, year: 2005

  10. Precision measurements in supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Johnathan Lee [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed.

  11. Measurement of Electric Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the measurement of electric potentials by means of a flame probe. This method is used extensively in the new Nuffield Advanced Level Physics course, and provides a means of taking reliable quantitative results in an area of most school courses where the majority of the work is qualitative. (JR)

  12. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature, a chirp in the local spatial frequency of interference fringes of an interference pattern is reduced by mathematical manipulation of the recorded light intensity...

  13. Measuring Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Gillen, David

    2014-01-01

    Set in the airport industry, this paper measures firm performance using both desirable and bad outputs (i.e. airport delays). We first estimate a model that does not include the bad outputs and then a model that includes bad outputs. The results show important differences in the efficiency...

  14. Measurement and Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2018-01-02

    This is a chapter for a book called the Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineering. Though it is not obvious from the title, the book deals mainly with power engineering. The first chapter (not mine) is about the fundamental quantities used in measurement. This chapter is about the process and the instrumentation.

  15. Dialogue scanning measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodyuk, V.P.; Shkundenkov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The main developments of scanning measuring systems intended for mass precision processsing of films in nuclear physics problems and in related fields are reviewed. A special attention is paid to the problem of creation of dialogue systems which permit to simlify the development of control computer software

  16. Standard Weights and Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mass standard, represented by the proto- type kilogram, is the only remaining artifact, but there are promising proposals to replace that in the near future. Ever since humans started living in community settle- ments, day to day activities have required the adoption of a set of standards for weights and measures. For ex-.

  17. Measures for speed management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measures for speed management are essential for limiting the negative effects of driving too fast and at inappropriate speeds. To begin with, safe and credible speed limits need to be determined. Dynamic and variable speed limits that take into account the current circumstances, such as weather

  18. Measuring Educational Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvanathan, Rani G.

    2013-01-01

    There are many definitions that are attributable to the meaning of sustainability. Sustainability can be viewed as long-lasting, effective result of a project, venture, action, or investment without consuming additional future resources. Because of the wide nature of its applicability, a universal measure of sustainability is hard to come by. This…

  19. The Measurable Me

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöklint, Mimmi

    2014-01-01

    and mobile apps. On the other hand, the user may actively and knowingly be gathering quantified data through ubiquitous sensory devices, such as wearable technology, e.g. the Jawbone UP and Fitbit. In both instances, the user is exposed to versions of self-quantified measures, namely the aggregation...

  20. Measuring Reading Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, William E., Ed.; And Others

    Designed to provide solutions to some of the problems related to measuring reading behavior, this publication explores some of the problems of test selection and usage which confront educators. Contents include "Reading Testing for Reading Evaluation" by Walter R. Hill, "Reading Tests and the Disadvantaged" by Thomas J. Fitzgibbon, "What Is…

  1. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  2. Temperature measurements by thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liermann, J.

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of a temperature (whatever the type of transducer used) raises three problems: the choice of transducer; where it should be placed; how it should be fixed and protected. These are the three main points examined, after a brief description of the most commonly used thermocouples [fr

  3. The measurement of photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, R; Edwards, C

    1992-09-01

    The use of non-invasive and invasive techniques for the assessment of human photodamaged skin is reviewed. Physical changes during photodamage and its treatment are best scored using a visual analogue scale rather than a short, non-equal interval scale. Epidermal thickness can be measured by histometric methods but dermal thickness can be measured non-invasively using pulsed A-scan and B-scan ultrasound techniques. These approaches are not effective in detecting any changes due to photodamage. Mechanical properties of the dermis can be determined using either a static or a dynamic test mode. The authors have used extensometry to provide a measure of the laxity of skin. Replicas of the crow's foot areas have been taken before and after tretinoin treatment, and the replicas have been inspected by optical profilometry. Reductions of blood flow in photodamaged skin have been established using laser Doppler measurements, the effect being reversed by topical tretinoin. Invasive biochemical techniques have the disadvantage that they generally require large amounts of tissue. Cytochemical techniques, however, have shown increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the granular cell layer of patients with non-melanoma skin cancer, premalignant epidermal lesions, sun-damaged epidermis and artificially irradiated skin. This technique may provide an important model for the study of photodamage. It is concluded that there is no single method available to quantify the degenerative changes associated with photodamage and the effects of tretinoin.

