WorldWideScience

Sample records for spiral galaxies selected

  1. Selection effects in the bivariate brightness distribution for spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1986-01-01

    The joint distribution of total luminosity and characteristic surface brightness (the bivariate brightness distribution) is investigated for a complete sample of spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster. The influence of selection and physical limits of various kinds on the apparent distribution are detailed. While the distribution of surface brightness for bright galaxies may be genuinely fairly narrow, faint galaxies exist right across the (quite small) range of accessible surface brightnesses so no statement can be made about the true extent of the distribution. The lack of high surface brightness bright galaxies in the Virgo sample relative to an overall RC2 sample (mostly field galaxies) supports the contention that the star-formation rate is reduced in the inner region of the cluster for environmental reasons. (author)

  2. SpArcFiRe: morphological selection effects due to reduced visibility of tightly winding arms in distant spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tianrui Rae; Edward English, John; Silva, Pedro; Davis, Darren R.; Hayes, Wayne B.

    2018-03-01

    The Galaxy Zoo project has provided a plethora of valuable morphological data on a large number of galaxies from various surveys, and their team have identified and/or corrected for many biases. Here we study a new bias related to spiral arm pitch angles, which first requires selecting a sample of spiral galaxies that show observable structure. One obvious way is to select galaxies using a threshold in spirality, which we define as the fraction of Galaxy Zoo humans who have reported seeing spiral structure. Using such a threshold, we use the automated tool SpArcFiRe (SPiral ARC FInder and REporter) to measure spiral arm pitch angles. We observe that the mean pitch angle of spiral arms increases linearly with redshift for 0.05 learning algorithm trained on Galaxy Zoo data to provide a spirality for each artificially degraded image. We find that SpARcFiRe's ability to accurately measure pitch angles decreases as the image degrades, but that spirality decreases more quickly in galaxies with tightly wound arms, leading to the selection effect. This new bias means one must be careful in selecting a sample on which to measure spiral structure. Finally, we also include a sensitivity analysis of SpArcFiRe's internal parameters.

  3. Are spiral galaxies heavy smokers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.; Disney, M.; Phillipps, S

    1990-01-01

    The dustiness of spiral galaxies is discussed. Starburst galaxies and the shortage of truly bright spiral galaxies is cited as evidence that spiral galaxies are far dustier than has been thought. The possibility is considered that the dust may be hiding missing mass

  4. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into `bulgy' (early-type) and `discy' (late-type) spirals using the SDSS fracdeV (or fDeV) parameter and show that the average face-on colour of `bulgy' spirals is redder than the average edge-on colour of `discy' spirals. This shows that the observed optical colour of a spiral galaxy is determined almost equally by the spiral type (via the bulge-disc ratio and stellar populations), and reddening due to dust. We find that both luminosity and spiral type affect the total amount of extinction, with discy spirals at Mr ~ -21.5mag having the most reddening - more than twice as much as both the lowest luminosity and most massive, bulge-dominated spirals. An increase in dust content is well known for more luminous galaxies, but the decrease of the trend for the most luminous has not been observed before and may be related to their lower levels of recent star formation. We compare our results with the latest dust attenuation models of Tuffs et al. We find that the model reproduces the observed trends reasonably well but overpredicts the amount of u-band attenuation in edge-on galaxies. This could be an inadequacy in the Milky Way extinction law (when applied to external galaxies), but more likely indicates the need for a wider range of dust-star geometries. We end by discussing the effects of dust on large galaxy surveys and emphasize that these effects will become important as we push to higher precision measurements of galaxy properties and their clustering. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than

  5. Low surface brightness spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents an observational overview of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies. The sample galaxies were chosen to have low surface brightness disks and indications of spiral structure visible on the Palomar Sky Survey. They are of sufficient angular size (diameter > 2.5 arcmin), to allow detailed surface photometry using Mayall 4-m prime focus plates. The major findings of this dissertation are: (1) The average disk central surface brightness of the LSB galaxies is 22.88 magnitude/arcsec 2 in the B passband. (2) From broadband color measurements of the old stellar population, we infer a low average stellar metallicity, on the order of 1/5 solar. (3) The spectra and optical colors of the HII regions in the LSB galaxies indicate a lack of hot ionizing stars compared to HII regions in other late-type galaxies. (4) The average surface mass density, measured within the radius containing half the total mass, is less than half that of a sample of normal late-type spirals. (5) The average LSB galaxy neutral hydrogen mass to blue luminosity ratio is about 0.6, significantly higher than in a sample of normal late-type galaxies. (6) We find no conclusive evidence of an abnormal mass-to-light ratio in the LSB galaxies. (7) Some of the LSB galaxies exhibit well-developed density wave patterns. (8) A very crude calculation shows the lower metallicity of the LSB galaxies compared with normal late-type spirals might be explained simply by the deficiency of massive stars in the LSB galaxies

  6. A study of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wevers, B.M.H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Attempts have been made to look for possible correlations between integral properties of spiral galaxies as a function of morphological type. To investigate this problem, one needs the detailed distribution of both the gaseous and the stellar components for a well-defined sample of spiral galaxies. A sample of about 20 spiral galaxies was therefore defined; these galaxies were observed in the 21 cm neutral hydrogen line with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and in three broad-band optical colours with the 48-inch Palomar Smidt Telescope. First, an atlas of the combined radio and optical observations of 16 nearby northern-hemisphere spiral galaxies is presented. Luminosity profiles are discussed and the scale lengths of the exponential disks and extrapolated central surface brightnesses are derived, as well as radial color distributions; azimuthal surface brightness distributions and rotation curves. Possible correlations with optical features are investigated. It is found that 20 to 50 per cent of the total mass is in the disk. (Auth.)

  7. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies star

    OpenAIRE

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24 276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4 mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3 mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into ‘bulgy’ (early-type) and ‘discy’ (late-typ...

  8. Lopsided spiral galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lopsided distribution highlighted first: Baldwin, Lynden-Bell, & Sancisi (1980) · Lopsidedness also seen in an edge-on galaxy : NGC 891 · Slide 7 · Origin of m=1 disk distribution? Early Theoretical models: · Disk response to a lopsided halo potential (Jog 1997, 2002): · Isophotal shapes in a lopsided potential. Distribution of ...

  9. The rotation of spiral galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, V C

    1983-06-24

    There is accumulating evidence that as much as 90 percent of the mass of the universe is nonluminous and is clumped, halo-like, around individual galaxies. The gravitational force of this dark matter is presumed to be responsible for the high rotational velocities of stars and gas in the disks of spiral galaxie. At present, the form of the dark matter is unknown. Possible candidates span a range in mass of 10(70), from non-zero-mass neutrinos to massive black holes.

  10. Multiple mechanisms quench passive spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-McKelvie, Amelia; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin; Dolley, Tim; Bonne, Nicolas J.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the properties of a sample of 35 nearby passive spiral galaxies in order to determine their dominant quenching mechanism(s). All five low-mass (M⋆ environments. We postulate that cluster-scale gas stripping and heating mechanisms operating only in rich clusters are required to quench low-mass passive spirals, and ram-pressure stripping and strangulation are obvious candidates. For higher mass passive spirals, while trends are present, the story is less clear. The passive spiral bar fraction is high: 74 ± 15 per cent, compared with 36 ± 5 per cent for a mass, redshift and T-type matched comparison sample of star-forming spiral galaxies. The high mass passive spirals occur mostly, but not exclusively, in groups, and can be central or satellite galaxies. The passive spiral group fraction of 74 ± 15 per cent is similar to that of the comparison sample of star-forming galaxies at 61 ± 7 per cent. We find evidence for both quenching via internal structure and environment in our passive spiral sample, though some galaxies have evidence of neither. From this, we conclude no one mechanism is responsible for quenching star formation in passive spiral galaxies - rather, a mixture of mechanisms is required to produce the passive spiral distribution we see today.

  11. ANGULAR-MOMENTUM IN BINARY SPIRAL GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OOSTERLOO, T

    In order to investigate the relative orientations of spiral galaxies in pairs, the distribution of the angle between the spin-vectors for a new sample of 40 binary spiral galaxies is determined. From this distribution it is found, contrary to an earlier result obtained by Helou (1984), that there is

  12. Dark matter in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albada, T.S. van; Sancisi, R.

    1986-01-01

    Mass models of spiral galaxies based on the observed light distribution, assuming constant M/L for bulge and disc, are able to reproduce the observed rotation curves in the inner regions, but fail to do so increasingly towards and beyond the edge of the visible material. The discrepancy in the outer region can be accounted for by invoking dark matter; some galaxies require at least four times as much dark matter as luminous matter. There is no evidence for a dependence on galaxy luminosity or morphological type. Various arguments support the idea that a distribution of visible matter with constant M/L is responsible for the circular velocity in the inner region, i.e. inside approximately 2.5 disc scalelengths. Luminous matter and dark matter seem to 'conspire' to produce the flat observed rotation curves in the outer region. It seems unlikely that this coupling between disc and halo results from the large-scale gravitational interaction between the two components. Attempts to determine the shape of dark halos have not yet produced convincing results. (author)

  13. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1983-01-01

    Correlations between optical surface brightness and the radio properties of spiral galaxies are investigated. It is found that galaxies with high surface brightness are more likely to be strong continuum radio sources and that galaxies with low surface brightness have high 21-cm line emission. (author)

  14. The Globular Cluster System of the Spiral Galaxy NGC 7814

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, Katherine L.; Zepf, Stephen E.

    2003-11-01

    We present the results of a wide-field photometric study of the globular cluster (GC) system of the edge-on Sab spiral NGC 7814. This is the first spiral to be fully analyzed from our survey of the GC systems of a large sample of galaxies beyond the Local Group. NGC 7814 is of particular interest because a previous study estimated that it has 500-1000 GCs, giving it the largest specific frequency (SN) known for a spiral. Understanding this galaxy's GC system is important in terms of our understanding of the GC populations of spirals in general and has implications for the formation of massive galaxies. We observed the galaxy in BVR filters with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope and used image classification and three-color photometry to select GC candidates. We also analyzed archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of NGC 7814, both to help quantify the contamination level of the WIYN GC candidate list and to detect GCs in the inner part of the galaxy halo. Combining HST data with high-quality ground-based images allows us to trace the entire radial extent of this galaxy's GC system and determine the total number of GCs directly through observation. We find that rather than being an especially high-SN spiral, NGC 7814 has <~200 GCs and SN~1, making it comparable to the two most well-studied spiral galaxies, the Milky Way and M31. We explore the implications of these results for models of the formation of galaxies and their GC systems. The initial results from our survey suggest that the GC systems of typical elliptical galaxies can be accounted for by the merger of two or more spirals, but that for highly luminous elliptical galaxies, additional physical processes may be needed.

  15. On Density Waves in Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbol, P.; Patsis, P. A.

    The spiral structure of five ordinary spiral galaxies was studied using deep BVIK' surface photometry maps obtained at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope. The detailed shape of the arms was analyzed in terms of the spiral density wave theory. Grand design spirals were found on the K' maps in all five galaxies although at least two would be classified as flocculent on the blue images. In several of the galaxies, bulges with weak oval distortion (~10%) were observed. Dust spirals also continue, in some cases, inside the ILR where the stellar arms terminate. This emphasizes the strong bias of morphological classifications of spiral galaxies based on blue image due to dust and young stars. The 2--armed spirals were systematically found to be wound tighter on I than on K' maps suggesting the existence of a density wave. Locations of the ILR and the 4/1 resonance were estimated based on the arm morphology and the amplitude ratio between the m = 2,4 Fourier components. The wavenumber of the stellar 2--armed pattern is increasing towards the ILR which could suggest that the density wave is associated to the long waved branch of the dispersion relation. A possible scenario is discussed.

  16. TURBULENCE AND STAR FORMATION IN A SAMPLE OF SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Erin; Chien, Li-Hsin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University 527 S Beaver Street, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Hunter, Deidre A., E-mail: erin-maier@uiowa.edu, E-mail: Lisa.Chien@nau.edu, E-mail: dah@lowell.edu [Lowell Observatory 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We investigate turbulent gas motions in spiral galaxies and their importance to star formation in far outer disks, where the column density is typically far below the critical value for spontaneous gravitational collapse. Following the methods of Burkhart et al. on the Small Magellanic Cloud, we use the third and fourth statistical moments, as indicators of structures caused by turbulence, to examine the neutral hydrogen (H i) column density of a sample of spiral galaxies selected from The H i Nearby Galaxy Survey. We apply the statistical moments in three different methods—the galaxy as a whole, divided into a function of radii and then into grids. We create individual grid maps of kurtosis for each galaxy. To investigate the relation between these moments and star formation, we compare these maps with their far-ultraviolet images taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite.We find that the moments are largely uniform across the galaxies, in which the variation does not appear to trace any star-forming regions. This may, however, be due to the spatial resolution of our analysis, which could potentially limit the scale of turbulent motions that we are sensitive to greater than ∼700 pc. From comparison between the moments themselves, we find that the gas motions in our sampled galaxies are largely supersonic. This analysis also shows that the Burkhart et al. methods may be applied not just to dwarf galaxies but also to normal spiral galaxies.

  17. Photometry and mass modeling of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recent estimates of the relative contributions of dark and luminous matter to the mass of spiral galaxies are reviewed. In these studies, the galactic mass distribution is modeled on the basis of photometric and kinematic observational data. The accuracy of current photometry is discussed; the three-dimensional structure of spiral galaxies and the techniques used in bulge-disk decomposition are examined; and mass models incorporating rotation curves are presented. The disk mass/luminosity ratios in the red band (corrected for internal extinction) are found to range from 1.6 to 3.2, with no particular radius at which dark matter dominates. 20 references

  18. Dark and visible matter in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persic, M.; Salucci, P.; Durham Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Exploiting relevant information from the profiles of rotation curves, we calculate the dark-to-luminous mass ratio within the disc size for a sample of 43 spiral galaxies. The values we find, while proving the ubiquitous presence of dark matter, vary with luminosity. Faint and bright galaxies are found to be respectively halo- and disc-dominated in the disc regions. The luminosity sequence turns out to be a dark-to-luminous sequence. (author)

  19. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is proposed that Freeman's discovery that the extrapolated central surface brightness of spiral galaxies is approximately constant can be simply explained if the galaxies contain a spheroidal component which dominates the light in their outer isophotes. Calculations of an effective central surface brightness indicate a wide spread of values. This requires either a wide spread in disc properties or significant spheroidal components or, most probably, both. (author)

  20. The Distribution of Mass in Spiral Galaxies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaters, Rob; Andersen, David; Bershady, Matthew; Verheijen, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the content and distribution of dark matter in spiral galaxies. Mass modeling of any rotation curve can yield an alarming range of results - from entirely halo-dominated, centrally- concentrated dark distributions, to disk-dominated inner potentials with shallow, low density

  1. Nobeyama CO Atlas of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, N.; Nakai, N.; Sorai, K.; Sato, N..; Yamauchi, A.; Tosaki, T.; Shioya, Y.; Vila-Vilaró, B.; Nishiyama, K.; Ishihara, Y.; Cepa, J.

    BEARS is a 25-beam focal plane array receiver mounted on the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. The combination of the large dish size of the telescope with the excellent performance of this receiver makes it an ideal tool for mapping observations of extended regions of the sky. We present here one of its current applications in a CO mapping survey of nearby spiral galaxies.

  2. Magnetic spiral arms in galaxy haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, R. N.

    2017-08-01

    We seek the conditions for a steady mean field galactic dynamo. The parameter set is reduced to those appearing in the α2 and α/ω dynamo, namely velocity amplitudes, and the ratio of sub-scale helicity to diffusivity. The parameters can be allowed to vary on conical spirals. We analyse the mean field dynamo equations in terms of scale invariant logarithmic spiral modes and special exact solutions. Compatible scale invariant gravitational spiral arms are introduced and illustrated in an appendix, but the detailed dynamical interaction with the magnetic field is left for another work. As a result of planar magnetic spirals `lifting' into the halo, multiple sign changes in average rotation measures forming a regular pattern on each side of the galactic minor axis, are predicted. Such changes have recently been detected in the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies-an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) survey.

  3. Secular Evolution of Spiral Galaxies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xiaolei

    2003-01-01

    It is now a well established fact that galaxies undergo significant morphological transformation during their lifetimes, manifesting as an evolution along the Hubble sequence from the late to the early Hubble types...

  4. The dynamics of the spiral galaxy M81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, H.C.D.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed comparison of the observations of the spiral galaxy M81 with the density-wave theory for tightly-wound spirals is presented. In particular, hydrogen-line observations are compared with the nonlinear density-wave theory for the gas with the aim of constructing a density-wave model for the spiral galaxy M81

  5. The cold interstellar medium - An HI view of spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancisi, R; Bender, R; Davies, RL

    1996-01-01

    An HI view of spiral galaxies is presented. In the first part the standard picture of isolated, normal spiral galaxies is briefly reviewed. In the second part attention is drawn to all those phenomena, such as tidal interactions, accretion and mergers, that depend on the galaxy environment and seem

  6. Star formation and the surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    The (blue) surface brightness of spiral galaxies is significantly correlated with their Hα linewidth. This can be most plausibly interpreted as a correlation of surface brightness with star formation rate. There is also a significant difference in surface brightness between galaxies forming stars in a grand design spiral pattern and those with floc star formation regions. (author)

  7. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.; Phillipps, S.

    1985-01-01

    The intrinsic surface brightness Ssub(e) of 500 disc galaxies (0<=T<=9) drawn from the Second Reference Catalogue is computed and it is shown that Ssub(e) does not correlate significantly with Msub(B), (B-V) or type. This is consistent with the notion that there is a heavy selection bias in favour of disc galaxies with that particular surface brightness which allows inclusion in the catalogue over the largest volume of space. (author)

  8. Some statistical properties of spiral galaxies along the Hubble sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Jun-liang; Zhang, Fei-peng; Peng, Qiu-he

    A statistical study has been made for the variations along the Hubble sequence, os such parameters as the degree of tightness of winding of spiral arm λ, the pitch angle μ, the flatness of the disk H/ D25 and the thickness H along the Hubble sequence for 365 spiral galaxies published in A&Ap Supplement Series. The mean values of these quantities for the various Hubble types have been obtained for the first time. The results of the statistics show clearly 1) that the Hubble classification of spiral galaxies is one which has only a qualitative and statistical significance, and 2) that the dispersion relation in the density wave theory is valid for most spiral galaxies, i.e., the arms of most spiral galaxies satisfy the requirements of being tightly wound.

  9. Orientation of spiral galaxies in the local supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaaniste, J.A.; Saar, E.M.

    1977-01-01

    Two alternative models for the spatial orientation of galaxies - parallelism and perpendicularity of the planes of galaxies with respect to the supergalactic plane - are compared with the observed orientations of spiral galaxies within the volume of the radius of 50 Mpc. The first model does not agree with experimental data whereas the second one-perpendicularity of the planes - describes the above data well

  10. Comments on H. Arp 'The persistent problem of spiral galaxies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1987-04-01

    In his paper 'The persistent problem of Spiral Galaxies' H. Arp criticises the standard theory of spiral galaxies and demonstrates that introduction of plasma theory is necessary in order to understand the structure of spiral galaxies. In the present paper arguments are given in support of Arp's theory and suggestions are made how Arp's ideas should be developed. An important result of Arp's new approach is that there is no convincing argument for the belief that there is a 'missing mass'. This is important from a cosmological point of view. (author)

  11. The published extended rotation curves of spiral galaxies : Confrontation with modified dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, RH

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 22 spiral galaxy rotation curves, measured in the 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen, is considered in the context of Milgrom's modified dynamics (MOND). Combined with the previous, highly selected sample of Begeman et al., this constitutes the current total sample of galaxies with published

  12. Globular star cluster systems around galaxies. II. The cases of spiral and dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadjibaev, I.U.; Nuritdinov, S.N.; Ganiev, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Our compiled catalogue of globular cluster systems (GCS) which had studied in pervious part [1] is replenished now essentially as it are not sufficient the data to search for some empirical relationships between physical GCS parameters of the spiral and dwarf galaxies with a glance host galaxy characteristics. A number of empirical relationships for GCS of spiral and dwarf galaxies is first found. These results are differing essentially from analogous relationships for GCS of elliptical and lenticular galaxies which were found in [1]. It is also offered a possible new approach to the origin theory of the poor GCS which occupy a significant portion in our list of dwarf and spiral galaxies

  13. Necessity for High Accuracy Rotation Curves in Spiral Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien; Carignan, Claude; Amram, Philippe

    1998-01-01

    In the last 20 years, rotation curves derived from H I kinematics obtained on radio synthesis instruments were used to probe the dark matter distribution in spiral and dwarf irregular galaxies. It is shown, with the aid of the Sd galaxy NGC 5585, that high resolution 2--D H II kinematics is necessary to determine accurately the mass distribution of spirals. New CFHT Fabry--Perot Hff observations are combined with low resolution Westerbork H I data to study its mass distribution. Using the com...

  14. STAR FORMATION IN PARTIALLY GAS-DEPLETED SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, James A.; Miner, Jesse; Levy, Lorenza; Robertson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Broadband B and R and Hα images have been obtained with the 4.1 m SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon, Chile, for 29 spiral galaxies in the Pegasus I galaxy cluster and for 18 spirals in non-cluster environments. Pegasus I is a spiral-rich cluster with a low-density intracluster medium and a low galaxy velocity dispersion. When combined with neutral hydrogen (H I) data obtained with the Arecibo 305 m radio telescope, acquired by Levy et al. (2007) and by Springob et al. (2005b), we study the star formation rates in disk galaxies as a function of their H I deficiency. To quantify H I deficiency, we use the usual logarithmic deficiency parameter, DEF. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) is quantified by the logarithmic flux ratio of Hα flux to R-band flux, and thus roughly characterizes the logarithmic SFR per unit stellar mass. We find a clear correlation between the global SFR per unit stellar mass and DEF, such that the SFR is lower in more H I-deficient galaxies. This correlation appears to extend from the most gas-rich to the most gas-poor galaxies. We also find a correlation between the central SFR per unit mass relative to the global values, in the sense that the more H I-deficient galaxies have a higher central SFR per unit mass relative to their global SFR values than do gas-rich galaxies. In fact, approximately half of the H I-depleted galaxies have highly elevated SSFRs in their central regions, indicative of a transient evolutionary state. In addition, we find a correlation between gas depletion and the size of the Hα disk (relative to the R-band disk); H I-poor galaxies have truncated disks. Moreover, aside from the elevated central SSFR in many gas-poor spirals, the SSFR is otherwise lower in the Hα disks of gas-poor galaxies than in gas-rich spirals. Thus, both disk truncation and lowered SSFR levels within the star-forming part of the disks (aside from the enhanced nuclear SSFR) correlate with H I deficiency, and both phenomena are found to

  15. ULTRAVIOLET HALOS AROUND SPIRAL GALAXIES. I. MORPHOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Cafmeyer, Julian; Bregman, Joel N., E-mail: hodgeskl@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We examine ultraviolet halos around a sample of highly inclined galaxies within 25 Mpc to measure their morphology and luminosity. Despite contamination from galactic light scattered into the wings of the point-spread function, we find that ultraviolet (UV) halos occur around each galaxy in our sample. Around most galaxies the halos form a thick, diffuse disk-like structure, but starburst galaxies with galactic superwinds have qualitatively different halos that are more extensive and have filamentary structure. The spatial coincidence of the UV halos above star-forming regions, the lack of consistent association with outflows or extraplanar ionized gas, and the strong correlation between the halo and galaxy UV luminosity suggest that the UV light is an extragalactic reflection nebula. UV halos may thus represent 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} of dust within 2–10 kpc of the disk, whose properties may change with height in starburst galaxies.

  16. Chemical enrichment in isolated barred spiral galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Hugo; Carles, Christian; Robichaud, Fidéle; Ellison, Sara L.; Williamson, David J.

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the role of bars in the chemical evolution of isolated disc galaxies, we performed a series of 39 gas dynamical simulations of isolated barred and unbarred galaxies with various masses, initial gas fractions, and AGN feedback models. The presence of a bar drives a substantial amount of gas toward the central region of the galaxy. In the most massive galaxies, this results in a violent starburst, followed by a drop in star formation resulting from gas exhaustion. The time delay between Type Ia and Type II supernovae explosions means that barred galaxies experience a rapid increase in [O/H] in the central region, and a much more gradual increase in [Fe/H]. In unbarred galaxies, star formation proceeds at a slow and steady rate, and oxygen and iron are produced at steady rates which are similar except for a time offset. Comparing the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies with the same central stellar mass M*, we find in barred galaxies an enhancement of 0.07 dex in [O/H], 0.05 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.05 dex in [O/Fe]. The [O/H] enhancement is in excellent agreement with observations from the SDSS. The initial gas fraction has very little effect on the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies, unless the galaxies experience a starburst. We considered AGN-host galaxies located near the bottom of the AGN regime, M* ≳ 3 × 1010M⊙, where AGN feedback dominates over supernovae feedback. We found that the impact of AGN feedback on the central abundances is marginal.

  17. On wave dark matter in spiral and barred galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Matos, Tonatiuh [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F., México. (Mexico); Bray, Hubert L., E-mail: lmedina@fis.cinvestav.mx, E-mail: bray@math.duke.edu, E-mail: tmatos@fis.cinvestav.mx [Mathematics Department, Duke University, Box 90320, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We recover spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxy simulations with a Wave Dark Matter (WDM) background (also known as Scalar Field Dark Matter (SFDM), Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) dark matter, and Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter). Here we show how the interaction between a baryonic disk and its Dark Matter Halo triggers the formation of spiral structures when the halo is allowed to have a triaxial shape and angular momentum. This is a more realistic picture within the WDM model since a non-spherical rotating halo seems to be more natural. By performing hydrodynamic simulations, along with earlier test particles simulations, we demonstrate another important way in which wave dark matter is consistent with observations. The common existence of bars in these simulations is particularly noteworthy. This may have consequences when trying to obtain information about the dark matter distribution in a galaxy, the mere presence of spiral arms or a bar usually indicates that baryonic matter dominates the central region and therefore observations, like rotation curves, may not tell us what the DM distribution is at the halo center. But here we show that spiral arms and bars can develop in DM dominated galaxies with a central density core without supposing its origin on mechanisms intrinsic to the baryonic matter.

  18. On wave dark matter in spiral and barred galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Matos, Tonatiuh; Bray, Hubert L.

    2015-01-01

    We recover spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxy simulations with a Wave Dark Matter (WDM) background (also known as Scalar Field Dark Matter (SFDM), Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) dark matter, and Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter). Here we show how the interaction between a baryonic disk and its Dark Matter Halo triggers the formation of spiral structures when the halo is allowed to have a triaxial shape and angular momentum. This is a more realistic picture within the WDM model since a non-spherical rotating halo seems to be more natural. By performing hydrodynamic simulations, along with earlier test particles simulations, we demonstrate another important way in which wave dark matter is consistent with observations. The common existence of bars in these simulations is particularly noteworthy. This may have consequences when trying to obtain information about the dark matter distribution in a galaxy, the mere presence of spiral arms or a bar usually indicates that baryonic matter dominates the central region and therefore observations, like rotation curves, may not tell us what the DM distribution is at the halo center. But here we show that spiral arms and bars can develop in DM dominated galaxies with a central density core without supposing its origin on mechanisms intrinsic to the baryonic matter

  19. The thickness of the HI gas layer in spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicking, Floris Jan

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, in two inclined spiral galaxies, NGC 3198 and NGC 2403, the HI random velocity dispersion and layer thickness will be measured simultaneously. This will be done from the HI velocity dispersion field (the distribution on the sky of the observed HI line of sight velocity

  20. Dark matter and rotation curves of spiral galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal; Křížek, Filip; Somer, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, April (2016), s. 64-77 ISSN 1313-2709 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15052 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : red dwarf * dark matter * spiral galaxy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.astro.bas.bg/AIJ/issues/n25/MKrizek.pdf

  1. A Comparison of Galaxy Spiral Arm Pitch Angle Measurements Using Manual and Automated Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Ian; Treuthardt, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Disk galaxy evolution is dominated by secular processes in the nearby universe. Revealing the morphological characteristics and underlying dynamics of these galaxies is key to understanding their evolution. The arm structure of disk galaxies can generally be described with logarithmic spirals, thereby giving measurements of pitch angle. These measurements are valuable for probing the dynamics and less apparent characteristics of these galaxies (i.e. supermassive black hole mass). Pitch angle measurements are powerful because they can be derived from a single, uncalibrated, broadband image with sufficient contrast, as opposed to more intensive observations. Accurate determination of these measurements can be challenging, however, since pitch angle can vary with radius.There are currently several semi-automated and manual techniques used to determine pitch angle. These are, or will be, used in at least two Zooniverse citizen science projects. The goal of this work is to determine if different, specific techniques return similar pitch angles for the same set of galaxies. We compare the results from a machine vision technique using SPARCFIRE, a non-Euclidean based hand selection of pitch angle, and two methods using 2D Fourier decomposition (i.e. selecting stable regions from the results of direct application to broadband images and application to traced versions of the observed spiral pattern). Each technique is applied to our sample of galaxies and the resulting pitch angles are compared to generated logarithmic spirals to evaluate the match quality.

