WorldWideScience

Sample records for spiralis muscle larvae

  1. Identification of surface proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae using immunoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R D; Cui, J; Wang, L; Long, S R; Zhang, X; Liu, M Y; Wang, Z Q

    2014-12-01

    Trichinella spiralis surface proteins are directly exposed to the host's immune system, making them the main target antigens which induce the immune responses and may play an important role in the larval invasion and development process. The analysis and characterization of T. spiralis surface proteins could provide useful information to elucidate the host-parasite interaction, identify the early diagnostic antigens and the targets for vaccine. The purpose of this study was to identify the surface proteins of T. spiralis muscle larvae by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) Western-blot analysis and mass spectrometry. The 2-DE results showed that a total of approximately 33 proteins spots were detected with molecular weights varying from 10 to 66 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) from 4 to 7. Fourteen protein spots were recognized by sera of mice infected with T. spiralis at 42 dpi or at 18 dpi, and 12 spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, which represented 8 different proteins of T. spiralis. Out of the 8 T. spiralis proteins, 5 proteins (partial P49 antigen, deoxyribonuclease II family protein, two serine proteases, and serine proteinase) had catalytic and hydrolase activity, which might be the invasion-related proteins and the targets for vaccine. The 4 proteins (deoxyribonuclease II family protein, serine protease, 53 kDa ES antigen and hypothetical protein Tsp_08444) recognized by infection sera at 18 dpi might be the early diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis.

  2. Identification of early diagnostic antigens from major excretory-secretory proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae using immunoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Cui, Jing; Hu, Dan Dan; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan

    2014-01-22

    The excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) come mainly from the excretory granules of the stichosome and the cuticles (membrane proteins), are directly exposed to the host's immune system, and are the main target antigens, which induce the immune responses. Although the ES proteins are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, their main disadvantage are the false negative results during the early stage of infection. The aim of this study was to identify early specific diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with Western blot were used to screen the early diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. The protein spots recognized by the sera from BALB/c mice infected with T. spiralis at 18 days post-infection (dpi) were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and putatively annotated using GO terms obtained from the InterPro databases. The ES proteins were analyzed by 2-DE, and more than 33 protein spots were detected with molecular weight varying from 40 to 60 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) from 4 to 7. When probed with the sera from infected mice at 18 dpi, 21 protein spots were recognized and then identified, and they were characterized to correlate with five different proteins of T. spiralis, including two serine proteases, one deoxyribonuclease (DNase) II, and two kinds of trypsin. The five proteins were functionally categorized into molecular function and biological process according to GO hierarchy. 2-DE and Western blot combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS were used to screen the diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. The five proteins of T. spiralis identified (two serine proteases, DNase II and two kinds of trypsin) might be the early specific diagnostic antigens of trichinellosis.

  3. [Evaluation of artificial digestion method on inspection of meat for Trichinella spiralis contamination and influence of the method on muscle larvae recovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Ying; Du, Jing-Fang; Dun, Guo-Qing; Sun, Wei-Li; Wang, Jin-Xi

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of artificial digestion method on inspection of meat for Trichinella spiralis contamination and its influence on activity and infectivity of muscle larvae. The mice were inoculated orally with 100 muscle larvae of T. spiralis and sacrificed on the 30th day following the infection. The muscle larvae of T. spiralis were recovered by three different test protocols employing variations of the artificial digestion method, i.e. the first test protocol evaluating digestion for 2 hours (magnetic stirrer method), the second test protocol evaluating digestion for 12 hours, and the third test protocol evaluating digestion for 20 hours. Each test group included ten samples, and each of which included 300 encapsulated larvae. Meanwhile, the activity of the recovered muscle larvae was also assessed. Forty mice were randomly divided into a control group and three digestion groups, so 4 groups (with 10 mice per group) in total. In the control group, each mouse was orally inoculated with 100 encapsulated larvae of T. spiralis. In all of the digestion test groups, each mouse was orally inoculated with 100 muscle larvae of T. spiralis. The larvae were then recovered from the different three test groups by the artificial digestion protocol variations. All the infected mice were sacrificed on the 30th day following the infection, and the muscle larvae of T. spiralis were examined respectively by the diaphragm compression method and the magnetic stirrer method. The muscle larvae detection rates were 78.47%, 76.73%, and 68.63%, the death rates were 0.59%, 4.60%, and 7.43%, and the reduction rates were 60.56%, 61.94%, and 73.07%, in the Test Group One (2-hour digestion), Test Group Two (12-hour digestion) and Test Group Three (20-hour digestion), respectively. The magnetic stirrer method (2-hour digestion method) is superior to both 12-hour digestion and 20-hour digestion methods when assessed by the detection rate, activity and infectivity of muscle larvae.

  4. Comparison of artificial digestion and Baermann's methods for detection of Trichinella spiralis pre-encapsulated larvae in muscles with low-level infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Wang, Zhong-Quan; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Artificial digestion method is widely used for the detection of Trichinella larvae (mainly the mature larvae, e.g., encapsulated larvae in encapsulated Trichinella) in meat. The previous studies demonstrated that Trichinella spiralis pre-encapsulated larvae (PEL) at 14-18 days postinfection (dpi) had the infectivity to new hosts. However, to our knowledge, there is no report on the detection methods of PEL in meat. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of artificial digestion and Baermann's methods for detection of T. spiralis PEL in meat, and to test the factors affecting the sensitivity of the two methods. Forty-five male Kunming mice were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 mice per group), and each group of mice was orally inoculated with 20, 10, or 5 muscle larvae of T. spiralis, respectively. All infected mice were slaughtered at 18 dpi, and the muscles were minced. The digestion method that was recommended by International Commission on Trichinellosis and Baermann's method were used to detect the PEL in the infected mice. The detection rate of PEL in both mice infected with 20 muscle larvae by digestion and Baermann's method was 100% (15/15); the detection rates of PEL in mice infected with 10 larvae by the two methods just mentioned were 93.33% (14/15) and 100% (15/15), respectively; when the mice infected with 5 larvae were tested, the different detection rate of PEL was achieved by using digestion method (63.33%) and Baermann's method (100%). Additionally, the number of PEL collected from the mice infected with 20, 10, or 5 larvae by Baermann's method was greater than that by digestion methods. The mortality of PEL increased along with the prolongation of digestion duration, because the PEL were not resistant to enzymatic digestion. The results revealed that the Baermann's method is superior to the digestion methods for detection of T. spiralis PEL in muscle samples with low-level infections.

  5. Comparative analysis of excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi muscle larvae by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bien Justyna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease in humans caused by Trichinella spp. The present study was undertaken to discover excretory-secretory (E-S proteins from T. spiralis and T. britovi muscle larvae (ML that hold promise for species-specific diagnostics. To that end, the purified E-S proteins were analyzed by fluorescent two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE coupled with protein identification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. To search for immunoreactive proteins that are specifically recognized by host antibodies the E-S proteins were subjected to two-dimensional (2-DE immunoblotting with antisera derived from pigs experimentally infected with T. spiralis or T. britovi. Results According to 2-D DIGE analysis, a total of twenty-two proteins including potentially immunogenic proteins and proteins produced only by one of the two Trichinella species were subjected to LC-MS/MS for protein identification. From these proteins seventeen could be identified, of which many were identified in multiple spots, suggesting that they have undergone post-translational modification, possibly involving glycosylation and/or proteolysis. These proteins included 5'-nucleotidase, serine-type protease/proteinase, and p43 glycoprotein (gp43 as well as 49 kDa E-S protein (p49. Our findings also suggest that some of the commonly identified proteins were post-translationally modified to different extents, which in certain cases seemed to result in species-specific modification. Both commonly and specifically recognized immunoreactive proteins were identified by 2-DE immunoblotting; shared antigens were identified as gp43 and different protease variants, whereas those specific to T. britovi included multiple isoforms of the 5'-nucleotidase. Conclusions Both 2-D DIGE and 2-DE immunoblotting approaches indicate that T. spiralis and T. britovi produce somewhat distinctive antigen profiles, which contain E

  6. Comparative analysis of excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi muscle larvae by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Justyna; Näreaho, Anu; Varmanen, Pekka; Gozdzik, Katarzyna; Moskwa, Bozena; Cabaj, Wladyslaw; Nyman, Tuula A; Savijoki, Kirsi

    2012-02-11

    Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease in humans caused by Trichinella spp. The present study was undertaken to discover excretory-secretory (E-S) proteins from T. spiralis and T. britovi muscle larvae (ML) that hold promise for species-specific diagnostics. To that end, the purified E-S proteins were analyzed by fluorescent two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) coupled with protein identification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To search for immunoreactive proteins that are specifically recognized by host antibodies the E-S proteins were subjected to two-dimensional (2-DE) immunoblotting with antisera derived from pigs experimentally infected with T. spiralis or T. britovi. According to 2-D DIGE analysis, a total of twenty-two proteins including potentially immunogenic proteins and proteins produced only by one of the two Trichinella species were subjected to LC-MS/MS for protein identification. From these proteins seventeen could be identified, of which many were identified in multiple spots, suggesting that they have undergone post-translational modification, possibly involving glycosylation and/or proteolysis. These proteins included 5'-nucleotidase, serine-type protease/proteinase, and p43 glycoprotein (gp43) as well as 49 kDa E-S protein (p49). Our findings also suggest that some of the commonly identified proteins were post-translationally modified to different extents, which in certain cases seemed to result in species-specific modification. Both commonly and specifically recognized immunoreactive proteins were identified by 2-DE immunoblotting; shared antigens were identified as gp43 and different protease variants, whereas those specific to T. britovi included multiple isoforms of the 5'-nucleotidase. Both 2-D DIGE and 2-DE immunoblotting approaches indicate that T. spiralis and T. britovi produce somewhat distinctive antigen profiles, which contain E-S antigens with potential as species-specific diagnostic

  7. Detrimental effects of geldanamycin on adults and larvae of Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease affecting mainly the temperate regions. The treatment is a challenge for the physician, and the available therapy is far from ideal. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the effect of heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, geldanamycin, on the adult worms and larvae of Trichinella spiralis. This research comprised an in vivo study in which T. spiralis-infected mice were treated by two different doses of geldanamycin, thereafter larval count and pathological changes were determined in the muscles. Meanwhile, the in vitro study investigated the effect of two different concentrations of geldanamycin on adult worms and larvae of T. spiralis via transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo study showed significant reduction of muscle larval counts under the effect of geldanamycin. Moreover, characteristic changes were noted as regards the parasite and the inflammatory response. The in vitro study revealed degenerative changes in the body wall of larvae and adults of T. spiralis under the influence of geldanamycin. In conclusion, heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, geldanamycin, seems to have detrimental effects on the adults and larvae of T. spiralis. It, or one of its derivatives, could be an adjuvant to anthelmintic therapy of trichinellosis, but more studies are warranted to establish its usefulness.

  8. Comparison of cholinesterase activities in the excretion-secretion products of Trichinella pseudospiralis and Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ros-Moreno R.M.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of cholinesterases (ChE is reported in T. pseudospiralis excretion-secretion products (ESP by spectrophotometry method, using acetylthiocholine (ATCI and butyrilthiocholine (BTCI as substrates. By inhibition assays, we found that T. pseudospiralis release both acetyl- and butiryl-cholinesterases (AchE and BchE, respectively. The sedimentation coefficientes of these enzymes were determined by sucrose density gradient. We studied the in vivo ChE secretion by immunoblot assays using AchE from Electrophorus (electric eel and sera from normal or infected mice with T. pseudospiralis or T. spiralis. The presence of anti-AchE antibodies was only demonstrated in the sera from T. pseudospiralis infected mice. Moreover the in vivo secretion was corroborated by the high difference determinate between the ChE activity of the immuno complexes from T. pseudospiralis infected sera and the immunocomplexes from T. spiralis infected sera as well as normal sera. Finally, we analyzed the effect of the organophosphate NeguvónR (metrifonate on the ChE activity from the J. pseudospiralis ESP. The drug inhibits in part this activity. Moreover NeguvónR (metrifonate showed a high activity against the T. pseudospiralis viability.

  9. Identification of differentially expressed genes of Trichinella spiralis larvae after exposure to host intestine milieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jun Ren

    Full Text Available Although it has been known for many years that T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML can not invade intestinal epithelial cells unless they are exposed to the intestinal milieu and activated into intestinal infective larvae (IIL, which genes in IIL are involved in the process of invasion is still unknown. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH was performed to identify differentially expressed genes between IIL and ML. SSH library was constructed using cDNA generated from IIL as the 'tester'. About 110 positive clones were randomly selected from the library and sequenced, of which 33 T. spiralis genes were identified. Thirty encoded proteins were annotated according to Gene Ontology Annotation in terms of molecular function, biological process, and cellular localization. Out of 30 annotated proteins, 16 proteins (53.3% had binding activity and 12 proteins (40.0% had catalytic activity. The results of real-time PCR showed that the expression of nine genes (Ts7, Ndr family protein; Ts8, serine/threonine-protein kinase polo; Ts11, proteasome subunit beta type-7; Ts17, nudix hydrolase; Ts19, ovochymase-1; Ts22, fibronectin type III domain protein; Ts23, muscle cell intermediate filament protein OV71; Ts26, neutral and basic amino acid transport protein rBAT and Ts33, FACT complex subunit SPT16 from 33 T. spiralis genes in IIL were up-regulated compared with that of ML. The present study provide a group of the potential invasion-related candidate genes and will be helpful for further studies of mechanisms by which T. spiralis infective larvae recognize and invade the intestinal epithelial cells.

  10. Infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae in pork buried in the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovic S.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Time of survival and infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae in pig muscle tissue, buried at various depths in the ground were assessed. In the pork pieces the number of infective larvae was 250 ML/g. Meat originated from pig halves was divided in 39 equal pieces, 0.7 kg each, disposed in three groups of 1 3, and buried in depths of 30, 50, and 100 centimeters respectively. The pork was dug up at 13 intervals, approximately every week, until 91st day of the experiment. After each time interval, infectivity of larvae was assessed by bioassay on rats. The artificially infected rats were sacrificed on 42nd day after the infection and meat was examined by the following methods - artificial digestion and trichinoscopy. It was found that the larvae during all 90 days preserved infectivity in each depth.

  11. Trichinella spiralis shares epitopes with human autoantigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Radovic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Like other helminths, Trichinella spiralis has evolved strategies to allow it to survive in the host organism, including the expression of epitopes similar to those present in either expressed or hidden host antigens. To identify T. spiralis-derived antigens that are evolutionarily conserved in the parasite and its host and that could be responsible for its evasion of the host immune response, we examined the reactivity of six different types of autoantibodies to T. spiralis larvae from muscle. T. spiralis antigens that share epitopes with human autoantigens were identified by assessing the cross-reactivity of autoantibody-containing serum samples with T. spiralis antigens in the absence of specific anti-parasite antibodies. Of the 55 autoantibody-containing human serum samples that we analysed by immunohistological screening, 24 (43.6% recognised T. spiralis muscle larvae structures such as the subcuticular region, the genital primordium or the midgut. Using Western blots, we demonstrated that the same sera reacted with 24 protein components of T. spiralis muscle larvae excretory-secretory L1 antigens. We found that the human autoantibodies predominantly bound antigens belonging to the TSL1 group; more specifically, the autoantibody-containing sera reacted most frequently with the 53-kDa component. Thus, this protein is a good candidate for further studies of the mechanisms of T. spiralis-mediated immunomodulation.

  12. Trichinella spiralis, T-britovi, and T-nativa: infectivity, larval distribution in muscle, and antibody response after experimental infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C.M.O.; Webster, P.; Lind, Peter

    1998-01-01

    larvae per gram (lpg)] and in three of four pigs inoculated with T. britovi (mean 7 lpg). No larvae were found in pigs inoculated with T. nativa. For T. spiralis and T. britovi, the neck muscle (m. splenius) appears to be a predilection site in addition to the tongue, the diaphram, and the jaw. High...... samples from wild animals. Immunoblotting (Western blots) on slaughter sera revealed no species specificity when comparing homologous versus heterologous staining....

  13. New diagnostic antigens for early trichinellosis: the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis intestinal infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ge Ge; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiao Lin; Liu, Chun Yin; Zhang, Xi; Cui, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, but anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies cannot be detected until 2-3 weeks after infection; there is an obvious window period between Trichinella infection and antibody positivity. Intestinal infective larvae (IIL) are the first invasive stage during Trichinella infection, and their ES antigens are firstly exposed to the immune system and might be the early diagnostic markers of trichinellosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early diagnostic values of IIL ES antigens for trichinellosis. The IIL were collected from intestines of infected mice at 6 h postinfection (hpi), and IIL ES antigens were prepared by incubation for 18 h. Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in mice infected with 100 ML were detectable by ELISA with IIL ES antigens as soon as 10 days postinfection (dpi), but ELISA with ML ES antigens did not permit detection of infected mice before 12 dpi. When the sera of patients with trichinellosis at 19 dpi were assayed, the sensitivity (100 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was evidently higher than 75 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05) The specificity (96.86 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was also higher than 89.31 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05). The IIL ES antigens provided a new source of diagnostic antigens and could be considered as a potential early diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis.

  14. Coloración de azul de metileno como alternativa para determinar la viabilidad de larvas libres de Trichinella spiralis Methylene blue test for the determination of viability of free larvae of Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Randazzo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar si la coloración con azul de metileno, de probada utilidad para demostrar la viabilidad de protoescólices de Echinococcus granulosus, puede evidenciar también la viabilidad de larvas libres de Trichinella spiralis. Para ello se utilizaron tres suspensiones de larvas de T. spiralis (M1, M2 y M3, las que fueron expuestas a diferentes condiciones y observadas a distintos tiempos: M1 se expuso a -30 °C y se observó a los 70 días; M2 a 80 °C durante 5 minutos y se observó inmediatamente, y M3 se mantuvo a 4 °C durante todo el experimento, como testigo del 100% de vitalidad. Cada suspensión contenía 500 estadios larvarios libres. Se emplearon 100 μl de solución de azul de metileno 1:10 000 en agua destilada, agregados a igual volumen de suspensión de larvas, y las muestras fueron observadas al microscopio óptico para evaluar la motilidad. Los resultados evidenciaron que cuando las larvas de T. spiralis estaban muertas (M1 y M2, el 100% se coloreaban totalmente de azul en su interior, y las estructuras internas, en relación con la capa quitinosa, aparecían retraídas y algunas fragmentadas. En la suspensión testigo M3 las larvas no se coloreaban, y como prueba adicional de viabilidad se pudo observar su típico movimiento en espiral en el 100% de ellas.The present research was carried out with the purpose of determining whether or not the methylene blue test could also evidence viability of free larvae of Trichinella spiralis, taking into account its usefulness in the determination of viability of protoscolices in Echinococcus granulosus. To this end, three T. spiralis larval suspensions (M1, M2 and M3 were used, each containing 500 free larval stages. A hundred μl of methylene blue solution 1:10000 in distilled water were added to 100 μl of the larval suspension. Larvae were observed under optical microscopy to evaluate motility. M1 was exposed to -30 °C and could be

  15. Study on innocent irradiation treatment of Trichinella spiralis pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guang; Guo Anxi; Xu Zhaomei

    1992-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co gamma rays on pork Trichinella spiralis and nutritional hygiene evaluation of irradiated Trichinella spiralis pork were studied by using animal infestation test and artificial gastric juice digestion method. The results showed that when mouse was infested by Trichinella spiralis pork irradiated with a dose of 0.04 kGy, the number of the second generation larvae and the parasitism in the muscle were reduced. 0.08 kGy irradiation could render the intestine Trichinella spiralis sterile. 0.1 kGy blocked the growth of Trichinella spiralis, which were excreted from the body four days after infestation. 0.2-0.8 kGy irradiation could severely block the growth of Trichinella spiralis, which were excreted completely from the body within forth-eight hours when irradiated with 7 kGy and 8 kGy, the Trichinella spiralis body was not found in the intestine within twenty-four hours. 0.3 kGy and 1 kGy irradiation had no harmful effect on nutrition and wholesomeness of Trichinella spiralis pork. Innocent irradiation treatment of Trichinella spiralis pork is practicable, and the lowest dose should be 0.3 kGy

  16. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacour, Sandrine A.; Heckmann, Aurelie; Mace, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears...... spiralis and Trichinella britovi ML in wild boar meat 24 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Three groups of four wild boars were infected with 200, 2000 or 20,000 ML of T. britovi (ISS 1575), respectively. Additionally, three wild boars were inoculated with 20,000 ML of T. spiralis (ISS 004) and two animals...... served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21 degrees C for 19,30 and 56h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam (R) image analysis software and their infectivities were...

  17. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Sandrine A; Heckmann, Aurélie; Macé, Pauline; Grasset-Chevillot, Aurélie; Zanella, Gina; Vallée, Isabelle; Kapel, Christian M O; Boireau, Pascal

    2013-05-20

    Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi ML in wild boar meat 24 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Three groups of four wild boars were infected with 200, 2000 or 20,000 ML of T. britovi (ISS 1575), respectively. Additionally, three wild boars were inoculated with 20,000 ML of T. spiralis (ISS 004) and two animals served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21°C for 19, 30 and 56 h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam(®) image analysis software and their infectivities were evaluated using mouse bioassays. Samples frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h allowed recovery of mobile ML, but samples frozen for 1 or 2 weeks did not. Correspondingly, only T. spiralis and T. britovi larvae isolated from wild boar meat frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h established in mice. This study showed that freezing at -21°C for 1 week inactivated T. spiralis and T. britovi ML encapsulated in wild boar meat for 24 weeks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of a fluid versus a powder pepsin formulation to detect Trichinella spiralis larvae in meat samples by a digestion technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Nockler, K.; Pozio, E.

    2007-01-01

    the digestion fluid and the amount of debris remaining after digestion. For the ring trial, at each laboratory 20 blinded replicate 100-g samples of pork meat containing a known number of encapsulated T. spiralis larvae (0 to 30) were digested by the magnetic stirrer method using either the standard pepsin......Pepsin powder constitutes a health risk, potentially causing severe allergic reactions to those handling the chemical. A fluid pepsin formulation was produced and tested, first in a preliminary study and then in a ring trial encompassing four European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs......). The purpose of each trial was to ascertain and compare the action of pepsin powder with that of the pepsin fluid for digesting meat and liberating encapsulated Trichinella spiralis larvae for subsequent counting. The quality of digestion was furthermore evaluated by assessing the visibility through...

  19. Evaluation of a fluid versus a powder pepsin formulation to detect Trichinella spiralis larvae in meat samples by a digestion technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Nockler, K.; Pozio, E.

    2007-01-01

    Pepsin powder constitutes a health risk, potentially causing severe allergic reactions to those handling the chemical. A fluid pepsin formulation was produced and tested, first in a preliminary study and then in a ring trial encompassing four European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs......). The purpose of each trial was to ascertain and compare the action of pepsin powder with that of the pepsin fluid for digesting meat and liberating encapsulated Trichinella spiralis larvae for subsequent counting. The quality of digestion was furthermore evaluated by assessing the visibility through...... the digestion fluid and the amount of debris remaining after digestion. For the ring trial, at each laboratory 20 blinded replicate 100-g samples of pork meat containing a known number of encapsulated T. spiralis larvae (0 to 30) were digested by the magnetic stirrer method using either the standard pepsin...

  20. Studies on vertical transmission of Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Eliana; Fiel, Cesar; Bernat, Gisele; Muchiut, Sebastián; Steffan, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    An experimental study to enhance knowledge on the capability of Trichenella spiralis to pass from guinea pigs to progeny at different periods of pregnancy or lactation was performed. For this purpose, 18 female adult guinea pigs were inoculated with 100 or 1000 T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) during early, late gestation and during lactation period. The presence of T. spiralis (ML) in mothers and newborns was studied through enzymatic digestion from muscle samples. ML were observed in 9 of 42 newborn guinea pigs and levels of infection were significantly higher when infections of mothers were done during late gestation (p = 0.0046) with the high infective dose (p = 0.0043). T. spiralis ML were not recovered from any of the newborns from mothers infected in the lactation period. Ten out of 18 infected mothers presented larvae 1 in their mammary glands. Muscle samples from the tongue and the masseter showed the highest larval burdens. These observations confirm previous reports on that ML of T. spiralis are capable to pass through placental tissues to reach and encyst in striated muscle groups of newborn guinea pigs. This study may also reinforce the importance of preventive programs to control trichinellosis in those endemic areas where pregnant women would have high risk of infection.

  1. Heterologous Prime-Boost Vaccination Enhances TsPmy’s Protective Immunity against Trichinella spiralis Infection in a Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available TsPmy is a paramyosin expressed by parasitic Trichinella spiralis and confers a protective immunity when its recombinant protein or DNA was used as an immunogen. To improve its immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy, we conducted a heterologous prime-boost strategy by orally delivering one dose of TsPmy DNA carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (SL7207, followed by two doses of recombinant TsPmy intramuscularly. This strategy effectively induced intestinal mucosal sIgA response and an enhanced and balanced Th1/Th2 immune responses that improve protection against T. spiralis larval challenge, with 55.4% muscle larvae reduction and 41.8% adult worm reduction compared to PBS control. The muscle larvae reduction induced by heterologous prime-boost regimen was significant higher than that induced by the homologous DNA or protein prime-boost regimens, which could act as a practical prophylactic approach to prevent T. spiralis infection.

  2. Trichinella spiralis Calreticulin Binds Human Complement C1q As an Immune Evasion Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Limei; Shao, Shuai; Chen, Yi; Sun, Ximeng; Sun, Ran; Huang, Jingjing; Zhan, Bin; Zhu, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    As a multicellular parasitic nematode, Trichinella spiralis regulates host immune responses by producing a variety of immunomodulatory molecules to escape from host immune attack, but the mechanisms underlying the immune evasion are not well understood. Here, we identified that T. spiralis calreticulin ( Ts -CRT), a Ca 2+ -binding protein, facilitated T. spiralis immune evasion by interacting with the first component of human classical complement pathway, C1q. In the present study, Ts -CRT was found to be expressed on the surface of different developmental stages of T. spiralis as well as in the secreted products of adult and muscle larval worms. Functional analysis identified that Ts -CRT was able to bind to human C1q, resulting in the inhibition of C1q-initiated complement classical activation pathway reflected by reduced C4/C3 generation and C1q-dependent lysis of antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes. Moreover, recombinant Ts -CRT (r Ts -CRT) binding to C1q suppressed C1q-induced THP-1-derived macrophages chemotaxis and reduced monocyte-macrophages release of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs). Blocking Ts -CRT on the surface of newborn larvae (NBL) of T. spiralis with anti- Ts -CRT antibody increased the C1q-mediated adherence of monocyte-macrophages to larvae and impaired larval infectivity. All of these results suggest that T. spiralis -expressed Ts -CRT plays crucial roles in T. spiralis immune evasion and survival in host mostly by directly binding to host complement C1q, which not only reduces C1q-mediated activation of classical complement pathway but also inhibits the C1q-induced non-complement activation of macrophages.

  3. Sensitivity and optimization of artificial digestion in the inspection of meat for Trichinella spiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Cui, Jing; Wang, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Peng

    2010-08-01

    In many countries, the method of choice in inspecting meat for Trichinella spiralis infection is artificial digestion. We conducted a study of the sensitivity of the artificial digestion method recommended by the International Commission on Trichinellosis for detecting T. spiralis larvae in meat and of the effect of modifications of some procedures used in the method on its sensitivity. As part of this, we evaluated the effects on larval recovery of the vessels used for larval settling, sieve sizes, and temperatures at which larvae passed through the sieves, using larvae from T. spiralis-infected mice. We observed the effects on larval recovery of digestion duration and of modified artificial digestion by using 10-g samples of infected mouse muscle alone or mixed with uninfected pork. The percentages of larvae recovered with the respective use of separatory funnels and conical cylinders were 51.20% and 98.70%. The rates of recovery of T. spiralis larvae at 4 degrees C after passage through sieves of 425-microm mesh (No. 40), 250-microm mesh (No. 60), and 180-microm mesh (No. 80) were 98.42%, 90.59%, and 81.63%, which exceeded the 97.79%, 85.10%, and 61.12% rates of recovery of motile larvae at 40 degrees C and the 95.12%, 78.60%, and 44.16% rates of recovery of dead larvae at 90 degrees C. The larval recovery rate after digestion for 2 hours (96.18%) was greater than that after 0.5 hours (88.00%). We then examined a modified digestion method in which 10-g samples of pork mixed with 300 mL of digestive solution were digested for 2 hours at 43 degrees C followed by chilling of digest solution to 4 degrees C before passing it through a 425-microm mesh (No. 40) sieve and allowing it to settle in a 1-L conical cylinder. With this procedure, the modified method detected T. spiralis in samples of pork meat weighing 10 g and containing either 1 larva per gram or 0.1 larva per gram. Further validation of digestion method incorporating these modifications is required with

  4. Possible presence of common tyvelose-containing glycans in Trichinella L1 larvae and embryonated eggs of several nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea-Ayuela M.A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A monoclonal antibody (mAb US4 recognising an epitope containing tyvelose within the T. spiralis L-1 muscle larvae (TSL-1 antigens was tested in western-blot against various antigenic preparations from different stages of the following nematodes: T. spiralis (L1,adult, T. muris (egg, L1, L3, adult, Ascaris suum (egg, adult, Toxocara canis (egg, adult, Anisakis simplex (L3 and Haemochus contortus (egg. Positive reaction was present in antigen preparations from L1 larvae of T. spiralis and T. muris and from embryonated eggs of T. muris, A. suum, T. canis and H. conlortus.

  5. Identification of cDNA clones expressing immunodiagnostic antigens from Trichinella spiralis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarlenga, D.; Gamble, H.R.

    1987-05-01

    A cDNA expression library was built in lambda gt11 phage using poly A mRNA isolated from Trichinella spiralis muscle stage larvae. This library was screened with rabbit antibodies to parasite excretory-secretory (ES) products and greater than 180 clones were isolated. Thirteen clones producing highly immunogenic protein antigens were plaque purified and rescreened with pig antisera to T.spiralis, Trichuris suis or Ascaris suum to identify clones producing epitopes specific to T.spiralis ES products, only. Two clones, TsAc-2 and TsAc-8, which displayed strong interactions with pig antisera to T. spiralis were lysogenized in E. coli Y1089 and the protein extracted. Western blots of the crude fusion proteins revealed molecular weights of 133 kD and 129 kD, respectively. Northern blot analysis of total RNA with TSP labelled cDNA:lambda gt11 probes indicated single RNA transcripts for each clone with molecular sizes corresponding to 800-850 nucleotides. dscDNA inserts were estimated by southern blot analysis to be 500 bp and 340 bp, respectively, with no cross-hybridization observed between the cloned sequences. Dot blots using pig sera to screen crude fusion protein preparations, total bacterial protein (negative controls) and crude worm extract or ES products from T.spiralis, T.suis and A.suum (positive controls) corroborated the specificity and sensitivity of these clones as potential diagnostic antigens for swine trichinellosis.

  6. Paraoxonase-1 activity is related to Trichinella spiralis-induced hepatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Ayman Samir; Fath, Eman Mohamed; Mido, Shogo; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the potential adverse effects of a chronic zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis infection on hepatic inflammation and its relationship to paraoxonase (PON)-1 and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of T. spiralis infection on hepatic synthesis of PON1. Wistar rats were infected with 2500 first-stage larvae (L1) of T. spiralis, and serum PON1 and BuChE activities were evaluated. Hepatic expression levels of PON1, BuChE and various cytokines and chemokines [interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1] were evaluated for up to 9 weeks post-infection (p.i.). The effect of these changes on the degree of hepatic apoptosis was also investigated. Trichinella spiralis infection in rats induced significant decreases in serum PON1 activities from day 2 until week 7 p.i. and BuChE activity starting from day 4 until 2 weeks p.i. Moreover, T. spiralis infection increased serum pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α and TGF-β1 during the enteral phase of the parasite life cycle. The anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 showed significant increases during the enteral phase for the former and the muscle phase for the latter. These were associated with hepatic inflammation and apoptosis. These events typically decreased hepatic PON1 and BuChE mRNA expression. Immune responses mounted against T. spiralis infection in rats were associated with hepatic inflammation and a subsequent decrease in serum PON1 and BuChE activities. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  7. Application of dendritic cells stimulated with Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory antigens alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronic-Milosavljevic, L J; Radovic, I; Ilic, N; Majstorovic, I; Cvetkovic, J; Gruden-Movsesijan, A

    2013-06-01

    The parasitic nematode, Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis), exerts an immunomodulatory effect on the host immune response through excretory-secretory products (ES L1) released from encysted muscle larvae. Our model of combined T. spiralis infection and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Dark Agouti (DA) rats demonstrated a significant reduction in EAE severity in infected animals. Recently, we have created an immune status characteristic for the live infection by in vivo application of dendritic cells (DCs) stimulated with ES L1 products of T. spiralis muscle larvae. Moreover, these cells were able to ameliorate EAE when applied 7 days before EAE induction. ES L1-stimulated DCs increased production of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β, and decreased production of IFN-γ and IL-17, both at the systemic level and in target organs. A significant increase in the proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells was found among spleen cells, and CNS infiltrates from DA rats treated with ES L1-stimulated DCs before EAE induction, compared to controls injected with unstimulated DCs. Regulatory T cells, together with elevated levels of IL-10 and TGF-β, are most likely involved in restraining the production of Th1 and Th17 cytokines responsible for autoimmunity and thus are responsible for the beneficial effect of ES L1-educated DCs on the course of EAE. Our results show that ES L1 antigen-stimulated DCs are able not only to provoke, but also to sustain anti-inflammatory and regulatory responses regardless of EAE induction, with subsequent amelioration of EAE, or even protection from the disease.

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Trichinella spiralis Adult Worm Excretory-Secretory Proteins Recognized by Sera of Patients with Early Trichinellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Q. Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used serodiagnostic antigens for trichinellosis are the excretory-secretory (ES antigens from T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML, but the specific antibodies against the ML ES antigens are usually negative during early stage of Trichinella infection. The recent studies demonstrated that T. spiralis adult worm (AW antigens were recognized by mouse or swine infection sera on Western blot as early as 7–15 days post-infection (dpi, the AW antigens might contain the early diagnostic markers for trichinellosis. The purpose of this study was to screen early diagnostic antigens in T. spiralis AW ES proteins recognized by sera of early patients with trichinellosis. T. spiralis AW were collected at 72 h post-infection (hpi, and their ES antigens were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Our results showed that 5 protein bands (55, 48–50, 45, 44, and 36 kDa were recognized by sera of early patients with trichinellosis collected at 19 dpi, and were subjected to shotgun LC–MS/MS and bioinformatics analyses. A total of 185 proteins were identified from T. spiralis protein database, of which 116 (67.2% proteins had molecular weights of 30∼60 kDa, and 125 (67.6% proteins with pI 4–7. Bioinformatic analyses showed that the identified proteins have a wide diversity of biological functions (binding of nucleotides, proteins, ions, carbohydrates, and lipids; hydrolase, transferase, and oxidoreductase, etc.. Several enzymes (e.g., adult-specific DNase II, serine protease and serine protease inhibitor could be the invasion-related proteins and early diagnostic markers for trichinellosis. Moreover, recombinant T. spiralis serine protease (rTsSP-ZH68 was expressed in E. coli and its antigenicity was analyzed by Western blot with the early infection sera. The rTsSP-ZH68 was recognized by sera of infected mice at 8–10 dpi and sera of early patients with trichinellosis at 19 dpi. T. spiralis AW proteins identified in this study, especially serine

  9. Glycans expressed on Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory antigens are important for anti-inflamatory immune response polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Jelena; Ilic, Natasa; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana; Gruden-Movsesijan, Alisa

    2014-12-01

    Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae excretory-secretory antigens (ES L1) are most likely responsible for the induction of immune response during infection by this parasitic. The antigens bear carbohydrate structures that may contribute to immune system activation resulting in a Th2/anti-inflammatory immune response. We show that T. spiralis glycans affect the expression and the production of IL-4 and IL-10 in vivo. Alteration of carbohydrate structures on ES L1 altered dendritic cell (DC) maturation. Periodate treatment of ES L1 led to the reduction in both ERK and p38 phosphorylation which may be the cause of reduced IL-10 and IL-12p70 production. In vitro priming of naïve T cells with DCs stimulated with native and periodate-treated ES L1 emphasized the importance of intact glycans for IL-10 production. We conclude that T. spiralis glycans affect the anti-inflammatory environment and can interfere with the development of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effect of Trichinella spiralis and its worm-derived proteins on CLP-induced sepsis in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Hui; He, Wen-Xin; Song, Di; Wu, Qi; Li, Nan; Wan, Yong-Kun; Zhang, Hui; Qiu, Da-Peng; Chu, Liang; Wang, Li-Yuan; Yang, Xiao-di; Fang, Qiang

    2016-08-20

    To observe the effect of Trichinella spiralis and its worm-derived proteins on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. Eighty male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into sham-operated group, CLP group, Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) pre-infection group (ML+CLP group), soluble muscle larvae proteins (SMP) treatment group (SMP+CLP group) and excretory-secretory proteins (MES) treatment group (MES+CLP group). In ML+CLP group, the mice were orally infected with 300 Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae at 28 days before CLP and those in the other groups were intraperitioneally injected with PBS or SMP (25 µg/mice) or MES (25µg/mice) 30 min after CLP. The general condition and 72-h survival after CLP of the mice were observed. The levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10 and TGF-β were measured at 12 h after the operation, and the pathological changes of the liver and kidney were observed. s Compared with the sham-operated mice, the mice in CLP group showed decreased 72-h survival, obviously increased ALT, AST, BUN, Cr, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and TGF-β with hepatic cords disorder, hepatocytes swelling, glomerulus shrinkage, and renal tubular cell edema. Compared with CLP group, the mice in ML+CLP group showed lowered levels of ALT, AST, Cr, TNF-α and IL-1β and increased levels of IL-10 and TGF-β; in SMP+CLP group, the levels of ALT, AST, Cr, TNF-α and IL-1β were decreased and TGF-β increased. In MES+CLP group, the mice showed obviously increased 72-h survival with lowered levels of ALT, AST, BUN, Cr, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, increased levels of IL-10 and TGF-β, and alleviated liver and kidney damages. Trichinella spiralis and its worm-derived proteins can decrease the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increase immunomodulatory cytokines, and MES has more potent effect to reduce structural and functional damages of the liver

  11. Immunomodulatory effects of Trichinella spiralis-derived excretory-secretory antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic, Ivana; Gruden-Movsesijan, Alisa; Ilic, Natasa; Cvetkovic, Jelena; Mojsilovic, Slavko; Devic, Marija; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana

    2015-03-01

    Helminth-derived products, either released into the circulation during the course of the infection or isolated after in vitro cultivation of the parasite and applied by the injection, are able to suppress the host immune response to autoantigens and allergens, but mechanisms could differ. Prophylactic application of Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory muscle larvae (ES L1) products ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with the same success as infection did. However, a shift to the Th2-type response in the periphery and in the central nervous system, accompanied by activation of regulatory mechanisms, had a striking, new feature of increased proportion of unconventional CD4(+)CD25(-)Foxp3(+) regulatory cells both in the periphery and in the central nervous system of animals treated with ES L1 before the induction of EAE.

  12. Ultrastructural characteristics of nurse cell-larva complex of four species of Trichinella in several hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi L.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The nurse cell-larva complex of nematodes of the genus Trichinella plays an Important role in the survival of the larva in decaying muscles, frequently favouring the transmission of the parasite in extreme environmental conditions. The ultrastructure of the nurse cell-larva complex in muscles from different hosts infected with T. nativa (a walrus and a polar bear, T. spiralis (horses and humans, T. pseudospiralis (a laboratory mouse and T. papuae (a laboratory mouse were examined. Analysis with transmission electron microscope showed that the typical nurse cell structure was present in all examined samples, irrespective of the species of larva, of the presence of a collagen capsule, of the age of infection and of the host species, suggesting that there exists a molecular mechanism that in the first stage of larva invasion is similar for encapsulated and non-encapsulated species.

  13. The Use of Recombinant 31 kDa Antigens of Trichinella spiralis for Serodiagnosis of Experimental Trichinellosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that a 31 kDa protein was screened from the excretory-secretory (ES proteins of Tichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML by immunoproteomics using early infection sera, and the gene encoding a 31 kDa protein from T. spiralis was cloned and expressed in an E. coli expression system. In this study, the recombinant 31 kDa antigens were used for detection of anti-Trichinella antibodies in serum of experimentally infected mice by ELISA.Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in sera of mice infected with Trichinella were assayed by ELISA with recombinant 31 kDa antigens, and its sensitivity and specificity were compared with ELISA with ES antigen.The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA with recombinant antigens was 96.67% (29/30 and 96.87% (62/64, compared with 100% (30/30 and 98.44% (63/64 of ELISA with ES antigens was (P>0.05. In heavily, moderately and lightly infected mice (500, 300 and 100 larvae/mouse, anti-Trichinella antibodies were firstly detected by ELISA with recombinant antigens at 8, 12 and 14 dpi, respectively; then increased rapidly with a detection rate of 100% respectively at 28, 22 and 30 dpi. While the antibodies were firstly detected by ELISA with ES antigens at 10, 8 and 10 dpi, respectively, the antibody positive rate reached 100% at 14, 12 and 22 dpi, respectively.The recombinant 31 kDa antigens of T. spirali had a good sensitivity and specificity for detecting anti-Trichinella antibodies and might be the potential diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis.

  14. FASE INTESTINAL DE Trichinella spiralis EN MODELO MURINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ALEJANDRA MORENO GARCÍA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Trichinella spiralis se encuentra principalmente en el hombre, rata, cerdo, perro; puede infectar a cualquier carnívoro u omnívoro. Cuando la carne o sus derivados están contaminados con larvas infectantes (LI de T. spiralis y son ingeridas éstas pasan al estómago, donde sus cápsulas son disueltas por acción de los jugos gástricos, las larvas son liberadas en pocas horas, después pasan a la porción proximal del intestino delgado, donde se lleva a cabo su desarrollo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la fase intestinal de T. spiralis en un modelo murino. Un lote de 45 ratas Long Evans, se infectaron con aproximadamente 500 LI, y fueron sacrificadas tres diarias por 15 días. Se tomó un segmento de duodeno, yeyuno e íleon y se fijaron en formol al 10% para posteriormente ser procesados en parafina y teñido con hematoxilina-eosina. El resto del intestino delgado fue fraccionado, se incubó a 37 ºC por dos horas y el sobrenadante se observó al microscopio de luz. Se encontró que el implante se lleva a cabo a nivel de yeyuno e íleon, que las hembras adultas dan origen aproximadamente 60-80 larvas recién nacidas (LRN, parto vivíparo en un tercio distal y subse-cuentemente son destruidas. Los machos adultos tienen espermatozoides no ciliados. Palabras clave: larvas infectantes, adultos, larvas recién nacidas. ABSTRACT Trichinella spiralis is a parasitic disease in man, rat, pig, but can infect any carnivorous or omnivorous. When the meat or their derivates are contaminated with infective larvae (il of T. spiralis pass to the stomach, their capsules are dissolved by the stomach juice, the larvaes are liberated in few hours, and then they pass to the near portion of the slim intestine in which they develop. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the intestine phase of T. spiralis in a murine model. Fourtyfive Long Evans rats were infected with 500 li approximately, then 3 rats were sacrificed everyday

  15. Tolerance to low temperatures of Toxocara cati larvae in chicken muscle tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taira, Kensuke; Saitoh, Yasuhide; Okada, Natsuki

    2012-01-01

    Infectivity of Toxocara cati larvae in muscle tissue of chickens after storage at 4 degrees C and -25 degrees C was assessed in a mouse bioassay to provide information on the risk of meat-borne toxocarosis. Muscle tissue samples of 30-day old T. cati infections were stored at 4 degrees C for 14 a...... retain infective after refrigeration at exposure in 4 degrees C for 28 days, emphasize the zoonotic potential of poultry meat as a causative agent of human toxocarosis....

  16. Skeletal muscle regeneration in Xenopus tadpoles and zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammals are not able to restore lost appendages, while many amphibians are. One important question about epimorphic regeneration is related to the origin of the new tissues and whether they come from mature cells via dedifferentiation and/or from stem cells. Several studies in urodele amphibians (salamanders indicate that, after limb or tail amputation, the multinucleated muscle fibres do dedifferentiate by fragmentation and proliferation, thereby contributing to the regenerate. In Xenopus laevis tadpoles, however, it was shown that muscle fibres do not contribute directly to the tail regenerate. We set out to study whether dedifferentiation was present during muscle regeneration of the tadpole limb and zebrafish larval tail, mainly by cell tracing and histological observations. Results Cell tracing and histological observations indicate that zebrafish tail muscle do not dedifferentiate during regeneration. Technical limitations did not allow us to trace tadpole limb cells, nevertheless we observed no signs of dedifferentiation histologically. However, ultrastructural and gene expression analysis of regenerating muscle in tadpole tail revealed an unexpected dedifferentiation phenotype. Further histological studies showed that dedifferentiating tail fibres did not enter the cell cycle and in vivo cell tracing revealed no evidences of muscle fibre fragmentation. In addition, our results indicate that this incomplete dedifferentiation was initiated by the retraction of muscle fibres. Conclusions Our results show that complete skeletal muscle dedifferentiation is less common than expected in lower vertebrates. In addition, the discovery of incomplete dedifferentiation in muscle fibres of the tadpole tail stresses the importance of coupling histological studies with in vivo cell tracing experiments to better understand the regenerative mechanisms.

  17. Skeletal muscle regeneration in Xenopus tadpoles and zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alexandre Miguel Cavaco; Christen, Bea; Martí, Mercé; Izpisúa Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2012-02-27

    Mammals are not able to restore lost appendages, while many amphibians are. One important question about epimorphic regeneration is related to the origin of the new tissues and whether they come from mature cells via dedifferentiation and/or from stem cells. Several studies in urodele amphibians (salamanders) indicate that, after limb or tail amputation, the multinucleated muscle fibres do dedifferentiate by fragmentation and proliferation, thereby contributing to the regenerate. In Xenopus laevis tadpoles, however, it was shown that muscle fibres do not contribute directly to the tail regenerate. We set out to study whether dedifferentiation was present during muscle regeneration of the tadpole limb and zebrafish larval tail, mainly by cell tracing and histological observations. Cell tracing and histological observations indicate that zebrafish tail muscle do not dedifferentiate during regeneration. Technical limitations did not allow us to trace tadpole limb cells, nevertheless we observed no signs of dedifferentiation histologically. However, ultrastructural and gene expression analysis of regenerating muscle in tadpole tail revealed an unexpected dedifferentiation phenotype. Further histological studies showed that dedifferentiating tail fibres did not enter the cell cycle and in vivo cell tracing revealed no evidences of muscle fibre fragmentation. In addition, our results indicate that this incomplete dedifferentiation was initiated by the retraction of muscle fibres. Our results show that complete skeletal muscle dedifferentiation is less common than expected in lower vertebrates. In addition, the discovery of incomplete dedifferentiation in muscle fibres of the tadpole tail stresses the importance of coupling histological studies with in vivo cell tracing experiments to better understand the regenerative mechanisms.

  18. Skeletal muscle regeneration in Xenopus tadpoles and zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mammals are not able to restore lost appendages, while many amphibians are. One important question about epimorphic regeneration is related to the origin of the new tissues and whether they come from mature cells via dedifferentiation and/or from stem cells. Several studies in urodele amphibians (salamanders) indicate that, after limb or tail amputation, the multinucleated muscle fibres do dedifferentiate by fragmentation and proliferation, thereby contributing to the regenerate. In Xenopus laevis tadpoles, however, it was shown that muscle fibres do not contribute directly to the tail regenerate. We set out to study whether dedifferentiation was present during muscle regeneration of the tadpole limb and zebrafish larval tail, mainly by cell tracing and histological observations. Results Cell tracing and histological observations indicate that zebrafish tail muscle do not dedifferentiate during regeneration. Technical limitations did not allow us to trace tadpole limb cells, nevertheless we observed no signs of dedifferentiation histologically. However, ultrastructural and gene expression analysis of regenerating muscle in tadpole tail revealed an unexpected dedifferentiation phenotype. Further histological studies showed that dedifferentiating tail fibres did not enter the cell cycle and in vivo cell tracing revealed no evidences of muscle fibre fragmentation. In addition, our results indicate that this incomplete dedifferentiation was initiated by the retraction of muscle fibres. Conclusions Our results show that complete skeletal muscle dedifferentiation is less common than expected in lower vertebrates. In addition, the discovery of incomplete dedifferentiation in muscle fibres of the tadpole tail stresses the importance of coupling histological studies with in vivo cell tracing experiments to better understand the regenerative mechanisms. PMID:22369050

  19. Cuticular muscle attachment sites as a tool for species determination in blowfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederegger, Senta; Spiess, Roland

    2012-05-01

    First results of a new method for species determination in third instar larvae of saprophagous blowflies are introduced. Cuticular attachment sites of a limited number of transversal muscles are visualized for light microscopic analysis. After removing the muscles and staining the cuticle, the attachment sites become visible as laterally symmetrical segmental clusters of dark dots. The combined patterns of five such clusters, located in the second, third and fourth segments, show sufficient differences to allow reliable separation of externally very similar larval Lucilia sericata and Lucilia illustris as well as Calliphora vomitoria and Calliphora vicina, the most common saprophagous blowfly species in Europe. Species determination even in poorly conserved, discoloured and fragmented blowfly larvae becomes possible with this new method. The method can primarily be applied for postmortem interval (PMI) calculations in forensic entomology. Interspecific morphological similarity of the larvae and differences in growth rate make species determination an essential requisite for an exact PMI calculation.

  20. Protective immunity against Trichinella spiralis infection induced by a multi-epitope vaccine in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gu

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is one of the most important food-borne parasitic zoonoses throughout the world. Because infected pigs are the major source of human infections, and China is becoming the largest international producer of pork, the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine to prevent swine from being infected is urgently needed for trichinellosis control in China. Our previous studies have demonstrated that specific Trichinella spiralis paramyosin (Ts-Pmy and Ts-87 antigen could provide protective immunity against T. spiralis infection in immunized mice. Certain protective epitopes of Ts-Pmy and Ts-87 antigen have been identified. To identify more Ts-Pmy protective epitopes, a new monoclonal antibody, termed 8F12, was produced against the N-terminus of Ts-Pmy. This antibody elicited significant protective immunity in mice against T. spiralis infection by passive transfer and was subsequently used to screen a random phage display peptide library to identify recognized epitopes. Seven distinct positive phage clones were identified and their displayed peptides were sequenced. Synthesized epitope peptides conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin were used to immunize mice, four of which exhibited larval reduction (from 18.7% to 26.3%, respectively in vaccinated mice in comparison to the KLH control. To increase more effective protection, the epitope 8F7 that was found to induce the highest protection in this study was combined with two other previously identified epitopes (YX1 from Ts-Pmy and M7 from Ts-87 to formulate a multi-epitope vaccine. Mice immunized with this multi-epitope vaccine experienced a 35.0% reduction in muscle larvae burden after being challenged with T. spiralis larvae. This protection is significantly higher than that induced by individual-epitope peptides and is associated with high levels of subclasses IgG and IgG1. These results showed that a multi-epitope vaccine induced better protective immunity than an individual

  1. Trichinella spiralis: genome database searches for the presence and immunolocalization of protein disulphide isomerase family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, C P; Clemente, I; Mendes, T; Novo, C

    2016-01-01

    The formation of nurse cells in host muscle cells during Trichinella spiralis infection is a key step in the infective mechanism. Collagen trimerization is set up via disulphide bond formation, catalysed by protein disulphide isomerase (PDI). In T. spiralis, some PDI family members have been identified but no localization is described and no antibodies specific for T. spiralis PDIs are available. In this work, computational approaches were used to search for non-described PDIs in the T. spiralis genome database and to check the cross-reactivity of commercial anti-human antibodies with T. spiralis orthologues. In addition to a previously described PDI (PDIA2), endoplasmic reticulum protein (ERp57/PDIA3), ERp72/PDIA4, and the molecular chaperones calreticulin (CRT), calnexin (CNX) and immunoglobulin-binding protein/glucose-regulated protein (BIP/GRP78), we identified orthologues of the human thioredoxin-related-transmembrane proteins (TMX1, TMX2 and TMX3) in the genome protein database, as well as ERp44 (PDIA10) and endoplasmic reticulum disulphide reductase (ERdj5/PDIA19). Immunocytochemical staining of paraffin sections of muscle infected by T. spiralis enabled us to localize some orthologues of the human PDIs (PDIA3 and TMX1) and the chaperone GRP78. A theoretical three-dimensional model for T. spiralis PDIA3 was constructed. The localization and characteristics of the predicted linear B-cell epitopes and amino acid sequence of the immunogens used for commercial production of anti-human PDIA3 antibodies validated the use of these antibodies for the immunolocalization of T. spiralis PDIA3 orthologues. These results suggest that further study of the role of the PDIs and chaperones during nurse cell formation is desirable.

  2. Skeletal muscle regeneration in Xenopus tadpoles and zebrafish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Alexandre Miguel Cavaco; Christen, Bea; Martí, Mercé; Izpisúa Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mammals are not able to restore lost appendages, while many amphibians are. One important question about epimorphic regeneration is related to the origin of the new tissues and whether they come from mature cells via dedifferentiation and/or from stem cells. Several studies in urodele amphibians (salamanders) indicate that, after limb or tail amputation, the multinucleated muscle fibres do dedifferentiate by fragmentation and proliferation, thereby contributing to the rege...