  4. First Measurement of $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomino Gallo, Jose Luis [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-12-01

    Understanding of the $\\pi^0$ production via anti-neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of 1-10 GeV is essential for neutrino oscillation experiments. In this thesis, we present a measurement of charged current $\\pi^0$ production from anti-muon neutrinos scattering on a polystyrene scintillator (CH) target in the MINER$\

  5. Measuring Latent Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Roderick P.

    2011-01-01

    A distinction is proposed between measures and predictors of latent variables. The discussion addresses the consequences of the distinction for the true-score model, the linear factor model, Structural Equation Models, longitudinal and multilevel models, and item-response models. A distribution-free treatment of calibration and…

  6. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  7. Standard Weights and Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and measures from olden days to their modern .... 1 second per day. John Harrison, a carpenter and self-taught clock-maker, refined temperature compensation techniques and added new methods of reducing friction ... slave pendulum gave the master pendulum gentle pushes needed to maintain its motion, and also drove.

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  9. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  10. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  11. Measuring Cultural Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurko, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Many claim that national economic success depends upon cultural homogeneity. We collect new time-series data and develop new measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization for the OECD countries. We show that cultural diversity may vary by type across countries and over short...

  12. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  13. Measurement Decision Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    This paper describes and evaluates the use of decision theory as a tool for classifying examinees based on their item response patterns. Decision theory, developed by A. Wald (1947) and now widely used in engineering, agriculture, and computing, provides a simple model for the analysis of categorical data. Measurement decision theory requires only…

  14. Customer satisfaction measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction is important in business management as a basis for long-term profitability of a single line of products and services and the company as a whole. Customer satisfaction in modern market conditions is characterized by a large number of alternatives that can satisfy the same need or desire of consumers, and are a prerequisite for the retention, loyalty, and positive verbal communication between companies and vendors on one hand and consumers on the other. Companies are investing more and more investment and management efforts in improving customer satisfaction. Improving customer satisfaction and its measurement involves the taking of appropriate marketing strategies and tactics, as well as corrective measures. This paper presents the well-known attempts to measure customers' satisfaction at the macro and micro level of marketing analysis. The index of consumer satisfaction is an important indicator of achieved quality and market performance of companies and can be measured on a micro and macro level. National customer satisfaction indexes are useful framework for analyzing the competitiveness of national economies, industries and individual companies and are used for a variety of other aspects of observation and analysis. Standardization of consumer satisfaction indexes in different countries allows comparability of the data, giving a new quality of analysis in the era of globalization and internationalization of business.

  15. Connectivity measures: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Burel, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2008), s. 879-890 ISSN 0921-2973 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Conservation biology * Habitat fragmentation * Landscape connectivity * Measures * Species extinction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.453, year: 2008

  16. Environmental radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, M.; Izumo, Koichi; Kumagaya, Hidekazu; Kodama, Masahiro

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes on the continuous observation of cosmic-ray components by balloon flights on September 4, 1976, and on August 25, 1977. The purposes of the measurements are to obtain the informations of cosmic-ray measured with G-M counters and scintillation counters, to analyze both data, and to compare the results of both measurements. Observation with a BF 3 counter was also made. The system of observation consists of a detection part and a signal analyzing part. The detection part is composed of G-M counters, a 3 inch spherical NaI scintillation counter and a 95 mm spherical plastic scintillation counter. A BF 3 counter was also used. Informations from the detectors were transmitted as digital signals. The NaI counter detects the gamma-ray components, and the plastic counter detects the charged particle components. The G-M counters measure the altitude dependence and the directional distribution of cosmic ray intensity. The data obtained by scintillation counters were also analyzed to obtain the directional distribution. The obtained results are shown in tables and figures. (Kato, T.)