  2. THE INITIAL CLUSTER MASS FUNCTION OF SUPER STAR CLUSTERS IN IRREGULAR AND SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, Jayce D.; Buckalew, Brent A.; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2008-01-01

    The initial cluster mass function (ICMF) is a fundamental property of star formation in galaxies. To gauge its universality, we measure and compare the ICMFs in irregular and spiral galaxies. Our sample of irregular galaxies is based on 13 nearby galaxies selected from a volume-limited sample from the fifth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), from which about 320 young (≤20 Myr), massive (∼> 3 x 10 4 M sun ) clusters or associations were selected using an automated source extraction routine. The extinctions, ages, and masses were determined by comparing their u'g'i'z' magnitudes to those generated from starburst models. Completeness corrections were performed using Monte Carlo simulations in which artificial clusters were inserted into each galaxy. Foreground stellar and background galactic contaminations were assessed by analyzing SDSS images of fields around the sample galaxies and found to be small. We analyzed three nearby spiral galaxies with SDSS data exactly in the same way to derive their ICMF based on a similar number of young, massive clusters as the irregular galaxy ICMF. We find that the ICMFs of irregular and spiral galaxies for masses >10 4.4 M sun are statistically indistinguishable. For clusters and associations more massive than 10 4.4 M sun , the ICMF of the irregular galaxies is reasonably well fit by a power law dN(M)/dM∝M -α M with α M = 1.88 ± 0.09. Similar results were obtained for the ICMF of the spiral galaxy sample but with α M = 1.75 ± 0.06. We discuss the implications of our results on theories of star cluster formation, which appear to indicate that the power-law indices are independent of metallicity and galactic shear rate. We also examine the evolution of visual extinction, A V , with cluster age and find significant reduction in median extinction after ∼ 5-10 Myr by about 0.5 mag for clusters in both spiral and irregular galaxies. We discuss the implications of our results for theories of star cluster

  3. A Method to Automate Identification of Spiral Arms in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Christina K.; Mercer, K.

    2014-01-01

    We present our preliminary results in identifying the spiral arms of NGC 6946 using a nearest-neighbors analysis. NGC 6946 is grand design spiral galaxy with well-defined arms. The spiral arms were previously identified in an Hα image and traced out by Matonick, D. et al., ApJS, 113, 333, (1997) by visual inspection. We want to develop a computer algorithm that will identify the spiral arms automatically. Once the spiral arms have been found digitally, we can use this information to compare the spiral arms with the locations of compact objects such as supernova remnants and perform statistical tests, for example, to determine if the supernova remnants are associated with the spiral arms. We are using the publicly available program PyFITS, a development project of the Science Software Branch at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) that is available for software download from STScI, to perform a computer-based image analysis. We have written python macros that interact with the already written image manipulation and display features of PyFITS to perform the image analysis and implement a nearest-neighbors algorithm to identify and link the centers of the high emission regions from the spiral arm regions. Our code currently identifies the centers of the high emission regions, but more work is needed to link up these sites and draw out the spiral arms. Future work includes improving the code to better identify spiral arms and converting the code to work on the Astropy, a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (Robitaille, T. P., et al. A&A 558, A33, 2013).

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF RED SPIRAL GALAXIES ON THE SHAPE OF THE LOCAL K-BAND LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonne, Nicolas J.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Jones, Heath; Pimbblet, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    We have determined K-band luminosity functions for 13,325 local universe galaxies as a function of morphology and color (for K tot  ≤ 10.75). Our sample is drawn from the Two Micron All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog, with all sample galaxies having measured morphologies and distances (including 4219 archival redshift-independent distances). The luminosity function for our total sample is in good agreement with previous works, but is relatively smooth at faint magnitudes (due to bulk flow distance corrections). We investigated the differences due to morphological and color selection using 5417 sample galaxies with NASA Sloan Atlas optical colors and find that red spirals comprise 20%-50% of all spirals with –25 ≤ M K  < –20. Fainter than M K = –24, red spirals are as common as early types, explaining the different faint end slopes (α = –0.87 and –1.00 for red and early-types, respectively). While we find red spirals comprise more than 50% of all M K  < –25 spiral galaxies, they do not dominate the bright end of the overall red galaxy luminosity function, which is dominated by early-type galaxies. The brightest red spirals have ongoing star formation and those without are frequently misclassified as early-types. The faintest ones have an appearance and Sérsic indices consistent with faded disks, rather than true bulge-dominated galaxies

  5. Surface photometry and mass distributions of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, C.P.

    1979-01-01

    U, B, V and R surface photometry is presented for the two luminosity class I-II galaxies NGC 1084 and 7331. The reduced profiles of both galaxies have well-defined outer components similar to that described in an earlier paper for NGC 157. The radial variation of M/L has been studied by extrapolating the observed rotation curves. The gross structure and detailed colour and M/L variations for both galaxies are described in terms of the density wave theory of spiral structure, which implies that the rotation curves are not flat at large radii. The outer components of both galaxies are too luminous to form conventional massive haloes. In both galaxies the total luminosity exceeds that expected from their luminosity class. (author)

  6. Rediscovering the Giant Low Surface Brightness Spiral Galaxy Malin 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaz, Gaspar

    2018-01-01

    I summarize the latest discoveries regarding this ramarkable diffuse and giant galaxy, the largest single spiral in the universe so far. I describe how the latest discoveries could have been done easily 20 years ago, but an incredible summation of facts and some astronomical sociology, keeped many of them undisclosed. I present the most conspicuous features of the giant spiral arms of Malin 1, including stellar density, colors, stellar populations and some modeling describing their past evolution to the current state. I conclude with pending issues regarding stellar formation in Malin 1, and the efforts to detect its elusive molecular gas.

  7. The color gradient in spiral galaxies: application to M 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segalovitz, A.

    1975-01-01

    The calculated development of the color of a star cluster is used to predict the expected color evolution, as a function of radius, in a spiral galaxy. It is assumed that the fraction of gas which is converted into stars during a spiral arm passage is a function of radius only. Applying this model to M 81, it is shown that the observed color and mass distributions can be explained by an initial disk-like gas distribution proportional to the inverse square of the radius and a consumption fraction which is an increasing function of radius. (orig.) [de

  8. Infrared emission and tidal interactions of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    Computer simulations of tidal interactions of spiral galaxies are used to attempt to understand recent discoveries about infrared (IR) emitting galaxies. It is found that the stronger tidal perturbation by a companion the more disk gas clouds are thrown into nucleus crossing orbits and the greater the velocity jumps crossing spiral arms. Both these tidally created characteristics would create more IR emission by high speed cloud collisions and more IR via effects of recently formed stars. This expectation at greater tidal perturbation matches the observation of greater IR emission for spiral galaxies with closer and/or more massive companions. The greater collision velocities found at stronger perturbations on the models will also result in higher dust temperature in the colliding clouds. In the IR pairs examined, most have only one member, the larger, detected and when both are detected, the larger is always the more luminous. In simulations and in a simple analytic description of the strong distance dependence of the tidal force, it is found that the big galaxy of a pair is more strongly affected than the small

  9. Origin of Disk Lopsidedness in Spiral Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angiras, R. A.; Jog, C. J.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; Omar, A.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Saikia, D.J.; Green, D.A.; Gupta, Y.; Venturi, T.

    2009-01-01

    In our work we have used the atomic hydrogen [H I] gas distribution in the H I 21-cm line emission to study the dark matter halo perturbations. For this analysis, the 2-D H I surface density and velocity maps (archival) of the galaxies in the Eridanus group (obtained using the GMRT) and in the Ursa

  10. Evolution of Gas Across Spiral Arms in the Whirlpool Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Melissa Nicole

    To investigate the dynamic evolution of gas across spiral arms, we conducted a detailed study of the gas and star formation along the spiral arms in the Whirlpool Galaxy, M51. This nearby, face-on spiral galaxy provides a unique laboratory to study the relationship between gas dynamics and star formation. The textbook picture of interstellar medium (ISM) evolution is rapidly changing. Molecular gas was once believed to form along spiral arms from the diffuse atomic gas in the inter-arm regions. Star formation occurs within giant molecular clouds during spiral arm passage. Lastly, the molecular gas is photo-dissociated back into atomic gas by massive stars on the downstream side of the spiral arm. Recent evidence, however, is revealing a new picture of the interstellar medium and the process of star formation. We seek development of a new picture by studying the development and evolution of molecular gas and the role of large scale galactic dynamics in organizing the interstellar medium. This thesis begins by presenting work measuring the geometrical offsets between interstellar gas and recent star formation. Interstellar gas is traced by atomic hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO). Star formation is traced by ionized hydrogen recombination lines and infrared emission from dust warmed by young bright stars. Measuring these offsets can help determine the underlying large scale galactic dynamics. Along the spiral arms in M51, offsets between CO and the star formation tracers suggest that gas is flowing through the spiral arms, but the offsets do not show the expected signature of a single pattern speed and imply a more complicated pattern. This thesis also examines the intermediate stages of gas evolution, by studying a denser component of the ISM closer to which stars will form. Only a small percent of the bulk molecular gas will become dense enough to form stars. HCN and HCO+ probe densities ˜104 cm-3, where as the bulk gas is 500 cm-3. This thesis looks at HCN and

  11. Influence of baryonic physics in simulations of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halle, A.

    2013-01-01

    The modelling of baryonic physics in numerical simulations of disc galaxies allows us to study the evolution of the different components, the physical state of the gas and the star formation. The present work aims at investigating in particular the role of the cold and dense molecular phase, which could play a role of gas reservoir in the outer galaxy discs, with low star formation efficiency. After a presentation of galaxies with a focus on spiral galaxies, their interstellar medium and dynamical evolution, we review the current state of hydrodynamical numerical simulations and the implementation of baryonic physics. We then present the simulations we performed. These include the cooling to low temperatures, and a molecular hydrogen component. The cooling functions we use include cooling by metals, for temperatures as low as 100 K, and cooling by H 2 due to collisions with H, He and other H 2 molecules. We use a TreeSPH type code that considers the stellar and gaseous components and black matter as particles. We especially test the impact of the presence of molecular hydrogen in simulations with several feedback efficiencies, and find that the molecular hydrogen allows in all cases some slow stellar formation to occur in the outer disc, with an effect on the vertical structure of the disc that is sensitive to the feedback efficiency. Molecular hydrogen is therefore able to play the role of gas reservoir in external parts of spiral galaxies, which accrete gas from cosmic filaments all along their lives

  12. The Ultraviolet Attenuation Law in Backlit Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Manning, Anna M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Lintott, Chris J.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    The effective extinction law (attenuation behavior) in galaxies in the emitted ultraviolet (UV) regime is well known only for actively star-forming objects and combines effects of the grain properties, fine structure in the dust distribution, and relative distributions of stars and dust. We use Galaxy Evolution Explorer, XMM Optical Monitor, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to explore the UV attenuation in the outer parts of spiral disks which are backlit by other UV-bright galaxies, starting with the candidate list of pairs provided by Galaxy Zoo participants. New optical images help to constrain the geometry and structure of the target galaxies. Our analysis incorporates galaxy symmetry, using non-overlapping regions of each galaxy to derive error estimates on the attenuation measurements. The entire sample has an attenuation law across the optical and UV that is close to the Calzetti et al. form; the UV slope for the overall sample is substantially shallower than found by Wild et al., which is a reasonable match to the more distant galaxies in our sample but not to the weighted combination including NGC 2207. The nearby, bright spiral NGC 2207 alone gives an accuracy almost equal to the rest of our sample, and its outer arms have a very low level of foreground starlight. Thus, this widespread, fairly "gray" law can be produced from the distribution of dust alone, without a necessary contribution from differential escape of stars from dense clouds. Our results indicate that the extrapolation needed to compare attenuation between backlit galaxies at moderate redshifts from HST data, and local systems from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and similar data, is mild enough to allow the use of galaxy overlaps to trace the cosmic history of dust in galaxies. For NGC 2207, HST data in the near-UV F336W band show that the covering factor of clouds with small optical attenuation becomes a dominant factor farther into the UV, which opens the possibility that widespread

  13. STAR FORMATION IN THE SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 4736

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Farhanul; Crocker, Alison

    2018-01-01

    We estimate star formation properties of the center and circumnuclear ring of spiral galaxy NGC 4736 using its population of observed young star clusters. Compact star clusters in the center and ring are identified and selected from Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images in F814W, F568N, F555W, F450W, and F336W filters. We fit Bruzual & Charlot's (2003) stellar evolutionary models to the observed photometry of each cluster to determine the masses (M), ages, and extinctions of each. The cluster mass function in the ring and center are both well-approximated by a power law function, dN/d log M ∝ Mβ with β ∼ -1.8 (though some evidence of truncation at high-mass end is found for the ring). Using total cluster masses extrapolated from these mass functions along with estimated cluster formation efficiencies, we determine the star formation rates (SFR) in both regions. The surface density of star formation, ΣSFR, is about 7 times as high in the ring as in the center, despite very similar surface gas densities, Σgas. In both regions, the SFR is below that predicted by the Kennicutt-Schmidt (1998) law, however only the central region has a lower SFR than expected given the intrinsic scatter in the relation.

  14. The ultraviolet attenuation law in backlit spiral galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keel, William C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Manning, Anna M. [Stennis Space Center, MS 39522 (United States); Holwerda, Benne W. [ESA-ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201-AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Lintott, Chris J. [Astrophysics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Schawinski, Kevin, E-mail: wkeel@ua.edu, E-mail: ammanning@bama.ua.edu, E-mail: bholwerd@rssd.esa.int, E-mail: Twitter@BenneHolwerda, E-mail: cjl@astro.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: Twitter@chrislintott, E-mail: kevin.schawinski@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: Twitter@kevinschawinski [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The effective extinction law (attenuation behavior) in galaxies in the emitted ultraviolet (UV) regime is well known only for actively star-forming objects and combines effects of the grain properties, fine structure in the dust distribution, and relative distributions of stars and dust. We use Galaxy Evolution Explorer, XMM Optical Monitor, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to explore the UV attenuation in the outer parts of spiral disks which are backlit by other UV-bright galaxies, starting with the candidate list of pairs provided by Galaxy Zoo participants. New optical images help to constrain the geometry and structure of the target galaxies. Our analysis incorporates galaxy symmetry, using non-overlapping regions of each galaxy to derive error estimates on the attenuation measurements. The entire sample has an attenuation law across the optical and UV that is close to the Calzetti et al. form; the UV slope for the overall sample is substantially shallower than found by Wild et al., which is a reasonable match to the more distant galaxies in our sample but not to the weighted combination including NGC 2207. The nearby, bright spiral NGC 2207 alone gives an accuracy almost equal to the rest of our sample, and its outer arms have a very low level of foreground starlight. Thus, this widespread, fairly 'gray' law can be produced from the distribution of dust alone, without a necessary contribution from differential escape of stars from dense clouds. Our results indicate that the extrapolation needed to compare attenuation between backlit galaxies at moderate redshifts from HST data, and local systems from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and similar data, is mild enough to allow the use of galaxy overlaps to trace the cosmic history of dust in galaxies. For NGC 2207, HST data in the near-UV F336W band show that the covering factor of clouds with small optical attenuation becomes a dominant factor farther into the UV, which opens the possibility that

  15. The ultraviolet attenuation law in backlit spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, William C.; Manning, Anna M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Lintott, Chris J.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The effective extinction law (attenuation behavior) in galaxies in the emitted ultraviolet (UV) regime is well known only for actively star-forming objects and combines effects of the grain properties, fine structure in the dust distribution, and relative distributions of stars and dust. We use Galaxy Evolution Explorer, XMM Optical Monitor, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to explore the UV attenuation in the outer parts of spiral disks which are backlit by other UV-bright galaxies, starting with the candidate list of pairs provided by Galaxy Zoo participants. New optical images help to constrain the geometry and structure of the target galaxies. Our analysis incorporates galaxy symmetry, using non-overlapping regions of each galaxy to derive error estimates on the attenuation measurements. The entire sample has an attenuation law across the optical and UV that is close to the Calzetti et al. form; the UV slope for the overall sample is substantially shallower than found by Wild et al., which is a reasonable match to the more distant galaxies in our sample but not to the weighted combination including NGC 2207. The nearby, bright spiral NGC 2207 alone gives an accuracy almost equal to the rest of our sample, and its outer arms have a very low level of foreground starlight. Thus, this widespread, fairly 'gray' law can be produced from the distribution of dust alone, without a necessary contribution from differential escape of stars from dense clouds. Our results indicate that the extrapolation needed to compare attenuation between backlit galaxies at moderate redshifts from HST data, and local systems from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and similar data, is mild enough to allow the use of galaxy overlaps to trace the cosmic history of dust in galaxies. For NGC 2207, HST data in the near-UV F336W band show that the covering factor of clouds with small optical attenuation becomes a dominant factor farther into the UV, which opens the possibility that

  16. The Elaboration of Spiral Galaxies: Morpho-Kinematics Analyses of their Progenitors with IMAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, F.; Images Collaboration

    2009-12-01

    The IMAGES (Intermediate MAss Galaxy Evolution Sequence) project aims at measuring the velocity fields of a representative sample of 100 massive galaxies at z=0.4-0.75, selected in the CDFS, the CFRS and the HDFS fields. It uses the world-unique mode of multiple integral field units of FLAMES/ GIRAFFE at VLT. The resolved-kinematics data allow us to sample the large scale motions at ˜ few kpc scale for each galaxy. They have been combined with the deepest HST/ACS, Spitzer (MIPS and IRAC) and VLT/FORS2 ever achieved observations. Most intermediate redshift galaxies show anomalous velocity fields: 6 Gyrs ago, half of the present day spirals were out of equilibrium and had peculiar morphologies. The wealth of the data in these fields allow us to modelize the physical processes in each galaxy with an accuracy almost similar to what is done in the local Universe. These detailed analyses reveal the importance of merger processes, including their remnant phases. Together with the large evolution of spiral properties, this points out the importance of disk survival and strengthens the disk rebuilding scenario. This suggests that the hierarchical scenario may apply to the elaboration of disk galaxies as it does for ellipticals.

  17. Embedded spiral patterns in the massive galaxy cluster Abell 1835

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, S.; Kitayama, T.; Dotani, T.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the central region of the massive galaxy cluster, Abell 1835, obtained with the data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We find distinctive spiral patterns in the cool core in the residual image of the X-ray surface brightness after its nominal profile is subtracted. The spiral patterns consist of two arms. One of them appears as positive, and the other appears as negative excesses in the residual image. Their sizes are ˜ 70 kpc and their morphologies are consistent with each other. We find that the spiral patterns extend from the cool core out to the hotter surrounding ICM. We analyze the X-ray spectra extracted from both regions. We obtain that the ICM properties are similar to those expected by gas sloshing. We also find that the ICM in the two regions of spiral patterns is near or is in pressure equilibrium. Abell 1835 may now be experiencing gas sloshing induced by an off-axis minor merger. These results have been already published (Ueda, Kitayama, & Dotani 2017, ApJ, 837, 34).

  18. The opacity of spiral galaxy disks VII. The accuracy of galaxy counts as an extinction probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, BW; Gonzalez, RA; Allen, RJ; van der Kruit, PC

    2005-01-01

    The "Synthetic Field Method" (SFM) was introduced by Gonzalez et al. (1998, ApJ, 506, 152) to calibrate numbers of distant galaxies as a probe of extinction in a foreground spiral disk. Gonzalez et al. (2003, AJ, 125, 1182) studied the effect of the foreground disk on these numbers using simulations

  19. MAGNETIC FIELDS IN A SAMPLE OF NEARBY SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eck, C. L. [Department of Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Brown, J. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 (Canada); Shukurov, A.; Fletcher, A., E-mail: c.vaneck@astro.ru.nl, E-mail: jocat@ucalgary.ca, E-mail: anvar.shukurov@ncl.ac.uk, E-mail: andrew.fletcher@ncl.ac.uk [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-20

    Both observations and modeling of magnetic fields in the diffuse interstellar gas of spiral galaxies are well developed, but the theory has been confronted with observations for only a handful of individual galaxies. There is now sufficient data to consider the statistical properties of galactic magnetic fields. We have collected data from the literature on the magnetic fields and interstellar media of 20 spiral galaxies, and tested for various physically motivated correlations between magnetic field and interstellar medium parameters. Clear correlations emerge between the total magnetic field strength and molecular gas density as well as the star formation rate. The magnetic pitch angle exhibits correlations with the total gas density, the star formation rate, and the strength of the axisymmetric component of the mean magnetic field. The total and mean magnetic field strengths exhibit a noticeable degree of correlation, suggesting a universal behavior of the degree of order in galactic magnetic fields. We also compare the predictions of galactic dynamo theory to observed magnetic field parameters and identify directions in which theory and observations might be usefully developed.

  20. DOES THE MILKY WAY OBEY SPIRAL GALAXY SCALING RELATIONS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licquia, Timothy C.; Newman, Jeffrey A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bershady, Matthew A., E-mail: tcl15@pitt.edu, E-mail: janewman@pitt.edu, E-mail: mab@astro.wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    It is crucial to understand how the Milky Way (MW), the galaxy we can study in the most intimate detail, fits in among other galaxies. Key considerations include the Tully–Fisher relation (TFR)—i.e., the tight correlation between luminosity ( L ) and rotational velocity ( V {sub rot})—and the three-dimensional luminosity–velocity–radius ( LVR ) scaling relation. Several past studies have characterized the MW as a 1–1.5 σ outlier to the TFR. This study re-examines such comparisons using new estimates of MW properties that are robust to many of the systematic uncertainties that have been a problem in the past and are based on assumptions consistent with those used for other spiral galaxies. Comparing to scaling relations derived from modern extragalactic data, we find that our Galaxy’s properties are in excellent agreement with TFRs defined using any Sloan Digital Sky Survey-filter absolute magnitude, stellar mass, or baryonic mass as the L proxy. We next utilize disk scale length ( R {sub d}) measurements to extend this investigation to the LVR relation. Here we find that our Galaxy lies farther from the relation than ∼90% of other spiral galaxies, yielding ∼9.5 σ evidence that it is unusually compact for its L and V {sub rot} (based on MW errors alone), a result that holds for all of the L proxies considered. The expected R {sub d} for the MW from the LVR relation is ∼5 kpc, nearly twice as large as the observed value, with error estimates placing the two in tension at the ∼1.4 σ level. The compact scale length of the Galactic disk could be related to other ways in which the MW has been found to be anomalous.

  1. Kinematic classification of non-interacting spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegert, Theresa; English, Jayanne

    2014-01-01

    Using neutral hydrogen (HI) rotation curves of 79 galaxies, culled from the literature, as well as measured from HI data, we present a method for classifying disk galaxies by their kinematics. In order to investigate fundamental kinematic properties we concentrate on non-interacting spiral galaxies. We employ a simple parameterized form for the rotation curve in order to derive the three parameters: the maximum rotational velocity, the turnover radius and a measure of the slope of the rotation curve beyond the turnover radius. Our approach uses the statistical Hierarchical Clustering method to guide our division of the resultant 3D distribution of galaxies into five classes. Comparing the kinematic classes in this preliminary classification scheme to a number of galaxy properties, we find that our class containing galaxies with the largest rotational velocities has a mean morphological type of Sb/Sbc while the other classes tend to later types. Other trends also generally agree with those described by previous researchers. In particular we confirm correlations between increasing maximum rotational velocity and the following observed properties: increasing brightness in B-band, increasing size of the optical disk (D25) and increasing star formation rate (as derived using radio continuum data). Our analysis also suggests that lower velocities are associated with a higher ratio of the HI mass over the dynamical mass. Additionally, three galaxies exhibit a drop in rotational velocity amplitude of ≳20% after the turnover radius. However recent investigations suggest that they have interacted with minor companions which is a common cause for declining rotation curves.

  2. On the Intrinsic Alignments of the Late-type Spiral Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghun

    2011-05-01

    A robust detection of the tidally induced intrinsic alignments of the late-type spiral galaxies with high statistical significance is reported. From the spectroscopic galaxy sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 compiled by Huertas-Company et al., which lists each galaxy's probabilities of being in five Hubble types, P(E), P(Ell), P(S0), P(Sab), P(Scd), we select the nearby large late-type spiral galaxies which have redshifts of 0 = 0.5, and angular sizes of D >= 7.92 arcsec. The spin axes of the selected nearby large late-type spiral galaxies are determined up to the two-fold ambiguity with the help of the circular thin-disk approximation, and their spatial correlations are measured as a function of the separation distance r. A clear signal of the intrinsic correlation as high as 3.4σ and 2.4σ is found at the separation distance of r ≈ 1 h -1 Mpc and r ≈ 2 h -1 Mpc, respectively. The comparison of this observational results with the analytic model based on the tidal torque theory reveals that the spin correlation function for the late-type spiral galaxies follows the quadratic scaling of the linear density correlation and that the intrinsic correlations of the galaxy spin axes are stronger than that of the underlying dark halos. We investigate a local density dependence of the galaxy spin correlations and found that the correlations are stronger for the galaxies located in dense regions having more than 10 neighbors within 2 h -1 Mpc. We also attempt to measure a luminosity dependence of the galaxy spin correlations, but find that it is impossible with our magnitude-split samples to disentangle a luminosity from a redshift dependence. We provide the physical explanations for these observational results and also discuss the effects of possible residual systematics on the results.

  3. Two-component gravitational instability in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchuk, A. A.; Sotnikova, N. Y.

    2018-04-01

    We applied a criterion of gravitational instability, valid for two-component and infinitesimally thin discs, to observational data along the major axis for seven spiral galaxies of early types. Unlike most papers, the dispersion equation corresponding to the criterion was solved directly without using any approximation. The velocity dispersion of stars in the radial direction σR was limited by the range of possible values instead of a fixed value. For all galaxies, the outer regions of the disc were analysed up to R ≤ 130 arcsec. The maximal and sub-maximal disc models were used to translate surface brightness into surface density. The largest destabilizing disturbance stars can exert on a gaseous disc was estimated. It was shown that the two-component criterion differs a little from the one-fluid criterion for galaxies with a large surface gas density, but it allows to explain large-scale star formation in those regions where the gaseous disc is stable. In the galaxy NGC 1167 star formation is entirely driven by the self-gravity of the stars. A comparison is made with the conventional approximations which also include the thickness effect and with models for different sound speed cg. It is shown that values of the effective Toomre parameter correspond to the instability criterion of a two-component disc Qeff < 1.5-2.5. This result is consistent with previous theoretical and observational studies.

  4. Arm structure in normal spiral galaxies, 1: Multivariate data for 492 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Multivariate data have been collected as part of an effort to develop a new classification system for spiral galaxies, one which is not necessarily based on subjective morphological properties. A sample of 492 moderately bright northern Sa and Sc spirals was chosen for future statistical analysis. New observations were made at 20 and 21 cm; the latter data are described in detail here. Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) fluxes were obtained from archival data. Finally, new estimates of arm pattern radomness and of local environmental harshness were compiled for most sample objects.

  5. ON THE STAR FORMATION LAW FOR SPIRAL AND IRREGULAR GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A dynamical model for star formation on a galactic scale is proposed in which the interstellar medium is constantly condensing to star-forming clouds on the dynamical time of the average midplane density, and the clouds are constantly being disrupted on the dynamical timescale appropriate for their higher density. In this model, the areal star formation rate scales with the 1.5 power of the total gas column density throughout the main regions of spiral galaxies, and with a steeper power, 2, in the far outer regions and in dwarf irregular galaxies because of the flaring disks. At the same time, there is a molecular star formation law that is linear in the main and outer parts of disks and in dIrrs because the duration of individual structures in the molecular phase is also the dynamical timescale, canceling the additional 0.5 power of surface density. The total gas consumption time scales directly with the midplane dynamical time, quenching star formation in the inner regions if there is no accretion, and sustaining star formation for ∼100 Gyr or more in the outer regions with no qualitative change in gas stability or molecular cloud properties. The ULIRG track follows from high densities in galaxy collisions.