  3. A Novel Secretory Poly-Cysteine and Histidine-Tailed Metalloprotein (Ts-PCHTP) from Trichinella spiralis (Nematoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoslavov, Georgi; Jordanova, Rositsa; Teofanova, Denitsa; Georgieva, Katya; Hristov, Petar; Salomone-Stagni, Marco; Liebau, Eva; Bankov, Ilia

    2010-01-01

    Background Trichinella spiralis is an unusual parasitic intracellular nematode causing dedifferentiation of the host myofiber. Trichinella proteomic analyses have identified proteins that act at the interface between the parasite and the host and are probably important for the infection and pathogenesis. Many parasitic proteins, including a number of metalloproteins are unique for the nematodes and trichinellids and therefore present good targets for future therapeutic developments. Furthermore, detailed information on such proteins and their function in the nematode organism would provide better understanding of the parasite - host interactions. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we report the identification, biochemical characterization and localization of a novel poly-cysteine and histidine-tailed metalloprotein (Ts-PCHTP). The native Ts-PCHTP was purified from T. spiralis muscle larvae that were isolated from infected rats as a model system. The sequence analysis showed no homology with other proteins. Two unique poly-cysteine domains were found in the amino acid sequence of Ts-PCHTP. This protein is also the first reported natural histidine tailed protein. It was suggested that Ts-PCHTP has metal binding properties. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) assay revealed that it binds significant concentrations of iron, nickel and zinc at protein:metal ratio of about 1∶2. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the Ts-PCHTP is localized in the cuticle and in all tissues of the larvae, but that it is not excreted outside the parasite. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that Ts-PCHTP is the first described member of a novel nematode poly-cysteine protein family and its function could be metal storage and/or transport. Since this protein family is unique for parasites from Superfamily Trichinelloidea its potential applications in diagnostics and treatment could be exploited in future. PMID:20967224

  4. A novel secretory poly-cysteine and histidine-tailed metalloprotein (Ts-PCHTP from Trichinella spiralis (Nematoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Radoslavov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trichinella spiralis is an unusual parasitic intracellular nematode causing dedifferentiation of the host myofiber. Trichinella proteomic analyses have identified proteins that act at the interface between the parasite and the host and are probably important for the infection and pathogenesis. Many parasitic proteins, including a number of metalloproteins are unique for the nematodes and trichinellids and therefore present good targets for future therapeutic developments. Furthermore, detailed information on such proteins and their function in the nematode organism would provide better understanding of the parasite-host interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we report the identification, biochemical characterization and localization of a novel poly-cysteine and histidine-tailed metalloprotein (Ts-PCHTP. The native Ts-PCHTP was purified from T. spiralis muscle larvae that were isolated from infected rats as a model system. The sequence analysis showed no homology with other proteins. Two unique poly-cysteine domains were found in the amino acid sequence of Ts-PCHTP. This protein is also the first reported natural histidine tailed protein. It was suggested that Ts-PCHTP has metal binding properties. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF assay revealed that it binds significant concentrations of iron, nickel and zinc at protein:metal ratio of about 1:2. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the Ts-PCHTP is localized in the cuticle and in all tissues of the larvae, but that it is not excreted outside the parasite. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that Ts-PCHTP is the first described member of a novel nematode poly-cysteine protein family and its function could be metal storage and/or transport. Since this protein family is unique for parasites from Superfamily Trichinelloidea its potential applications in diagnostics and treatment could be exploited in future.

  5. Skeletal muscle growth dynamics and the influence of first-feeding diet in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu A. Vo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics between hypertrophy (increase in cell size and hyperplasia (increase in cell numbers of white and red muscle in relation to body size [standard length (SL], and the influence of the first-feeding diets on muscle growth were investigated in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua. Cod larvae were fed copepod nauplii or rotifers of different nutritional qualities from 4 to 29 days post hatching (dph, Artemia nauplii from 20 to 40 dph and a formulated diet from 36 to 60 dph. The short period of feeding with cultivated copepod nauplii had a positive effect on both muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy after the copepod/rotifer phase (19 dph, and a positive long term effect on muscle hypertrophy (60 dph. The different nutritional qualities of rotifers did not significantly affect muscle growth. We suggest here a model of the dynamics between hyperplasia and hypertrophy of red and white muscle fibre cells in relation to cod SL (4 to 30 mm, where the different red and white muscle growth phases clearly coincided with different metamorphosis stages in cod larvae. These shifts could be included as biomarkers for the different stages of development during metamorphosis. The main dietary muscle effect was that hypertrophic growth of red muscle fibres was stronger in cod larvae that were fed copepods than in larvae that were fed rotifers, both in relation to larval age and size. Red muscle fibres are directly involved in larval locomotory performance, but may also play an important role in the larval myogenesis. This can have a long term effect on growth potential and fish performance.

  6. Tonic fibres in axial muscle of cyprinid fish larvae: their definition, possible origins and functional importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, W; Haslett, J R; Steinbacher, P; Freimüller, M; Sänger, A M

    2002-05-01

    Teleost fish are known to develop small populations of muscle fibres that are assumed to be tonic in nature although their contractile properties and many other characteristics remain unknown. Here we attempt to resolve some of the ambiguity and confusions surrounding the definition and functional role of tonic fibres in teleosts and provide new information on their ontogeny. We investigate the differentiation of tonic muscle fibres in three species of cyprinid fish using electron microscopy, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The fine structure of the fibres defined as tonic in the larvae used in this study complies with patterns known from studies in teleost adults. This allows formal definition of tonic fibres in cyprinid larvae. The tonic fibres may be recognized by a variety of features: (1) by their characteristic position along the medial confines of the red muscle insertion at the horizontal septum, (2) their fine structure, including solid clusters of irregularly cleaved myofibrils, thick and wavy Z-lines, and T-tubules at the A-band/I-band transitions, (3) their histochemical features, specifically weak but obvious staining for mATPase after alkaline preincubation, and lack of SDH activity in the more advanced larval stages, (4) their unique immunological properties, being the only fibre type in the myotome that reacts with a serum against chicken tonic myosin (anti- T2). Expression of tonic characters usually begins within a few fibres in the dorsal domain of the superficial red muscle insertion at the horizontal septum and hence involves a high degree of dorso-ventral polarity. The present evidence indicates that tonic fibres arise from separate myogenic stem cells rather than by transdifferentiation from existing red fibres. First appearance of tonic fibres during ontogeny correlates closely with the onset of free swimming and exogeneous feeding. We use this fact to argue that tonic fibres are probably a prerequisite for

  7. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts.

  8. Effect of myrrh and thyme on Trichinella spiralis enteral and parenteral phases with inducible nitric oxide expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Rasha A H; Mahmoud, Abeer E; Farrag, Haiam Mohammed Mahmoud; Makboul, Rania; Mohamed, Mona Embarek; Ibraheim, Zedan

    2015-12-01

    Trichinellosis is a serious disease with no satisfactory treatment. We aimed to assess the effect of myrrh (Commiphora molmol) and, for the first time, thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) against enteral and encysted (parenteral) phases of Trichinella spiralis in mice compared with albendazole, and detect their effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Oral administration of 500 mg/kg of myrrh and thyme led to adult reduction (90.9%, 79.4%), while 1,000 mg/kg led to larvae reduction (79.6%, 71.3%), respectively. Administration of 50 mg/kg of albendazole resulted in adult and larvae reduction (94.2%, 90.9%). Positive immunostaining of inflammatory cells infiltrating intestinal mucosa and submucosa of all treated groups was detected. Myrrh-treated mice showed the highest iNOS expression followed by albendazole, then thyme. On the other hand, both myrrh and thyme-treated groups showed stronger iNOS expression of inflammatory cells infiltrating and surrounding encapsulated T. spiralis larvae than albendazole treated group. In conclusion, myrrh and thyme extracts are highly effective against both phases of T. spiralis and showed strong iNOS expressions, especially myrrh which could be a promising alternative drug. This experiment provides a basis for further exploration of this plant by isolation and retesting the active principles of both extracts against different stages of T. spiralis.

  9. Evaluation of Anti-Trichinella spiralis Obtained by Sublingual and Conventional Immunizations with the 45kDa Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Chávez Ruvalcaba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease produced mainly by the consumption of poorly cooked swine meat. Several studies have probed the efficiency of immunotherapy as a method for the treatment of trichinellosis. In this work, a 45 kDa immunodominant antigen was characterized, and the presence of IgA, IgM and IgG anti-Trichinella spiralis antibodies was evaluated during the course of the infection. In addition, the differences between sublingual and parenteral administration of the 45 kDa T. spiralis antigen were determined. Long Evans rats were used both to purify the 45 kDa antigen and to evaluate the immune response produced in six different groups: healthy and infected controls; two groups of immunized murines (sublingually and parenterally with 4 doses of the 45 kDa T. spiralis immunogen administered at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 and challenged with 500 T. spiralis infective larvae (IL 7 days after the last immunization; and finally, two groups of murines infected with 500 IL of T. spiralis, immunized at week 4 post infection by the same two routes. The humoral response was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence by confocal microscopyin order to determine the presence of IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies.

  10. Comparison of the effects of Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia absinthium growing in western Anatolia against trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, Ayşe; Döşkaya, Mert; Değirmenci, Aysu; Can, Hüseyin; Baykan, Sura; Uner, Ahmet; Başdemir, Gülçin; Zeybek, Ulvi; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2008-05-01

    Trichinellosis often causing diarrhea and more rarely fever, periorbital edema and myositis in human, is commonly treated with benzimidazole derivatives. The Artemisia genus has been found to be effective against a variety of parasites. In the present study, the efficacy against trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis) of Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia absinthium was examined for the first time in rats. The results of trichinoscopy and artificial digestion, during the enteral (adult) phase of the illness show that 300 mg/kg doses of methanol extracts of the aerial parts of A. vulgaris and A. absinthium reduced the larval rate by 75.6% and 63.5% in tongue, 53.4% and 37.7% in diaphragm, 67.8% and 46.2% in quadriceps, and 66.7% and 60.5% in biceps-triceps muscles of rats, respectively. Furthermore, during the parenteral (encapsulated larvae) phase, 600 mg/kg doses of A. vulgaris and A. absinthium extracts decreased the larval rate by 66.4% and 59.9% in tongue, 57.4% and 50.0% in diaphragm, 47.6% and 43.7% in quadriceps, 60.2% and 46.4% in biceps-triceps muscles of rats, respectively. Analysis of antibody also showed that A. vulgaris significantly reduced the antibody response (Pvulgaris could be an alternative drug against trichinellosis.

  11. Trichinella spiralis immunomodulation: an interactive multifactorial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Dalia S

    2013-07-01

    Many epidemiological data support the postulate that infection with helminths might provide some protection against allergic and autoimmune diseases. Hence arises the concept that helminths strongly influence the immune system and enable protective pathways against these hyperimmune-associated disorders. This review discusses how Trichinella spiralis can make the immune system smarter in dealing with hyperimmune-associated disorders. T. spiralis possesses the capacity to direct the immune system towards a mixed Th1/Th2 phenotype with predominance of Th2 response, or it may interfere with dendritic cell maturation, induce the alternatively activated macrophages and elicit the regulatory arm of the immune response via Treg or regulatory B cells.

  12. Ausência de Trichinella spiralis em suínos adultos abatidos em Palmas, Estado do Paraná, Brasil Absence of Trichinella spiralis in adult swines slaughtered in Palmas, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Daguer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinadas amostras de 3.774 suínos adultos, abatidos sob inspeção federal entre os anos de 2002 e 2004 na cidade de Palmas, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, utilizando-se a técnica da digestão artificial de amostras coletivas com agitador magnético para pesquisa de larvas de Trichinella spiralis. Os animais eram provenientes de 68 municípios dos três estados da região Sul do Brasil. A técnica utilizada seguiu as recomendações européias e as amostras examinadas consistiam de fragmentos musculares do masseter, base da língua e diafragma de cada animal. Não foram detectadas larvas do parasita nos animais examinados, sugerindo que a infecção por T. spiralis não ocorre nas criações de suínos examinadas.Samples of 3.774 adult pigs, slaughtered under federal inspection between the years of 2002 and 2004 in the county of Palmas, State of Paraná, Brazil, were examined by pooled sample artificial digestion with magnetic stirrer for a survey of Trichinella spiralis larvae. Animals proceeded from 68 counties of the three states of the South region of Brazil. The employed essay was the recommended by the European commission. The samples were formed by muscular pieces of masseter, tongue and diaphragm of each animal. No larvae were detected in the animals, indicating that T. spiralis infection does not occur in the examined swine stocks.

  13. Influence of different processing procedures on the reproductive capacity of Trichinella spiralis in pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Lerena, M S; Ramirez-Alvarez, A; Kühne, M; Gómez-Priego, A; de-la-Rosa, J-L

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the influence of different processing procedures and preparations on the viability and infectivity of Trichinella spiralis ML. The muscles of limbs tongue and masseters of pigs experimentally infected were collected, splitted to pieces, and pooled. Five batches were used for the following processing procedures: (1) seasoning with "adobo", commercially acquired chilli and several other spices, (2) "wet-curing" by immersion of meat pieces in 3% brine during 24 hours, (3) cold storage without any further processing or preparation, (4) freezing to -20 degrees C and, (5) drying for 24 hours at 60 degrees C. Samples were stored at 4 degrees C for 15, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 or 266 days after preparation. At the last-mentioned dates, ML were recovered and used to determine the reproductive capacity by infecting naïve mice. The state of meat conservation or spoilage respectively was tested by visual and tactile examination. In samples treated by freezing or drying no motile larvae were found after artificial digestion and, following inoculation of mice with larvae recovered from these groups, no ML were founded after 40 days of infection. After the artificial digestion of the cold stored samples, the ones seasoned with "adobo" and "wet-cured", a number of motile ML were consistently obtained. Initial reproductive capacity index was as of 80+/-0.5, then rates decreased to 60 - 70 between days 15 and 105 PT and dropped to 40+/-6.7 at day 266 for seasoned, 33+/-2.7 for cold-stored and 33+/-2.5 for cured samples. The influence of storage time (p=0.000005; factorial ANOVA) but not for processing procedure (p=0.724; factorial ANOVA) were statistically significant. The sensorial examination of the meat samples showed severe changes caused by spoilage in odour, texture and colour from day 45 of storage. Data reported from this trial proves that curing or flavoring do not inactivate the Trichinella Mexican strain, although cold storage for more

  14. Second generation effects of maternal ethanol consumption on immunity to Trichinella spiralis in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, L L; Steven, W M; Stewart, G L

    1999-01-01

    The deleterious effects of maternal ethanol consumption on neonatal immune development and early immune responses has been well documented. However, the effects of such neonatal exposure to maternally consumed ethanol on the neonates' immune responses in their adult life, especially in combination with additional ethanol exposure, has received little attention. For these experiments, female rats were fed on either 6% ethanol or pair-fed isocaloric control Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets for 30 days prior to, and during, pregnancy and lactation. One day after weaning their pups, the mothers were infected with 1000 Trichinella spiralis larvae, and maintained on diets for an additional 20 days. At this time, they were challenged with 2000 T. spiralis larvae, killed 3 days later, and their immune status determined. These animals served as the first generation alcohol animals. Their female offspring served as the experimental second generation animals. These animals received maternal ethanol during pregnancy and lactation and control diet during their juvenile period (from weaning to 90 days of age). They were then subjected to a schedule of ethanol or pairfeeding, identical to the first generation dams. Two groups of second generation animals were established: Group 1 was exposed to ethanol during their dam's pregnancy and lactation periods only, with no subsequent ethanol treatment; Group 2 received ethanol during their dam's pregnancy and lactation periods and then again throughout their adult experimental period. Our previous studies showed only minimal changes following a secondary challenge in T. spiralis-immunized rats; however, neonates born to alcohol-consuming mothers did show some depressed secondary immune responses when challenged soon after weaning. We chose to use a secondary immune challenge to assess further immune alterations in second generation adult animals. No differences between any of the ethanol and pair-fed groups were observed in intestinal worm

  15. Salinity and temperature variations reflecting on cellular PCNA, IGF-I and II expressions, body growth and muscle cellularity of a freshwater fish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Y S; Melo, R M C; Campos-Junior, P H A; Santos, J C E; Luz, R K; Rizzo, E; Bazzoli, N

    2014-06-01

    The present study assessed the influence of salinity and temperature on body growth and on muscle cellularity of Lophiosilurus alexaxdri vitelinic larvae. Slightly salted environments negatively influenced body growth of freshwater fish larvae and we observed that those conditions notably act as an environmental influencer on muscle growth and on local expression of hypertrophia and hypeplasia markers (IGFs and PCNA). Furthermore, we could see that salinity tolerance for NaCl 4gl(-)(1) diminishes with increasing temperature, evidenced by variation in body and muscle growth, and by irregular morphology of the lateral skeletal muscle of larvae. We saw that an increase of both PCNA and autocrine IGF-II are correlated to an increase in fibre numbers and fibre diameter as the temperature increases and salinity diminishes. On the other hand, autocrine IGF-I follows the opposite way to the other biological parameters assessed, increasing as salinity increases and temperature diminishes, showing that this protein did not participate in muscle cellularity, but participating in molecular/cellular repair. Therefore, slightly salted environments may provide adverse conditions that cause some obstacles to somatic growth of this species, suggesting some osmotic expenditure with a salinity increment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Immunity to Trichinella spiralis in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakelin, D.; Wilson, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation prevented the accelerated expulsion of Trichinella spiralis from mice immunized by transfer of immune mesenteric lymph node cells (IMLNC) or by prior infection. Nevertheless, worms in irradiated immune mice were smaller and less fecund than those in controls. In adoptively immunized and irradiated mice expulsion could not be achieved by increasing the numbers of IMLNC transferred, although the effect upon worm length was more severe. Thus IMLNC express a direct, anti-worm immunity which is independent of their role in worm expulsion. IMLNC cause expulsion in irradiated mice only when adequate levels of bone marrow-derived cells are available. The results are discussed in terms of a possible antibody-mediated basis for direct anti-worm immunity. (author)

  17. Mesodermal origin of median fin mesenchyme and tail muscle in amphibian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yuka; Kurth, Thomas; Medeiros, Daniel Meulemans; Tazaki, Akira; Ramm, Robert; Epperlein, Hans-Henning

    2015-06-18

    Mesenchyme is an embryonic precursor tissue that generates a range of structures in vertebrates including cartilage, bone, muscle, kidney, and the erythropoietic system. Mesenchyme originates from both mesoderm and the neural crest, an ectodermal cell population, via an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Because ectodermal and mesodermal mesenchyme can form in close proximity and give rise to similar derivatives, the embryonic origin of many mesenchyme-derived tissues is still unclear. Recent work using genetic lineage tracing methods have upended classical ideas about the contributions of mesodermal mesenchyme and neural crest to particular structures. Using similar strategies in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), and the South African clawed toad (Xenopus laevis), we traced the origins of fin mesenchyme and tail muscle in amphibians. Here we present evidence that fin mesenchyme and striated tail muscle in both animals are derived solely from mesoderm and not from neural crest. In the context of recent work in zebrafish, our experiments suggest that trunk neural crest cells in the last common ancestor of tetrapods and ray-finned fish lacked the ability to form ectomesenchyme and its derivatives.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. 866.3850 Section 866.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... roundworms belonging to the genus Trichinella and provides epidemiological information on trichinosis...

  19. El estudio de Trichinella spiralis en modelos experimentales.

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Moreno G; Claudia Maldonado T; Isabel Chávez Ruvalcaba; Rosa G Reveles H; Zuleika Quiroz Núñez; José J. Muñoz E

    2012-01-01

    ResumenSe presenta una breve descripción del estudio de Trichinella spiralis en modelos experimentales, enfocándonos al estudio de la epidemiología, técnicas diagnósticas directas e indirectas, tratamiento y biología del parasito.

  20. Regulation of intestinal immune response by selective removal of the anterior, posterior, or entire pituitary gland in Trichinella spiralis infected golden hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Hernández-Cervantes

    Full Text Available The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4 was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms.

  1. Development of Trichosomoides nasalis (Nematoda: Trichinelloidea) in the murid host: evidence for larval growth in striated muscle fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, E.H.; Diagne, M.; Junker, K.; Duplantier, J.M.; Ba, K.; Vallée, I.; Bain, O.

    2012-01-01

    Trichosomoides nasalis (Trichinelloidea) is a parasite of Arvicanthis niloticus (Muridae) in Senegal. Female worms that harbour dwarf males in their uteri, occur in the epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Young laboratory-bred A. niloticus were either fed females containing larvated eggs or intraperitoneally injected with motile first-stage larvae recovered from female uteri. Both resulted in successful infection. Organs examined during rodent necropsy were blood and lymphatic circulatory systems (heart, large vessels, lymphnodes), lungs, liver, kidneys, thoracic and abdominal cavities, thoracic and abdominal muscular walls, diaphragm, tongue, and nasal mucosa. Development to adult nasal stages took three weeks. Recovery of newly hatched larvae from the peritoneal fluid at four-eight hours after oral infection suggests a direct passage from the stomach or intestinal wall to the musculature. However, dissemination through the blood, as observed with Trichinella spiralis, cannot be excluded even though newly hatched larvae of T. nasalis are twice as thick (15 μm). Developing larvae were found in histological sections of the striated muscle of the abdominal and thoracic walls, and larvae in fourth moult were dissected from these sites. Adult females were found in the deep nasal mucosa where mating occurred prior to worms settling in the nasal epithelium. The present study shows a remarkable similarity between T. nasalis and Trichinella species regarding muscle tropism, but the development of T. nasalis is not arrested at the late first-larval stage and does not induce transformation of infected fibres into nurse cells. T. nasalis seems a potential model to study molecular relations between trichinelloid larvae and infected muscle fibres. PMID:22314237

  2. Quantitative risk assessment for the annual risk of exposure to Trichinella spiralis in imported chilled pork meat from New Zealand to Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, E K B; Cogger, N; Pomroy, W E; Potter, M A; Morris, R S

    2009-10-01

    To determine the annual likelihood of exposure to an infectious dose of Trichinella spiralis from consuming imported pork meat from New Zealand to Singapore. Input values specific for chilled pork meat imported into Singapore from New Zealand were used in a quantitative risk-assessment model. The model, designed to allow any combination of importing and exporting countries, was divided into two components, viz the release assessment, and the exposure assessment that assessed the annual risk of exposure to the consumer (ARC). The former estimated the likelihood that a contaminated fresh meat product from New Zealand would arrive at Singapore's border, and took into consideration the prevalence of disease on different types of farms. The latter determined the likelihood over a year that a person in Singapore would consume one or more servings of imported fresh meat from New Zealand that contained a burden of greater than or equal to one larva(e) of T. spiralis per gram after preparation for consumption. The ARC for offal was 2.41 x 10(-7), which was below the pre-selected safety threshold of 1.00 x 10(-6). The ARC for lean meat was 2.39 x 10(-5), which was above the acceptable safety threshold. The study demonstrated that continued routine testing at slaughter is unnecessary for pig offal produced commercially, and provided a model with which to further assess management of the risk of exposure to T. spiralis in lean meat. The potential of Trichinella species to cause disease in humans is a public health concern, and has created adverse effects on the international trade of fresh lean meat without regard to the surveillance measures employed by particular pork-producing countries.

  3. Modulation of inflammatory bowel disease in a mouse model following infection with Trichinella spiralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of mice with Trichinella spiralis redirects the mucosal immune system from a Th1 to a protective Th2 response with a reduction in the severity of trinitrobenzesulfonic acid-induced colonic damage. T. spiralis infection induced IL-10 production in a dose-dependent manner in oxazolone (OXZ)-...

  4. Evaluation of the PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit for the digestion and recovery of larvae in pork, horse meat and wild meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecsni, Kelly; Scheller, Cheryl; Scandrett, Brad; Buholzer, Patrik; Gajadhar, Alvin

    2017-08-30

    The artificial digestion magnetic stirrer method using pepsin protease and hydrochloric acid is the standard assay for the detection of Trichinella larvae in muscle of infected animals. Recently, an alternative enzyme, serine protease, was employed in the development of a commercially available digestion kit (PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit). This assay requires a higher digestion temperature of 60°C which kills the larvae during the digestion process, mitigating the risk of environmental contamination from the parasite. The present study was conducted to determine the performance of the PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit compared to the conventional pepsin/HCl digestion. Replicate paired 115g samples of Trichinella-negative pork diaphragm and masseter, and of horse tongue and masseter, were used to compare the two methods for tissue digestibility. Similarly, paired 100g samples of pork diaphragm and horse tongue were spiked with proficiency samples containing known numbers of Trichinella spiralis first stage larvae to compare larval recoveries for the two methods. Masseter samples from wild bears and wolves naturally infected with Trichinella nativa or T6 were also used to compare the performance of the methods. The results of the study showed that the PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit, when used according to the manufacturer's instructions, was effective in detecting Trichinella infection in all samples that contained 0.05 or more larvae per gram of tissue. Although there was no significant difference between the Kit method and the standard pepsin/HCl digestion procedure in the average number of larvae recovered from spiked pork diaphragm, 38% fewer larvae were recovered from similarly spiked samples of horse tongue by digestion using serine protease (one way ANOVA, P value meat and pork when using the Kit compared to the pepsin/HCl method. The results of testing wildlife samples were similar for the two methods. Overall, the performance of the Kit method was

  5. Parasitologisch en serologisch onderzoek naar het voorkomen van Trichinella spiralis bij Nederlandse slachtvarkens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen F van; Franchimont JH; Fenigsen-Narucka U

    1987-01-01

    Onderzoek werd verricht naar het voorkomen van Trichinella spiralis infecties in een at random steekproef van 10075 nederlandse slachtvarkens. Direct parasitologisch onderzoek met behulp van een artificiele digestie methode van 20 gram diafragma materiaal en serologisch onderzoek met de enzyme

  6. Development of an ointment for burns based in dry extract of the seaweed Fucus spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Neves Afonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fucus spiralis is a brown seaweed found on the Portuguese coast used as wound healing in traditional medicine were their antioxidant, immunostimulant, anticoagulant, antibacterial properties and also remineralizing, smoothing, moisturizing capacities and anti-tumor action were studied with proved results. These seaweed are one of the several described in the European Pharmacopoeia, making F.spiralis a seaweed with great potential for the development of new drugs and/or pharmaceuticals. The objective of this project was to formulate an ointment with F. spiralis dry extracts using vaseline as a base for the treatment of burns. Fucus spiralis was collected on the coast of Peniche (west coast of Portugal, washed, sorted, lyophilized and crushed for the dry extract preparation. The ash (g/g and iodine (% content in F. spiralis were determined. The ointment was prepared and homogenized with three concentrations of dry extract (1%, 2% and 5% and were analyzed over time in parallel with the observation of the physical, chemical, organoleptic and rheological characteristics. The results showed that the F. spiralis presented a iodine content of 0,0076%, a low concentration in comparison with the Farmacopeia europea directives. The ointment prepared is a non-Newtonian fluid, and the absorption spectrum in ultraviolet light (UV detected that it behaves as UVB and UVC blocker, despite of not having the same effect on UVA radiation. With these results and the many properties of Fucus spiralis we conclude that the ointment with dry extract of F. spiralis with the three concentrations of dry extract established is likely to have a great potential in the area of pharmaceutical and medicine, especially for burns application or other skins disorders.

  7. Development of an ointment for burns based in dry extract of the seaweed Fucus spiralis

    OpenAIRE

    Clélia Neves Afonso

    2014-01-01

    The Fucus spiralis is a brown seaweed found on the Portuguese coast used as wound healing in traditional medicine were their antioxidant, immunostimulant, anticoagulant, antibacterial properties and also remineralizing, smoothing, moisturizing capacities and anti-tumor action were studied with proved results. These seaweed are one of the several described in the European Pharmacopoeia, making F.spiralis a seaweed with great potential for the development of new drugs and/or pharmaceuticals. Th...

  8. Vaccination with a Paramyosin-Based Multi-Epitope Vaccine Elicits Significant Protective Immunity against Trichinella spiralis Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a worldwide zoonosis and remains a serious public health problem. Interrupting parasite transmission via vaccination of livestocks with a potent vaccine is a practical approach to prevent human Trichinellosis. Our previous studies have identified that paramyosin of Trichinella spiralis (Ts-Pmy is a good vaccine candidate against Trichinellosis. In this study, a novel multi-epitope vaccine (MEP was constructed by using four CD4+ T cell epitopes (P2, P3, P4, and P5 and one B cell epitope (YX1 from Ts-Pmy and expressed as a soluble recombinant protein (rMEP in Escherichia coli. Mice immunized with rMEP vaccine produced significant higher muscle larval reduction (55.4% than that induced by immunization of parental rTs-Pmy (34.4% against T. spiralis infection. The better protection is associated with rMEP induced high levels of anti-rMEP specific IgG and subclass IgG1/IgG2a, elevated T cell proliferation of splenocytes and secretion of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5. The cellular response to individual T cell epitope also showed that splenocytes from mice immunized with rMEP strongly response to the stimulation of synthetic epitope peptide P2, P3, and P4, but not to P5, suggesting that most of T cell epitopes are exposed and processed well during immunization that may contribute to the high protection induced by the immunization of rMEP. This study implies that epitope vaccine is a promising approach for the development of vaccines against Trichinellosis.

  9. Ausência de Trichinella spiralis em suínos adultos abatidos em Palmas, Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Daguer,Heitor; Geniz,Pedro Valdir; Santos,Adriano Vaz dos

    2005-01-01

    Foram examinadas amostras de 3.774 suínos adultos, abatidos sob inspeção federal entre os anos de 2002 e 2004 na cidade de Palmas, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, utilizando-se a técnica da digestão artificial de amostras coletivas com agitador magnético para pesquisa de larvas de Trichinella spiralis. Os animais eram provenientes de 68 municípios dos três estados da região Sul do Brasil. A técnica utilizada seguiu as recomendações européias e as amostras examinadas consistiam de fragmentos muscula...

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis in North Carolina black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, F B; Levine, J F; Stoskopf, M K; Gamble, H R; Dubey, J P

    1998-10-01

    Serum samples from 143 hunter-killed black bears were collected during the 1996 and 1997 black bear hunting seasons in eastern North Carolina. All samples were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test. Antibodies to T. gondii were present in 120 of 143 (84%) bears. Females had significantly higher titers than males (Wilcoxon rank sums test, P = 0.045), and titers increased with age (Jonckheere test, P = 0.01). Samples collected during 1996 (n = 79) were tested for antibodies to Trichinella spiralis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No samples were positive for antibodies to T. spiralis.

  11. Pro-oxidant effects of Mebendazole in albino rats experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tolstoj, V. A.; Lytvynets, Andrej; Langrová, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 6 (2007), s. 1277-1280 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : lipid peroxidation process * Mebendazole * Trichinella spiralis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.512, year: 2007

  12. Cellular responses to elevated light levels in Fucus spiralis embryos during the first days after fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, S.; Rijstenbil, J.W.; Sousa-Pinto, I.; Brown, M.

    2001-01-01

    Cellular responses of 1-, 2- and 4-d-old Fucus spiralis embryos subjected to a single dose of elevated photosynthetically active photon flux density (PPFD), with or without ultraviolet (U-V) radiation, were investigated by measuring the effects on the effective quantum yield of photosystem II

  13. Proteomic analysis of Trichinella spiralis adult worm excretory-secretory proteins recognized by early infection sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruo Dan; Qi, Xin; Sun, Ge Ge; Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Li Ang; Liu, Xiao Lin; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2016-11-15

    At the intestinal stage of a Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) infection, the excretory-secretory (ES) antigens produced by adult worms (AWs) result in an early exposure to the host's immune system and elicit the production of specific antibodies; the AW ES proteins might provide early diagnostic markers of trichinellosis. The aim of this study was to identify early serodiagnostic markers from T. spiralis AW ES antigens. T. spiralis AWs were collected at 72h post infection, and their ES antigens were analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Then, the immunoreactive bands were subjected to shotgun LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analyses. Our results showed that only one protein band (33kDa) was recognized by the sera of mice infected with T. spiralis at 8 days after infection. The shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis identified 23 proteins that were then clustered into 10 types; these proteins had molecular weights of 28.13-71.62kDa and pI 5.05-9.20. Certain enzymes (e.g., serine protease, adult-specific deoxyribonuclease [DNase] II, peptidase S1A subfamily, and multi cystatin-like domain protein) were found to be highly represented. The functions of the 10 proteins were further analysed: of the 6 annotated proteins, 3 had serine hydrolase activity and 2 had DNase II activity. These results provide a valuable basis for identifying early diagnostic antigens and vaccine candidates for trichinellosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. BÚSQUEDA DE Trichinella spiralis EN CERDOS DE CRIANZA NO TECNIFICADA EN ZONAS PERIURBANAS DE LIMA, PERÚ

    OpenAIRE

    Arrese H., Giovanna; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Ramos D., Daphne; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Casas A., Eva; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Guevara F., José; Universidad de Baja California Sur; Lucas L., Juan; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evidenciar la posible presencia de infecciones por Trichinella spiralis en cerdos procedentes de granjas de crianza no tecnificada en Lima y beneficiados en dos mataderos autorizados. Se tomaron muestras de sangre y del diafragma de 185 cerdos. Las muestras de músculo se analizaron con el triquinoscopio y las muestras de sangre con un kit comercial de ELISA indirecto para detectar la presencia de anticuerpos contra T. spiralis. Todas las muestras fueron ne...

  15. Assessment of efficacy and safety of various adjuvant formulations with a total soluble extract of Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aucouturier J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis, a re-emerging zoonosis in several countries and pig, is the main species responsible for its transmission to human. Vaccination of swine could be an alternative to prevent the risk of human contamination. In order to develop an efficient and safe inactivate vaccine, the choice of the adjuvant is an important issue. The aim of this study was to develop and select potent and safe adjuvants by screening them in an experimental model with a crude soluble antigen from L1 muscular larvae (ML of Trichinella spiralis (Ts. The efficacy was checked by the quantification of specific antibody levels. Specific and non-specific IgE antibody levels were also assessed. Safety was checked by the assessment of the local reaction at the injection site.Various Montanide® ISA adjuvant formulations including water in oil, oil in water and multiphasic emulsions, but also nanoparticles or microbeads were tested. The results clearly showed differences between the antibody responses induced by the adjuvants and demonstrated the necessity to use an adjuvant to obtain a specific IgG (IgG1or lgG2a response directed against the total soluble extract of Ts. All the formulations enhanced the humoral immune response. The origin of the oil contained in the emulsions played an important role on the efficacy. Indeed emulsions based on mineral oils were more efficient than those based on metabolisable oils. However it was linked with stronger local reactions. Multiphasic and oil in water emulsions but also nanoparticles failed to induce 1gG2a antibody levels. Microbeads and water in oil formulations based on mineral oils were more efficient. This experimentation allowed then the selection of several adjuvants which efficacy will be further Investigated by a challenge test and an analysis of the cellular populations involved in the mechanism of the immune response.

  16. Intestinal microbes influence the survival, reproduction and protein profile of Trichinella spiralis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai-yan; Zhao, Na; Zhang, Qiao-ling; Gao, Jiang-ming; Liu, Li-li; Wu, Teng-Fei; Wang, Ying; Huang, Qing-hua; Gou, Qiang; Chen, Wei; Gong, Peng-tao; Li, Jian-hua; Gao, Ying-jie; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Xi-chen

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between intestinal microbes and parasitic worms play an essential role in the development of the host immune system. However, the effects of gut microbes on Trichinella spiralis are unknown. The aim of this work was to explore microbe-induced alterations in the survival and reproduction of T. spiralis in vitro. To further identify the proteins and genes involved in the response of nematodes to microbes, quantitative proteomic analysis of T. spiralis was conducted by iTRAQ-coupled LCMS/MS technology and quantitative real-time-PCR was used to measure changes in mRNA expression. The results showed Lactobacillus acidophilus, and especially Lactobacillus bulgaricus, significantly enhanced the survival and reproductive rates of nematodes. Salmonella enterica, and especially Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), had opposite effects. Genetic responses were activated mainly by EHEC. A total of 514 proteins were identified and quantified, and carbohydrate metabolism-related proteins existed in a higher proportion. These findings indicated that some gut bacteria are friendly or harmful to humans and in addition they may have similar beneficial or detrimental effects on parasites. This may be due to the regulation of expression of specific genes and proteins. Our studies provide a basis for developing therapies against parasitic infections from knowledge generated by studying the gut microbes of mammals. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Initial growth of Costus longebracteolatus and Costus spiralis ‘French Kiss’ under different light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bachin Mazzini-Guedes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian native Costus longebracteolatus and Costus spiralis ‘French Kiss’, in the family Costaceae, have been used as both cut flowers and cut foliage. It is known that Costus species grow better under partial shade, but studies on the influence of shading or light on plant growth, development, and flower production are still incipient. As this kind of information is essential on planning of planting, production, and agribusiness activities, the objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of different colored shade nets and light conditions on the initial growth of both C. longebracteolatus and C. spiralis ‘French Kiss’. Plants, obtained from cuttings of pseudostems, were cultivated under six light conditions, which comprised six treatments, along 270 days: red net with 50% shading, blue net with 50% shading, black net with 70% shading, black net with 50% shading, black net with 30% shading, and full sun. The initial growth of C. longebracteolatus (up to 270 days is more successful under the blue net with 50% shading, which promoted highest values of pseudostem length and dry matter of aerial part. For C. spiralis ‘French Kiss’ plants, both the red and blue nets with 50% shading implied best results and differed for the other treatments with greater pseudostem length. Plant exposure to full sun inhibited growth and development, and favored early leaf necrosis.

  18. Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis of Lysine Acetylation in the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and highly conserved post-translational modification that plays a critical role in regulating diverse cellular processes. Trichinella spiralis is a foodborne parasite with a considerable socio-economic impact. However, to date, little is known regarding the role of lysine acetylation in this parasitic nematode. In this study, we utilized a proteomic approach involving anti-acetyl lysine-based enrichment and highly sensitive mass spectrometry to identify the global acetylated proteome and investigate lysine acetylation in T. spiralis. In total, 3872 lysine modification sites were identified in 1592 proteins that are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Consistent with the results of previous studies, a large number of the acetylated proteins appear to be involved in metabolic and biosynthetic processes. Interestingly, according to the functional enrichment analysis, 29 acetylated proteins were associated with phagocytosis, suggesting an important role of lysine acetylation in this process. Among the identified proteins, 15 putative acetylation motifs were detected. The presence of serine downstream of the lysine acetylation site was commonly observed in the regions surrounding the sites. Moreover, protein interaction network analysis revealed that various interactions are regulated by protein acetylation. These data represent the first report of the acetylome of T. spiralis and provide an important resource for further explorations of the role of lysine acetylation in this foodborne pathogen.

  19. An anti-tumor protein produced by Trichinella spiralis and identified by screening a T7 phage display library, induces apoptosis in human hepatoma H7402 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichinella spiralis infection confers effective resistance to tumor cell expansion. In this study, a T7 phage cDNA display library was constructed to express genes encoded by T. spiralis. Organic phase multi-cell screening was used to sort through candidate proteins in a transfected human chronic m...

  20. Larvae for layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lotte; Fischer, Christian Holst; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Companies and researchers are in close collaboration developing a container- based system for cultivating fly larvae at organic poultry farms. In a one week process, manure will be converted to compost and the live larvae will be harvested and used for feeding laying hens. The larvae are expected...

  1. Excretory/secretory products from Trichinella spiralis adult worms ameliorate DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many evidences show the inverse correlation between helminth infection and allergic or autoimmune diseases. Identification and characterization of the active helminth-derived products responsible for the beneficial effects on allergic or inflammatory diseases will provide another feasible approach to treat these diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% DSS orally for 7 days. During this period, the mice were treated daily with the excretory/secretory products from T. spiralis adult worms (AES intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was monitored by measuring body weight, stool consistency or bleeding, colon length and inflammation. To determine the T. spiralis AES product-induced immunological response, Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory cytokine profiles were measured in lymphocytes isolated from colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, and the spleen of treated mice. The CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs were also measured in the spleens and MLN of treated mice. Mice treated with AES significantly ameliorated the severity of the DSS-induced colitis indicated by the reduced disease manifestations, improved macroscopic and microscopic inflammation correlated with the up-regulation of Treg response (increased regulatory cytokines IL-10, TGF-beta and regulatory T cells and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-6 and IL-17 in the spleens, MLN and colon of treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide direct evidences that T. spiralis AES have a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice. This effect is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells to produce regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  2. Is the Newly Described Vietnamese Bovid Pseudonovibos spiralis a Chamois (Genus Rupicapra)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, A.; Douzery, E. J. P.

    The ``Linh Duong'' (Pseudonovibos spiralis), a newly described Vietnamese bovid, has been shown to be related to the Caprinae on the basis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequencing from horn fragments. To integrate the greatest available biodiversity we performed a new phylogenetic analysis including all genera of Caprinae. Unexpectedly, Pseudonovibos is found to be robustly associated with Rupicapra, and closer to the Alpine than to the Pyrenean chamois. Several clues led us to interpret this result as a carry-over DNA contamination of Pseudonovibos by Rupicapra.

  3. Quantitative imaging of radial oxygen loss from Valisneria spiralis roots with a fluorescent planar optode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Ren, Jinghua [Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210018 (China); Tang, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Xu, Di, E-mail: dxu@niglas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Xie, Xianchuan, E-mail: xchxie@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Center for Hydroscience Research, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Oxygen (O{sub 2}) availability within the sediment–root interface is critical to the survival of macrophytes in O{sub 2}-deficient sediment; however, our knowledge of the fine-scale impact of macrophyte roots upon the spatiotemporal dynamics of O{sub 2} is relatively limited. In this study, a non-invasive imaging technology was utilized to map O{sub 2} micro-distribution around Vallisneria spiralis. Long-term imaging results gathered during a 36 day-period revealed an abundance of O{sub 2} spatiotemporal patterns ranging from 0 to 250 μmol L{sup −} {sup 1}. The root-induced O{sub 2} leakage and consequent oxygenated area were stronger in the vicinity of the basal root compared to that found in the root tip. The O{sub 2} images revealed V. spiralis exhibited radial O{sub 2} loss (ROL) along the entire root, and the O{sub 2} distribution along the root length showed a high degree of small-scale spatial heterogeneity decreasing from 80% at the basal root surface to 10% at the root tip. The oxygenated zone area around the roots increased as O{sub 2} levels increased with root growth and irradiance intensities ranging from 0 to 216 μmol photons m{sup −} {sup 2} s{sup −} {sup 1}. A weak ROL measuring < 20% air saturation around the basal root surface was maintained in darkness, which was presumably attributed to the O{sub 2} supply from overlying water via plant aerenchyma. The estimated total O{sub 2} release to the rhizosphere of V. spiralis was determined to range from 8.80 ± 7.32 to 30.34 ± 17.71 nmol m{sup −} {sup 2} s{sup −} {sup 1}, which is much higher than many other macrophyte species. This O{sub 2} release may be an important contribution to the high-capacity of V. spiralis for quickly colonizing anaerobic sediment. - Highlights: • Planar imaging method was used to map O2 micro-distribution. • Highly dynamic rhizospheric O2-spatiotemporal distribution was observed. • O{sub 2} leakage along the entire root of Vallisneria spirals were

  4. The other gastropod larvae: larval morphogenesis in a marine neritimorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Louise R; Ferguson, Samuel J

    2013-04-01

    Two of the three major gastropod clades with feeding larvae are sister groups and larval morphogenesis for members of these clades, the Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia, has been well studied. The third clade, the Neritimorpha, has an unstable phylogenetic position and little is known about development of their planktotrophic larvae. Information about larval morphology of neritimorphs and resolution of their controversial phylogenetic placement is critically important for understanding evolution of larval feeding within the Gastropoda. We describe larval morphogenesis to metamorphic competence for laboratory-reared larvae of Nerita melanotragus (Smith, 1884) (Neritimorpha: Neritidae). Preliminary observations suggest that prehatch larvae are capable of delayed hatching, possibly by entering a diapause state. Our description of larval morphogenesis, as based on tissue sections for light and transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, three-dimensional-reconstructions of sectioned tissue, and labeling of muscles with fluorphore-tagged phalloidin, revealed four features that are unprecedented among both feeding and nonfeeding gastropod larvae. Larvae of N. melanotragus have muscles on the left and right side that both meet current criteria of a larval retractor muscle; shell-anchored muscles with oblique striations that project inside the visceral nerve loop to insert mainly on the velar lobes. They also have left and right digestive glands of similar size and a left and right hypobranchial gland. A larval "heart" is absent, but water circulation through the mantle cavity may be facilitated by large circular orifices, lined by patches of motile cilia, leading in and out of the mantle cavity. Comparison of larval traits among all three groups of gastropods with feeding larvae indicates that larvae of N. melanotragus have many unique characteristics, but they show more similarities to caenogastropod than to heterobranch larvae. These results are a

  5. La inmunización con productos de excreción-secreción de Trichinella spiralis unido al bloqueo de CTLA-4 produce un elevado grado de protección ante un reto con el parásito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lino Zumaquero-Ríos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de una vacuna experimental efectiva contra Trichinella spiralis se han utilizado diferentes estrategias, pero el grado de protección alcanzado en la casi totalidad de los ensayos es insuficiente para lograr un adecuado control de la enfermedad. En la literatura hay evidencias de que moléculas inhibidoras de la activación de los linfocitos T están implicadas en la regulación de la respuesta inmune contra los helmintos. El bloqueo de estas moléculas puede ser un blanco potencial para el tratamiento de las infecciones causadas por estos parásitos. Por otra parte, se ha informado que la inmunización con productos de excreción-secreción de larvas musculares de T. spiralis proporciona una inmunidad protectora parcial. La infección con el parásito induce una elevada población de linfocitos T reguladores que modulan la respuesta inmune. En este trabajo encontramos que la inmunización con antígenos de excreción-secreción de larvas musculares, más el bloqueo de la molécula inhibidora CTLA-4 en los linfocitos T, causa una significativa reducción de las larvas del parásito en un modelo experimental murino. De esta forma, queda demostrado que la eliminación del efecto supresor inducido por el helminto da por resultado una respuesta Th2 protectora más potente.

  6. The mechanism of adhesion and germination in the carpospores of Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (Rhodophyta, Bangiales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouriques, Luciane Cristina; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita

    2012-02-01

    Spore release is the primary means of dispersion employed by red algae, and it provides insight into the elements linking the stages of their life history. In most red algae, spores are released within a sheath-like envelope of mucilage, which is responsible for their primary attachment. However, few studies have characterized the polysaccharides involved in the adhesion of seaweed spores. Therefore, in this paper, the process of spore germination and adhesion in Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia is described, as representative of the germination pattern of the Naccaria type. Using FITC-labeled lectins, we discovered high concentrations of α-D-mannose, α-D-glucose and β-D-galactose in the mucilage. The germ tube reacted with RCA-FITC, indicating the presence β-D-galactose, and the rhizoidal cells showed the presence of α-D-mannose, α-D-glucose and β-D-galactose, indicating their importance to substrate adhesion. Using light and transmission electron microscopy, we also conducted an analysis of spore ultrastructure. We found that the differentiation of a vacuole in the spore is one of the most important processes marking the initial stage of germination. Thus, as the degree of vacuolation increases, whole cell contents move towards the germ tube, which undergoes several successive divisions forming the sporophytic phase. Therefore, we can conclude that germination in Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia is characterized by (1) the fixation of carpospores in the substrate by sugars present in the mucilage and (2) the polarization of cell contents by the processes of vacuolization and germ tube formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  8. Trichinella spiralis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodoropoulos, G.; Hicks, S. J.; Corfield, A. P.

    2005-01-01

    in the infected conventional animals than in the infected SPF group. This was accompanied by changes in the pattern of sulphation and sialylation in the duodenum and jejunum. The thickness of the glycocalyx was increased in both duodenum and jejunum in both infected groups. However, this effect was greater...... for the infected SPF animals than the infected conventional animals. No significant differences were observed between uninfected conventional and uninfected SPF pigs....

  9. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis in 509 pigs from 31 farms in Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Gamble, H R; Rodrigues, A O; Thulliez, P

    1992-06-01

    Serum samples from 509 pigs from 31 farms in Oahu, Hawaii were examined for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the agglutination test in dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and for Trichinella spiralis using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 48.5% of pigs. Antibody titers were: 5.1% positive at 1:25 dilution, 28.6% positive at 1:50 dilution and 14.7% positive at 1:500 dilution. The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in garbage-fed pigs (67.3% of 199 pigs) was higher than in grain-fed pigs (33.8% of 180 pigs). Antibodies to Trichinella spiralis were found on seven of 31 farms. On five of these farms only a single serum was positive for Trichinella spiralis antibodies. The two remaining farms each had three positive sera (three of ten and three of 25 pigs tested); both of these farms fed garbage to pigs.

  10. Baylisascaris Larva Migrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazacos, Kevin R.; Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles

    2016-05-26

    SummaryBaylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is the most commonly recognized cause of clinical larva migrans (LM) in animals, a condition in which an immature parasitic worm or larva migrates in a host animal’s tissues, causing obvious disease. Infection with B. procyonis is best known as a cause of fatal or severe neurologic disease that results when the larvae invade the brain, the spinal cord, or both; this condition is known as neural larva migrans (NLM). Baylisascariasis is a zoonotic disease, that is, one that is transmissible from animals to humans. In humans, B. procyonis can cause damaging visceral (VLM), ocular (OLM), and neural larva migrans. Due to the ubiquity of infected raccoons around humans, there is considerable human exposure and risk of infection with this parasite. The remarkable disease-producing capability of B. procyonis in animals and humans is one of the most significant aspects of the biology of ascarids (large roundworms) to come to light in recent years. Infection with B. procyonis has important health implications for a wide variety of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, domestic animals, as well as human beings, on both an individual and population level. This report, eighth in the series of U.S. Geological Survey Circulars on zoonotic diseases, will help us to better understand the routes of Baylisascaris procyonis infections and how best to adequately monitor this zoonotic disease.

  11. Visceral larva migrans: migratory pattern of Toxocara canis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Lind, Peter; Nansen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The migratory pattern of Toxocara canis was investigated following infection of pigs with 60 000 infective eggs. Groups of six pigs were slaughtered at 7, 14 and 28 days after infection (p.i.), and the number of larvae in selected organs and muscles was determined by digestion. A group...... of uninfected pigs was used as negative controls for blood parameters and weight gain. Toxocara canis migrated well in the pig, although the relative numbers of larvae recovered decreased significantly during the experiment. On day 7 p.i., high numbers of larvae were recovered from the lymph nodes around...... towards T. canis L2/L3 ES products was observed from day 14 p.i. until termination of the experiment, and the maximum eosinophil response was observed 14 days p.i. The pig is a useful non-primate model for human visceral larva migrans, since T. canis migrate well and induce a strong immunological response...

  12. Proficiency testing to detect Trichinella larvae in meat in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci, G; Tonanzi, D; Cherchi, S; Galati, F; Bella, A; Interisano, M; Ludovisi, A; Amati, A; Pozio, E

    2016-11-15

    According to the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/1375 (replacing the Commission Regulation (EC) No 2075/2005), all animals, which are potential carriers of Trichinella spp. larvae, should be tested at the slaughterhouse or game-handling establishments according to one of the approved tests. One of the core duties of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Parasites is to organize proficiency testing (PT), as stated in the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The aim of this work was to evaluate the results of PTs of the digestion method carried out by the National Reference Laboratories for Parasites (NRLPs) over a nine year period (2007-2015). Participating laboratories received a panel of samples consisting in 35g or 100g of minced pork or horse meat spiked with Trichinella spiralis live larvae. The number of spiked samples varied from 2 to 9 over the years. A negative control was also included in the panel, except during the 2015 PT, when only positive samples were used. The percentage of NRLPs, which passed the PT, increased from 83.3% in 2007 to 100% in 2014. Considering the number of recovered larvae, the heterogeneity in participant's results reduced overtime. The values of the overall mean difference between spiked and recovered larvae decreased during the study period, witnessing a general improvement of NRLPs performance and confirming the effectiveness of PT for a good performance of this test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. First findings of Trichinella spiralis and DNA of Echinococcus multilocularis in wild raccoon dogs in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Maas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent invasion of the raccoon dog in the Netherlands may be associated with the risk of introduction and spread of zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was to assess whether Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spp. infections are present in Dutch raccoon dogs. Between 2013 and 2014, nine raccoon dogs, mainly road kills, were collected for necropsies. One raccoon dog tested repeatedly positive in the qPCR for E. multilocularis. The positive raccoon dog was collected in the province of Flevoland, which is not a known endemic region for E. multilocularis. Another raccoon dog tested positive for Trichinella spiralis by the digestion of the forelimb musculature and the tongue. Trichinella spiralis has not been reported in wildlife since 1998 and thus far was not found in wild carnivores in the Netherlands. It shows that despite the small raccoon dog population that is present in the Netherlands and the limited number of raccoon dogs that were tested, the raccoon dog may play a role in the epidemiology of E. multilocularis and Trichinella spp. in the Netherlands.

  14. VISCERAL LARVA MIGRANS AND TROPICAL PYOMYOSITIS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAMBERTUCCI Roberto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tropical pyomyositis in a boy who presented with a severe febrile illness associated with diffuse erythema, and swelling in many areas of the body which revealed on operation extensive necrotic areas of various muscles that required repeated débridement. The patient gave a history of contact with dogs, and an ELISA test for Toxocara canis was positive. He also presented eosinophilia and high serum IgE levels. Staphylococcus aureus was the sole bacteria isolated from the muscles affected. We suggest that tropical pyomyositis may be caused by the presence of migrating larvae of this or other parasites in the muscles. The immunologic and structural alterations caused by the larvae, in the presence of concomitant bacteremia, would favour seeding of the bacteria and the development of pyomyositis.

  15. Quantification of vestibular-induced eye movements in zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Weike

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular reflexes coordinate movements or sensory input with changes in body or head position. Vestibular-evoked responses that involve the extraocular muscles include the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, a compensatory eye movement to stabilize retinal images. Although an angular VOR attributable to semicircular canal stimulation was reported to be absent in free-swimming zebrafish larvae, recent studies reveal that vestibular-induced eye movements can be evoked in zebrafish larvae by both static tilts and dynamic rotations that tilt the head with respect to gravity. Results We have determined herein the basis of sensitivity of the larval eye movements with respect to vestibular stimulus, developmental stage, and sensory receptors of the inner ear. For our experiments, video recordings of larvae rotated sinusoidally at 0.25 Hz were analyzed to quantitate eye movements under infrared illumination. We observed a robust response that appeared as early as 72 hours post fertilization (hpf, which increased in amplitude over time. Unlike rotation about an earth horizontal axis, rotation about an earth vertical axis at 0.25 Hz did not evoke eye movements. Moreover, vestibular-induced responses were absent in mutant cdh23 larvae and larvae lacking anterior otoliths. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a functional vestibulo-oculomotor circuit in 72 hpf zebrafish larvae that relies upon sensory input from anterior/utricular otolith organs.