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ...

  18. Measuring Growth in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Paul B.

    The monograph is a complete outline for a program designed to help English departments institute logical and fair procedures for grading student essays. The contents in this monograph include "Factors in Judgments of Writing Ability,""The Effect of Bias,""Measuring Improvement in Writing,""Personal vs Staff Grading,""Standard Scores for Test…

  19. Reliability measurement without limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Carletta, J.

    In computational linguistics, a reliability measurement of 0.8 on some statistic such as $\\kappa$ is widely thought to guarantee that hand-coded data is fit for purpose, with lower values suspect. We demonstrate that the main use of such data, machine learning, can tolerate data with a low

  20. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  1. Measurements of Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2004-03-01

    The many sensational claims of vast quantities of hydrogen (H) stored in carbon materials reported since 1996 have resulted in the H storage and carbon scientific literature now being cluttered with misinformation and some genuinely bad science. H storage experiments are not trivial, and they are prone to error and misinterpretation. For example, volumetric experiments use equilibrium gas pressures (P) and temperatures (T) measured in calibrated volumes to determine the number of moles of gas, and changes in P without changes in T (or leakage) are then interpreted as sorption. A typical mistake is measuring P vs. time after pressurizing a sample chamber and interpreting a drop in P as sorption. This is difficult to interpret as real absorption because all confounding effects (leaks, T drifts, thermal inhomogeneities, etc.) are nearly impossible to eliminate. Moreover, the basic thermodynamic properties of gas flow systems tell us that high-P gases filling evacuated chambers experience non-negligible rises in T. Another example of misinterpretation arises in gravimetric experiments that use weight (W) measurements corrected for large T-dependent buoyancy effects to determine gas sorption. Here a typical mistake is interpreting the actual sorption of heavy residual impurity gases as H sorption. These and other techniques for measuring H sorption must be performed and interpreted with great care due to difficulties associated with small sample sizes, high gas pressures, very reactive materials, contamination, low signal-to-noise, poor experimental design, and, in some cases, bad science. Good science respects the difference between measurement precision (the number of significant digits of P or W measurements) and experimental accuracy (the degree of certainty that P or W changes really represent H sorption). At General Motors, we endeavor to understand, conduct, and promote reliable H storage measurements on new materials and routinely use both volumetric

  2. Measurement by phase severance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1987-03-01

    It is claimed that the measurement process is more accurately described by ''quasi-local phase severance'' than by ''wave function collapse''. The approach starts from the observation that the usual route to quantum mechanics starting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equations throws away half the degrees of freedom, namely, the classical initial state parameters. To overcome this difficulty, the full set of Hamilton-Jacobi equations is interpreted as operator equations acting on a state vector. The measurement theory presented is based on the conventional S-matrix boundary condition of N/sub A/ free particles in the distant past and N/sub B/ free particles in the distant future and taking the usual free particle wave functions, multiplied by phase factors

  3. Aerial measuring systems program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    EG and G, Inc., has developed for the Department of Energy (DOE) an Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) program dedicated to environmental research at facilities of interest to DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and other federal agencies. The AMS was orginally created to measure nuclear radiation; the program scope has been broadened dramatically to include a wide variety of remote sensors: multispectral and mapping cameras, optical and infrared multispectral scanners, air-sampling systems, and meteorological sensors. The AMS maintains seven aircraft as survey platforms, both fixed-wind aircraft and helicopters. Photography, scanner imagery, and radiation data are processed in dedicated, modern laboratories and used for a broad range of environmental impact studies. A graphic overview system has been developed for effective presentation of all types of remotely sensed data obtained at a facility of interest