  6. {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O Gradients across the Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Donaire, María J.; Cormier, Diane; Bigiel, Frank [Institut für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, Adam K.; Gallagher, Molly [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th St, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Krumholz, Mark R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII 3, E-28014, Madrid (Spain); Hughes, Annie [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Kramer, Carsten [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Meier, David [Department of Physics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Pl, Soccoro, NM 87801 (United States); Murphy, Eric [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Pety, Jérôme; Schuster, Karl [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Schinnerer, Eva; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Tomicic, Neven [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schruba, Andreas, E-mail: m.jimenez@zah.uni-heidelberg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-02-20

    We use the IRAM Large Program EMPIRE and new high-resolution ALMA data to measure {sup 13}CO(1-0)/C{sup 18}O(1-0) intensity ratios across nine nearby spiral galaxies. These isotopologues of {sup 12}CO are typically optically thin across most of the area in galaxy disks, and this ratio allows us to gauge their relative abundance due to chemistry or stellar nucleosynthesis effects. Resolved {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O gradients across normal galaxies have been rare due to the faintness of these lines. We find a mean {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O ratio of 6.0 ± 0.9 for the central regions of our galaxies. This agrees well with results in the Milky Way, but differs from results for starburst galaxies (3.4 ± 0.9) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (1.1 ± 0.4). In our sample, the {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O ratio consistently increases with increasing galactocentric radius and decreases with increasing star formation rate surface density. These trends could be explained if the isotopic abundances are altered by fractionation; the sense of the trends also agrees with those expected for carbon and oxygen isotopic abundance variations due to selective enrichment by massive stars.

  7. Quantifying the average properties of hot gaseous coronae around spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Akos

    2017-09-01

    Hot gaseous coronae within the dark matter halos of massive spiral galaxies is a fundamental prediction of galaxy formation models. Although the first X-ray coronae around massive spirals have been detected recently, their average characteristics remain poorly understood due to their faint nature. This program aims to overturn this picture and measure the average properties of the hot coronae beyond the stellar body of spiral galaxies. We propose to stack the X-ray data of a large number of massive spirals observed within wide-area Chandra survey fields. The observed properties of the coronae will be confronted with state-of-the-art galaxy formation models, which will allow us to constrain crucial physical processes that influence galaxy evolution.

  8. Disk mass densities in edge-on spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupen, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the neutral hydrogen (HI) gas in two nearby edge-on spirals (NGC 4565 and NGC 891) successfully resolve the thickness of the gas layers in both disks over a wide range in radii. The combination of B, C, and D array data produces a 4 arcsec (approx. 200 pc) beam and 21 km s(exp -1) velocity resolution, combined with sensitivity to structures as large as 18 arcmin (approx. 54 kpc). These observations directly constrain the mid-plane disk mass densities, under the assumption of an equilibrium between the thermal pressure of the gas and the gravitational attraction of the disk. The results of a preliminary analysis are given regarding the z-velocity dispersion of the gas, the mass-to-light ratio of the disk in NGC 4565, and the roles of atomic and molecular gases. The data also allow a detailed study of the HI in these galaxies; in general their brightness temperature distributions seem similar to that in the Milky Way. Both galaxies show asymmetric HI extensions beyond the optical disk. In NGC 4565 the extension is a surprisingly abrupt warp, which may bend back to parallel the galactic plane; the velocity structure implies the warp is continuous around the disk.

  9. The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies - I. HI imaging of late-type dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaters, RA; Van Albada, TS; van der Hulst, JM; Sancisi, R

    Neutral hydrogen observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope are presented for a sample of 73 late-type dwarf galaxies. These observations are part of the WHISP project (Westerbork Hi Survey of Spiral and Irregular Galaxies). Here we present Hi maps, velocity fields, global profiles

  10. Radio two-color diagram for QSOs, spiral galaxies, and BL Lac objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacht, E.

    1976-01-01

    A radio ''color---color'' diagram is presented for 311 QSOs with known redshifts, 26 BL Lacertae-type objects, and 75 spiral galaxies. The spiral galaxies and BL Lac objects are found to cluster in two different almost mutually exclusive regions of the radio two-color diagram. The QSOs display a greater dispersion in their spectra and the dispersion appears to increase with redshift. The mean spectral index i /of the QSOs indicates a flatter spectrum with increasing

  11. The different star formation histories of blue and red spiral and elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojeiro, Rita; Masters, Karen L.; Richards, Joshua; Percival, Will J.; Bamford, Steven P.; Maraston, Claudia; Nichol, Robert C.; Skibba, Ramin; Thomas, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    We study the spectral properties of intermediate mass galaxies (M* ˜ 1010.7 M⊙) as a function of colour and morphology. We use Galaxy Zoo to define three morphological classes of galaxies, namely early types (ellipticals), late-type (disc-dominated) face-on spirals and early-type (bulge-dominated) face-on spirals. We classify these galaxies as blue or red according to their Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) g - r colour and use the spectral fitting code Versatile Spectral Analyses to calculate time-resolved star formation histories, metallicity and total starlight dust extinction from their SDSS fibre spectra. We find that red late-type spirals show less star formation in the last 500 Myr than blue late-type spirals by up to a factor of 3, but share similar star formation histories at earlier times. This decline in recent star formation explains their redder colour: their chemical and dust content are the same. We postulate that red late-type spirals are recent descendants of blue late-type spirals, with their star formation curtailed in the last 500 Myr. The red late-type spirals are however still forming stars ≃17 times faster than red ellipticals over the same period. Red early-type spirals lie between red late-type spirals and red ellipticals in terms of recent-to-intermediate star formation and dust content. Therefore, it is plausible that these galaxies represent an evolutionary link between these two populations. They are more likely to evolve directly into red ellipticals than red late-type spirals, which show star formation histories and dust content closer to blue late-type spirals. Blue ellipticals show similar star formation histories as blue spirals (regardless of type), except that they have formed less stars in the last 100 Myr. However, blue ellipticals have different dust content, which peaks at lower extinction values than all spiral galaxies. Therefore, many blue ellipticals are unlikely to be descendants of blue spirals, suggesting there may

  12. The evolution of interacting spiral galaxy NGC 5194

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoyu

    2015-08-01

    NGC 5194 (M51a) is a grand-design spiral galaxy and undergoing interactions with its companion. Here, we focus on investigating main properties of its star formation history by constructing a simple evolution model, which assumes that the disk builds up gradually by cold gas infall and the gas infall rate can be parametrizedly described by a Gaussian form. By comparing model predictions with the observed data, we discuss the probable range for free parameter in the model and then know more about the main properties of the evolution and SFH of M51a. We find that the model predictions are very sensitive to the free parameter and the model adopting a constant infall-peak time tp = 7.0 Gyr can reproduce most of the observed constraints of M51a. Although our model does not assume the gas infall time-scale of the inner disk is shorter than that of the outer disc, our model predictions still show that the disk of M51a forms inside-out. We find that the mean stellar age of M51a is younger than that of the Milky Way, but older than that of the gas-rich disk galaxy UGC 8802. In this paper, we also introduce a ‘toy’ model to allow an additional cold gas infall occurred recently to imitate the influence of the interaction between M51a and its companion. Our results show that the current molecular gas surface density, the star formation rate and the UV-band surface brightness are important quantities to trace the effects of recent interaction on galactic star formation process.

  13. The Evolution of Interacting Spiral Galaxy NGC\\,5194

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ruixiang

    2015-08-01

    NGC\\,5194 (M51a) is a grand-design spiral galaxy and undergoing interactions with its companion. Here we focus on investigating main properties of its star-formation history (SFH) by constructing a simple evolution model, which assumes that the disc builds up gradually by cold gas infall and the gas infall rate can be parameterizedly described by a Gaussian form. By comparing model predictions with the observed data, we discuss the probable range for free parameter in the model and then know more about the main properties of the evolution and SFH of M51a. We find that the model predictions are very sensitive to the free parameter and the model adopting a constant infall-peak time $t_{\\rm p}\\,=\\,7.0{\\rm Gyr}$can reproduce most of the observed constraints of M51a. Although our model does not assume the gas infall time-scale of the inner disc is shorter than that of the outer disc, our model predictions still show that the disc of M51a forms inside-out. We find that the mean stellar age of M51a is younger than that of the Milky Way, but older than that of the gas-rich disc galaxy UGC\\,8802. In this paper, we also introduce a 'toy' model to allow an additional cold gas infall occurred recently to imitate the influence of the interaction between M51a and its companion. Our results show that the current molecular gas surface density, the SFR and the UV-band surface brightness are important quantities to trace the effects of recent interaction on galactic SF process.

  14. The line-of-sight warp of the spiral galaxy ESO 123-G23

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentile, G; Fraternali, F; Klein, U; Salucci, P

    We present 3-D modelling of the distribution and kinematics of the neutral hydrogen in the spiral galaxy ESO 123- G23. The optical appearance of this galaxy is an almost perfectly edge-on disk, while the neutral hydrogen is found to extend vertically out to about 15 kpc on either side of the

  15. The scatter in the near-infrared colour-magnitude relation in spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, RF; de Grijs, R

    1998-01-01

    We have determined a dust-free colour-magnitude (CM) relation for spiral galaxies, by using I - K colours in edge-on galaxies above the plane. We find that the scatter in this relation is small and approximately as large as can be explained by observational uncertainties. The slope of the near-IR CM

  16. Stellar disc truncations and extended haloes in face-on spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S. P. C.; van der Kruit, P. C.; Knapen, J. H.; Trujillo, I.; Fliri, J.; Cisternas, M.; Kelvin, L. S.

    2017-01-01

    We use data from the IAC Stripe82 Legacy Project to study the surface photometry of 22 nearby, face-on to moderately inclined spiral galaxies. The reprocessed and combined Stripe 82 g',r' and I' images allow us to probe the galaxy down to 29-30 r'-magnitudes arcsec-2 and thus reach into the very

  17. ON THE INTRINSIC ALIGNMENTS OF THE LATE-TYPE SPIRAL GALAXIES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA RELEASE 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jounghun

    2011-01-01

    A robust detection of the tidally induced intrinsic alignments of the late-type spiral galaxies with high statistical significance is reported. From the spectroscopic galaxy sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 compiled by Huertas-Company et al., which lists each galaxy's probabilities of being in five Hubble types, P(E), P(Ell), P(S0), P(Sab), P(Scd), we select the nearby large late-type spiral galaxies which have redshifts of 0 ≤ z ≤ 0.02, probabilities of P(Scd) ≥ 0.5, and angular sizes of D ≥ 7.92 arcsec. The spin axes of the selected nearby large late-type spiral galaxies are determined up to the two-fold ambiguity with the help of the circular thin-disk approximation, and their spatial correlations are measured as a function of the separation distance r. A clear signal of the intrinsic correlation as high as 3.4σ and 2.4σ is found at the separation distance of r ∼ 1 h -1 Mpc and r ∼ 2 h -1 Mpc, respectively. The comparison of this observational results with the analytic model based on the tidal torque theory reveals that the spin correlation function for the late-type spiral galaxies follows the quadratic scaling of the linear density correlation and that the intrinsic correlations of the galaxy spin axes are stronger than that of the underlying dark halos. We investigate a local density dependence of the galaxy spin correlations and found that the correlations are stronger for the galaxies located in dense regions having more than 10 neighbors within 2 h -1 Mpc. We also attempt to measure a luminosity dependence of the galaxy spin correlations, but find that it is impossible with our magnitude-split samples to disentangle a luminosity from a redshift dependence. We provide the physical explanations for these observational results and also discuss the effects of possible residual systematics on the results.

  18. How do spiral arm contrasts relate to bars, disc breaks and other fundamental galaxy properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Adrian; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Athanassoula, Evangelie; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Bosma, Albert; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos

    2017-10-01

    We investigate how the properties of spiral arms relate to other fundamental galaxy properties, including bars and disc breaks. We use previously published measurements of those properties, and our own measurements of arm and bar contrasts for a large sample of galaxies, using 3.6 μm images from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. Flocculent galaxies are clearly distinguished from other spiral arm classes, especially by their lower stellar mass and surface density. Multi-armed and grand-design galaxies are similar in most of their fundamental parameters, excluding some bar properties and the bulge-to-total ratio. Based on these results, we revisit the sequence of spiral arm classes, and discuss classical bulges as a necessary condition for standing spiral wave modes in grand-design galaxies. We find a strong correlation between bulge-to-total ratio and bar contrast, and a weaker correlation between arm and bar contrasts. Barred and unbarred galaxies exhibit similar arm contrasts, but the highest arm contrasts are found exclusively in barred galaxies. Interestingly, the bar contrast, and its increase from flocculent to grand-design galaxies, is systematically more significant than that of the arm contrast. We corroborate previous findings concerning a connection between bars and disc breaks. In particular, in grand-design galaxies, the bar contrast correlates with the normalized disc break radius. This does not hold for other spiral arm classes or the arm contrast. Our measurements of arm and bar contrast and radial contrast profiles are publicly available.

  19. On galaxy spiral arms' nature as revealed by rotation frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roca-Fabrega, Santi; Valenzuela, Octavio; Figueras, Francesca; Romero-Gomez, Merce; Velazquez, Hector; Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Pichardo, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution N-body simulations using different codes and initial condition techniques reveal two different behaviours for the rotation frequency of transient spiral arms like structures. Whereas unbarred discs present spiral arms nearly corotating with disc particles, strong barred models

  20. Is the cluster environment quenching the Seyfert activity in elliptical and spiral galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R. S.; Dantas, M. L. L.; Krone-Martins, A.; Cameron, E.; Coelho, P.; Hattab, M. W.; de Val-Borro, M.; Hilbe, J. M.; Elliott, J.; Hagen, A.; COIN Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model (HBM) to investigate how the presence of Seyfert activity relates to their environment, herein represented by the galaxy cluster mass, M200, and the normalized cluster centric distance, r/r200. We achieved this by constructing an unbiased sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with morphological classifications provided by the Galaxy Zoo Project. A propensity score matching approach is introduced to control the effects of confounding variables: stellar mass, galaxy colour, and star formation rate. The connection between Seyfert-activity and environmental properties in the de-biased sample is modelled within an HBM framework using the so-called logistic regression technique, suitable for the analysis of binary data (e.g. whether or not a galaxy hosts an AGN). Unlike standard ordinary least square fitting methods, our methodology naturally allows modelling the probability of Seyfert-AGN activity in galaxies on their natural scale, I.e. as a binary variable. Furthermore, we demonstrate how an HBM can incorporate information of each particular galaxy morphological type in an unified framework. In elliptical galaxies our analysis indicates a strong correlation of Seyfert-AGN activity with r/r200, and a weaker correlation with the mass of the host cluster. In spiral galaxies these trends do not appear, suggesting that the link between Seyfert activity and the properties of spiral galaxies are independent of the environment.

  1. Stellar Population Synthesis of Star-forming Clumps in Galaxy Pairs and Non-interacting Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier; Smith, Beverly J.; Rosado, Margarita; Beckman, John E.; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Camps-Fariña, Artemi; Font, Joan; Cox, Isaiah S.

    2018-02-01

    We have identified 1027 star-forming complexes in a sample of 46 galaxies from the Spirals, Bridges, and Tails (SB&T) sample of interacting galaxies, and 693 star-forming complexes in a sample of 38 non-interacting spiral (NIS) galaxies in 8 μm observations from the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera. We have used archival multi-wavelength UV-to IR observations to fit the observed spectral energy distribution of our clumps with the Code Investigating GALaxy Emission using a double exponentially declined star formation history. We derive the star formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, ages and fractions of the most recent burst, dust attenuation, and fractional emission due to an active galactic nucleus for these clumps. The resolved star formation main sequence holds on 2.5 kpc scales, although it does not hold on 1 kpc scales. We analyzed the relation between SFR, stellar mass, and age of the recent burst in the SB&T and NIS samples, and we found that the SFR per stellar mass is higher in the SB&T galaxies, and the clumps are younger in the galaxy pairs. We analyzed the SFR radial profile and found that the SFR is enhanced through the disk and in the tidal features relative to normal spirals.

  2. Formation of S0 galaxies through mergers. Explaining angular momentum and concentration change from spirals to S0s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querejeta, M.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Tapia, T.; Borlaff, A.; van de Ven, G.; Lyubenova, M.; Martig, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    The CALIFA team has recently found that the stellar angular momentum and concentration of late-type spiral galaxies are incompatible with those of lenticular galaxies (S0s), concluding that fading alone cannot satisfactorily explain the evolution from spirals into S0s. Here we explore whether major

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF KNOTS OF STAR FORMATION IN INTERACTING VERSUS SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Beverly J.; Olmsted, Susan; Jones, Keith [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City TN 37614 (United States); Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Struck, Curtis, E-mail: smithbj@etsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Interacting galaxies are known to have higher global rates of star formation on average than normal galaxies, relative to their stellar masses. Using UV and IR photometry combined with new and published Hα images, we have compared the star formation rates (SFRs) of ∼700 star forming complexes in 46 nearby interacting galaxy pairs with those of regions in 39 normal spiral galaxies. The interacting galaxies have proportionally more regions with high SFRs than the spirals. The most extreme regions in the interacting systems lie at the intersections of spiral/tidal structures, where gas is expected to pile up and trigger star formation. Published Hubble Space Telescope images show unusually large and luminous star clusters in the highest luminosity regions. The SFRs of the clumps correlate with measures of the dust attenuation, consistent with the idea that regions with more interstellar gas have more star formation. For the clumps with the highest SFRs, the apparent dust attenuation is consistent with the Calzetti starburst dust attenuation law. This suggests that the high luminosity regions are dominated by a central group of young stars surrounded by a shell of clumpy interstellar gas. In contrast, the lower luminosity clumps are bright in the UV relative to Hα, suggesting either a high differential attenuation between the ionized gas and the stars, or a post-starburst population bright in the UV but faded in Hα. The fraction of the global light of the galaxies in the clumps is higher on average for the interacting galaxies than for the spirals. Thus either star formation in interacting galaxies is “clumpier” on average, or the star forming regions in interacting galaxies are more luminous, dustier, or younger on average.

  4. The transformation of Spirals into S0 galaxies in the cluster environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro eD'onofrio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the observational evidences of the morphological transformation of Spirals into S0 galaxies in the cluster environment exploiting two big databases of galaxy clusters: WINGS (0.04galaxies in clusters is almost a factor of ∼ 3 − 4 larger today than at redshift z ∼ 1; 2 the fraction of S0’s to Spirals increases on average by a factor ∼ 2 every Gyr; 3 the average rate of transformation for Spirals (not considering the infall of new galaxies from the cosmic web is: ∼ 5 Sp→S0’s per Gyr and ∼ 2 Sp→E’s per Gyr; 4 there are evidences that the interstellar gas of Spirals is stripped by an hot intergalactic medium; 5 there are also indirect hints that major/minor merging events have played a role in the transformation of Spiral galaxies. In particular, we show that: 1 the ratio between the number of S0’s and Spirals (NS0/NSp in the WINGS clusters is correlated with their X-ray luminosity LX ; 2 that the brightest and massive S0’s are always close to the cluster center; 3 that the mean Se ́rsic index of S0’s is always larger than that of Spirals (and lower than E’s for galaxy stellar masses above 10^9.5M⊙; 4 that the number of E’s in clusters cannot be constant; 5 that the largest difference between the mean mass of S0’s and E’s with respect to Spirals is observed in clusters with low velocity dispersion.Finally, by comparing the properties of the various morphological types for galaxies in clusters and in the field, we find that the most significant effect of the environment is the stripping of the outer galaxy regions, resulting in a systematic difference in effective radius and Se ́rsic index.

  5. Low-mass spiral galaxies with little molecular gas and prodigious star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, J.D.; Young, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    A comparison of CO and H I properties is used here to demonstrate that many CO-poor low-mass Virgo spiral galaxies are rich in atomic gas, which implies that the lack of CO emission from them is due, at least partly, to a lack of molecular gas. Despite the paucity of molecular gas, these H I-rich, CO-poor, low-mass spiral galaxies are undergoing extensive massive star formation. A column density of 10 to the 21st nuclei/sq cm is a necessary but insufficient condition for the creation of an H 2 -dominated interstellar medium. 40 references

  6. Bars and spirals in tidal interactions with an ensemble of galaxy mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, Alex R.; Wadsley, J. W.

    2018-03-01

    We present simulations of the gaseous and stellar material in several different galaxy mass models under the influence of different tidal fly-bys to assess the changes in their bar and spiral morphology. Five different mass models are chosen to represent the variety of rotation curves seen in nature. We find a multitude of different spiral and bar structures can be created, with their properties dependent on the strength of the interaction. We calculate pattern speeds, spiral wind-up rates, bar lengths, and angular momentum exchange to quantify the changes in disc morphology in each scenario. The wind-up rates of the tidal spirals follow the 2:1 resonance very closely for the flat and dark matter-dominated rotation curves, whereas the more baryon-dominated curves tend to wind-up faster, influenced by their inner bars. Clear spurs are seen in most of the tidal spirals, most noticeable in the flat rotation curve models. Bars formed both in isolation and interactions agree well with those seen in real galaxies, with a mixture of `fast' and `slow' rotators. We find no strong correlation between bar length or pattern speed and the interaction strength. Bar formation is, however, accelerated/induced in four out of five of our models. We close by briefly comparing the morphology of our models to real galaxies, easily finding analogues for nearly all simulations presenter here, showing passages of small companions can easily reproduce an ensemble of observed morphologies.

  7. MEASUREMENTS OF DUST EXTINCTION IN HIGHLY INCLINED SPIRAL GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, RA; KNAPEN, JH; BECKMAN, JE; PELETIER, RF; HES, R

    1994-01-01

    We study the extinction properties of dust in the well-defined dust lanes of four highly inclined galaxies, using U-, B-, V-, R- and I-band CCD and J- and K'-band near-infrared array images. For three of these galaxies, we could use the symmetry of the underlying light profile to obtain absolute

  8. Absorption-line strengths of 18 late-type spiral galaxies observed with SAURON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganda, Katia; Peletier, Reynier F.; McDermid, Richard M.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Sarzi, Marc; van de Ven, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    We present absorption line strength maps for a sample of 18 Sb-Sd galaxies observed using the integral-field spectrograph SAURON operating at the William Herschel Telescope on La Palma, as part of a project devoted to the investigation of the kinematics and stellar populations of late-type spirals,

  9. Angular momentum, accretion, and radial flows in chemodynamical models of spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pezzulli, G.; Fraternali, F.

    2016-01-01

    Gas accretion and radial flows are key ingredients of the chemical evolution of spiral galaxies. They are also tightly linked to each other (accretion drives radial flows due to angular momentum conservation) and should therefore be modeled simultaneously. We summarize an algorithm that can be used

  10. The opacity of spiral galaxy disks. VIII. Structure of the cold ISM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Draine, B.; Gordon, K. D.; Gonzalez, R. A.; Calzetti, D.; Thornley, M.; Buckalew, B.; Allen, Ronald J.; van der Kruit, P. C.

    2007-01-01

    The quantity of dust in a spiral disk can be estimated using the dust's typical emission or the extinction of a known source. In this paper we compare two techniques, one based on emission and one on absorption, applied to sections of 14 disk galaxies. The two measurements reflect, respectively, the

  11. The DiskMass Survey. X. Radio synthesis imaging of spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from 21 cm radio synthesis imaging of 28 spiral galaxies from the DiskMass Survey obtained with the VLA, WSRT, and GMRT facilities. We detail the observations and data reduction procedures and present a brief analysis of the radio data. We construct 21 cm continuum images, global

  12. The opacity of spiral galaxy disks VI. Extinction, stellar light and color

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, BW; Gonzalez, RA; van der Kruit, PC; Allen, RJ

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the relation between dust extinction and stellar light distribution in disks of spiral galaxies. Extinction influences our dynamical and photometric perception of disks, since it can distort our measurement of the contribution of the stellar component. To characterize the

  13. Optical observations of Dwingeloo 1, a nearby barred spiral galaxy behind the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loan, AJ; Maddox, SJ; Lahav, O; Balcells, M; KraanKorteweg, RC; Assendorp, R; Almoznino, E; Brosch, N; Goldberg, E; Ofek, EO

    1996-01-01

    We present new optical observations of the nearby barred spiral galaxy Dwingeloo 1 (Dw1) obtained with the Isaac Newton, William Herschel and Wise telescopes. Dw1 lies at Galactic coordinates (l=138.degrees 52, b=-0.degrees 11) and it is heavily obscured by dust and gas in the Milky Way. We infer

  14. HI study of the warped spiral galaxy NGC5055 : a disk/dark matter halo offset?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, G.; Fraternali, F.; Oosterloo, T.; Sancisi, R.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: We present a study of the HI distribution and the dynamics of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC5055 based on observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The gaseous disk of NGC5055 extends out to about 40 kpc, equal to 3.5 R_25 and shows a pronounced warp, starting at the end of

  15. HI study of the warped spiral galaxy NGC5055 : a disk/dark matter halo offset?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, G; Fraternali, F; Oosterloo, T; Sancisi, R

    We present a study of the Hi distribution and dynamics of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5055 based on observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The gaseous disk of NGC5055 extends out to about 40 kpc, equal to 3.5 R-25, and shows a pronounced warp that starts at the end of the

  16. The DiskMass Survey. VII. The distribution of luminous and dark matter in spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.

    We present dynamically-determined rotation-curve mass decompositions of 30 spiral galaxies, which were carried out to test the maximum-disk hypothesis and to quantify properties of their dark-matter halos. We used measured vertical velocity dispersions of the disk stars to calculate dynamical mass

  17. The structure of galactic disks - Studying late-type spiral galaxies using SDSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohlen, M.; Trujillo, I.

    Using imaging data from the SDSS survey, we present the g' and r' radial stellar light distribution of a complete sample of similar to 90 face-on to intermediate inclined, nearby, late-type (Sb-Sdm) spiral galaxies. The surface brightness profiles are reliable (1s uncertainty less than 0.2 mag) down

  18. The DiskMass Survey : VII. The distribution of luminous and dark matter in spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.

    We present dynamically- determined rotation- curve mass decompositions of 30 spiral galaxies, which were carried out to test the maximum- disk hypothesis and to quantify properties of their dark- matter halos. We used measured vertical velocity dispersions of the disk stars to calculate dynamical

  19. The DiskMass Survey. VII. The distribution of luminous and dark matter in spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, T.P.K.; Verheijen, M.; Westfall, K.; Bershady, M.; Andersen, D.; Swaters, R.

    2013-01-01

    We present dynamically-determined rotation-curve mass decompositions of 30 spiral galaxies, which were carried out to test the maximum-disk hypothesis and to quantify properties of their dark-matter halos. We used measured vertical velocity dispersions of the disk stars to calculate dynamical mass

  20. A close nuclear black-hole pair in the spiral galaxy NGC 3393.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiano, G; Wang, Junfeng; Elvis, M; Risaliti, G

    2011-08-31

    The current picture of galaxy evolution advocates co-evolution of galaxies and their nuclear massive black holes, through accretion and galactic merging. Pairs of quasars, each with a massive black hole at the centre of its galaxy, have separations of 6,000 to 300,000 light years (refs 2 and 3; 1 parsec = 3.26 light years) and exemplify the first stages of this gravitational interaction. The final stages of the black-hole merging process, through binary black holes and final collapse into a single black hole with gravitational wave emission, are consistent with the sub-light-year separation inferred from the optical spectra and light-variability of two such quasars. The double active nuclei of a few nearby galaxies with disrupted morphology and intense star formation (such as NGC 6240 with a separation of about 2,600 light years and Mrk 463 with a separation of about 13,000 light years between the nuclei) demonstrate the importance of major mergers of equal-mass spiral galaxies in this evolution; such mergers lead to an elliptical galaxy, as in the case of the double-radio-nucleus elliptical galaxy 0402+379 (with a separation of about 24 light years between the nuclei). Minor mergers of a spiral galaxy with a smaller companion should be a more common occurrence, evolving into spiral galaxies with active massive black-hole pairs, but have hitherto not been seen. Here we report the presence of two active massive black holes, separated by about 490 light years, in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3393 (50 Mpc, about 160 million light years). The regular spiral morphology and predominantly old circum-nuclear stellar population of this galaxy, and the closeness of the black holes embedded in the bulge, provide a hitherto missing observational point to the study of galaxy/black hole evolution. Comparison of our observations with current theoretical models of mergers suggests that they are the result of minor merger evolution. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights

  1. Accurate Distances to Important Spiral Galaxies: M63, M74, NGC 1291, NGC 4559, NGC 4625, and NGC 5398

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-01

    Accurate distances are fundamental for interpreting various measured properties of galaxies. Surprisingly, many of the best-studied spiral galaxies in the Local Volume have distance uncertainties that are much larger than can be achieved with modern observation techniques. Using Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging, we use the tip of the red giant branch method to measure the distances to six galaxies that are included in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey program and its offspring surveys. The sample includes M63, M74, NGC 1291, NGC 4559, NGC 4625, and NGC 5398. We compare our results with distances reported to these galaxies based on a variety of methods. Depending on the technique, there can be a wide range in published distances, particularly from the Tully–Fisher relation. In addition, differences between the planetary nebular luminosity function and surface brightness fluctuation techniques can vary between galaxies, suggesting inaccuracies that cannot be explained by systematics in the calibrations. Our distances improve upon previous results, as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in an optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian maximum likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties.