  16. Berbagai Cara Pengendalian Larva Nyamuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nungki Hapsari Suryaningtyas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tindakan pencegahan dengan memberantas sarang nyamuk dan membunuh larva serta nyamuk dewasa terus digalakkan. Stadium pradewasa atau larva dapat dikontrol secara biologi maupun kimiawi.1 Berikut adalah beberapa cara pengendalian larva nyamuk.Pengendalian secara biologi Beberapa organisme yang efektif untuk mengendalikan larva secara biologi diantaranya adalah Ikan (larvavivorous fish,Aplocheilus panchax (ikan kepala timah, Ctenops vittatus (ikan cupang,Oreochromis (Tilapia mossambicus (ikan nila dan Cyprinus carpio (ikan tombro, larva nyamuk dari genus Toxorhynchites, Capung (Dragonflies/Labellula . Kelompok Udang (Cyclopoid copepods Jenis Copepoda yang tersebar sebagai plankton dan bentos ini bersifat predator yang efektif untuk mengendalikan stadium pradewasa nyamuk instar satu dan instar dua. Pada suatu penelitian di Polynesia Perancis terbukti bahwa M. aspericornis pengaruhnya tidak konsisten terhadap larva Ae. aegypti yang ditemukan berada di tangki air, drum dan sumur yang tertutup. Keadaan tersebut tampaknya bergantung pada tersedianya mikrofauna di tempat perkembangbiakannya yang dibutuhkan untuk pertumbuhan Copepoda tersebut

  17. Ultrastructural observations of the larva of Tubiluchus corallicola (Priapulida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R. P.; Storch, V.

    1989-03-01

    Larvae of Tubiluchus corallicola van der Land 1968 were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The scalids are sensory organs, each has a bipolar receptor cell with a single apical cilium similar to the scalid in the adult. Muscle cells of the larva are more differentiated than previously reported for other Priapulida; the larval arrangement of circular and longitudinal musculature differs from that of the adult, and a diaphragm is reported for the first time in Priapulida. The diaphragm may function in hydrostatic control of eversion and inversion of the introvert and mouth cone. The functional morphology of these two structures is discussed and contrasted with the Kinorhyncha.

  18. Evaluation of antiplasmodial and antileishmanial activities of herbal medicine Pseudelephantopus spiralis (Less.) Cronquist and isolated hirsutinolide-type sesquiterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Cynthia; Fabre, Nicolas; Paloque, Lucie; Ramadani, Arba Pramundita; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; González-Aspajo, German; Haddad, Mohamed; Rengifo, Elsa; Jullian, Valérie

    2015-07-21

    Pseudelephantopus spiralis (Less.) Cronquist is distributed in the Caribbean, Mesoamerica and Latin America. Preparations of the plant are traditionally used in Latin America for the treatment of various diseases including fever, malaria, and spleen or liver inflammations. Aerial parts of P. spiralis were extracted with either ethanol or distilled water. Seven hirsutinolide-type sesquiterpenoids were isolated: 8-acetyl-13-ethoxypiptocarphol (1), diacetylpiptocarphol (2), piptocarphins A (3), F (4) and D (5), (1S(*),4R(*),8S(*),10R(*))-1,4-epoxy-13-ethoxy-1,8,10-trihydroxygermacra-5E,7(11)-dien-6,12-olide (6), and piptocarphol (7). Extracts and isolated compounds (2, 3, 5-7) were screened for their in vitro antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain FcM29-Cameroon and antileishmanial activity against three stages of Leishmania infantum. Their cytotoxicities were also evaluated against healthy VERO cell lines and J774A.1 macrophages, the host cells of the Leishmania parasites in humans. Aqueous extracts showed a greater inhibitory effect than alcoholic extracts, with IC50 on P. falciparum of 3.0µg/mL versus 21.1µg/mL, and on L. infantum of 13.4µg/mL versus >50µg/mL. Both extracts were found to be cytotoxic to VERO cells (CC50<3µg/mL). Sesquiterpene lactones 2 and 3 showed the best activity against both parasites but failed in selectivity. Carbon 8 hydroxylated hirsutinolides 5-7 presented the particularity of exhibiting two conformers observed in solution during extensive NMR analyses in CD3OD and UHPLC-MS. The presence of a hydroxyl function at C-8 decreased the activity of 5-7 on the two parasites and also on VERO cells. The antiplasmodial activity displayed by the aqueous extract explains the traditional use of P. spiralis in the treatment of malaria. This activity seems to be attributable to the presence of sesquiterpene lactones 2 and 3, the most active against P. falciparum. Aqueous extract and compounds 2, 3 and

  19. Overview: Pyraloidea larvae (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larvae of pyraloid or snout moths are pests to many crops and stored products and rank as among the most destructive pests to graminaceous crops such as corn, sugarcane, and rice. On the other hand, some larvae have been investigated and used for the biological control of noxious terrestrial a...

  20. Transient up- and down-regulation of expression of myosin light chain 2 and myostatin mRNA mark the changes from stratified hyperplasia to muscle fiber hypertrophy in larvae of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Stella; Alami-Durante, Hélène; Power, Deborah M; Sarropoulou, Elena; Mamuris, Zissis; Moutou, Katerina A

    2016-02-01

    Hyperplasia and hypertrophy are the two mechanisms by which muscle develops and grows. We study these two mechanisms, during the early development of white muscle in Sparus aurata, by means of histology and the expression of structural and regulatory genes. A clear stage of stratified hyperplasia was identified early in the development of gilthead sea bream but ceased by 35 dph when hypertrophy took over. Mosaic recruitment of new white fibers began as soon as 60 dph. The genes mlc2a and mlc2b were expressed at various levels during the main phases of hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The genes myog and mlc2a were significantly up-regulated during the intensive stratified formation of new fibers and their expression was significantly correlated. Expression of mstn1 and igf1 increased at 35 dph, appeared to regulate the hyperplasia-to-hypertrophy transition, and may have stimulated the expression of mlc2a, mlc2b and col1a1 at the onset of mosaic hyperplasia. The up-regulation of mstn1 at transitional phases in muscle development indicates a dual regulatory role of myostatin in fish larval muscle growth.

  1. Cutaneous larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wieczorek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM is a tropical zoonosis, caused by parasites, usually Ancylostoma braziliense. Humans are an accidental host. Polish patients with CLM are usually tourists visiting tropical and subtropical countries. The first symptoms do not always appear as creeping eruptions, which complicates the diagnosis. Objective. To present the case of a man with CLM after returning from Thailand to Poland and associated diagnostic difficulties. Case report. We present a case of a 28-year-old man who returned to Poland from Thailand. The first symptoms appeared as disseminated pruritic papules. No improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines was observed. The diagnosis was established after the appearance of serpentine erythemas and improvement after albendazole therapy. Conclusions. In the case of returnees from exotic countries suffering from raised, pruritic rashes, and no improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines, parasitic etiology should be considered.

  2. [Morphology of III stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Pomacea canaliculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao-Wei; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang

    2008-06-30

    To observe the morphologic characteristics of III stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis from Pomacea canaliculata. P. canaliculata, the intermediate host snail of A. cantonensis, was infected with I stage larvae of A. cantonensis in laboratory. After 61 days, III stage larvae of A. cantonensis were harvested from snail's lungs and muscle of head-foot, followed by HE stain to observe morphological characteristics. The whole body of III stage larva was curling with obtuse head. Its pharyngeal canal extends from the buccal hole on the top of the head to the intestines at the pharyngeal intestine joint place, with apex cauda and clear anal tube. The tegument of the III stage larva was eosin-stained, with a transparent sheath outside of tegument. Some of the larvae cauda showed in circular cylinder, and some larvae presented ventral gland with two very short uterine which used to be the feature only showed in early IV stage larva. Morphologically characteristics of the III stage larvae is helpful to better understand the life-cycle and the control of A. cantonensis.

  3. Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathmann, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture.

  4. Desiccation resistance of Chironomid larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Frouz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to desiccation in larvae of eight species of aquatic, semiaquatic and terrestrial chironomids (Pseudodiamesa branickii, Macropelopia sp., Prodiamesa olivacea, Micropsectra sp., Chironomus riparius, Chironomus dorsalis, Metriocnemus martini and Camptocladius stercorarius was studied. The larvae were desiccated in exicator at constant conditions (15 °C, 80% RH and changes in moisture and body water content was recorded. The LD-50 for loss of body water was calculated. The lowest resistance to loss of body water was found in larvae from subfamilies Tanypodinae and Diamesinae Macropelopia sp. and P. branickii. They survived loss of 49.7 and 56.6% of original water content (presented values are LD-50. On the other hand the highest resistance to water loss was found in C. dorsalis. M. martini and C. stercorarius. The larvae of these species may survive loss of 67.4, 76.6 and 84.2% of original water content. Nevertheless the survival time under experimental conditions depends more closely on larval size than on lethal level of water loss. The smaller larvae desiccated faster and perished sooner than large ones despite they tolerate higher loss of body water.

  5. Mixing and pumping functions of the intestine of zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinyou; Shimogonya, Yuji; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2017-04-21

    Due to its transparency, the intestine of zebrafish larvae has been widely used in studies of gastrointestinal diseases and the microbial flora of the gut. However, transport phenomena in the intestine of zebrafish larvae have not been fully clarified. In this study, therefore, transport caused by peristaltic motion in the intestine of zebrafish larvae was investigated by numerical simulation. An anatomically realistic three-dimensional geometric model of the intestine at various times after feeding was constructed based on the experimental data of Field et al. (2009). The flow of digested chyme was analyzed using the governing equations of fluid mechanics, together with peristaltic motion and long-term contraction of the intestinal wall. The results showed that retrograde peristaltic motion was the main contributor to the mixing function. The dispersion caused by peristalsis over 30min was in the order of 10 -12 m 2 /s, which is greater than the Brownian diffusion of a sphere of 0.4µm diameter. In contrast, anterograde peristaltic motion contributed mainly to the pumping function. The pressure decrease due to peristalsis was in the order of millipascals, which may reduce the activation and maintenance heat of intestinal muscle. These findings enhance our understanding of the mixing and pumping functions of the intestine of zebrafish larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Two alternating motor programs drive navigation in Drosophila larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhaneil Lahiri

    Full Text Available When placed on a temperature gradient, a Drosophila larva navigates away from excessive cold or heat by regulating the size, frequency, and direction of reorientation maneuvers between successive periods of forward movement. Forward movement is driven by peristalsis waves that travel from tail to head. During each reorientation maneuver, the larva pauses and sweeps its head from side to side until it picks a new direction for forward movement. Here, we characterized the motor programs that underlie the initiation, execution, and completion of reorientation maneuvers by measuring body segment dynamics of freely moving larvae with fluorescent muscle fibers as they were exposed to temporal changes in temperature. We find that reorientation maneuvers are characterized by highly stereotyped spatiotemporal patterns of segment dynamics. Reorientation maneuvers are initiated with head sweeping movement driven by asymmetric contraction of a portion of anterior body segments. The larva attains a new direction for forward movement after head sweeping movement by using peristalsis waves that gradually push posterior body segments out of alignment with the tail (i.e., the previous direction of forward movement into alignment with the head. Thus, reorientation maneuvers during thermotaxis are carried out by two alternating motor programs: (1 peristalsis for driving forward movement and (2 asymmetric contraction of anterior body segments for driving head sweeping movement.

  7. Chemical Assessment and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Endophytic Fungi Extracts Isolated from Costus spiralis (Jacq.) Roscoe (Costaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson Ascêncio, Poliana Guerino; Ascêncio, Sérgio Donizeti; Aguiar, Aline Aires; Fiorini, Adriana; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio

    2014-01-01

    Costus spiralis (Costaceae) is a species native to the Amazon region and is used in traditional medicine. The endophytic fungi used in this study were obtained from leaves of this plant. 13 strains were selected to obtain hydroethanolic extracts and were submitted to hydroalcoholic extraction and evaluated for antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and all of the fungi had positive results. The antimicrobial action of crude extracts had a good range of activities. All extracts had inhibitory activities against the yeasts of Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, with 125 to 500 μg/mL MIC. Eight extracts had antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis (MIC from 62.4 to 125 μg/mL), 5 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC from 125 to 500 μg/mL), 2 against Salmonella enterica (MIC from 125 to 62.5 μg/mL), and 2 against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC from 500 to 125 μg/mL). The presence of secondary metabolites, including coumarins, was observed during chemical evaluation by thin layer chromatography. Total phenol content was estimated, and a strong positive correlation to antioxidant activity was observed, according to its Pearson coefficient. This is the first report of the bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from the Costaceae family in Brazilian ecosystems. PMID:25587339

  8. Chemical Assessment and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Endophytic Fungi Extracts Isolated from Costus spiralis (Jacq. Roscoe (Costaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Guerino Marson Ascêncio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Costus spiralis (Costaceae is a species native to the Amazon region and is used in traditional medicine. The endophytic fungi used in this study were obtained from leaves of this plant. 13 strains were selected to obtain hydroethanolic extracts and were submitted to hydroalcoholic extraction and evaluated for antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power, and all of the fungi had positive results. The antimicrobial action of crude extracts had a good range of activities. All extracts had inhibitory activities against the yeasts of Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, with 125 to 500 μg/mL MIC. Eight extracts had antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis (MIC from 62.4 to 125 μg/mL, 5 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC from 125 to 500 μg/mL, 2 against Salmonella enterica (MIC from 125 to 62.5 μg/mL, and 2 against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC from 500 to 125 μg/mL. The presence of secondary metabolites, including coumarins, was observed during chemical evaluation by thin layer chromatography. Total phenol content was estimated, and a strong positive correlation to antioxidant activity was observed, according to its Pearson coefficient. This is the first report of the bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from the Costaceae family in Brazilian ecosystems.

  9. [Biotechnological aspects in "loco" larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inestrosa, N C; Labarca, R; Perelman, A; Campos, E O; Araneda, R; González, M; Brandan, E; Sánchez, J P; González-Plaza, R

    1990-10-01

    The biology of planktotrophic larvae of Concholepas concholepas is the main bottleneck towards developing biotechnologies to rear this muricid. Data concerning planktonic larvae development, diets and environmental signals triggering larval settlement and recruitment is scarce. We have begun the study of the molecular and cell biology of embryos, larvae and recruits having as a final goal, the development of appropriate biotechnologies to rear this gastropod. First, an inverse ratio between BuChE and AChE enzyme activities was established. This ratio may be a precise developmental marker for this species. Second, for the first time a phosphoinositide related regulatory pathway is reported in a muricid, opening a new approach to the biotechnological management of larvae. Third, the relation between sulfate in sea water and larval motility was studied. Concentrations below 125 microM sulfate decreases larval motility. The sulfate is incorporated in proteoglycans which participate in different developmental phenomena. Lastly, a genomic Concholepas concholepas DNA sequence, similar to that of a human growth hormone probe was detected. This is very interesting since growth factors are key molecules during development, growth and are involved in food conversion rates in fish and also, in a variety of marine invertebrates.

  10. Bite of a sea snake (Hydrophis spiralis): a case report from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekera, N; Jayawardena, A; Ariyaratnam, A; Hewage, U C; de Silva, A

    1994-08-01

    A rare case of sea-snake bite resulting in envenoming is reported. Comparison is made with clinical features of sea-snake envenoming as described in the literature. Some of the unusual features observed in our patient were the occurrence of pain at the site of the bite, regional lymph node enlargement and absence of muscle pain and tenderness. Polyvalent land-snake antivenom was used in the management of this patient since specific antivenom against sea-snake envenoming is not available in Sri Lanka. There was some improvement in neurological signs after the start of antivenom treatment. This is the first authenticated case of sea-snake envenoming in Sri Lanka.

  11. Comparison between two methods for diagnosis of trichinellosis: trichinoscopy and artificial digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignau, M L; del Valle Guardis, M; Risso, M A; Eiras, D F

    1997-01-01

    Two direct methods for the diagnosis of trichinellosis were compared: trichinoscopy and artificial digestion. Muscles from 17 wistar rats, orally infected with 500 Trichinella spiralis encysted larvae were examined. From each of the following muscles: diaphragm, tongue, masseters, intercostals, triceps brachialis and cuadriceps femoralis, 648,440 larvae from 1 g samples were recovered. The linear correlation between trichinoscopy and artificial digestion was very high and significant (r = 0.94, p < 0.0001), showing that both methods for the detection of muscular larvae did not differ significantly. In both methods, significant differences were found in the distribution of larvae per gramme of muscle.

  12. Comparison between Two Methods for Diagnosis of Trichinellosis: Trichinoscopy and Artificial Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Vignau

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Two direct methods for the diagnosis of trichinellosis were compared: trichinoscopy and artificial digestion. Muscles from 17 wistar rats, orally infected with 500 Trichinella spiralis encysted larvae were examined. From each of the following muscles: diaphragm, tongue, masseters, intercostals, triceps brachialis and cuadriceps femoralis, 648,440 larvae from 1 g samples were recovered. The linear correlation between trichinoscopy and artificial digestion was very high and significant (r=0.94, p< 0.0001, showing that both methods for the detection of muscular larvae did not differ significantly. In both methods, significant differences were found in the distribution of larvae per gramme of muscle

  13. Comparison of three artificial digestion methods for detection of non-encapsulated Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae in pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nockler, K.; Reckinger, S.; Szabo, I.

    2009-01-01

    In a ring trial involving five laboratories (A, B, C, D, and E), three different methods of artificial digestion were compared for the detection of non-encapsulated Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae in minced meat. Each sample panel consisted often 1 g minced pork samples. All samples in each panel...... were derived from a bulk meat preparation with a nominal value of either 7 or 17 larvae per g (Ipg). Samples were tested for the number of muscle larvae using the magnetic stirrer method (labs A, B, and E), stomacher method (lab B), and Trichomatic 35 (R) (labs C and D). T. pseudospiralis larvae were...... by using the magnetic stirrer method (22%), followed by the stomacher method (25%), and Trichomatic 35 (R) (30%). Results revealed that T. pseudospiralis larvae in samples with a nominal value of 7 and 17 Ipg can be detected by all three methods of artificial digestion....

  14. Isolamento de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae no Brasil Detectionof Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Tocchetto Schuch

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou detectar presença de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae em produtos de um entreposto do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a identificação de possíveis fontes de contaminação e a avaliação da possibilidade da transferência de esporos para colméias de apiários adjacentes a partir de produtos importados contaminados. Foram analisados mel e pólen importados disponíveis no entreposto, favo do ninho (crias, pólen e mel colhido de uma colméia sadia, mel estocado em um dos apiários e abelhas adultas. Os resultados foram positivosem relação ao mel e pólen importados, a três grupos de abelhas adultas e ao mel do favo.The objective of this work was to detect the presence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in products from a warehouse located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the identification of possible contamination sources, and the assessment of spores transference possibility from contaminated imported products from the warehouse to apiaries located in the surrounding area. Samples of imported pollen and bulk honey stocked in the warehouse, and honeycomb (brood, honey and pollen from a healthy hive, honey from one apiary and adult bees were analyzed. Imported honey and pollen, and three groups of adult bees and the honey collected from the honeycomb resulted positive.

  15. Disseminated cysticercosis with huge muscle hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is caused by cysticercus cellulose, which is the larva of Taenia solium , the pork tapeworm. The larvae are carried in the blood stream after penetrating the walls of the alimentary tract and they lodge in different tissues like the skin, skeletal muscles, brain, fundus and heart, to cause disseminated cysticercosis. Cases of disseminated cysticercosis have rarely been reported in the literature. They may inhabit the muscles and cause muscular hypertrophy, which, at times, may assume gross proportions. Morbidity is usually caused by the involvement of the central nervous system or the eyes.

  16. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after ... It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves that malfunction. Sometimes ...

  17. Unique rostrate larvae and basidiomycophagy in the beetle family Corylophidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorskaya, Margarita I; Leschen, Richard A B; Polilov, Alexey A; Beutel, Rolf G

    2014-03-01

    The head morphology of larvae of two undescribed species of the corylophid genus Holopsis were examined. Both are associated with the same basidiomycete host Ganoderma cf applanatum. Whereas the round and convex adults are very similar, one of the disc-shaped larvae is characterized by an elongate weevil-like snout, which is a unique feature in larval beetles. The posterior head region, the mouthparts and the general configuration of the musculature are similar in the larvae of both species. However, in the rostrate Holopsis sp. 1 most muscles are either widened along the longitudinal axis or elongated. Moreover, an additional bundle of M. frontobuccalis posterior is present, which strengthens the pharyngeal pumping apparatus. Both species share an unusual connection between the prepharynx and pharynx. This is a potential autapomorphy of the genus. The larval cephalic morphology of Holopsis sp. 2 and the corylophine genus Sericoderus is quite similar. However, they differ in some muscular features and in the configuration of the foregut. Holopsis species are associated with Basidiomycetes. Whether this is an ancestral condition in Corylophidae remains ambiguous due to conflicting phylogenetic hypotheses and the largely unknown biology of the Australian subfamily Periptyctinae. Several features of Holopsis are likely plesiomorphic and possibly related with the association with basidiomycetes. However, the larval rostrum of sp. 1 is doubtlessly derived, and could have a performance advantage over other species feeding on the spores of Ganoderma cf applanatum including Holopsis sp. 2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiosensitivity of spores of Paenibacillus larvae ssp. larvae in honey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Wanderley Mendes de [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Inspecao de Produtos de Origem Animal]. E-mail: sipa-rj@agricultura.gov.br; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito CTEx, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br; Schuch, Dulce Maria Tocchetto [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: micro-lara-rs@agricultura.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation, usually used in combination with other conventional methods of conservation, has been proven to be an efficient tool to ensure the safety of many types of foods by destroying pathogenic microorganisms and extending their shelf-lives. This work has investigated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate spores of the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae that causes the 'American foulbrood', a highly contagious disease still exotic in Brazil that kills bees and contaminates honey, preventing its commercialization and causing great economical losses. In this study, 60 g samples of two types of honey inoculated with 3.5x10{sup 3} spores/mL of that bacterium were irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 kGy and counted. The analyses indicated a mean reduction of 97.5{+-}0.7% in the number of viable spores exposed to 5 kGy. The application of doses of 7.5 kGy or higher yielded no viable spores above the detection threshold (10/mL). In addition the value of D{sub 10} (3.1{+-}0.3 kGy) was estimated and the logarithm of the population of viable spores of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae was determined as linear and quadratic polynomial functions of the radiation dose. The results indicated that the dose of 10 kGy could be insufficient to assure complete sterilization of honey in some cases while suggesting that 25 kGy would perform such task adequately. (author)

  19. Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from different environments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van Knapen, Frans; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and Rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We

  20. On chip cryo-anesthesia of Drosophila larvae for high resolution in vivo imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Amrita Ray; Insolera, Ryan; Hwang, Ran-Der; Fridell, Yih-Woei; Collins, Catherine; Chronis, Nikos

    2017-06-27

    We present a microfluidic chip for immobilizing Drosophila melanogaster larvae for high resolution in vivo imaging. The chip creates a low-temperature micro-environment that anaesthetizes and immobilizes the larva in under 3 minutes. We characterized the temperature distribution within the chip and analyzed the resulting larval body movement using high resolution fluorescence imaging. Our results indicate that the proposed method minimizes submicron movements of internal organs and tissue without affecting the larva physiology. It can be used to continuously immobilize larvae for short periods of time (minutes) or for longer periods (several hours) if used intermittently. The same chip can be used to accommodate and immobilize arvae across all developmental stages (1st instar to late 3rd instar), and loading larvae onto the chip does not require any specialized skills. To demonstrate the usability of the chip, we observed mitochondrial trafficking in neurons from the cell bodies to the axon terminals along with mitochondrial fusion and neuro-synaptic growth through time in intact larvae. Besides studying sub-cellular processes and cellular development, we envision the use of on chip cryo-anesthesia in a wide variety of biological in vivo imaging applications, including observing organ development of the salivary glands, fat bodies and body-wall muscles.

  1. Neuromuscular development in Novocrania anomala: evidence for the presence of serotonin and a spiralian-like apical organ in lecithotrophic brachiopod larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of Brachiopoda remains unsettled, and only few recent data on brachiopod organogenesis are currently available. In order to contribute data to questions concerning brachiopod ontogeny and evolution we investigated nervous and muscle system development in the craniiform (inarticulate) brachiopod Novocrania anomala. Larvae of this species are lecithotrophic and have a bilobed body with three pairs of dorsal setal bundles that emerge from the posterior lobe. Fully developed larvae exhibit a network of setae pouch muscles as well as medioventral longitudinal and transversal muscles. After settlement, the anterior and posterior adductor muscles and delicate mantle retractor muscles begin to form. Comparison of the larval muscular system of Novocrania anomala with that of rhynchonelliform (articulate) brachiopod larvae shows that the former has a much simpler muscular organization. The first signal of serotonin-like immunoreactivity appears in fully developed Novocrania anomala larvae, which have an apical organ that consists of four flask-shaped cells and two ventral neurites. These ventral neurites do not stain positively for the axonal marker alpha-tubulin in the larval stages. In the juveniles, the nervous system stained by alpha-tubulin is characterized by two ventral neurite bundles with three commissures. Our data are the first direct proof for the presence of an immunoreactive neurotransmitter in lecithotrophic brachiopod larvae and demonstrate the existence of flask-shaped serotonergic cells in the brachiopod larval apical organ, thus significantly increasing the probability that this cell type was part of the bauplan of the larvae of the last common lophotrochozoan ancestor.

  2. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.

    2016-01-01

    diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world...... was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults....

  3. Immobilization of Dystrophin and Laminin α2-Chain Deficient Zebrafish Larvae In Vivo Prevents the Development of Muscular Dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Li

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are often caused by genetic alterations in the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex or its extracellular ligands. These structures are associated with the cell membrane and provide mechanical links between the cytoskeleton and the matrix. Mechanical stress is considered a pathological mechanism and muscle immobilization has been shown to be beneficial in some mouse models of muscular dystrophy. The zebrafish enables novel and less complex models to examine the effects of extended immobilization or muscle relaxation in vivo in different dystrophy models. We have examined effects of immobilization in larvae from two zebrafish strains with muscular dystrophy, the Sapje dystrophin-deficient and the Candyfloss laminin α2-chain-deficient strains. Larvae (4 days post fertilization, dpf of both mutants have significantly lower active force in vitro, alterations in the muscle structure with gaps between muscle fibers and altered birefringence patterns compared to their normal siblings. Complete immobilization (18 hrs to 4 dpf was achieved using a small molecular inhibitor of actin-myosin interaction (BTS, 50 μM. This treatment resulted in a significantly weaker active contraction at 4 dpf in both mutated larvae and normal siblings, most likely reflecting a general effect of immobilization on myofibrillogenesis. The immobilization also significantly reduced the structural damage in the mutated strains, showing that muscle activity is an important pathological mechanism. Following one-day washout of BTS, muscle tension partly recovered in the Candyfloss siblings and caused structural damage in these mutants, indicating activity-induced muscle recovery and damage, respectively.

  4. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Marhaver, K.L.; Huijbers, C.M.; Nagelkerken, I.; Simpson, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to

  5. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity, Antioxidant Properties, Phenolic Content and Amino Acid Profiles of Fucus spiralis L. Protein Hydrolysate Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Paiva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food protein-derived hydrolysates with multi-bioactivities such as antihypertensive and antioxidant properties have recently received special attention since both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. This study reports, for the first time, the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibition and antioxidant properties of ultrafiltrate fractions (UF with different molecular weight ranges (<1, 1–3 and ≥3 kDa obtained from Fucus spiralis protein hydrolysate (FSPH digested with cellulase–bromelain. The amino acids profile, recovery yield, protein, peptide and total phenolic contents of these FSPH-UF, and the in vitro digestibility of F. spiralis crude protein were also investigated. FSPH-UF ≥3 kDa presented remarkably higher ACE-inhibition, yield, peptide and polyphenolic (phlorotannins contents. Antioxidant analysis showed that FSPH-UF <1 kDa and ≥3 kDa exhibited significantly higher scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC activity. FSPH-UF ≥3 kDa had also notably higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. Strong correlations were observed between ACE-inhibition and antioxidant activities (FIC and FRAP. The results suggest that ACE-inhibition and antioxidant properties of FSPH-UF may be due to the bioactive peptides and polyphenols released during the enzymatic hydrolysis. In conclusion, this study shows the potential use of defined size FSPH-UF for the prevention/treatment of hypertension and/or oxidative stress-related diseases.

  6. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  7. Comparison of three artificial digestion methods for detection of non-encapsulated Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae in pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöckler, K; Reckinger, S; Szabó, I; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Pozio, E; van der Giessen, J; Vallée, I; Boireau, P

    2009-02-23

    In a ring trial involving five laboratories (A, B, C, D, and E), three different methods of artificial digestion were compared for the detection of non-encapsulated Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae in minced meat. Each sample panel consisted of ten 1g minced pork samples. All samples in each panel were derived from a bulk meat preparation with a nominal value of either 7 or 17 larvae per g (lpg). Samples were tested for the number of muscle larvae using the magnetic stirrer method (labs A, B, and E), stomacher method (lab B), and Trichomatic 35 (labs C and D). T. pseudospiralis larvae were found in all 120 samples tested. For samples with 7 lpg, larval recoveries were significantly higher using the stomacher method versus the magnetic stirrer method, but there were no significant differences for samples with 17 lpg. In comparing laboratory results irrespective of the method used, lab B detected a significantly higher number of larvae than lab E for samples with 7 lpg, and lab E detected significantly less larvae than labs A, B, and D in samples with 17 lpg. The lowest overall variation for quantitative results (i.e. larval recoveries which were outside the tolerance range) was achieved by using the magnetic stirrer method (22%), followed by the stomacher method (25%), and Trichomatic 35 (30%). Results revealed that T. pseudospiralis larvae in samples with a nominal value of 7 and 17 lpg can be detected by all three methods of artificial digestion.

  8. Nervous system disruption and concomitant behavioral abnormality in early hatched pufferfish larvae exposed to heavy oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Sugahara, Yuki; Watanabe, Tomoe; Irie, Kouta; Ishida, Minoru; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Takata, Hiromi; Handoh, Itsuki C; Nakayama, Kei; Murakami, Yasunori

    2011-08-01

    Spills of heavy oil (HO) over the oceans have been proven to have an adverse effect on marine life. It has been hypothesized that exposure of early larvae of sinking eggs to HO leads largely to normal morphology, whereas abnormal organization of the developing neural scaffold is likely to be found. HO-induced disruption of the nervous system, which controls animal behavior, may in turn cause abnormalities in the swimming behavior of hatched larvae. To clarify the toxicological effects of HO, we performed exposure experiments and morphological and behavioral analyses in pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) larvae. Fertilized eggs of pufferfish were exposed to 50 mg/L of HO for 8 days and transferred to fresh seawater before hatching. The hatched larvae were observed for their swimming behavior, morphological appearance, and construction of muscles and nervous system. In HO-exposed larvae, we did not detect any anomaly of body morphology. However, they showed an abnormal swimming pattern and disorganized midbrain, a higher center controlling movement. Our results suggest that HO-exposed fishes suffer developmental disorder of the brain that triggers an abnormal swimming behavior and that HO may be selectively toxic to the brain and cause physical disability throughout the life span of these fishes.

  9. Muscle pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Summary Points. • Muscle pain, known as myalgia, can be in one targeted area or across many muscles, occurring with overexertion or overuse of these muscles. • Pain can be classified as acute or chronic pain and further categorized as nociceptive or neuropathic. • Causes of muscle pain include stress, physical ...

  10. Image-based automatic recognition of larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ru; Yu, Guiying; Fan, Weijun; Guo, Tiantai

    2010-08-01

    As the main objects, imagoes have been researched in quarantine pest recognition in these days. However, pests in their larval stage are latent, and the larvae spread abroad much easily with the circulation of agricultural and forest products. It is presented in this paper that, as the new research objects, larvae are recognized by means of machine vision, image processing and pattern recognition. More visional information is reserved and the recognition rate is improved as color image segmentation is applied to images of larvae. Along with the characteristics of affine invariance, perspective invariance and brightness invariance, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is adopted for the feature extraction. The neural network algorithm is utilized for pattern recognition, and the automatic identification of larvae images is successfully achieved with satisfactory results.

  11. Experimental studies on prevention of trichinosis by food irradiation (Co60)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Kimitaka

    1993-01-01

    A systemic study was performed to elucidate the effects of 60 Co irradiation on maturation or fecundity of Trichinella spiralis by assessing from parasitological, morphological and immunological points of view. Pieces of muscle tissue of mice infected with T. spiralis were irradiated with 60 Co at doses of 50, 75, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. These irradiated tissue (Experimental group) and non-irradiated tissues (Control group) were fed to healthy mice. Half of the mice were sacrificed 6 days after the ingestion. The number of adult worms were counted and subjected to statistical analysis, which disclosed a good correlation between the dose of 60 Co irradiation and worm damage; the higher the dose the more damage parasites had, and no adults were recovered if the tissue had been irradiated with more than 150 Gy prior to infection. The same tendency was true for the histopathology of the intenstines of host mice; the higher the dose the less tissue damage. Circulating antigens of T. spiralis and antibodies against T. spiralis were detected in every serum examined by ELISA. The remaining mice were sacrificed 30 days after the ingestion. The numbers of muscle larvae were counted and subjected to statistical analysis, which disclosed a good correlation between th dose of 60 Co irradiation and worm damage, and no larvae were recovered if the tissue had been irradiated with more than 75Gy. Higher concentrations of circulating antigens of T. spiralis and antibodies against T. spiralis were detected in the serum samples taken with muscle larvae. Thus this study established that 60 Co irradiation of more than 150 Gy caused complete damage on maturation, and that irradiation of more than 75 Gy caused complete damage on the fecundity of T. spimalis. (author)

  12. Activity of R(+ limonene against Anisakis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Giarratana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of R(+ limonene of against Anisakidae larvae. Its effectiveness was tested in vitro. The results obtained showing a significant activity of the compound against Anisakis larvae, suggesting further investigation on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. In this regard, the use of R(+ limonene in seafood products could be interesting, also due the sensory attributes resulting from its use and its relatively safe status.

  13. Activity of R(+) Limonene Against Anisakis Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolino, Daniele; Panebianco, Felice; Patania, Andrea; Benianti, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of R(+) limonene of against Anisakidae larvae. Its effectiveness was tested in vitro. The results obtained showed a significant activity of the compound against Anisakis larvae, suggesting further investigation on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. In this regard, the use of R(+) limonene in seafood products could be interesting, also due the sensory attributes resulting from its use and its relatively safe status. PMID:27800423

  14. Activity of R(+) limonene against Anisakis larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Filippo Giarratana; Daniele Muscolino; Felice Panebianco; Andrea Patania; Chiara Benianti; Graziella Ziino; Alessandro Giuffrida

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of R(+) limonene of against Anisakidae larvae. Its effectiveness was tested in vitro. The results obtained showing a significant activity of the compound against Anisakis larvae, suggesting further investigation on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. In this regard, the use of R(+) limonene in seafood products could be interesting, also due the sensory attributes resulting from its use and its relatively safe status.

  15. Neuromuscular development in Novocrania anomala: evidence for the presence of serotonin and a spiralian-like apical organ in lecithotrophic brachiopod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2010-01-01

    in the craniiform (inarticulate) brachiopod Novocrania anomala. Larvae of this species are lecithotrophic and have a bilobed body with three pairs of dorsal setal bundles that emerge from the posterior lobe. Fully developed larvae exhibit a network of setae pouch muscles as well as medioventral longitudinal...... stages. In the juveniles, the nervous system stained by a-tubulin is characterized by two ventral neurite bundles with three commissures. Our data are the first direct proof for the presence of an immunoreactive neurotransmitter in lecithotrophic brachiopod larvae and demonstrate the existence of flask...

  16. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J A Vermeij

    Full Text Available Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency.

  17. Predatory activity of Rhantus sikkimensis and larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens on mosquito larvae in Darjeeling, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Gautam; Ash, Anirban; Saha, Goutam K

    2006-06-01

    Predation potential of the dytiscid beetle, Rhantus sikkimensis Regimbart 1899 and the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann 1819 occurring along with the larval stages of the mosquitoes in the annual lentic water bodies of Darjeeling was evaluated using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 as preys, in the laboratory under simulated natural conditions. Field collected R. sikkimensis and larvae of Tx. splendens were offered IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus to observe the rate of predation, at varying prey and predator densities. Based on the data obtained on the predation for a period of three consecutive days, two indices of predation, predatory impact (PI) and clearance rate (CR) values were estimated, and compared between the predator species. The rate of predation of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by R. sikkimensis ranged between 21.56 and 86.89 larvae per day, depending on the prey and predator densities. The PI value remained between 18.67 and 35.33 larvae/day depending on prey densities, while the CR ranged between 2.21 and 2.23 larvae litres/day/predator. Compared to these, the Tx. splendens larvae consumed the prey larvae at the rate of 0.67 to 34.22 larvae per day, depending on the prey and predator densities. The PI value ranged between 7.67 and 11.33 larvae/day, and the CR value ranged between 1.41 and 1.76 larvae litres/day/predator. The rate of predation, CR values and PI values of R. sikkimensis and Tx. splendens varied significantly. Both the predators R. sikkimensis and larvae of Tx. splendens can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, though the rate of consumption between the two predators vary owing to the difference in the life history traits and features. It can be assumed that these predators play an important role in larval population regulation of mosquitoes and thereby impart an effect on species composition and interactions in the aquatic insect communities of Darjeeling Hills, India.

  18. 1H NMR metabolic profiling of cod (Gadus morhua larvae: potential effects of temperature and diet composition during early developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Skogen Chauton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine aquaculture offers a great source of protein for the increasing human population, and farming of, for example, Atlantic salmon is a global industry. Atlantic cod farming however, is an example of a promising industry where the potential is not yet realized. Research has revealed that a major bottleneck to successful farming of cod is poor quality of the larvae and juveniles. A large research program was designed to increase our understanding of how environmental factors such as temperature and nutrition affects cod larvae development. Data on larvae growth and development were used together with nuclear magnetic resonance. The NMR data indicated that the temperature influenced the metabolome of the larvae; differences were related to osmolytes such as betaine/TMAO, the amino acid taurine, and creatine and lactate which reflect muscle activity. The larvae were fed Artemia from stage 2, and this was probably reflected in a high taurine content of older larvae. Larvae fed with copepods in the nutrition experiment also displayed a high taurine content, together with higher creatine and betaine/TMAO content. Data on the cod larvae metabolome should be coupled to data on gene expression, in order to identify events which are regulated on the genetic level versus regulation resulting from temperature or nutrition during development, to fully understand how the environment affects larval development.

  19. 1H NMR metabolic profiling of cod (Gadus morhua) larvae: potential effects of temperature and diet composition during early developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauton, Matilde Skogen; Galloway, Trina Falck; Kjørsvik, Elin; Størseth, Trond Røvik; Puvanendran, Velmurugu; van der Meeren, Terje; Karlsen, Ørjan; Rønnestad, Ivar; Hamre, Kristin

    2015-11-06

    Marine aquaculture offers a great source of protein for the increasing human population, and farming of, for example, Atlantic salmon is a global industry. Atlantic cod farming however, is an example of a promising industry where the potential is not yet realized. Research has revealed that a major bottleneck to successful farming of cod is poor quality of the larvae and juveniles. A large research program was designed to increase our understanding of how environmental factors such as temperature and nutrition affects cod larvae development. Data on larvae growth and development were used together with nuclear magnetic resonance. The NMR data indicated that the temperature influenced the metabolome of the larvae; differences were related to osmolytes such as betaine/TMAO, the amino acid taurine, and creatine and lactate which reflect muscle activity. The larvae were fed Artemia from stage 2, and this was probably reflected in a high taurine content of older larvae. Larvae fed with copepods in the nutrition experiment also displayed a high taurine content, together with higher creatine and betaine/TMAO content. Data on the cod larvae metabolome should be coupled to data on gene expression, in order to identify events which are regulated on the genetic level versus regulation resulting from temperature or nutrition during development, to fully understand how the environment affects larval development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Morphological characterization of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Nematoda, Dioctophymatoidea) parasite of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Melo, Caroline do Socorro Barros; Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva do; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-06-07

    Absctract Eustrongylides spp. nematodes have birds as final hosts and uses other vertebrates as intermediate/paratenic host (fish, amphibians and reptiles) and have zoonotic potential. In amphibians, the larvae may be located in the subcutaneous tissues, liver and mesentery, between the muscle fibres, especially in the lower limbs. Rhinella marina, which is widely observed in Brazil, has exhibited complex diversity in its helminth fauna, reflecting the unique habitat of the Amazon biome. For the first time, this study describes the morphological aspects of third-stage larvae of Eustrongylides sp. in Rhinella marina from Santa Cruz do Ararí, Marajó Archipelago, Eastern Amazonia, using light and scanning electron microscopy.

  1. Travelling in time with networks: Revealing present day hybridization versus ancestral polymorphism between two species of brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Gareth A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization or divergence between sympatric sister species provides a natural laboratory to study speciation processes. The shared polymorphism in sister species may either be ancestral or derive from hybridization, and the accuracy of analytic methods used thus far to derive convincing evidence for the occurrence of present day hybridization is largely debated. Results Here we propose the application of network analysis to test for the occurrence of present day hybridization between the two species of brown algae Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus. Individual-centered networks were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite genotypes from North Africa to the Pacific American coast, through the North Atlantic. Two genetic distances integrating different time steps were used, the Rozenfeld (RD; based on alleles divergence and the Shared Allele (SAD; based on alleles identity distances. A diagnostic level of genotype divergence and clustering of individuals from each species was obtained through RD while screening for exchanges through putative hybridization was facilitated using SAD. Intermediate individuals linking both clusters on the RD network were those sampled at the limits of the sympatric zone in Northwest Iberia. Conclusion These results suggesting rare hybridization were confirmed by simulation of hybrids and F2 with directed backcrosses. Comparison with the Bayesian method STRUCTURE confirmed the usefulness of both approaches and emphasized the reliability of network analysis to unravel and study hybridization

  2. A follow-up study of the human class and subclass antibody response developed against the adult stage of Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapa-Ruiz M.R.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the analysis by ELISA of class and subclass antibody response against a total soluble extract from T. spiralis adult stage (TSEA during a year after the infection in 17 symptomatic trichinellosis patients (Sl and five asymptomatic individual (Al involved in an outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in the State of Mexico. Serum samples from 20 healthy individuals (Hl and 24 patients with other parasitosis were included as control. All Sl showed a polyisotypic antibody response against the TSE-A, during the infection. Higher response of lgA, lgE, lgM were detected in Sl during the acute phase of the infection, but only IgE remained at high levels all along the infection. None or a lower reactivity against TSE-A was observed in sera from Al and from Hl. Some patients with trichuriosis and ascariosis showed a higher cross-reactivity against TSE-A when lgG and their subclasses were analyzed.

  3. Effect of allyl isothiocyanate against Anisakis larvae during the anchovy marinating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Panebianco, Felice; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), is a natural compound found in plants belonging to the family Cruciferae and has strong antimicrobial activity and a biocidal activity against plants parasites. Anisakidosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ingestion of larval nematodes in raw, almost raw, and marinated and/or salted seafood dishes. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of AITC against Anisakis larvae and to study its potential use during the marinating process. The effects of AITC against Anisakis larvae were tested in three experiment: in vitro with three liquid media, in semisolid media with a homogenate of anchovy muscle, and in a simulation of two kinds of anchovy fillets marinating processes. For all tests, the concentrations of AITC were 0, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1%. Significant activity of AITC against Anisakis larvae was observed in liquid media, whereas in the semisolid media, AITC was effective only at higher concentrations. In anchovy fillets, prior treatment in phosphate buffer solution (1.5% NaCl, pH 6.8) with 0.1% AITC and then marination under standard conditions resulted in a high level of larval inactivation. AITC is a good candidate for further investigation as a biocidal agent against Anisakis larvae during the industrial marinating process.

  4. PEMELIHARAAN LARVA KEPITING BAKAU, Scylla olivacea DENGAN PENAMBAHAN BIOFLOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunarto Gunarto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak lengkap dapat dilihat pada Full PDF   Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek penambahan bioflok pada pemeliharaan larva kepiting bakau Scylla olivacea terutaman pada sintasan dan perkembangan larva hingga mencapai stadia krablet.

  5. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition....... To lest this hypothesis, Baltic cod larvae were sampled during the spawning seasons of 1994 and 1995 with depth-resolving multiple opening/closing nets. Each larva was aged by otolith readings and its RNA/DNA ratio was determined as a measure of nutritional condition. The RNA/DNA ratios of these larvae...... caught larvae had RNA/DNA ratios between the mean values found for starving and fed laboratory larvae. Only larvae aged 8-11 days had higher mean RNA/DNA ratios above 45 m than below (t-test, P...

  6. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HB to HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  7. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CP to DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  8. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names OM to OX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  9. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SB to SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  10. Decapod larvae from the nearshore waters of Karwar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Paulinose, V.T.

    Abundance of decapod larvae at three stations in Binge Bay, Karwar has been reported based on surface collections taken during the period October 1975 to September 1976. The larvae were very common in the Bay and the postmonsoon months sustained...

  11. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names DH to EC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  12. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  13. Low salinity tolerance 0/ eggs and larvae.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the larvae permitting C. krauss; to spread into areas where it is unable to breed successfully. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The author acknowledges the financial assistance of the Department of Nature Conserva- tion of the Cape Province of South Africa, and the South African National Committee for. Oceanographic Research ...

  14. Evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Alba, Marta; Kabra, Mayank; Branson, Kristin; Mirth, Christen

    2015-03-01

    Drosophilids, like other insects, go through a larval phase before metamorphosing into adults. Larvae increase their body weight by several orders of magnitude in a few days. We therefore hypothesized that foraging behavior is under strong evolutionary pressure to best fit the larval environment. To test our hypothesis we used a multidisciplinary approach to analyze foraging behavior across species and larval stages. First, we recorded several videos of larvae foraging for each of 47 Drosophilid species. Then, using a supervised machine learning approach, we automatically annotated the video collection for the foraging sub-behaviors, including crawling, turning, head casting or burrowing. We also computed over 100 features to describe the posture and dynamics of each animal in each video frame. From these data, we fit models to the behavior of each species. The models each had the same parametric form, but differed in the exact parameters. By simulating larva behavior in virtual arenas we can infer which properties of the environments are better for each species. Comparisons between these inferred environments and the actual environments where these animals live will give us a deeper understanding about the evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae.

  15. ISOLASI BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DARI LARVA DAN PENGUJIAN PATOGENISITASNYA TERHADAP LARVA NYAMUK VEKTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondine Ch. P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate pathogenic organisms as cause of mosquito larvae death was conducted at Wonokerto and Pabelan villages, Salatiga Luar Kota subdistrict, Semarang regency in Central Java from May 1991 through December 1991. Bacterial isolation from dead larvae showed that 31 B. thuringicnsis isolates were obtained from 31 larvae samples collected from 2 location e.g Wonokerto village (3 samples, Pabelan village (28 samples. Nineteen isolates (61,3% showed a pathogenicity of more than 50% to third toward instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively 24 hours after exposure. This study shows the possible use of B. thuringiensis for biologic control of mosquitoes which can act as vectors for human diseases.

  16. Effect of reduced impulse activity on the development of identified motor terminals in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lnenicka, Gregory A; Spencer, Gregory M; Keshishian, Haig

    2003-02-05

    In Drosophila larvae, motoneurons show distinctive differences in the size of their synaptic boutons; that is, axon 1 has type Ib ("big" boutons) terminals and axon 2 has type Is ("small" boutons) terminals on muscle fibers 6 and 7. To determine whether axon 1 develops large boutons due to its high impulse activity, we reduced impulse activity and examined the motor terminals formed by axon 1. The number of functional Na(+) channels was reduced either with the nap(ts) mutation or by adding tetrodotoxin (TTX) to the media (0.1 microg/g). In both cases, the rate of locomotion was decreased by approximately 40%, presumably reflecting a decrease in impulse activity. Locomotor activity was restored to above wild-type (Canton-S) levels when nap(ts) was combined with a duplication of para, the Na(+)-channel gene. Lucifer yellow was injected into the axon 1 motor terminals, and we measured motor terminal area, length, the number of branches, and the number and width of synaptic boutons. Although all parameters were smaller in nap(ts) and TTX-treated larvae compared to wild-type, most of these differences were not significant when the differences in muscle fiber size were factored out. Only bouton width was significantly smaller in both different nap(ts) and TTX-treated larvae: boutons were about 20% smaller in nap(ts) and TTX-treated larvae, and 20% larger in nap(ts); Dp para(+) compared to wild-type. In addition, terminal area was significantly smaller in nap(ts) compared to wild-type. Bouton size at Ib terminals with reduced impulse activity was similar to that normally seen at Is terminals. Thus, differences in impulse activity play a major role in the differentiation of bouton size at Drosophila motor terminals. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Lagrangian Observations and Modeling of Marine Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Claire B.; Irisson, Jean-Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Just within the past two decades, studies on the early-life history stages of marine organisms have led to new paradigms in population dynamics. Unlike passive plant seeds that are transported by the wind or by animals, marine larvae have motor and sensory capabilities. As a result, marine larvae have a tremendous capacity to actively influence their dispersal. This is continuously revealed as we develop new techniques to observe larvae in their natural environment and begin to understand their ability to detect cues throughout ontogeny, process the information, and use it to ride ocean currents and navigate their way back home, or to a place like home. We present innovative in situ and numerical modeling approaches developed to understand the underlying mechanisms of larval transport in the ocean. We describe a novel concept of a Lagrangian platform, the Drifting In Situ Chamber (DISC), designed to observe and quantify complex larval behaviors and their interactions with the pelagic environment. We give a brief history of larval ecology research with the DISC, showing that swimming is directional in most species, guided by cues as diverse as the position of the sun or the underwater soundscape, and even that (unlike humans!) larvae orient better and swim faster when moving as a group. The observed Lagrangian behavior of individual larvae are directly implemented in the Connectivity Modeling System (CMS), an open source Lagrangian tracking application. Simulations help demonstrate the impact that larval behavior has compared to passive Lagrangian trajectories. These methodologies are already the base of exciting findings and are promising tools for documenting and simulating the behavior of other small pelagic organisms, forecasting their migration in a changing ocean.

  18. Feeding frequency and caste differentiation in Bombus terrestris larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, M.F.; Velthuis, H.H.W.; Duchateau, Marie José; Tweel, I. van der

    1998-01-01

    The frequency with which bumble bee larvae are fed during their development was studied using video-recordings. The behaviour of the workers while feeding worker, male and queen larvae of Bombus terrestris was recorded. At the beginning of development, female larvae of both castes were fed at a

  19. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    with electric shock in normal and mutant larvae and Tully et al. reported the passage of olfactory ... Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of ..... Pairing odour with shock drives the larvae to the opposite zone. Preference learning index PLI.

  20. Lethal infection thresholds of Paenibacillus larvae for honeybee drone and worker larvae (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Dieter; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-10-01

    We compared the mortality of honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone and worker larvae from a single queen under controlled in vitro conditions following infection with Paenibacillus larvae, a bacterium causing the brood disease American Foulbrood (AFB). We also determined absolute P. larvae cell numbers and lethal titres in deceased individuals of both sexes up to 8 days post infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show that in drones the onset of infection induced mortality is delayed by 1 day, the cumulative mortality is reduced by 10% and P. larvae cell numbers are higher than in worker larvae. Since differences in bacterial cell titres between sexes can be explained by differences in body size, larval size appears to be a key parameter for a lethal threshold in AFB tolerance. Both means and variances for lethal thresholds are similar for drone and worker larvae suggesting that drone resistance phenotypes resemble those of related workers. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Muscle biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, G; Bugiardini, E; Cardani, R

    2012-04-01

    Muscle biopsy is required to provide a definitive diagnosis in many neuromuscular disorders. It can be performed through an open or needle technique under local anesthesia. The major limitations of the needle biopsy technique are the sample size, which is smaller than that obtained with open biopsy, and the impossibility of direct visualization of the sampling site. However, needle biopsy is a less invasive procedure than open biopsy and is particularly indicated for diagnosis of neuromuscular disease in infancy and childhood. The biopsied muscle should be one affected by the disease but not be too weak or too atrophic. Usually, in case of proximal muscle involvement, the quadriceps and the biceps are biopsied, while under suspicion of mitochondrial disorder, the deltoid is preferred. The samples must be immediately frozen or fixed after excision to prevent loss of enzymatic reactivity, DNA depletion or RNA degradation. A battery of stainings is performed on muscle sections from every frozen muscle biopsy arriving in the pathology laboratory. Histological, histochemical, and histoenzymatic stainings are performed to evaluate fiber atrophy, morphological, and structural changes and metabolic disorders. Moreover, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis may be used for expression analysis of muscle proteins to obtain a specific diagnosis. There are myopathies that do not need muscle biopsy since a genetic test performed on a blood sample is enough for definitive diagnosis. Muscle biopsy is a useful technique which can make an enormous contribution in the field of neuromuscular disorders but should be considered and interpreted together with the patient's family and clinical history.

  2. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-02-09

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas.

  3. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on liquid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol describes the analysis of larvae feeding on liquid food. The test is designed for quantitative assessment of the food ingestion rate of individual larvae under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as food deprivation is prolonged. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  4. The active evolutionary lives of echinoderm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, R A; Byrne, M

    2006-09-01

    Echinoderms represent a researchable subset of a dynamic larval evolutionary cosmos. Evolution of echinoderm larvae has taken place over widely varying time scales from the origins of larvae of living classes in the early Palaeozoic, approximately 500 million years ago, to recent, rapid and large-scale changes that have occurred within living genera within a span of less than a million years to a few million years. It is these recent evolutionary events that offer a window into processes of larval evolution operating at a micro-evolutionary level of evolution of discrete developmental mechanisms. We review the evolution of the diverse larval forms of living echinoderms to outline the origins of echinoderm larval forms, their diversity among living echinoderms, molecular clocks and rates of larval evolution, and finally current studies on the roles of developmental regulatory mechanisms in the rapid and radical evolutionary changes observed between closely related congeneric species.