  4. Improvements in measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, W.

    1976-01-01

    Measuring apparatus is described that is suitable for gauging the wall profiles of downwardly extending channels in nuclear reactors, but which is equally applicable to channels such as pipe bores and conduits in other types of plant. The apparatus comprises a probe carrying a measuring transducer giving an electrical output. The probe support may be moved stepwise along the channel along a track between end members. An electrical conductor is provided for transmitting the electrical output of the transducer to an indicator located remote from the probe. The probe support may consist of a cable attached at one end to a winding drum, and incorporating an electrical conductor connected to the transducer. Channel engaging means are provided on the probe that permits free upward movement of the probe when the latter is suspended by the cable and moves into gripping engagement with the channel wall when the tension in the cable is relaxed. (U.K.)

  5. Emittance measurements at PITZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vashchenko, Grygorii; Asova, Galina; Baehr, Juergen; Grabosch, Hans Juergen; Hakobyan, Levon; Haenel, Marc; Ivanisenko, Yevgeniy; Khojoyan, Martin; Krasilnikov, Mikhail; Mahgoub, Mahmoud; Nozdrin, Mikhail; O' Shea, Brendon; Otevrel, Marek; Petrosyan, Bagrat; Richter, Dieter; Riemann, Sabine; Rimjaem, Sakhorn; Roensch, Juliane; Shapovalov, Andrey; Spesyvtsev, Roman; Staykov, Lazar; Stephan, Frank [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Floettmann, Klaus; Lederer, Sven; Schreiber, Siegfried [DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Klemz, Guido; Will, Ingo [Max-Born-Institute, Berlin(Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Photo Injector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site, (PITZ) has an aim to develop and optimize high brightness electron sources for Free Electron Lasers like FLASH and the European XFEL. The new laser system allows to produce trains of laser pulses with flat-top temporal profiles of about 20 ps FWHM and rise/fall time of about 2 ps had been commissioned at PITZ in late autumn 2008. Photo electrons emitted from the Cs{sub 2}Te cathode are accelerated by a 1.6-cell L band RF gun cavity operated at 60 MV/m maximum accelerating gradient at the cathode. For measuring of transverse projected emittance the so called single slit scan technique is used at PITZ. This procedure is discussed. Recent results on measured emittance of electron beam are presented.

  6. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid.......The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...

  7. Measuring domestic water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte C.; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct...... databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use....... Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried...

  8. Measuring integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    differences were found in the perception of clinical integration in the two settings. More primary care clinicians in the Northern California region of Kaiser Permanente reported being part of a clinical integrated environment than did Danish general practitioners. By measuring the level of clinical...... respond to these needs, patients and providers face the multiple challenges of today's healthcare environment. Decision makers, planners and managers need evidence based policy options and information on the scope of the integrated care challenges they are facing. The US managed care organization Kaiser...... Permanente has been put forward as an example for European healthcare systems to follow, although the evidence base is far from conclusive. The thesis has five objectives: 1) To contribute to the understanding of the concept of integration in healthcare systems and to identify measurement methods to capture...

  9. Radiation measurement instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements and characteristics of radiation measurement instruments vary according to the circumstances under which they are used (field, area, laboratory conditions) and according to their purpose (radiation survey, personal monitoring, use in emergencies, or alpha, beta or gamma counting). In fact, radiation measurement instruments are so varied that only an overview has been presented here. Groups of instruments for these and other conditions or uses are presented in tabular form together with their operational characteristics and requirements. While examples of calibrations, efficiencies and variability of all the listed instruments are not given in this chapter, these parameters are illustrated for the most important types of gamma and beta survey instruments, in some cases with a specific instrument used as an example. Some of the important parameters that need to be considered for laboratory counting of alpha and beta particles are presented. Charts for determination of optimum sample and background counting times, errors and statistics are given

  10. Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Kugel, H. W.; Hogan, J. T.; Wampler, W. R.