  2. The dynamics of the spiral structure in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contopoulos, G.

    1979-01-01

    The basic ideas and current problems of the linear and non-linear theory of spiral structure are reviewed. Some recent work on the response density and possible self-consistent solutions of bars with an Inner Lindblad Resonance are described. (Auth.)

  3. Dark and luminous matter in the NGC 3992 group of galaxies - I. The large barred spiral NGC 3992

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, R; Verheijen, MAW

    Detailed neutral hydrogen observations have been obtained of the large barred spiral galaxy NGC 3992 and its three small companion galaxies, UGC 6923, UGC 6940, and UGC 6969. For the main galaxy, the Hi distribution is regular with a low level radial extension outside the stellar disc. However, at

  4. New Portraits of Spiral Galaxies NGC 613, NGC 1792 and NGC 3627

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Not so long ago, the real nature of the "spiral nebulae", spiral-shaped objects observed in the sky through telescopes, was still unknown. This long-standing issue was finally settled in 1924 when the famous American astronomer Edwin Hubble provided conclusive evidence that they are located outside our own galaxy and are in fact "island universes" of their own. Nowadays, we know that the Milky Way is just one of billions of galaxies in the Universe. They come in vastly different shapes - spiral, elliptical, irregular - and many of them are simply beautiful, especially the spiral ones. Astronomers Mark Neeser from the Universitäts-Sternwarte München (Germany) and Peter Barthel from the Kapteyn Institute in Groningen (The Netherlands) were clearly not insensitive to this when they obtained images of three beautiful spiral galaxies with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). They did this in twilight during the early morning when they had to stop their normal observing programme, searching for very distant and faint quasars. The resulting colour images ( ESO PR Photos 33a-c/03 ) were produced by combining several CCD images in three different wavebands from the FORS multi-mode instruments. The three galaxies are known as NGC 613, NGC 1792 and NGC 3627 . They are characterized by strong far-infrared, as well as radio emission, indicative of substantial ongoing star-formation activity. Indeed, these images all display prominent dust as well as features related to young stars, clear signs of intensive star-formation. NGC 613 ESO PR Photo 33a/03 ESO PR Photo 33a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 470 x 400 pix - 25k] [Normal - JPEG: 939 x 800 pix - 416k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2702 x 2301 pix - 3.4M] PR Photo 33a/03 of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 613 was obtained with the FORS1 and FORS2 multi-mode instruments (at VLT MELIPAL and YEPUN, respectively) on December 16-18, 2001. It is a composite of three exposures in different wavebands, cf. the technical note below. The full-resolution version

  5. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies: Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus

    1988-01-01

    Using measurements from IRAS correlations are found between optical surface brightness and both infrared-to-optical flux ratio and infrared colour temperature, in the sense that galaxies with high surface brightness have higher FIR emission and higher temperatures. (author)

  6. Galaxy Zoo: the large-scale spin statistics of spiral galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Kate; Slosar, Anže; Lintott, Chris; Andreescu, Dan; Bamford, Steven; Murray, Phil; Nichol, Robert; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alex; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2008-08-01

    We re-examine the evidence for a violation of large-scale statistical isotropy in the distribution of projected spin vectors of spiral galaxies. We have a sample of ~37000 spiral galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with their line of sight spin direction confidently classified by members of the public through the online project Galaxy Zoo. After establishing and correcting for a certain level of bias in our handedness results we find the winding sense of the galaxies to be consistent with statistical isotropy. In particular, we find no significant dipole signal, and thus no evidence for overall preferred handedness of the Universe. We compare this result to those of other authors and conclude that these may also be affected and explained by a bias effect. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 100000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project: http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx. E-mail: krl@astro.ox.ac.uk (KL); anze@berkeley.edu (AS)

  7. Dusty Dwarfs Galaxies Occulting A Bright Background Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, Benne

    2017-08-01

    The role of dust in shaping the spectral energy distributions of low mass disk galaxies remains poorly understood. Recent results from the Herschel Space Observatory imply that dwarf galaxies contain large amounts of cool (T 20K) dust, coupled with very modest optical extinctions. These seemingly contradictory conclusions may be resolved if dwarfs harbor a variety of dust geometries, e.g., dust at larger galactocentric radii or in quiescent dark clumps. We propose HST observations of six truly occulting dwarf galaxies drawn from the Galaxy Zoo catalog of silhouetted galaxy pairs. Confirmed, true occulting dwarfs are rare as most low-mass disks in overlap are either close satellites or do not have a confirmed redshift. Dwarf occulters are the key to determining the spatial extent of dust, the small scale structure introduced by turbulence, and the prevailing dust attenuation law. The recent spectroscopic confirmation of bona-fide low mass occulting dwarfs offers an opportunity to map dust in these with HST. What is the role of dust in the SED of these dwarf disk galaxies? With shorter feedback scales, how does star-formation affect their morphology and dust composition, as revealed from their attenuation curve? The resolution of HST allows us to map the dust disks down to the fine scale structure of molecular clouds and multi-wavelength imaging maps the attenuation curve and hence dust composition in these disks. We therefore ask for 2 orbits on each of 6 dwarf galaxies in F275W, F475W, F606W, F814W and F125W to map dust from UV to NIR to constrain the attenuation curve.

  8. Dependence of spiral galaxy distribution on viewing angle in RC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Song, Guoxuan; Cheng, Shugang

    The normalized inclination distributions are presented for the spiral galaxies in RC3. The results show that, except for the bin of 81° - 90°, in which the apparent minor isophotal diameters that are used to obtain the inclinations are affected by the central bulges, the distributions for Sa, Sab, Scd and Sd are well consistent with the Monte-Carlo simulation of random inclinations within 3-σ, and Sb and Sbc almost, but Sc is different. One reason for the difference between the real distribution and the Monte-Carlo simulation of Sc may be that some quite inclined spirals, the arms of which are inherently loosely wound on the galactic plane and should be classified to Sc galaxies, have been incorrectly classified to the earlier ones, because the tightness of spiral arms which is one of the criteria of the Hubble classification in RC3 is different between on the galactic plane and on the tangent plane of the celestial sphere. The authors' result also implies that there might exist biases in the luminosity functions of individual Hubble types if spiral galaxies are only classified visually.

  9. Stellar disc truncations and extended haloes in face-on spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S. P. C.; van der Kruit, P. C.; Knapen, J. H.; Trujillo, I.; Fliri, J.; Cisternas, M.; Kelvin, L. S.

    2017-09-01

    We use data from the IAC Stripe82 Legacy Project to study the surface photometry of 22 nearby, face-on to moderately inclined spiral galaxies. The reprocessed and combined Stripe 82 g',r' and I' images allow us to probe the galaxy down to 29-30 r'-magnitudes arcsec-2 and thus reach into the very faint outskirts of the galaxies. Truncations are found in three galaxies. An additional 15 galaxies are found to have an apparent extended stellar halo. Simulations show that the scattering of light from the inner galaxy by the point spread function (PSF) can produce faint structures resembling haloes, but this effect is insufficient to fully explain the observed haloes. The presence of these haloes and of truncations is mutually exclusive, and we argue that the presence of a stellar halo and/or light scattered by the PSF can hide truncations. Furthermore, we find that the onset of the stellar halo and the truncations scales tightly with galaxy size. Interestingly, the fraction of light does not correlate with dynamic mass. Nineteen galaxies are found to have breaks in their profiles, the radius of which also correlates with galaxy size.

  10. Spiral arm amplitude variations and pattern speeds in the grand design galaxies M51, M81, and M100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Seiden, P.E.; Elmegreen, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    In the modal theory of galactic spiral structure, the amplitude of a prominent two-arm spiral pattern should oscillate slightly with galactocentric distance because of an interference between the outward and inward propagating waves. In the stellar dynamical theory, the spiral arm amplitudes should oscillate because of differential crowding near and between wave-orbit resonances. Two and three cycles of such oscillations have been found in computer-enhanced images at B and I passbands of the grand design galaxies M81 and M100, respectively, and what is probably one cycle of such an amplitude variation in M51. These three galaxies are the most symmetric and global of the two-arm spirals in the near-IR survey of Elmegreen (1981), so the occurrence of such spiral amplitude oscillations could be common among galaxies of this type. The positions of the features discussed are used to suggest possible arm pattern speeds. 23 refs

  11. Updating the (supermassive black hole mass)-(spiral arm pitch angle) relation: a strong correlation for galaxies with pseudobulges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Graham, Alister W.; Seigar, Marc S.

    2017-10-01

    We have conducted an image analysis of the (current) full sample of 44 spiral galaxies with directly measured supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses, MBH, to determine each galaxy's logarithmic spiral arm pitch angle, ϕ. For predicting black hole masses, we have derived the relation: log (MBH/M⊙) = (7.01 ± 0.07) - (0.171 ± 0.017)[|ϕ| - 15°]. The total root mean square scatter associated with this relation is 0.43 dex in the log MBH direction, with an intrinsic scatter of 0.30 ± 0.08 dex. The MBH-ϕ relation is therefore at least as accurate at predicting SMBH masses in spiral galaxies as the other known relations. By definition, the existence of an MBH-ϕ relation demands that the SMBH mass must correlate with the galaxy discs in some manner. Moreover, with the majority of our sample (37 of 44) classified in the literature as having a pseudobulge morphology, we additionally reveal that the SMBH mass correlates with the large-scale spiral pattern and thus the discs of galaxies hosting pseudobulges. Furthermore, given that the MBH-ϕ relation is capable of estimating black hole masses in bulge-less spiral galaxies, it therefore has great promise for predicting which galaxies may harbour intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs, MBH < 105 M⊙). Extrapolating from the current relation, we predict that galaxies with |ϕ| ≥ 26.7° should possess IMBHs.

  12. A New Dataset of Automatically Extracted Structure of Arms and Bars in Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Wayne B.; Davis, D.

    2012-05-01

    We present an algorithm capable of automatically extracting quantitative structure (bars and arms) from images of spiral galaxies. We have run the algorithm on 30,000 galaxies and compared the results to human classifications generously provided pre-publication by the Galaxy Zoo 2 team. In all available measures, our algorithm agrees with the humans about as well as they agree with each other. In addition we provide objective, quantitative measures not available in human classifications. We provide a preliminary analysis of this dataset to see how the properties of arms and bars vary as a function of basic variables such as environment, redshift, absolute magnitude, and color. We also show how structure can vary across wavebands as well as along and across individual arms and bars. Finally, we present preliminary results of a measurement of the total angular momentum present in our observed set of galaxies with an eye towards determining if there is a preferred "handedness" in the universe.

  13. Energy from Active Galactic Nuclei and the Effects on Host Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Amanda

    I have investigated the energy output of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in order to understand how these objects evolve and the impact they may have on host galaxies. First, I looked at a sample of 96 AGN at redshifts z 2, 3, and 4 which have imaging and thus luminosity measurements in the griz and JHK observed wavebands. For these galaxies, I have co-epochal data across those bands which accounted for variability in AGN luminosity. I used the luminosity measurements in the five bands to construct spectral energy distributions (SED) in the emitted optical-UV bands for each AGN. I compared the SED to assumptions previously made about quasars and looked for correlations between SED and other AGN and galaxy properties. Second, I used spectra of the broad line region (BLR) of Type 1 AGN to estimate the mass of the central supermassive black hole (MBH). I found a sample of Type 1 AGN that reside in spiral galaxies in order to explore the relationship between MBH and pitch angle (φ), a measurement of how tightly wound the spiral arms are. Type 1 AGN offer a method to estimate MBH at higher redshift than previous studies of the M BH-φ relation. I was able to look at the evolution in the MBH-φ relation which has implications for galaxy formation as well as AGN feedback.

  14. A Faint Luminous Halo that May Trace the Dark Matter around Spiral Galaxy NGC~5907

    OpenAIRE

    Sackett, Penny D.; Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Boroson, Todd A.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of unseen halos of ``dark matter'' has long been inferred from the high rotation speeds of gas and stars in the outer parts of spiral galaxies$^{1}$. The volume density of this dark matter decreases less quickly from the galactic center than does that of the luminous mass (such as that in stars), meaning that the dark matter dominates the mass far from the center$^{1,2}$. While searching for faint starlight away from the plane of the edge-on disk galaxy \\gal$^{3}$, we have found ...

  15. Spatial distribution of luminous X-ray binaries in spiral galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Zhao-yu; Li, Xiang-dong; Liu, Xi-wei

    2008-01-01

    We have modelled the spatial distribution of luminous X-ray binaries (XRBs) in spiral galaxies that are like the Milky Way using an evolutionary population synthesis code. In agreement with previous theoretical expectations and observations, we find that both high- and low-mass XRBs show clear concentrations towards the galactic plane and bulge.We also compare XRB distributions under the galactic potential with a dark matter halo and the modified Newtonian dynamics potential, and we suggest t...

  16. S0 galaxies are faded spirals: clues from their angular momentum content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Francesca; Fraternali, Filippo; Iorio, Giuliano

    2018-02-01

    The distribution of galaxies in the stellar specific angular momentum versus stellar mass plane (j⋆-M⋆) provides key insights into their formation mechanisms. In this paper, we determine the location in this plane of a sample of ten field/group unbarred lenticular (S0) galaxies from the CALIFA survey. We performed a bulge-disc decomposition both photometrically and kinematically to study the stellar specific angular momentum of the disc components alone and understand the evolutionary links between S0s and other Hubble types. We found that eight of our S0 discs have a distribution in the j⋆-M⋆ plane that is fully compatible with that of spiral discs, while only two have values of j⋆ lower than the spirals. These two outliers show signs of recent merging. Our results suggest that merger and interaction processes are not the dominant mechanisms in S0 formation in low-density environments. Instead, S0s appear to be the result of secular processes and the fading of spiral galaxies after the shutdown of star formation.

  17. Optical spectroscopy of the radio-loud nuclei of spiral galaxies: Starbursts or monsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, T.M.; Van Breugel, W.; Miley, G.K.; Butcher, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopic data pertaining to the physical state, kinematics, and spatial extent of the emission-line gas near the radio-loud nuclei of spiral galaxies. These data are combined with published optical, radio, and infrared data to evaluate the suggestions by Condon et al. (1982) that the nuclear radio emission in this class of galaxy is produced by multiple supernova remnants generated as a consequence of a nuclear starburst. As a whole, the radio-loud nuclei have stronger emission lines than radio-quiet nuclei of galaxies of similar Hubble/de Vaucouleurs type. This emission-line gas is generally at least as spatially extended as the radio continuum emission. However, we find that only about 1/3 of the spiral galaxies examined have optical spectroscopic properties consistent with those of ''extranuclear starbursts'' (i.e., giant H II regions). The majority of the nuclei seem to require a form of energy input to the ionized gas which is ''harder'' than the Lyman continuum radiation of OB stars, as their emission-line spectra are of the Seyfert or Liner variety. The nuclei with H II region spectra are distinct from the nuclei with Seyfert spectra in terms of radio morphology and radio spectral index, and tend to occur in spiral galaxies of much later Hubble type than do the Seyfert or Liner nuclei (Sc vs Sa). Moreover, the most luminous nuclear radio sources in our sample (PMHz> or =10 22 Watts Hz - 1 Sr - 1 ) are not associated with H II region nuclei. We summarize evidence that the putative nuclear starbursts must differ significantly from extranuclear starbursts

  18. The angular momentum of hot coronae around spiral galaxies and its impact on the evolution of star forming discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pezzulli, G.; Fraternali, F.; Binney, J.

    Galaxy formation theory and recent observations indicate that spiral galaxies are surrounded by massive and hot coronae, which potentially constitute a huge source of mass and angular momentum for the star forming discs embedded within them. Accretion from these reservoirs is likely a key ingredient

  19. Dust Temperatures in the Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bendo, G J; Wells, M; Gallais, P; Haas, M; Heras, A M; Klaas, U; Laureijs, R J; Leech, K; Lemke, D; Metcalfe, L; Rowan-Robinson, M; Schulz, B; Telesco, C M; Bendo, George J.; Joseph, Robert D.; Wells, Martyn; Gallais, Pascal; Haas, Martin; Heras, Ana M.; Klaas, Ulrich; Laureijs, Rene J.; Leech, Kieron; Lemke, Dietrich; Metcalfe, Leo; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Schulz, Bernhard; Telesco, Charles

    2003-01-01

    We examine far-infrared and submillimeter spectral energy distributions for galaxies in the Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies. For the 71 galaxies where we had complete 60-180 micron data, we fit blackbodies with lambda^-1 emissivities and average temperatures of 31 K or lambda^-2 emissivities and average temperatures of 22 K. Except for high temperatures determined in some early-type galaxies, the temperatures show no dependence on any galaxy characteristic. For the 60-850 micron range in eight galaxies, we fit blackbodies with lambda^-1, lambda-2, and lambda^-beta (with beta variable) emissivities to the data. The best results were with the lambda^-beta emissivities, where the temperatures were ~30 K and the emissivity coefficient beta ranged from 0.9 to 1.9. These results produced gas to dust ratios that ranged from 150 to 580, which were consistent with the ratio for the Milky Way and which exhibited relatively little dispersion compared to fits with fixed emissivities.

  20. STAR Formation Histories Across the Interacting Galaxy NGC 6872, the Largest-Known Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, RIchard G.; deMello, Duilia F.; Gadotti, DImitri A.; Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; deOliveira, CLaudia Mendes; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    NGC6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 micrometer) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  1. The Elaboration of Disk in Spiral Galaxies: Analyses of their Progenitors, 6 Gyrs Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, F.; Images Team

    2010-10-01

    The Large program (Intermediate MAss Galaxy Evolution Sequence, IMAGES) aims at measuring the velocity fields of a representative sample of 100 massive galaxies at z=0.4-0.75, taken from the CDFS, the CFRS and the HDFS fields. It uses the unique mode of multiple integral field units of FLAMES/GIRAFFE at VLT. The resolved kinematics data allow to sample the large scale motions at few kpc scale for each individual galaxy. They have been combined with the deepest HST/ACS, Spitzer (MIPS and IRAC) and VLT/FORS2 ever achieved observations. Most intermediate redshift galaxies show anomalous velocity fields implying that, 6 Gyrs ago, half of the present day spirals were out of equilibrium and have peculiar morphologies. The wealth of data in these fields allows to modelize the physical processes in each galaxy with an accuracy almost similar to what is done in the local Universe. These detailed analyses reveal the importance of merger processes, including their remnant phases. It points out the importance of disk survival and it supports the disk rebuilding scenario, suggesting that the hierarchical scenario may apply to the elaboration of disk galaxies as well as it does for ellipticals.

  2. Star formation histories across the interacting galaxy NGC 6872, the largest-known spiral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; De Mello, Duilia F. [Physics Department, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Benford, Dominic J. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gadotti, Dimitri A. [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; De Oliveira, Claudia Mendes, E-mail: rafael.t.eufrasio@nasa.gov [Departamento de Astronomia, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas da USP, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, 05508-090 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    NGC 6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 μm) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  3. Properties in the middle and far infrared radiation of spiral and irregular galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contursi, Alessandra

    1998-01-01

    In the first part of this research thesis, the author reports the study in the middle infrared of H II regions belonging to Magellanic clouds. For this purpose, he presents different aspects of infrared emission by the interstellar medium: origin and evolution of interstellar grains, dust studied by astrophysical observations, dust models, infrared observations made by COBE and IRAS satellites, exploitation of the ISO satellite. He also presents the Small and Large Magellanic clouds, and reports the study of the H II N4 region of the large one, imagery and spectroscopy of the H II N66 region of the small one, and the study of silicate emission in the central region of N66. The second part reports the study of cluster normal spiral galaxies in the middle and far infrared. For this purpose, the author discusses the colours in the middle infrared of Virgo's and Coma's galaxies, discusses the properties in the infrared of spiral galaxies (Coma and A1367), based on observations made by ISO [fr

  4. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Variation of the Stellar Initial Mass Function in Spiral and Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Ge, Junqiang; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Emsellem, Eric; Dutton, Aaron A.; Li, Cheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Drory, Niv; Lopes, Alexandre Roman

    2017-04-01

    We perform Jeans anisotropic modeling (JAM) on elliptical and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR13 sample. By comparing the stellar mass-to-light ratios estimated from stellar population synthesis and from JAM, we find a systematic variation of the initial mass function (IMF) similar to that in the earlier {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} results. Early-type galaxies (elliptical and lenticular) with lower velocity dispersions within one effective radius are consistent with a Chabrier-like IMF, while galaxies with higher velocity dispersions are consistent with a more bottom-heavy IMF such as the Salpeter IMF. Spiral galaxies have similar systematic IMF variations, but with slightly different slopes and larger scatters, due to the uncertainties caused by the higher gas fractions and extinctions for these galaxies. Furthermore, we examine the effects of stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients on our JAM modeling, and we find that the trends become stronger after considering the gradients.

  5. Accurate Parameters of the Mass Distribution in Spiral Galaxies: 1. Fabry - Perot Observations of NGC 5585

    OpenAIRE

    Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien; Carignan, Claude; Amram, Philippe; Cote, Stephanie

    1999-01-01

    Using the example of the Sd galaxy NGC 5585, it is shown that high resolution 2-D HII kinematical data are necessary to determine accurately the parameters of the mass distribution in spirals. New CFHT Fabry-Perot Halpha observations are combined with low resolution (20") Westerbork HI data to study its mass distribution. Using the combined rotation curve and best fit models, it can be seen that M/L of the luminous disk goes from 0.3 using only the HI rotation curve, to 0.8 using both the opt...

  6. The Stellar Populations Inside Expanding HI Shells in the Spiral Galaxy M33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterbos, Rene

    1997-07-01

    Because of its vigorous star formation activity, favorable inclination, and relative proximity, M33 is an ideal laboratory for the study of expanding HI shells in spiral galaxies. Theoretical models show that the energy deposited into the ISM by high mass stars in OB associations is capable of creating HI superbubbles. However, sparse observational evidence exists to test these models in detail. One essential ingredient of such a test is an improved census of stellar populations inside expanding HI shells. Using multi-color archival HST images of M33, we will {1} verify that association ages are consistent with dynamical ages of related shells and with ages from model predictions for bubbles of matching size and kinematics; {2} Constrain the IMF for each association by combining integrated ground-based HAlpha fluxes with the population age, present day mass function, and luminosity function derived from WFPC2 data; {3} Use this information to infer which fraction of the integrated stellar mechanical luminosity is transferred to a shell over its lifetime. Ground-based observations of associations inside expanding shells lack the UV-sensitivity and spatial resolution to adequately address these issues. Our sample of expanding neutral shells in M33 was selected using a new automated method for analysis of HI datacubes. From this robust catalog we have identified more than 30 HI supershells in M33 already imaged with WFPC2 in suitable broadband filters {F160BW, F170W, F336W, F439W, F555W, and F814W}.

  7. The joint far-infrared-optical luminosity function for spiral galaxies and data for the Abell 400 and Cancer clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbelli, Edvige; Salpeter, Edwin E.; Dickey, John M.

    1991-01-01

    Visual and IRAS data for an optically selected sample of 183 late-type galaxies are compiled in tables and graphs and analyzed in detail to determine the joint FIR-optical luminosity function Psi from the FIR/blue luminosity ratio, r = L(FIR)/L(B). It is found that Psi can be approximated by a function of a single variable psi(r-prime), where r-prime is defined as r times L(B)/L(asterisk) exp -delta, with L(asterisk) a constant and delta = about 0.08. A lognormal curve peaking at r-prime = 0.35 and with dispersion of 0.28 is shown to give a good fit to psi(r-prime). From a lack of galaxies with very low r-prime in the present sample it is inferred that there are few spiral galaxies with low interstellar-dust abundances. Also included are data on the distribution function of r-prime for the more distant clusters Abell 400 and Cancer.

  8. The variation of the dust temperature within late-type spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rhodri H.

    1994-01-01

    We use high resolution (HiRes) 60 and 100 micron data to investigate the variation of the dust temperature in a sample of 4 late-type spiral galaxies. We have investigated the radial variation of the azimuthally averaged 60 and 100 micron surface brightness profiles to see how the dust temperature (or, more correctly, the relative strength of the two components) varies as a function of radius within the galaxies. We find strong evidence for a decrease in the dust temperature (or an increase in the relative contribution of the 100 micron flux compared to the 60 micron flux) as a function of radius. We discuss these results in the light of the continuing debate as to whether massive star formation or the general interstellar radiation field is the major heating source of the dust.

  9. The disc contribution to rotation curves of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persic, M.; Salucci, P.

    1990-01-01

    We formulate analytically the maximum disc hypothesis (MDH) in the framework of a disc/halo mass decomposition, and apply it to a sample of suitably selected optical rotation curves. We find that the resulting disc-to-total mass ratios show a definite trend of increasing dark-to-luminous mass ratio with decreasing luminosity, in very good agreement with our previous results obtained by means of different decomposition techniques. The same trend is also clearly discernible when the mass ratios (at the same radius in disc length-scale units) obtained from published MDH models are correlated with luminosity. We discuss possible reasons why previous studies which have assumed a similar framework have missed this fundamental systematics of dark matter. (author)

  10. The angular momentum of cosmological coronae and the inside-out growth of spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulli, Gabriele; Fraternali, Filippo; Binney, James

    2017-05-01

    Massive and diffuse haloes of hot gas (coronae) are important intermediaries between cosmology and galaxy evolution, storing mass and angular momentum acquired from the cosmic web until eventual accretion on to star-forming discs. We introduce a method to reconstruct the rotation of a galactic corona, based on its angular momentum distribution (AMD). This allows us to investigate in what conditions the angular momentum acquired from tidal torques can be transferred to star-forming discs and explain observed galaxy-scale processes, such as inside-out growth and the build-up of abundance gradients. We find that a simple model of an isothermal corona with a temperature slightly smaller than virial and a cosmologically motivated AMD is in good agreement with galaxy evolution requirements, supporting hot-mode accretion as a viable driver for the evolution of spiral galaxies in a cosmological context. We predict moderately sub-centrifugal rotation close to the disc and slow rotation close to the virial radius. Motivated by the observation that the Milky Way has a relatively hot corona (T ≃ 2 × 106 K), we also explore models with a temperature larger than virial. To be able to drive inside-out growth, these models must be significantly affected by feedback, either mechanical (ejection of low angular momentum material) or thermal (heating of the central regions). However, the agreement with galaxy evolution constraints becomes, in these cases, only marginal, suggesting that our first and simpler model may apply to a larger fraction of galaxy evolution history.

  11. Galaxy Selection and the Surface Brightness Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, Stacy S.; Bothun, Gregory D.; Schombert, James M.

    1995-08-01

    Optical surveys for galaxies are biased against the inclusion of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Disney [Nature, 263,573(1976)] suggested that the constancy of disk central surface brightness noticed by Freeman [ApJ, 160,811(1970)] was not a physical result, but instead was an artifact of sample selection. Since LSB galaxies do exist, the pertinent and still controversial issue is if these newly discovered galaxies constitute a significant percentage of the general galaxy population. In this paper, we address this issue by determining the space density of galaxies as a function of disk central surface brightness. Using the physically reasonable assumption (which is motivated by the data) that central surface brightness is independent of disk scale length, we arrive at a distribution which is roughly flat (i.e., approximately equal numbers of galaxies at each surface brightness) faintwards of the Freeman (1970) value. Brightwards of this, we find a sharp decline in the distribution which is analogous to the turn down in the luminosity function at L^*^. An intrinsically sharply peaked "Freeman law" distribution can be completely ruled out, and no Gaussian distribution can fit the data. Low surface brightness galaxies (those with central surface brightness fainter than 22 B mag arcsec^-2^) comprise >~ 1/2 the general galaxy population, so a representative sample of galaxies at z = 0 does not really exist at present since past surveys have been insensitive to this component of the general galaxy population.

  12. Searching gravitational microlensing events in the galaxy spiral arms by EROS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derue, Frederic

    1999-01-01

    The EROS II experiment is searching for microlensing events due to compact massive objects passing through the line-of-sight of luminous stars. These objects are candidates to explain the baryonic component of Dark Matter in our Galaxy. EROS II was dedicated to different lines-of-sight: Small and Large Magellanic Clouds, Galactic Centre and 4 directions towards the Spiral Arms of the Galaxy. This thesis presents the first search for microlensing towards these last lines-of-sight (about 9 million stars). Simple criteria based on the search for significant fluctuations allowed one to discover a low noise sample of 7 candidates to the microlensing effect, with an average timescale of 50 days. A detailed analysis of the light curve of one candidate allows us to give a confidence interval on its mass 2.7 x 10 -3 0 0 = 50 ± 3 days. To improve the knowledge of the distance of the target stars, we have combined observations of EROS II with bibliographic sources on associations of stars linked with the spiral arm features, and we have developed a program to find variable stars. Ten cepheids have thus been found. Distances obtained with different methods are in rough agreement with each other. The average optical depth measured towards the four directions is τ-bar = 0.45 0.11 +0.23 x 10 -6 . It is compatible with expectations from simple galactic models. The long duration of most events favours interpretation of lensing by objects belonging to the disk instead of the halo. It also seems that some events due to bulge lenses have influenced measurements towards the line-of-sight which is closest to the Galactic Centre. Observation continue towards spiral arms. More accurate measurements should be obtained with increase of statistics, allowing one to estimate the disk contribution to the optical depth towards the bulge and the Magellanic Clouds. (author)

  13. A study of the HI and optical properties of Low Surface Brightness galaxies: spirals, dwarfs and irregulars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, M.; van Driel, W.; Das, M.; Martin, J.-M.