  5. Sporulation and Germination of Paenibacillus larvae Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Osama S; Fisher, Nathan A

    2018-02-22

    Endospores are metabolically dormant cells formed by a variety of Gram-positive bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes in response to nutrient limiting or otherwise unfavorable growth conditions. American foulbrood disease (AFB) is a serious disease of honeybees that is caused by the introduction of Paenibacillus larvae endospores into a honeybee colony. Progression to fulminant disease and eventual collapse of the colony requires multiple rounds of endospore germination, vegetative replication, endospore formation, and subsequent spread within the colony. This unit includes protocols for the in vitro sporulation and germination of P. larvae to assist investigators in the study of these processes. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Immunity through early development of coral larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C V; Graham, E; Baird, A H

    2012-10-01

    As a determinant of survival, immunity is likely to be significant in enabling coral larvae to disperse and successfully recruit, however, whether reef-building coral larvae have immune defenses is unknown. We investigated the potential presence and variation in immunity in the lecithotrophic larvae of Acropora tenuis through larval development. Enzymes indicative of tyrosinase and laccase-type melanin-synthesis were quantified, and the concentration of three coral fluorescent proteins was measured over six developmental stages; egg, embryo, motile planula, planula post-exposure to crustose coralline algae (CCA; settlement cue), settled, settled post-exposure to Symbiodinium (endosymbiont). Both types of melanin-synthesis pathways and the three fluorescent proteins were present in A. tenuis throughout development. Laccase-type activity and red fluorescence increased following exposure of planula to CCA, whereas tyrosinase-type activity and cyan fluorescence increased following settlement. No change was detected in the measured parameters following exposure to Symbiodinium. This study is the first to document coral larval immune responses and suggests the melanin-synthesis pathways have disparate roles-the laccase-type potentially non-immunological and the tyrosinase-type in cytotoxic defense. Our results indicate that corals have the potential to resist infection from the earliest life history phase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. From trochophore to pilidium and back again - a larva's journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslakova, Svetlana A; Hiebert, Terra C

    2014-01-01

    Nemerteans, a phylum of marine lophotrochozoan worms, have a biphasic life history with benthic adults and planktonic larvae. Nemertean larval development is traditionally categorized into direct and indirect. Indirect development via a long-lived planktotrophic pilidium larva is thought to have evolved in one clade of nemerteans, the Pilidiophora, from an ancestor with a uniformly ciliated planuliform larva. Planuliform larvae in a member of a basal nemertean group, the Palaeonemertea, have been previously shown to possess a vestigial prototroch, homologous to the primary larval ciliated band in the trochophores of other spiralian phyla, such as annelids and mollusks. We review literature on nemertean larval development, and include our own unpublished observations. We highlight recent discoveries of numerous pilidiophoran species with lecithotrophic larvae. Some of these larvae superficially resemble uniformly ciliated planuliform larvae of other nemerteans. Others possess one or two transverse ciliary bands, which superficially resemble the prototroch and telotroch of some spiralian trochophores. We also summarize accumulating evidence for planktotrophic feeding by larvae of the order Hoplonemertea, which until now were considered to be lecithotrophic. We suggest that 1) non-feeding pilidiophoran larval forms are derived from a feeding pilidium; 2) such forms have likely evolved many times independently within the Pilidiophora; 3) any resemblance of such larvae to the trochophores of other spiralians is a result of convergence and that 4) the possibility of planktotrophy in hoplonemertean larvae may influence estimates of pelagic larval duration, dispersal, and population connectivity in this group.

  8. Getting Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re thinking about aren't possible for kids. Superheroes, of course, aren't real, and professional athletes ... can make you stronger. Why? Because you're using your muscles when you do it. Eat Strong ...

  9. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  10. Reconstruction of the neuromuscular system of the swimming-type larva of Loxosomella atkinsae (Entoprocta) as inferred by fluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Judith; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    of the larva (episphere) and the apical organ comprise an outer layer of tightly packed ring muscles. Beneath this layer lie sets of prominent longitudinal and diagonal muscles that run in dorso-ventral direction. The prototrochal musculature is composed of compact layers of outer ring and inner longitudinal...... muscles. The serotonergic nervous system consists of 3-4 flask-shaped serotonergic cells in the apical organ and a paired nerve passing the frontal neuropil and connecting to the serotonergic prototroch nerve ring. We show here that the entoproct larval stage, in addition to the adult stage, provides...

  11. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Del Pino

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b, Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles.

  12. Muscle attachment site (MAS) patterns for species determination in European species of Lucilia (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederegger, Senta; Szpila, Krzysztof; Mall, Gita

    2015-03-01

    Species identification is generally assessed to be more difficult in larval stages than in adult forms. Especially closely related species such as Lucilia caesar and Lucilia illustris are difficult to identify. The aim of this study was to simplify species determination in Lucilia larvae for entomological and forensic purposes. Muscle attachment site (MAS) patterns were previously found to be a good tool for species determination in blowfly larvae. Here, distinctive MAS patterns are presented for European Lucilia ampullacea, L. caesar, L. illustris, L. richardsi, L. sericata, and L. silvarum. A joint pattern for the genus Lucilia is provided for a quick classification of a larva to the genus.

  13. Group I introns and associated homing endonuclease genes reveals a clinal structure for Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) along the Eastern coast of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, Daniela; Oliveira, Mariana C; Martins, Felipe M; Matioli, Sergio R

    2008-11-07

    Group I introns are found in the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) of some species of the genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Size polymorphisms in group I introns has been interpreted as the result of the degeneration of homing endonuclease genes (HEG) inserted in peripheral loops of intron paired elements. In this study, intron size polymorphisms were characterized for different Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (PSA) populations on the Southern Brazilian coast, and were used to infer genetic relationships and genetic structure of these PSA populations, in addition to cox2-3 and rbcL-S regions. Introns of different sizes were tested qualitatively for in vitro self-splicing. Five intron size polymorphisms within 17 haplotypes were obtained from 80 individuals representing eight localities along the distribution of PSA in the Eastern coast of South America. In order to infer genetic structure and genetic relationships of PSA, these polymorphisms and haplotypes were used as markers for pairwise Fst analyses, Mantel's test and median joining network. The five cox2-3 haplotypes and the unique rbcL-S haplotype were used as markers for summary statistics, neutrality tests Tajima's D and Fu's Fs and for median joining network analyses. An event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number, followed by a pattern of isolation by distance was obtained for PSA populations with the three analyses. In vitro experiments have shown that introns of different lengths were able to self-splice from pre-RNA transcripts. The findings indicated that degenerated HEGs are reminiscent of the presence of a full-length and functional HEG, once fixed for PSA populations. The cline of HEG degeneration determined the pattern of isolation by distance. Analyses with the other markers indicated an event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number. The different degrees of degeneration of the HEG do not refrain intron self

  14. Group I introns and associated homing endonuclease genes reveals a clinal structure for Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta along the Eastern coast of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matioli Sergio R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group I introns are found in the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA of some species of the genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta. Size polymorphisms in group I introns has been interpreted as the result of the degeneration of homing endonuclease genes (HEG inserted in peripheral loops of intron paired elements. In this study, intron size polymorphisms were characterized for different Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (PSA populations on the Southern Brazilian coast, and were used to infer genetic relationships and genetic structure of these PSA populations, in addition to cox2-3 and rbcL-S regions. Introns of different sizes were tested qualitatively for in vitro self-splicing. Results Five intron size polymorphisms within 17 haplotypes were obtained from 80 individuals representing eight localities along the distribution of PSA in the Eastern coast of South America. In order to infer genetic structure and genetic relationships of PSA, these polymorphisms and haplotypes were used as markers for pairwise Fst analyses, Mantel's test and median joining network. The five cox2-3 haplotypes and the unique rbcL-S haplotype were used as markers for summary statistics, neutrality tests Tajima's D and Fu's Fs and for median joining network analyses. An event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number, followed by a pattern of isolation by distance was obtained for PSA populations with the three analyses. In vitro experiments have shown that introns of different lengths were able to self-splice from pre-RNA transcripts. Conclusion The findings indicated that degenerated HEGs are reminiscent of the presence of a full-length and functional HEG, once fixed for PSA populations. The cline of HEG degeneration determined the pattern of isolation by distance. Analyses with the other markers indicated an event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number. The different degrees of

  15. Group I introns and associated homing endonuclease genes reveals a clinal structure for Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) along the Eastern coast of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background Group I introns are found in the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) of some species of the genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Size polymorphisms in group I introns has been interpreted as the result of the degeneration of homing endonuclease genes (HEG) inserted in peripheral loops of intron paired elements. In this study, intron size polymorphisms were characterized for different Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (PSA) populations on the Southern Brazilian coast, and were used to infer genetic relationships and genetic structure of these PSA populations, in addition to cox2-3 and rbcL-S regions. Introns of different sizes were tested qualitatively for in vitro self-splicing. Results Five intron size polymorphisms within 17 haplotypes were obtained from 80 individuals representing eight localities along the distribution of PSA in the Eastern coast of South America. In order to infer genetic structure and genetic relationships of PSA, these polymorphisms and haplotypes were used as markers for pairwise Fst analyses, Mantel's test and median joining network. The five cox2-3 haplotypes and the unique rbcL-S haplotype were used as markers for summary statistics, neutrality tests Tajima's D and Fu's Fs and for median joining network analyses. An event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number, followed by a pattern of isolation by distance was obtained for PSA populations with the three analyses. In vitro experiments have shown that introns of different lengths were able to self-splice from pre-RNA transcripts. Conclusion The findings indicated that degenerated HEGs are reminiscent of the presence of a full-length and functional HEG, once fixed for PSA populations. The cline of HEG degeneration determined the pattern of isolation by distance. Analyses with the other markers indicated an event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number. The different degrees of degeneration of the HEG

  16. SEBARAN LARVA IKAN DAN KAITANNYA DENGAN KONDISI OSEANOGRAFI LAUT SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laut Sulawesi diketahui sebagai daerah penangkapan ikan yang potensial sekaligus diduga sebagai lokasi pemijahan. Berbagai jenis larva ikan pelagis maupun demersal ditemukan di perairan ini. Kelimpahan dan sebaran larva ikan di suatu perairan sangat dipengaruhi oleh kondisi oseanografi seperti temperatur, salinitas dan sejumlah parameter lainnya termasuk ketersediaan pakan. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh parameter oseanografi terhadap kelimpahan dan sebaran spasial larva ikan di Laut Sulawesi, telah dilakukan penelitian menggunakan kapal riset KR Baruna Jaya VII pada Oktober 2012. Parameter oseanografi yaitu temperatur dan salinitas diukur menggunakan iCTD dan sampling larva menggunakan bonggo net pada 18 stasiun pengukuran. Analisa hubungan kondisi oseanografi dengan sebaran larva dilakukan secara deskriptif dan pemetaan sebarannya dilakukan secara spasial. Hasil menunjukan keterkaitan sejumlah parameter oseanografi dengan kelimpahan dan sebaran spasial larva ikan. Sebaran larva famili Scombroidae dominan berada pada perairan bersalinitas tinggi karena merupakan jenis ikan oseanik. Larva ikan demersal banyak ditemukan di perairan sekitar Kep.Sangihe Talaud. Kelimpahan larva tertinggi ditemukan di perairan bagian utara dan barat lokasi penelitian dimana kelimpahan plankton tinggi ditemukan.   Celebes Sea is known as a potential fishing and spawning grounds for several pelagic fish species. Abundance and distribution of fish larvae are allegedly linked to oceanographic conditions such as temperature, salinity and others oceanographic parameters including food availablity. To see the effect of oceanographic on the abundance and spatial distribution of fish larvae in the Celebes Sea, has conducted a research in October 2012using the research vessel KR Baruna Jaya VII. The measurement of oceanographic parameters including temperature and salinity and larval sampling were done respectively by using iCTD and Bonggo net at 18 measuring stations. The

  17. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on solid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol is designed for quantitative assessment of the willingness of individual larvae to procure solid food under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as the period of food deprivation is increased. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  18. D1 dopamine receptor is involved in shell formation in larvae of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Wang, Lingling; Yan, Yunchen; Zheng, Yan; Ge, Wenjing; Li, Meijia; Wang, Weilin; Song, Xiaorui; Song, Linsheng

    2018-07-01

    Dopamine (DA), a significant member of catecholamines, is reported to induce biomineralization of calcium carbonate vaterite microspheres via dopamine receptor (DR) in bivalves, implying the modulation of dopaminergic system on shell formation during larval development. In this research, a homologue of D1 type DR (CgD1DR-1) was identified from oyster Crassostrea gigas, whose full length cDNA was 1197 bp. It was widely expressed in various tissues of C. gigas, with the significantly higher levels in hepatopancreas, mantle, muscle and gill. During developmental stages, the mRNA transcripts of CgD1DR-1 in D-shape larvae were obviously higher (p < 0.05) than those in trochophore and umbo larvae, and CO 2 exposure could inhibit the synthesis of DA and mRNA expression of CgD1DR-1. After cell transfection and DA treatment, intracellular cAMP in cells with the expression of CgD1DR-1 increased significantly (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the incubation with SCH 23390 for the blockage of CgD1DR-1 significantly restrained the expressions of six shell formation-related genes including CgTyrosinase-1, CgTyrosinase-3, CgChitinaseLP, CgAMC, CgBMP and CgBMPR in trochophore and D-shape larvae. These results jointly suggested that DA together with its receptor CgD1DR-1 might be involved in shell formation during oyster larval development from trochophore to D-shape larvae, and CO 2 -induced ocean acidification (OA) might influence marine bivalves by inhibiting the DA-D1DR pathway to prohibit their shell formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling peripheral olfactory coding in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva possesses just 21 unique and identifiable pairs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, enabling investigation of the contribution of individual OSN classes to the peripheral olfactory code. We combined electrophysiological and computational modeling to explore the nature of the peripheral olfactory code in situ. We recorded firing responses of 19/21 OSNs to a panel of 19 odors. This was achieved by creating larvae expressing just one functioning class of odorant receptor, and hence OSN. Odor response profiles of each OSN class were highly specific and unique. However many OSN-odor pairs yielded variable responses, some of which were statistically indistinguishable from background activity. We used these electrophysiological data, incorporating both responses and spontaneous firing activity, to develop a bayesian decoding model of olfactory processing. The model was able to accurately predict odor identity from raw OSN responses; prediction accuracy ranged from 12%-77% (mean for all odors 45.2% but was always significantly above chance (5.6%. However, there was no correlation between prediction accuracy for a given odor and the strength of responses of wild-type larvae to the same odor in a behavioral assay. We also used the model to predict the ability of the code to discriminate between pairs of odors. Some of these predictions were supported in a behavioral discrimination (masking assay but others were not. We conclude that our model of the peripheral code represents basic features of odor detection and discrimination, yielding insights into the information available to higher processing structures in the brain.

  20. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Adam C.; Bill, Brent R.; Glanzman, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory. PMID:23935566

  1. Biofilms and Marine Invertebrate Larvae: What Bacteria Produce That Larvae Use to Choose Settlement Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Communities of microorganisms form thin coats across solid surfaces in the sea. Larvae of many marine invertebrates use biofilm components as cues to appropriate settlement sites. Research on the tube-dwelling polychaete worm Hydroides elegans, a globally common member of biofouling communities, is described to exemplify approaches to understanding biofilm bacteria as a source of settlement cues and larvae as bearers of receptors for bacterial cues. The association of species of the bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas with larval settlement in many phyla is described, and the question of whether cues are soluble or surface-bound is reviewed, concluding that most evidence points to surface-bound cues. Seemingly contradictory data for stimulation of barnacle settlement are discussed; possibly both explanations are true. Paleontological evidence reveals a relationship between metazoans and biofilms very early in metazoan evolution, and thus the receptors for bacterial cues of invertebrate larvae are very old and possibly unique. Finally, despite more than 60 years of intense investigation, we still know very little about either the bacterial ligands that stimulate larval settlement or the cellular basis of their detection by larvae.

  2. Effect of gut bacterial isolates from Apis mellifera jemenitica on Paenibacillus larvae infected bee larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Ghamdi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The probiotic effects of seven newly isolated gut bacteria, from the indegenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia were investigated. In vivo bioassays were used to investigate the effects of each gut bacterium namely, Fructobacillus fructosus (T1, Proteus mirabilis (T2, Bacillus licheniformis (T3, Lactobacillus kunkeei (T4, Bacillus subtilis (T5, Enterobacter kobei (T6, and Morganella morganii (T7 on mortality percentage of honey bee larvae infected with P. larvae spores along with negative control (normal diet and positive control (normal diet spiked with P. larvae spores. Addition of gut bacteria to the normal diet significantly reduced the mortality percentage of the treated groups. Mortality percentage in all treated groups ranged from 56.67% up to 86.67%. T6 treated group exhibited the highest mortality (86.67%, whereas T4 group showed the lowest mortality (56.67%. Among the seven gut bacterial treatments, T4 and T3 decreased the mortality 56.67% and 66.67%, respectively, whereas, for T2, T6, and T7 the mortality percentage was equal to that of the positive control (86.67%. Mortality percentages in infected larval groups treated with T1, and T5 were 78.33% and 73.33% respectively. Most of the mortality occurred in the treated larvae during days 2 and 3. Treatments T3 and T4 treatments showed positive effects and reduced mortality.

  3. Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

    1997-03-01

    Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Kloezen

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility towards antifungal agents are not well understood. This is because grain formation cannot be induced in vitro; a mammalian host is necessary to induce its formation. Until now, invertebrate hosts were never used to study grain formation in M. mycetomatis. In this study we determined if larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used to induce grain formation when infected with M. mycetomatis. Three different M. mycetomatis strains were selected and three different inocula for each strain were used to infect G. mellonella larvae, ranging from 0.04 mg/larvae to 4 mg/larvae. Larvae were monitored for 10 days. It appeared that most larvae survived the lowest inoculum, but at the highest inoculum all larvae died within the 10 day observation period. At all inocula tested, grains were formed within 4 hours after infection. The grains produced in the larvae resembled those formed in human and in mammalian hosts. In conclusion, the M. mycetomatis grain model in G. mellonella larvae described here could serve as a useful model to study the grain formation and therapeutic responses towards antifungal agents in the future.

  5. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, C., E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K. [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  6. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalander, C.; Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M.; Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K.; Vinnerås, B.

    2016-01-01

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  7. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition...... aged 2-25 days (median 10 days) ranged from 0.4 to 6.2, corresponding to levels exhibited by starving and fast growing larvae in laboratory calibration studies (starvation, protein growth rate, G(pi)=-12.2% day(-1); fast-growing larvae, G(pi)=14.1% day(-1)) respectively. Seventy per cent of the field...

  8. Research on Interrelationship between some Species of Freshwater Fish and Helmintic Larvae within Aquatic Ecosystems Polluted with Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Daniela Urdeş

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of some larvae of cestodes and nematodes which live infreshwater fish (intermediate hosts, to exhibit an uptake of heavy metals.According to some scientifical papers treating this subject, only adult worms were able to absorb successfully heavymetals within their hosts. Furthermore, it is believed that only the adults would act as biofilters and consequently astrustworthy indicators of environmental pollution.This study, carried out on the Danube Delta area, comes to prove the ability of the larvae to absorb heavy metalswithin their hosts, even when the pollution level with respect to heavy metals is very low.Following the biochemical analyses of water, sediment, aquatic plants, larvae and fish tissues (liver and musclesamples, it resulted that the larvae were able to absorb important quantities within their hosts, so that only scarceamounts to be found in the muscle and liver. Both parasites were able to accumulate some heavy metals within theirhosts, although only one of them did it successfully.

  9. Fish larvae from the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Aceves-Medina

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic composition of fish larvae was analysed from 464 plankton samples obtained during 10 oceanographic surveys in the Gulf of California between 1984 and 1988. We identified 283 taxa: 173 species, 57 genera, and 53 families. Tropical and subtropical species predominated except during the winter, when temperate-subarctic species were dominant. The most abundant species were the mesopelagic Benthosema panamense, Triphoturus mexicanus and Vinciguerria lucetia, but the coastal pelagic species Engraulis mordax, Opisthonema spp., Sardinops caeruleus and Scomber japonicus were also prominent. The taxonomic composition of the ichthyoplankton shows the seasonality of the Gulf as well as environmental changes that occurred between the 1984-1987 warm period and the 1956-1957 cool period previously reported. The presence of E. mordax larvae as one of the most abundant species in the Gulf provides evidence of the reproduction of this species two years before the development of the northern anchovy fishery and the decline of the sardine fishery in the Gulf of California.

  10. A Model of Drosophila Larva Chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Davies

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Detailed observations of larval Drosophila chemotaxis have characterised the relationship between the odour gradient and the runs, head casts and turns made by the animal. We use a computational model to test whether hypothesised sensorimotor control mechanisms are sufficient to account for larval behaviour. The model combines three mechanisms based on simple transformations of the recent history of odour intensity at the head location. The first is an increased probability of terminating runs in response to gradually decreasing concentration, the second an increased probability of terminating head casts in response to rapidly increasing concentration, and the third a biasing of run directions up concentration gradients through modulation of small head casts. We show that this model can be tuned to produce behavioural statistics comparable to those reported for the larva, and that this tuning results in similar chemotaxis performance to the larva. We demonstrate that each mechanism can enable odour approach but the combination of mechanisms is most effective, and investigate how these low-level control mechanisms relate to behavioural measures such as the preference indices used to investigate larval learning behaviour in group assays.

  11. Feeding behaviour of snake head fish, Channa striatus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thumronk Amornsakun1*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding scheme experiments were done in a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters containing 500 of two-dayold larvae (stage at first feeding. It was found that larval snake head fish aged 3-11 days (average total length 6.08-10.86 mmconsumed Moina. Larvae aged 12-15 days (average total length 10.79-14.61 mm consumed both Moina and commercialpellet (40 % crude protein. Larvae aged more than 16 days consumed only commercial pellet.Determining the daily food uptake by the larvae and juveniles was done in a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10liters containing 1,000 larvae. The larvae consumed Moina ,provide of a density of Moina 10 individual/ml. The amount offood intake was calculated based on changes of food density in the aquarium with and without fish larvae at 2-hour intervals.It was found that larvae aged 3-15 days consumed Moina. The average uptake of Moina in digestive tract per day of larvaeage 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days old was 28.7, 115.70, 162.27, 195.30 and 227.30 individual/larva, respectively at water temperaturesranging between 25 and 28°C.A starvation experiment was carried out using a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters with three replications.Two hundred newly hatched larvae were kept without feeding. Larvae started to die at 216 hr and totally died within 326 hrafter hatching at water temperature ranging between 28.0 and 30.5°C.

  12. Smooth muscle caldesmon modulates peristalsis in the wild type and non-innervated zebrafish intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABRAMS, J.; DAVULURI, G.; SEILER, C.; PACK, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The high molecular weight isoform of the actin-binding protein Caldesmon (h-CaD) regulates smooth muscle contractile function by modulating cross-bridge cycling of myosin heads. The normal inhibitory activity of h-CaD is regulated by the enteric nervous system; however, the role of h-CaD during intestinal peristalsis has never been studied. Methods We identified a zebrafish paralog of the human CALD1 gene that encodes an h-CaD isoform expressed in intestinal smooth muscle. We examined the role of h-CaD during intestinal peristalsis in zebrafish larvae by knocking down the h-CaD protein using an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide. We also developed transgenic zebrafish that express inhibitory peptides derived from the h-CaD myosin and actin-binding domains, and examined their effect on peristalsis in wild-type zebrafish larvae and sox10colourless mutant larvae that lack enteric nerves. Key Results Genomic analyses identified two zebrafish Caldesmon paralogs. The cald1a ortholog encoded a high molecular weight isoform generated by alternative splicing whose intestinal expression was restricted to smooth muscle. Propulsive intestinal peristalsis was increased in wild-type zebrafish larvae by h-CaD knockdown and by expression of transgenes encoding inhibitory myosin and actin-binding domain peptides. Peristalsis in the non-innervated intestine of sox10colourless larvae was partially restored by h-CaD knockdown and expression of the myosin-binding peptide. Conclusions & Inferences Disruption of the normal inhibitory function of h-CaD enhances intestinal peristalsis in both wild-type zebrafish larvae and mutant larvae that lack enteric nerves, thus confirming a physiologic role for regulation of smooth muscle contraction at the actin filament. PMID:22316291

  13. Preliminary screening of plant essential oils against larvae of Culex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary screenings of 22 plant essential oils were tested for mortality of the mosquito larvae Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. Percent (%) mortality of the mosquito larvae were obtained for each essential oil. At different exposure periods, viz. 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h among the 22 plant oils tested, eight ...

  14. Biological control agent for mosquito larvae: Review on the killifish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... Biological control of mosquito larvae by using fish has shown many advantages over ... number of malaria cases in India that has been reduced from 75 million to 150,000 and deaths from 750,000 to ... aquatic weeds and G. affinis on the mosquito larvae. In addition to that G. affinis has some adverse effects ...

  15. Temporal dynamics of Chaoborus larvae (Diptera : Chaoboridae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chaoborus larvae are voracious predators of zooplankton able to change their specific composition and size structure. Thus they appear as competitors of fish. They also represent food for planktophage fish. The temporal dynamics of Chaoborus larvae was studied (from january to october 1997) in the fishery of Bakro ...

  16. Activity of Bacillis thuringiensis toxins against cocoa pod borer larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santoso, D.; Chaidamsari, T.; Wiryadiputra, S.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Twelve Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were tested in bioassays on cacao plantations in Indonesia for activity against the larvae of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)), an insect pest of the cacao tree. Through the damage caused by their feeding, the larvae of

  17. Protein Metabolism in Lecithotrophic Larvae (Gastropoda: Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavra, J; Manahan, D T

    1999-04-01

    Rates of protein depletion, synthesis, and turnover were measured in larvae of the abalone Haliotis rufescens as an approach to understanding macromolecular metabolism during lecithotrophic development. Protein content decreased linearly during development to metamorphic competence, with 34% of the initial protein in eggs depleted during the 8-day larval life span. Fractional rates of protein synthesis (percentage of total body-protein synthesized per day) decreased during development, from 40% (1-day-old trochophore larva) to 14% (7-day-old veliger larva). Separation of proteins by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that protein pools in larvae are dominated by two high-molecular-weight protein classes (88 and 121 kDa). When the proteins of 1- and 3-day-old larvae were labeled with a mixture of 35S-methionine and cysteine, the pattern on two-dimensional gels showed that the turnover process (protein synthesis and degradation) involved hundreds of different proteins. The energy gained from loss of protein could account for 20% of the protein turnover rates for trochophore larvae and 79% of the lower turnover costs for late-stage veligers. Lecithotrophic larvae of H. rufescens maintained high biosynthetic activities, with up to 40% of their whole-body protein being turned over each day. Such dynamic processes during development of nonfeeding larvae would contribute significantly to maintenance metabolism.

  18. Structure and occurrence of cyphonautes larvae (Bryozoa, Ectoprocta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Worsaae, Katrine

    2010-01-01

    We have studied larvae of the freshwater ctenostome Hislopia malayensis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and LM of serial sections. Some additional observations on larvae of M. membranacea using SEM and CLSM are also reported. The overall configu...

  19. Composition, Abundance and Distribution of Brachyuran Larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ocypodidae, Grapsidae and Xanthidae. Abundance of brachyuran larvae was significantly positively correlated with total zooplankton abundance (r2 = 0.8) and salinity (r2 = 0.71). Keywords: Brachyuran larvae, abundance, composition, Mida creek, Kenya West Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science Vol. 3 (2) 2004: pp.

  20. Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu basin, Tanzania. G Nkwengulila, ESP Kigadye. Abstract. A survey was carried out on digenean larvae infecting freshwater snails in five habitats in Dar es Salaam, Ruvu and Morogoro. 9424 snails belonging to 12 species from five families were examined for ...

  1. The occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails at Mbezi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails at Mbezi-Temboni pond, Dar es Salaam. ESP Kigadye, G Nkwengulila. Abstract. The abundance of digenean larvae in snails at a pond in Mbezi-Temboni, Dar es Salaam, was investigated from July 1996 to June 1997. A total of 2,112 snails belonging to three species, ...

  2. Larvicidal effects of lemon peels on mosquito larvae | ANYANWU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extract of the dry peels of the common edible plant, Citrus limon (family, Rutaceae), was obtained using a Soxhlet extractor and its larviciding effect evaluated against the larvae of two household mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Each batch of larvae (20-30) were treated with 3.90, 15.63, ...

  3. Shrinkage Rates In Newly Hatched Larvae Of Macrobrachium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of formalin/sea-water solution (2% and 4% formalin conc. buffered with borax) on the total lengths of preserved samples of newly hatched Macrobrachium vollenhovenii larvae was investigated. The influence of an aesthesia on larvae in 2% and 4% formal in was also studied to determine the combine influence of ...

  4. Rapid bioassay to screen potential biopesticides in Tenebrio molitor larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simplified assay was devised to evaluate the response of Tenebrio molitor larvae to potential insect control products. The assay incorporates punched disks of flattened whole-grain bread placed in 96-well plates, with treatments applied topically, and neonate larvae added to each well. To evalua...

  5. Visceral larva migrans: migratory pattern of Toxocara canis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Lind, Peter; Nansen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    of uninfected pigs was used as negative controls for blood parameters and weight gain. Toxocara canis migrated well in the pig, although the relative numbers of larvae recovered decreased significantly during the experiment. On day 7 p.i., high numbers of larvae were recovered from the lymph nodes around...

  6. Nutritional condition of fish larvae in South African estuaries: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is concluded that the individual RNA/DNA ratio can provide a reliable, sensitive and cost-effective method to assess the immediate effects of environmental changes on the nutritional condition of estuarine fish larvae. Keywords: estuarine ecology, Gilchristella aestuaria larvae, lipid content, protein content, RNA/DNA ratio, ...

  7. Observations on the seasonal dynamics of Caddisfly larvae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Trichoptera fauna in the water body consisted of two genera, Cheumatopsyche and Amphipsyche, which closely associated with the moss, Fontinalis (Bryophyta). The density of larvae increased with the occurrence and bloom of moss. The changes in density of larvae are discussed with reference to the resources ...

  8. Preliminary notes on the decapod larvae of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menon, M.K.; Menon, P.G.; Paulinose, V.T.

    fairly good numbers were captured are described and illustrated with suitable charts The possible effect of the time of haul and the season on the number of larvae caught is explained The probable parentage of the more commonly encountered types of larvae...

  9. Quantification of birefringence readily measures the level of muscle damage in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Joachim; Sztal, Tamar; Currie, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Report of an unbiased quantification of the birefringence of muscle of fish larvae. ► Quantification method readily identifies level of overall muscle damage. ► Compare zebrafish muscle mutants for level of phenotype severity. ► Proposed tool to survey treatments that aim to ameliorate muscular dystrophy. -- Abstract: Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that progressively weaken and degenerate muscle. Many zebrafish models for human muscular dystrophies have been generated and analysed, including dystrophin-deficient zebrafish mutants dmd that model Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Under polarised light the zebrafish muscle can be detected as a bright area in an otherwise dark background. This light effect, called birefringence, results from the diffraction of polarised light through the pseudo-crystalline array of the muscle sarcomeres. Muscle damage, as seen in zebrafish models for muscular dystrophies, can readily be detected by a reduction in the birefringence. Therefore, birefringence is a very sensitive indicator of overall muscle integrity within larval zebrafish. Unbiased documentation of the birefringence followed by densitometric measurement enables the quantification of the birefringence of zebrafish larvae. Thereby, the overall level of muscle integrity can be detected, allowing the identification and categorisation of zebrafish muscle mutants. In addition, we propose that the establish protocol can be used to analyse treatments aimed at ameliorating dystrophic zebrafish models.

  10. Quantification of birefringence readily measures the level of muscle damage in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Joachim, E-mail: Joachim.Berger@Monash.edu [Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, EMBL Australia, Monash University, Clayton (Australia); Sztal, Tamar; Currie, Peter D. [Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, EMBL Australia, Monash University, Clayton (Australia)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Report of an unbiased quantification of the birefringence of muscle of fish larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantification method readily identifies level of overall muscle damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compare zebrafish muscle mutants for level of phenotype severity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed tool to survey treatments that aim to ameliorate muscular dystrophy. -- Abstract: Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that progressively weaken and degenerate muscle. Many zebrafish models for human muscular dystrophies have been generated and analysed, including dystrophin-deficient zebrafish mutants dmd that model Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Under polarised light the zebrafish muscle can be detected as a bright area in an otherwise dark background. This light effect, called birefringence, results from the diffraction of polarised light through the pseudo-crystalline array of the muscle sarcomeres. Muscle damage, as seen in zebrafish models for muscular dystrophies, can readily be detected by a reduction in the birefringence. Therefore, birefringence is a very sensitive indicator of overall muscle integrity within larval zebrafish. Unbiased documentation of the birefringence followed by densitometric measurement enables the quantification of the birefringence of zebrafish larvae. Thereby, the overall level of muscle integrity can be detected, allowing the identification and categorisation of zebrafish muscle mutants. In addition, we propose that the establish protocol can be used to analyse treatments aimed at ameliorating dystrophic zebrafish models.

  11. Freshly squeezed: anaphylaxis caused by drone larvae juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoevesandt, J; Trautmann, A

    2017-11-30

    Drone larvae are mostly considered a by-product of beekeeping, but have recently been advo-cated as a high-protein source of food. There are as yet no data concerning their allergenic po-tential. We report on a 29-year old bee keeper who experienced an anaphylactic reaction following the consumption of a freshly prepared beverage from raw drone larvae. Larvae-specific sensitization was confirmed by prick-to-prick and basophil activation testing. Bee stings and classical bee products including honey and royal jelly were tolerated. This is the hitherto first report on IgE-mediated allergy to drone larvae. We suggest that a certain awareness towards the allergenicity of bee larvae is required.

  12. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation.

  13. Sulfolipid in mulberry leaves and faeces of silkworm larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Tadaaki

    1975-01-01

    Sulfoquinovosyl diglyceride (sulfolipid) were separated by chromatography on a ECTEOLA cellulose column from the extracts of mulberry leaves and faeces of silkworm larvae. Lipid from the leaves which had been labeled with 35 S-sulfuric acid for 24 hours separated to five 35 S containing fractions on column chromatography. Most of the 35 S in the lipid fraction was recovered as sulfolipid. No appreciable amounts of 35 S, however, were recognized as sulfolipid in the extract of the faeces of silkworm larvae which were fed 35 S-containing mulberry leaves. These results suggest that silkworm larvae actively dissimilate sulfolipid, which is the most abundant among the sulfur containing lipids in mulberry leaves. When 35 S labeled sulfolipid which was recovered from the extract of mulberry leaves was fed to the larvae, 35 S was not incorporated into the cell constituent of the larvae and 35 S of sulfolipid was entirely excreted. (auth.)

  14. Fixation of Ilyanassa snail embryos and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbiah, Maey; Cooley, James; Leise, Esther M; Nakamoto, Ayaki; Rabinowitz, Jeremy S; Lambert, J David; Nagy, Lisa M

    2009-04-01

    The marine gastropod Ilyanassa obsoleta is a long-standing and very useful model for studies of embryonic development. It is an especially important model for spiralian development, and for studies of asymmetric cell division. The embryos are amenable to classic embryological manipulation techniques, as well as a growing number of molecular approaches. Ilyanassa is also an important model for studies of metamorphosis, the ecology of parasitism, the effects of environmental contaminants on morphology and sexual function, and comparative neurobiology. Ilyanassa embryos are particularly well suited for RNA and protein localization studies because of the relatively large cells and favorable properties for imaging. This protocol describes how to fix and store Ilyanassa embryos and larvae for use in whole-mount in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies.

  15. A complete three-dimensional reconstruction of the myoanatomy of Loricifera: comparative morphology of an adult and a Higgins larva stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ricardo C; Bailly, Xavier; Leasi, Francesca; Reichert, Heinrich; Sørensen, Martin V; Kristensen, Reinhardt M

    2013-04-15

    Loricifera is a group of small, marine animals, with undetermined phylogenetic relationships within Ecdysozoa (molting protostome animals). Despite their well-known external morphology, data on the internal anatomy of loriciferans are still incomplete. Aiming to increase the knowledge of this enigmatic phylum, we reconstruct for the first time the three-dimensional myoanatomy of loriciferans. Adult Nanaloricus sp. and the Higgins larva of Armorloricus elegans were investigated with cytochemical labeling techniques and CLSM. We discuss our findings with reference to other loriciferan species and recently established phylogenies. The somatic musculature of both adult and larval stages is very complex and includes several muscles arranged in three orientations: circular, transverse and longitudinal. In adult Nanaloricus sp., the introvert is characterized by a net-like muscular arrangement, which is composed of five thin circular fibers crossed by several (up to 30) thin longitudinal fibers with bifurcated anterior ends. Two sets of muscles surround the pre-pharyngeal armature: 6 buccal tube retractors arranged 3 × 2 in a conical shaped structure, and 8 mouth cone retractors. Additionally, a thick, circular muscle marks the neck region and a putative anal sphincter is the posteriormost myoanatomical feature. In the Higgins larva of A. elegans, two circular muscles are distinguished anteriorly in the introvert: a dorsal semicircular fiber and a thin ring muscle. The posteriormost region of the body is characterized by an anal sphincter and a triangular muscle. Based on the currently available knowledge, the myoanatomical bodyplan of adult loriciferans includes: (i) 8 mouth cone retractors, (ii) a pharynx bulb composed of transversal fibers arranged radially, (iii) circular muscles of the head and neck, (iv) internal muscles of the spinoscalids, (v) longitudinal muscles spanning all body regions, and (vi) transverse (circular) muscles in the abdomen. Concerning the

  16. Musculoskeletal anatomy and feeding performance of pre-feeding engyodontic larvae of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouilliart, Mathias; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lauesen, Peter; De Kegel, Barbara; Adriaens, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Being part of the elopomorph group of fishes, Anguillidae species show a leptocephalus larval stage. However, due to largely unknown spawning locations and habitats of their earliest life stages, as well as their transparency, these Anguilla larvae are rarely encountered in nature. Therefore, information regarding the early life history of these larvae, including their exogenous feeding strategy and feeding performance, is rather scarce. To better understand the structural basis and functional performance of larval feeding in captivity, the functional morphology of the cranial musculoskeletal system in pre- and first-feeding engyodontic leptocephali of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) was studied. A 3D reconstruction of the feeding apparatus (head of the leptocephali < 1 mm) was used to visualize and describe the musculoskeletal changes throughout these stages. To analyze the ontogenetic changes in the functionality of the feeding apparatus towards the active feeding phase, 3D data of joints, levers and muscles derived from the reconstructions were used to estimate bite and joint reaction forces (JRFs). Observing a maximum estimated bite force of about 65 μN (and corresponding JRFs of 260 μN), it can be hypothesized that leptocephalus larvae are functionally constrained to feed only on soft food particles. Additionally, potential prey items are size delimited, based on the theoretically estimated average gape of these larvae of about 100 μm. This hypothesis appears to be in line with recent observations of a diet consisting of small and/or gelatinous prey items (Hydrozoa, Thaliacea, Ctenophora, Polycystenia) found in the guts of euryodontic leptocephalus larvae. PMID:26278932

  17. Musculoskeletal anatomy and feeding performance of pre-feeding engyodontic larvae of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouilliart, Mathias; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lauesen, Peter; De Kegel, Barbara; Adriaens, Dominique

    2015-09-01

    Being part of the elopomorph group of fishes, Anguillidae species show a leptocephalus larval stage. However, due to largely unknown spawning locations and habitats of their earliest life stages, as well as their transparency, these Anguilla larvae are rarely encountered in nature. Therefore, information regarding the early life history of these larvae, including their exogenous feeding strategy and feeding performance, is rather scarce. To better understand the structural basis and functional performance of larval feeding in captivity, the functional morphology of the cranial musculoskeletal system in pre- and first-feeding engyodontic leptocephali of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) was studied. A 3D reconstruction of the feeding apparatus (head of the leptocephali < 1 mm) was used to visualize and describe the musculoskeletal changes throughout these stages. To analyze the ontogenetic changes in the functionality of the feeding apparatus towards the active feeding phase, 3D data of joints, levers and muscles derived from the reconstructions were used to estimate bite and joint reaction forces (JRFs). Observing a maximum estimated bite force of about 65 μN (and corresponding JRFs of 260 μN), it can be hypothesized that leptocephalus larvae are functionally constrained to feed only on soft food particles. Additionally, potential prey items are size delimited, based on the theoretically estimated average gape of these larvae of about 100 μm. This hypothesis appears to be in line with recent observations of a diet consisting of small and/or gelatinous prey items (Hydrozoa, Thaliacea, Ctenophora, Polycystenia) found in the guts of euryodontic leptocephalus larvae. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  18. Anisakis simplex larvae: infection status in marine fish and cephalopods purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae; Ock, Mee Sun

    2011-03-01

    The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea.

  19. Effects of various diets on the calcium and phosphorus composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) and superworms (Zophobas morio larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latney, La'Toya V; Toddes, Barbara D; Wyre, Nicole R; Brown, Dorothy C; Michel, Kathryn E; Briscoe, Johanna A

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the nutritive quality of Tenebrio molitor larvae and Zophobas morio larvae, which are commonly cultured as live food sources, is influenced by 4 commercially available diets used as nutritional substrates; identify which diet best improved calcium content of larvae; and identify the feeding time interval that assured the highest calcium intake by larvae. ANIMALS 2,000 Zophobas morio larvae (ie, superworms) and 7,500 Tenebrio molitor larvae (ie, mealworms). PROCEDURES Larvae were placed in control and diet treatment groups for 2-, 7-, and 10-day intervals. Treatment diets were as follows: wheat millings, avian hand feeding formula, organic avian mash diet, and a high-calcium cricket feed. Control groups received water only. After treatment, larvae were flash-frozen live with liquid nitrogen in preparation for complete proximate and mineral analyses. Analyses for the 2-day treatment group were performed in triplicate. RESULTS The nutrient composition of the high-calcium cricket feed groups had significant changes in calcium content, phosphorus content, and metabolizable energy at the 2-day interval, compared with other treatment groups, for both mealworms and superworms. Calcium content and calcium-to-phosphorus ratios for larvae in the high-calcium cricket feed group were the highest among the diet treatments for all treatment intervals and for both larval species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A 2-day interval with the high-calcium cricket feed achieved a larval nutrient composition sufficient to meet National Research Council dietary calcium recommendations for nonlactating rats. Mealworm calcium composition reached 2,420 g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours, and superworm calcium composition reached 2,070g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours. These findings may enable pet owners, veterinarians, insect breeders, and zoo curators to optimize nutritive content of larvae fed to insectivorous animals.

  20. Larvas migrans ganglionar: Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Luis Álvarez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas migrans visceral cuya causa radica en la infestación con larvas de toxocara canis o cati, ocurre más frecuentemente en niños menores de 10 años. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 8 años de edad en el cual se diagnosticó larvas migrans ganglionar. Se comentan aspectos etioepidemiológicos de la enfermedad, su cuadro clínico y evolución. Se hace énfasis en las medidas higiénicas sanitarias de control y manipulación de excretas de animales domésticos, en este caso de perros y gatos.Visceral larvae migrans caused by the infestation with larvae of toxocara canis or cati are more frequent among children under 10. The case of an 8-year-old boy who was diagnosed ganglionar larva migrans is presented. Comments are made on some etioepidemiological aspects of the disease, as well as on his clinical picture and evolution. Emphasis is made on the hygienic and sanitary measures of control and manipulation of stools from pegs as dogs and cats. Las larvas migrans visceral cuya causa radica en la infestación con larvas de toxocara canis o cati, ocurre más frecuentemente en niños menores de 10 años. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 8 años de edad en el cual se diagnosticó larvas migrans ganglionar. Se comentan aspectos etioepidemiológicos de la enfermedad, su cuadro clínico y evolución. se hace énfasis en las medidas higiénicas sanitarias de control y manipulación de excretas de animales domésticos, en este caso de perros y gatos.

  1. Tools for automating the imaging of zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulak, Rock

    2016-03-01

    The VAST BioImager system is a set of tools developed for zebrafish researchers who require the collection of images from a large number of 2-7 dpf zebrafish larvae. The VAST BioImager automates larval handling, positioning and orientation tasks. Color images at about 10 μm resolution are collected from the on-board camera of the system. If images of greater resolution and detail are required, this system is mounted on an upright microscope, such as a confocal or fluorescence microscope, to utilize their capabilities. The system loads a larvae, positions it in view of the camera, determines orientation using pattern recognition analysis, and then more precisely positions to user-defined orientation for optimal imaging of any desired tissue or organ system. Multiple images of the same larva can be collected. The specific part of each larva and the desired orientation and position is identified by the researcher and an experiment defining the settings and a series of steps can be saved and repeated for imaging of subsequent larvae. The system captures images, then ejects and loads another larva from either a bulk reservoir, a well of a 96 well plate using the LP Sampler, or individually targeted larvae from a Petri dish or other container using the VAST Pipettor. Alternative manual protocols for handling larvae for image collection are tedious and time consuming. The VAST BioImager automates these steps to allow for greater throughput of assays and screens requiring high-content image collection of zebrafish larvae such as might be used in drug discovery and toxicology studies. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Histological Observation and Expression Patterns of antimicrobial peptides during Fungal Infection in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Jiangfan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Housefly, Musca domestica, has a complicated immune system. However, its underlying operating mechanism remains elusive. Candida albicans is a major pathogen affecting humans by causing deep infection fungous disease, but it is non-symbiotic in houseflies. To investigate the C. albicans infection process in housefly, the changes in morphological and histological and expression patterns of antimicrobial peptide were monitored to indicate the insect's response to fungal infection. The results showed that scattered brown spots were comprising melanized encapsulation and encapsulated fungal cells were initially observed at the inner side of larvae's body wall 3 h post-infection (PI. Between 6 and 36 h PI, the whole body of larvae was densely covered with the brown spots, which then gradually disappeared. The majority had disappeared at 48 h PI. Some fungi colonized in the gaps between the body wall and the muscle layer, as well as among muscle fibers of the muscle layer at 12 h PI and hyphal was observed at 18 h PI. These fungi colonized distribution changed from a continuous line to scattered spots at 24 h PI and virtually disappeared at 48 h. The results of quantitative PCR analysis revealed that in coordination with the variation during the infection, the expression levels of four antimicrobial peptides were up-regulated. In conclusion, C. albicans infection in M. domestica larvae involved the following stages: injection, infection, immune response and elimination of the pathogen. The rapid response of antimicrobial peptides, melanized encapsulation and agglutination played a vital role against the pathogenic invasion.

  3. Neuromuscular development in Novocrania anomala: evidence for the presence of serotonin and a spiralian-like apical organ in lecithotrophic brachiopod larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2010-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: January/February 2010 SUMMARY The phylogenetic position of Brachiopoda remains unsettled, and only few recent data on brachiopod organogenesis are currently available. In order to contribute data to questions concerning brachiopod ontogeny and evolution we investigated nervous and muscle system development in the craniiform (inarticulate) brachiopod Novocrania anomala. Larvae of this species are lecithotrophic and have a bilobed body with three pairs of dorsal setal bundles...

  4. Vaccination of lambs with irradiated larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.K.; Singh, K.S.; Subramanian, G.

    1987-01-01

    Vaccination with a single dose of 2,000 infective larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum, irradiated at 40 kR, caused 80 per cent reduction in worm establishment and such lambs withstood a challenge infection which was otherwise fatal to non-vaccinated lambs. The female worms, which developed from irradiated larvae, were irregular in shape, had cuticular thickening at the genital opening and in many male worms the copulatory bursa was rudimentary. The sex ratio was adversely affected in worms developing from irradiated larvae. The population had preponderant sterile females and a very few male worms. (author)

  5. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladawi, M.A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: Scientific@aec.org.sy; Albarodi, H. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hammoudeh, A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shamma, M. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Sharabi, N. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2006-01-15

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  6. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  7. Microbial interference with hatch and survival of European eel larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Lauesen; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    Recent research has significantly improved our knowledge and capabilities in the field of in vitro production of yolk sac larvae from European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Female broodstock European eels are matured by weekly administration of pituitary extract and male eels with hCG (human chorionic...... gonadotropin), which afford gametes for in vitro fertilization studies. The maturing process may lead to mass hatchings of up to ½ million larvae of which some survive the entire yolk sac phase. However, the rearing of larvae suffers from high larval mortalities, and water quality might be a crucial factor...

  8. Muscle channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statland, Jeffrey; Phillips, Lauren; Trivedi, Jaya R

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle channelopathies are rare heterogeneous diseases with marked genotypic and phenotypic variability. Despite advances in understanding of the molecular pathology of these disorders, the diverse phenotypic manifestations remain a challenge in diagnosis and therapeutics. These disorders can cause lifetime disability and affect quality of life. There is no treatment of these disorders approved by the US Food and Drug Administration at this time. Recognition and treatment of symptoms might reduce morbidity and improve quality of life. This article summarizes the clinical manifestations, diagnostic studies, pathophysiology, and treatment options in nondystrophic myotonia, congenital myasthenic syndrome, and periodic paralyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Piscirickettsia-like organisms as a cause of acute necrotic lesions in Colombian tilapia larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iregui, Carlos A; Vasquez, Gersson M; Rey, Alba L; Verjan, Noel

    2011-01-01

    Rickettsial organisms are well-known fish pathogens in both natural and culture environments. This study reports an outbreak of disease in red tilapia larvae caused by piscirickettsia-like organisms (PLOs), which lasted from June until October 2009. Severe mortality was recorded almost exclusively in larvae and postlarvae aged 1-22 days old. Although clinical or gross findings were not evident in diseased fish, histopathology revealed severe necrosis of the epidermis and gill epithelium, with concomitant changes in the underlying skeletal muscle as being the most relevant microscopic lesions. Although PLOs were visible with the routine hematoxylin eosin technique, they were better observed with Giemsa and toluidine blue stains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the bacterium was located within the cytoplasm and phagolysosoma-like structures of epithelial cells from the gills and the skin. The bacteria measured 0.9 ± 0.2 µm × 2.1 ± 0.6 µm and had a double cell membrane (the outer one having undulating projections), with variable electron-dense and electron-lucent areas. Ultrastructurally, abundant myelin figures surrounded the microorganisms within host cell cytoplasm. Results indicated that Piscirickettsia-like organisms can cause massive epithelial cell damage associated with concomitant alteration of the electrolyte balance.

  10. Foraging strategy switching in an antlion larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Jen; Okuyama, Toshinori

    2012-09-01

    Antlion larvae are typically considered as trap-building predators, but some species of antlions always forage without using pits or only sometimes use pits to capture prey; they can ambush prey without pits. This study examined a species that switches its strategy between pit-trapping and ambushing and asked the mechanism behind the switching behaviour. A dynamic optimization model incorporating tradeoffs between the two strategies was built. The tradeoffs were prey capture success and predation risk (both are higher when pit-trapping). The model predicted that antlions should use the trap-building strategy when their energy status is low and should use the ambush strategy when their energy status is high. These predictions as well as an assumption (i.e., predation risk associated with pit-trapping is higher than that associated with ambushing) of the model were empirically confirmed. The results suggest that antlions flexibly switch between pit-trapping and ambushing to maximize their fitness by balancing the costs and benefits of the two strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Amino Acid Absorption by Tiger Grouper Fish (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Larvae. (Absorbsi Asam Amino oleh Larva Ikan Kerapu Macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambariyanto Ambariyanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan Kerapu merupakan salah satu ikan unggulan yang ditargetkan sebagai komoditi eksport Indonesia. Usaha budidayanya saat ini sangat terganggu dengan tingginya mortalitas pada stadia larva. Usaha untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah dengan menggunakan obat seperti antibiotik yang ternyata tidak membuahkan hasil maksimal tetapi justru menimbulkan resistensi beberapa jenis bakteria. Salah satu aspek yang belum pernah dilihat dalam rangka mengatasi masalah ini adalah dengan mengusahakan percepatan pertumbuhan pada stadia larva sehingga akan lebih mampu menghindari dari beberapa penyebab mortalitas. Salah satu sumber energi yang terdapat dalam perairan namun dalam jumlah yang tidak besar adalah dissolved organic matter (DOM. Penelitian ini ditekankan untuk melihat kemampuan larva ikan Kerapu dalam memanfaatkan DOM (digunakan asam amino terlarut ;ATT yang terdapat di air laut. Sebanyak 16 (enam belas jenis asam amino yang terdiri dari tiga klas yakni neutral, basic, dan acidic digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Sedangkan larva ikan Kerapu yang digunakan berumur 2 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa larva ikan Kerapu menyerap seluruh jenis asam amino baik neutral, basic, dan acidic. Namun jenis asam amino yang diserap adalah glutamat, histidin, lisin, serin, metionin, tritopan dan iso leusin. Sedangkan yang paling banyak diserap oleh larva ikan ini adalah lisin. Hal yang menarik dalam penelitian ini adalah terdapat beberapa jenis asam amino yang diduga justru dikeluarkan oleh larva ikan tersebut yakni glysin, alanin, tyrosin, valin, phenil alanin dan leusin. Penyerapan beberapa jenis asam amino ini diduga dimanfaatkan oleh larva ikan Kerapu dalam proses pertumbuhannya. Kata kunci : asam amino terlarut, larva, Kerapu Macan, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus   Kerapu (grouper fish is known as an important and highly economic value fish and a good candidate for major export commodity for Indonesia. However, there is an important problem faced by its

  12. Automated high-throughput behavioral analyses in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richendrfer, Holly; Créton, Robbert

    2013-07-04

    We have created a novel high-throughput imaging system for the analysis of behavior in 7-day-old zebrafish larvae in multi-lane plates. This system measures spontaneous behaviors and the response to an aversive stimulus, which is shown to the larvae via a PowerPoint presentation. The recorded images are analyzed with an ImageJ macro, which automatically splits the color channels, subtracts the background, and applies a threshold to identify individual larvae placement in the lanes. We can then import the coordinates into an Excel sheet to quantify swim speed, preference for edge or side of the lane, resting behavior, thigmotaxis, distance between larvae, and avoidance behavior. Subtle changes in behavior are easily detected using our system, making it useful for behavioral analyses after exposure to environmental toxicants or pharmaceuticals.

  13. Bacteria and fungi isolated from housefly ( Musca domestica L.) larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variety of microorganisms, which includes the pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aerruginosa, Aspergillus tamarii and Bacullus cereus were found. Also, nonpathogenic microbes werer recovered including Bacillus subtilis and Stroplococcus faecalis. Keywords: Microorganism, isolation, housefly larvae.

  14. Spatial habitat for eel larva at Cimandiri estuary, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarina, N. D.; Supriatna

    2017-07-01

    The estuarine ecosystem is known as suitable breeding sites for fishes because this particular habitat is receiving continuous organic matters from river ways and constant sunlight due to its depth that allows sunlight penetration. Cimandiri estuary is one of the estuaries located in the south of Java Island close to the Indian Ocean and known as a suitable habitat for eel larva that routinely collected by local people. Eel habitat has a relationship with the dynamic of space. This dynamic influenced by season, water flow, tide, bathymetry, salinity and dissolved oxygen (DO). The geographic information system is an approach in studying habitat dynamic, through modeling. Furthermore, the spatial model for eel larva habitat is required for land use planning that aimed to achieve sustainable eels larva rearing and conserve estuarine habitat as well. The aim of this research was to investigate dynamics on spatial habitat of eel larva at Cimandiri estuary, West Java.