    2004-11-01

    Two quartz microbalances have been used to record deposition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The experimental configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. An RS232 link was used to acquire the quartz crystal frequency and the deposited thickness was recorded continuously with 0.01 nm resolution. Nuclear Reaction Analysis of the deposit was consistent with the measurement of the total deposited mass from the change in crystal frequency. We will present measurements of the variation of deposition with plasma conditions. The transport of carbon impurities in NSTX has been modelled with the BBQ code. Preliminary calculations indicated a negligible fraction of carbon generated at the divertor plates in quiescent discharges directly reaches the outer wall, and that transient events are responsible for the deposition.

  11. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  12. Material damping measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewsbury, Peter

    Consideration is given to ways of measuring vibration damping, the experimental and analytical problems encountered, and definitions of attenuation coefficients. A versatile PC-based apparatus built for measuring the damping of forced flexural vibrations in a beam subjected to static loading within a controlled environment chamber is described. The fixed end provides an inertial reference point and the other end is subjected to static and dynamic forces. This allows the dependences of the attenuation on temperature, humidity, dynamic stress, static stress, aging, fatiguing, etc. to be assessed. The equipment can be operated in real time to give response functions and phase lags as a function of frequency or in a delayed processing mode which samples data at one frequency only and after a delayed analysis directly calculates an attenuation coefficient. Ways of handling and processing the data to minimize errors and avoid unnecessary assumptions relating to the linearity of the response or the nature of the attenuation are highlighted.

  13. High temperature measuring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  14. Which Firms Use Measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Pedersen, Esben; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to outline the anatomy of firms which adopt comprehensive performance measurement (PM) systems in order to gain an understanding of how internal (organisational capabilities) and external (perceived environmental uncertainties) factors shape performance...... – This paper concludes that a limited number of internal and external factors have a significant influence on the adoption of PM systems. There is no consistent pattern, however, between the different sub-categories of organisational capabilities/perceived environmental uncertainties and PM adoption....... Originality/value – Much has been said about how changes in the environment and business structure require firms to develop new ways to measure performance. Less has been done to study whether firms adopting comprehensive PM systems actually match the characteristics of the “new economy”. The findings from...

  15. Measuring mandibular ridge reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, W.H.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mandibular reduction in height of complete denture wearers and overdenture wearers. To follow this reduction in the anterior region as well as in the lateral sections of the mandible, an accurate and reproducible measuring method is a prerequisite. A radiologic technique offers the best chance. A survey is given of the literature concerning the resorption process after the extraction of teeth. An oblique cephalometric radiographic technique is introduced as a promising method to measure mandibular ridge reduction. The reproducibility and the accuracy of the technique are determined. The reproducibility in the positioning of the mandible is improved by the introduction of a mandibular support which permits a precise repositioning of the edentulous jaw, even after long periods of investigation. (Auth.)

  16. Radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1985-01-01

    A highly sensitive and compactly structured radiation measuring instrument for detecting ionizing radiation, in particular for measuring dose rates and contamination. The laminar structure of the associated counter tube, using only a few, simple plastic parts and a highly elastic counter wire, makes it possible to use the simplest manufacturing techniques. The service life of the counter tube construction, which is completely and permanently sealed and filled with gas, is expected to be more than 12 years. The described counter tube can be adapted in optimal fashion to the available space in a pocket instrument if it is used in combination with a specialized high-voltage generator which is low in interference voltage and with a pulse evaluation circuit having a means of compensating for interference voltage

  17. Measuring green jobs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Martinsen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    the initiatives. An alternative framework is suggested, as it appears fundamentally impossible to make consistent frameworks for a division of the economy into “green” and “non-green” activities. The analysis has been carried out during the period September 2011 – March 2012 by Vista Analysis AS, Gaia Consulting......The report reviews the different initiatives aiming to measure aspects of “green” sectors, jobs and technologies. The report discusses whether the statistics collected under the present initiatives aimed at measuring these aspects increase insights into the fundamental questions motivating...... Oy and University of Aarhus. The project was commissioned by the Working Group on Environment and Economy under the Nordic Council of Ministers....