    2018-03-01

    We present a study of the HI and optical properties of nearby (z ≤ 0.1) Low Surface Brightness galaxies (LSBGs). We started with a literature sample of ˜900 LSBGs and divided them into three morphological classes: spirals, irregulars and dwarfs. Of these, we could use ˜490 LSBGs to study their HI and stellar masses, colours and colour magnitude diagrams, and local environment, compare them with normal, High Surface Brightness (HSB) galaxies and determine the differences between the three morphological classes. We found that LSB and HSB galaxies span a similar range in HI and stellar masses, and have a similar MHI/M⋆-M⋆ relationship. Among the LSBGs, as expected, the spirals have the highest average HI and stellar masses, both of about 109.8M⊙. The LSGBs' (g-r) integrated colour is nearly constant as function of HI mass for all classes. In the colour magnitude diagram, the spirals are spread over the red and blue regions whereas the irregulars and dwarfs are confined to the blue region. The spirals also exhibit a steeper slope in the MHI/M⋆-M⋆ plane. Within their local environment we confirmed that LSBGs are more isolated than HSB galaxies, and LSB spirals more isolated than irregulars and dwarfs. Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical tests on the HI mass, stellar mass and number of neighbours indicates that the spirals are a statistically different population from the dwarfs and irregulars. This suggests that the spirals may have different formation and HI evolution than the dwarfs and irregulars.

  14. The Spiral Arm Segments of the Galaxy within 3 kpc from the Sun: A Statistical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griv, Evgeny [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Jiang, Ing-Guey [Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University, Kuang-Fu Road 101, Hsin-Chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Hou, Li-Gang, E-mail: griv@bgu.ac.il [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia-20, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-08-01

    As can be reasonably expected, upcoming large-scale APOGEE, GAIA, GALAH, LAMOST, and WEAVE stellar spectroscopic surveys will yield rather noisy Galactic distributions of stars. In view of the possibility of employing these surveys, our aim is to present a statistical method to extract information about the spiral structure of the Galaxy from currently available data, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. The model differs from previous works studying how objects are distributed in space in its calculation of the statistical significance of the hypothesis that some of the objects are actually concentrated in a spiral. A statistical analysis of the distribution of cold dust clumps within molecular clouds, H ii regions, Cepheid stars, and open clusters in the nearby Galactic disk within 3 kpc from the Sun is carried out. As an application of the method, we obtain distances between the Sun and the centers of the neighboring Sagittarius arm segment, the Orion arm segment in which the Sun is located, and the Perseus arm segment. Pitch angles of the logarithmic spiral segments and their widths are also estimated. The hypothesis that the collected objects accidentally form spirals is refuted with almost 100% statistical confidence. We show that these four independent distributions of young objects lead to essentially the same results. We also demonstrate that our newly deduced values of the mean distances and pitch angles for the segments are not too far from those found recently by Reid et al. using VLBI-based trigonometric parallaxes of massive star-forming regions.

  15. The Spiral Arm Segments of the Galaxy within 3 kpc from the Sun: A Statistical Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griv, Evgeny; Jiang, Ing-Guey; Hou, Li-Gang

    2017-01-01

    As can be reasonably expected, upcoming large-scale APOGEE, GAIA, GALAH, LAMOST, and WEAVE stellar spectroscopic surveys will yield rather noisy Galactic distributions of stars. In view of the possibility of employing these surveys, our aim is to present a statistical method to extract information about the spiral structure of the Galaxy from currently available data, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. The model differs from previous works studying how objects are distributed in space in its calculation of the statistical significance of the hypothesis that some of the objects are actually concentrated in a spiral. A statistical analysis of the distribution of cold dust clumps within molecular clouds, H ii regions, Cepheid stars, and open clusters in the nearby Galactic disk within 3 kpc from the Sun is carried out. As an application of the method, we obtain distances between the Sun and the centers of the neighboring Sagittarius arm segment, the Orion arm segment in which the Sun is located, and the Perseus arm segment. Pitch angles of the logarithmic spiral segments and their widths are also estimated. The hypothesis that the collected objects accidentally form spirals is refuted with almost 100% statistical confidence. We show that these four independent distributions of young objects lead to essentially the same results. We also demonstrate that our newly deduced values of the mean distances and pitch angles for the segments are not too far from those found recently by Reid et al. using VLBI-based trigonometric parallaxes of massive star-forming regions.

  16. Global enhancement and structure formation of the magnetic field in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoperskov, Sergey A.; Khrapov, Sergey S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we study numerically large-scale magnetic field evolution and its enhancement in gaseous disks of spiral galaxies. We consider a set of models with the various spiral pattern parameters and the initial magnetic field strength with taking into account gas self-gravity and cooling and heating processes. In agreement with previous studies we find out that galactic magnetic field is mostly aligned with gaseous structures, however small-scale gaseous structures (spurs and clumps) are more chaotic than the magnetic field structure. In spiral arms magnetic field often coexists with the gas distribution, in the inter-arm region we see filamentary magnetic field structure. These filaments connect several isolated gaseous clumps. Simulations reveal the presence of the small-scale irregularities of the magnetic field as well as the reversal of magnetic field at the outer edge of the large-scale spurs. We provide evidences that the magnetic field in the spiral arms has a stronger mean-field component, and there is a clear inverse correlation between gas density and plasma-beta parameter, compared to the rest of the disk with a more turbulent component of the field and an absence of correlation between gas density and plasma-beta. We show the mean field growth up to >3-10 μG in the cold gas during several rotation periods (>500-800 Myr), whereas ratio between azimuthal and radial field is equal to >4/1. We find an enhancement of random and ordered components of the magnetic field. Mean field strength increases by a factor of >1.5-2.5 for models with various spiral pattern parameters. Random magnetic field component can reach up to 25% from the total strength. By making an analysis of the time-dependent evolution of the radial Poynting flux, we point out that the magnetic field strength is enhanced more strongly at the galactic outskirts which is due to the radial transfer of magnetic energy by the spiral arms pushing the magnetic field outward. Our results also

  17. The Spiral Host Galaxy of the Double Radio Source 0313-192

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; White, Raymond E., III; Owen, Frazer N.; Ledlow, Michael J.

    2006-12-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Gemini South, and Chandra observations of the radio galaxy 0313-192, which hosts a 350 kpc double source and jets, even though previous data have suggested that it is a spiral galaxy. We measure the bulge scale and the luminosity, radial, and vertical profiles of disk starlight and consider the distributions of H II regions and absorbing dust. In each case the HST data confirm its classification as an edge-on spiral galaxy, the only such system known to produce such an extended radio source of this kind. The Gemini near-IR images and Chandra spectral fit reveal a strongly obscured central active galactic nucleus (AGN), seen through the entire interstellar medium path length of the disk and showing X-ray evidence of additional absorption from warm or dense material close to the central object. We consider several possible mechanisms for producing such a rare combination of AGN and host properties, some combination of which may be at work. These include an unusually luminous bulge (suggesting a black hole of mass ~8×108 Msolar), the orientation of the jets near the pole of the gas-rich disk, and some evidence of a weak gravitational interaction that has warped the disk and could have enhanced fueling of the central engine. We detect an X-ray counterpart of the kiloparsec-scale radio jet emerging to the south; jet/counterjet limits on both radio and X-ray regimes allow them to be symmetric if seen more than 15° from the plane of the sky, still consistent with the jet axes being within ~30° of the poles of the gas-rich galaxy disk. A linear or disklike emission-line structure is seen around the nucleus, inclined by ~20° to the stellar disk but nearly perpendicular to the jets; this may represent the aftermath of a galaxy encounter, in which gas is photoionized by a direct view of the nuclear continuum. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute

  18. The distribution of dark matter in galaxies. I. Models of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, G.; Feinswog, L.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of dark matter in galaxies is studied under the assumption of a constant mass-to-light ratio for the luminous components and an isothermal model for the halo. An analysis of 37 optical rotation curves for Sb and Sc galaxies and 16 H-I rotation curves have been performed in order to constrain the halo's core radius, r(c), and the asymptotic velocity, v(max). For the cases of the Scs NGC 2403, NGC 2903, and NGC 3198, limits of about 8 kpc for r(c) and about 170 km/s for v(max) are found. It is shown that high-quality data to 6.5-8 disk scale lengths is necessary to constrain the parameters. 24 refs

  19. The DiskMass Survey : VI. Gas and stellar kinematics in spiral galaxies from PPak integral-field spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Schechtman-Rook, Andrew; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.

    We present ionized-gas ([OIII]lambda 5007 angstrom) and stellar kinematics (velocities and velocity dispersions) for 30 nearly face-on spiral galaxies out to as many as three K-band disk scale lengths (h(R)). These data have been derived from PPak integral-field-unit spectroscopy from 4980-5370

  20. The DiskMass Survey. VI. Gas and stellar kinematics in spiral galaxies from PPak integral-field spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, T.P.K.; Verheijen, M.; Westfall, K.; Bershady, M.; Schechtman-Rook, A.; Andersen, D.; Swaters, R.

    2013-01-01

    We present ionized-gas ([Oiii]{$λ$}5007 å) and stellar kinematics (velocities and velocity dispersions) for 30 nearly face-on spiral galaxies out to as many as three K-band disk scale lengths (h$_R$). These data have been derived from PPak integral-field-unit spectroscopy from 4980-5370 å observed

  1. GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND SPUR CLUSTERS IN NGC 4921, THE BRIGHTEST SPIRAL GALAXY IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung, E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: isjang@astro.snu.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    We resolve a significant fraction of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4921, the brightest spiral galaxy in the Coma cluster. We also find a number of extended bright star clusters (star complexes) in the spur region of the arms. The latter are much brighter and bluer than those in the normal star-forming region, being as massive as 3 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}. The color distribution of the GCs in this galaxy is found to be bimodal. The turnover magnitudes of the luminosity functions of the blue (metal-poor) GCs (0.70 < (V − I) ≤ 1.05) in the halo are estimated V(max) = 27.11 ± 0.09 mag and I(max) = 26.21 ± 0.11 mag. We obtain similar values for NGC 4923, a companion S0 galaxy, and two Coma cD galaxies (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889). The mean value for the turnover magnitudes of these four galaxies is I(max) = 26.25 ± 0.03 mag. Adopting M{sub I} (max) = −8.56 ± 0.09 mag for the metal-poor GCs, we determine the mean distance to the four Coma galaxies to be 91 ± 4 Mpc. Combining this with the Coma radial velocity, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, H{sub 0} = 77.9 ± 3.6 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}. We estimate the GC specific frequency of NGC 4921 to be S{sub N} = 1.29 ± 0.25, close to the values for early-type galaxies. This indicates that NGC 4921 is in the transition phase to S0s.

  2. Baryon Budget of the Hot Circumgalactic Medium of Massive Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Bregman, Joel N.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Crain, Robert A.; Anderson, Michael E.

    2018-03-01

    The baryon content around local galaxies is observed to be much less than is needed in Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Simulations indicate that a significant fraction of these “missing baryons” may be stored in a hot tenuous circumgalactic medium (CGM) around massive galaxies extending to or even beyond the virial radius of their dark matter halos. Previous observations in X-ray and Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) signals claimed that ∼(1–50)% of the expected baryons are stored in a hot CGM within the virial radius. The large scatter is mainly caused by the very uncertain extrapolation of the hot gas density profile based on the detection in a small radial range (typically within 10%–20% of the virial radius). Here, we report stacking X-ray observations of six local isolated massive spiral galaxies from the CGM-MASS sample. We find that the mean density profile can be characterized by a single power law out to a galactocentric radius of ≈200 kpc (or ≈130 kpc above the 1σ background uncertainty), about half the virial radius of the dark matter halo. We can now estimate that the hot CGM within the virial radius accounts for (8 ± 4)% of the baryonic mass expected for the halos. Including the stars, the baryon fraction is (27 ± 16)%, or (39 ± 20)% by assuming a flattened density profile at r ≳ 130 kpc. We conclude that the hot baryons within the virial radius of massive galaxy halos are insufficient to explain the “missing baryons.”

  3. Inner and outer star forming regions over the disks of spiral galaxies. I. Sample characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Baras, M.; Díaz, A. I.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2018-01-01

    Context. The knowledge of abundance distributions is central to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. Most of the relations employed for the derivation of gas abundances have so far been derived from observations of outer disk H ii regions, despite the known differences between inner and outer regions. Aims: Using integral field spectroscopy (IFS) observations we aim to perform a systematic study and comparison of two inner and outer H ii regions samples. The spatial resolution of the IFS, the number of objects and the homogeneity and coherence of the observations allow a complete characterization of the main observational properties and differences of the regions. Methods: We analyzed a sample of 725 inner H ii regions and a sample of 671 outer H ii regions, all of them detected and extracted from the observations of a sample of 263 nearby, isolated, spiral galaxies observed by the CALIFA survey. Results: We find that inner H ii regions show smaller equivalent widths, greater extinction and luminosities, along with greater values of [N ii] λ6583/Hα and [O ii] λ3727/[O iii] λ5007 emission-line ratios, indicating higher metallicities and lower ionization parameters. Inner regions have also redder colors and higher photometric and ionizing masses, although MionMphot is slighty higher for the outer regions. Conclusions: This work shows important observational differences between inner and outer H ii regions in star forming galaxies not previously studied in detail. These differences indicate that inner regions have more evolved stellar populations and are in a later evolution state with respect to outer regions, which goes in line with the inside-out galaxy formation paradigm. Table 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/609/A102

  4. FORMATION OF LATE-TYPE SPIRAL GALAXIES: GAS RETURN FROM STELLAR POPULATIONS REGULATES DISK DESTRUCTION AND BULGE GROWTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martig, Marie; Bournaud, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Spiral galaxies have most of their stellar mass in a large rotating disk, and only a modest fraction in a central spheroidal bulge. This challenges present models of galaxy formation: galaxies form at the center of dark matter halos through a combination of hierarchical merging and gas accretion along cold streams. Cosmological simulations thus predict that galaxies rapidly grow their bulge through mergers and instabilities and end up with most of their mass in the bulge and an angular momentum much below the observed level, except in dwarf galaxies. We propose that the continuous return of gas by stellar populations over cosmic times could help to solve this issue. A population of stars formed at a given instant typically returns half of its initial mass in the form of gas over 10 billion years, and the process is not dominated by supernovae explosions but by the long-term mass-loss from low- and intermediate-mass stars. Using simulations of galaxy formation, we show that this gas recycling can strongly affect the structural evolution of massive galaxies, potentially solving the bulge fraction issue, as the bulge-to-disk ratio of a massive galaxy can be divided by a factor of 3. The continuous recycling of baryons through star formation and stellar mass loss helps the growth of disks and their survival to interactions and mergers. Instead of forming only early-type, spheroid-dominated galaxies (S0 and ellipticals), the standard cosmological model can successfully account for massive late-type, disk-dominated spiral galaxies (Sb-Sc).

  5. Galaxy interactions and star formation: Results of a survey of global H-alpha emission in spiral galaxies in 8 clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, C.

    1990-01-01

    Kennicutt and Kent (1983) have shown that the global H alpha emission from a spiral galaxy is an indicator of the formation rate of massive stars. Moss, Whittle and Irwin (1988) have surveyed two clusters (Abell 347 and 1367) for galaxies with H alpha emission using a high dispersion objective prism technique. The purpose of the survey is to investigate environmental effects on star formation in spiral galaxies, and in particular to ascertain whether star formation is enhanced in cluster spirals. Approximately 20 percent of CGCG galaxies were detected in emission. Two plates of excellent quality were obtained for each of the two clusters, and galaxies were only identified to have emission if this was detected on both plates of a plate pair. In this way, plate flaws and other spurious identifications of emission could be rejected, and weak emission confirmed. The results of this survey have been discussed by Moss (1987). The detected galaxies are of types SO-a and later. The frequency with which galaxies are detected in emission increases towards later morphological type as expected (cf. Kennicutt and Kent 1983). There is no evidence of any dependence of the frequency of detected emission on the absolute magnitude of the galaxy (cf. Moss and Whittle 1990), but there is a strong correlation between a disturbed morphological appearance of the galaxy and the detection of emission. Furthermore it is found that the emission is more centrally concentrated in those galaxies which show a disturbed morphology. It may be noted that the objective prism plate gives a spectrum of a 400 A region around rest wavelength H alpha, but superposed on this is the H alpha emission from the galaxy which, because the light is essentially monochromatic, results in a true two-dimensional image of the H alpha distribution. The visual appearance of the emission on the prism plates was classified according to its diffuseness on a 5 point scale (very diffuse, diffuse, intermediate, compact, and

  6. Rotation curve of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 5907: disc and halo masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casertano, S.; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

    1983-01-01

    The dynamical consequences of a truncation in the disc of a spiral galaxy, like that suggested by the sharp decline of luminosity observed in the outer parts of some edge-on galaxies, are investigated, in relation to the interpretation of observed velocity curves. The disc truncation leaves a 'signature' on the rotation curve, in the form of a region of nearly constant velocity, followed by a steep decline of velocity just outside the truncation. Such a feature is clearly present in the observed rotation curve of NGC 5907, in which the luminosity truncation is also present. The observed velocity curve of NGC 5907 can be well reproduced by a two-component model, with a smooth spherical distribution of 'dark mass' (a halo) superimposed on the luminous disc. The best-fitting values for the mass in the disc and in the halo (inside the optical truncation) are 9 and 13.5 x 10 10 solar masses, respectively. The mass-to-light ratio (luminosity in the J band) is about 11, in solar units. The model predicts the values of some quantities, such as the thickness of the gas layer, that could possibly be observed in the near future, thus providing a clear-cut test of the model itself. (author)

  7. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BAT ULTRA HARD X-RAY SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z * >10.5) have a 5-10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGNs or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-infrared emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGNs are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGNs have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] λ5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGNs in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as a whole. In agreement with the unified model of AGNs, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGNs suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  8. Evidence for azimuthal variations of the oxygen-abundance gradient tracing the spiral structure of the galaxy HCG 91c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, F. P. A.; Pérez, E.; Dopita, M. A.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Borthakur, S.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The distribution of elements in galaxies forms an important diagnostic tool to characterize these systems' formation and evolution. This tool is, however, complex to use in practice, as galaxies are subject to a range of simultaneous physical processes active from pc to kpc scales. This renders observations of the full optical extent of galaxies down to sub-kpc scales essential. Aims: Using the WiFeS integral field spectrograph, we previously detected abrupt and localized variations in the gas-phase oxygen abundance of the spiral galaxy HCG 91c. Here, we follow-up on these observations to map HCG 91c's disk out to 2 Re at a resolution of 600 pc, and characterize the non-radial variations of the gas-phase oxygen abundance in the system. Methods: We obtained deep MUSE observations of the target under 0.6 arcsec seeing conditions. We perform both a spaxel-based and aperture-based analysis of the data to map the spatial variations of 12 +log (O/H) across the disk of the galaxy. Results: We confirm the presence of rapid variations of the oxygen abundance across the entire extent of the galaxy previously detected with WiFeS, for all azimuths and radii. The variations can be separated in two categories: a) localized and associated with individual H II regions; and b) extended over kpc scales, and occurring at the boundaries of the spiral structures in the galaxy. Conclusions: Our MUSE observations suggest that the enrichment of the interstellar medium in HGC 91c has proceeded preferentially along spiral structures, and less efficiently across them. Our dataset highlights the importance of distinguishing individual star-forming regions down to scales of a few 100 pc when using integral field spectrographs to spatially resolve the distribution of oxygen abundances in a given system, and accurately characterize azimuthal variations and intrinsic scatter. The movie associated to Fig. 8 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  9. LOCAL BENCHMARKS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF MAJOR-MERGER GALAXIES-SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF A K-BAND SELECTED SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, C. Kevin; Cheng Yiwen; Lu Nanyao; Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Cutri, Roc; Domingue, Donovan; Huang Jiasheng; Gao Yu; Sun, W.-H.; Surace, Jason

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer observations for a sample of close major-merger galaxy pairs (KPAIR sample) selected from cross-matches between the Two Micron All Sky Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3. The goals are to study the star formation activity in these galaxies and to set a local bench mark for the cosmic evolution of close major mergers. The Spitzer KPAIR sample (27 pairs, 54 galaxies) includes all spectroscopically confirmed spiral-spiral (S+S) and spiral-elliptical (S+E) pairs in a parent sample that is complete for primaries brighter than K = 12.5 mag, projected separations of 5 h -1 kpc ≤ s ≤ 20 h -1 kpc, and mass ratios ≤2.5. The Spitzer data, consisting of images in seven bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8, 24, 70, 160 μm), show very diversified IR emission properties. Compared to single spiral galaxies in a control sample, only spiral galaxies in S+S pairs show significantly enhanced specific star formation rate (sSFR = SFR/M), whereas spiral galaxies in S+E pairs do not. Furthermore, the SFR enhancement of spiral galaxies in S+S pairs is highly mass-dependent. Only those with M ∼> 10 10.5 M sun show significant enhancement. Relatively low-mass (M ∼ 10 10 M sun ) spirals in S+S pairs have about the same SFR/M compared to their counterparts in the control sample, while those with 10 11 M sun have on average a ∼3 times higher SFR/M than single spirals. There is evidence for a correlation between the global star formation activities (but not the nuclear activities) of the component galaxies in massive S+S major-merger pairs (the H olmberg effect ) . There is no significant difference in the SFR/M between the primaries and the secondaries, nor between spirals of SEP KPAIR =2.54 x 10 -4 (M sun yr -1 Mpc -3 ).

  10. Probing the Hot X-Ray Corona around the Massive Spiral Galaxy, NGC 6753, Using Deep XMM-Newton Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdán, Ákos; Bourdin, Hervé; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker

    2017-11-01

    X-ray emitting gaseous coronae around massive galaxies are a basic prediction of galaxy formation models. Although the coronae around spiral galaxies offer a fundamental test of these models, observational constraints on their characteristics are still scarce. While the presence of extended hot coronae has been established around a handful of massive spiral galaxies, the short X-ray observations only allowed for measurements of the basic characteristics of the coronae. In this work, we utilize deep XMM-Newton observations of NGC 6753 to explore its extended X-ray corona in unprecedented detail. Specifically, we establish the isotropic morphology of the hot gas, suggesting that it resides in hydrostatic equilibrium. The temperature profile of the gas shows a decrease with an increasing radius: it drops from {kT}≈ 0.7 {keV} in the innermost parts to {kT}≈ 0.4 {keV} at a 50 kpc radius. The temperature map reveals the complex temperature structure of the gas. We study the metallicity distribution of the gas, which is uniform at Z≈ 0.1 Solar. This value is about an order of magnitude lower than that obtained for elliptical galaxies with similar dark matter halo mass, hinting that the hot gas in spiral galaxies predominantly originates from external gas inflows rather than from internal sources. By extrapolating the density profile of the hot gas out to the virial radius, we estimate the total gas mass and derive the total baryon mass of NGC 6753. We conclude that the baryon mass fraction is {f}{{b}}≈ 0.06, implying that about half of the baryons are missing.

  11. Selections from 2016: A Very Dark Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2016, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume after the AAS winter meeting.A High Stellar Velocity Dispersion and 100 Globular Clusters for the Ultra-Diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44Published August2016Main takeaway:Using the Keck Observatory and the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii, a team led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) discovered the very dim galaxy Dragonfly 44, located in the Coma cluster. The team estimated the center of this galaxys disk to be a whopping 98% dark matter.Why its interesting:Dragonfly 44, though dim, was discovered to host around 100 globular clusters. Measuring the dynamics of these clusters allowed van Dokkum and collaborators to estimate the mass of Dragonfly 44: roughly a trillion times the mass of the Sun. This is similar to the mass of the Milky Way, and yet the Milky Way has over a hundred times more stars than this intriguing galaxy. Its very unexpected to find a galaxy this massive that has a dark-matter fraction this high.What we can learn from this:How do ultra-faint galaxies like these form? One theory is that theyre failed normal galaxies: they have the sizes, dark-matter content, and globular cluster systems of much more luminous galaxies, but they were prevented from building up a normal stellar population. So far, Dragonfly 44s properties seem consistent with this picture.CitationPieter van Dokkum et al 2016 ApJL 828 L6. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/828/1/L6

  12. Spirality: A Noval Way to Measure Spiral Arm Pitch Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Henderson, Casey L.; Hartley, Matthew; Davis, Benjamin L.; Pour Imani, Hamed; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    We present the MATLAB code Spirality, a novel method for measuring spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. For a given pitch angle template, the mean pixel value is found along each of typically 1000 spiral axes. The fitting function, which shows a local maximum at the best-fit pitch angle, is the variance of these means. Error bars are found by varying the inner radius of the measurement annulus and finding the standard deviation of the best-fit pitches. Computation time is typically on the order of 2 minutes per galaxy, assuming at least 8 GB of working memory. We tested the code using 128 synthetic spiral images of known pitch. These spirals varied in the number of spiral arms, pitch angle, degree of logarithmicity, radius, SNR, inclination angle, bar length, and bulge radius. A correct result is defined as a result that matches the true pitch within the error bars, with error bars no greater than ±7°. For the non-logarithmic spiral sample, the correct answer is similarly defined, with the mean pitch as function of radius in place of the true pitch. For all synthetic spirals, correct results were obtained so long as SNR > 0.25, the bar length was no more than 60% of the spiral's diameter (when the bar was included in the measurement), the input center of the spiral was no more than 6% of the spiral radius away from the true center, and the inclination angle was no more than 30°. The synthetic spirals were not deprojected prior to measurement. The code produced the correct result for all barred spirals when the measurement annulus was placed outside the bar. Additionally, we compared the code's results against 2DFFT results for 203 visually selected spiral galaxies in GOODS North and South. Among the entire sample, Spirality's error bars overlapped 2DFFT's error bars 64% of the time. For those galaxies in which Source code is available by email request from the primary author.

  13. Angular ellipticity correlations in a composite alignment model for elliptical and spiral galaxies and inference from weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugendhat, Tim M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2018-02-01

    We investigate a physical, composite alignment model for both spiral and elliptical galaxies and its impact on cosmological parameter estimation from weak lensing for a tomographic survey. Ellipticity correlation functions and angular ellipticity spectra for spiral and elliptical galaxies are derived on the basis of tidal interactions with the cosmic large-scale structure and compared to the tomographic weak lensing signal. We find that elliptical galaxies cause a contribution to the weak-lensing dominated ellipticity correlation on intermediate angular scales between ℓ ≃ 40 and ℓ ≃ 400 before that of spiral galaxies dominates on higher multipoles. The predominant term on intermediate scales is the negative cross-correlation between intrinsic alignments and weak gravitational lensing (GI-alignment). We simulate parameter inference from weak gravitational lensing with intrinsic alignments unaccounted; the bias induced by ignoring intrinsic alignments in a survey like Euclid is shown to be several times larger than the statistical error and can lead to faulty conclusions when comparing to other observations. The biases generally point into different directions in parameter space, such that in some cases one can observe a partial cancellation effect. Furthermore, it is shown that the biases increase with the number of tomographic bins used for the parameter estimation process. We quantify this parameter estimation bias in units of the statistical error and compute the loss of Bayesian evidence for a model due to the presence of systematic errors as well as the Kullback-Leibler divergence to quantify the distance between the true model and the wrongly inferred one.

  14. Angular ellipticity correlations in a composite alignment model for elliptical and spiral galaxies and inference from weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugendhat, Tim M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2018-05-01

    We investigate a physical, composite alignment model for both spiral and elliptical galaxies and its impact on cosmological parameter estimation from weak lensing for a tomographic survey. Ellipticity correlation functions and angular ellipticity spectra for spiral and elliptical galaxies are derived on the basis of tidal interactions with the cosmic large-scale structure and compared to the tomographic weak-lensing signal. We find that elliptical galaxies cause a contribution to the weak-lensing dominated ellipticity correlation on intermediate angular scales between ℓ ≃ 40 and ℓ ≃ 400 before that of spiral galaxies dominates on higher multipoles. The predominant term on intermediate scales is the negative cross-correlation between intrinsic alignments and weak gravitational lensing (GI-alignment). We simulate parameter inference from weak gravitational lensing with intrinsic alignments unaccounted; the bias induced by ignoring intrinsic alignments in a survey like Euclid is shown to be several times larger than the statistical error and can lead to faulty conclusions when comparing to other observations. The biases generally point into different directions in parameter space, such that in some cases one can observe a partial cancellation effect. Furthermore, it is shown that the biases increase with the number of tomographic bins used for the parameter estimation process. We quantify this parameter estimation bias in units of the statistical error and compute the loss of Bayesian evidence for a model due to the presence of systematic errors as well as the Kullback-Leibler divergence to quantify the distance between the true model and the wrongly inferred one.