  15. Culturing Embryos and Larvae of Marine Molluscs and Protochordates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, R.; Turner, S. C.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a description for maintaining adult forms of molluscs and protochordates in order to obtain gametes for laboratory studies of animal development. The methods also include those for culturing embryonic larvae forms in vitro. (Author/SA)

  16. Soft-tissue mineralization of bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana) at a wastewater treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, M Kevin; Ruiz, Alina M; Fisk, Aaron T; Rumbeiha, Wilson K; Davis, Andrew K; Maerz, John C

    2010-07-01

    Bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) from a wastewater treatment facility were identified with severe lesions consisting of large, up to 1-cm in diameter, mineralized nodules protruding from the tail or gular region. Sectioning of formalin-fixed specimens revealed more extensive mineralization involving the vertebrae or muscles of the head and tail. Nodules examined microscopically were not associated with parasitic or infectious agents. Large nodules consisted of mineralized aggregates surrounded by a margin of granulomatous inflammation. Individual connective-tissue fibers and muscle cells were mineralized at some foci. The nodules consisted entirely of calcium phosphate, and the lesions appeared to be novel. Total serum-calcium concentrations of tadpoles and calcium concentrations in water samples did not differ significantly with increasing distance from the discharge site. Affected tadpoles had elevated cholecalciferol (25-OH-vitamin D3) levels. Effluent from this wastewater treatment facility is divided into 3 streams, each passing through a separate series of wetlands allowing for replicated evaluation of tadpoles with increasing distance from the proximate inputs of treated wastewater. The prevalence of lesions was correlated with proximity of cells to the initial wastewater discharge site, and 28.5% of bullfrog larvae in the first cells had lesions. None were affected in the fifth cells. Southern leopard frog larvae (Rana sphenocephala), the only other species affected, had a much lower prevalence of lesions (<1%) than bullfrog tadpoles and were only affected in the first cells. To date, the primary cause of elevated cholecalciferol is undetermined, but it appears to be remediated by passage of water through the wetlands.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gende, L.B.; Pires, Sância; Fernandez, N.J.; Damiani, M.; Churio, M.S.; Fritz, R.; Eguaras, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    American foulbrood is a serious bacterial disease that affects Apis mellifera colonies; the causative agent is Paenibacillus larvae [1 ]. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oils against P. larvae. Oils from 21 botanical species were analyzed by gas chromatography (CG and CG/EM). All essential oils were classified according to the composition of their main components in two groups: benzene ring compounds (BRC) and terpene com...

  18. Rearing gymnolaemate bryozoan larvae for cellular and molecular analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Gymnolaemates represent the largest group of extant bryozoans, having more than 3,000 described species. Gymnolaemates display a diverse array of reproductive and developmental patterns including planktotrophy, lecithotrophy, and matrotrophy. The larvae of gymnolaemates have been broadly grouped into three types, cyphonautes (shelled, feeding), pseudocyphonautes (shelled, nonfeeding), and coronate (unshelled, nonfeeding), although each group is heterogeneous and probably includes various morphologies that are largely undescribed. Here, methods for rearing bryozoan colonies and larvae are presented.

  19. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  20. Larval structure of Passalus gravelyiand sexual dimorphism in Passalid larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Mattos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The adults and larvae of Passalidae are subsocial insects commonly found in tropical forests, living in decaying wood gallery systems constructed by adults. Currently, few repots on the larvae of Neotropical Passalidae have been published and information is scarce. In this study, the Passalus (Pertinax gravelyiMoreira, 1922 larvae is described for the first time, based on ten larval specimens 1 (1° instar, 4 (2° instar, and 5 (3° instar associated with three adults collected from a single colony at the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The description was carried out based on electronic and digital photographs of diagnostic structures, with some details on the systematic of the species. The larvae of Passalus gravelyihas the general setal 'Pertinax' pattern and differed from others by 16 to 18 setae on the anal ring, the other larvae data from Brazilian species show the anal ring with 10 to 12 setae. A discussion on the presence of sexual dimorphism in 62 species of two and three instars of Passalidae larvae is provided for the first time. Besides, a description of the terminal ampullapresent as a cuticular structure found in the medial-ventral area of the 9th abdominal sternite in males is also given. The terminal ampullawas only observed in the Passalidae male larvae and was not visible in female larvae. The terminal ampullaare acknowledged now in males of 64 passalid species, that are taxonomically distributed in world tropical forests, at the Oriental and Australian subfamily Aulacocyclinae (Aulacocyclini & Ceracupini and the cosmotropical subfamily Passalinae (Solenocyclini, Macrolinini, Passalini, & Proculini.

  1. Potential of turmeric rhizome essential oils against Aedes aegypti larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselina Panghiyangani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF has long been a serious health problem in Indonesia, including Kalimantan (Borneo, as is evident from the increased case fatality rate in Banjarbaru city. Synthetic chemical insecticides have frequently been used to eradicate mosquitoes, but are toxic to the body and resistance of adult and larvae mosquito Aedes aegypti has been reported. The present study aims to assess the effect of essential oils of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma domestica Val against Aedes aegypti larvae Methods This was an experimental study of post test one group design, performed in two phases, using Aedes aegypti larvae as test organisms. In the first phase, laboratory-reared larvae were used for calculation of the LC50 and LC90, while in the second phase the test organisms were larvae taken from 75 buildings that had been designated based on a preliminary survey in four sub-districts in Banjarbaru city with a high incidence of dengue cases. Probit analysis of was used to calculate LC50 and LC90, and the Kruskal-Wallis test to determine the larvicidal potency of turmeric rhizome essential oils. Results This study demonstrates that turmeric rhizome essential oils effectively killed laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti larvae at an LC50 of 9.239 ppm and an LC90 of 13.565 ppm. The effectiveness of the essential oils of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma domestica Val. for killing Aedes aegypti larvae in residential areas was 68%. Conclusion Turmeric (Curcuma domestica Val. rhizome essential oils can kill Aedes aegypti larvae, are environment friendly and can be used for the control of mosquitoes.

  2. Evaluation of growth performance of Clarias gariepinus larvae fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial, involving the use of two starter diets (artemia and aqualis) was carried out in the laboratory, to evaluate the growth performance of C. gariepinus larvae fed artemia and aqualis fish feeds. A total of 200 (48 hours old C. gariepinus larvae) of mean weight 4.8 ± 0.01mg and length 6.16 ± 0.03mm were reared for ...

  3. Characterization of secreted proteases of Paenibacillus larvae, potential virulence factors in honeybee larval infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), the most severe bacterial disease that affects honeybee larvae. AFB causes a significant decrease in the honeybee population affecting the beekeeping industry and agricultural production. After infection of larvae, P. larvae se...

  4. Long-duration feedings and caste differentiation in Bombus terrestris larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    The duration of feedings received by Bombus terrestris larvae was studied using video-recordings. In the last days of development all larvae received feedings mainly of long duration. Worker larvae of the third brood received significantly longer feedings than worker larvae reared in the other

  5. Biorheological action of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae on human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, Patricia Ponce; Del Balzo, Gonzalo; Riquelme, Bibiana

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that A. lumbricoides extracts capture sialic acid (SA) from human red blood cells (RBC). The aim of this work was to study hemorheological alterations in vitro caused by parasite larvae. The biorheological action of three larva concentrates of first and second larval stage on group O erythrocytes was analyzed by incubating the erythrocyte packed together with an equal volume of larvae (treated RBC) and PBS (control RBC). Distribution and parameters of aggregation (digital image analysis), aggregation kinetics (erythroaggregameter), and viscoelasticity (erythrodeformeter) were measured. The digital image analysis showed that all the larvae diminished the isolated cells percentage and increased the size of the formed aggregates. The aggregate formation velocity was lower in the treated than in the control. The deformability index (ID) values of treated RBC did not present variations with respect to those of the control, but a decrease in the erythrocyte elastic modulus (μ(m)) and membrane surface viscosity (η(m)) values was observed, indicating that the larvae not only induced a diminution in the membrane surface viscosity of RBC but also altered the dynamic viscoelasticity of the membrane. Experiments carried out in vitro support the conclusion that the contact between larvae and RBC produces hemorheological alterations.

  6. Using Real-time PCR for Identification of Paenibacillus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was identification of Paenibacillus larvae that causes American foulbrood disease (AFB in colony of bees (Apis mellifera. Bacterial isolates originated from honey samples, because presence of P. larvae in honey is treated as early diagnostic of AFB. Intense proteolytic activity and no catalase activity are typical for Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria P. larvae. We diluted honey (1:2, heated at 80 °C for 10 min and inoculated on semiselective medium MYPGP agar with nalidixic acid. Plates were cultivated at 37 °C for 48 – 72 h under the aerobic conditions. Selected colonies were transferred on MYT agar and cultivated 24 h. We analysed 30 honey samples and found 27 bacterial isolates. All isolates were Gram positive and mainly rod-shaped. No catalase activity was documented for 6 from 27 isolates. Identification was finished by real-time PCR to detect the 16S rRNA gene of Paenibacillus larvae with real-time cycler Rotor-Gene 6000. As DNA template we used genomic DNA isolated with commercial kit and DNA lysate obtaining by boiled cells. We used 2 strains of P. larvae from CCM (Czech Collection of Microorganisms as positive control. The reliable method of detection P. larvae has important rule for beekeeping.

  7. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Leonor; Negri, Pedro; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-04-12

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera ). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro -reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin , and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Observations of the sound producing organs in achelate lobster larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Achelata, lobsters lacking claws and having a phyllosoma larva, are divided into two families, the Palinuridae or spiny lobsters and the Scyllaridae or slipper lobsters. Within the Palinuridae adults of two groups were identified by Parker (1884, the Stridentesthat are capable of producing sounds, and the Silentesthat are not known to produce sounds. The Stridentes employ a file-like structure on the dorsal surface of the cephalon and a plectrum consisting of a series of ridges on the proximal segment of the second antenna to produce their sounds. All species of Achelata hatch as an unpigmented thin phyllosoma larva. The phyllosoma larva of the Stridentes have a presumptive file-like structure on the dorsal cephalon. A similar file-like structure is found on the cephalon of one species of Silentes, Palinurellus wienckki, and some but not all of the phyllosoma larvae of the Scyllaridae. No presumptive plectrum is found on the second antenna of any of the phyllosoma larvae. Presence of a presumptive file-like structure on phyllosoma larvae of Silentes and Scyllaridae suggests that the ability to produce sounds may have been lost secondarily in the Silentes and Scyllaridae.

  9. Long-wavelength photosensitivity in coral planula larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Benjamin M; Cohen, Jonathan H

    2012-04-01

    Light influences the swimming behavior and settlement of the planktonic planula larvae of coral, but little is known regarding the photosensory biology of coral at this or any life-history stage. Here we used changes in the electrical activity of coral planula tissue upon light flashes to investigate the photosensitivity of the larvae. Recordings were made from five species: two whose larvae are brooded and contain algal symbionts (Porites astreoides and Agaricia agaricites), and three whose larvae are spawned and lack algal symbionts (Acropora cervicornis, Acropora palmata,and Montastrea faveolata). Photosensitivity originated from the coral larva rather than from, or in addition to, its algal symbionts as species with and without symbionts displayed similar tissue-level electrical responses to light. All species exhibited as much (or more) sensitivity to red stimuli as to blue/green stimuli, which is consistent with a role for long-wavelength visible light in the preference for substrata observed during settlement and in facilitating vertical positioning of larvae in the water column.

  10. Guppies as predators of common mosquito larvae in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeza, S N R; Norma-Rashid, Y; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2014-03-01

    Observation on predation activities of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) on the larvae of three species of mosquito, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was carried out under laboratory conditions. Male and female guppies were used as predators for predation experiments on the 4th instars of mosquito larvae. The daily feeding rates comparing male and female guppies on mosquito larvae were different; the female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae than male guppies did. The daily feeding rates of female guppies were 121.3 for Ae. aegypti, 105.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 72.3 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The daily feeding rates of male guppies were 98.6 for Ae. aegypti, 73.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 47.6 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. In terms of prey preference, there was greater preference towards mosquito larvae of Ae. aegypti, followed by Ae. albopictus, and the least preferred was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Male and female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae during lights on (day time) compared with lights off (night time). The water volume, prey species, number of fish predators available, prey densities, and prey's sex also influenced the predation activities.

  11. A fly larva (Syrphidae: Ocyptamus that preys on adult flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onanchi Ureña

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory syrphid larvae feed on relatively immobile prey, but here we report the first case (as far as we are aware of obligatory predation on very mobile prey. Larvae of an undescribed species of Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae were found in whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae aggregations on the undersides of citrus leaves. However, instead of preying on the whitefly nymphs (as would be expected, the larvae preyed on adult flies (Diptera that were attracted to the honeydew. In the laboratory, larvae captured significantly more flies on whitefly infested leaves than on washed leaves, and generally abandoned leaves that lacked whiteflies. Most cases of successful prey capture involved flies that probed the anterior part of the larva’s body with its proboscis (as if it were honeydew. The syrphid larva lashed out at the fly and entangled it in sticky oral secretion. The prey did not recover when they were removed from the larva, suggesting that this new predatory species also employs venom to subdue its prey. Although the larvae consumed some honeydew, they were unable to complete their development on this diet. Two parasitoids were reared from Ocyptamus puparia, Proaspicera sp. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and Paracarotomus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, both of which are endoparasitic koinobionts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1157-1163. Epub 2010 December 01.Las larvas depredadoras de Syrphidae se alimentan de presas relativamente inmóviles, pero aquí reportamos el primer caso (hasta ahora conocido de la depredación obligatoria en presas muy móviles. Se encontraron las larvas de una especie no descrita de Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae juntas con ninfas de mosca blanca (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en el envés de las hojas de cítricos. Sin embargo, en vez de alimentarse de las ninfas de mosca blanca (como debería esperarse, las larvas se alimentaron de moscas adultas (Diptera que fueron atraídas a las excreciones azucaradas de la mosca blanca. En el

  12. Evaluation of the infectivity and the persistence of Trichinella patagoniensis in muscle tissue of decomposing guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña, F; Pasqualetti, M; Ilgová, J; Cardillo, N; Ercole, M; Aronowicz, T; Krivokapich, S; Kašný, M; Ribicich, M

    2017-01-01

    Trichinella patagoniensis, a new species of Trichinella, is widespread in Argentina. The success of parasite transmission depends, among other factors, on the resistance of L1 larvae present in the muscle tissue (ML) of dead hosts undergoing the decomposition process in different environmental conditions. The aim of the present work was to study the infectivity of T. patagoniensis muscle larvae in Cavia porcellus and the capability of the parasite to survive in decomposed muscle tissue of guinea pigs subjected to different environmental conditions. Thirty-two female Ssi:AL guinea pigs were orally inoculated with 2000 ML of T. patagoniensis (ISS2311). All the animals were sacrificed 42 days post-infection. Twenty-six animals were eviscerated, and carcasses were placed on the surface of soil inside plastic boxes that were exposed to environmental conditions in the summer 2014-2015 and autumn of 2015 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Carcasses from six animals were placed into a plastic box inside the refrigerator at a temperature of 4 °C. The muscle tissue samples from the carcasses were examined weekly for the presence of larvae, and the infectivity of recovered ML was tested in BALB/c mice. Our results showed for the first time the ability of T. patagoniensis to complete its life cycle in guinea pigs, thus serving as a potential natural host. Also, larvae of T. patagoniensis remained infective in muscle tissue for several weeks while undergoing decomposition under different environmental conditions.

  13. Amostragem por larva-única na vigilância de Aedes aegypti Single-larva sampling for Aedes aegypti surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Bracco

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de testar a metodologia de amostragem por larva-única na vigilância entomológica do Aedes aegypti, foram pesquisados domicílios do Município de Araraquara, SP (Brasil. Nos criadouros que continham larvas de Aedes uma delas foi coletada. Como controle, após a coleta da larva-única, todas as larvas foram coletadas para identificação posterior. Esse processo foi repetido no laboratório. Dos 447 domicílios visitados, apenas 12 foram considerados positivos e 20 criadouros foram identificados; destes, 13 continham larvas de Aedes; 5, larvas de Aedes e Culex e 2, larvas de Culex. Os resultados mostram o reconhecimento correto, no campo, de todos os criadouros, evidenciando que o método poderia ser utilizado na vigilância entomológica de municípios sem infestação domiciliar ou infestados apenas com uma única espécie de Aedes.Buildings in Araraquara city, Southeastern Brazil, were searched during a year for the presence of Aedes larvae using single larva sampling in order to check the single-larva methodology. In those breeding places in wich Aedes larvae were found, one of them was collected. As a control, after the single larva had been collected, all the larvae from the breeding place were collected for later identification. This process was repeated in the laboratory. Of the 447 domiciles searched, 12 were considered positive and 20 breeding places were found. Of the breeding places, 13 contained Aedes larvae, 5 both Aedes and Culex larvae and 2 Culex larvae only. The results show that all the breeding places in the field were properly recognited showing the method may be used for Aedes surveillance in cities infested with one species only or without any domiciliary infestation.

  14. Effects of different rearing temperatures on muscle development and stress response in the early larval stages of Acipenser baerii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Aidos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating muscle development and stress response in early stages of Siberian sturgeon when subjected to different rearing temperatures, by analysing growth and development of the muscle and by assessing the stress response of yolk-sac larvae. Siberian sturgeon larvae were reared at 16°C, 19°C and 22°C until the yolk-sac was completely absorbed. Sampling timepoints were: hatching, schooling and complete yolk-sac absorption stage. Histometrical, histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed in order to characterize muscle growth (total muscle area, TMA; slow muscle area, SMA; fast muscle area, FMA, development (anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen -PCNA or anticaspase as well as stress conditions by specific stress biomarkers (heat shock protein 70 or 90, HSP70 or HSP90. Larvae subjected to the highest water temperature showed a faster yolk-sac absorption. Histometry revealed that both TMA and FMA were larger in the schooling stage at 19°C while no differences were observed in the SMA at any of the tested rearing temperatures. PCNA quantification revealed a significantly higher number of proliferating cells in the yolk-sac absorption phase at 22°C than at 16°C. HSP90 immunopositivity seems to be particularly evident at 19°C. HPS70 immunopositivity was never observed in the developing lateral muscle.

  15. Image enhancement for tracking the translucent larvae of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukant Khurana

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster larvae are model systems for studies of development, synaptic transmission, sensory physiology, locomotion, drug discovery, and learning and memory. A detailed behavioral understanding of larvae can advance all these fields of neuroscience. Automated tracking can expand fine-grained behavioral analysis, yet its full potential remains to be implemented for the larvae. All published methods are unable to track the larvae near high contrast objects, including the petri-dish edges encountered in many behavioral paradigms. To alleviate these issues, we enhanced the larval contrast to obtain complete tracks. Our method employed a dual approach of optical-contrast boosting and post-hoc image processing for contrast enhancement. We reared larvae on black food media to enhance their optical contrast through darkening of their digestive tracts. For image processing we performed Frame Averaging followed by Subtraction then Thresholding (FAST. This algorithm can remove all static objects from the movie, including petri-dish edges prior to processing by the image-tracking module. This dual approach for contrast enhancement also succeeded in overcoming fluctuations in illumination caused by the alternating current power source. Our tracking method yields complete tracks, including at the edges of the behavioral arena and is computationally fast, hence suitable for high-throughput fine-grained behavioral measurements.

  16. Food web changes under ocean acidification promote herring larvae survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sswat, Michael; Stiasny, Martina H; Taucher, Jan; Algueró-Muñiz, Maria; Bach, Lennart T; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Riebesell, Ulf; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2018-05-01

    Ocean acidification-the decrease in seawater pH due to rising CO 2 concentrations-has been shown to lower survival in early life stages of fish and, as a consequence, the recruitment of populations including commercially important species. To date, ocean-acidification studies with fish larvae have focused on the direct physiological impacts of elevated CO 2 , but largely ignored the potential effects of ocean acidification on food web interactions. In an in situ mesocosm study on Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae as top predators in a pelagic food web, we account for indirect CO 2 effects on larval survival mediated by changes in food availability. The community was exposed to projected end-of-the-century CO 2 conditions (~760 µatm pCO 2 ) over a period of 113 days. In contrast with laboratory studies that reported a decrease in fish survival, the survival of the herring larvae in situ was significantly enhanced by 19 ± 2%. Analysis of the plankton community dynamics suggested that the herring larvae benefitted from a CO 2 -stimulated increase in primary production. Such indirect effects may counteract the possible direct negative effects of ocean acidification on the survival of fish early life stages. These findings emphasize the need to assess the food web effects of ocean acidification on fish larvae before we can predict even the sign of change in fish recruitment in a high-CO 2 ocean.

  17. Activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against Anisakis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, F; Muscolino, D; Beninati, C; Giuffrida, A; Panebianco, A

    2014-07-01

    Anisakiasis is an important food-borne disease especially in countries with high fish consumption. The increase of cases of human disease and the virtual absence of effective treatments have prompted the research on new active compounds against Anisakis larvae. As well known, the disease is related to the consumption of raw or almost raw seafood products, but also marinated and/or salted fishery products, if the processing is insufficient to destroy nematode larvae can represent a risks for the consumers. In the light of the biocidal efficacy against different pathogens demonstrated for various essential oils, the aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) against anisakidae larvae. The TEO at 10% and 5% concentration in oil sunflower seeds, caused in vitro the death of all larvae within 14 h, with cuticle and intestinal wall damages. The results obtained showing a significant activity against Anisakis larvae, suggest further investigation on TEO as a larvicidal agent and on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Odor-taste learning assays in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bertram; Biernacki, Roland; Thum, Jeannette

    2013-03-01

    The Drosophila larva is an emerging model for studies in behavioral neurogenetics because of its simplicity in terms of cell number. Despite this simplicity, basic features of neuronal organization and key behavior faculties are shared with adult flies and with mammals. Here, we describe a pavlovian-type learning assay in fruit fly larvae. A group of larvae is sequentially exposed to specific odors in the presence or the absence of sugar, and then tested to determine whether they prefer the odor previously experienced with the reward. The protocol uses a two-group, reciprocal training design: One group of Drosophila larvae is exposed to n-amyl acetate (AM) with a sugar reward (+), then subsequently exposed to 1-octanol (OCT) with no reward (denoted AM+/OCT). The other group receives the reciprocal training (AM/OCT+). The two groups of larvae are then tested for their choices between AM and OCT. Relatively higher preferences for AM after AM+/OCT training than after AM/OCT+ training reflect associative learning and are quantified by the learning index (LI). This method offers a robust, simple, cheap, and reasonably quick test for learning ability (an aversive version is available as well, using either high-concentration salt or quinine as punishment). With the concerted efforts of the Drosophila research community, we anticipate it will allow us to unravel the full circuitry underlying odor-taste learning on a single-cell level.

  19. Dimethyl Sulfide is a Chemical Attractant for Reef Fish Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foretich, Matthew A; Paris, Claire B; Grosell, Martin; Stieglitz, John D; Benetti, Daniel D

    2017-05-31

    Transport of coral reef fish larvae is driven by advection in ocean currents and larval swimming. However, for swimming to be advantageous, larvae must use external stimuli as guides. One potential stimulus is "odor" emanating from settlement sites (e.g., coral reefs), signaling the upstream location of desirable settlement habitat. However, specific chemicals used by fish larvae have not been identified. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is produced in large quantities at coral reefs and may be important in larval orientation. In this study, a choice-chamber (shuttle box) was used to assess preference of 28 pre-settlement stage larvae from reef fish species for seawater with DMS. Swimming behavior was examined by video-tracking of larval swimming patterns in control and DMS seawater. We found common responses to DMS across reef fish taxa - a preference for water with DMS and change in swimming behavior - reflecting a switch to "exploratory behavior". An open water species displayed no response to DMS. Affinity for and swimming response to DMS would allow a fish larva to locate its source and enhance its ability to find settlement habitat. Moreover, it may help them locate prey accumulating in fronts, eddies, and thin layers, where DMS is also produced.

  20. High magnetic field induced otolith fusion in the zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais-Roldán, Patricia; Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Schulz, Hildegard; Yu, Xin

    2016-04-11

    Magnetoreception in animals illustrates the interaction of biological systems with the geomagnetic field (geoMF). However, there are few studies that identified the impact of high magnetic field (MF) exposure from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners (>100,000 times of geoMF) on specific biological targets. Here, we investigated the effects of a 14 Tesla MRI scanner on zebrafish larvae. All zebrafish larvae aligned parallel to the B0 field, i.e. the static MF, in the MRI scanner. The two otoliths (ear stones) in the otic vesicles of zebrafish larvae older than 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) fused together after the high MF exposure as short as 2 hours, yielding a single-otolith phenotype with aberrant swimming behavior. The otolith fusion was blocked in zebrafish larvae under anesthesia or embedded in agarose. Hair cells may play an important role on the MF-induced otolith fusion. This work provided direct evidence to show that high MF interacts with the otic vesicle of zebrafish larvae and causes otolith fusion in an "all-or-none" manner. The MF-induced otolith fusion may facilitate the searching for MF sensors using genetically amenable vertebrate animal models, such as zebrafish.

  1. Microplastic ingestion in fish larvae in the western English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Madeleine; Cole, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C; Lindeque, Penelope K

    2017-07-01

    Microplastics have been documented in marine environments worldwide, where they pose a potential risk to biota. Environmental interactions between microplastics and lower trophic organisms are poorly understood. Coastal shelf seas are rich in productivity but also experience high levels of microplastic pollution. In these habitats, fish have an important ecological and economic role. In their early life stages, planktonic fish larvae are vulnerable to pollution, environmental stress and predation. Here we assess the occurrence of microplastic ingestion in wild fish larvae. Fish larvae and water samples were taken across three sites (10, 19 and 35 km from shore) in the western English Channel from April to June 2016. We identified 2.9% of fish larvae (n = 347) had ingested microplastics, of which 66% were blue fibres; ingested microfibers closely resembled those identified within water samples. With distance from the coast, larval fish density increased significantly (P microplastic concentrations (P microplastics and the incidence of ingestion in fish larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Imaging of muscle injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, G.Y. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Brandser, E.A. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Kathol, M.H. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Tearse, D.S. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Callaghan, J.J. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    1996-01-01

    Although skeletal muscle is the single largest tissue in the body, there is little written about it in the radiologic literature. Indirect muscle injuries, also called strains or tears, are common in athletics, and knowing the morphology and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit is the key to the understanding of these injuries. Eccentric muscle activation produces more tension within the muscle tan when it is activated concentrically, making it more susceptible to tearing. Injuries involving the muscle belly tend to occur near the myotendinous junction. In adolescents, the weakest link in the muscle-tendon-bone complex is the apophysis. Traditionally, plain radiography has been the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of these injuries; however, with the advent of MRI it has become much easier to diagnose injuries primarily affecting the soft tissues. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit as they relate to indirect muscle injuries. Examples of common muscle injuries are illustrated. (orig.)

  3. Engineering Skeletal Muscle Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Juhas, Mark; Bursac, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Healthy skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity for regeneration. Even at a mature age, muscle tissue can undergo a robust rebuilding process that involves the formation of new muscle cells and extracellular matrix and the re-establishment of vascular and neural networks. Understanding and reverse-engineering components of this process is essential for our ability to restore loss of muscle mass and function in cases where the natural ability of muscle for self-repair is exhausted or impaire...

  4. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  5. Antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates obtained from the housefly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Qin, Qi-Lian; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The housefly is an important resource insect and the housefly larvae are ideal source of food additives. The housefly larvae protein hydrolysates were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis by alcalase and neutral proteinase. Their antioxidant activities were investigated, including the superoxide and hydroxyl radicalscavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity. The antioxidant activities of both hydrolysates increased with their increasing concentrations. The alcalase hydrolysate (AH) showed higher scavenging activities against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical at low concentrations and higher metal-chelating activity than the neutral proteinase hydrolysate (NPH). The NPH exhibited higher scavenging activity against DPPH free radical and higher reducing power than the AH. Both hydrolysates showed more than 50% superoxide anion radical-scavenging activity at 10 μg/mL. These results indicate that both housefly larvae protein hydrolysates display high antioxidant activities and they could serve as potential natural antioxidant food additives.

  6. Reorientation and Swimming Stability in Sea Urchin Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J.; Chan, K. Y. K.; Anderson, E.; Helfrich, K. R.; Mullineaux, L. S.; Sengupta, A.; Stocker, R.

    2016-02-01

    Many benthic marine invertebrates have two-phase life histories, relying on planktonic larval stages for dispersal and exchange of individuals between adult populations. The dispersal of planktonic larvae is determined by two factors: passive advection by the ambient flow and active motility. By modifying dispersal and ultimately settlement, larval motility influences where and when individuals recruit into benthic communities. Despite its ecological relevance, our understanding of larval motility and behavior in the plankton remains limited, especially regarding the interactions of larval motility and ambient turbulence. As most larvae are smaller than the Kolmogorov scale, they experience ocean turbulence in part as a time-changing viscous torque produced by local fluid shear. This torque causes larval reorientation, impacting swimming direction and potentially dispersal at the macroscale. It is therefore paramount to understand the mechanisms of larval reorientation and the stability of larvae against reorientation. Here we report on the larval reorientation behavior of the sea urchins Arbacia punctulata and Heliocidaris crassispina. Both species have life histories characterized by ontogenetic changes to internal density structure and morphology, which we hypothesized to impact stability. To test this hypothesis, we performed "flip chamber" experiments, in which larvae swim freely in a small chamber that is intermittently inverted, mimicking the overturning experienced by larvae in turbulence. We investigated the role of larval age, body size, species, morphology (number of arms), and motility (live versus dead) on the reorientation dynamics. Our work contributes to a more mechanistic understanding of the role of hydrodynamics in the motility and transport of planktonic larvae.

  7. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-03-11

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  8. Aquaculture and feeding ecology: Feeding behaviour in turbot larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora

    , larvae of flatfishes undergo a particularly evident and dramatic metamorphosis, because flatfishes completely reprogram their body to move from the pelagic habitat, in the water column, to the benthic habitat, on the sea floor. Due to the complex morphological and physiological changes, in aquaculture...... capture success. This thesis is part of a large international project aimed at improving the rearing techniques of high value fish species larvae fed with calanoid copepods, their natural prey, to achieve high levels of survival and quality. In fact, fish aquaculture is becoming increasingly important...

  9. Intraguild predation and cannibalism among larvae of detritivorous caddisflies in subalpine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissinger, S.A.; Sparks, G.B.; Rouse, G.L.; Brown, W.S.; Steltzer, Heidi

    1996-01-01

    Comparative data from subalpine wetlands in Colorado indicate that larvae of the limnephilid caddisflies, Asynarchus nigriculus and Limnephilus externus, are reciprocally abundant among habitats - Limnephilus larvae dominate in permanent waters, whereas Asynarchus larvae dominate in temporary basins. The purpose of this paper is to report on field and laboratory experiments that link this pattern of abundance to biotic interactions among larvae. In the first field experiment, growth and survival were compared in single and mixed species treatments in littoral enclosures. Larvae, which eat mainly vascular plant detritus, grew at similar rates among treatments in both temporary and permanent habitats suggesting that exploitative competition is not important under natural food levels and caddisfly densities. However, the survival of Limnephilus larvae was reduced in the presence of Asynarchus larvae. Subsequent behavioral studies in laboratory arenas revealed that Asynarchus larvae are extremely aggressive predators on Limnephilus larvae. In a second field experiment we manipulated the relative sizes of larvae and found that Limnephilus larvae were preyed on only when Asynarchus larvae had the same size advantage observed in natural populations. Our data suggest that the dominance of Asynarchus larvae in temporary habitats is due to asymmetric intraguild predation (IGP) facilitated by a phenological head start in development. These data do not explain the dominance of Limnephilus larvae in permanent basins, which we show elsewhere to be an indirect effect of salamander predation. Behavioral observations also revealed that Asynarchus larvae are cannibalistic. In contrast to the IGP on Limnephilus larvae, Asynarchus cannibalism occurs among same-sized larvae and often involves the mobbing of one victim by several conspecifics. In a third field experiment, we found that Asynarchus cannibalism was not density-dependent and occurred even at low larval densities. We

  10. Diet and prey selection in late-stage larvae of five species of fish in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pelagic prey. All larvae selected P. hessei as a prey item. Myxus capensis and R. holubi also selected this copepod and showed the largest diversity in diet. Keywords: copepod eggs, insect larvae, larval fish assemblage, predation, seasonality

  11. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of

  12. Bothid larvae (Pleuronectiformes - Pisces) of the Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    -1 53 BOTHID LARVAE (PLEURONECTIFORMES - PISCES) OF THE GULF OF THAILAND AND SOUTH CHINA SEA. C. B. LALITHAMBIKA DEVI National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Dr. Salim All Road, Kochi - 682031. ABSTRACTS The larvae of bothids were found...

  13. La inmunización con productos de excreción-secreción de Trichinella spiralis unido al bloqueo de CTLA-4 produce un elevado grado de protección ante un reto con el parásito

    OpenAIRE

    José Lino Zumaquero-Ríos; Martín Pérez-Santos; Abel Villa-Mancera; Jorge Sarracent-Pérez

    2017-01-01

    En la búsqueda de una vacuna experimental efectiva contra Trichinella spiralis se han utilizado diferentes estrategias, pero el grado de protección alcanzado en la casi totalidad de los ensayos es insuficiente para lograr un adecuado control de la enfermedad. En la literatura hay evidencias de que moléculas inhibidoras de la activación de los linfocitos T están implicadas en la regulación de la respuesta inmune contra los helmintos. El bloqueo de estas moléculas puede ser un blanco potencial ...

  14. Migration Of Ancylostoma caninum Larvae Into Lungs Of Mice Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two randomly selected groups of Swiss Albino Wistar mice were therefore infected with 1000 infective larvae of Ancylostoma caninum/mouse. Test mice received 250mg Allium sativum/kg body weight daily ... KEY WORDS: Allium sativum, lungs, Ancylostoma caninum. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol.11(2) ...

  15. Response of larvae of Cirina forda Westwood (Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Older leaves contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) micronutrients than immature leaves of the same plant, and larvae developed faster with access to foliage of different ages significantly (P < 0.05) than those fed on exclusive diets. Variation in micronutrient content and, probably, phytosterols in the leaves of different ...

  16. Microbial Quality of Roasted Larvae of the Palm Weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean total viable bacterial and fungal counts were 6.24x104 and 4.1x104 cfu/g respectively. Although these larvae are rich sources of protein, their exposure to dust during hawking in motorized traffic is a major route of contamination with bacterial and fungal pathogens. Keyword: Rhyncophorus phoenicis, Microbial ...

  17. Biological control agent for mosquito larvae: Review on the killifish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review attempts to give an account on the recent advances on the killifish Aphanius dispar dispar as a biological control agent for mosquito larvae. Thirty six (36) articles of literature (scientific papers, technical and workshop reports) on this subject covering the period between 1980 and 2009 were reviewed.

  18. (Convolvulaceae) extracts and fractions on larvae of Spodoptera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of different parts of Ipomoea pauciflora were tested for their effects on the survival and development of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), a Lepidoptera pest. For seven days, neonatal larvae (grown at 27 ± 2°C with a 16: 8 (L: D) h photoperiod) were exposed to different ...

  19. Ingestion of Nanoplastics and Microplastics by Pacific Oyster Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-12-15

    Plastic debris is a prolific contaminant effecting freshwater and marine ecosystems across the globe. Of growing environmental concern are "microplastics"and "nanoplastics" encompassing tiny particles of plastic derived from manufacturing and macroplastic fragmentation. Pelagic zooplankton are susceptible to consuming microplastics, however the threat posed to larvae of commercially important bivalves is currently unknown. We exposed Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae (3-24 d.p.f.) to polystyrene particles spanning 70 nm-20 μm in size, including plastics with differing surface properties, and tested the impact of microplastics on larval feeding and growth. The frequency and magnitude of plastic ingestion over 24 h varied by larval age and size of polystyrene particle (ANOVA, P plastic, with aminated particles ingested and retained more frequently (ANOVA, P plastic consumption and plastic load per organism was identified (Spearmans, r = 0.95, P micro- and nanoplastics were readily ingested by oyster larvae, exposure to plastic concentrations exceeding those observed in the marine environment resulted in no measurable effects on the development or feeding capacity of the larvae over the duration of the study.

  20. Roasted maggots (Dipteran larvae) as a dietary protein source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roasted maggots (Dipteran larvae) as a dietary protein source for laboratory animals. ... African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology ... One set were fed with the convectional feed (set G,) with Clarias fish as its protein portion while the other set (M) were fed with same diet with maggots from poultry wastes ...

  1. Metabolic alterations and molecular mechanism in silkworm larvae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori (L), is an important economic insect and also a tool to convert leaf protein into silk. The industrial and commercial use of silk, the historical and economic importance of production and its application in all over the world finely contributed to the silkworm promotion as a powerful laboratory model ...

  2. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Tapeworm Larvae in Salmon from North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchta, Roman; Oros, M.; Ferguson, J.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2017), s. 351-353 ISSN 1080-6040 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Alaska * Diphyllobothrium * human * larva * nonhuman * Oncorhynchus * seashore Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 8.222, year: 2016

  3. Symbiotic Bacteria Enable Olive Fly Larvae to Overcome Host Defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. (author)

  4. (a photo-activated insecticide) in Culex pipiens larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histopathological effect of hematoporphyrin on the mid-gut and the integument of the fourth larval instar of C. pipiens was studied using a transmission electron microscope. In this study C. pipiens larvae were treated with different concentration of hematoporphyrin. The concentration 5 × 10-4 M/L was found to produce ...

  5. Simple clearing technique as species determination tool in blowfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederegger, Senta; Wartenberg, Nelly; Spiess, Roland; Mall, Gita

    2011-03-20

    A simple clearing technique is presented by which species specific structures and organs of blowfly larvae can easily be visualized and displayed without any danger of mechanical damages or dislocations of delicate formations and without fixation of the object. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of the susceptibility of bacteria Paenibacillus larvae. causative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    American foulbrood is a very serious disease of the honeybee Apis mellifrea worldwide and Algeria. It caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of AFB in the central region of Algeria (Algiers, Bouira, Blida, Boumerdes, Tizi Ouzou, Tipaza, Medea and Ain Defla) ...

  7. Diel vertical migration of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diel vertical migration of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus larvae was studied in the northern Benguela during a survey in April 2001. The diel pattern is described in relation to the degree of swimbladder inflation and the vertical structure of temperature and dissolved oxygen. During the survey, samples were also ...

  8. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-11

    Dec 11, 2008 ... Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of aversive conditioning and a procedure for decomposing learning retention curve that enables us to do a quantitative analysis of memory phases, short term (STM), middle term (MTM) ...

  9. Bothid larvae (Pleuronectiformes-Pisces) of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    monsoons. In Bay of Bengal E. grandisquamis was dominant during both the seasons with a preference for S.W. monsoon and larvae of E. cocosensis, E. latifrons, Arnoglossus tapeinosoma and Bothus pantherinus dominated during N.E. monsoon. In the Arabian Sea...

  10. POTENSI DAUN PANDAN WANGI UNTUK MEMBUNUH LARVA NYAMUK AEDES AEGYPTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Susanna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of umbrella tree (Pandanus amoryllifolius Roxb. contained several compounds that can be used as natural insecticide. It is containing poliphenol, flavonoid, saponin, volatile oil and alkaloid. However, lethal concentration of the leaves extract of pandamus tree was unknown. The objectives of the research was to determine the LC50 of the extract towards Aedes aegypti larvae. A 24600 ppm water suspension of the umbrella tree extract was prepared. A series of suspension was prepared by diluting 16.25 ml; 19.3 ml; 22.36 ml; 25.4 ml respectively to approximately 200 ml, and than transferred them into 250 ml glass aquaria. To each aquarium, 20 larvas were added and the volume of the mixtures was adjusted to 250 ml by adding distill water. Mortality of the larva was observed in 24 to 48 hours. Log probit analysis of the larva mortality showed that the LC50 were 2198.4655 ppm and 1669.1678 ppm for 24 and 48 hours respectively.   Keywords: Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb, Aedes aegypti, lethal concentration

  11. Defensive enrolment in mantis shrimp larvae (Malacostraca: Stomatopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haug, C.; Haug, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a possible new defensive behaviour of larval stages of mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda). Mantis shrimp larvae are rarely observed in nature, thus the study is based on postures of museum material and functional morphological aspects. Specimens described here are tightly enrolled, their pleon

  12. Effect of Root Extracts of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) on Larvae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larvicidal activity of three solvent root (bark and wood) extracts of Lantana camara Linn. was investigated against first and fourth instars of Aedes aegypti larvae after 24 and 48 h post-treatment exposure to serial concentrations (0.1, 0.05, 0.01, 0.005, 0.001 %) of aqueous, ethanolic and acetone crude extracts. All extracts ...

  13. (Convolvulaceae) extracts and fractions on larvae of Spodoptera f

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of different parts of Ipomoea pauciflora were tested for their effects on the survival and development of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), a Lepidoptera pest. For seven days, neonatal larvae (grown at 27 ± 2°C with a 16: 8 (L: D) h photoperiod) were exposed ...

  14. Anaphe venata larva extract-induced purposeless chewing in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we investigated the effect of the crude aqueous and Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) extracts of this larva on altered spontaneous rat behavior in a novel environment particularly chewing behaviour, with a view to determine the mechanism(s) involved in these behavioural alteration. Animals were randomly ...

  15. Aluminium chloride-induced toxicity in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, A; Grimaldi, M C; Ferrandino, I

    2017-05-01

    Embryos at shield stage and larvae at protruding mouth stage were exposed to different concentrations of aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ) for 72 h with the purpose to analyse their phenotype and lethality. After 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment, higher toxicity of the metal was observed on larvae with minimal lethal concentration of 0.25, 0.20 and 0.08 mm, respectively, while for embryos the corresponding values were 40, 25 and 16 mm. We observed pericardial oedema and alteration of heart rate in 50% of larvae after 48 h of exposure to 100 μm. In larvae exposed to the same concentration, there was also a neurological injury at the level of glial cells, with the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells being significantly reduced. This study confirms the toxic nature of this metal and shows that aluminium could also interestingly represent a cardiotoxin in addition to its neurotoxic ability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Ingestion of microplastic has limited impact on a marine larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposi, Katrina L; Mos, Benjamin; Kelaher, Brendan P; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the impacts of microplastics (Microplastics may be mistaken for food items and ingested by a wide variety of organisms. While the effects of ingesting microplastic have been explored for some adult organisms, there is poor understanding of the effects of microplastic ingestion on marine larvae. Here, we investigated the ingestion of polyethylene microspheres by larvae of the sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla. Ingestion rates scaled with the concentration of microspheres. Ingestion rates were, however, reduced by biological fouling of microplastic and in the presence of phytoplankton food. T. gratilla larvae were able to egest microspheres from their stomach within hours of ingestion. A microsphere concentration far exceeding those recorded in the marine environment had a small nondose dependent effect on larval growth, but there was no significant effect on survival. In contrast, environmentally realistic concentrations appeared to have little effect. Overall, these results suggest that current levels of microplastic pollution in the oceans only pose a limited threat to T. gratilla and other marine invertebrate larvae, but further research is required on a broad range of species, trophic levels, and polymer types.

  17. Hydrodynamics of burst swimming fish larvae; a conceptual model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.H.G.

    2004-01-01

    Burst swimming of fish larvae is analysed from a hydrodynamic point of view. A picture of the expected flow pattern is presented based on information in literature on unsteady-flow patterns around obstacles in the intermediate Reynolds number region. It is shown that the acceleration stage of burst

  18. Enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongxin; Wang, Huili; Qin, Fang; Xu, Peng; Lv, Xiaotian; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Baoyuan

    2014-02-01

    The enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl by a single dose of exposure to Tenebrio molitor larvae under laboratory condition were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS) based on a ChiralcelOD-3R [cellulosetris-tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] column. Exposure of enantiopure R-metalaxyl and S-metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae exhibited significant enantiomerization, with formation of the R enantiomers from the S enantiomers, and vice versa, which might be attributed to the chiral pesticide catalyzed by a certain enzyme in Tenebrio molitor larvae. Enantiomerization was not observed in wheat bran during the period of 21 d. In addition, bioaccumulation of rac-metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae was enantioselective with a preferential accumulation of S-metalaxyl. These results showed that enantioselectivity was caused not only by actual degradation and metabolism but also by enantiomerization, which was an important process in the environmental fate and behavior of metalaxyl enantiomers. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Tidal exchange of larvae of Sesarma catenata (Decapoda, Brachyura)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tidal exchange of larvae of the salt-marsh grapsid crab Sesarma catenata was studied in the Swartkops estuary, a tidally driven, shallow estuary in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Plankton samples were collected bimonlhly during spring and neap tides from October to March at the tidal inlet. Samples were collected hourly for ...

  20. Nursing protects honeybee larvae from secondary metabolites of pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Matteo A.; Kilchenmann, Verena; Glauser, Gaetan; Praz, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    The pollen of many plants contains toxic secondary compounds, sometimes in concentrations higher than those found in the flowers or leaves. The ecological significance of these compounds remains unclear, and their impact on bees is largely unexplored. Here, we studied the impact of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) found in the pollen of Echium vulgare on honeybee adults and larvae. Echimidine, a PA present in E. vulgare pollen, was isolated and added to the honeybee diets in order to perform toxicity bioassays. While adult bees showed relatively high tolerance to PAs, larvae were much more sensitive. In contrast to other bees, the honeybee larval diet typically contains only traces of pollen and consists predominantly of hypopharyngeal and mandibular secretions produced by nurse bees, which feed on large quantities of pollen-containing bee bread. We quantified the transfer of PAs to nursing secretions produced by bees that had previously consumed bee bread supplemented with PAs. The PA concentration in these secretions was reduced by three orders of magnitude as compared to the PA content in the nurse diet and was well below the toxicity threshold for larvae. Our results suggest that larval nursing protects honeybee larvae from the toxic effect of secondary metabolites of pollen. PMID:29563265

  1. Abundance, distribution and species composition of fish larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attemptwas made to correlate the data with environmental parameters such as temperature, salinity and rainfall. The ichthyoplankton of the Swartkops is dominated by few species. The family Gobiidae (59,44%) and a clupeid species, Gilchristella aestuarius (31,12%), accounted for 90,56% of all the fish larvae sampled.

  2. Variations in body shape of European seabass larvae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High rates of body deformities is one of the most challenging problems in fish culture and is a common source of downgrading the product value of commercially raised fish. The aims of this study are explore the effects of xenic and axenic rearing conditions on the seabass larvae and check whether the rearing condition has ...

  3. The larvae of decapods and fishes of Amba estuary, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paulinose, V.T.; Devi, C.B.L.; Govindan, K.; Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.

    larvae to the total zooplankton population were 3.63 and 0.03 respectively. In the assessment of larval stocks environmental parameters and the presence of adult fish caught in the area were considered. The estuarine area supported fairly high fishery...

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment on development of codling moth larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffitt, H.R.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-03-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to gamma radiation at doses upto 160 Gy. Following irradiation the larvae were permited further development, pupation and adult emergence. The number of adults emerging, mature larvae and pupae present were determined. Data from these studies will be used to predict doses of gamma irradiation required as a quarantine treatment to prevent emergence of codling moth adults from fruit infested by larvae. 5 refs., 1 tab

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment on development of codling moth larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffitt, H.R.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-03-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to gamma radiation at doses upto 160 Gy. Following irradiation the larvae were permited further development, pupation and adult emergence. The number of adults emerging, mature larvae and pupae present were determined. Data from these studies will be used to predict doses of gamma irradiation required as a quarantine treatment to prevent emergence of codling moth adults from fruit infested by larvae. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  6. A population of Pax7-expressing muscle progenitor cells show differential responses to muscle injury dependent on developmental stage and injury extent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eKnappe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Muscle regeneration in vertebrates occurs by the activation of quiescent progenitor cells that express pax7 and replace and repair damaged fibers. We have developed a mechanical injury paradigm in zebrafish to determine whether developmental stage and injury size affect the regeneration dynamics of damaged muscle. We found that both small, focal injuries and large injuries affecting the entire myotome lead to the expression of myf5 and myogenin. Their expression was prolonged in older larvae, indicating a slower process of regeneration. We characterized the endogenous behavior of a population of muscle-resident Pax7-expressing cells using a pax7a:eGFP transgenic line and found that GFP+ cell migration in the myotome dramatically declined between 5 and 7 days post fertilization (dpf. Following a small injury, we observed that GFP+ cells responded by extending processes, before migrating to the injured fibers. Furthermore, these cells responded more rapidly to injury in 4dpf larvae compared to 7dpf. Interestingly, we did not see GFP+ fibers after repair of small injuries, indicating that pax7a-expressing cells did not contribute to fiber formation in this injury context. On the contrary, numerous GFP+ fibers could be observed after a large single myotome injury. Both injury models were accompanied by an increased number of proliferating GFP+ cells, which was more pronounced in larvae injured at 4dpf than 7dpf, This indicates intriguing developmental differences, even at these relatively early ages. Our data also suggests an interesting disparity in the role that pax7a-expressing muscle progenitor cells play during muscle regeneration, which may reflect the extent of muscle damage.

  7. Trophic ecology of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, I A; Tejedor, A; Alemany, F; Reglero, P

    2011-05-01

    Feeding intensity, diet composition, selectivity, energy ingestion and dietary niche breadth of larval Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus were studied on the eastern (Mediterranean) spawning grounds of the species. Larval T. thynnus were collected in the Balearic Archipelago (north-west Mediterranean Sea) during 2004 and 2005 using surveys specific for larval scombrids. Larvae between 2·6 and 8·7 mm standard length (L(S) ) are diurnal feeders, and 94% of the guts collected during daylight hours were full. The mean ±s.d. number of prey per gut was 7·1 ± 5·7, with mean ±s.d. ranging from 3·0 ± 1·6 in the smallest T. thynnus larvae to 11·1 ± 5·8 in 5·0-6·0 mm L(S) larvae. Up to 21 prey were found in a single larval gut (5·0-6·0 mm L(S) ) at the end of the day. Larvae progressively selected larger prey and exhibited increased carbon content concurrent with preflexion development of feeding and locomotory structures. Larvae of 5·0-6·0 mm L(S) exhibited positive selection of cladocerans over other prey (Chesson's index), whereas copepod nauplii dominated the diets of earlier stages. The dietary niche breadth measured increased initially but decreased at c. 5·5 mm L(S) . Appendicularians were found in the diet of larger larval sizes, but no piscivory was observed. Results are discussed in light of the sparse existing data for larval T. thynnus and other larval tuna species. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. No claim to original US government works.

  8. Ocean Acidification Has Multiple Modes of Action on Bivalve Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbusser, George G; Hales, Burke; Langdon, Chris J; Haley, Brian A; Schrader, Paul; Brunner, Elizabeth L; Gray, Matthew W; Miller, Cale A; Gimenez, Iria; Hutchinson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is altering the chemistry of the world's oceans at rates unparalleled in the past roughly 1 million years. Understanding the impacts of this rapid change in baseline carbonate chemistry on marine organisms needs a precise, mechanistic understanding of physiological responses to carbonate chemistry. Recent experimental work has shown shell development and growth in some bivalve larvae, have direct sensitivities to calcium carbonate saturation state that is not modulated through organismal acid-base chemistry. To understand different modes of action of OA on bivalve larvae, we experimentally tested how pH, PCO2, and saturation state independently affect shell growth and development, respiration rate, and initiation of feeding in Mytilus californianus embryos and larvae. We found, as documented in other bivalve larvae, that shell development and growth were affected by aragonite saturation state, and not by pH or PCO2. Respiration rate was elevated under very low pH (~7.4) with no change between pH of ~ 8.3 to ~7.8. Initiation of feeding appeared to be most sensitive to PCO2, and possibly minor response to pH under elevated PCO2. Although different components of physiology responded to different carbonate system variables, the inability to normally develop a shell due to lower saturation state precludes pH or PCO2 effects later in the life history. However, saturation state effects during early shell development will carry-over to later stages, where pH or PCO2 effects can compound OA effects on bivalve larvae. Our findings suggest OA may be a multi-stressor unto itself. Shell development and growth of the native mussel, M. californianus, was indistinguishable from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the southern U.S. Pacific coast, an area not subjected to seasonal upwelling. The concordance in responses suggests a fundamental OA bottleneck during development of the first shell material affected only by

  9. Ocean Acidification Has Multiple Modes of Action on Bivalve Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George G Waldbusser

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is altering the chemistry of the world's oceans at rates unparalleled in the past roughly 1 million years. Understanding the impacts of this rapid change in baseline carbonate chemistry on marine organisms needs a precise, mechanistic understanding of physiological responses to carbonate chemistry. Recent experimental work has shown shell development and growth in some bivalve larvae, have direct sensitivities to calcium carbonate saturation state that is not modulated through organismal acid-base chemistry. To understand different modes of action of OA on bivalve larvae, we experimentally tested how pH, PCO2, and saturation state independently affect shell growth and development, respiration rate, and initiation of feeding in Mytilus californianus embryos and larvae. We found, as documented in other bivalve larvae, that shell development and growth were affected by aragonite saturation state, and not by pH or PCO2. Respiration rate was elevated under very low pH (~7.4 with no change between pH of ~ 8.3 to ~7.8. Initiation of feeding appeared to be most sensitive to PCO2, and possibly minor response to pH under elevated PCO2. Although different components of physiology responded to different carbonate system variables, the inability to normally develop a shell due to lower saturation state precludes pH or PCO2 effects later in the life history. However, saturation state effects during early shell development will carry-over to later stages, where pH or PCO2 effects can compound OA effects on bivalve larvae. Our findings suggest OA may be a multi-stressor unto itself. Shell development and growth of the native mussel, M. californianus, was indistinguishable from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the southern U.S. Pacific coast, an area not subjected to seasonal upwelling. The concordance in responses suggests a fundamental OA bottleneck during development of the first shell material

  10. Healthy Muscles Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do. Exercising, getting enough rest, and eating a balanced diet will help to keep your muscles healthy for ... keep your muscles in good health. Eating a balanced diet will help manage your weight and provide a ...