  18. Traceability of measurement results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumantakis, George

    2008-08-01

    * Trueness must be independent of analytical platform and measurements comparable regardless of the analytical procedure used. * Traceability requirements for the clinical laboratory are via National Metrology Institutes, Reference (Calibration) laboratories and finally the routine laboratory. * Traceability information required by today's clinical laboratory may be requested from the manufacturer of the analytical kits and the internet. * Traceable laboratory results will greatly enhance the role of the laboratory in patient management.

  19. Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  20. Measuring our changing Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lee

    2014-01-01

    We live on an ever-changing planet. Volcanoes emerge from the oceans; land is torn apart by earthquakes; tsunamis and floods destroy vast areas of land; landslides transport millions of tonnes of material down hills and mountains causing billions of pounds of damage; coastlines and glaciers retreat at almost visible rates. But can we do anything to measure the changes these geological hazards are making to the earth? Lee Jones says we can.

  1. A power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As, R. van.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the klystron test facility of the Dutch NIKHEF-K accelerator, a sensitive power measuring device has been built. The high-frequency power of a klystron is stored in a water-cooled dummy load. Using a microcomputer, the increase of the water temperature and the water flow rate are transformed to a digital indication of the klystron power. (Auth.)

  2. On convex complexity measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, P.; Jukna, S.; Kulikov, A.; Pudlák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 16-18 (2010), s. 1842-1854 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : boolean formula * complexity measure * combinatorial rectangle * convexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510000885

  3. Measuring Value in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A statistical description and model of individual healthcare expenditures in the US has been developed for measuring value in healthcare. We find evidence that healthcare expenditures are quantifiable as an infusion-diffusion process, which can be thought of intuitively as a steady change in the intensity of treatment superimposed on a random process reflecting variations in the efficiency and effectiveness of treatment. The arithmetic mean represents the net average annual cost of healthcare...

  4. Operational Risk Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela ANGHELACHE; Ana-Cornelia OLTEANU (PUIU); Alina-Nicoleta RADU

    2010-01-01

    Beginning with the fact that performant strategies of the financial institutions have programmes and management procedures for the banking risks, which have as main objective to minimize the probability of risk generation and the bank’s potential exposure, this paper wants to present the operational risk measurement. Therefore, the first part presents the conceptual approach of the operational risks through the point of view of the financial institutions exposed to this type of risk. The seco...

  5. Can We Measure Memes?

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Memes are the fundamental unit of cultural evolution and have been left upon the periphery of cognitive neuroscience due to their inexact definition and the consequent presumption that they are impossible to measure. Here it is argued that although a precise definition of memes is rather difficult it does not preclude highly controlled experiments studying the neural substrates of their initiation and replication. In this paper, memes are termed as either internally or externally represented ...

  6. Measuring child marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Cong Nguyen; Quentin Wodon

    2012-01-01

    Child or early marriage is recognized as an important development and human rights issue that affects girls especially in many developing countries. The practice has been linked to psychological, health, and education risks. These negative impacts explain why in many countries child marriage has been prohibited by law but often with little effect. While child marriage has been recognized as a major issue, its measurement has remained unsophisticated. Existing studies tend to simply report the...

  7. Geometric measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Waerden, B

    1996-01-01

    From the reviews: "... Federer's timely and beautiful book indeed fills the need for a comprehensive treatise on geometric measure theory, and his detailed exposition leads from the foundations of the theory to the most recent discoveries. ... The author writes with a distinctive style which is both natural and powerfully economical in treating a complicated subject. This book is a major treatise in mathematics and is essential in the working library of the modern analyst." Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society.