  15. Spiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, Istvan

    1992-01-01

    From the tiny twisted biological molecules to the gargantuan curling arms of many galaxies, the physical world contains a startling repetition of spiral patterns. Today, researchers have a keen interest in identifying, measuring, and defining these patterns in scientific terms. Spirals play an important role in the growth processes of many biological forms and organisms. Also, through time, humans have imitated spiral motifs in their art forms, and invented new and unusual spirals which have no counterparts in the natural world. Therefore, one goal of this multiauthored book is to stress the c

  16. The Westerbork HI Survey os spiral and irregular galaxies III : HI observations of early-type disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E.; Hulst, J.M. van der; Sancisi, R.; Swaters, R.A.; Abada, T.S. van

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: We present HI observations of 68 early-type disk galaxies from the WHISP survey. They have morphological types between S0 and Sab and absolute B-band magnitudes between -14 and -22. These galaxies form the massive, high surface-brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population, few of which

  17. Salicylate selectively kills cochlear spiral ganglion neurons by paradoxically up-regulating superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lili; Ding, Dalian; Su, Jiping; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Salvi, Richard

    2013-10-01

    Aspirin and its active ingredient salicylate are potent antioxidants that have been reported to be neuro- and otoprotective. However, when consumed in large quantities, these drugs can cause temporary hearing loss and tinnitus. Moreover, recent studies indicate that after several days of treatment, salicylate selectively destroys the spiral ganglion neurons and auditory nerve fibers that relay sounds from the sensory hair cells to the brain. Why salicylate selectively damages spiral ganglion neurons while sparing the hair cells and supports cells is unclear. Here we show that high dose of salicylate trigger an apoptotic response in spiral ganglion neurons characterized morphologically by soma shrinkage and nuclear condensation and fragmentation plus activation of extrinsic initiator caspase-8 and intrinsic initiator caspase-9 several days after the onset of drug treatment. Salicylate treatment triggered an upsurge in the toxic superoxide radical only in spiral ganglion neurons, but not in neighboring hair cells and support cells. Mn TMPyP pentachloride, a cell permeable scavenger of superoxide blocked the expression of superoxide staining in spiral ganglion neurons and almost completely blocked the damage to the nerve fibers and spiral ganglion neurons. NMDA receptor activation is known to increase neuronal superoxide levels. Since NMDA receptors are mainly found on spiral ganglion neurons and since salicylate enhances NMDA receptor currents, the selective killing of spiral ganglion neurons is likely a consequence of enhanced and sustained activation of NMDA receptors by salicylate.

  18. M/L, Hα Rotation Curves, and H I Gas Measurements for 329 Nearby Cluster and Field Spirals. III. Evolution in Fundamental Galaxy Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Nicole P.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Herter, Terry

    2004-06-01

    We have conducted a study of optical and H I properties of spiral galaxies (size, luminosity, Hα flux distribution, circular velocity, H I gas mass) to investigate causes (e.g., nature vs. nurture) for variation within the cluster environment. We find H I-deficient cluster galaxies to be offset in fundamental plane space, with disk scale lengths decreased by a factor of 25%. This may be a relic of early galaxy formation, caused by the disk coalescing out of a smaller, denser halo (e.g., higher concentration index) or by truncation of the hot gas envelope due to the enhanced local density of neighbors, although we cannot completely rule out the effect of the gas stripping process. The spatial extent of Hα flux and the B-band radius also decreases, but only in early-type spirals, suggesting that gas removal is less efficient within steeper potential wells (or that stripped late-type spirals are quickly rendered unrecognizable). We find no significant trend in stellar mass-to-light ratios or circular velocities with H I gas content, morphological type, or clustercentric radius, for star-forming spiral galaxies throughout the clusters. These data support the findings of a companion paper that gas stripping promotes a rapid truncation of star formation across the disk and could be interpreted as weak support for dark matter domination over baryons in the inner regions of spiral galaxies.

  19. Imaging and spectroscopic observations of a strange elliptical bubble in the northern arm of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946

    OpenAIRE

    Efremov, Yuri N.; Moiseev, Alexei V.

    2016-01-01

    NGC 6946, known as the Fireworks galaxy because of its high supernova rate and high star formation, is embedded in a very extended HI halo. Its northern spiral arm is well detached from the galactic main body. We found that this arm contains a large (~300 pc in size) Red Ellipse, named according to a strong contamination of the H-alpha emission line on its optical images. The ellipse is accompanied by a short parallel arc and a few others still smaller and less regular; a bright star cluster ...

  20. Predicting HCN, HCO+, multi-transition CO, and dust emission of star-forming galaxies. From local spiral and ultraluminous infrared galaxies to high-z star-forming and submillimeter galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, B.; Gratier, P.; Braine, J.; Bot, C.

    2017-06-01

    High-z star-forming galaxies have significantly higher gas fractions and star-formation efficiencies per molecular gas mass than local star-forming galaxies. In this work, we take a closer look at the gas content or fraction and the associated star-formation rate in main sequence and starburst galaxies at z = 0 and z 1-2 by applying an analytical model of galactic clumpy gas disks to samples of local spiral galaxies, ULIRGs, submillimeter (smm), and high-z star-forming galaxies. The model simultaneously calculates the total gas mass, Hi/H2 mass, the gas velocity dispersion, IR luminosity, IR spectral energy distribution, CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED), HCN(1-0) and HCO+(1-0) emission of a galaxy given its size, integrated star formation rate, stellar mass radial profile, rotation curve, and Toomre Q parameter. The model reproduces the observed CO luminosities and SLEDs of all sample galaxies within the model uncertainties ( 0.3 dex). Whereas the CO emission is robust against the variation of model parameters, the HCN and HCO+ emissions are sensitive to the chemistry of the interstellar medium. The CO and HCN mass-to-light conversion factors, including CO-dark H2, are given and compared to the values found in the literature. All model conversion factors have uncertainties of a factor of two. Both the HCN and HCO+ emissions trace the dense molecular gas to a factor of approximately two for the local spiral galaxies, ULIRGs and smm-galaxies. Approximately 80% of the molecular line emission of compact starburst galaxies originates in non-self-gravitating gas clouds. The effect of HCN infrared pumping is small but measurable (10-20%). The gas velocity dispersion varies significantly with the Toomre Q parameter. The Q = 1.5 model yields high-velocity dispersions (vdisp ≫ 10 km s-1) consistent with available observations of high-z star-forming galaxies and ULIRGs. However, we note that these high-velocity dispersions are not mandatory for starburst galaxies

  1. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In studies of the large scale structure of the universe there is a continuing need for extensive galaxy redshift determinations. Optically selected redshift surveys are of particular importance, since flux-limited samples record much higher space densities of galaxies than samples of similar size selected in other wavebands. A considerable amount of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) observing time is currently being devoted to carrying out a large southern galaxy redshift survey. A recently completed study, the Durham-SAAO redshift survey suggests that the mean density of matter is well below the critical limit for a closed universe and also that the universe may be homogenous at very large scales. Other research conducted by the SAAO include studies on: the distribution of galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; starburst and IRAS galaxies; interacting and compact galaxies; a re-evaluation of the Cepheid distance to NGC 300, and a search for quasars behind galaxies. 1 fig

  2. THE STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION OF THE SPIRAL GALAXIES NGC-1566 AND NGC-2815

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOTTEMA, R

    Long slit absorption line spectroscopy has been obtained of the close to face-on Sc galaxy NGC 1566 and inclined Sb galaxy NGC 2815. These observations provided stellar radial velocities and stellar velocity dispersions as a function of radius for both galaxies. For NGC 1566 a radially decreasing

  3. A search for supernova remnants in the nearby spiral galaxy M 74 (NGC 628)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonbaş, E.; Akyüz, A.; Balman, Ş.; Özel, M. E.

    2010-07-01

    An optical search was carried out for supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Sc type nearby spiral galaxy M 74, using ground-based observations at the TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG, Antalya/Turkey) and the Special Astrophysics Observatory (SAO, Russia). Observations were supplemented by the spectral analysis of archived X-ray data from XMM-Newton and Chandra. The survey of M 74 covered ~9 arcmin2 with [S II], Hα, and their continuum filters. Interference filter images of M 74 were obtained the with the 1.5 m Russian Turkish Telescope (RTT150) at TUG and spectral data taken with the 6 m Bolsoi Azimuthal Telescope (BTA) at SAO. The emission nebulae with continuum-subtracted line ratio values of [S II]λλ6716,6731 /Hα ≥ 0.4 are identified as SNRs. Follow-up spectroscopy confirmed optical SNR identifications. We have identified nine new SNR candidates in M 74 with [S II]/Hα ≥ 0.4 as the basic criterion. The [S II]/Hα ratio ranges from 0.40 to 0.91 and Hα intensities from 2.8 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 to 1.7 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. We also present spectral follow-up observations of these SNR candidates, however, we are able to spectrally confirm only three of them (SNR2, SNR3, and SNR5). The lack of confirmation for the rest might come from contamination by the nearby H II emission regions, as well as from the inaccurate positioning of the long slit on these objects. In addition, we searched the XMM-Newton and Chandra Observatory archival data for the X-ray counterparts to the optically identified candidates. We find positional coincidence with only three SNR candidates, SNR1, SNR2, and SNR8. The spectrum of SNR2 yields a shock temperature of 10.8 keV with an ionization timescale of 1.6 × 1010 s cm-3, indicating a relatively young remnant in an early Sedov phase, which is not supported by our optical wavelength analysis. Given the high luminosity of 1039 erg s-1 and the characteristics of the X-ray spectrum, we favor an ultra luminous X-ray source interpretation for

  4. INTEGRAL-FIELD STELLAR AND IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS OF PECULIAR VIRGO CLUSTER SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortés, Juan R.; Hardy, Eduardo; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar and ionized gas kinematics of 13 bright peculiar Virgo cluster galaxies observed with the DensePak Integral Field Unit at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in order to look for kinematic evidence that these galaxies have experienced gravitational interactions or gas stripping. Two-dimensional maps of the stellar velocity V, stellar velocity dispersion σ, and the ionized gas velocity (Hβ and/or [O III]) are presented for the galaxies in the sample. The stellar rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles are determined for 13 galaxies, and the ionized gas rotation curves are determined for 6 galaxies. Misalignments between the optical and kinematical major axes are found in several galaxies. While in some cases this is due to a bar, in other cases it seems to be associated with gravitational interaction or ongoing ram pressure stripping. Non-circular gas motions are found in nine galaxies, with various causes including bars, nuclear outflows, or gravitational disturbances. Several galaxies have signatures of kinematically distinct stellar components, which are likely signatures of accretion or mergers. For all of our galaxies, we compute the angular momentum parameter λ R . An evaluation of the galaxies in the λ R ellipticity plane shows that all but two of the galaxies have significant support from random stellar motions, and have likely experienced gravitational interactions. This includes some galaxies with very small bulges and truncated/compact Hα morphologies, indicating that such galaxies cannot be fully explained by simple ram pressure stripping, but must have had significant gravitational encounters. Most of the sample galaxies show evidence for ICM-ISM stripping as well as gravitational interactions, indicating that the evolution of a significant fraction of cluster galaxies is likely strongly impacted by both effects

  5. Development of a hot intergalactic medium in spiral-rich galaxy groups: the example of HCG 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtilek, Jan M.; O'Sullivan, Ewan; David, Laurence P.; Giacintucci, Simona; Zezas, Andreas; Mamon, Gary; Ponman, Trevor J; Raychaudhury, Somak

    2014-08-01

    Galaxy groups provide the environment in which the majority of galaxies evolve, with low velocity dispersions and small galaxy separations that are conducive to tidal interactions and mergers between group members. X-ray observations reveal the frequent presence of hot gas in groups, with larger quantities linked to early-type galaxies, whereas cold gas is common in spiral-dominated groups. Clarification of the origin and role of the hot medium is central to the understanding of the evolution of the galaxy population and of all phases of the IGM.We here report on the nuclear activity, star formation and the high luminosity X-ray binary populations of the spiral-dominated, likely not yet virialized, group HCG 16, as well as on its intra-group medium, based principally on deep (150 ks) Chandra X-ray observations of the group, as well as new Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) 610 MHz radio data. We confirm the presence of obscured active nuclei in NGC 833 and NGC 835, and identify what may be a previously unrecognized nuclear source in NGC 838; all are variable. NGC 838 and NGC 839 are both starburst-dominated systems, with galactic superwinds that show X-ray and radio evidence of IGM interaction, but only weak nuclear activity; NGC 848 is also dominated by emission from its starburst.We confirm the existence of a faint, extended low-temperature (0.3 keV) intra-group medium, a subject of some uncertainty in earlier studies. The diffuse emission is strongest in a ridge linking the four principal galaxies, and is at least partly coincident with a large-scale HI tidal filament, indicating that the IGM in the inner part of the group is highly multi-phase. We conclude that starburst winds and shock-heating of stripped HI may play an important role in the early stages of IGM formation, with galactic winds contributing 20-40% of the observed hot gas in the system.

  6. Simulating the UV escape fractions from molecular cloud populations in star-forming dwarf and spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Corey S.; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Harris, William E.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2018-04-01

    The escape of ultraviolet photons from the densest regions of the interstellar medium (ISM) - giant molecular clouds (GMCs) - is a poorly constrained parameter which is vital to understanding the ionization of the ISM and the intergalactic medium. We characterize the escape fraction, fesc,GMC, from a suite of individual GMC simulations with masses in the range 104-6 M⊙ using the adaptive-mesh refinement code FLASH. We find significantly different fesc,GMC depending on the GMC mass that can reach >90 per cent in the evolution of 5 × 104 and 105 M⊙ clouds or remain low at ˜5 per cent for most of the lifetime of more massive GMCs. All clouds show fluctuations over short, sub-Myr time-scales produced by flickering H II regions. We combine our results to calculate the total escape fraction (fesc,tot) from GMC populations in dwarf starburst and spiral galaxies by randomly drawing clouds from a GMC mass distribution (dN/dM ∝ Mα, where α is either -1.5 or -2.5) over fixed time intervals. We find typical fesc,tot values of 8 per cent for both the dwarf and spiral models. The fluctuations of fesc,tot, however, are much larger for the dwarf models with values as high as 90 per cent. The photons escaping from the 5 × 104 and 105 M⊙ GMCs are the dominant contributors to fesc,tot in all cases. We also show that the accompanying star formation rates (SFRs) of our model (˜2 × 10-2 and 0.73 M⊙yr-1) are consistent with observations of SFRs in dwarf starburst and spiral galaxies, respectively.

  7. Correlations Between Central Massive Objects And Their Host Galaxies: From Bulgeless Spirals to Ellipticals

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuexing; Haiman, Zoltán; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2006-01-01

    Recent observations by Ferrarese et al. (2006) and Wehner et al. (2006) reveal that a majority of galaxies contain a central massive object (CMO), either a supermassive black hole (SMBH) or a compact stellar nucleus, regardless of the galaxy mass or morphological type, and that there is a tight relation between the masses of CMOs and those of the host galaxies. Several recent studies show that feedback from black holes can successfully explain the $\\msigma$ correlation in massive elliptical g...

  8. SDSS-IV MaNGA: global stellar population and gradients for about 2000 early-type and spiral galaxies on the mass-size plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Ge, Junqiang; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Mo, H. J.; Li, Cheng; Zheng, Zheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Brownstein, Joel R.; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Law, David R.; Drory, Niv

    2018-05-01

    We perform full spectrum fitting stellar population analysis and Jeans Anisotropic modelling of the stellar kinematics for about 2000 early-type galaxies (ETGs) and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR14 sample. Galaxies with different morphologies are found to be located on a remarkably tight mass plane which is close to the prediction of the virial theorem, extending previous results for ETGs. By examining an inclined projection (`the mass-size' plane), we find that spiral and early-type galaxies occupy different regions on the plane, and their stellar population properties (i.e. age, metallicity, and stellar mass-to-light ratio) vary systematically along roughly the direction of velocity dispersion, which is a proxy for the bulge fraction. Galaxies with higher velocity dispersions have typically older ages, larger stellar mass-to-light ratios and are more metal rich, which indicates that galaxies increase their bulge fractions as their stellar populations age and become enriched chemically. The age and stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients for low-mass galaxies in our sample tend to be positive (centre < outer), while the gradients for most massive galaxies are negative. The metallicity gradients show a clear peak around velocity dispersion log10 σe ≈ 2.0, which corresponds to the critical mass ˜3 × 1010 M⊙ of the break in the mass-size relation. Spiral galaxies with large mass and size have the steepest gradients, while the most massive ETGs, especially above the critical mass Mcrit ≳ 2 × 1011 M⊙, where slow rotator ETGs start dominating, have much flatter gradients. This may be due to differences in their evolution histories, e.g. mergers.

  9. Unveiling the sources of disk heating in spiral galaxies with the CALIFA survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinna, F.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Martig, M.; van de Ven, G.; Lyubenova, M.; Leaman, R.

    The stellar velocity ellipsoid (SVE) quantifies the amount of velocity dispersion in the vertical, radial and azimuthal directions. Since different disk heating mechanisms (e.g. spiral arms, giant molecular clouds, mergers, etc) affect these components differently, the SVE can constrain the sources

  10. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Global stellar population and gradients for about 2000 early-type and spiral galaxies on the mass-size plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Ge, Junqiang; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Mo, HJ; Li, Cheng; Zheng, Zheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Brownstein, Joel R.; Lopes, Alexandre Roman; Law, David R.; Drory, Niv

    2018-02-01

    We perform full spectrum fitting stellar population analysis and Jeans Anisotropic modelling (JAM) of the stellar kinematics for about 2000 early-type galaxies (ETGs) and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR14 sample. Galaxies with different morphologies are found to be located on a remarkably tight mass plane which is close to the prediction of the virial theorem, extending previous results for ETGs. By examining an inclined projection (`the mass-size' plane), we find that spiral and early-type galaxies occupy different regions on the plane, and their stellar population properties (i.e. age, metallicity and stellar mass-to-light ratio) vary systematically along roughly the direction of velocity dispersion, which is a proxy for the bulge fraction. Galaxies with higher velocity dispersions have typically older ages, larger stellar mass-to-light ratios and are more metal rich, which indicates that galaxies increase their bulge fractions as their stellar populations age and become enriched chemically. The age and stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients for low-mass galaxies in our sample tend to be positive (centregalaxies are negative. The metallicity gradients show a clear peak around velocity dispersion log10σe ≈ 2.0, which corresponds to the critical mass ˜3 × 1010M⊙ of the break in the mass-size relation. Spiral galaxies with large mass and size have the steepest gradients, while the most massive ETGs, especially above the critical mass M_crit≳ 2× 10^{11} M_{\\odot}, where slow rotator ETGs start dominating, have much flatter gradients. This may be due to differences in their evolution histories, e.g. mergers.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope Pixel Analysis of the Interacting Face-on Spiral Galaxy NGC 5194 (M51A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Sang Chul; Park, Hong Soo; Ree, Chang Hee; Kyeong, Jaemann; Chung, Jiwon

    2011-10-01

    A pixel analysis is carried out on the interacting face-on spiral galaxy NGC 5194 (M51A), using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images in the F435W, F555W, and F814W (BVI) bands. After 4 × 4 binning of the HST/ACS images to secure a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for each pixel, we derive several quantities describing the pixel color-magnitude diagram (pCMD) of NGC 5194: blue/red color cut, red pixel sequence parameters, blue pixel sequence parameters, and blue-to-red pixel ratio. The red sequence pixels are mostly older than 1 Gyr, while the blue sequence pixels are mostly younger than 1 Gyr, in their luminosity-weighted mean stellar ages. The color variation in the red pixel sequence from V = 20 mag arcsec-2 to V = 17 mag arcsec-2 corresponds to a metallicity variation of Δ[Fe/H] ~2 or an optical depth variation of Δτ V ~ 4 by dust, but the actual sequence is thought to originate from the combination of those two effects. At V compressing process by spiral density waves: dense dust → newly formed stars. The tidal interaction between NGC 5194 and NGC 5195 appears to enhance the star formation at the tidal bridge connecting the two galaxies. We find that the pixels corresponding to the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) area of NGC 5194 show a tight sequence at the bright-end of the pCMD, which are in the region of R ~ 100 pc and may be a photometric indicator of AGN properties.

  12. Star formation history in barred spiral galaxies - active galactic nucleus feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, Fidèle; Williamson, David; Martel, Hugo; Kawata, Daisuke; Ellison, Sara L.

    2017-08-01

    We present a numerical study of the impact of active galactic nucleus (AGN) accretion and feedback on the star formation history of barred disc galaxies. Our goal is to determine whether the effect of feedback is positive (enhanced star formation) or negative (quenched star formation), and to what extent. We performed a series of 12 hydrodynamical simulations of disc galaxies, 10 barred and 2 unbarred, with various initial gas fractions and AGN feedback prescriptions. In barred galaxies, gas is driven towards the centre of the galaxy and causes a starburst, followed by a slow decay, while in unbarred galaxies, the star formation rate (SFR) increases slowly and steadily. AGN feedback suppresses star formation near the central black hole. Gas is pushed away from the black hole, and collides head-on with inflowing gas, forming a dense ring at a finite radius where star formation is enhanced. We conclude that both negative and positive feedback are present, and these effects mostly cancel out. There is no net quenching or enhancement in star formation, but rather a displacement of the star formation sites to larger radii. In unbarred galaxies, where the density of the central gas is lower, quenching of star formation near the black hole is more efficient, and enhancement of star formation at larger radii is less efficient. As a result, negative feedback dominates. Lowering the gas fraction reduces the SFR at all radii, whether or not there is a bar or an AGN.

  13. NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY OF A NORMAL SPIRAL GALAXY VIEWED THROUGH THE TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, Dan P.; Cashman, L. R.; Pavel, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Few normal galaxies have been probed using near-infrared polarimetry, even though it reveals magnetic fields in the cool interstellar medium better than either optical or radio polarimetry. Deep H-band (1.6 μm) linear imaging polarimetry toward Taurus serendipitously included the galaxy 2MASX J04412715+2433110 with adequate sensitivity and resolution to map polarization across nearly its full extent. The observations revealed the galaxy to be a steeply inclined (∼75°) disk type with a diameter, encompassing 90% of the Petrosian flux, of 4.2 kpc at a distance of 53 Mpc. Because the sight line passes through the Taurus Molecular Cloud complex, the foreground polarization needed to be measured and removed. The foreground extinction A V of 2.00 ± 0.10 mag and reddening E(H – K) of 0.125 ± 0.009 mag were also assessed and removed, based on analysis of Two Micron All Sky Survey, UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, Spitzer, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry using the Near-Infrared Color Excess, NICE-Revisited, and Rayleigh-Jeans Color Excess methods. Corrected for the polarized foreground, the galaxy polarization values range from 0% to 3%. The polarizations are dominated by a disk-parallel magnetic field geometry, especially to the northeast, while either a vertical field or single scattering of bulge light produces disk-normal polarizations to the southwest. The multi-kiloparsec coherence of the magnetic field revealed by the infrared polarimetry is in close agreement with short-wavelength radio synchrotron observations of edge-on galaxies, indicating that both cool and warm interstellar media of disk galaxies may be threaded by common magnetic fields.

  14. The angular momentum of cosmological coronae and the inside-out growth of spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pezzulli, Gabriele; Fraternali, Filippo; Binney, James

    Massive and diffuse haloes of hot gas (coronae) are important intermediaries between cosmology and galaxy evolution, storing mass and angular momentum acquired from the cosmic web until eventual accretion on to star-forming discs. We introduce a method to reconstruct the rotation of a galactic

  15. THE SHAPE OF THE LUMINOSITY PROFILES OF BULGES OF SPIRAL GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ANDREDAKIS, YC; PELETIER, RF; BALCELLS, M

    1995-01-01

    Using a 2D generalization of Kent's model-independent decomposition method, we extract the K-band light profiles of the bulges of a sample of field galaxies with morphological types ranging from S0 to Sbc. We then examine the shape of the bulge profiles, by means of fitting a seeing-convolved power

  16. Constraints on radial migration in spiral galaxies - II. Angular momentum distribution and preferential migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Kathryne J.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2018-05-01

    The orbital angular momentum of individual stars in galactic discs can be permanently changed through torques from transient spiral patterns. Interactions at the corotation resonance dominate these changes and have the further property of conserving orbital circularity. We derived in an earlier paper an analytic criterion that an unperturbed stellar orbit must satisfy in order for such an interaction to occur, i.e. for it to be in a trapped orbit around corotation. We here use this criterion in an investigation of how the efficiency of induced radial migration for a population of disc stars varies with the angular momentum distribution of that population. We frame our results in terms of the velocity dispersion of the population, this being an easier observable than is the angular momentum distribution. Specifically, we investigate how the fraction of stars in trapped orbits at corotation varies with the velocity dispersion of the population, for a system with an assumed flat rotation curve. Our analytic results agree with the finding from simulations that radial migration is less effective in populations with `hotter' kinematics. We further quantify the dependence of this trapped fraction on the strength of the spiral pattern, finding a higher trapped fraction for higher amplitude perturbations.

  17. The DiskMass Survey. VI. Gas and stellar kinematics in spiral galaxies from PPak integral-field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Schechtman-Rook, Andrew; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.

    2013-09-01

    We present ionized-gas ([Oiii]λ5007 Å) and stellar kinematics (velocities and velocity dispersions) for 30 nearly face-on spiral galaxies out to as many as three K-band disk scale lengths (hR). These data have been derived from PPak integral-field-unit spectroscopy from 4980-5370 Å observed at a mean resolution of λ/Δλ = 7700 (σinst = 17 km s-1). These data are a fundamental product of our survey and will be used in companion papers to, e.g., derive the detailed (baryonic+dark) mass budget of each galaxy in our sample. Our presentation provides a comprehensive description of the observing strategy and data reduction, including a robust measurement and removal of shift, scale, and rotation effects in the data due to instrumental flexure. Using an in-plane coordinate system determined by fitting circular-speed curves to our velocity fields, we derive azimuthally averaged rotation curves and line-of-sight velocity dispersion (σLOS) and luminosity profiles for both the stars and [Oiii]-emitting gas. Along with a clear presentation of the data, we demonstrate: (1) The [Oiii] and stellar rotation curves exhibit a clear signature of asymmetric drift with a rotation difference that is 11% of the maximum rotation speed of the galaxy disk, comparable to measurements in the solar neighborhood in the Milky Way. (2) The e-folding length of the stellar velocity dispersion (hσ) is 2hR on average, as expected for a disk with a constant scale height and mass-to-light ratio, with a scatter that is notably smaller for massive, high-surface-brightness disks in the most luminous galaxies. (3) At radii larger than 1.5hR, σLOS tends to decline slower than the best-fitting exponential function, which may be due to an increase in the disk mass-to-light ratio, disk flaring, or disk heating by the dark-matter halo. (4) A strong correlation exists between the central vertical stellar velocity dispersion of the disks (σz,0) and their circular rotational speed at 2.2hR (V2.2h

  18. Spatially Extended and High-Velocity Dispersion Molecular Component in Spiral Galaxies: Single-Dish Versus Interferometric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies of the molecular medium in nearby galaxies have provided mounting evidence that the molecular gas can exist in two phases: one that is clumpy and organized as molecular clouds and another one that is more diffuse. This last component has a higher velocity dispersion than the clumpy one. In order to investigate these two molecular components further, we compare the fluxes and line widths of CO in NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, two nearby spiral galaxies for which high-quality interferometric as well as single-dish data sets are available. Our analysis leads to two main results: (1) employing three different methods, we determine the flux recovery of the interferometer as compared to the single-dish to be within a range of 35%-74% for NGC 4736 and 81%-92% for NGC 5055, and (2) when focusing on high (S/N ≥ 5) lines of sight (LOSs), the single-dish line widths are larger by ˜(40 ± 20)% than the ones derived from interferometric data, which is in agreement with stacking all LOSs. These results point to a molecular gas component that is distributed over spatial scales larger than 30″(˜1 kpc), and is therefore filtered out by the interferometer. The available observations do not allow us to distinguish between a truly diffuse gas morphology and a uniform distribution of small clouds that are separated by less than the synthesized beam size (˜3″ or ˜100 pc), as they would both be invisible for the interferometer. This high velocity dispersion component has a dispersion similar to what is found in the atomic medium, as traced through observations of the H i line.