  11. Nosema algerae (Nosematidae, Microsporida): laboratory infections of Anopheles larvae and prospects for field application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugud, A D; White, G B

    1985-04-01

    Different larval instars of Anopheles arabiensis were infected experimentally using different dosages of Nosema algerae spores. The N. algerae infections killed most of the exposed larvae at the instar treated. Chronic infections in adults developing from treated larvae decreased fecundity and shortened the life of the adults. The possibility of applying N. algerae as a control agent against An. arabiensis larvae is discussed.

  12. Description of the larva of Triaenodes sp. McLachlan, 1865 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... particular species is at best conjectural. Efforts are ongoing to breed out adult from larva for proper association and determination of the species. Larvae were found in a slow-flowing forested stream, where they were associated with leaf litter accumulations. Keywords: Trichoptera, Leptoceridae, Triaenodes, larva, Nigeria, ...

  13. Diel variation in the sizes of larvae of Bugula neritina in field populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosman, Ellen T; Pernet, Bruno

    2009-02-01

    The scale of planktonic larval dispersal affects a variety of ecological and evolutionary processes. Recent work suggests that the dispersal ability of obligately lecithotrophic larvae is influenced by the amount of energy supplied to each larva: larger larvae may stay in the plankton longer and thus travel greater distances than smaller larvae. We examined a prediction of this hypothesis in the bryozoan Bugula neritina, which each morning releases brooded larvae that settle within a few hours. If larger larvae stay in the plankton longer than smaller larvae, than larger larvae should increase in frequency in the planktonic population as the day progresses. However, field surveys revealed a negative relationship between time of day and the sizes of planktonic larvae. Because these results may have been complicated by prolonged larval release, we sequestered groups of brooding colonies in field mesocosms to examine release patterns. Larvae were released over a period of 8-9 h, with smaller larvae increasing in frequency as the day progressed. We conclude that populations of larvae of B. neritina may not be homogenous in energetic content throughout the day; this must be taken into consideration when designing studies of many aspects of larval biology.

  14. Distribution and seasonal abundance of carangid larvae in the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peter, K.J.; Balachandran, T.

    Carangid larvae were recorded from 8.8% of the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) stations in the Arabian Sea and 13.2% in the Bay of Bengal. Their total contribution was 1.1% of the total larvae collected. The highest number of larvae...

  15. Nutrition and related ontogenetic aspects in larvae of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreth, J.

    1994-01-01


    The absence of adequate techniques for rearing fish larvae constitutes a bottleneck for sustainable aquacultural growth. Important constraints are the tiny size of the larvae, the dependance on live food organisms and the developmental stage of the fish larvae. The development

  16. Dietary potentials of the edible larvae of Cirina forda (westwood) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance of broiler chicks to the replacement of fishmeal with the larvae of Cirina forda. Three diets, namely Diet A (100% C. forda larvae and 0% Fish meal); Diet B (50% C. forda larvae and 50% Fish meal); and Diet C, which was the control (100% Fish meal and 0% C.

  17. Muscle differentiation in a colonial ascidian: organisation, gene expression and evolutionary considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burighel Paolo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascidians are tunicates, the taxon recently proposed as sister group to the vertebrates. They possess a chordate-like swimming larva, which metamorphoses into a sessile adult. Several ascidian species form colonies of clonal individuals by asexual reproduction. During their life cycle, ascidians present three muscle types: striated in larval tail, striated in the heart, and unstriated in the adult body-wall. Results In the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, we investigated organisation, differentiation and gene expression of muscle beginning from early buds to adults and during zooid regression. We characterised transcripts for troponin T (BsTnT-c, adult muscle-type (BsMA2 and cytoplasmic-type (BsCA1 actins, followed by in situ hybridisation (ISH on sections to establish the spatio-temporal expression of BsTnT-c and BsMA2 during asexual reproduction and in the larva. Moreover, we characterised actin genomic sequences, which by comparison with other metazoans revealed conserved intron patterns. Conclusion Integration of data from ISH, phalloidin staining and TEM allowed us to follow the phases of differentiation of the three muscle kinds, which differ in expression pattern of the two transcripts. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for the close relationship between tunicate and vertebrate muscle genes. The characteristics and plasticity of muscles in tunicates are discussed.

  18. Obturator internus muscle strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoimhe Byrne, MB BCh, BAO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of obturator internus muscle strains. The injuries occurred in young male athletes involved in kicking sports. Case 1 details an acute obturator internus muscle strain with associated adductor longus strain. Case 2 details an overuse injury of the bilateral obturator internus muscles. In each case, magnetic resonance imaging played a crucial role in accurate diagnosis.

  19. the sternalis muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-17

    Aug 17, 2009 ... scan of the chest wall was performed to gain clarity of the mam- mographic findings (Figs 1a, 1b and 2). The CT scan demonstrated a flattened band of muscle density lying anterior to the medial margin of the pectoralis muscle. This structure was separated from the underlying pectoralis muscle by a thin ...

  20. Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Programa de computador para reconhecimento da larva de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    André Iwersen de São Thiago; Emil Kupek; Joaquim Alves Ferreira Neto; Paulo de Tarso São Thiago

    2002-01-01

    Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, biological vectors of dengue and yellow fever, has been developed. Rapid field identification of larva using a digital camera linked to a laptop computer equipped with this software may greatly help prevention campaigns.Foi desenvolvido um programa de computador para reconhecimento da larva de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus, vetores biológicos de dengue e febre amarela. O programa possibilita rá...

  1. Studi Laju Umpan pada Proses Biokonversi Limbah Pengolahan Tuna menggunakan Larva Hermetia illucens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Rahman Hakim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan berkembangnya industri tuna, limbah pengolahan yang dihasilkan semakin meningkat. Namun demikian pemanfaatan limbah tersebut belum optimal. Biokonversi bahan organik limbah tuna menjadi biomassa larva sebagai bahan pakan diharapkan mampu mengatasi permasalahan tersebut. Biokonversi menggunakan larva Hermetia illucens atau Black Soldier Fly (BSF memiliki keunggulan dibandingkan proses konversi lain; di antaranya larva BSF mampu mengkonversi berbagai macam bahan organik, memiliki kandungan nutrisi tinggi serta bukan vektor penyakit. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah mempelajari laju umpan larva BSF dalam mengkonversi limbah tuna menjadi biomassa larva. Limbah tuna yang digunakan sebagai umpan larva BSF adalah kepala dan jeroan. Larva dipelihara selama 19 hari dengan pemberian umpan bervariasi (60, 80, 100 mg/larva/hari. Analisa dilakukan terhadap konsumsi umpan, indeks pengurangan limbah (waste reduction index/WRI, efisiensi konversi umpan tercerna (efficiency of conversion of digested-feed/ECD, tingkat kelulusan hidup (survival rates /SR, bobot larva, kandungan protein dan lemak larva. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kepala dan jeroan tuna dapat digunakan sebagai pakan BSF, dengan nilai SR 41,33 – 98,33%. Laju umpan yang menghasilkan proses biokonversi paling optimum adalah umpan berupa kepala tuna sebesar 60 mg/larva/hari (K60. Nilai parameter pada perlakuan K60 adalah konsumsi umpan 77,09 %, WRI 4,06 % per hari, ECD 8,32 %, bobot larva 72,59 mg dan SR 98,33 %. Limbah berupa kepala tuna menghasilkan konsumsi umpan, WRI, ECD, bobot larva dan SR yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan limbah jeroan tuna. Penggunaan limbah kepala tuna dapat dimanfaatkan untuk mereduksi limbah sekaligus menghasilkan bahan pakan yang potensial. Kandungan larva BSF dengan umpan kepala tuna 60 mg/larva/hari meliputi protein 25,38 %, lemak 6,85 % dan air 62,81 %.

  2. Elemental concentrations of aquatic insect larvae and attached algae on tone surfaces in an uncontaminated stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Sugihara, S.; Hibino, K.; Nakamura, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental concentrations of aquatic insect larvae and attached algae in an uncontaminated river were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) via the k 0 -standardization method. The aquatic insect larvae found were all intolerant species. No significant difference was observed int he elemental concentrations of aquatic insect larvae and attached algae long the river. Similar elemental concentrations were observed in the aquatic insect larvae collected at a fixed sampling point for two years. An analysis by the ratio-matching technique indicated a higher generic relationship between aquatic insect larvae and attached algae than river water. (author)

  3. Oesophagostomum columbianum : immunization of young lambs using gamma ray attenuated inefective larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.L.; Dhar, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    Infective Oesophagostomum columbianum larvae were successfully attenuated by exposing them to a gamma radiation dose levels of either 40 or 50 Krad. Lambs receiving a single vaccination dose of 2000 infective larvae attenuated at 40 Krad developed partial protection, whereas those vaccinated with similar dose of infection with 50 Krad irradiated larvae failed to develop any protection. A double vaccination schedule comprising of 500 and 2000 gamma attenuated (40 Krad) infective larvae induced a significantly higher level of protection against the challenge dose. The possible use of radiation attenuated larvae as vaccine for immunoprophylaxis against ovine Oesophagostomiasis has been discussed. (author). 11 refs., 2 tables

  4. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larvae to the adult fly. Conclusions The addition of fly larvae both accelerated the degradation of manure...... and C. jejuni. Pupae or newly hatched flies were not carriers of C. jejuni although larvae were grown in contaminated manure. Impact When composting poultry manure with Md fly larvae, it is possible both to reduce the amount of waste and to sanitize it from C. jejuni, thereby reducing the risk...

  5. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Pseudoterranova azarasi LARVAE IN COD (Gadus sp.) SOLD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION IN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARIGO, Juliana; TANIWAKI, Sueli Akemi; PINTO, Pedro Luiz Silva; SOARES, Rodrigo Martins; CATÃO-DIAS, José Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Anisakiasis and Pseudoterranovosis are human diseases caused by the ingestion of live Anisakidae larvae in raw, undercooked or lightly marinated fish. Larvae were collected from one salted cod sold for human consumption in a Sao Paulo market in 2013. One section of one brownish larva was used for molecular analyses. The partial COX2 gene sequence from the larva had a nucleotide identity of 99.8 % with Pseudoterranova azarasi, which belongs to the Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex. The risk of allergy when consuming dead larvae in salted fish is not well known and should be considered. PMID:27049712

  6. Lipolysis in Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Annette Karen Lundbeck

    of AMPK in regulation of lipid handling and lipolysis in the basal non-contracting state and during muscle contractions in skeletal muscle. To evaluate the role of AMPK, we measured protein expression and phosphorylation as well as gene expression of proteins important for regulation of lipid handling...... and lipolysis in skeletal muscle from wildtype mice and mice overexpressing a kinase dead AMPKα2 construct (AMPKα2 KD) in the basal non-contracting state and during in situ stimulated muscle contractions. We found, that IMTG levels were ~50% lower in AMPKα2 KD in the basal resting state, explained by a lower....... IMTG was in wildtype mice reduced with ~50% after muscle contractions with no effect of contractions in AMPKα2 KD mice. Concomitantly, ATGL was phosphorylated at ser406 and HSL on ser565 with muscle contractions in an AMPK dependent manner, suggesting that these sites actives lipolysis during muscle...

  7. The dynamical impact of mesoscale eddies on migration of Japanese eel larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Chang

    Full Text Available In this study, we explore the dynamical role of mesoscale eddies on fish larvae migration using the example of Subtropical Counter Current eddies and the migration of Japanese eel larvae in the western North Pacific Ocean. An idealized experiment is conducted to isolate the effects of eddies, and use a three-dimensional particle-tracking method to simulate virtual eel larvae (v-larvae migration, including both horizontal and vertical swimming behaviors. The impact of eddies strongly depends on the swimming speed of v-larvae relative to the eddy speed. Eddies accelerate the movement of v-larvae that swim slower than the propagation speed of the eddy, whereas faster-swimming v-larvae are dragged by eddies. A modified stream function that incorporates biological swimming ability explains the non-uniform trapping of v-larvae in mesoscale eddies. A high swimming speed and/or a small eddy rotation speed results in a weak trapping capacity. Simulations of v-larvae migration in realistic cases of eddy fields indicate that the abundance of eddies significantly affects the duration of larval migration, with the effects being largely dependent on the larvae swimming speed. We noted a negative relationship between the observed annual eel recruitment index in Taiwan and the eddy index subtropical countercurrent (STCC region, which suggests a potentially important role of mesoscale eddies in eel larvae migration.

  8. Tadpoles of three common anuran species from Thailand do not prey on mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Robbie

    2015-12-01

    Tadpoles are often considered to be predators of mosquito larvae and are therefore beneficial for the control of certain disease vectors. Nevertheless, only a few species have actually been recorded to prey on mosquito larvae. The mosquito larvae predation rates of tadpoles of three common Thai anuran species (Bufo melanostictus, Kaloula pulchra and Hylarana raniceps) were experimentally tested. Tadpoles in varying developmental stages were used to assess a size/age effect on the predation rate. In addition, different instars of Culex quinquefasciatus were used in order to assess a prey size effect on the predation rates. All three species failed to show any evidence of mosquito larvae predation. Neither small nor large tadpoles fed on mosquito larvae. Prey size also did not affect predation. Although tadpoles do not feed on mosquito larvae, there may be other direct or indirect inter-specific interactions that adversely impact the development of larvae in shared habitats with tadpoles. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. Development of a two photon microscope for tracking Drosophila larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagyozov, Doycho; Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Gershow, Marc

    Current in vivo methods for measuring neural activity in Drosophila larva require immobilization of the animal. Although we can record neural signals while stimulating the sensory organs, we cannot read the behavioral output because we have prevented the animal from moving. Many research questions cannot be answered without observation of neural activity in behaving (freely-moving) animals. We incorporated a Tunable Acoustic Gradient (TAG) lens into a two-photon microscope to achieve a 70kHz axial scan rate, enabling volumetric imaging at tens of hertz. We then implemented a tracking algorithm based on a Kalman filter to maintain the neurons of interest in the field of view and in focus during the rapid three dimensional motion of a free larva. Preliminary results show successful tracking of a neuron moving at speeds reaching 500 μm/s. NIH Grant 1DP2EB022359 and NSF Grant PHY-1455015.

  10. Citrus Seed Oils Efficacy against Larvae of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Hazrat; Akram, Waseem; Hassan, Soaib Ali; Din, Sadrud

    2017-09-01

    Dengue fever is a serious public health issue in Pakistan for many years. Globally plants have been reported to contain compounds with insecticidal properties. These properties have been demonstrated more recently on the larval stages of mosquitoes. Therefore, Citrus cultivar seeds were evaluated for larvicidal potential against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti . Extraction of oil was done by a steam distillation method and oils were evaluated according to WHO guidelines for larvicides 2005 for evaluation of insecticidal properties of citrus seed extracts against mosquito larvae. Among the Citrus cultivar seed oil, rough lemon ( Citrus jambhiri ) had the lowest LC 50 value (200.79ppm), while musambi ( C. sinensis var musambi ) had the highest LC 50 value (457.30ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Citrus cultivars have some larvicidal potential but C. jambhiri had the greatest potential against A. aegypti larvae. Further small-scale field trials using the extracts of C. jambhiri will be conducted to determine operational feasibility.

  11. The immunogenic effect of irradiated Hemonchus contortus larvae in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Cruz, B.; Perfuse, W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of radiation-attenuated vaccines against parasitic disease has been reported in literature. The use of irradiated larvae as vaccines enables one to take advantage of the special immunological properties of living parasites; the radiation treatment can largely suppress the pathogenic effects of the vaccines and the reproductive capacity of the parasites involved. This report deals with our attempts to produce a radiation-attenuated vaccine against Hemonchus contortus infection in adult goats. Hemonchus contortus infection in ruminants is prevalent in the Philippines, especially among cattle and goats. The results presented indicate that a certain degree of resistance against Hemonchus contortus infection can be induced in adult goats immunized with irradiated larvae. The shelf-life of the vaccine was also determined. (author)

  12. Catching large herring larvae: Gear applicability and larval distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1988-01-01

    A series of night hauls were made both along a transect from the Danish coast to the Dogger Bank and at a fixed position in the southern North Sea. The aim was to evaluate the suitability of two midwater trawls (IKMT and MIK) for catching large herring larvae (20-40 mm), with special attention...... given to the influence of gear speed on catching effectiveness. An additional objective was to investigate larval distributional patterns of potential importance to sampling strategy. Gear speed had a pronounced influence on the efficiency of the IKMT. Catches per unit volume filtered decreased to one...... third when speed was increased by one knot. The efficiency of the MIK did not change in the speed range investigated, and this gear was in every case more efficient than the IKMT. Larvae were found to be patchily distributed at the scale of sampling, and the degree of patchiness did not increase when...

  13. NO-sGC Pathway Modulates Ca2+ Release and Muscle Contraction in Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiyuan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation is a complex process that depends on Ca2+ ions to promote the interaction of actin and myosin. This process can be modulated by nitric oxide (NO, a gas molecule synthesized endogenously by (nitric oxide synthase NOS isoforms. At nanomolar concentrations NO activates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC, which in turn activates protein kinase G via conversion of GTP into cyclic GMP. Alternatively, NO post-translationally modifies proteins via S-nitrosylation of the thiol group of cysteine. However, the mechanisms of action of NO on Ca2+ homeostasis during muscle contraction are not fully understood and we hypothesize that NO exerts its effects on Ca2+ homeostasis in skeletal muscles mainly through negative modulation of Ca2+ release and Ca2+ uptake via the NO-sGC-PKG pathway. To address this, we used 5–7 days-post fecundation-larvae of zebrafish, a well-established animal model for physiological and pathophysiological muscle activity. We evaluated the response of muscle contraction and Ca2+ transients in presence of SNAP, a NO-donor, or L-NAME, an unspecific NOS blocker in combination with specific blockers of key proteins of Ca2+ homeostasis. We also evaluate the expression of NOS in combination with dihydropteridine receptor, ryanodine receptor and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase. We concluded that endogenous NO reduced force production through negative modulation of Ca2+ transients via the NO-sGC pathway. This effect could be reversed using an unspecific NOS blocker or sGC blocker.

  14. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Emerson Randolph

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies, such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some muscular dystrophies. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on their embryologic origins and the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

  15. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  16. Architecture of the primary taste center of Drosophila melanogaster larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Colomb, Julien; Grillenzoni, Nicola; Ramaekers, Ariane; Stocker, Reinhard F.

    2007-01-01

    A simple nervous system combined with stereotypic behavioral responses to tastants, together with powerful genetic and molecular tools, have turned Drosophila larvae into a very promising model for studying gustatory coding. Using the Gal4/UAS system and confocal microscopy for visualizing gustatory afferents, we provide a description of the primary taste center in the larval central nervous system. Essentially, gustatory receptor neurons target different areas of the subesophageal ganglion (...

  17. Cockchafer larvae smell host root scents in soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Weissteiner

    Full Text Available In many insect species olfaction is a key sensory modality. However, examination of the chemical ecology of insects has focussed up to now on insects living above ground. Evidence for behavioral responses to chemical cues in the soil other than CO(2 is scarce and the role played by olfaction in the process of finding host roots below ground is not yet understood. The question of whether soil-dwelling beetle larvae can smell their host plant roots has been under debate, but proof is as yet lacking that olfactory perception of volatile compounds released by damaged host plants, as is known for insects living above ground, occurs. Here we show that soil-dwelling larvae of Melolontha hippocastani are well equipped for olfactory perception and respond electrophysiologically and behaviorally to volatiles released by damaged host-plant roots. An olfactory apparatus consisting of pore plates at the antennae and about 70 glomeruli as primary olfactory processing units indicates a highly developed olfactory system. Damage induced host plant volatiles released by oak roots such as eucalyptol and anisol are detected by larval antennae down to 5 ppbv in soil air and elicit directed movement of the larvae in natural soil towards the odor source. Our results demonstrate that plant-root volatiles are likely to be perceived by the larval olfactory system and to guide soil-dwelling white grubs through the dark below ground to their host plants. Thus, to find below-ground host plants cockchafer larvae employ mechanisms that are similar to those employed by the adult beetles flying above ground, despite strikingly different physicochemical conditions in the soil.

  18. Maya Index and Larva Density Aedes Aegypti Toward Dengue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang G. Purnama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available South Denpasar District was of there as with the highest dengue cases in Bali province. The number of mosquito breeding places and larvae density become risk factor that influenced the spreading of mosquitoes. Maya index was an indicator to measure the amount of waterreservoirs can be breeding places for mosquitoes. Knowing the relationship between maya index and density of larvae and pupae of Ae.aegypti toward dengue infection in South Denpasar District. The study was observational analytic with case-control design. Data was collected through interviews and field observations to 150 respondents. The survey entomologist with indicators maya index, house index (HI, container index (CI, breteau index (BI and pupa index (PI to see the density of larvae and pupae in survey area. Dengue transmission risk was categorized mild, moderate and severe based on density figure. Water storage containers inspected in 1215 containers that as many as 675 containers in the case and 540 containers in control. Water reservoirs (TPA that the most larvae was tub (29.27%, dispenser (18.29%, container tirta (10.98%, wells (10.98%. Maya index status was lower in the case (24% smaller thancontrols (37.33%. Value of HI = 23.33; CI=10.69; BI=55; PI=15.33. Based on HI and CI indicator South Denpasar District means have moderate the risk of transmission spread of dengue disease. Based on the BI, have a high risk of transmission to the spread of dengue disease. Based on the maya index showed house cases have highest risk as breeding place compare than control house. House index, Breteau index, container index, pupa index and maya index have correlation with dengue infection. Kind of breeding place have the high risk is bath tub

  19. Salinity tolerance of larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus ( ) X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen and twenty one day larvae were exposed to abrupt stepwise change in salinity (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 ppt) for 96 hours to determine mortality, median lethal mortality, MLS and median lethal time, MLT. The fourteen day-old fry that were exposed to 0 – 6 ppt recorded 90%, 87.5% 77.5% and 10% survival at the end of ...

  20. Myosin heavy chain expression in cranial, pectoral fin, and tail muscle regions of zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mou-Yun; Wen, Hui-Ju; Shih, Li-Jane; Kuo, Ching-Ming; Hwang, Sheng-Ping L

    2002-12-01

    To investigate whether different myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms may constitute myofibrils in the trunk and tail musculature and if their respective expression may be regulated by spadetail (spt) and no tail (brachyury), we identified and characterized mRNA expression patterns of an embryonic- and tail muscle-specific MHC gene (named myhz2) during zebrafish development in wild type, spt, and ntl mutant embryos. The identified myhz2 MHC gene encodes a polypeptide containing 1,935 amino acids. Deduced amino acid comparisons showed that myhz2 MHC shared 92.6% sequence identity with that of carp fast skeletal MHC. Temporal and spatial myhz2 MHC mRNA expression patterns were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization using primer pairs and probes designed from the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Temporally myhz2 MHC mRNA appears in pharyngula embryos and peaks in protruding-mouth larvae. The expression level decreased in 7-day-old hatching larvae, and mRNA expression was not detectable in adult fish. Spatially in pharyngula embryos, mRNA was localized only in the tail somite region, while in long-pec embryos, transcripts were also expressed in the two cranial muscle elements of the adductor mandibulae and medial rectus, as well as in pectoral fin muscles and the tail muscle region. Myhz2 MHC mRNA was expressed in most cranial muscle elements, pectoral fin muscles, and the tail muscle region of 3-day-old hatching larvae. In contrast, no expression of myhz2 MHC mRNA could be observed in spt prim-15 mutant embryos. In spt long-pec mutant embryos, transcripts were expressed in two cranial muscle elements and the tail muscle region, but not in pectoral fin muscles, while only trace amounts of myhz2 MHC mRNA were expressed in the remaining tail muscle region of 38 hpf and long-pec ntl mutant embryos. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Observations of cocooned Hydrobaenus (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Taaja R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Riley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of the family Chironomidae have developed a variety of ways to tolerate environmental stress, including the formation of cocoons, which allows larvae to avoid unfavorable temperature conditions, drought, or competition with other chironomids. Summer cocoon formation by younger instars of the genus Hydrobaenus Fries allows persistence through increased temperatures and/or intermittent dry periods in arid regions or temporary habitats, but this behavior was not observed in the Great Lakes until the current study. Cocoon-aestivating Hydrobaenus sp. larvae were found in benthic grab samples collected in 2010–2013 near Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in northern Lake Michigan with densities up to 7329/m2. The aestivating species was identified as Hydrobaenus johannseni (Sublette, 1967), and the associated chironomid community was typical for an oligotrophic nearshore system. Hydrobaenus cocoon formation in the Great Lakes was likely previously unnoticed due to the discrepancies between the genus' life history and typical benthos sampling procedures which has consequences for describing chironomid communities where Hydrobaenus is present.

  2. Macroevolutionary interplay between planktic larvae and benthic predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kevin J.

    2005-12-01

    Many marine invertebrates have a complex life cycle in which the egg develops into an intermediate planktic larval form rather than developing directly to the benthic juvenile stage. Because of the evolutionary and ecological complexity of pelagic-benthic life cycles, the reasons behind the origin of larvae and their subsequent maintenance over geological time are not well understood. Using both a molecular clock and the fossil record, I show that the initial exploitation of the predator-free pelagic realm by lecithotrophic larvae was achieved independently multiple times by the end of the Early Cambrian, and that the convergent evolution of planktotrophy from lecithotrophic ancestors evolved between the latest Cambrian and Middle Ordovician at least four, and possibly as many as eight, times. Both the exploitation of the pelagic realm by nonfeeding larvae and the acquisition of planktotrophy correlate in time with novel modes of benthic predation, including the dramatic rise in the number and type of epifaunal suspension feeders in the Early Ordovician.

  3. Identification of Ruffe larvae (Gymnocephalus cernuus) in the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua; family Percidae) were first detected in the Laurentian Great Lakes in 1986, and are not included in the Great Lakes larval fish key which was published several years prior to their discovery. In addition, subsequent scientific literature has inconsistently described Ruffe larvae. As a result, identification of larval Ruffe remains challenging. We used traditional morphology paired with DNA technology to develop diagnostics for Ruffe larvae collected in the lower St. Louis River, and compared them to similar species. Ruffe < 6 mm total length have myomere counts and a phenotype that more closely resemble centrarchids like Black Crappie, Bluegill and Pumpkinseed rather than percids. However, morphometrics and pigment patterns can be used to distinguish Ruffe from similar centrarchids at this size. As Ruffe larvae develop, they increasingly resemble other percids such as Yellow Perch, but can be distinguished using myomere counts and morphological features. The findings presented here clarify conflicting descriptions in the scientific literature, and provide additional data to support more confident morphological identification of larval Ruffe. The impact of invasive Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) on the ecology of Great Lakes systems is currently being studied. Reproduction and early life history data, however, may be hampered by a general lack of information regarding their early life stage morphological description.

  4. Feeding rates of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita on fish larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, J.; Hansson, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    We quantified feeding rates of field caught Aurelia aurita feeding on yolk sac cod (Gadus morhua) larvae in a series of incubation experiments. A short-time (similar to 1 h) functional response experiment with a wide range of prey concentrations (0.5-16 prey l(-1)supercript stop, initial concentr......We quantified feeding rates of field caught Aurelia aurita feeding on yolk sac cod (Gadus morhua) larvae in a series of incubation experiments. A short-time (similar to 1 h) functional response experiment with a wide range of prey concentrations (0.5-16 prey l(-1)supercript stop, initial...... of prey captured by A. aurita during 2.5 h of feeding at extremely high prey concentration (> 200 prey l(-1)). Clearance rate in darkness scaled with jellyfish diameter to a power of similar to 1.7 for jellyfish 3.9-9.5 cm in diameter. The jellyfish did not alter their umbrella pulse frequency in response...... to presence of fish larvae. There were no significant differences between A. aurita feeding rates in light and darkness for yolk sac prey ages 0-7 days (at 7.5 degrees C). Although prey vision and escape abilities of fish may develop rapidly during early larval ontogeny, these factors apparently have little...

  5. Nutritional Transition Period in Early Larvae Clarias Gariepinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ing, N.S.; Chew, H.H.

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional transition period of Clarias gariepinus were described based on the early development from hatching to 120 hours after hatching (hAH) reared at 27.5 - 28.6 degree Celsius. Newly hatched larvae had a large greenish yolk sac volume (0.99 ± 0.31 mm 3 ) located below a straight undeveloped digestive tract, mouth not opened, eyes unpigmented and the larvae lie on the bottom of rearing tank. During endogenous feeding period, the larval feeding system has developed rapidly with development oesophagus. Yolk sac were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (36 hAH, 0.19 ± 0.11 mm 3 ), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 68 hAH when yolk was completely exhausted. Yolk sac volume was significantly different by time at hatching, 6, 12 and 18 to 36 hAH (ANOVA, P<0.05). At 36 hAH, the larvae commenced feeding once morphologically developed with opened anus, functional jaw and intestine, and demonstrated horizontally swimming. The rudimentary chemoreceptors like olfactory organs and taste buds that were found on the barbels and oral cavity assisted in food detection and commenced feeding without vision. Due to the cannibalistic behaviour at early stage, feed are suggested to be provided during 36 hAH and avoided delay feeding in the larval rearing. (author)

  6. Carbohydrate digestion in Lutzomyia longipalpis' larvae (Diptera - Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Vladimir F; Moreira, Bruno H; Moraes, Caroline S; Pereira, Marcos H; Genta, Fernando A; Gontijo, Nelder F

    2012-10-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the principal species of phlebotomine incriminated as vector of Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. Despite its importance as vector, almost nothing related to the larval biology, especially about its digestive system has been published. The objective of the present study was to obtain an overview of carbohydrate digestion by the larvae. Taking in account that phlebotomine larvae live in the soil rich in decaying materials and microorganisms we searched principally for enzymes capable to hydrolyze carbohydrates present in this kind of substrate. The principal carbohydrases encountered in the midgut were partially characterized. One of them is a α-amylase present in the anterior midgut. It is probably involved with the digestion of glycogen, the reserve carbohydrate of fungi. Two other especially active enzymes were present in the posterior midgut, a membrane bound α-glucosidase and a membrane bound trehalase. The first, complete the digestion of glycogen and the other probably acts in the digestion of trehalose, a carbohydrate usually encountered in microorganisms undergoing hydric stress. In a screening done with the use of p-nitrophenyl-derived substrates other less active enzymes were also observed in the midgut. A general view of carbohydrate digestion in L. longipalpis was presented. Our results indicate that soil microorganisms appear to be the main source of nutrients for the larvae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mananoligossacarídeo em dietas para larvas de tilápia Mannanoligosaccharides in diets for tilapia larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Kalko Schwarz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar níveis crescentes de mananoligossacarídeo (MOS na dieta de larvas de tilápias-do-nilo (linhagem Supreme® na fase de reversão sexual durante 30 dias. Larvas de tilápia-do-nilo (n=1500, P=0,01 g ± 0,001 g foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em 30 tanques de 100 litros. Os peixes foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, composto por seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. A dieta controle (isenta de MOS foi elaborada para conter aproximadamente 35% de proteína bruta e 3.100 kcal de ED/kg. As demais foram suplementadas com 0; 0,15; 0,30; 0,45; 0,60 e 0,75% de MOS em substituição ao milho da dieta controle. Com o aumento nos níveis de MOS nas dietas, foi observado aumento linear sobre o comprimento do intestino, a altura das vilosidades intestinais e a densidade dos vilos. Não houve diferença na composição corporal, no ganho em peso, no peso final, no comprimento final, no fator de condição, na taxa de sobrevivência e no número de células caliciformes do intestino das larvas. Os níveis de MOS tiveram efeito quadrático sobre a conversão alimentar, cujos melhores resultados foram obtidos com 0,34% de MOS. A utilização de MOS no nível de 0,34% em dietas para larvas de tilápia-do-nilo melhora a conversão alimentar e promove aumento do comprimento do intestino, da altura das vilosidades e da densidade de vilos intestinal.This experiment was conducted to evaluate increasing levels of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS in the diet of Nile tilapia larvae (Supreme® at the sex reversal stage for 30 days. Nile tilapia larvae (n = 1500, p = 0.01 ± 0.001 g, were randomly distributed in 30 tanks of 100 liters each, for 30 days. The fish were distributed in a randomized design with six treatments and five replicates. The control diet (no MOS was elaborated to contain approximately 35% of crude protein and 3,100 kcal DE/kg. Mannanoligosaccharides were included in the other diets

  8. Development and functional morphology of the mouthparts and foregut in larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium jelskii (Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cristina Pantoja; Souza, Adelson Silva de; Maciel, Murilo; Maciel, Cristiana R; Abrunhosa, Fernando Araújo

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of the mouthparts and foregut of the larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium jelskii was investigated to determine their functional roles in feeding, in order to understand the larval feeding behaviour and the changes that occur during its development. The mouthparts and foregut of the zoea I and II are morphologically similar, rudimentary and non-functional in feeding. Only in the final larval stage, zoea III, do the external mouthparts and foregut become structurally more complex and thus likely to play a potential role in feeding. Two behavioral trials (point of no return, point of reserve saturation) evaluated the resistance to starvation in zoea I, II, and III. The results indicate that they have sufficient nutritional reserves to permit them to complete metamorphosis without feeding. Overall, our results suggest that the zoea I and II of Macrobrachium jelskii engage in obligate lecithotrophy and zoea III in facultative lecithotrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Morphological and behavioral development of the piracanjuba larvae Desenvolvimento morfológico e comportamental de larvas de piracanjuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Reis Raposo Maciel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the morphologic development and the swimming and feeding behaviors of piracanjuba larvae, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae, during the period from zero to 172 hours after hatching (standard length = 3.62 - 11.94 mm. The morphological analyses were accomplished by using a trinocular stereo microscope, while the behavioral analyses were performed through periodic observations. In 28 hours after hatching, the larvae (standard length = 6.25 ± 0.13 mm showed the following structural and behavioral characteristics that made them become active predators able to overcome a larval critical phase, the beginning of exogenous feeding: presence of pigmented eyes, terminal and wide mouth, developed oral dentition, developing digestive tube, yolk sac reduction, fins and swim bladder formation, horizontal swimming, cannibalism, and predation. Intense cannibalism among larvae was verified from 26 to 72 hours. At the end of the metamorphosis - 172 hours after hatching - the larvae measuring 11.94 + 0.80 mm in standard length presented a flexed notochord, caudal fin bifurcation, dorsal and anal fin formation, synchronized movements, and formation of shoals, characteristics that together allow enhanced perception and locomotio in exploration of the environment, determining the best moment for transfering to the fishponds. New studies can contribute to commercial fish farming by improving feeding management, performance, survival, and productivity of this species.Objetivou-se estudar o desenvolvimento morfológico e os comportamentos natatório e alimentar de larvas de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae no período de 0 a 172 horas após a eclosão (comprimento-padrão = 3,62 - 11,94 mm. As análises morfológicas foram realizadas com auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico trinocular e as comportamentais, por meio de

  10. Whole-body gene expression pattern registration in Platynereis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadulina, Albina; Panzera, Aurora; Verasztó, Csaba; Liebig, Christian; Jékely, Gáspár

    2012-12-03

    Digital anatomical atlases are increasingly used in order to depict different gene expression patterns and neuronal morphologies within a standardized reference template. In evo-devo, a discipline in which the comparison of gene expression patterns is a widely used approach, such standardized anatomical atlases would allow a more rigorous assessment of the conservation of and changes in gene expression patterns during micro- and macroevolutionary time scales. Due to its small size and invariant early development, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii is particularly well suited for such studies. Recently a reference template with registered gene expression patterns has been generated for the anterior part (episphere) of the Platynereis trochophore larva and used for the detailed study of neuronal development. Here we introduce and evaluate a method for whole-body gene expression pattern registration for Platynereis trochophore and nectochaete larvae based on whole-mount in situ hybridization, confocal microscopy, and image registration. We achieved high-resolution whole-body scanning using the mounting medium 2,2'-thiodiethanol (TDE), which allows the matching of the refractive index of the sample to that of glass and immersion oil thereby reducing spherical aberration and improving depth penetration. This approach allowed us to scan entire whole-mount larvae stained with nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP) in situ hybridization and counterstained fluorescently with an acetylated-tubulin antibody and the nuclear stain 4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Due to the submicron isotropic voxel size whole-mount larvae could be scanned in any orientation. Based on the whole-body scans, we generated four different reference templates by the iterative registration and averaging of 40 individual image stacks using either the acetylated-tubulin or the nuclear-stain signal for each developmental stage. We then registered to these templates the

  11. Whole-body gene expression pattern registration in Platynereis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadulina Albina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital anatomical atlases are increasingly used in order to depict different gene expression patterns and neuronal morphologies within a standardized reference template. In evo-devo, a discipline in which the comparison of gene expression patterns is a widely used approach, such standardized anatomical atlases would allow a more rigorous assessment of the conservation of and changes in gene expression patterns during micro- and macroevolutionary time scales. Due to its small size and invariant early development, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii is particularly well suited for such studies. Recently a reference template with registered gene expression patterns has been generated for the anterior part (episphere of the Platynereis trochophore larva and used for the detailed study of neuronal development. Results Here we introduce and evaluate a method for whole-body gene expression pattern registration for Platynereis trochophore and nectochaete larvae based on whole-mount in situ hybridization, confocal microscopy, and image registration. We achieved high-resolution whole-body scanning using the mounting medium 2,2’-thiodiethanol (TDE, which allows the matching of the refractive index of the sample to that of glass and immersion oil thereby reducing spherical aberration and improving depth penetration. This approach allowed us to scan entire whole-mount larvae stained with nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP in situ hybridization and counterstained fluorescently with an acetylated-tubulin antibody and the nuclear stain 4’6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI. Due to the submicron isotropic voxel size whole-mount larvae could be scanned in any orientation. Based on the whole-body scans, we generated four different reference templates by the iterative registration and averaging of 40 individual image stacks using either the acetylated-tubulin or the nuclear-stain signal for each developmental

  12. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding [75Se]selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikens, L.M.; Schad, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. When the 75 Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria is prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood

  13. Annual and spatial variability in endo- and ectoparasite infections of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758) larvae, post-larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Skovgaard, Alf

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological investigation was performed on a total of 5380 Atlantic cod larvae, post-larvae and small juveniles sampled from the North Sea during a period of five years. The copepod Caligus elongatus (Von Nordmann, 1832) and the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) were found ...

  14. Alimentação e comportamento de larvas de pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 Feeding and behavior of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lopes Beerli

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da utilização de dietas naturais e artificiais sobre o desempenho e comportamento de larvas de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, entre o 2º e o 10º dia de vida. Foram utilizadas 30 caixas plásticas, cada uma com 30 litros de água e renovação contínua, onde as larvas foram mantidas durante o período experimental. Cada caixa recebeu 10 larvas por litro, totalizando 300 larvas/caixa. Foram testados 6 tratamentos, cada qual com 5 repetições. Os tratamentos foram: T1-ração, T2-plâncton, T3-artêmia, T4-plâncton + ração, T5-artêmia + ração e T6-artêmia + plâncton. As larvas foram alimentadas 6 vezes ao dia, nos horários de 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 e 24 horas. A temperatura da água foi mantida constante a 27ºC, o oxigênio dissolvido permaneceu na faixa de 6,16 ± 0,34 e o pH, entre 7,16 ± 0,22. Aos 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 dias de vida, foram coletadas amostras de 30 larvas para determinação do comprimento total e peso. No final do experimento (10º dia, as larvas que receberam artêmia + plâncton (T6 alcançaram os maiores valores de comprimento total (8,35 mm e peso corporal (3518 µg, em relação a todas as outras dietas testadas. As larvas devem permanecer em laboratório por um período de 6 dias após a eclosão, recebendo alimento do terceiro ao sexto dia. A partir do sexto dia, as larvas estão com a vesícula gasosa completamente inflada e apresentam nado contínuo.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of natural and artificial diets on the development and behavior of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus larvae, between the 2nd and 10th day post hatch. The larvaes were kept in 30L - plastic boxes (n = 30 boxes, in constant flow-through. The larvae density was 10 post-larvae/L (300 larvae/box. Six diets with 4 sampling days (4, 6, 8 and 10 days post-hatch, n = 30 larvae using 5 repetitions were tested. The diets were: T1- commercial feed, T2- plancton, T3

  15. Skin penetration of infective hookworm larvae. II. The path of migration of infective larvae of Ancylostoma braziliense in the metacarpal foot pads of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, J C; van der Linden, M E

    1977-11-10

    The hairless metacarpal foot pads of six hookworm-free puppies were exposed to infective larvae of Ancylostoma braziliense. Serial sections of the biopts stained with Harris' haematoxylin and eosin showed that the infective larvae are able to penetrate the toughest region of canine skin. Pores of eccrine sweat glands did not seem to constitute sites of entry and no larvae were detected in these glands. Larvae were only observed in the epidermis. The histopathology of the infected skin of the foot pads of the puppies was similar to that in human skin with "creeping eruption" as described by Fülleborn (1927). The biopts appeared to consist of hairy skin as well. In the unexposed adjacent hairy skin of the foot pads, larvae were also observed. They were found in the epidermis, hair follicle systems and dermis, suggesting that the migration from the epidermis into deeper tissue depends on the presence of the hair follicle systems.

  16. The hamstring muscle complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Made, A D; Wieldraaijer, T; Kerkhoffs, G M; Kleipool, R P; Engebretsen, L; van Dijk, C N; Golanó, P

    2015-07-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous inscription in the semitendinosus muscle known as the raphe. Fifty-six hamstring muscle groups were dissected in prone position from 29 human cadaveric specimens with a median age of 71.5 (range 45-98). Data pertaining to origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, MTJ length and length as well as width of the raphe were collected. Besides these data, we also encountered interesting findings that might lead to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern. These include overlapping proximal and distal tendons of both the long head of the biceps femoris muscle and the semimembranosus muscle (SM), a twist in the proximal SM tendon and a tendinous inscription (raphe) in the semitendinosus muscle present in 96 % of specimens. No obvious hypothesis can be provided purely based on either muscle length, tendon length or MTJ length. However, it is possible that overlapping proximal and distal tendons as well as muscle architecture leading to a resultant force not in line with the tendon predispose to muscle injury, whereas the presence of a raphe might plays a role in protecting the muscle against gross injury. Apart from these architectural characteristics that may contribute to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern, the provided reference values complement current knowledge on surgically relevant hamstring anatomy. IV.

  17. Production of the Catechol Type Siderophore Bacillibactin by the Honey Bee Pathogen Paenibacillus larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Poppinga, Lena; Süssmuth, Roderich D.; Genersch, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood. This bacterial infection of honey bee brood is a notifiable epizootic posing a serious threat to global honey bee health because not only individual larvae but also entire colonies succumb to the disease. In the recent past considerable progress has been made in elucidating molecular aspects of host pathogen interactions during pathogenesis of P. larvae infections. Especially the sequencing and annotation of the complete genome of P. larvae was a major step forward and revealed the existence of several giant gene clusters coding for non-ribosomal peptide synthetases which might act as putative virulence factors. We here present the detailed analysis of one of these clusters which we demonstrated to be responsible for the biosynthesis of bacillibactin, a P. larvae siderophore. We first established culture conditions allowing the growth of P. larvae under iron-limited conditions and triggering siderophore production by P. larvae. Using a gene disruption strategy we linked siderophore production to the expression of an uninterrupted bacillibactin gene cluster. In silico analysis predicted the structure of a trimeric trithreonyl lactone (DHB-Gly-Thr)3 similar to the structure of bacillibactin produced by several Bacillus species. Mass spectrometric analysis unambiguously confirmed that the siderophore produced by P. larvae is identical to bacillibactin. Exposure bioassays demonstrated that P. larvae bacillibactin is not required for full virulence of P. larvae in laboratory exposure bioassays. This observation is consistent with results obtained for bacillibactin in other pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25237888

  18. Exposure to lead induces hypoxia-like responses in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, T.M.; Blackstone, B.J.; Nixdorf, W.L.; Taylor, D.H.

    1999-10-01

    Amphibians collected around mining sites, areas with extensive automobile traffic, and shooting ranges have been documented to contain high levels of lead. Lead-exposed amphibians might respond as if in hypoxic conditions because exposure is known to decrease hemoglobin levels, damage erythrocytes, and alter respiratory surfaces. Therefore, the authors exposed bullfrog larvae to either 0 or 780 {micro}g/L Pb and either 3.50 or 7.85 mg/L oxygen for 7 d and monitored activity, trips to the surface, and buccal ventilation rates. Activity was significantly decreased in larvae exposed to low oxygen, Pb, or both compared to activity of larvae in high oxygen with no Pb. Larvae exposed to both Pb and low oxygen displayed higher buccal ventilation rates than larvae exposed to either treatment separately. Lead-exposed larvae surfaced significantly more often than unexposed larvae even under high-oxygen conditions. Lead-exposed larvae decreased in mass during the exposure period, whereas unexposed larvae increased in mass. Lead exposure could decrease survival of larvae in the field not only because of physiological problems due to decreased oxygen uptake but also because of greater predation pressure due to increased presence at the surface and reduced growth rates.

  19. Seasonality of larvae of Brachyura and Anomura (Crustacea Decapoda in the Beagle Channel, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Lovrich

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study in the Beagle Channel that reports the larval seasonal distribution, abundance and duration of the larval stages of Anomura and Brachyura, on the basis of a fortnightly sampling programme. An identification key to the specific level of zoeal stages is included. Between September 1987 and March 1989, 304 plankton samples were taken by means of oblique hauls from the bottom to the sea-surface. Eighty-five percent of the samples were taken shallower than 60 m depth. Decapod larvae occurred only in spring and summer. All but two taxa showed a single cohort of larvae which emerge at the beginning of the spring. A second cohort of Munida spp. and Halicarcinus planatus also occurred during summer. The most abundant taxa were Munida spp. (312 larvae ? 10 m-3, Peltarion spinosulum (288 larvae ? 10 m-3,, H. planatus (143 larvae ? 10 m-3, and Pagurus spp. (79 larvae ? 10 m-3, which represented 97% of the total larvae collected. Larvae of Pinnotheridae, Eurypodius latreillii, Libidoclaea granaria, and Paralomis granulosa were about an order of magnitude less abundant. Relative abundances of larvae correspond to relative abundances of the respective benthic stages. The absence of certain larval stages or of certain species (Acanthocyclus albatrossis and Lithodes santolla probably indicates their differential distribution within the Beagle Channel. Particularly, lithodid larvae may have benthic or epibenthic habits.

  20. First record of larvae of the water mite Hydrachna processifera Piersig, 1895 from Turkey (Acari, Hydrachnidia, Hydrachnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeni Aykut

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of water mite Hydrachna processifera Piersig, 1895 (Acari, Hydrachnidiae were reported on diving beetles Dytiscus marginalis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae from Turkey. The redescription of the larva was made. Earlier, the larva H. processifera was described as H. inermis, but it was subsequently synonymized with H. processifera. The larva of H. processifera is a new record for the Turkish fauna. All larvae of H. processifera were found on the mesosternum of the one specimens (prevalence = 16.7%.

  1. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2011-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".

  2. An artificial muscle computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc O'Brien, Benjamin; Alexander Anderson, Iain

    2013-03-01

    We have built an artificial muscle computer based on Wolfram's "2, 3" Turing machine architecture, the simplest known universal Turing machine. Our computer uses artificial muscles for its instruction set, output buffers, and memory write and addressing mechanisms. The computer is very slow and large (0.15 Hz, ˜1 m3); however by using only 13 artificial muscle relays, it is capable of solving any computable problem given sufficient memory, time, and reliability. The development of this computer shows that artificial muscles can think—paving the way for soft robots with reflexes like those seen in nature.

  3. Accessory piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Develi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis muscle originates from facies pelvica of sacrum and inserts on the trochanter major. It is one of the lateral rotator muscles of the hip and a landmark point in the gluteal region since n. ischiadicus descends to the thigh by passing close to the muscle. This contiguity may be associated with the irritation of the nerve which is known as piriformis syndrome. A rare anatomic variation of the muscle which observed on 74 years old male cadaver is discussed in this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 182-183

  4. Predatory efficiency of the sewage drain inhabiting larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann on Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Gautam; Bhattacharyya, Sankar; Kundu, Niloy; Kar, Pradip Kumar; Saha, Goutam Kumar

    2007-09-01

    The rate of predation by stage IV instar Toxorhynchites splendens larvae on the equivalent instar stage larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Armigeres subalbatus, co-occurring in sewage drains, were noted for a period of three consecutive days in the laboratory using different prey densities and combinations. The rate of predation varied by age of the predator, density of prey, and prey type. The number of Ar. subalbatus larvae consumed by a single Tx. splendens larva ranged between 0.50 +/- 0.71 and 16.40 +/- 2.01; while for Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae, the number consumed ranged from 0.20 +/- 0.42 to 20.40 +/- 1.43 per day. The pupation rates of the prey species varied in respect to control, with a minimum of 0.20 +/- 0.42 pupa/day to a maximum of 12.20 +/- 2.30 pupa/day in the presence of Tx. splendens. The values for the controls were 1.00 +/- 0.87 and 14.44 +/- 2.83 pupa/day, respectively. Irrespective of prey densities and combinations, a single Tx. splendens fourth instar larvae was found to consume on average 10.07 larvae on the first day 16.57 larvae on the second day and 4.38 larvae on the third day, killing a total of 17.70 to 45.10 larvae, in three days. In the presence of Tx. splendens, the cumulative pupation, irrespective of prey, remained between 12.20 and 45.10, and differed significantly from control where the values were between 13.90 and 54.70. The results indicate that Tx. splendens can significantly reduce immature numbers and lower the rate of pupation of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ar. subalbatus. Tx. splendens may be a potential biological resource in the control of mosquitoes inhabiting sewage drains.

  5. Description of the third instar larva of Megadytes latus (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, with an identification key for described larvae of the genus Descrição da larva de terceiro ínstar de Megadytes latus (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ferreira-Jr

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The last instar larva of M. latus (Fabricius, 1801 is described and figured, based on reared specimens from Serra dos Órgãos, Teresópolis, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Some notes on the biotope are provided.A larva de terceiro ínstar de M. latus (Fabricius, 1801 é descrita e ilustrada, baseado em espécimes criados da Serra dos Órgãos, Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Algumas notas acerca do biótopo onde as larvas foram coletadas são incluídas.

  6. Embryonic muscle development in direct and indirect developing marine flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Polycladida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, D Marcela; Litvaitis, Marian K

    2009-01-01

    We compared embryonic myogenesis of the direct-developing acotylean polyclad Melloplana ferruginea with that of Maritigrella crozieri, a cotylean that develops via a larval stage. Fluorescently labeled F-actin was visualized with laser confocal microscopy. Developmental times are reported as percentages of the time from oviposition to hatching: 7 days for M. crozieri and 22 days for M. ferruginea. The epithelium began to form at 30% development in M. crozieri and at 15% development in M. ferruginea. Random myoblasts appeared in peripheral areas of the embryo at 36% and 22-30% development in M. crozeri and M. ferruginea, respectively. Circular and longitudinal muscle bands formed synchronously at 37-44% development in M. crozieri; yolk obscured observations of early myogenesis in M. ferruginea. An orthogonal muscle grid was established by 45-50% development in both species. Diagonal muscles developed in M. ferruginea at 60-71% development. Hence, juveniles of this species hatch with the same basic body-wall musculature as adults. Larvae of M. crozieri did not hatch with diagonal muscles; these muscles are acquired postmetamorphosis. Additionally, a specialized musculature developed in the larval lobes of M. crozieri. Oral musculature was complex and established by 72% development in both species. Our results are comparable to the muscle differentiation reported for other indirect-developing polyclads and for direct-developing species of macrostomid flatworms. Furthermore, they provide additional support that the orthogonal muscle pattern of circular and longitudinal muscles is a symplesiomorphy of Spiralia.

  7. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  8. Physical Rehabilitation Improves Muscle Function Following Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-19

    muscle , but it did so without significant morphological adaptations (e.g., no hypertrophy and hyperplasia). Wheel running up-regulated metabolic genes...been shown to foster regeneration of injured muscle [5,32,33] and promote hypertrophy (i.e., increased protein synthesis or muscle weight) in muscle ...remaining muscle tissue. Strengthening of synergist muscles can partially compensate for the loss of function due to VML injury. Compensatory hypertrophy

  9. Vertical migrations of herring, Clupea harengus, larvae in relation to light and prey distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas; Christensen, Villy

    1989-01-01

    towards the surface at dawn larvae stayed in the upper water column during the day. The observations suggest that the daytime vertical distribution of larvae in calm weather is mainly determined by feeding conditions: the larvae move to depths were light is sufficient for feeding, and refinement within......The influence of light and prey abundance on the vertical distribution of herring larvae was evaluated by three investigations made under calm weather conditions in the North Sea off the Scottish coast. The investigations took place at different time after hatching and the vertical distributions...... density peaked at the pycnocline (40 m). Larvae concentrated at this depth at noon. At dawn and dusk larvae migrated towards the surface and the vertical distributions fluctuated semidielly. In the two other investigations, copepods were homogeneously distributed in the water column and after migration...

  10. Effect of irradiation on development of the larvae of Anoplophora glabripennis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuejin; Wang Xin; Zhan Guoping; Xu Liang; Liu Bo; Zhe Chunmei; Huang Xiaoxu; Liu Zhijie; Sun Zhichao

    2006-01-01

    The third-fifth instar larvae of Anoplophora glabripennis were irradiated at the dose of 20-140 Gy by high energy X-rays (9 MeV), the results showed that irradiation at the dose of 20-60 Gy prolonged the developmental duration of irradiated larvae, and the radio-resistance was increased with the increase of instars, where the 5th instar larvae was the most resistant larvae, the irradiation dose for preventing pupation was 55-60 Gy. 60 Co-γ rays irradiation at the dose of 60 Gy also prevent the mature larvae of A. glabripennis in poplar wood from pupation completely. Thus, the minimum effective dose of 60 Gy could be suggested for quarantine treatment of the larvae of A. glabripennis in logs and wood packing materials. (authors)

  11. The study of the peptide composition of the supernatants from mealworm Tenebrio molitor larvae and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. К. Гулевский

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular-mass distribution of peptides from supernatants, obtained from the tissues of larvae Tenebrio molitor and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation, has been determined by chromatography. The results showed that peptide spectrum of the supernatants from larvae T. molitor and C. auratus varied during cold acclimation. The supernatants from non-acclimated larvae of T. molitor and deacclimated fish possessed the highest number of peptide fractions. Furthermore, the cold-acclimated larvae of T. molitor had the peptide fractions of the low molecular weight (ca. 5.4×102 ÷22.6×102 Da, and non-acclimated insects had the peptides of the high molecular weight (ca. 46.8×102÷66×102 Da. Next, the organ-specific changes of the peptide composition of the goldfish during winter deacclimation have been revealed. Specifically, the low molecular weight peptides (ca. (14.1 ± 0.3×102 and (6.75 ± 0.25×102 Da, have been detected in the C. auratus muscles, and both the high (ca. (67.83 ± 0.21×102 ( ca. 64.16 ± 0.26×102 Da and low (ca. (34.1 ± 1.0×102 and (14.29 ± 0.15×102 Da molecular weight peptides have been detected in the liver. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the peptide spectra from supernatants of the T. molitor and C. auratus during cold acclimation could be one of the mechanisms of their natural adaptation to low temperatures.