  8. Measurement device for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, M.

    1982-02-01

    A measurement device for a reactor is described. It consists of closed end guide tubes positioned vertically beneath each of the fuel assemblies; the ends of these tubes are immersed in the core coolant fluid. A ''free space'' in-pile detector and a detection device are enclosed in each of the guide tubes. The state of the core is characterized by output signals delivered by the in-pile detectors. These detectors are of the acoustic type [fr

  9. Measuring Voter Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We present an automated data collection technique called white boxes-or simply wb-technique, which is designed to analyze the voter behavior in polling stations including the measurement of arrival and waiting times and the determination of arrival frequency, to assist the management of polling...... places to make decisions regarding the distribution of resources and to identify areas for future improvement, and to provide hard data to guide the political decision making process with respect to the choice of voting technologies....

  10. Planetary heat flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagermann, Axel

    2005-12-15

    The year 2005 marks the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 13 mission, probably the most successful failure in the history of manned spaceflight. Naturally, Apollo 13's scientific payload is far less known than the spectacular accident and subsequent rescue of its crew. Among other instruments, it carried the first instrument designed to measure the flux of heat on a planetary body other than Earth. The year 2005 also should have marked the launch of the Japanese LUNAR-A mission, and ESA's Rosetta mission is slowly approaching comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Both missions carry penetrators to study the heat flow from their target bodies. What is so interesting about planetary heat flow? What can we learn from it and how do we measure it?Not only the Sun, but all planets in the Solar System are essentially heat engines. Various heat sources or heat reservoirs drive intrinsic and surface processes, causing 'dead balls of rock, ice or gas' to evolve dynamically over time, driving convection that powers tectonic processes and spawns magnetic fields. The heat flow constrains models of the thermal evolution of a planet and also its composition because it provides an upper limit for the bulk abundance of radioactive elements. On Earth, the global variation of heat flow also reflects the tectonic activity: heat flow increases towards the young ocean ridges, whereas it is rather low on the old continental shields. It is not surprising that surface heat flow measurements, or even estimates, where performed, contributed greatly to our understanding of what happens inside the planets. In this article, I will review the results and the methods used in past heat flow measurements and speculate on the targets and design of future experiments.

  11. Supply Chain Interoperability Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    International Journal of Production Economics 85 (2): 199-215. Dumond, E. J. 1994. Making best use of... International Journal of Production Economics 87 (3) (2/18): 333-47. Gunasekaran, A., H. J. Williams, and R. E. McGaughey. 2005. Performance measurement...supply chain quality management and its relevance to academic and industrial practice. International Journal of Production Economics 96 : 315-37.

  12. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  13. Measuring Tax Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    , thereby, the degree of efficiency of a taxsystem. We call this number the Tax Optimality Index. We show howthe basic method can be altered in order to derive a revenue equivalentuniform tax, which measures the size of the public sector. A numericalexample is used to illustrate the method developed.......JEL Code: H21, H41.Keywords: Tax optimality index, excess burden, distance function.Authors Affiliations: Raimondos-Møller: Copenhagen Business School, CEPR,CESifo, and EPRU. Woodland: University of Sydney....

  14. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  15. Centrifugal Contactor Efficiency Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tillotson, Richard Dean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The contactor efficiency of a 2-cm acrylic centrifugal contactor, fabricated by ANL using 3D printer technology was measured by comparing a contactor test run to 5-min batch contacts. The aqueous phase was ~ 3 ppm depleted uranium in 3 M HNO3, and the organic phase was 1 M DAAP/dodecane. Sampling during the contactor run showed that equilibrium was achieved within < 3 minutes. The contactor efficiency at equilibrium was 95% to 100 %, depending on flowrate.

  16. AC resistance measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  17. Cerebral haematocrit measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutfi, Issa.