  19. Spatially extended and high-velocity dispersion molecular component in spiral galaxies: Single-dish versus interferometric observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Walter, Fabian; Schruba, Andreas; Leroy, Adam; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of the molecular medium in nearby galaxies have provided mounting evidence that the molecular gas can exist in two phases: one that is clumpy and organized as molecular clouds and another one that is more diffuse. This last component has a higher velocity dispersion than the clumpy one. In order to investigate these two molecular components further, we compare the fluxes and line widths of CO in NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, two nearby spiral galaxies for which high-quality interferometric as well as single-dish data sets are available. Our analysis leads to two main results: (1) employing three different methods, we determine the flux recovery of the interferometer as compared to the single-dish to be within a range of 35%–74% for NGC 4736 and 81%–92% for NGC 5055, and (2) when focusing on high (S/N ≥ 5) lines of sight (LOSs), the single-dish line widths are larger by ∼(40 ± 20)% than the ones derived from interferometric data, which is in agreement with stacking all LOSs. These results point to a molecular gas component that is distributed over spatial scales larger than 30″(∼1 kpc), and is therefore filtered out by the interferometer. The available observations do not allow us to distinguish between a truly diffuse gas morphology and a uniform distribution of small clouds that are separated by less than the synthesized beam size (∼3″ or ∼100 pc), as they would both be invisible for the interferometer. This high velocity dispersion component has a dispersion similar to what is found in the atomic medium, as traced through observations of the H i line.

  20. THE EVOLUTION OF STELLAR POPULATIONS IN THE OUTER DISKS OF SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, Stacey; Calzetti, Daniela; Dong Hui; Johnson, L. C.; Dale, Daniel A.; Bianchi, Luciana; Thilker, David; Chandar, Rupali; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Regan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We investigate recent star formation in the extended ultraviolet (XUV) disks of five nearby galaxies (NGC 0628, NGC 2090, NGC 2841, NGC 3621, and NGC 5055) using a long wavelength baseline comprised of ultraviolet and mid-infrared imaging from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera. We identify 229 unresolved stellar complexes across targeted portions of their XUV disks and utilize spectral energy distribution fitting to measure their stellar ages and masses through comparison with Starburst99 population synthesis models of instantaneous burst populations. We find that the median age of outer-disk associations in our sample is ∼100 Myr with a large dispersion that spans the entire range of our models (1 Myr to 1 Gyr). This relatively evolved state for most associations addresses the observed dearth of Hα emission in some outer disks, as Hα can only be observed in star-forming regions younger than ∼10 Myr. The large age dispersion is robust against variations in extinction (in the range E(B - V) = 0-0.3 mag) and variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). In particular, we demonstrate that the age dispersion is insensitive to steepening of the IMF, up to extreme slopes.

  1. Extraplanar H II Regions in Spiral Galaxies. II. In Situ Star Formation in the Interstellar Thick Disk of NGC 4013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howk, J. Christopher; Rueff, Katherine M.; Lehner, Nicolas; Wotta, Christopher B.; Croxall, Kevin; Savage, Blair D.

    2018-04-01

    We present observations of an Hα-emitting knot in the thick disk of NGC 4013, demonstrating it is an H II region surrounding a cluster of young hot stars z = 860 pc above the plane of this edge-on spiral galaxy. With LBT/MODS spectroscopy we show that this H II region has an Hα luminosity ∼4–7 times that of the Orion nebula, with an implied ionizing photon production rate log Q 0 ≈ 49.4 (photons s‑1). HST/WFPC2 imaging reveals an associated blue continuum source with M V = ‑8.21 ± 0.24. Together, these properties demonstrate that the H II region is powered by a young cluster of stars formed in situ in the thick disk, with an ionizing photon flux equivalent to ∼6 O7 V stars. If we assume ≈6 other extraplanar Hα-emitting knots are H II regions, the total thick disk star formation rate of NGC 4013 is ∼5 × 10‑4 M ⊙ yr‑1. The star formation likely occurs in the dense clouds of the interstellar thick disk seen in optical images of dust extinction and CO emission.

  2. SUBMILLIMETER FOLLOW-UP OF WISE-SELECTED HYPERLUMINOUS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jingwen; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Tsai, Chao-Wei; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sayers, Jack; Bridge, Carrie [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benford, Dominic [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blain, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, LE1 7RH Leicester (United Kingdom); Petty, Sara; Lake, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bussmann, Shane [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Comerford, Julia M.; Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78731 (United States); Lonsdale, Carol [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Rho, Jeonghee [SETI Institute, 189 BERNARDO Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Stanford, S. Adam, E-mail: jingwen.wu@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others

    2012-09-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare ({approx}1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at z = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 {mu}m. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (z > 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 {mu}m, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature. We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe. We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  3. Submillimeter Follow-Up of WISE-Selected Hyperluminous Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic; Bridge, Carrie; Blain, Andrew; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Stern, Daniel; Petty, Sara; Assef, Roberto; hide

    2012-01-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare (approx.1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at z = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 microns, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 microns. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (z > 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 microns, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature.We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60 C120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10(exp 13) Stellar Luminosity. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe.We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  4. SUBMILLIMETER FOLLOW-UP OF WISE-SELECTED HYPERLUMINOUS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jingwen; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas; Sayers, Jack; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Petty, Sara; Lake, Sean; Bussmann, Shane; Comerford, Julia M.; Evans, Neal J. II; Lonsdale, Carol; Rho, Jeonghee; Stanford, S. Adam

    2012-01-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare (∼1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at z = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 μm, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 μm. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (z > 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 μm, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature. We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10 13 L ☉ . These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe. We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  5. Are dusty galaxies blue? Insights on UV attenuation from dust-selected galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, C. M.; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Scoville, N. Z. [California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sanders, D. B.; Lee, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); De Zotti, G. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fu, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Le Floc' h, E. [CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, bât. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Ilbert, O. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Takeuchi, T. T. [Nagoya University, Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    Galaxies' rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties are often used to directly infer the degree to which dust obscuration affects the measurement of star formation rates (SFRs). While much recent work has focused on calibrating dust attenuation in galaxies selected at rest-frame ultraviolet wavelengths, locally and at high-z, here we investigate attenuation in dusty, star forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected at far-infrared wavelengths. By combining multiwavelength coverage across 0.15-500 μm in the COSMOS field, in particular making use of Herschel imaging, and a rich data set on local galaxies, we find an empirical variation in the relationship between the rest-frame UV slope (β) and the ratio of infrared-to-ultraviolet emission (L {sub IR}/L {sub UV} ≡ IRX) as a function of infrared luminosity, or total SFR. Both locally and at high-z, galaxies above SFR ≳ 50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} deviate from the nominal IRX-β relation toward bluer colors by a factor proportional to their increasing IR luminosity. We also estimate contamination rates of DSFGs on high-z dropout searches of <<1% at z ≲ 4-10, providing independent verification that contamination from very dusty foreground galaxies is low in Lyman-break galaxy searches. Overall, our results are consistent with the physical interpretation that DSFGs, e.g., galaxies with >50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, are dominated at all epochs by short-lived, extreme burst events, producing many young O and B stars that are primarily, yet not entirely, enshrouded in thick dust cocoons. The blue rest-frame UV slopes of DSFGs are inconsistent with the suggestion that most DSFGs at z ∼ 2 exhibit steady-state star formation in secular disks.

  6. CHANG-ES. IX. Radio scale heights and scale lengths of a consistent sample of 13 spiral galaxies seen edge-on and their correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Marita; Irwin, Judith; Wiegert, Theresa; Miskolczi, Arpad; Damas-Segovia, Ancor; Beck, Rainer; Li, Jiang-Tao; Heald, George; Müller, Peter; Stein, Yelena; Rand, Richard J.; Heesen, Volker; Walterbos, Rene A. M.; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; Vargas, Carlos J.; English, Jayanne; Murphy, Eric J.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. The vertical halo scale height is a crucial parameter to understand the transport of cosmic-ray electrons (CRE) and their energy loss mechanisms in spiral galaxies. Until now, the radio scale height could only be determined for a few edge-on galaxies because of missing sensitivity at high resolution. Methods: We developed a sophisticated method for the scale height determination of edge-on galaxies. With this we determined the scale heights and radial scale lengths for a sample of 13 galaxies from the CHANG-ES radio continuum survey in two frequency bands. Results: The sample average values for the radio scale heights of the halo are 1.1 ± 0.3 kpc in C-band and 1.4 ± 0.7 kpc in L-band. From the frequency dependence analysis of the halo scale heights we found that the wind velocities (estimated using the adiabatic loss time) are above the escape velocity. We found that the halo scale heights increase linearly with the radio diameters. In order to exclude the diameter dependence, we defined a normalized scale height h˜ which is quite similar for all sample galaxies at both frequency bands and does not depend on the star formation rate or the magnetic field strength. However, h˜ shows a tight anticorrelation with the mass surface density. Conclusions: The sample galaxies with smaller scale lengths are more spherical in the radio emission, while those with larger scale lengths are flatter. The radio scale height depends mainly on the radio diameter of the galaxy. The sample galaxies are consistent with an escape-dominated radio halo with convective cosmic ray propagation, indicating that galactic winds are a widespread phenomenon in spiral galaxies. While a higher star formation rate or star formation surface density does not lead to a higher wind velocity, we found for the first time observational evidence of a gravitational deceleration of CRE outflow, e.g. a lowering of the wind velocity from the galactic disk.

  7. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH IMAGING OF THE NEARBY SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 5668 : AN UNUSUAL FLATTENING IN METALLICITY GRADIENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Zamorano, J.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Sánchez, S. F.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Boissier, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the full bidimensional optical spectral cube of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5668, observed with the Pmas fiber PAcK Integral Field Unit (IFU) at the Calar Alto observatory 3.5 m telescope. We make use of broadband imaging to provide further constraints on the evolutionary history of the galaxy. This data set will allow us to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the evolution of disks. We investigated the properties of 62 H II regions and concentric rings in NGC 5668 and derived maps in ionized-gas attenuation and chemical (oxygen) abundances. We find that while inward of r ∼36'' ∼ 4.4 kpc ∼ 0.36 (D 25 /2) the derived O/H ratio follows the radial gradient typical of spiral galaxies, the abundance gradient beyond r ∼ 36'' flattens out. The analysis of the multi-wavelength surface brightness profiles of NGC 5668 is performed by fitting these profiles with those predicted by chemo-spectrophotometric evolutionary models of galaxy disks. From this, we infer a spin and circular velocity of λ = 0.053 and v c = 167 km s –1 , respectively. The metallicity gradient and rotation curve predicted by this best-fitting galaxy model nicely match the values derived from the IFU observations, especially within r ∼36''. The same is true for the colors despite some small offsets and a reddening in the bluest colors beyond that radius. On the other hand, deviations of some of these properties in the outer disk indicate that a secondary mechanism, possibly gas transfer induced by the presence of a young bar, must have played a role in shaping the recent chemical and star formation histories of NGC 5668.

  8. Massive, Absorption-selected Galaxies at Intermediate Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, N.; Prochaska, J. X.; Christensen, L.; Rhodin, N. H. P.; Neeleman, M.; Zwaan, M. A.; Møller, P.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Zafar, T.

    2018-04-01

    The nature of absorption-selected galaxies and their connection to the general galaxy population have been open issues for more than three decades, with little information available on their gas properties. Here we show, using detections of carbon monoxide emission with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, that five of seven high-metallicity, absorption-selected galaxies at intermediate redshifts, z ≈ 0.5–0.8, have large molecular gas masses, M Mol ≈ (0.6–8.2) × 1010 M ⊙ and high molecular gas fractions (f Mol ≡ M Mol/(M * + M Mol) ≈ 0.29–0.87). Their modest star formation rates (SFRs), ≈(0.3–9.5) M ⊙ yr‑1, then imply long gas depletion timescales, ≈(3–120) Gyr. The high-metallicity absorption-selected galaxies at z ≈ 0.5–0.8 appear distinct from populations of star-forming galaxies at both z ≈ 1.3–2.5, during the peak of star formation activity in the Universe, and lower redshifts, z ≲ 0.05. Their relatively low SFRs, despite the large molecular gas reservoirs, may indicate a transition in the nature of star formation at intermediate redshifts, z ≈ 0.7.

  9. Orientations of galaxies in the Local Supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGillivray, H.T.; Dodd, R.J.; McNally, B.V.; Corwin, H.G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of position angles and ellipticities for a sample of 727 spiral and irregular galaxies, selected on the basis of brightness and radial velocity from the Second Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies, is analysed for non-random effects. A marginally significant tendency is found for galaxies to be aligned along the plane of the Local Supercluster. This preferential alignment effect is found to exist mainly for galaxies at high supergalactic latitude and for galaxies which are seen nearly edge-on. The results are interpreted as supporting the view that superclusters formed prior to the formation of the constituent galaxies and clusters. (author)

  10. Galaxy Kinematics and Mass Calibration in Massive SZE Selected Galaxy Clusters to z=1.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capasso, R.; et al.

    2017-11-27

    The galaxy phase-space distribution in galaxy clusters provides insights into the formation and evolution of cluster galaxies, and it can also be used to measure cluster mass profiles. We present a dynamical study based on $\\sim$3000 passive, non-emission line cluster galaxies drawn from 110 galaxy clusters. The galaxy clusters were selected using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) in the 2500 deg$^2$ SPT-SZ survey and cover the redshift range $0.2 < z < 1.3$. We model the clusters using the Jeans equation, while adopting NFW mass profiles and a broad range of velocity dispersion anisotropy profiles. The data prefer velocity dispersion anisotropy profiles that are approximately isotropic near the center and increasingly radial toward the cluster virial radius, and this is true for all redshifts and masses we study. The pseudo-phase-space density profile of the passive galaxies is consistent with expectations for dark matter particles and subhalos from cosmological $N$-body simulations. The dynamical mass constraints are in good agreement with external mass estimates of the SPT cluster sample from either weak lensing, velocity dispersions, or X-ray $Y_X$ measurements. However, the dynamical masses are lower (at the 2.2$\\sigma$ level) when compared to the mass calibration favored when fitting the SPT cluster data to a LCDM model with external cosmological priors, including CMB anisotropy data from Planck. The tension grows with redshift, where in the highest redshift bin the ratio of dynamical to SPT+Planck masses is $\\eta=0.63^{+0.13}_{-0.08}\\pm0.05$ (statistical and systematic), corresponding to 2.6$\\sigma$ tension.

  11. The host of the Type I SLSN 2017egm. A young, sub-solar metallicity environment in a massive spiral galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, L.; Thöne, C. C.; García-Benito, R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Cano, Z.; Kann, D. A.; Bensch, K.; Della Valle, M.; Galadí-Enríquez, D.; Hedrosa, R. P.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN) host galaxies are predominantly low-metallicity, highly star-forming (SF) dwarfs. One of the current key questions is whether Type I SLSNe can only occur in such environments and hosts. Aims: Here we present an integral-field study of the massive, high-metallicity spiral NGC 3191, the host of SN 2017egm, the closest Type I SLSN known to date. We use data from PMAS/CAHA and the public MaNGA survey to shed light on the properties of the SLSN site and the origin of star formation in this non-starburst spiral galaxy. Methods: We map the physical properties of different H II regions throughout the galaxy and characterise their stellar populations using the STARLIGHT fitting code. Kinematical information allows us to study a possible interaction with its neighbouring galaxy as the origin of recent star formation activity which could have caused the SLSN. Results: NGC 3191 shows intense star formation in the western part with three large SF regions of low metallicity. Taking only the properties of emitting gas, the central regions of the host have a higher metallicity, a lower specific star formation rate, and lower ionisation. Modelling the stellar populations gives a different picture: the SLSN region has two dominant stellar populations with different ages, the younger one with an age of 2-10 Myr and lower metallicity, likely the population from which the SN progenitor originated. Emission line kinematics of NGC 3191 show indications of interaction with its neighbour MCG+08-19-017 at 45 kpc, which might be responsible for the recent starburst. In fact, this galaxy pair has hosted a total of four SNe, 1988B (Type Ia), SN 2003ds (Type Ic in MCG+08-19-017), PTF10bgl (Type II), and 2017egm, underlying the enhanced SF in both galaxies due to interaction. Conclusions: Our study shows that care should be taken when interpreting global host and even gas properties without looking at the stellar population history of the region

  12. Optical nebulosity in X-ray-selected, early type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Joseph C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an H-alpha + N II forbidden line narrowband imaging survey of X-ray-selected E and S0 galaxies. A novel technique is described for objectively optimizing the removal of stellar continuum light while providing well-defined estimates of systematic errors. The procedure has the additional benefit of eliminating sky contamination, specifically in image regions occupied by galaxy light. Consideration of the measured spectral energy distributions is included in the flux calibration procedure, and emission-line luminosities (or upper limits), corrected for Galactic foreground extinction, are tabulated for metric apertures. No connection is found between the 'boxiness' or 'diskiness' of stellar isophotes and emission-line or far-infrared luminosity. It is suggested that optical nebulosity in early-type galaxies contains a significant multiparameter dependence on active Galactic nuclei behavior, accretion from the hot interstellar medium, and mass injection from external sources.

  13. Rotating shallow water modeling of planetary,astrophysical and plasma vortical structures (plasma transport across a magnetic field,model of the jupiter's GRS, prediction of existence of giant vortices in spiral galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Nezlin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of results have been described in this paper. Firstly, an experimental study of the Rossby vortex meridional drift on the rotating shallow water has been carried out. Owing to the stringent physical analogy between the Rossby vortices and drift vortices in the magnetized plasma, the results obtained have allowed one to make a conclusion that the transport rate of the plasma, trapped by the drift vortices, across the magnetic field is equivalent to the “gyro-Bohm” diffusion coefficient. Secondly, a model of big vortices of the type of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter, dominating in the atmospheres of the outer planets, has been produced. Thirdly, the rotating shallow water modeling has been carried out of the hydrodynamical generation mechanism of spiral structures in galaxies. Trailing spiral waves of various azimuthal modes, generated by a shear flow between fast rotating “nucleus” and slow rotating periphery, were produced. The spirals are similar to those existing in the real galaxies. The hydrodynamical concept of the spiral structure formation in galaxies has been substantiated. Strong anticyclonic vortices between the spiral arms of the structures under study have been discovered for the first time. The existence of analogous vortices in real galaxies has been predicted. (This prediction has been reliably confirmed recently in special astronomical observations, carried out on the basis of the mentioned laboratory modeling and the prediction made – see the paper by A. Fridman et al. (Astrophysics and Space Science, 1997, 252, 115.

  14. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen; Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron; Moustakas, John; Van der Wel, Arjen; Zitrin, Adi; Frye, Brenda L.; Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benítez, Narciso; Broadhurst, Tom; Donahue, Megan; Infante, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    We utilize the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y 105 ) and F125W (J 125 ), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] λλ4959, 5007 at redshifts of ∼0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multiband observations help to constrain the equivalent widths (EWs) of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 EW of ≅ 3700 Å. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high EW can only be found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic a dropout feature similar to that of high-redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high-redshift galaxies when the signal-to-noise ratio is limited or the band coverage is incomplete

  15. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Frye, Brenda L. [Steward Observatory/Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Bartelmann, Matthias [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P. O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Benítez, Narciso [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huétor 24, Granada E-18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU E-Bilbao (Spain); Donahue, Megan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Infante, Leopoldo, E-mail: hxx@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Departamento de Astronoía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, V. Mackenna 4860 Santiago 22 (Chile); and others

    2015-03-01

    We utilize the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y {sub 105}) and F125W (J {sub 125}), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] λλ4959, 5007 at redshifts of ∼0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multiband observations help to constrain the equivalent widths (EWs) of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 EW of ≅ 3700 Å. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high EW can only be found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic a dropout feature similar to that of high-redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high-redshift galaxies when the signal-to-noise ratio is limited or the band coverage is incomplete.

  16. The intrinsic shape of galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-09-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 galaxies, we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026} in the SDSS r band. We also find that the distribution of minor to major axis ratio has a mean value of 0.267 ± 0.009, slightly larger than previous estimates mainly due to the lower extinction used; the same affects the circularity of galactic discs, which are found to be less round in shape than in previous studies, with a mean ellipticity of 0.215 ± 0.013. For elliptical galaxies, we find that the minor to major axis ratio, with a mean value of 0.584 ± 0.006, is larger than previous estimations due to the removal of spiral interlopers present in samples with morphological information from photometric profiles. These interlopers are removed when selecting ellipticals using Galaxy Zoo data. We find that the intrinsic shapes of galaxies and their dust extinction vary with absolute magnitude, colour and physical size. We find that bright elliptical galaxies are more spherical than faint ones, a trend that is also present with galaxy size, and that there is no dependence of elliptical galaxy shape with colour. For spiral galaxies, we find that the reddest ones have higher dust extinction as expected, due to the fact that this reddening is mainly due to dust. We also find that the thickness of discs increases with luminosity and size, and that brighter, smaller and redder galaxies have less round discs.

  17. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Gas Fuelling of Spiral Galaxies in the Local Universe II. - Direct Measurement of the Dependencies on Redshift and Host Halo Mass of Stellar Mass Growth in Central Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootes, M. W.; Dvornik, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Tuffs, R. J.; Popescu, C. C.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Liske, J.; Brown, M. J. I.; Holwerda, B. W.; Wang, L.

    2018-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the specific star formation rate - stellar mass (sSFR - M*) of z ≤ 0.13 disk central galaxies using a morphologically selected mass-complete sample (M* ≥ 109.5M⊙). Considering samples of grouped and ungrouped galaxies, we find the sSFR - M* relations of disk-dominated central galaxies to have no detectable dependence on host dark-matter halo (DMH) mass, even where weak-lensing measurements indicate a difference in halo mass of a factor ≳ 5. We further detect a gradual evolution of the sSFR - M* relation of non-grouped (field) central disk galaxies with redshift, even over a Δz ≈ 0.04 (≈5 . 108yr) interval, while the scatter remains constant. This evolution is consistent with extrapolation of the "main-sequence-of-star-forming-galaxies" from previous literature that uses larger redshift baselines and coarser sampling. Taken together, our results present new constraints on the paradigm under which the SFR of galaxies is determined by a self-regulated balance between gas inflows and outflows, and consumption of gas by star-formation in disks, with the inflow being determined by the product of the cosmological accretion rate and a fuelling-efficiency - \\dot{M}_{b,halo}ζ. In particular, maintaining the paradigm requires \\dot{M}_{b,halo}ζ to be independent of the mass Mhalo of the host DMH. Furthermore, it requires the fuelling-efficiency ζ to have a strong redshift dependence (∝(1 + z)2.7 for M* = 1010.3M⊙ over z = 0 - 0.13), even though no morphological transformation to spheroids can be invoked to explain this in our disk-dominated sample. The physical mechanisms capable of giving rise to such dependencies of ζ on Mhalo and z for disks are unclear.

  18. Adaptive enhancement of optical fringe patterns by selective reconstruction using FABEMD algorithm and Hilbert spiral transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusiak, Maciej; Patorski, Krzysztof; Wielgus, Maciej

    2012-10-08

    Presented method for fringe pattern enhancement has been designed for processing and analyzing low quality fringe patterns. It uses a modified fast and adaptive bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (FABEMD) for the extraction of bidimensional intrinsic mode functions (BIMFs) from an interferogram. Fringe pattern is then selectively reconstructed (SR) taking the regions of selected BIMFs with high modulation values only. Amplitude demodulation and normalization of the reconstructed image is conducted using the spiral phase Hilbert transform (HS). It has been tested using computer generated interferograms and real data. The performance of the presented SR-FABEMD-HS method is compared with other normalization techniques. Its superiority, potential and robustness to high fringe density variations and the presence of noise, modulation and background illumination defects in analyzed fringe patterns has been corroborated.

  19. COLORS AND COLOR GRADIENTS IN BULGES OF GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BALCELLS, M; PELETIER, RF

    We have obtained surface photometry in U, B, R, and I for a complete optically selected sample of 45 early-type spiral galaxies, to investigate the colors and color gradients of spiral bulges. Color profiles in U-R, B-R, U-B, and R-I have been determined in wedges opening on the semiminor axes.

  20. Star formation histories of irregular galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.S. III; Hunter, D.A.; Tutukov, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    We explore the star formation histories of a selection of irregular and spiral galaxies by using three parameters that sample the star formation rate (SFR) at different epochs: (1) the mass of a galaxy in the form of stars measures the SFR integrated over a galaxy's lifetime; (2) the blue luminosity is dominated primarily by stars formed over the past few billion years; and (3) Lyman continuum photon fluxes derived from Hα luminosities give the current ( 8 yr) SFR

  1. Visibility of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that counts of galaxies could be seriously biased by selection effects, largely influenced by the brightness of the night sky. To illustrate this suppose the Earth were situated near the center of a giant elliptical galaxy. The mean surface brightness of the sky would then appear some 8 to 9 mag. brighter than is observed from our position in the Galaxy. Extragalactic space would then appear to be empty void; spiral and irregular galaxies would be invisible, and all that could be easily detected would be the core regions of galaxy ellipticals very similar to our own. Much of the Universe would be blinded by the surface brightness of the parent galaxy. This blinding, however, is a relative matter and the question arises as to what extent we are blinded by the spiral galaxy in which we exist. Strong indirect evidence exists that our knowledge of galaxies is heavily biased by the sky background, and the true population of extragalactic space may be very different from that seen. Other relevant work is also discussed, and further investigational work is indicated. (U.K.)

  2. An improved method of crafting a multi-electrode spiral cuff for the selective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Janez; Pečlin, Polona; Ribarič, Samo; Godec, Matjaž; Burja, Jaka

    2018-01-17

    This article reviews an improved methodology and technology for crafting a multi-electrode spiral cuff for the selective activation of nerve fibres in particular superficial regions of a peripheral nerve. The analysis, structural and mechanical properties of the spot welds used for the interconnections between the stimulating electrodes and stainless-steel lead wires are presented. The cuff consisted of 33 platinum electrodes embedded within a self-curling 17-mm-long silicone spiral sheet with a nominal internal diameter of 2.5 mm. The weld was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and nanohardness tests, while the interconnection was investigated using destructive load tests. The functionality of the cuff was tested in an isolated porcine vagus nerve. The results of the scanning electron microscopy show good alloying and none of the typical welding defects that occur between the wire and the platinum foil. The results of the destructive load tests show that the breaking loads were between 3.22 and 5 N. The results of the nanohardness testing show that the hardness of the weld was different for the particular sites on the weld sample. Finally, the results of the functional testing show that for different stimulation intensities both the compound action potential deflection and the shape are modulated.

  3. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented

  4. The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies - II. R-band surface photometry of late-type dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaters, RA; Balcells, M

    R-band surface photometry is presented for 171 late-type dwarf and irregular galaxies. For a subsample of 46 galaxies B-band photometry is presented as well. We present surface brightness profiles as well as isophotal and photometric parameters including magnitudes, diameters and central surface

  5. The Universal Rotation Curve of Spiral Galaxies. II The Dark Matter Distribution out to the Virial Radius

    OpenAIRE

    Salucci, P.; Lapi, A.; Tonini, C.; Gentile, G.; Yegorova, I.; Klein, U.

    2007-01-01

    In the current LambdaCDM cosmological scenario, N-body simulations provide us with a Universal mass profile, and consequently a Universal equilibrium circular velocity of the virialized objects, as galaxies. In this paper we obtain, by combining kinematical data of their inner regions with global observational properties, the Universal Rotation Curve (URC) of disk galaxies and the corresponding mass distribution out to their virial radius. This curve extends the results of Paper I, concerning...

  6. The environments and clustering properties of 2dFGRS-selected starburst galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Owers, Matt; Blake, Chris; Couch, Warrick; Pracy, Mike; Bekki, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the environments and clustering properties of starburst galaxies selected from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) in order to determine which, if any, environmental factors play a role in triggering a starburst. We quantify the local environments, clustering properties and luminosity functions of our starburst galaxies and compare to random control samples. The starburst galaxies are also classified morphologically in terms of their broad Hubble type and evidence of tidal ...

  7. Hubble's Menagerie of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    and barred spirals, in a se- quence of gradually loos- ening of spiral arms and diminishing brightness of the central bulge. one cannot infer its true shape. A galaxy m ay look °at- tened by a di®erent degree if view ed from a di®erent d irectio n . Spiral galaxies are m arked by spiral `arm s' around a bright,nuclear region,often ...