  12. Coral larvae settle at a higher frequency on red surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B.; Beard, M.; Miller, M. W.

    2011-09-01

    Although chemical cues serve as the primary determinants of larval settlement and metamorphosis, light is also known to influence the behavior and the settlement of coral planulae. For example, Porites astreoides planulae settle preferentially on unconditioned red substrata. In order to test whether this behavior was a response to color and whether other species also demonstrate color preference, settlement choice experiments were conducted with P. astreoides and Acropora palmata. In these experiments, larvae were offered various types of plastic substrata representing three to seven different color choices. Both species consistently settled on red (or red and orange) substrata at a higher frequency than other colors. In one experiment, P. astreoides settled on 100% of red, plastic cable ties but failed to settle on green or white substrata. In a second experiment, 24% of larvae settled on red buttons, more than settled on six other colors combined. A. palmata settled on 80% of red and of orange cables ties but failed to settle on blue in one experiment and settled on a greater proportion of red acrylic squares than on four other colors or limestone controls in a second experiment. The consistency of the response across a variety of plastic materials suggests the response is related to long-wavelength photosensitivity. Fluorescence and reflectance spectra of experimental substrata demonstrated that the preferred substrata had spectra dominated by wavelengths greater than 550 nm with little or no reflection or emission of shorter wavelengths. These results suggest that some species of coral larvae may use spectral cues for fine-scale habitat selection during settlement. This behavior may be an adaptation to promote settlement in crustose coralline algae (CCA)-dominated habitats facilitating juvenile survival.

  13. Muscles, exercise and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    of yet unidentified factors, secreted from muscle cells, which may influence cancer cell growth and pancreas function. Many proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction; therefore, physical inactivity probably leads to an altered myokine response, which could provide a potential...

  14. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability of m...

  15. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous

  16. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  17. Tracheopulmonary Myiasis Caused by a Mature Third-Instar Cuterebra Larva: Case Report and Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cornet, Muriel; Florent, Martine; Lefebvre, Aurélie; Wertheimer, Christophe; Perez-Eid, Claudine; Bangs, Michael J.; Bouvet, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of vertebrate tissues with fly larvae (Diptera). Most human cases in North America are subcutaneous forms due to Dermatobia hominis imported from Central and South America. Human cases of myiasis acquired in North America are rare and are primarily subdermal or ophthalmologic forms of infestation caused by early stages of Cuterebra larvae. We report an unusual case of tracheopulmonary myiasis, resulting from the in situ development of a mature cuterebrine larva asso...

  18. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory.

  19. Illustrated Taxonomic Keys to Genera and Species of Mosquito Larvae of Korea. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    Culicine Mosquito Larva Key to the Genera of Culicidae. . . Genus Anopheles . Genus Toxorhynchites . Genus Tripteroides. Genus Mansonia. . Genus...ILLUSTRATED TAXONOMIC KEYS TO GENERA AND SPECIES OF MOSQUITO LARVAE OF KOREA PART II DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY BY 5TH PREVENTIVE MEDICINE UNIT...1987 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Illustrated Taxonomic Keys to Genera and Species of Mosquito Larvae of Korea. Part II 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  20. Insecticidal activity of some essential oils against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman

    2005-12-01

    Thirty-four essential oils were tested for insecticidal activity (fumigation or topical application) against larvae Spodoptera littoralis. Twenty essential oils applied by fumigation were highly toxic to the third instar of S. littoralis larvae. Two essential oils Nepeta cataria and Thuja occidentalis were highly toxic, with LC50cataria, S. sclarea, O. vulgare, O. compactum, Melissa officinalis, T. mastichina, and Lavandula angustifolia were highly toxic with LD50 < or =0.05 microl/larvae.

  1. Effects of Foodstuffs on Intestinal Length in Larvae of Rhacophorus arboreus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) : Developmental Biology

    OpenAIRE

    SHINRI, HORIUCHI; YUTAKA, KOSHIDA; Department of Biology, College of General Education, Osaka University; Department of Biology, College of General Education, Osaka University

    1989-01-01

    Correlation between foodstuffs and intestinal length was examined in larvae of Rhacophorus arboreus (Anura: Rhacophoridae). The larva, being heterophagous, has a tube-like intestine provided with neither epithelial outfoldings nor villi, and intestinal length is found to be a good morphological index of digestive and absorptive functions of the intestine. The results obtained were summarized as follows: The grown larva fed on boiled spinach had an intestine more than 1.5 times as long as that...

  2. PENGARUH EKSTRAK BATANG BROTOWALI (Tinospora crispa) TERHADAP KEMATIAN LARVA NYAMUK Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Agustiani Dumeva; Syarifah Syarifah; Syahidah Fitriah

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquito, which acts as a vector in the spread of dengue disease. One of the effort to reduce the spread of dengue disease is using larvicides. Brotowali thought to have an effect as larvicides against Aedes aegypti larvae because they have the alkaloid compounds and tinokrisposid that can cause death in larvae. This study aims to determine the effect extract brotowali (Tinospora crispa) against Aedes aegypti larvae of death so as to provide information to the public...

  3. Immunization with irradiated larvae against Dictyocaulus filaria in young lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the lungworm-endemic areas of Kashmir, 6-10 week old lambs of Karnah and Kashmir Merino breeds were vaccinated with two doses of 50 kR gamma-irradiated larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria, given a month apart. Assessed on the basis of reduced prevalence and significantly lower faecal larval output over an eight-month observation period, vaccinated lambs showed a high degree of resistance to naturally acquired D. filaria infection. The results also show that vaccination against D. filaria provided some degree of protection against infection with other lungworm species. (Auth.)

  4. Defesa quimica em larvas da borboleta Mechanitis polymnia (Nymphalidae : Ithomiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Henrique Arantes Portugal

    2001-01-01

    Resumo: Os imaturos de lepidópteros estão sujeitos a altas taxas de mortalidade no ambiente natural. Uma das formas de defesa mais utilizadas e estudadas é a defesa química, envolvendo, por exemplo, substâncias tóxicas ou impalatáveis. Estas substâncias podem ser adquiridas pelos lepidópteros de suas fontes alimentares ou biosintetisadas de novo. Através de um acompanhamento dos imaturos de Mechanitis po/ymnia no campo observou-se que larvas apresentam as taxas mais altas de sobrevivência qua...

  5. What do barnacle larvae feed on ? Implications in biofouling ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.; Anil, A.C.

    copepods which are collected from the field as well as from laboratory reared copepods fed with different mono-algal cultures (Honjo & Roman, 1978; Morales, 1987; Urban-Rich et al., 1998; Fleddum et al., 2001; Frangoulis et al., 2001; Schnetzer... in the laboratory rearing, the chlorophyll a content is 15 times higher than the maximum values observed in the field. This shows the capability of larvae to survive in the 7    field in spite of observed low chlorophyll a concentration in the water column...

  6. Sex Reversal on Congo Tetra Fish (Micraleptus intterruptus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harton Arfah

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTExperiment was performed to assess the effect of 17a-methyltestosterone (MT treatment on Congo tetra fish larvae.  To evaluate the optimal pattern of MT treatment, three different treatments were administrated.  Three months old larvae were submerged in three different doses of MT; 1, 2 and 4 mg/l.  These studies showed that the highest percentage of male fish was obtained by 4 mg/l MT treatment, 87,17%.  The 2 mg/l and 1 mg/l MT treatments obtained 77,53% and 69,86% male respectively, two times higher than control, 38,96%.  On the other hand, the 4 mg/l MT treatment also resulted the highest percentage of hermaphrodite fishes, 17,58%.  The highest survival rate was shown by 1 mg/l MT treatment, 62,77% and the lowest was shown by the 4 mg/l MT treatment, 47,20%.  The highest rate of fish length and weight was shown by the 4 mg/l MT treatment, 4,4 cm and 1,65 gram respectively.  These findings suggest that MT treatment offers an advantage in growth of  tetra Congo larvae. Key word :  Sex reversal, methyltestosterone, Congo tetra fish, Micraleptus intterruptus. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perendaman larva di dalam larutan hormon 17a-metiltestosteron pada dosis 1, 2 dan 4 mg/l larutan.  Persentase tertinggi ikan jantan dihasilkan  oleh perlakuan 4 mg/l, yaitu 87,17%.  Perlakuan 2 mg/l dan 1 mg/l masing-masing menghasilkan 77,53% dan 69,86% sedangkan kontrol menghasilkan 38,96% jantan.  Efek lain dari perlakuan MT ini adalah hermafroditisme.  Perlakuan 4 mg/l menghasilkan persentase hermafrodit tertinggi yaitu 17,58%, sedangkan pada kontrol kelangsungan hidup tertinggi diperoleh pada perlakuan 1 mg/l (62,77% dan terendah pada perlakuan 4 mg/l (47,20%.  Hasil tersebut menunjukkan adanya pengaruh dosis hormon terhadap kelangsungan hidup ikan.  Pengukuran bobot dan panjang ikan pada setiap perlakuan menunjukkan nilai tertinggi dihasilkan oleh perlakuan 4 mg/l  yaitu 1,65 gram dan 4,40 cm.  Hal

  7. Lobesia botrana larvae develop faster in the presence of parasitoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Vogelweith

    Full Text Available To combat parasitism hosts often rely on their immune system, which is the last line of defense. However, the immune system may not always be effective, and other non-immunological defenses might be favored to reduce the cost of parasite infection. Here we report that larvae of the moth Lobesia botrana can rapidly accelerate their development and reach maturity earlier in response to cues perceived at a distance from parasitoids. Such a phenotypically plastic life history shift, induced by the perception of deadly enemies in the environment, is likely to be an adaptive defensive strategy to prevent parasitoid attack, and has important implications in host-parasite dynamics.

  8. The Antigenic Structure Characterization of Oestrus Ovis Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Moţ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of proteic components definition from Oestrus ovis larvae, endowed with antigenic properties, able to induce immune responses in vivo and to react in vitro with induced molecular effectors were been performed: electrophoresis in poliacrilamid gel, western blot technique preceded by immunotransfer, immunoassay test. Total soluble larval antigens of O. ovis were been prepared through ultrasonic disintegration, from all three larval stages. Western blot technique allowed and emphasized the specific antigens with a superior sensitivity in comparison with SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. After antigenic characteristics demonstration of investigated larval antigens were been performed the immunoassay test to emphasized the antibodies dozes for O. ovis infestation diagnosis.

  9. [Diabetic muscle infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Bals, Edske; van der Woude, Henk-Jan; Smets, Yves F C

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare complication of diabetes mellitus that typically presents in the thigh; microvascular abnormalities may play a role. A 32-year-old female presented at the outpatient clinic with a painful, swollen thigh. She had suffered from type 1 diabetes for 22 years. The patient was admitted to the nephrology ward for further evaluation. Deep-venous thrombosis and abscess were excluded with echography. After additional investigations - MRI and a biopsy of skin, muscle and fascia - the diagnosis diabetic muscle infarction was made. The patient was treated with bed rest and analgesics. With hindsight, the muscle biopsy was not actually required in reaching a diagnosis. The diagnosis 'diabetic muscle infarction' is made on the basis of clinical presentation in combination with MRI findings. The treatment consists of bed rest and analgesics.

  10. The use of morphological and histological features as nutritional condition indices of Pagrus pagrus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vera Diaz

    Full Text Available Morphometrical and histological techniques were employed to characterize Pagrus pagrus larvae nutritional condition. Larvae were reared in laboratory under controlled conditions with the main objective of testing whether these methodologies allowed finding differences between larvae from different feeding treatments. Once yolk was consumed (three days after hatching larvae were assigned to a feeding treatment: starved during the whole experiment; delayed feeding, starved during three days; fed during the entire experiment. Algae (Nannochloropsis oculata and rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis were provided to larvae for feed treatments. Larvae were fixed daily; for morphometrical purposes in 5% formaldehyde solution, and in Bouin for histological sections. Results herein obtained showed that both methodologies are sensitive enough to distinguish larvae characterized by different nutritional condition states obtained from the feeding treatments. Consequently, these methodologies could be employed in wild red porgy larvae in order to asses their nutritional condition. These techniques could also be employed to check larval quality obtained with aquaculture purposes to estimate the effects of changes in rearing protocols or kind of food supply and thus, to guaranty a higher survival of early developmental stages of reared larvae.

  11. Number of malpighian tubules in larvae and adults of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Costa, K; Kerr, W E; Carvalho-Zilse, G A

    2012-02-01

    The number of Malpighian tubules in larvae and adults of bees is variable. Larvae of Apis mellifera L. have four Malpighian tubules, while adults have 100 tubules. In stingless bees, this number varies from four to eight. The objectives of this study were to provide characteristics of the Malpighian tubules as well as to quantify their number in larvae and adults of six species of Meliponinae, Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell, Melipona compressipes manaosensis Schwarz, Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier, Scaptotrigona Moure, Frieseomelitta Ihering, and Trigona williana Friese. Malpighian tubules were dissected from larvae and adults, measured, quantified, and maintained in microtubes with Dietrich's solution. The numbers of Malpighian tubules were constant only for larvae of M. rufiventris (four and eight) and Scaptotrigona sp. (four). The most frequent number of tubules in the Melipona group was seven and eight in larvae, and 70 and 90 in adults. In the Trigona group were four and 20 to 40, for larvae and adults, respectively. The results showed differences in the number of Malpighian tubules among the species analyzed and also between the larvae and adults of the same species. Despite the variation observed, species of the group Melipona always have a larger number and longer Malpighian tubules in both larvae and adults as compared to the Trigona group, which may indicate an evolutionary trend of differentiation between these groups.

  12. Description of the third instar larvae of five species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Morón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of the third instar larvae of five species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae from Mexico. Larvae of four species of Cyclocephala are described for the first time based on specimens collected in Mexican localities: C. barrerai Martínez, 1969 from Puebla, C. sinaloae Howden & Endrödi, 1966 from Sinaloa, C. fasciolata Bates, 1888 from Veracruz, and C. jalapensis Casey, 1915 from Hidalgo. Larva of C. lunulata Burmeister, 1847, is redescribed based on specimens from the Mexican states of Morelos, Puebla, and Veracruz. Diagnostic structures are illustrated and the differences and similarities of each species with other previously described larvae of the genus are commented.

  13. Sensitivity of larvae, pupae, and adults of the driedfruit beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Raisins infested with three different ages of larvae of dried fruit beetle, Carpophilus hemipterus (L.), were treated with gamma radiation doses of 130-798 Gy. Pupae and unmated adults were also treated at 338 and 486 Gy. All doses to larvae prevented adult development. Only the oldest treated larvae were able to develop to the wandering stage (late third instar) before dying. Complete larval mortality occurred sooner at higher doses. Most younger larvae died within the raisins. Mortality of irradiated pupae at both doses was 90%, and adults emerging from treated pupae died within 48 h. Irradiated adults produced no progeny and died within 1 wk after treatment

  14. Effect of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia Kuehniella, mature larvae and acceptability of irradiated larvae by Bracon hebetor female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2012-01-01

    Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, mature 5 t h instar larvae were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50-350 Gy at 50 Gy increment and the effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence and sex ratio were investigated. In addition, effects of irradiation on the rate of development to pupae and adults and the acceptance of irradiated larvae by B. hebetor females were examined. Results showed that the radio-sensitivity of E. kuehniella larvae increased with increasing dose. Pupation was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose, and completely prevented at 350 Gy dose. Adult emergence was only slightly different from pupation; emergence was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose and completely prevented at 300 Gy dose. Irradiation also negatively affected the rate of development of larvae to pupae and adults. While more than 98% of control larvae pupated within 10 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 79% in larvae exposed to 50 Gy and less than 4% in larvae exposed to 100 Gy dose. The rate of development to the adult stage was also similarly affected. While 97% of control insects emerged as adults in the 1st 20 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 53, 2 and zero percent in larvae exposed to 50, 100 and 150 Gy dose respectively. In addition, irradiation significantly affected male: female ratio; sex ratio was skewed in favor of males, and at 250 Gy dose all emerged moths were males. Furthermore, irradiation had no adverse effect on the degree of acceptance of mature larvae to parasitization; irradiated insects were as acceptable to B. hebetor females as unirradiated ones. (author)

  15. A muscle model for hybrid muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klauer Christian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop model-based control strategies for Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES in order to support weak voluntary muscle contractions, a hybrid model for describing joint motions induced by concurrent voluntary-and FES induced muscle activation is proposed. It is based on a Hammerstein model – as commonly used in feedback controlled FES – and exemplarily applied to describe the shoulder abduction joint angle. Main component of a Hammerstein muscle model is usually a static input nonlinearity depending on the stimulation intensity. To additionally incorporate voluntary contributions, we extended the static non-linearity by a second input describing the intensity of the voluntary contribution that is estimated by electromyography (EMG measurements – even during active FES. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to describe the static input non-linearity. The output of the ANN drives a second-order linear dynamical system that describes the combined muscle activation and joint angle dynamics. The tunable parameters are adapted to the individual subject by a system identification approach using previously recorded I/O-data. The model has been validated in two healthy subjects yielding RMS values for the joint angle error of 3.56° and 3.44°, respectively.

  16. Redescripción de la Larva y la Pupa de Toxorhynchites ( Lynchiella guadeloupensis (Diptera: Culicidae Redescription of the larva and pupa of Toxorhynchites ( Lynchiella guadeloupensis (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia M. Augier

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente contribución es redescribir, en forma completa, la quetotaxia de larva y pupa de Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar & Knab. Además se describe por primera vez el aparato bucal de la larva. El material estudiado procede de la provincia de Tucumán en el noroeste argentino.The objetive of the present contribution is to redescribe the quetotaxia of the larva and the pupa of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar & Knab. The larval mouthpart is described for the first time. The material examined is from Tucumán province in the Argentina northwestern.

  17. Surto de larva migrans cutnea em uma creche de belo horizonte, minas gerais (Brasil Outbreak of cutaneous Larva migrans in a private nursery in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Dos Santos Lima

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata a ocorrência de um surto de Larva migrans cutânea, em 17 crianças de uma creche em Belo Horizonte, MG. As crianças adquiriram esta dermatose quando brincavam em uma caixa de areia contaminada com larvas infectantes de ancilostomídeos de cão.An outbreak of cutaneous Larva migrans in six months to four years old children in a private nursery in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, is reported. The source of infection was a sand box contaminated with dog faeces.

  18. Decapod larvae dynamics on Berlengas Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO - Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénia Da Fonseca Alexandre Rato

    2014-05-01

    Total decapoda abundance ranged from 0,06 ind.m-3 in May 2011 to 64,28ind.m-3 in August 2012, and significantly different between summer/winter and winter/spring months (P(perm≤0,05. The data obtained on this study revealed that Infraorders Brachyura, Anomura and Caridea are the most common. All three are significantly different between months (P(perm≤0,05 but not between sampling stations (P(perm>0,05. Brachyuran abundance was significantly affected by the Oceanograhic Conditions (P(perm≤0,05. Abundances were higher in spring and summer months, when Chlorophyl a values (mg.m-3, Temperature (ºC and Salinity (ppt were also higher. Decapoda community is directly affected by the surrounding environmental conditions in Berlengas Biosphere Reserve and abundance might also be related with specific larvae release throughout the year. Each sampling station was considered a replica from the study area. The ecological importance of Berlengas was also verified by the presence of non-frequent larvae of Achelata and Stomatopoda.

  19. The hemolymph proteome of fed and starved Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Handke

    Full Text Available The co-operation of specialized organ systems in complex multicellular organisms depends on effective chemical communication. Thus, body fluids (like blood, lymph or intraspinal fluid contain myriads of signaling mediators apart from metabolites. Moreover, these fluids are also of crucial importance for immune and wound responses. Compositional analyses of human body fluids are therefore of paramount diagnostic importance. Further improving their comprehensiveness should increase our understanding of inter-organ communication. In arthropods, which have trachea for gas exchange and an open circulatory system, the single dominating interstitial fluid is the hemolymph. Accordingly, a detailed analysis of hemolymph composition should provide an especially comprehensive picture of chemical communication and defense in animals. Therefore we used an extensive protein fractionation workflow in combination with a discovery-driven proteomic approach to map out the detectable protein composition of hemolymph isolated from Drosophila larvae. Combined mass spectrometric analysis revealed more than 700 proteins extending far beyond the previously known Drosophila hemolymph proteome. Moreover, by comparing hemolymph isolated from either fed or starved larvae, we provide initial provisional insights concerning compositional changes in response to nutritional state. Storage proteins in particular were observed to be strongly reduced by starvation. Our hemolymph proteome catalog provides a rich basis for data mining, as exemplified by our identification of potential novel cytokines, as well as for future quantitative analyses by targeted proteomics.

  20. The Macroevolutionary Interplay Between Planktic Larvae and Benthic Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, K. J.

    2004-12-01

    Many marine invertebrates have a complex life cycle whereby the egg, rather than developing directly to the juvenile stage, develops instead into a intermediate larval form which may spend weeks to months feeding in the plankton before it becomes competent to undergo metamorphosis into the benthic juvenile. Because the selective advantages provided to the animal by having a planktotrophic larval stage are largely unknown, the reasons behind their origin and subsequent maintenance over geological time are not well understood. Using both a molecular clock and the fossil record, I show that four primitively non-feeding larval forms evolved sometime between the late Ediacaran and Early Cambrian, and feeding larvae appear to have evolved from non-feeding ancestors sometime between the Late Cambrian and Middle Ordovician in at least five, if not eight, of eight different clades analyzed. Thus, the initial exploitation of the predator-free pelagos by larvae was achieved independently multiple times by the end of the Early Cambrian, most likely driven by benthic predation pressures upon developing eggs and embryos. Then, because the evolution of larval planktotrophy from lecithotrophic ancestors correlates with the dramatic rise in the generic number of benthic suspension feeders in the Early Ordovician, it seems likely that benthic suspension feeding selected for fecundity, and thus indirectly for planktotrophy, in multiple lineages of marine invertebrates by the end of the Middle Ordovician.

  1. Iodine binding in the endostyle of larvae Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Cephalochordata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, G.; Ericson, L.E.; Olsson, R.

    1984-11-01

    The asymmetrical endostyle of Branchiostoma larvae contains two different zones of mucus-producing cells which metamorphose to the paired zones 2 and 4 respectively in the endostyle of the adult. In both the larva and the adult these zones are parts of the food-trapping mechanism. An endostyle zone, which has a position corresponding to that of the paired iodinating zones in the endostyle of the adult, binds iodine selectively. The ultrastructure and labeling pattern indicate that the labeled cells in the larval endostyle belong to functionally different types. In one region of the iodinating zone iodine is mainly bound extracellularly at the apical cell surface. Also in the second region grains are located at the apical cell surface as well as over the cytoplasm and extracellularly at the basal plasma membrane. It is possible that iodination takes place in the lumen close to cells in the first region and that the labeled product is taken up and eventually released by cells of the second region. Our observations show that this primitive endostyle already has iodinating capacity and may synthesize and release thyroid hormones.

  2. Citrus Seed Oils Efficacy against Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue fever is a serious public health issue in Pakistan for many years. Globally plants have been reported to contain compounds with insecticidal properties. These properties have been demonstrated more recently on the larval stages of mosquitoes. Therefore, Citrus cultivar seeds were evaluated for larvicidal potential against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti.Methods: Extraction of oil was done by a steam distillation method and oils were evaluated according to WHO guidelines for larvicides 2005 for evaluation of insecticidal properties of citrus seed extracts against mosquito larvae.Result: Among the Citrus cultivar seed oil, rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri had the lowest LC50 value (200.79ppm, while musambi (C. sinensis var musambi had the highest LC50 value (457.30ppm after 24 h of exposure.Conclusion: Citrus cultivars have some larvicidal potential but C. jambhiri had the greatest potential against A. ae­gypti larvae. Further small-scale field trials using the extracts of C. jambhiri will be conducted to determine opera­tional feasibility.

  3. The chemical defense in larvae of the earwig Forficula auricularia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch, Tina; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Larvae of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, possess a paired pygidial gland with yet unknown content and function. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze the larval secretions revealing the presence of 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-ethyl-1,4-benzoquinone, n-tridecane and n-pentadecane. Based on our recent discovery that the morphologically-distinct abdominal glands of adult earwigs produce secretions with antibacterial, antifungal and nematicidal activity, we propose that the pygidial glands mediate chemical defenses in the larvae. We next considered whether the defensive functions of larval secretions include repellent activity against sympatric predators. Therefore, we tested the effects of larval secretions on foraging workers of the ant species Myrmica rubra, the actively hunting spiders Anyphaena accentuata and Philodromus aureolus and the net-hunting spider Pholcus phalangioides in laboratory feeding assays. The secretion is released in response to ant attacks, and discourages feeding in M. rubra, however, it does not discourage feeding in spiders. Our results suggest that earwigs use different glands during ontogenesis to produce secretions that play roles in chemical defense against predators such as ants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dengue virus detection in Aedes aegypti larvae from southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecílio, Samyra Giarola; Júnior, Willer Ferreira Silva; Tótola, Antônio Helvécio; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; de Magalhães, José Carlos

    2015-06-01

    The transmission of dengue, the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in Brazil, has been intensified over the past decades, along with the accompanying expansion and adaptation of its Aedes vectors. In the present study, we mapped dengue vectors in Ouro Preto and Ouro Branco, Minas Gerais, by installing ovitraps in 32 public schools. The traps were examined monthly between September, 2011 through July, 2012 and November, 2012 to April, 2013. The larvae were reared until the fourth stadium and identified according to species. The presence of dengue virus was detected by real time PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. A total of 1,945 eggs was collected during the 17 months of the study. The Ovitrap Positivity Index (OPI) ranged from 0 to 28.13% and the Eggs Density Index (EDI) ranged from 0 to 59.9. The predominant species was Aedes aegypti, with 84.9% of the hatched larvae. Although the collection was low when compared to other ovitraps studies, vertical transmission could be detected. Of the 54 pools, dengue virus was detected in four Ae. aegypti pools. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  5. Otolith geochemistry does not reflect dispersal history of clownfish larvae

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2010-07-01

    Natural geochemical signatures in calcified structures are commonly employed to retrospectively estimate dispersal pathways of larval fish and invertebrates. However, the accuracy of the approach is generally untested due to the absence of individuals with known dispersal histories. We used genetic parentage analysis (genotyping) to divide 110 new recruits of the orange clownfish, Amphiprion percula, from Kimbe Island, Papua New Guinea, into two groups: "self-recruiters" spawned by parents on Kimbe Island and "immigrants" that had dispersed from distant reefs (>10 km away). Analysis of daily increments in sagittal otoliths found no significant difference in PLDs or otolith growth rates between self-recruiting and immigrant larvae. We also quantified otolith Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios during the larval phase using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Again, we found no significant differences in larval profiles of either element between self-recruits and immigrants. Our results highlight the need for caution when interpreting otolith dispersal histories based on natural geochemical tags in the absence of water chemistry data or known-origin larvae with which to test the discriminatory ability of natural tags. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  6. The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, Roderick Nigel [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 41, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)]. E-mail: nigel.finn@bio.uib.no

    2007-03-30

    the presence of ambient humic acid. High temperatures during development may be teratogenic, cause sexual bias, or long-term effects on muscle cellularity. Xenobiotics cause inhibition of neural acetylcholine esterase and carboxylases and disrupt the normal signalling pathways of hormones by binding to relevant receptors and mimicking their actions. A complex suite of genes is activated in response to environmental or parentally transmitted xenobiotics. The primary defense mechanism in embryos involves resistance to uptake but later biotransformation via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated activation of members of the cytochrome mixed-function mono-oxygenase superfamily (CYP1A, CYP2B, and CYP3A) and subsequent glucuronidation or glutathionation. Due to the number of duplicate or triplicate genes coding for intermediates in the signalling pathways, and cross-talk between nuclear orphan receptors and steroid hormone receptors, a large number of complications arise in response to xenobiotic intoxicaton. One such syndrome, known as blue-sac disease causes an anaphylactoid response in hatched larvae due to increased permeability in the vascular endothelium that coincides with AHR-mediated CYP induction. Early embryos also respond to such xenobiotic insults, but apparently have an immature translational control for expression of CYP proteins, which coincides with a lack of excretory organs necessary for the end-point of biotransformation. Other syndromes (M74 and Cayuga) are now associated with thiamine deficiency. Where possible guidelines for water quality criteria are suggested.

  7. The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, Roderick Nigel

    2007-01-01

    the presence of ambient humic acid. High temperatures during development may be teratogenic, cause sexual bias, or long-term effects on muscle cellularity. Xenobiotics cause inhibition of neural acetylcholine esterase and carboxylases and disrupt the normal signalling pathways of hormones by binding to relevant receptors and mimicking their actions. A complex suite of genes is activated in response to environmental or parentally transmitted xenobiotics. The primary defense mechanism in embryos involves resistance to uptake but later biotransformation via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated activation of members of the cytochrome mixed-function mono-oxygenase superfamily (CYP1A, CYP2B, and CYP3A) and subsequent glucuronidation or glutathionation. Due to the number of duplicate or triplicate genes coding for intermediates in the signalling pathways, and cross-talk between nuclear orphan receptors and steroid hormone receptors, a large number of complications arise in response to xenobiotic intoxicaton. One such syndrome, known as blue-sac disease causes an anaphylactoid response in hatched larvae due to increased permeability in the vascular endothelium that coincides with AHR-mediated CYP induction. Early embryos also respond to such xenobiotic insults, but apparently have an immature translational control for expression of CYP proteins, which coincides with a lack of excretory organs necessary for the end-point of biotransformation. Other syndromes (M74 and Cayuga) are now associated with thiamine deficiency. Where possible guidelines for water quality criteria are suggested

  8. Respiratory Muscle Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gransee, Heather M.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle plasticity is defined as the ability of a given muscle to alter its structural and functional properties in accordance with the environmental conditions imposed on it. As such, respiratory muscle is in a constant state of remodeling, and the basis of muscle’s plasticity is its ability to change protein expression and resultant protein balance in response to varying environmental conditions. Here, we will describe the changes of respiratory muscle imposed by extrinsic changes in mechanical load, activity, and innervation. Although there is a large body of literature on the structural and functional plasticity of respiratory muscles, we are only beginning to understand the molecular-scale protein changes that contribute to protein balance. We will give an overview of key mechanisms regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation, as well as the complex interactions between them. We suggest future application of a systems biology approach that would develop a mathematical model of protein balance and greatly improve treatments in a variety of clinical settings related to maintaining both muscle mass and optimal contractile function of respiratory muscles. PMID:23798306

  9. Sorghum, Miscanthus & Co: Energy crops as potential host plants of western corn rootworm larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloyna, Kai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In a series of greenhouse experiments the host status and quality of 49 biofuel plants for the larvae of WCR were evaluated. The plants tested (18 species and varieties of Sorghum, 16 forage grasses, 6 Miscanthus genotypes, 6 Panicum varieties and 3 broadleaf species were grown for at least three weeks before they were used in the bioassays. The insects used in the experiments were obtained from a non diapausing laboratory strain originally from the US and maintained by BTL since 2006. Only neonate larvae (not older than 24 hours were used in the bioassays. In each experiment up to six species or varieties of plants were tested each with 10 replicates (containers. A susceptible maize variety was used as a positive control in each experiment. Each plant container was infested with ten neonate WCR larvae using a fine art brush. After inoculation the plants were not watered for at least 24 hours to facilitate the establishment of the larvae. The experiments were terminated after 18 days. To extract surviving larvae the soil and roots of test plants were carefully examined by hand and then transferred to a modified MacFadyen heat extractor with an extraction temperature of 45 °C. To assess the host quality the number of larvae recovered, the widths of their head capsules and dry weights were recorded. The larvae were dried at 40 °C for at least 72 hours and then weighed on an electronic micro balance. Of the 21 forage and switch grasses examined 16 hosted WCR larvae. However, the percentage of larvae that survived for 18 days, their dry weights and head capsule widths were significantly less than that recorded for larvae that developed on maize roots. The roots of most (i.e. 15 of the 18 Sorghum species or varieties tested were unsuitable for the development of WCR larvae. For the remaining three Sorghum species a maximum of only two larvae (of 100 inoculated were recovered. These results indicate that species of Sorghum are very poor quality

  10. Resistance to OsHV-1 infection in Crassostrea gigas larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel eDégremont

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV-1 is one of the major diseases that affect the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Selective breeding programs were recently shown to improve resistance easily to OsHV-1 infections in spat, juvenile and adult oysters. Nevertheless, this resistance has never been investigated in larvae, whereas this developmental stage has crucial importance for the production of commercial hatcheries, as well as explaining the abundance of spatfall. A first trial tested several viral suspensions at several concentrations using contaminated water with OsHV-1 in four-day-old and ten-day-old larvae that were produced from an unselected broodstock. In follow up on the results, one viral suspension at a final concentration of 10+6 OsHV-1 DNA copies per L was used to assess resistance to OsHV-1 infection in C. gigas larvae that were produced from selected and unselected broodstock. A second trial evaluated OsHV-1 resistance in larvae from both broodstocks in trials 2a, 2b and 2c with 4, 10 and 16-day-old larvae for 7 days, which corresponded to post D larvae, umbo larvae and eyed larvae, respectively. The mortality of unchallenged larvae for both stocks were low (<15% at day 7 in trials 2a and 2b, whereas it ranged from 48 to 56% in trial 2c. More interestingly, selected larvae had significantly lower mortality than unselected larvae when exposed to OsHV-1 in all of the trials. Thus, the mortality was 11% and 49% for the selected larvae at day 7 post-exposure in trials 2a and 2c, respectively, in comparison with 84% and 97% for the unselected larvae. Although this difference in mortality was observed at day 5 in trial 2b, it was reduced at day 7, to 86% and 98% for the selected and unselected larvae, respectively. For the first time in the literature, the difference in mortality or the delayed onset of mortality between selected and unselected larvae have indicated a genetic resistance to OsHV-1 infection at the larval stage. Such finding

  11. Temporal and Spatial Distribution Patterns of Echinoderm Larvae in La Parguera, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey M Williams

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes temporal and spatial abundance patterns of echinoderm larvae in La Parguera, Puerto Rico. For the temporal study, larvae were sampled by a series of monthly tows taken with a 64μm mesh net between the new and full moon from April 2005 to July 2006, September 2006 and August 2007. In order to measure spatial variation of echinoderm larval bundances, oblique tows were taken with 64 and 202μm mesh nets at seven different sites within the shelf, at the shelf-edge, and at a nearby oceanic stations during August 2007. Overall, Echinoidea (sea urchin exhibited the highest abundance with a total of 11 921 larvae, representing 52.5% of the total collection. Ophiuroidea (brittle star ranked second in abundance with 45.6% of the total larvae. Holothuroidea (sea cucumber and Asteroidea larvae (sea star accounted for less than 2% of the total echinoderm larval collection. Early larval stages (2-8 day old of Diadema antillarum represented 20% of the total Echinoidea larvae. There was no marked seasonal trend of echinoderm larval abundance; Echinoidea and Ophiuroidea larvae were present in all monthly samples indicating that reproduction occurs year-round. Peak abundances of later-stage Echinoidea larvae were observed during January, July and October and of later-stage Ophiuroidea larvae during June, August and October. The observed peaks of later-stage larval abundances may be indicative of higher recruitment activity during these months. There was a significant difference of echinoderm larval abundance between spatial stations, with higher abundances collected at the shelf-edge. Later-stage (~24 day old D. antillarum larvae were mostly collected at shelf-edge and oceanic locations. In addition, the 64mm mesh net was more efficient for collection of echinoderm larvae than the 202mm mesh net. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 81-88. Epub 2010 October 01.

  12. Temporal and spatial distribution patterns of echinoderm larvae in La Parguera, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stacey M; Jorge, García-Sais

    2010-10-01

    This study describes temporal and spatial abundance patterns of echinoderm larvae in La Parguera, Puerto Rico. For the temporal study, larvae were sampled by a series of monthly tows taken with a 64 microm mesh net between the new and full moon from April 2005 to July 2006, September 2006 and August 2007. In order to measure spatial variation of echinoderm larval abundances, oblique tows were taken with 64 and 202 microm mesh nets at seven different sites within the shelf, at the shelf-edge, and at a nearby oceanic stations during August 2007. Overall, Echinoidea (sea urchin) exhibited the highest abundance with a total of 11 921 larvae, representing 52.5% of the total collection. Ophiuroidea (brittle star) ranked second in abundance with 45.6% of the total larvae. Holothuroidea (sea cucumber) and Asteroidea larvae (sea star) accounted for less than 2% of the total echinoderm larval collection. Early larval stages (2-8 day old) of Diadema antillarum represented 20% of the total Echinoidea larvae. There was no marked seasonal trend of echinoderm larval abundance; Echinoidea and Ophiuroidea larvae were present in all monthly samples indicating that reproduction occurs year-round. Peak abundances of later-stage Echinoidea larvae were observed during January, July and October and of later-stage Ophiuroidea larvae during June, August and October. The observed peaks of later-stage larval abundances may be indicative of higher recruitment activity during these months. There was a significant difference of echinoderm larval abundance between spatial stations, with higher abundances collected at the shelf-edge. Later-stage (approximately 24 day old) D. antillarum larvae were mostly collected at shelf-edge and oceanic locations. In addition, the 64 microm mesh net was more efficient for collection of echinoderm larvae than the 202 microm mesh net.

  13. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Thamara Figueiredo; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Oliveira, Aline Rafaella Cardoso; Souza, Carolina de Santana; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution

  14. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamara Figueiredo Procópio

    Full Text Available In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4, as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae and 1.03% (fed larvae. Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae, 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0% promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates

  15. Host gut microorganisms' cues mediate orientation behaviour in the larva of the parasitoid Mallophora ruficauda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groba, H F; Castelo, M K

    2016-02-01

    The robber fly Mallophora ruficauda is one of the most important apicultural pests in the Pampas region of Argentina. This species is a parasitoid of scarab beetle larvae. Females lay eggs away from the host, and the larvae perform active search behaviour toward Cyclocephala signaticollis third instar larvae, parasitoid's preferred host. This behaviour is mediated by host-related chemical cues produced in hosts' fermentation chamber. Also, C. signaticollis larvae are attracted to fermentation chamber extracts. As scarab larvae have microbe-rich fermentation chamber, it has been suggested that microorganisms could be involved in the production of these semiochemicals. The aims of this work were first to ascertain the presence of microorganisms in the fermentation chamber of C. signaticollis larvae and second to determine the role of microorganisms in the orientation response of parasitoid and host larvae. We found that microorganisms-free C. signaticollis larvae showed deterioration in their development and did not produce the attractive semiochemicals. Therefore, we isolated fermentation chamber microorganisms of host larvae by means of different cultures media, and then, assayed different microorganisms' stimuli by binary choice tests. We were able to isolate microorganisms and determine that M. ruficauda larvae are attracted to semiochemicals from protein degradation in the fermentation chamber. However, C. signaticollis larvae were not attracted to any semiochemicals associated with microorganisms' activity in the fermentation chamber. Although we were unable to elucidate the exact role of gut microorganisms in host behaviour, we discuss their relevance in parasitoid host-seeking behaviour and host conspecific interaction in M. ruficauda-C. signaticollis system.

  16. An unprecedented role reversal: ground beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Carabidae lure amphibians and prey upon them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Wizen

    Full Text Available Amphibians often feed on beetle larvae, including those of ground beetles (Carabidae. Preliminary reports have detailed an unusual trophic interaction in which, in contrast, larvae of the ground beetle Epomis prey upon juvenile and adult amphibians. While it is known that these larvae feed exclusively on amphibians, how the predator-prey encounter occurs to the advantage of the beetle larvae had been unknown to date. Using laboratory observations and controlled experiments, we recorded the feeding behavior of Epomis larvae, as well as the behavior of their amphibian prey. Here we reveal that larvae of two species of Epomis (E. circumscriptus and E. dejeani lure their potential predator, taking advantage of the amphibian's predation behavior. The Epomis larva combines a sit-and-wait strategy with unique movements of its antennae and mandibles to draw the attention of the amphibian to the presence of a potential prey. The intensity of this enticement increases with decreasing distance between the larva and the amphibian. When the amphibian attacks, the larva almost always manages to avoid the predator's protracted tongue, exploiting the opportunity to attach itself to the amphibian's body and initiate feeding. Our findings suggest that the trophic interaction between Epomis larvae and amphibians is one of the only natural cases of obligatory predator-prey role reversal. Moreover, this interaction involves a small insect larva that successfully lures and preys on a larger vertebrate. Such role reversal is exceptional in the animal world, extending our perspective of co-evolution in the arms race between predator and prey, and suggesting that counterattack defense behavior has evolved into predator-prey role reversal.

  17. Vulnerability of the mosquito larvae to the guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in the presence of alternative preys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Barnali; Aditya, Gautam; Banerjee, Samir

    2008-09-01

    The predatory potential of the larvivorous fishes can be affected by the presence of alternative preys. In the present study the predation pattern of the sewage dwelling Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1872) on the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) was evaluated in the presence of alternative preys. The predation of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by different size groups of R. reticulata fishes was evaluated. In addition to this, the niche breadth (N) and diet breadth (B) were measured following Manly's selectivity index (Si) as an indicator of variation of such predation pattern in the presence of alternative prey types, like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms. The consumption of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by individual P. reticulata ranged between 65 and 84 in a 3 h feeding period and varied with the size of fish (F2,33 = 34.91; p < 0.001). The selectivity coefficient revealed a significantly low preference for the Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae (0.16, CL: 0.05-0.27; p < 0.05) compared to the chironomid larvae and tubificid worms, when all the three prey types were present. The niche breadth (N) and diet breadth (B) ranged from 0.77 to 0.92 and 0.69 to 0.93, respectively. The total consumption of all the prey types varied with the predator density, but the selectivity index for the mosquito larvae was significantly low in all the instances. P. reticulata can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, with the consumption rate varying with the body size. P. reticulata fishes exhibit low preference for mosquito larvae as prey in the presence of alternative controphic preys like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms. Though establishment and sustenance of P. reticulata in new habitats will be favoured by the presence of alternative preys, but vulnerability of mosquito larvae may be reduced with availability of multiple preys in natural conditions.

  18. Muscle Bioenergetic Considerations for Intrinsic Laryngeal Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and…

  19. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  20. An invasive species as an additional parasite reservoir: Trichinella in introduced American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurníková, Zuzana; Kołodziej-Sobocińska, Marta; Dvorožňáková, Emília; Niemczynowicz, Agnieszka; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2016-11-15

    The American mink (Neovison vison Schreber, 1777) is one of the most invasive alien mammal species which has been introduced to many countries in Europe, Asia and South America. As a predator which feeds on various prey, American mink carry many endoparasites; however, data about infection rate and prevalence of different parasites in mink are limited, especially concerning Trichinella spp. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of American mink in the circulation of Trichinella species in its introduced range. In total, 812 muscle samples of mink from six feral populations and three farms in Poland were examined for presence of Trichinella muscle larvae using the artificial HCl-pepsin digestion method. Muscle larvae were found in 27 out of 812 individuals (3.3%) from six localities in western and north-eastern Poland. The intensity of infection varied from 0.1 to 274.8 LPG. The majority of Trichinella-positive individuals - 15 (55.6%) were infected with T. britovi, one with T. spiralis, and one with T. pseudospiralis. Two animals harboured T. britovi and T. spiralis in co-infection and this data confirmed the first report of a mixed Trichinella infection in American mink. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oviposition Behavior in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Response to the Presence of Heterospecific and Conspecific Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Paula V; González Audino, Paola A; Masuh, Héctor M

    2016-03-01

    In mosquitoes, location of suitable sites for oviposition requires a set of visual, tactile, and olfactory cues that influences females before laying their eggs. The ability of gravid females to distinguish among potential oviposition sites that will or will not support the growth, development, and survival of their progeny is critical. Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) share ecological niches, being highly competitive in larval stage. We studied the oviposition behavior of both species in the presence of larvae of one or the other species (heterospecific or conspecific larvae). The number of eggs laid by gravid females on oviposition sites (water with different or the same species of Aedes larvae) were compared. The presence and density of heterospecific or conspecific larvae had a positive or negative effect on the ovipositional responses, measured as an oviposition activity index. For both species, the oviposition was not affected by heterospecific larvae with densities between 10 and 100 larvae in water, but a strong attractant behavior was observed for a density of 500 larvae in water. For Ae. albopictus in the presence of larvae of the same species (conspecific oviposition), we observed an attractant effect for larvae density of 10 but not for 100 or 500 larvae in water. Instead, for Ae. aegypti, we observed attraction only for 100 larvae, not for 10 or 500 larvae. Results presented here provide an additional insight about oviposition behavior responses of gravid females in the presence of conspecific and heterospecific larvae in breeding sites.

  2. Muscle Disorders - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Muscle Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  3. Neurogenic muscle cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Hans D

    2015-08-01

    Muscle cramps are sustained, painful contractions of muscle and are prevalent in patients with and without medical conditions. The objective of this review is to present updates on the mechanism, investigation and treatment of neurogenic muscle cramps. PubMed and Embase databases were queried between January 1980 and July 2014 for English-language human studies. The American Academy of Neurology classification of studies (classes I-IV) was used to assess levels of evidence. Mechanical disruption, ephaptic transmission, disruption of sensory afferents and persistent inward currents have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurogenic cramps. Investigations are directed toward identifying physiological triggers or medical conditions predisposing to cramps. Although cramps can be self-limiting, disabling or sustained muscle cramps should prompt investigation for underlying medical conditions. Lifestyle modifications, treatment of underlying conditions, stretching, B-complex vitamins, diltiezam, mexiletine, carbamazepine, tetrahydrocannabinoid, leveteracitam and quinine sulfate have shown evidence for treatment.

  4. Human airway smooth muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe function of airway smooth muscle in normal subjects is not evident. Possible physiological roles include maintenance of optimal regional ventilation/perfusion ratios, reduction of anatomic dead space, stabilisation of cartilaginous bronchi, defense against impurities and, less

  5. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  6. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H

    1982-01-01

    glycogenolysis during exercise: contractions principally stimulate glycogenolysis early in exercise, and a direct effect of epinephrine on muscle is needed for continued glycogenolysis. In addition, epinephrine increased oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in both resting and electrically stimulated...

  7. Pneumatic Muscle Actuator Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lilly, John

    2000-01-01

    This research is relevant to the Air Fore mission because pneumatic muscle actuation devices arc advantageous for certain types of robotics as well as for strength and/or mobility assistance for humans...

  8. Stronger effects of Roundup than its active ingredient glyphosate in damselfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2017-12-01

    Pesticides are causing strong decreases in aquatic biodiversity at concentrations assumed safe by legislation. One reason for the failing risk assessment may be strong differences in the toxicity of the active ingredient of pesticides and their commercial formulations. Sublethal effects, especially those on behaviour, have been largely ignored in this context, yet can be equally important as lethal effects at the population and ecosystem levels. Here, we compared the toxicity of the herbicide Roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate on survival, but also on ecologically relevant sublethal traits (life history, behaviour and physiology) in damselfly larvae. Roundup was more toxic than glyphosate with negative effects on survival, behaviour and most of the physiological traits being present at lower concentrations (food intake, escape swimming speed) or even only present (survival, sugar and total energy content and muscle mass) following Roundup exposure. This confirms the toxicity of the surfactant POEA. Notably, also glyphosate was not harmless: a realistic concentration of 2mg/l resulted in reduced growth rate, escape swimming speed and fat content. Our results therefore indicate that the toxicity of Roundup cannot be fully attributed to its surfactant, thereby suggesting that also the new generation of glyphosate-based herbicides with other mixtures of surfactants likely will have adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms. Ecotoxicological studies comparing the toxicity of active ingredients and their commercial formulations typically ignore behaviour while the here observed differential effects on behaviour likely will negatively impact damselfly populations. Our data highlight that risk assessment of pesticides ignoring sublethal effects may contribute to the negative effects of pesticides on aquatic biodiversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bifidogenic effect of grain larvae extract on serum lipid, glucose and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Bifidogenic effect; blood lipid; cecal microflora; grain larvae; IgG; organic acid ... grain larvae ethanol extract (GLE) had a bifidogenic effect in normal rats. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into a negative control group (CO) and GLE orally administered (5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 mg/100 g body weight) groups.

  10. Host Recognition Responses of Western (Family: Chrysomelidae) Corn Rootworm Larvae to RNA Interference and Bt Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukoff, Sarah N; Zukoff, Anthony L

    2017-01-01

    Western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important pest of corn whose larvae exhibit particular quantifiable patterns of locomotion after exposure to, and removal from, host roots and nonhost roots. Using EthoVision software, the behavior and locomotion of the western corn rootworm larvae was analyzed to determine the level of host recognition to germinated roots of differing corn hybrids containing either rootworm targeted Bt genes, RNA interference (RNAi) technology, the stack of both Bt and RNAi, or the isoline of these. The behavior of the rootworm larvae indicated a significant host preference response to all corn hybrids (with or without insecticidal traits) compared to the filter paper and oat roots. A weaker host response to the RNAi corn roots was observed in the susceptible larvae when compared to the resistant larvae, but not for the Bt + RNAi vector stack. Additionally, the resistant larvae demonstrated a weaker host response to the isoline corn roots when compared to the susceptible larvae. Although weaker, these host responses were significantly different from those observed in the negative controls, indicating that all hybrids tested do contain the contact cues necessary to elicit a host preference response by both Cry3Bb1-resistant and Cry3Bb1-susceptible larvae that would work to hinder resistance development in refuge in a bag fields. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  11. Morphogenesis of Strongyloides stercoralis infective larvae requires the DAF-16 ortholog FKTF-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Castelletto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on metabolic and morphological similarities between infective third-stage larvae of parasitic nematodes and dauer larvae of Caenorhabditis elegans, it is hypothesized that similar genetic mechanisms control the development of these forms. In the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, FKTF-1 is an ortholog of DAF-16, a forkhead transcription factor that regulates dauer larval development in C. elegans. Using transgenesis, we investigated the role of FKTF-1 in S. stercoralis' infective larval development. In first-stage larvae, GFP-tagged recombinant FKTF-1b localizes to the pharynx and hypodermis, tissues remodeled in infective larvae. Activating and inactivating mutations at predicted AKT phosphorylation sites on FKTF-1b give constitutive cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the protein, respectively, indicating that its post-translational regulation is similar to other FOXO-class transcription factors. Mutant constructs designed to interfere with endogenous FKTF-1b function altered the intestinal and pharyngeal development of the larvae and resulted in some transgenic larvae failing to arrest in the infective stage. Our findings indicate that FKTF-1b is required for proper morphogenesis of S. stercoralis infective larvae and support the overall hypothesis of similar regulation of dauer development in C. elegans and the formation of infective larvae in parasitic nematodes.

  12. Estimating reproductive success of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in honey bee colonies by trapping emigrating larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Richard T; Torto, Baldwyn; Willms, Steve; Fombong, Ayuka T; Duehl, Adrian; Teal, Peter E A

    2012-02-01

    The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) is a scavenger and facultative predator in honey bee colonies, where it feeds on pollen, honey, and bee brood. Although a minor problem in its native Africa, it is an invasive pest of honey bees in the United States and Australia. Adult beetles enter bee hives to oviposit and feed. Larval development occurs within the hive, but mature larvae leave the hive to pupate in soil. The numbers leaving, which can be estimated by trapping, measure the reproductive success of adult beetles in the hive over any given period of time. We describe a trap designed to intercept mature larvae as they reach the end of the bottom board on their way to the ground. Trap efficiency was estimated by releasing groups of 100 larvae into empty brood boxes and counting the numbers trapped. Some larvae escaped, but mean efficiency ranged from 87.2 to 94.2%. We envision the trap as a research tool for study of beetle population dynamics, and we used it to track numbers of larvae leaving active hives for pupation in the soil. The traps detected large increases and then decreases in numbers of larvae leaving colonies that weakened and died. They also detected small numbers of larvae leaving strong European and African colonies, even when no larvae were observed in the hives.

  13. Description of the larvae of Hydroporus ferrugineus Stephens and H-polaris fall (Coleoptera: Adephaga: Dytiscidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alarie, Y.; Wood, P.J.; Bruyn, de A.M.H.; Cuppen, J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Description of structures of the larvae of Hydroporus ferrugineus Stephens and H. polaris Fall is provided including detailed chaetotaxal and porotaxal analyses. Larvae of H. ferrugineus are distinguished from all other species of Hydroporus Clairville by the presence of 1–2 secondary setae on

  14. Differential utilization of ash phloem by emerald ash borer larvae: Ash species and larval stage effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Michael D. Ulyshen; Therese M. Poland

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the extent to which ash species (black, green and white) and larval developmental stage (second, third and fourth instar) affect the efficiency of phloem amino acid utilization by emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larvae. EAB larvae generally utilized green ash...

  15. Efficacy of Three Funnel Traps for Capturing Amphibian Larvae in Seasonal Forest Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard R. Buech; Leanna M. Egeland

    2002-01-01

    Among the many techniques that have been used to study amphibians, funnel traps are commonly recommended to determine species presence, breeding success, and relative abundance of amphibian larvae in aquatic habitats. Several authors have discussed the advantages and disadvantages of funnel traps for sampling amphibian larvae (Adams et al. 1997; Fronzuto and Verrell...