    1987-01-01

    Regional cerebral haematocrit was measured in a group of sixteen subjects by the single-photon emission computerized tomography method. This group included three normal subjects as controls and thirteen patients affected with ischaemic cerebral disease presenting clinically with transient ischaemic attacks-six patients - or recent cerebral stroke - seven patients. Two intravenous radioactive tracers - technetium-99m labelled autologous red blood cells and Tc-99m human serum albumin were used. Cerebral tomographic imaging was performed using a rotating scintillation camera. The values of cerebral haematocrit obtained, taken as a ratio to venous haematocrit, range between 0.65-0.88 in the subjects studied. As a general finding in normal subjects and in patients with transient ischaemic attacks, no significant difference between right and left hemispheric haematocrit value was noted. However, in the group of patients affected with stroke, a significant difference in the right versus left hemispheric Hct was observed in 3 patients, the higher Hct value corresponding to the affected side. The clinical implication is on the emphasis of cerebral Hct measurement when the measurement of cerebral blood flow or volume is sought. Also the variation in regional Hct value observed in patients with stroke, above mentioned, points to a regulation mechanism of the blood composition for optimal oxygen delivery to the brain that is impaired in these patients. 14 refs. (Author)

  18. Radon and its measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzo, Silvia

    2006-03-01

    The work reviews the topics concerning the problem of the indoor radon and its measurement. The initial stage deals with the general features of radon, from the historical remarks about its discovery to the formation mechanisms in the soil, then passing to describe the transport processes that lead the radon to enter into the buildings. The mean radon concentration distribution among the Italian regions is reported and compared with the situation in the other countries of the world. A particular importance is given to present the national law concerning the radioprotection from the natural sources of ionizing radiations; a paragraph is completely devoted to this argument and to discuss the differences between the Italian approach and the regulations applied in the Test of Europe for both workplaces and dwellings. Chapter 3 describes the different detectors and methods to measure the radon and its short mean live decay products concentrations, together with the operative procedures and guides provided by the Italian law and by the international bodies. As an example of typical radon passive measurement device. the new ENEA detector developed at the Institute of Radioprotection is presented and discussed. Appendix 1 is entirely devoted to discuss the main remedial actions for decreasing the radon indoor concentration both for old and new buildings; appendix 2 reports the main quantities related to radon and radioprotection [it

  19. Burnup degree measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, Tatsuo.

    1994-01-01

    A fixing stand on which a nuclear fuel support and a detector guide support stand are disposed is placed at a predetermined position in a fuel storage pool. Spent nuclear fuels stored in the pool are set in the nuclear fuel support. A closed end of a detector guide tube is secured to the detector guide support stand. The radiation detector is inserted to the detector guide tube, and it is disposed at a predetermined position near the nuclear fuel support. Radiation detection signals detected by the radiation detector are sent to a measuring device for measuring a burnup degree of spent nuclear fuels disposed to the outside of the pool by way of cables. Since the radiation detector is placed near the spent nuclear fuels only upon measurement of the burnup degree, radiation injuries of the radiation detector and the cables are reduced. Further, since the radiation detector and the cables are kept from contact with pool water, radiation decontamination upon maintenance and inspection is not necessary, to facilitate a calibration operation. (I.N.)

  20. Environmental 90Sr measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Cecil, L.D.; Feldstein, H.; Hershkowitz, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Vogt, S.

    1997-01-01

    90Sr (T1/2 = 28.5 years) is a long-lived radionuclide produced in nuclear fission. Fast radiochemical detection of 90Sr in environmental samples is not feasible using current analytical methods. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of 90Sr were made with the Rehovot 14UD Pelletron accelerator at a terminal voltage of 11 or 12 MV using our standard detection system. Injection of hydride ions (SrH3-) was chosen owing to high beam intensity and low Coulomb explosion effects. 90Sr ions were identified and discriminated from isobaric 90Zr by measuring time of flight, total energy and three independent energy-loss signals in an ionization chamber. A reference sample and a ground-water sample were successfully measured. The detection limit determined for a laboratory blank by the residual counts in the 90Sr region is 90Sr/Sr = 3 ?? 10-13, corresponding in practice to (2-4) ?? 10790Sr atoms or about 0.5-1 pCi/L in environmental water samples.