  16. Chemical Composition and Food Potential of Pachymerus nucleorum Larvae Parasitizing Acrocomia aculeata Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insect consumption as food is culturally practiced in various regions of the world. In Brazil, there are more than 130 species of edible insects registered, from nine orders, among which stands out the Coleoptera. The larva of the beetle Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1792, grows into the bocaiuva fruit (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Ex Mart., 1845), which has proven nutritional quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional potential of P. nucleorum larvae compared to bocaiuva kernels for human consumption. Proteins were the second largest portion of the larvae nutritional composition (33.13%), with percentage higher than the bocaiuva kernels (14.21%). The larval lipid content (37.87%) was also high, very close to the kernels (44.96%). The fraction corresponding to fatty acids in the oil extracted from the larvae was 40.17% for the saturated and 46.52% for the unsaturated. The antioxidant activity value was 24.3 uM trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae. The larvae tryptic activity was 0.032±0.006 nmol BAPNA/min. Both the larvae and the bocaiuva kernel presented absence of anti-nutritional factors. These results favor the use of P. nucleorum larvae as food, which are a great protein and lipid sources with considerable concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the bocaiuva kernel. PMID:27031500

  17. Secreted and immunogenic proteins produced by the honey bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Foulbrood is a severe disease affecting larvae of honeybee Apis mellifera, causing significant decrease in the honeybee population, beekeeping industries and agricultural production. In spite of its importance, little is known about the virulence factors secreted by Paenibacillus larvae dur...

  18. The larva of Tricholeon relictus Hölzel & Monserrat, 2002 a synanthropic antlion (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Fernando; Badano, Davide; Monserrat, Víctor J

    2014-07-11

    The larva of Tricholeon relictus, a Spanish endemic antlion of Afrotropical affinities, is described and illustrated for the first time also providing a comparison with the only other European member of the tribe Dendroleontini, Dendroleon pantherinus. The larva of this species is synanthropic but probably originally lived in cave-like habitats.

  19. First report of antennular attachment organs in a barnacle nauplius larva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, H.; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Chan, B.K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Larvae released from Newmaniverruca albatrossiana were cultured in the laboratory until the cypris stage. The brood size of individuals was low, about 60 larvae per brood. The exact number of instars was not determined. Early instars had the morphology normally seen in lecithotrophic nauplii...

  20. Gregarious settlement in cypris larvae: the effects of cyprid age and assay duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Head, R.M.; Berntsson, K.M.; Dahlström, M.; Overbeke, J.C.; Thomason, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Gregarious behaviour of marine larvae is perhaps most clearly associated with finding a suitable habitat in a changeable or restricted environment, or with finding other conspecifics with which to mate. Prior work has shown that in settlement assays using cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus

  1. Snail Larvae From Turbulent Inlets and the Wavy Continental Shelf Use Different Physical Behavioral Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. L.; Gerbi, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Dispersing larvae experience hydrodynamic signals from turbulence and waves; these signals vary geographically in their intensity and may cue behaviors enhancing transport to suitable habitats. Turbulence dominates the production of spatial velocity gradients (strain or vorticity), whereas waves often dominate the production of accelerations. Spatial patterns in these two signal types create a potential mechanism for larvae to distinguish or navigate among habitats. We quantified flow-induced behaviors in late-stage larvae of congeneric snails from turbulent coastal inlets (Ilyanassa obsoleta) and from the wavy continental shelf (Ilyanassa trivittata). Larvae were exposed to turbulence and to simpler flows dominated by strain, vorticity, or wave-generated acceleration. Fluid flow and individual larvae were observed simultaneously using infrared, particle-image velocimetry. In turbulence, larvae of both species sank or swam downward more frequently at higher dissipation rates, but the average vertical velocities of I. obsoleta became more negative (downward) than those of I. trivittata. In simpler flows, larvae of I. obsoleta reacted more strongly to vorticity-induced rotation relative to gravity, whereas only I. trivittata exhibited a strong reaction to wave-generated accelerations. Both species reacted to vorticity or acceleration in the absence of large strain rates, indicating that larvae likely sense flow using the statocysts. Although statocysts can sense two signal types, these closely related species responded differently to those signals, suggesting that behavior is attuned to the physical signals that dominate their respective adult habitats.

  2. Young and old honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae differentially prime the developmental maturation of their caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    In eusocial insects daughters rear the offspring of the queen to adulthood. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, nurses differentially regulate larval nutrition. Among worker-destined larvae, younger instars receive an unrestricted diet paralleling that of queen larvae in protein composition but with r...

  3. Chemically mediated group formation in soil-dwelling larvae and pupae of the beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Wataru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

    2014-09-01

    Many insects form groups through interactions among individuals, and these are often mediated by chemical, acoustic, or visual cues and signals. In spite of the diversity of soil-dwelling insects, their aggregation behaviour has not been examined as extensively as that of aboveground species. We investigated the aggregation mechanisms of larvae of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus, which live in groups in humus soil. In two-choice laboratory tests, 2nd- and 3rd-instar larvae gathered at conspecific larvae irrespective of the kinship. The ablation of maxillae, which bear chemosensilla, abolished aggregation behaviour. Intact larvae also exhibited aggregation behaviour towards a larval homogenate. These results suggest that larval aggregation is mediated by chemical cues. We also demonstrated that the mature larvae of T. dichotomus built their pupal cells close to a mesh bag containing a conspecific pupal cell, which indicated that larvae utilize chemical cues emanating from these cells to select the pupation site. Thus, the larvae of T. dichotomus may use chemical cues from the conspecifics in two different contexts, i.e. larval aggregation and pupation site selection. Using conspecific cues, larvae may be able to choose suitable locations for foraging or building pupal cells. The results of the present study highlight the importance of chemical information in belowground ecology.

  4. A strain of Serratia marcescens pathogenic for larvae of Lymantria dispar: Infectivity and mechanisms of pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Podgwaite; B.J. Cosenza

    1976-01-01

    The ED50 of a strain of Serratia marcescens for microinjected instar III and IV gypsy moth larvae was 7.5 and 14.5 viable cells, respectively. Percentage and rate of mortality were found to be highly variable among replicates of the same instar and between instars in free-feeding bioassays. Mortality in second instar larvae...

  5. Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    São Thiago André Iwersen de; Kupek Emil; Ferreira Neto Joaquim Alves; São Thiago Paulo de Tarso

    2002-01-01

    Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, biological vectors of dengue and yellow fever, has been developed. Rapid field identification of larva using a digital camera linked to a laptop computer equipped with this software may greatly help prevention campaigns.

  6. Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    São Thiago André Iwersen de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, biological vectors of dengue and yellow fever, has been developed. Rapid field identification of larva using a digital camera linked to a laptop computer equipped with this software may greatly help prevention campaigns.

  7. Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sao Thiago, André Iwersen de; Kupek, Emil; Ferreira Neto, Joaquim Alves; Sao Thiago, Paulo de Tarso

    2002-01-01

    Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, biological vectors of dengue and yellow fever, has been developed. Rapid field identification of larva using a digital camera linked to a laptop computer equipped with this software may greatly help prevention campaigns.

  8. Surto de larva migrans cutnea em uma creche de belo horizonte, minas gerais (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Dos Santos Lima

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata a ocorrência de um surto de Larva migrans cutânea, em 17 crianças de uma creche em Belo Horizonte, MG. As crianças adquiriram esta dermatose quando brincavam em uma caixa de areia contaminada com larvas infectantes de ancilostomídeos de cão.

  9. Vertical distribution of small pelagic fish eggs and larvae on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vertical distributions of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardinops sagax eggs and larvae within the upper 50 m of the water column on the eastern Agulhas Bank, South Africa, were examined using discrete depth samples collected with a multiple, opening/closing plankton net. Eggs and larvae of sardine and ...

  10. Acute toxicity of five pesticides to Apis mellifera larvae reared in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Pingli; Jack, Cameron J; Mortensen, Ashley N; Ellis, James D

    2017-11-01

    The reported high loss rates of managed honey bee colonies have been attributed to diverse stressors including pesticides. Honey bee larvae can be exposed to pesticides in contaminated nectar, pollen and wax. Due to the difficulties of rearing larvae in vitro, research focusing on adult bee exposure to pesticides is more common than that on larva exposure to pesticides. Herein, we aimed to assess the acute toxicity of five insecticides to honey bee larvae using an improved in vitro rearing method. LC 50 and LD 50 were calculated for larvae at 72 h following a single diet exposure administered when the larvae were 84 ± 12 h old. Solvent control larval mortalities were less than 15% at 72 h. The LC 50 values (mg L -1 ) for each tested pesticide were as follows: amitraz, 494.27; chlorpyrifos, 15.39; coumaphos, 90.01; fluvalinate, 27.69; and imidacloprid, 138.84. The LD 50 values in µg per larva were 14.83 (amitraz), 0.46 (chlorpyrifos), 2.70 (coumaphos), 0.83 (fluvalinate) and 4.17 (imidacloprid). The toxicity of the test pesticides to honey bee larvae from most to least toxic was chlorpyrifos > fluvalinate > coumaphos = imidacloprid > amitraz. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Radiolabeling and autoradiographic tracing of Toxocara canis larvae in male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, S.E.; Georgi, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Artificially hatched infective larvae of Toxocara canis were labeled with 75 Se in Medium 199 (Gibco) containing 75 Se-methionine. Male CD-1 mice were infected with radiolabeled larvae by intragastric intubation or by intraperitoneal injection. At intervals of 3-56 days mice were killed and the organs prepared for compressed organ autoradiography. Radioactivity of parasitic larvae showed an exponential decrease with time, reflecting catabolism of label with a biological half life of 26 days (effective half life of 21 days) making possible experiments lasting several months. Total body larva counts, estimated by total body autoradiography, displayed an overall downward trend, but the rate of reduction was probably not constant because no significant positive or negative trends were noted from day 14 onward in the numbers of larvae. The carcass accumulated the greatest number of larvae followed by the central nervous system, liver, and lung in that order. When the numbers of larvae were considered in relationship to the mass of tissue, there were 4 groupings: central nervous system, liver, lung, carcass, and kidney, and genito-urinary organ, pelt, and intestine. No significant difference between intragastric and intraperitoneal administration was observed in the larval distribution after the larvae had left the initial site of deposition

  12. Radiolabeling and autoradiographic tracing of Toxocara canis larvae in male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, S.E.; Georgi, J.R.

    1987-02-01

    Artificially hatched infective larvae of Toxocara canis were labeled with /sup 75/Se in Medium 199 (Gibco) containing /sup 75/Se-methionine. Male CD-1 mice were infected with radiolabeled larvae by intragastric intubation or by intraperitoneal injection. At intervals of 3-56 days mice were killed and the organs prepared for compressed organ autoradiography. Radioactivity of parasitic larvae showed an exponential decrease with time, reflecting catabolism of label with a biological half life of 26 days (effective half life of 21 days) making possible experiments lasting several months. Total body larva counts, estimated by total body autoradiography, displayed an overall downward trend, but the rate of reduction was probably not constant because no significant positive or negative trends were noted from day 14 onward in the numbers of larvae. The carcass accumulated the greatest number of larvae followed by the central nervous system, liver, and lung in that order. When the numbers of larvae were considered in relationship to the mass of tissue, there were 4 groupings: central nervous system, liver, lung, carcass, and kidney, and genito-urinary organ, pelt, and intestine. No significant difference between intragastric and intraperitoneal administration was observed in the larval distribution after the larvae had left the initial site of deposition.

  13. Cold hardiness and supercooling capacity in the overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Abbas; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2010-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a worldwide apple pest, is classified as a freeze-intolerant organism and one of the most cold-tolerant pests. The objectives of this study were to examine the supercooling point of overwintering and non-diapausing larvae of C. pomonella as an index of its cold hardiness, and to assess larval mortality following 24 h exposure to extreme low temperatures ranging from -5 to -25 degrees C. The mean (+/-SE) supercooling point for feeding larvae (third through fifth instars) was -12.4 +/- 1.1 degrees C. The mean supercooling point for cocooned, non-diapausing larvae (i.e., non-feeding stages) decreased as the days that the arvae were cocooned increased and changed between -15.1 +/- 1.2 degrees C for one to two day cocooned arvae and -19.2 +/- 1.8 degrees C for less than five day cocooned larvae. The mean (+/-SE) supercooling point for other non-feeding stages containing pupae and overwintering larvae were -19.9 +/- 1.0 degrees C and -20.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C, respectively. Mean supercooling points of C. pomonella larvae were significantly lower during the winter months than the summer months, and sex had no effect on the supercooling point of C. pomonella larvae. The mortality of larvae increased significantly after individuals were exposed to temperatures below the mean supercooling point of the population. The supercooling point was a good predictor of cold hardiness.

  14. Weight changes and organ pathology in rats given edible larvae of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of oral administration of extracts of raw and processed larvae of Cirina forda (Westwood) on morphometry and histo pathology were studied in albino rats. Weights of rats in the control group and in the group that were fed the processed larvae were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the group that received ...

  15. Feeding by larvae of intertidal invertebrates: assessing their position in pelagic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Cristian A; Manríquez, Patricio H; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2006-02-01

    One of the leading determinants of the structure and dynamics of marine populations is the rate of arrival of new individuals to local sites. While physical transport processes play major roles in delivering larvae to the shore, these processes become most important after larvae have survived the perils of life in the plankton, where they usually suffer great mortality. The lack of information regarding larval feeding makes it difficult to assess the effects of food supply on larval survival, or the role larvae may play in nearshore food webs. Here, we examine the spectrum of food sizes and food types consumed by the larvae of two intertidal barnacle species and of the predatory gastropod Concholepas concholepas. We conducted replicated experiments in which larvae were exposed to the food size spectrum (phytoplankton, microprotozoan and autotrophic picoplankton) found in nearshore waters in central Chile. Results show that barnacle nauplii and gastropod veligers are omnivorous grazers, incorporating significant fractions of heterotrophs in their diets. In accordance with their feeding mechanisms and body size, barnacle nauplii were able to feed on autotrophic picoplankton (concholepas larvae also consumed picoplankton cells, while competent larvae of this species ingested mostly the largest phytoplankton cells and heterotrophic protozoans. Results suggest that persistent changes in the structure of pelagic food webs can have important effects on the species-specific food availability for invertebrate larvae, which can result in large-scale differences in recruitment rates of a given species, and in the relative recruitment success of the different species that make up benthic communities.

  16. Description of the Larva of a New Species of the Genus Afronurus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of Afronurus, A. opa sp. n., (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae), from Opa River catchment basin, Nigeria is described from the larval stage. The diagnostic morphological characters of the larva are illustrated and discussed. Keywords: Afronurus opa sp. n. larva, Heptageniidae, Ephemeroptera, Nigeria. Tropical ...

  17. A new species of Luchoelmis Spangler & Staines (Coleoptera: Elmidae) from Argentina and its probable larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archangelsky, Miguel; Brand, Cecilia

    2014-03-19

    A new species of riffle beetle from southwestern Argentina, Luchoelmis kapenkemkensis, is described. Its diagnostic characters are illustrated and the key for the identification the species of the genus is updated. A larva, very likely belonging to this species, is also described and compared to other related larvae.

  18. Genes Expressed Differentially in Hessian Fly Larvae Feeding in Resistant and Susceptible Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shun Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, is a destructive pest of wheat worldwide and mainly controlled by deploying resistant cultivars. In this study, we investigated the genes that were expressed differentially between larvae in resistant plants and those in susceptible plants through RNA sequencing on the Illumina platform. Informative genes were 11,832, 14,861, 15,708, and 15,071 for the comparisons between larvae in resistant versus susceptible plants for 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 days, respectively, after larvae had reached the feeding site. The transcript abundance corresponding to 5401, 6902, 8457, and 5202 of the informative genes exhibited significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in the respective paired comparisons. Overall, genes involved in nutrient metabolism, RNA and protein synthesis exhibited lower transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants, indicating that resistant plants inhibited nutrient metabolism and protein production in larvae. Interestingly, the numbers of cytochrome P450 genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants were comparable to, or higher than those with lower transcript abundance, indicating that toxic chemicals from resistant plants may have played important roles in Hessian fly larval death. Our study also identified several families of genes encoding secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs that were expressed at early stage of 1st instar larvae and with more genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants. Those SSGPs are candidate effectors with important roles in plant manipulation.

  19. Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, Tipulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podeniene, Virginija; Naseviciene, Nijole; Podenas, Sigitas

    2014-02-10

    1830 egg-larvae of 7 species belonging to long palped crane flies (Tipulidae): Ctenophora guttata Meigen, Nephrotoma pratensis Linnaeus, N. dorsalis Fabricius, N. scurra Meigen, N. flavescens Linnaeus, N. submaculosa Edwards and N. crocata Linnaeus were obtained from 22 females captured in Lithuania in 2011-2012. It took from five days to more than three weeks for eggs to hatch. Crane flies have four instars of larvae. Second, third and the last instar larvae are very similar, when the first instar or egg-larvae differs radically. Descriptions and illustrations of external morphology, chaetotaxy of abdominal segments, characters of head capsules and last abdominal segments are given for the previously unknown first instar larvae of Ct. guttata, N. crocata, N. dorsalis, N. flavescens, N. pratensis, N. scurra and poorly known N. submaculosa. It was found out that difference of head capsule and last abdominal segment among the first instar larvae of above mentioned species of genus Nephrotoma are more obvious than in last instar. During this study it was found, that such characters as shape of apical teeth of mandible, shape of basal segment of antenna and number of sensillae, shape of hypostomium and arrangement of sensory structures on labrum, differ among egg-larvae of Nephrotoma. It was found, that pads on frontal part of prothorax and shape of lateral plates of egg-larvae labrum of Nephrotoma differ significantly from that of Ctenophora and could be used as genus separating characters. 

  20. A note on the record of Rastrelliger (Mackerel) larvae from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peter, K.J.

    from Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea They resemble the larvae of a scombrid relative, the Pacific mackerel Pneumatophorous diego, but differ in having less pigmentation and deeper body The larvae have a fairly stubby body, with 30 myomeres big eyes...

  1. A complex of genes involved in adaptation of Leptinotarsa decemlineata larvae to induced potato defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petek, M.; Turnšek, N.; Gašparic, M.B.; Novak, M.P.; Gruden, K.; Slapar, N.; Popovic, T.; Štrukelj, B.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) is the most important pest of potato in many areas of the world. One of the main reasons for its success lies in the ability of its larvae to counteract plant defense compounds. Larvae adapt to protease inhibitors (PIs) produced in potato leaves

  2. Assessment of Clarias gariepinus as a biological control agent against mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chala, Buze; Erko, Berhanu; Animut, Abebe; Degarege, Abraham; Petros, Beyene

    2016-05-31

    The emergence and spread of insecticide resistant mosquitoes renewed interest in investigating the use of larvivorous fish as a biological control agent. The potential of Clarias gariepinus fish in controlling Anopheles arabiensis and culicine larvae was assessed under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Small size (15-20 cm) C. gariepinus fish consumed greater number of mosquito larvae than the large size fish (25-40 cm) in the multivariate regression model (β = 13.36, 95 % CI = 4.57, 22.15). The Anopheles larvae consumed was greater in number than the culicines larvae consumed by the fish (β = 12.10, 95 % CI = 3.31, 20.89). The number of larvae consumed was greater during the night hours than during the light hours (β = 30.06, 95 % CI = 21.27, 38.85). Amount of supplementary fish food did not cause significant differences in the number of mosquito larvae consumed by the fish among different groups. C. gariepinus was observed to feed on mosquito larvae under laboratory and semi-field conditions. C. gariepinus fed on the larvae of An. arabiensis and culicines readily. Hence, it can be used as an alternative mosquito control agent in Ethiopia where the breeding habitats are small and localized.

  3. PENGARUH PAKAN ALAMI Chaetoceros spp. TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN DAN SINTASAN LARVA UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lante

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pakan alami berupa mikroalga merupakan salah satu faktor pendukung dalam keberhasilan usaha pembenihan udang windu, Penaeus monodon. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis pakan alami, Chaetoceros spp., yang dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan sintasan larva udang windu. Penelitian ini menggunakan 15 buah bak fiber berukuran 60 cm x 40 cm x 50 cm dengan volume 120 liter yang disi air sebanyak 100 liter. Kepadatan naupli adalah 90 ekor/liter atau 9.000 ekor/bak dan lima jenis pakan alami Chaetoceros spp. yang diuji yaitu: Chaetoceros simplex, Chaetoceros ceratosporum, Chaetoceros calcitrans, Chaetoceros amami, dan Chaetoceros gracilis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi kelima jenis pakan alami memberikan laju perkembangan larva yang relatif sama sampai stadia PL-1. Aplikasi Chaetoceros gracilis memberikan sintasan larva udang windu tertinggi yaitu 41,48% dan dengan Chaetoceros simplex memberikan sintasan larva terendah (28,02%. Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa aplikasi Chaetoceros spp. yang berbeda pada pemeliharaan larva berpengaruh terhadap sintasan larva udang windu, namun tidak berpengaruh terhadap laju metamorfosis larva. Aplikasi Chaetoceros gracilis sebagai pakan alami adalah terbaik untuk sintasan larva udang windu.

  4. A preliminary account on the distribution of decapod larvae in the Konkan waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    was the most common species. It was observed that Ratnagiri area (Maharashtra, India) was rich in decapod larvae (40.97%) followed by Rajapur (26.48%). Penaeid larvae were totally absent between Kalbadevi and Pavas during the period of study. Distribution...

  5. Fine structure of selected mouthpart sensory organs of gypsy moth larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonnie D.C. Shields

    2011-01-01

    Gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.), are major pest defoliators in most of the United States and destroy millions of acres of trees annually. They are highly polyphagous and display a wide host plant preference, feeding on the foliage of hundreds of plants, such as oak, maple, and sweet gum. Lepidopteran larvae, such as the gypsy moth, depend...

  6. Proteomic analysis of skin invasion by blood fluke larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hansell

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available During invasion of human skin by schistosome blood fluke larvae (cercariae, a multicellular organism breaches the epidermis, basement membrane, and dermal barriers of skin. To better understand the pathobiology of this initial event in schistosome infection, a proteome analysis of human skin was carried out following invasion by cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni.Human skin samples were exposed to cercariae for one-half hour to two hours. Controls were exposed to water used to collect cercariae in an identical manner, and punctured to simulate cercarial tunnels. Fluid from both control and experimental samples was analyzed by LC/MS/MS using a linear ion trap in "triple play" mode. The coexistence of proteins released by cercariae and host skin proteins from epidermis and basement membrane confirmed that cercarial tunnels in skin were sampled. Among the abundant proteins secreted by cercariae was the cercarial protease that has been implicated in degradation of host proteins, secreted proteins proposed to mediate immune invasion by larvae, and proteins implicated in protection of parasites against oxidative stress. Components of the schistosome surface tegument, previously identified with immune serum, were also released. Both lysis and apoptosis of epidermal cells took place during cercarial invasion of the epidermis. Components of lysed epidermal cells, including desmosome proteins which link cells in the stratum granulosum and stratum spinosum, were identified. While macrophage-derived proteins were present, no mast cell or lymphocyte cytokines were identified. There were, however, abundant immunoglobulins, complement factors, and serine protease inhibitors in skin. Control skin samples incubated with water for the same period as experimental samples ensured that invasion-related proteins and host protein fragments were not due to nonspecific degeneration of the skin samples.This analysis identified secreted proteins from invasive larvae that

  7. Human airway smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Jongste, Johan

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe function of airway smooth muscle in normal subjects is not evident. Possible physiological roles include maintenance of optimal regional ventilation/perfusion ratios, reduction of anatomic dead space, stabilisation of cartilaginous bronchi, defense against impurities and, less likely, squeezing mucus out of mucous glands and pulling open the alveoli next to the airways1 . Any role of airway smooth muscle is necessarily limited, because an important degree of contraction will l...

  8. Anopheles stephensi and Toxorhynchites amboinensis: aseptic rearing of mosquito larvae on cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munderloh, U G; Kurtti, T J; Maramorosch, K

    1982-12-01

    Aseptic larvae of Anopheles stephensi and Toxorhynchites amboinensis were reared on a continuous cell line (RU TAE 12 V) from the mosquito, T. amboinensis, that grew in suspension as multicellular vesicles. Surface-sterilized eggs were hatched in a 24-well plate containing 0.2 ml of Leibovitz's L-15 medium per well and incubated in a humidified atmosphere. Toxorhynchites amboinensis eggs of 36 hr or older were placed singly to assure hatching and avoid cannibalism. Hatching rates were over 80%. All larval instars were maintained in L-15 medium at 28 C with a 12-hr photoperiod. Anopheles stephensi larvae were reared in 25-cm2 tissue culture flasks containing 10 ml of L-15 medium with 30 to 50 first and second instar larvae or 10 third and fourth instar larvae per flask. Toxorhynchites amboinensis larvae remained in the 24-well plate in 1.5 ml of medium through the second instar; third instar larvae were kept in 12-well plates (3 ml of medium per well) and transferred to 25-cm2 flasks (10 ml per flask) when they reached the fourth instar. First and second instar A. stephensi larvae were fed cultured cells once, and third or fourth instar larvae twice a day. Toxorhynchites amboinensis larvae were fed vesicles once during the first 4 days after hatching, and every 1 or 2 days thereafter. Each A. stephensi larva consumed approximately 2 X 10(6) cells, and T. amboinensis larvae 10 times more cells before pupating. Anopheles stephensi pupated after 7 to 8 days and adults emerged during days 9 to 11. Pupation in T. amboinensis began on day 21 after hatching and adults emerged 5 days later. Cell lines isolated from A. stephensi larvae or embryos of the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Anocentor (Dermacentor) nitens supported only limited growth of A. stephensi larvae. Defibrinated hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) blood, though readily ingested, did not support the growth of A. stephensi whereas larvae reared on blood cells plus T. amboinensis cells showed limited growth.

  9. Effects of pesticides on DNA and protein of shrimp larvae Litopenaeus stylirostris of the California Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Reyes, J Guillermo; Leyva, Nancy R; Millan, Olivia A; Lazcano, Guadalupe A

    2002-10-01

    Recently, diverse pathologies and massive mortalities have been presented in shrimp hatcheries located along the California Gulf; therefore, toxic responses of shrimp larvae were used as biomarkers of pesticide pollution, because in this region intensive agriculture is practiced. Shrimp larvae were exposed to DDT, azinphosmethyl, permethrine, parathion, chlorpyrifos, malathion, endosulfan, and carbaryl, in order to determine LC50, DNA adducts and/or breaks, and total protein in larvae. The results indicate reductions in protein and DNA in larvae exposed to these pesticides, and in those exposed to DDT, breaks and/or adducts were registered. It is possible that pesticide pollution is a cause of these problems, because reduction in protein indicates a decrease in larvae growth rate and DNA breaks or adducts have been related to pathologies and carcinogenesis in many aquatic organisms.

  10. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  11. Uncommon Human Urinary Tract Myiasis Due to Psychoda Sp. Larvae, Kashan, Iran: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima RASTI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of human and animal body tissues with flies’ larvae and diptera cause myiasis. A 26 yr old female patient refers to Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital, central Iran because of urogenital infection, pain in the right part of stomach, smelly and reddish vaginal discharge and frequent urination. In the first checking, urine sample was taken. In the sample, active and alive larvae were seen. The live samples were taken to the Environmental Health Department Lab of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in clean glass jars. In the morphological survey, Psychoda sp larvae were identified. In Iran, this study is the first report of this species of larva that causes urinary myiasis. This fly larva is not carnivore or bloodsucker and feeds on bacterial agents. Observance of personal hygiene especially during defecation and urination is essential to prevent contamination of this type of myiasis.

  12. Cannibalism among Myrmeleon brasiliensis larvae (Návas, 1914 (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane do Nascimento Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cannibalism is influenced by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors of the population, such as density, population structure, prey availability, habitat structure and famine. These factors acting either independently or in synergy determine the frequency of cannibalism. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effect of density and food availability on the occurrence of cannibalism among Myrmeleon brasiliensis larvae (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae. In the present study, the occurrence of cannibalism among M. brasiliensis larvae was greater in the treatments that simulated an absence of food in situations of both high and low density. The search for food makes a larva move about to forage, thereby increasing the risk of falling into the trap of a neighboring larva. Thus, the cannibalistic behavior of M. brasiliensis larvae may be associated with opportunity rather than a direct attempt to pray on the same species.

  13. Preliminary Results On the Efficacy of Macroalgal Extracts Against Larvae of Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicante, Simona Armeli; Carlin, Sara; Stocco, Marica; Sfriso, Adriano; Capelli, Gioia; Montarsi, Fabrizio

    2017-12-01

    Activity of ethanolic extracts of the algae Ulva rigida, Asparagopsis taxiformis, Dictyota dichotoma, and Cystoseira barbata, collected along Italian coasts, was tested against larvae of the Asian tiger mosquito ( Aedes albopictus), a vector of pathogens for animals and humans. Tests were carried out using 10 specimens of 3rd-stage larvae per test, following the World Health Organization standard protocol with minor modifications. Among algal extracts, only D. dichotoma was active against the larvae of Ae. albopictus. Ethanolic extracts of that species showed LC 90 (the concentration that kills 90% of larvae) and LC 50 (the concentration that kills 50% of larvae) values at 44.32 and 85.92 mg/liter, respectively. Based on the data obtained, D. dichotoma biometabolic extracts could be potential candidates as larvicide compounds to control Ae. albopictus, encouraging the use of macroalgae as natural resources in integrated vector management strategies.

  14. Behavior on approach to surface prey by larvae of Toxorhynchites amboinensis and T. brevipalpis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, J R

    1995-01-01

    Behavior of Toxorhynchites amboinensis (Doleschall) and Toxorhynchites brevipalpis (Theobald) larvae (starved 48 h) as they approach and capture surface prey is described quantitatively from videotaped records. Of 106 T. amboinensis and 82 T. brevipalpis larvae observed, 84.9 and 97.6%, respectively, responded to the presence of surface prey within 2 min (most Toxorhynchites larvae are able to assess both the angle to surface prey and its distance and that they interpolate this information to optimize the approach path. The degree of refinement in this behavior indicates that it is well adapted to take advantage of the important surface food source in nature. In this phase of their feeding, Toxorhynchites larvae are active hunters and are not entirely the passive ambush predators they have seemed to be from many studies that have used other mosquito larvae as (subsurface) prey.

  15. Irradiation effect of electronic beam on older larvae of Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuntang; Guo Dongquan; Zhang Jianwei; Yang Baoan

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette beetle [ Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) ] is an important pest of stored tobacco distributing over the world, and it is also one of the most serious pests in the tobacco warehouse. The larvae is the most serious detriment in the four states of cigarette beetle. The objective of this study was to control the damage on tobacco from cigarette beetle. The irradiation effects of electronic beam on the older larvae of cigarette beetle in tobacco were studied. The results showed that the older larvae irradiated by the doses higher than 480 Gy could prevent the development to adults; and no new generation was found after 300 Gy irradiation for older larvae. Thus 300Gy irradiation could prevent the reproduction of cigarette beetle for the older larvae in the tobacco. (authors)

  16. Starvation-Induced Dietary Behaviour in Drosophila melanogaster Larvae and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Safee Ullah; Afzal, Ahmed Jawaad; Tariq, Muhammad

    2015-09-24

    Drosophila melanogaster larvae are classified as herbivores and known to feed on non-carnivorous diet under normal conditions. However, when nutritionally challenged these larvae exhibit cannibalistic behaviour by consuming a diet composed of larger conspecifics. Herein, we report that cannibalism in Drosophila larvae is confined not only to scavenging on conspecifics that are larger in size, but also on their eggs. Moreover, such cannibalistic larvae develop as normally as those grown on standard cornmeal medium. When stressed, Drosophila melanogaster larvae can also consume a carnivorous diet derived from carcasses of organisms belonging to diverse taxonomic groups, including Musca domestica, Apis mellifera, and Lycosidae sp. While adults are ill-equipped to devour conspecific carcasses, they selectively oviposit on them and also consume damaged cadavers of conspecifics. Thus, our results suggest that nutritionally stressed Drosophila show distinct as well as unusual feeding behaviours that can be classified as detritivorous, cannibalistic and/or carnivorous.

  17. Infectivity and development of X-irradiated third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiu, Yoshinori

    1989-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis third-stage larvae were exposed to less than 10Krad of X-radiation and then given orally to white rats to examine the effects of X-radiation on infectivity and development of the irradiated third-stage larvae and on fecundity of adults developing from the irradiated third-stage larvae. The deleterious effects of X-radiation were observed at relatively lower dosage in the above three parameters. A degree in susceptibility on X-radiation was shown to be radiation-dose-dependent. Comparing to the irradiation of larvae in vitro, the irradiation of larvae in snails caused less deleterious effects at the same dose of X-irradiation. Application of X-radiation to food hygiene was also discussed. (author)

  18. Poisoning symptoms of silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori L. , by the oral application of fluorine compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, M.

    1974-04-01

    Physiological damages caused by the oral administration of fluorine in Bombyx mori were investigated. Results obtained are summarized as follows: The alimentary canal of the larvae damaged by the fluorine became light green or light brown containing few mulberry leaves and the larvae were light brown. The growth and molting of the larvae were delayed. When larvae were affected by the fluorine, the increasing rate in body weight declined at first, followed by a reduction in the amount of food ingested, and then their development was prolonged. In chemical analyses, ingested fluorine was mostly retained in alimentary canal, digestive juice and blood, and was seldom found in the integument and the silkgland. From these results, it may be presumed that the death of silkworm larvae, caused by the oral administration of fluorine, can be mainly attributed to physiological damages of the alimentary canal caused by the fluorine toxicity, because a large amount of fluorine is accumulated in the wall of the alimentary canal.

  19. Occurrence of Paraprionospio sp. (form A) larvae (polychaeta: spionidae) in hypoxic water of an enclosed bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hisashi

    1995-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of larvae of Paraprionospio sp. (form A), an indicator of organic pollution in Japanese coastal waters, was investigated from May 1982 to November 1982 in Kumihama Bay, an area where oxygen-deficient water develops from late spring through autumn. This species has a less opportunistic life history represented by a seasonal peak in recruitment (September-October 1982). Simultaneously with the deoxygenation in May, larvae appeared in the bottom layer and were subsequently found through November almost exclusively in water layers with oxygen levels below 1 mg l -1. Larvae displayed no changes in vertical distribution in a 24-h study conducted in August 1980. These observations indicate that larvae have the ability to tolerate anoxic or hypoxic water throughout their entire development. It is hypothesized that the adaptation of larvae to hypoxic water may explain the high abundances of Paraprionospio sp. (form A) in organically polluted sediments.

  20. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review (1) psychometric properties of criterion isokinetic dynamometry testing of muscle strength in persons with poststroke hemiplegia (PPSH); and (2) literature that compares muscle strength in patients poststroke with that in healthy controls assessed by criterion...... test in persons with stroke, generally showing marked reductions in muscle strength of paretic and, to a lesser degree, nonparetic muscles when compared with healthy controls, independent of muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity....

  1. The dynamics of Trichinella spiralis epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murrell, Kenneth Darwin

    2016-01-01

    the feeding of food waste. Although commercially produced pork under controlled management now accounts for about half of the world’s pork production the demand by consumers, especially in Europe and North America, for free-range pork is increasing. Because of the varying degrees of outdoor exposure in free...

  2. Adaptation to Variance of Stimuli in Drosophila Larva Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Jason; Gepner, Ruben; Gershow, Marc

    In order to respond to stimuli that vary over orders of magnitude while also being capable of sensing very small changes, neural systems must be capable of rapidly adapting to the variance of stimuli. We study this adaptation in Drosophila larvae responding to varying visual signals and optogenetically induced fictitious odors using an infrared illuminated arena and custom computer vision software. Larval navigational decisions (when to turn) are modeled as the output a linear-nonlinear Poisson process. The development of the nonlinear turn rate in response to changes in variance is tracked using an adaptive point process filter determining the rate of adaptation to different stimulus profiles. Supported by NIH Grant 1DP2EB022359 and NSF Grant PHY-1455015.

  3. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Jyothi B; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V; Prabhu, VL

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis. PMID:22438633

  4. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi B Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  5. Evaluation of Lethal Giant Larvae as a Schistosomiasis Vaccine Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of humans, and it is considered to be the second most devastating parasitic disease after malaria. Eggs produced by normally developed female worms are important in the transmission of the parasite, and they responsible for the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. The tumor suppressor gene lethal giant larvae (lgl has an essential function in establishing apical-basal cell polarity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue organization. In our earlier study, downregulation of the lgl gene induced a significant reduction in the egg hatching rate of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj eggs. In this study, the Sjlgl gene was used as a vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis, and vaccination achieved and maintained a stable reduction of the egg hatching rate, which is consistent with previous studies, in addition to reducing the worm burden and liver egg burden in some trials.

  6. Morphology and diversity of exocrine glands in lepidopteran larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegliante, Francesca; Hasenfuss, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of 21 exocrine glands and 13 supposedly exocrine structures recorded for lepidopteran larvae is reviewed. The epitracheal glands, for which a double role (exocrine and endocrine) has been demonstrated, are examined as well. Function is well known for at least 8 glands but completely unknown for 6 glands, for 10 putative glandular structures, and for the exocrine component of the epitracheal glands. Functional studies on the remaining structures are insufficient; in some cases (mandibular gland and adenosma) homologous glands may play a different role depending on the species, and only a few taxa have been examined. The secretions of 13 glandular types have been analyzed chemically. The histology of 11 glands is known at the ultrastructural level, whereas that of 6 glands and 7 putative glandular structures is completely unknown. Comparative anatomical studies of the osmeterium, adenosma, and Verson's glands may yield useful information for phylogenetic reconstructions. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  7. Digenean larvae parasitizing Ruditapes decussatus (Bivalvia from Tunisianan coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhrif E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eleven species of trematode larvae (sporocysts and cercariae of Bucephalus labracis Paggi et Orecchia, 1965 and Cercaria lata Lespes, 1857 and metacercariae of Acanthoparyphium sp. Dietz , 1909, Caecincola parvulus Marshall et Gilbert, 1905, Curtuteria australis Allison, 1979, Gymnophallus fossarum Bartoli, 1965, Gymnophallus rebecqui Bartoli, 1983, Lepocreadium pegorchis Stossich, 1901, Parazoogonus sp. Looss, 1901, Psilostomum brevicolle Creplin, 1829 and Robphildollfusium fractum Rudolphi, 1819 were found in the clam (Ruditapes decussatus from Tunisian coasts. A part from B. labracis and Cercaria lata, the other trematode species were recorded for the first time in Tunisia. The examination of the frequency of recorded parasites reveals some monthly variation. This variation is statistically significant by comparing the sampling sites. These results indicate that more frequent parasites (G. fossarum, Cercaria lata, Curtuteria australis and Acanthoparyphium sp. could be considered as biological indicators making it possible to predict the capture localities of the clams.

  8. Seasonal fluctuation in the distribution of eggs and larvae of flat fishes (Pleuronectiformes - Pisces) in the Cochin Backwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    Attempts have been made to correlate the abundance of eggs and larvae of flat fishes belonging to families Cynoglossidae and Soleidae with the hydrographical parameters of the environment, particularly the salinity. The eggs and larvae were found...

  9. Impact of ultraviolet-B radiation on planktonic fish larvae: Alteration of the osmoregulatory function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucre, Elliott, E-mail: elliott.sucre@univ-montp2.fr [AEO Team (Adaptation Ecophysiologique et Ontogenese), UMR 5119 Ecosym UM2, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, UM1, Universite Montpellier 2, cc092, Pl. Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, Cx 05 (France); Vidussi, Francesca [RESEAUX Team (Reseaux Planctoniques et Changement Environnemental), UMR 5119 Ecosym UM2, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, UM1, Universite Montpellier 2, cc093, Pl. Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, Cx 05 (France); Mostajir, Behzad [RESEAUX Team (Reseaux Planctoniques et Changement Environnemental), UMR 5119 Ecosym UM2, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, UM1, Universite Montpellier 2, cc093, Pl. Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, Cx 05 (France); Centre d' ecologie marine experimentale MEDIMEER (Mediterranean centre for Marine Ecosystem Experimental Research), Universite Montpellier 2-CNRS (UMS 3301), Station Mediterraneenne de l' Environnement Littoral, MEDIMEER, 2 Rue des Chantiers, 34200 Sete (France); Charmantier, Guy; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine [AEO Team (Adaptation Ecophysiologique et Ontogenese), UMR 5119 Ecosym UM2, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, UM1, Universite Montpellier 2, cc092, Pl. Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, Cx 05 (France)

    2012-03-15

    Coastal marine ecosystems are submitted to variations of several abiotic and biotic parameters, some of them related to global change. Among them the ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (UVBR: 280-320 nm) may strongly impact planktonic fish larvae. The consequences of an increase of UVBR on the osmoregulatory function of Dicentrarchus labrax larvae have been investigated in this study. In young larvae of D. labrax, as in other teleosts, osmoregulation depends on tegumentary ion transporting cells, or ionocytes, mainly located on the skin of the trunk and of the yolk sac. As early D. labrax larvae passively drift in the top water column, ionocytes are exposed to solar radiation. The effect of UVBR on larval osmoregulation in seawater was evaluated through nanoosmometric measurements of the blood osmolality after exposure to different UV-B treatments. A loss of osmoregulatory capability occured in larvae after 2 days of low (50 {mu}W cm{sup -2}: 4 h L/20 h D) and medium (80 {mu}W cm{sup -2}: 4 h L/20 h D) UVBR exposure. Compared to control larvae kept in the darkness, a significant increase in blood osmolality, abnormal behavior and high mortalities were detected in larvae exposed to UVBR from 2 days on. At the cellular level, an important decrease in abundance of tegumentary ionocytes and mucous cells was observed after 2 days of exposure to UVBR. In the ionocytes, two major osmoeffectors were immunolocalized, the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase and the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/2Cl{sup -} cotransporter. Compared to controls, the fluorescent immunostaining was lower in UVBR-exposed larvae. We hypothesize that the impaired osmoregulation in UVBR-exposed larvae originates from the lower number of tegumentary ionocytes and mucous cells. This alteration of the osmoregulatory function could negatively impact the survival of young larvae at the surface water exposed to UVBR.

  10. Feeding of Marbled Goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata (Blkr., Larvae in the Two Weeks of Their Early Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irzal Effendi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Aquaculture System and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor. Factorial arrangement in randomised block design was used in this experiment with two factors: kind of feed and feed density for sand goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata (Blkr. larvae. There were 3 kinds of feed: rotifer, enriched-rotifer, and egg yolk-premix. Rotifer density of 20, 30, and 40 individuals/ml were maintained troughout the experiment. Egg yolk-premix were given per day in equivalent quantity as those rotifers in the treatment. Larvae of 40 individuals/l were kept in the 250 l plastic tanks, filled with 200 l of aerated ground water for 15 days indoor. Larvae fed rotifer showed better survival and growth rate than those fed egg yolk-premix. Increased rotifer density tended to increase survival and growth rate of larvae.Key words :  marbled goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata, larvae, feeding, rotifers ABSTRAKPercobaan ini dilakukan di Kolam Percobaan Babakan, Laboratorium Bogor, Bogor, dan dirancang berbentuk factorial dalam rancangan acak kelompok, dengan faktor: (1 jenis pakan dan (2 kepadatan pakan. Jenis pakan dibedakan menjadi: rotifera, rotifera-diperkaya, dan kuning telur-premiks, sedangkan kepadatan rotifera dibedakan menjadi : 20,30, dan 40 individu/ml, dipertahankan setiap hari. Kuning telur-premiks diberikan kepada larva ikan betutu, Oxyeleotris marmorata setiap hari yang setara dengan bobot rotifera setiap perlakuan, berdasarkan bobot kering keduanya. Larva sebanyak 40 ekor/l dipelihara dalam tangki plastik bervolume 250 l yang diisi air 200 l selama 15 hari dalam ruangan. Larva yang diberi rotifera cenderung memiliki kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhan lebih besar daripada kuning telur-premiks. Kepadatan rotifera yang semakin tinggi cenderung dapat meningkatkan kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhan larva.Kata kunci :  ikan betutu, Oxyeleotris marmorata, larva, pemberian pakan, rotifera

  11. Composition of agarose substrate affects behavioral output of Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Aristomenis Apostolopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the Drosophila larva has evolved into a simple model organism offering the opportunity to integrate molecular genetics with systems neuroscience. This led to a detailed understanding of the functional neuronal networks for a number of sensory functions and behaviors including olfaction, vision, gustation and learning and memory. Typically, behavioral assays in use exploit simple Petri dish setups with either agarose or agar as a substrate. However, neither the quality nor the concentration of the substrate is generally standardized across these experiments and there is no data available on how larval behavior is affected by such different substrates. Here, we have investigated the effects of different agarose concentrations on several larval behaviors. We demonstrate that agarose concentration is an important parameter, which affects all behaviors tested: preference, feeding, learning and locomotion. Larvae can discriminate between different agarose concentrations, they feed differently on them, they can learn to associate an agarose concentration with an odor stimulus and crawl faster on a substrate of higher agarose concentration. Additionally, we have investigated the effect of agarose concentration on three quinine based behaviors: preference, feeding and learning. We show that in all cases examined the behavioral output changes in an agarose concentration-dependent manner. Our results suggest that comparisons between experiments performed on substrates differing in agarose concentration should be done with caution. It should be taken into consideration that the agarose concentration can affect the behavioral output and thereby the experimental outcomes per se potentially due to an increased escape response on more rigid substrates.

  12. Effects of environmental factors on growth, survival, and metamorphosis of geoduck clam (Panopea japonica A. Adams, 1850 larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongming Huo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of temperature, salinity, diet, and stocking density on the growth, survival, and metamorphosis of geoduck clam Panopea japonica larvae. The larvae all died at a temperature of 22 °C after day 12, suggesting that the larvae of P. japonica could not survive when the temperature was higher than 22 °C. P. japonica could be incubated at 19 °C for the fast growth, high survival and metamorphosis of larvae. The embryos all died when the salinity was below 25 ppt. The larvae showed poor survival when the salinity was below 25 ppt, with all larvae dying before day 12, suggesting that larvae are sensitive to low salinity. The optimum salinity for the growth, survival and metamorphosis of larvae was 32 ppt. The use of a mixture of Isochrysis galbana and Nitzschia closterium (1:1 as a food source for the P. japonica larvae improved their growth, survival, and metamorphosis. A density of 20 individuals/ml appeared to be optimal for normal D-larvae of Panopea japonica, and 3–9 larvae/ml was optimal for the growth and survival of the P. japonica larvae raised in the hatchery.

  13. Muscle as a secretory organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists...... of several hundred secreted peptides. This finding provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones, and brain. In addition, several myokines exert their effects within the muscle itself. Many...

  14. Localized search cues in corn roots for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B; Meihls, L N; Coudron, T A; Lim, E; Hibbard, B E

    2009-04-01

    Cues that elicit a characteristic localized search behavior by neonate larvae of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were extracted from living corn, Zea mays L., roots with acetone. Larvae were exposed to corn roots or to an acetone extract of corn roots and then transferred into a bioassay arena where their movements were tracked and recorded. After a 5-min exposure to live corn roots, larvae produced highly convoluted tracks that were indicative of a localized search behavior, and these distinctive tracks were also produced by larvae exposed to an acetone extract of corn roots. Larvae exposed to a filter paper control moved in relatively straight paths that were indicative of ranging behavior. Larval tracks were recorded by means of a videocamera and tracking software, and four parameters of movement were used to quantify the tracks: mean turn angle, mean meander, total distance, and maximum distance from origin. For every parameter measured, tracks resulting from exposure to the control were significantly different from tracks resulting from exposure to live corn roots and to all doses of the corn root extract. In a separate experiment, larvae exposed to corn root pieces or corn root juice exhibited the localized search behavior, but larvae exposed to oat root pieces and oat root juice (nonhost) exhibited ranging behavior.

  15. Inclusion of copepod Acartia tonsa nauplii in the feeding of Centropomus undecimalis larvae increases stress resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa de Melo-Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research represents the first result of studies of the common snook Centropomus undecimalis larvae from broodstock matured in captivity in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the inclusion of Acartia tonsa nauplii improves stress resistance of common snook larvae. The larvae were fed with: rotifers Brachionus plicatilis (10 to 15 mL-1; A. tonsa nauplii (0.25 to 0.5 mL-1 and rotifers (5 to 7.5 mL-1, and A. tonsa nauplii (0.12 to 0.25 mL-1. The average percentage of survival of the treatments was 11.9%. At 20 days of age, larvae were subjected to thermal stress. Subsequently, the stress resistance was evaluated. Common snook larvae fed B. plicatilis+A. tonsa reached a higher weight and length (7.5 ± 0.00 mg and 9.1 ± 0.23 mm, respectively and resisted more heat stress (87.4% than larvae fed other foods, indicating that the feed mixture is satisfactory as a starter diet for larvae of common snook. However, more research is needed to confirm these results.

  16. Pengaruh ukuran tubuh ikan Poecilia reticulata pada daya pemangsaannya terhadap larva Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Moehammadi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to know the influence of poecilia reticulata body size, in the feeding capacity on Culex quinquifasciatus larvae. The research was experimental method with Complete Random Design., each treatment with 5 replications. The taken body size of Poecilia reticulata were; 1,50 cm; 2.50 cm; and 3.50 cm. the size of fish €™s body was measured from the tip of snout up to the end of fin (cm. The feeding capacity was determined by subtracting the first amount of larvae which was given the rest of larvae after 24 hours. The result showed that the difference of size of Poecilia reticulate body was significantly different in the feeding capacity on Culex quinquifasciatus larvae. The fish whose body size was 1.50 cm had the lowest feeding capacity by eating 77.2 larvae for average, and the highest one was the fist which body size was 2.50 cm by eating 113.6 larvae for average, subsequently the feeding capacity decrease to the fish which body size was 3.50 cm because of eating 100,6 larvae for 24 hours.

  17. Larvacidal Effect of Imperata Cylindrical Root Decoction against Culex sp. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afini Tiara Resi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Filariasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases. About 337 of 401 districts in Indonesia are endemic areas for filariasis, especially in Sumatera, Kalimantan, and Papua. Culex sp. is one of the lymphatic filariasis vectors which can be controlled by insecticide, including larvacide. This study was conducted to determine the larvacidal effect of Imperata cylindrical root decoction against Culex sp. larvae. Methods: This study was conducted at the Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran during the period of September to November 2012. The study object was Culex sp. larvae III/IV instars. The design of this study was experimental laboratory using true experimental approach. The larvae were divided into three groups: negative control (distilled water, reference (Abate®, and decoction. The number of larvae in each group was 25 larvae, and the effects were evaluated by the total number of dead larvae in 48 hours under observation. The data were then analyzed by Mann-Whitney test and Probit test. Results: The result of the Mann-Whitney test to compare Imperata cylindrica root decoction treatment to distilled water as control was significant (p<0.05. However, Abate® gave a better result. The Probit test resultwas LC50: 63% and LC90: 489%. Conclusions: Imperata cylindrical root decoction has a larvacidal effect against Culex sp. larvae.

  18. Behaviour of damselfly larvae (Enallagma cyathigerum) (Insecta, Odonata) after long-term exposure to PFOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossum, Hans van [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: hans.vangossum@ua.ac.be; Bots, Jessica [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: jessica.bots@ua.ac.be; Snijkers, Tom [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: tom.snijkers@gmail.com; Meyer, Johan [Research group of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: izak.meyer@ua.ac.be; Van Wassenbergh, Sam [Laboratory for Functional Morphology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: sam.vanwassenbergh@ua.ac.be; De Coen, Wim [Research group of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: wim.decoen@ua.ac.be; De Bruyn, Luc [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Kliniekstraat 25, 1070 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: luc.debruyn@ua.ac.be

    2009-04-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminant that has been detected in organisms worldwide. Here, we evaluate whether long-term (1 and 4 months) exposure to PFOS contamination affects the behavioural performance of freshwater larvae of the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum (Insecta: Odonata). Our results show reduced behavioural performance with increasing PFOS concentration. In 1 month exposed larvae, no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were 100 {mu}g/L for general activity. In 4 months exposed larvae, NOECs were 10 {mu}g/L, for each behavioural trait, except swimming acceleration of male larvae where the NOEC was 100 {mu}g/L. When faced with PFOS concentrations above the NOEC, E. cyathigerum larvae were less active, less capable to escape a simulated predator attack and less efficient in foraging. Together, our results show that damselfly larvae suffer reduced survival-related behavioural performance. - Long-term laboratory exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid decreases behavioural performance of damselfly larvae (Insecta: Odonata)

  19. Effects of nutrition (herbivore vs carnivore) on energy charge and nucleotide composition in Hyas araneus larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, J.

    1992-03-01

    Growth rate expressed as dry weight, elemetnal composition (C, N, H), protein content and nucleotide composition (ATP, ADP, AMP, CTP, GTP and UTP) as well as adenosine were measured in laboratory cultured Hyas araneus larvae fed two different diets. One group was fed freshly hatched Artemia sp. nauplii, the other the diatom Odontella (Biddulphia) sinensis. Growth rate was reduced in the O. sinensis-fed group, reaching 20 to 50% of the growth rate of Artemia-fed larvae. In all cases, some further development to the next instar occurred when larvae were fed O. sinensis, although at reduced levels compared to Artemia-fed larvae. The adenylic energy charge was quite similar for the two nutritional conditions tested and therefore does not reflect the reduced growth rate in O. sinensis-fed larvae. The individual nucleotide content was clearly reduced in O. sinensis-fed larvae, reflecting the nutritional conditions already during early developmental periods. These reduced amount of nucleotides in O. sinensis-fed larvae were most obvious when adenylic nucleotide contents were pooled. Pooled adenylic nucleotides were found to be correlated with the individual content of carbon and protein, showing significant differences at both nutritional conditions tested.

  20. Effects of irradiation on the biology of the infective larvae of Toxocara canis in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, O.O.; Myser, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    Mice were infected with either 2000 normal or irradiated embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis and the number of larvae in their livers, lungs, brains, and carcasses investigated at 5, 20, and 33 days of infection. Mortality of mice infected with normal eggs was 33% between day 4 and 8 postinfection but there was no mortality among mice infected with irradiated eggs. Irradiation with 60, 90, or 150 kr of X-rays inhibited the migration of larvae from the livers and lungs and their accumulation in brain and carcass in proportion to the irradiation dose. By day 33 of infection, the ratio of larvae in liver and lungs to larvae in brain and carcass was 0.16 in normal mice, 0.42 in 60-kr mice, 0.98 in 90-kr mice, and 23.3 in 150-kr mice. Irradiated larvae, particularly those migrating through the peritoneal cavity, died faster than normal larvae until day 20. Irradiation favored survival after day 20. By days 20 and 33 postinfection the total parasite load was 29% and 8%, respectively, of the administered dose in control mice, 18% and 12% in 60-kr mice, 8% and 4% in 90-kr mice, and 0.9% and 0.3% in 150-kr mice. Irradiation of infective T. canis larvae, then, reduces their pathogenicity, inhibits their migration from liver and lungs, kills some of the parasites during the first 3 weeks of infection, but favors their late survival in the host.