  8. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The size and nature of any large-scale anisotropy in the three-dimensional distribution of galaxies is still little understood. Recent studies have indicated that large fluctuations in the matter distribution on a scale from tens up to several hundreds of megaparsecs may exist. Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years has made major contributions to studies of the large scale distribution of galaxies, as well as to solving the problems of the galactic and extragalactic distance scale. Other studies of galaxies undertaken at SAAO include: quasars in the fields of nearby galaxies; dwarf irregular galaxies; IRAS galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; 'hot spot' galaxies; supernovae in NGC 5128 and NGC 1559 and superclusters. 4 figs

  9. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: Target Selection of Nearby Stars and Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Howard; Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Lebofsky, Matt; Price, Danny C.; MacMahon, David; Croft, Steve; DeBoer, David; Hickish, Jack; Werthimer, Dan; Sheikh, Sofia; Hellbourg, Greg; Enriquez, J. Emilio

    2017-05-01

    We present the target selection for the Breakthrough Listen search for extraterrestrial intelligence during the first year of observations at the Green Bank Telescope, Parkes Telescope, and Automated Planet Finder. On the way to observing 1,000,000 nearby stars in search of technological signals, we present three main sets of objects we plan to observe in addition to a smaller sample of exotica. We chose the 60 nearest stars, all within 5.1 pc from the Sun. Such nearby stars offer the potential to observe faint radio signals from transmitters that have a power similar to those on Earth. We add a list of 1649 stars drawn from the Hipparcos catalog that span the Hertzprung-Russell diagram, including all spectral types along the main sequence, subgiants, and giant stars. This sample offers diversity and inclusion of all stellar types, but with thoughtful limits and due attention to main sequence stars. Our targets also include 123 nearby galaxies composed of a “morphological-type-complete” sample of the nearest spirals, ellipticals, dwarf spherioidals, and irregulars. While their great distances hamper the detection of technological electromagnetic radiation, galaxies offer the opportunity to observe billions of stars simultaneously and to sample the bright end of the technological luminosity function. We will also use the Green Bank and Parkes telescopes to survey the plane and central bulge of the Milky Way. Finally, the complete target list includes several classes of exotica, including white dwarfs, brown dwarfs, black holes, neutron stars, and asteroids in our solar system.

  10. A NEW SCALING RELATION FOR H II REGIONS IN SPIRAL GALAXIES: UNVEILING THE TRUE NATURE OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Díaz, A. I.; Sánchez, S. F.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Vílchez, J. M.; Mast, D.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Husemann, B.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of a local mass, metallicity, star formation relation using spatially resolved optical spectroscopy of H II regions in the local universe. One of the projections of this distribution—the local mass-metallicity relation—extends over a wide range in this parameter space: three orders of magnitude in mass and a factor of eight in metallicity. We explain the new relation as the combined effect of the differential distributions of mass and metallicity in the disks of galaxies, and a selective star formation efficiency. We use this local relation to reproduce—with a noticeable agreement—the mass-metallicity relation seen in galaxies, and conclude that the latter is a scale-up integrated effect of a local relation, supporting the inside-out growth and downsizing scenarios of galaxy evolution.

  11. H I-SELECTED GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY. II. THE COLORS OF GAS-RICH GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Andrew A.; Garcia-Appadoo, Diego A.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Disney, Mike J.; Rockosi, Constance M.

    2009-01-01

    We utilize color information for an H I-selected sample of 195 galaxies to explore the star formation histories and physical conditions that produce the observed colors. We show that the H I selection creates a significant offset toward bluer colors that can be explained by enhanced recent bursts of star formation. There is also no obvious color bimodality, because the H I selection restricts the sample to bluer, actively star-forming systems, diminishing the importance of the red sequence. Rising star formation rates are still required to explain the colors of galaxies bluer than g - r< 0.3. We also demonstrate that the colors of the bluest galaxies in our sample are dominated by emission lines and that stellar population synthesis models alone (without emission lines) are not adequate for reproducing many of the galaxy colors. These emission lines produce large changes in the r - i colors but leave the g - r color largely unchanged. In addition, we find an increase in the dispersion of galaxy colors at low masses that may be the result of a change in the star formation process in low-mass galaxies.

  12. A Multiband Study of the Galaxy Populations of the First Four Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Selected Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenteno, A.; Song, J.; Desai, S.; Armstrong, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Allam, S. S.; Andersson, K.; Bazin, G.; Benson, B. A.; Bertin, E.; Brodwin, M.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Hansen, S. M.; High, F. W.; Lin, H.; Lin, Y.-T.; Liu, J.; Rest, A.; Smith, R. C.; Stalder, B.; Stark, A. A.; Tucker, D. L.; Yang, Y.

    2011-06-01

    We present first results of an examination of the optical properties of the galaxy populations in Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) selected galaxy clusters. Using clusters selected by the South Pole Telescope survey and deep multiband optical data from the Blanco Cosmology Survey, we measure the radial profile, the luminosity function (LF), the blue fraction, and the halo occupation number (HON) of the galaxy populations of these four clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.3 to 1. Our goal is to understand whether there are differences among the galaxy populations of these SZE-selected clusters and previously studied clusters selected in the optical and the X-ray. The radial distributions of galaxies in the four systems are consistent with Navarro-Frenk-White profiles with a galaxy concentration of 3 to 6. We show that the characteristic luminosities in griz bands are consistent with passively evolving populations emerging from a single burst at redshift z = 3. The faint-end power-law slope of the LF is found to be on average α ≈ -1.2 in griz. HONs (to m* + 2) for these systems appear to be consistent with those based on X-ray-selected clusters. The blue fraction estimated to 0.36 L*, for the three lower redshift systems, suggests an increase with redshift, although with the current sample the uncertainties are still large. Overall, this pilot study of the first four clusters provides no evidence that the galaxy populations in these systems differ significantly from those in previously studied cluster populations selected in the X-ray or the optical.

  13. Selections from 2017: Hubble Survey Explores Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2017, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume in January.CANDELS Multi-Wavelength Catalogs: Source Identification and Photometry in the CANDELS COSMOSSurvey FieldPublished January2017Main takeaway:A publication led byHooshang Nayyeri(UC Irvine and UC Riverside) early this year details acatalog of sources built using the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey(CANDELS), a survey carried out by cameras on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The catalogliststhe properties of 38,000 distant galaxies visiblewithin the COSMOS field, a two-square-degree equatorial field explored in depthto answer cosmological questions.Why its interesting:Illustration showing the three-dimensional map of the dark matter distribution in theCOSMOS field. [Adapted from NASA/ESA/R. Massey(California Institute of Technology)]The depth and resolution of the CANDELS observations areuseful for addressingseveral major science goals, including the following:Studying the most distant objects in the universe at the epoch of reionization in the cosmic dawn.Understanding galaxy formation and evolution during the peak epoch of star formation in the cosmic high noon.Studying star formation from deep ultravioletobservations and studying cosmology from supernova observations.Why CANDELS is a major endeavor:CANDELS isthe largest multi-cycle treasury program ever approved on the Hubble Space Telescope using over 900 orbits between 2010 and 2013 withtwo cameras on board the spacecraftto study galaxy formation and evolution throughout cosmic time. The CANDELS images are all publicly available, and the new catalogrepresents an enormous source of information about distant objectsin our universe.CitationH. Nayyeri et al 2017 ApJS 228 7. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/228/1/7

  14. Searching gravitational microlensing events in the galaxy spiral arms by EROS II; Recherche d'evenements de microlentille gravitationnelle dans les bras spiraux de la galaxie avec EROS II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derue, Frederic [Paris-11 Univ., 91 Orsay (France)

    1999-04-15

    The EROS II experiment is searching for microlensing events due to compact massive objects passing through the line-of-sight of luminous stars. These objects are candidates to explain the baryonic component of Dark Matter in our Galaxy. EROS II was dedicated to different lines-of-sight: Small and Large Magellanic Clouds, Galactic Centre and 4 directions towards the Spiral Arms of the Galaxy. This thesis presents the first search for microlensing towards these last lines-of-sight (about 9 million stars). Simple criteria based on the search for significant fluctuations allowed one to discover a low noise sample of 7 candidates to the microlensing effect, with an average timescale of 50 days. A detailed analysis of the light curve of one candidate allows us to give a confidence interval on its mass 2.7 x 10{sup -3} < M/M{sub 0} < 0.84 at 95% CL. The amplification curve of another candidate shows a modulation which can be interpreted as a microlensing effect acting on a binary source, with an orbital period of P{sub 0} = 50 {+-} 3 days. To improve the knowledge of the distance of the target stars, we have combined observations of EROS II with bibliographic sources on associations of stars linked with the spiral arm features, and we have developed a program to find variable stars. Ten cepheids have thus been found. Distances obtained with different methods are in rough agreement with each other. The average optical depth measured towards the four directions is {tau}-bar = 0.45{sub 0.11}{sup +0.23} x 10{sup -6}. It is compatible with expectations from simple galactic models. The long duration of most events favours interpretation of lensing by objects belonging to the disk instead of the halo. It also seems that some events due to bulge lenses have influenced measurements towards the line-of-sight which is closest to the Galactic Centre. Observation continue towards spiral arms. More accurate measurements should be obtained with increase of statistics, allowing one to

  15. A catalog of spin orientation of southern galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iye, Masandri; Sugai, Hajime

    1991-01-01

    A catalog is presented for studying the distribution of spin angular momentum of disk galaxies. This catalog compiles the spiral winding sense, which can be used for identifying the sign of the line-of-sight component of the spin angular momentum, of 8287 spiral galaxies selected from the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO (B) Atlas. The definition of the sample, description of the procedures in compiling the catalog, and the basic statistics of the sample are presented. The astrophysical significances of possible analyses based on the present catalog are emphasized in the context of various theories of galaxy formation. 20 refs

  16. Companions of Bright Barred Shapley Ames Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Barreto, J. Antonio; Carrillo, Rene; Vera-Villamizar, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barred galaxies from the Shapley Ames Catalog is presented. Among spiral barred galaxies there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclear structures, galaxies not associated with any large scale galaxy cloud structure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms) and galaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubble types. The companion galaxy list includes number of companion galaxies within 20...

  17. Galaxy Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruit, P. C.; Freeman, K. C.

    The disks of disk galaxies contain a substantial fraction of their baryonic matter and angular momentum, and much of the evolutionary activity in these galaxies, such as the formation of stars, spiral arms, bars and rings, and the various forms of secular evolution, takes place in their disks. The

  18. A Comparison of Independent Star Formation Diagnostics for a UV-Selected Sample of Nearby Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Mark; Mobasher, Bahram; Chan, Ben; Cram, Lawrence; Ellis, Richard; Treyer, Marie; Hopkins, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    We present results from a decimetric radio survey undertaken with the Very Large Array as part of a longer term goal to inter-compare star formation and dust extinction diagnostics, on a galaxy by galaxy basis, for a representative sample of nearby galaxies. For our survey field, Selected Area 57, star formation rates derived from 1.4GHz luminosities are compared with earlier nebular emission line and ultraviolet (UV) continuum diagnostics. We find broad correlations, over several decades in ...

  19. HI Selected Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II: The Colors of Gas-Rich Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    West, Andrew A.; Garcia-Appadoo, Diego A.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Disney, Mike J.; Rockosi, Constance R.; Ivezic, Zeljko

    2009-01-01

    We utilize color information for an HI-selected sample of 195 galaxies to explore the star formation histories and physical conditions that produce the observed colors. We show that the HI selection creates a significant offset towards bluer colors that can be explained by enhanced recent bursts of star formation. There is also no obvious color bimodality, because the HI selection restricts the sample to bluer, actively star forming systems, diminishing the importance of the red sequence. Ris...

  20. A MID-INFRARED IMAGING SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED GALAXIES WITH THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainline, Laura J.; Blain, A. W.; Smail, Ian; Frayer, D. T.; Chapman, S. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Alexander, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    We present Spitzer-IRAC and MIPS mid-IR observations of a sample of 73 radio-detected submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) with spectroscopic redshifts, the largest such sample published to date. From our data, we find that IRAC colors of SMGs are much more uniform as compared with rest-frame UV and optical colors, and z>1.5 SMGs tend to be redder in their mid-IR colors than both field galaxies and lower-z SMGs. However, the IRAC colors of the SMGs overlap those of field galaxies sufficiently that color-magnitude and color-color selection criteria suggested in the literature to identify SMG counterparts produce ambiguous counterparts within an 8'' radius in 20%-35% of cases. We use a rest-frame J-H versus H-K color-color diagram and a S 24 /S 8.0 versus S 8.0 /S 4.5 color-color diagram to determine that 13%-19% of our sample are likely to contain active galactic nuclei which dominate their mid-IR emission. We observe in the rest-frame JHK colors of our sample that the rest-frame near-IR emission of SMGs does not resemble that of the compact nuclear starburst observed in local ultraluminous IR galaxies and is consistent with more widely distributed star formation. We take advantage of the fact that many high-z galaxy populations selected at different wavelengths are detected by Spitzer to carry out a brief comparison of mid-IR properties of SMGs to UV-selected high-z galaxies, 24 μm-selected galaxies, and high-z radio galaxies, and find that SMGs have mid-IR fluxes and colors which are consistent with being more massive and more reddened than UV-selected galaxies, while the IRAC colors of SMGs are most similar to powerful high-z radio galaxies.

  1. Logarithmic Spiral

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    anti-clockwise direction and we get a right-handed spiral. (Figure 2). We know that the derivative of eX is also eX. Various properties of logarithmic spiral depend on this property of eX. Properties of Logarithmic Spiral. 1. The most important property of a logarithmic spiral is that r (i.e. the distance from the origin) increases.

  2. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at Z greater than 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWel, A.; Straughn, A. N.; Rix, H.-W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z approx. 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broad-band magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines . with rest-frame equivalent widths approx. 1000A in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with approx.10(exp 8) Solar Mass in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/M* of only approx. 15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7x10(exp -4) Mpc(sup -3) can produce in approx.4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) Solar Mass dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  3. Galaxies and clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpeter, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    Stellar populations and massive halos, the properties of individual galaxies, and the clusters of galaxies are discussed. Baade's concept of the two stellar populations in our Galaxy had an important influence on the theories of stellar evolution. In Baade's day, there were two puzzling questions. Population II stars manage to form more rapidly than population I stars. Population II has lower rotational velocity than population I. This story is affected by the presence of an extended, massive halo which was not known in Baade's day. It is known from galaxy rotation curves that massive halos extend much further out. The most striking feature about the variation amongst galaxies is the separation between elliptical and spiral galaxies, with SO-galaxies occupying an intermediate position. The absolute luminosity L of a galaxy provides the second parameter in a two-dimensional classification scheme. In many ways, elliptical galaxies bear the same relationship to late-type spirals as does our stellar population II to population I. Most galaxies occur in some kind of groupings, ranging from a small group such as Local Group to a rich and dense cluster such as the Coma cluster. The formation of galaxies is connected with the formation of clusters. Various models are presented and discussed. (Kato, T.)

  4. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF A SAMPLE OF 70 μm SELECTED GALAXIES IN THE COSMOS FIELD. II. THE ROLE OF MERGERS IN GALAXY EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Sanders, D. B.; Le Floc'h, E.; Frayer, D. T.; Aussel, H.; Arnouts, S.; Ilbert, O.; Cassata, P.; Le Fevre, O.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Capak, P.; Surace, J.; Yan, L.; Caputi, K.; Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S.; Civano, F.; Hasinger, G.; Koekemoer, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the morphological properties of a large sample of 1503 70 μm selected galaxies in the COSMOS field spanning the redshift range 0.01 8 IR (8 - 1000 μm) 14 L sun with a median luminosity of 10 11.4 L sun . In general, these galaxies are massive, with a stellar mass range of 10 10 -10 12 M sun , and luminous, with -25 K IR , with the fraction at the highest luminosity (L IR > 10 12 L sun ) being up to ∼50%. We also find that the fraction of spirals drops dramatically with L IR . Minor mergers likely play a role in boosting the infrared luminosity for sources with low luminosities (L IR 11.5 L sun ). The precise fraction of mergers in any given L IR bin varies by redshift due to sources at z > 1 being difficult to classify and subject to the effects of bandpass shifting; therefore, these numbers can only be considered lower limits. At z 1, the fraction of major mergers is lower, but is at least 30%-40% for ULIRGs. In a comparison of our visual classifications with several automated classification techniques we find general agreement; however, the fraction of identified mergers is underestimated due to automated classification methods being sensitive to only certain timescales of a major merger. Although the general morphological trends agree with what has been observed for local (U)LIRGs, the fraction of major mergers is slightly lower than seen locally. This is in part due to the difficulty of identifying merger signatures at high redshift. The distribution of the U - V color of the galaxies in our sample peaks in the green valley ((U - V) = 1.1) with a large spread at bluer and redder colors and with the major mergers peaking more strongly in the green valley than the rest of the morphological classes. We argue that, given the number of major gas-rich mergers observed and the relatively short timescale that they would be observable in the (U)LIRG phase, it is plausible for the observed red sequence of massive ellipticals ( 12 M sun ) to have been

  5. Simulation and Experimental Studies on Grain Selection and Structure Design of the Spiral Selector for Casting Single Crystal Ni-Based Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain selection is an important process in single crystal turbine blades manufacturing. Selector structure is a control factor of grain selection, as well as directional solidification (DS. In this study, the grain selection and structure design of the spiral selector were investigated through experimentation and simulation. A heat transfer model and a 3D microstructure growth model were established based on the Cellular automaton-Finite difference (CA-FD method for the grain selector. Consequently, the temperature field, the microstructure and the grain orientation distribution were simulated and further verified. The average error of the temperature result was less than 1.5%. The grain selection mechanisms were further analyzed and validated through simulations. The structural design specifications of the selector were suggested based on the two grain selection effects. The structural parameters of the spiral selector, namely, the spiral tunnel diameter (dw, the spiral pitch (hb and the spiral diameter (hs, were studied and the design criteria of these parameters were proposed. The experimental and simulation results demonstrated that the improved selector could accurately and efficiently produce a single crystal structure.

  6. Simulation and Experimental Studies on Grain Selection and Structure Design of the Spiral Selector for Casting Single Crystal Ni-Based Superalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Xu, Qingyan

    2017-10-27

    Grain selection is an important process in single crystal turbine blades manufacturing. Selector structure is a control factor of grain selection, as well as directional solidification (DS). In this study, the grain selection and structure design of the spiral selector were investigated through experimentation and simulation. A heat transfer model and a 3D microstructure growth model were established based on the Cellular automaton-Finite difference (CA-FD) method for the grain selector. Consequently, the temperature field, the microstructure and the grain orientation distribution were simulated and further verified. The average error of the temperature result was less than 1.5%. The grain selection mechanisms were further analyzed and validated through simulations. The structural design specifications of the selector were suggested based on the two grain selection effects. The structural parameters of the spiral selector, namely, the spiral tunnel diameter ( d w ), the spiral pitch ( h b ) and the spiral diameter ( h s ), were studied and the design criteria of these parameters were proposed. The experimental and simulation results demonstrated that the improved selector could accurately and efficiently produce a single crystal structure.

  7. The perfect shape spiral stories

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    This book uses the spiral shape as a key to a multitude of strange and seemingly disparate stories about art, nature, science, mathematics, and the human endeavour. In a way, the book is itself organized as a spiral, with almost disconnected chapters circling around and closing in on the common theme. A particular strength of the book is its extremely cross-disciplinary nature - everything is fun, and everything is connected! At the same time, the author puts great emphasis on mathematical and scientific correctness, in contrast, perhaps, with some earlier books on spirals. Subjects include the mathematical properties of spirals, sea shells, sun flowers, Greek architecture, air ships, the history of mathematics, spiral galaxies, the anatomy of the human hand, the art of prehistoric Europe, Alfred Hitchcock, and spider webs, to name a few.

  8. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, Laurent

    1979-01-01

    This research thesis addresses theories on the chemical evolution of galaxies which aim at explaining abundances of different elements in galaxies, and more particularly aims at improving the model by modifying hypotheses. After a description of the simple model and of its uncertainties, the author shows how it is possible to understand the evolution of the main elements. Predictions obtained with this model are then compared with the present knowledge on galaxies by considering them according to an increasing complexity: Sun's neighbourhood, our galaxy, other spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies, and finally galaxy clusters. A specific attention is given to irregular galaxies which are the simplest systems [fr

  9. Hα3: an Hα imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA. VI. The role of bars in quenching star formation from z = 3 to the present epoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, G.; Consolandi, G.; Dotti, M.; Fanali, R.; Fossati, M.; Fumagalli, M.; Viscardi, E.; Savorgnan, G.; Boselli, A.; Gutiérrez, L.; Hernández Toledo, H.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the star formation rate per unit stellar mass (sSFR) decreases with increasing mass in normal main-sequence star-forming galaxies. Many processes have been advocated as being responsible for this trend (also known as mass quenching), e.g., feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the formation of classical bulges. In order to improve our insight into the mechanisms regulating the star formation in normal star-forming galaxies across cosmic epochs, we determine a refined star formation versus stellar mass relation in the local Universe. To this end we use the Hα narrow-band imaging follow-up survey (Hα3) of field galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) in the Coma and Local superclusters. By complementing this local determination with high-redshift measurements from the literature, we reconstruct the star formation history of main-sequence galaxies as a function of stellar mass from the present epoch up to z = 3. In agreement with previous studies, our analysis shows that quenching mechanisms occur above a threshold stellar mass Mknee that evolves with redshift as ∝ (1 + z)2. Moreover, visual morphological classification of individual objects in our local sample reveals a sharp increase in the fraction of visually classified strong bars with mass, hinting that strong bars may contribute to the observed downturn in the sSFR above Mknee. We test this hypothesis using a simple but physically motivated numerical model for bar formation, finding that strong bars can rapidly quench star formation in the central few kpc of field galaxies. We conclude that strong bars contribute significantly to the red colors observed in the inner parts of massive galaxies, although additional mechanisms are likely required to quench the star formation in the outer regions of massive spiral galaxies. Intriguingly, when we extrapolate our model to higher redshifts, we successfully recover the observed

  10. A Uniformly Selected Sample of Low-mass Black Holes in Seyfert 1 Galaxies. II. The SDSS DR7 Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-Yang; Yuan, Weimin; Dong, Xiao-Bo; Zhou, Hongyan; Liu, Wen-Juan

    2018-04-01

    A new sample of 204 low-mass black holes (LMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is presented with black hole masses in the range of (1–20) × 105 M ⊙. The AGNs are selected through a systematic search among galaxies in the Seventh Data Release (DR7) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and careful analyses of their optical spectra and precise measurement of spectral parameters. Combining them with our previous sample selected from SDSS DR4 makes it the largest LMBH sample so far, totaling over 500 objects. Some of the statistical properties of the combined LMBH AGN sample are briefly discussed in the context of exploring the low-mass end of the AGN population. Their X-ray luminosities follow the extension of the previously known correlation with the [O III] luminosity. The effective optical-to-X-ray spectral indices α OX, albeit with a large scatter, are broadly consistent with the extension of the relation with the near-UV luminosity L 2500 Å. Interestingly, a correlation of α OX with black hole mass is also found, with α OX being statistically flatter (stronger X-ray relative to optical) for lower black hole masses. Only 26 objects, mostly radio loud, were detected in radio at 20 cm in the FIRST survey, giving a radio-loud fraction of 4%. The host galaxies of LMBHs have stellar masses in the range of 108.8–1012.4 M ⊙ and optical colors typical of Sbc spirals. They are dominated by young stellar populations that seem to have undergone continuous star formation history.

  11. Evolution of stars and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baade, W.

    1975-01-01

    Transcriptions of recorded lectures given by the author have been edited into book form. Topics covered include: historical introduction, classification of galaxies; observation of galaxies; photography of galaxies; the andromeda nebula, spiral structure; dust and gas in galaxies; outline of stellar evolution; the distances to the galaxies; galactic clusters; stellar associations; the T Tauri stars; globular clusters: color-magnitude diagrams; spectra of population II stars; variable stars in globular clusters; elliptical galaxies; irregular galaxies and star formation; the magellanic clouds; the andromeda nebula, photometry; evolution of galaxies; the structure of the galaxy; the galactic nucleus; the galactic disk; and kinematics and evolution of the galaxy. 27 tables, 26 figures

  12. On the Nature of the First Galaxies Selected at 350 Micrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sophia A.; Chanial, Pierre F.; Willner, S. P.; Pearson, Chris P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Benford, Dominic J.; Clements, David L.; Dye, Simon; Farrah, Duncan; Fazio, G. G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    We present constraints on the nature of the first galaxies selected at 350 micrometers. The sample includes galaxies discovered in the deepest blank-field survey at 350 micrometers (in the Bo6tes Deep Field) and also later serendipitous detections in the Lockman Hole. In determining multiwavelength identifications, the 350 lam position and map resolution of the second generation Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera are critical, especially in the cases where multiple radio sources exist and the 24 micrometer counterparts are unresolved. Spectral energy distribution templates are fitted to identified counterparts, and the sample is found to comprise IR-luminous galaxies at 1 nature of the dominant source of the 350 micrometers background-star-forming galaxies in the epoch of peak star formation in the universe-could be more effectively probed using ground-based instruments with their angular resolution and sensitivity offering significant advantages over space-based imaging. Key words: galaxies: high-redshift galaxies: starburst infrared: galaxies submillimeter

  13. AGN-host galaxy connection: morphology and colours of X-ray selected AGN at z ≤ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pović, M.; Sánchez-Portal, M.; Pérez García, A. M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Cepa, J.; Huertas-Company, M.; Lara-López, M. A.; Fernández Lorenzo, M.; Ederoclite, A.; Alfaro, E.; Castañeda, H.; Gallego, J.; González-Serrano, J. I.; González, J. J.

    2012-05-01

    early- and late-type AGN cover similar ranges of X-ray obscuration, for both unobscured and obscured sources. Conclusions: Our findings appear to confirm some previous suggestions that X-ray selected AGN residing in the green valley represent a transitional population, quenching star formation by means of different AGN feedback mechanisms and evolving to red-sequence galaxies. They might be hosted by similar sources (the majority of sources being late-type elliptical and lenticular galaxies, and early-type spirals) with similar stellar populations, which are triggered mainly by major and/or minor mergers, and in some cases by means of secular mechanism, as shown in previous numerical simulations. In the aforementioned transition we observe different phases of AGN activity, with some AGN being in the "QSO-mode" detected as compact, blue, and unobscured in X-rays, and with others passing through different phases before and after the "QSO-mode", being obscured and unobscured in X-rays, respectively. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/541/A118

  14. Self-regulated model of galactic spiral structure formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartin, Daniel; Khanna, Gaurav

    2002-01-01

    The presence of spiral structure in isolated galaxies is a problem that has only been partially explained by theoretical models. Because the rate and pattern of star formation in the disk must depend only on mechanisms internal to the disk, we may think of the spiral galaxy as a self-regulated system far from equilibrium. This paper uses this idea to look at a reaction-diffusion model for the formation of spiral structures in certain types of galaxies. In numerical runs of the model, spiral structure forms and persists over several revolutions of the disk, but eventually dies out.

  15. H I-SELECTED GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY. I. OPTICAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Andrew A.; Garcia-Appadoo, Diego A.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Bentz, Misty C.; Disney, Mike J.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Brinkmann, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present the optical data for 195 H I-selected galaxies that fall within both the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Parkes Equatorial Survey (ES). The photometric quantities have been independently recomputed for our sample using a new photometric pipeline optimized for large galaxies, thus correcting for SDSS's limited reliability for automatic photometry of angularly large or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. We outline the magnitude of the uncertainty in the SDSS catalog-level photometry and derive a quantitative method for correcting the over-sky subtraction in the SDSS photometric pipeline. The main thrust of this paper is to present the ES/SDSS sample and discuss the methods behind the improved photometry, which will be used in future scientific analysis. We present the overall optical properties of the sample and briefly compare to a volume-limited, optically selected sample. Compared to the optically selected SDSS sample (in the similar volume), H I-selected galaxies are bluer and more luminous (fewer dwarf ellipticals and more star formation). However, compared to typical SDSS galaxy studies, which have their own selection effect, our sample is bluer, fainter, and less massive.

  16. Secular Evolution of Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    recombination (z=1000). Furthermore, the BigBang nucleosynthesis model also requires a signi cantamount of non- baryonic dark matter (Primack 1999) ifthe universe...momentum (as well as energy) outward. Associ-ated with this outward angular momentum transport isan expected secular redistribution of disk matter , co...mode, a secular transfer of energy andangular momentum between the disk matter and thedensity wave. The existence of the phase shift betweenthe

  17. Theory of spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The density wave theory of galactic spirals has now developed into a form suitable for consideration by experts in Applied Mechanics. On the one hand, comparison of theoretical deductions with observational data has convinced astrophysicists of the validity of the basic physical picture and the calculated results. On the other hand, the dynamical problems of a stellar system, such as those concerning the origin of spiral structure in galaxies, have not been completely solved. This paper reviews the current status of such developments, including a brief summary of comparison with observations. A particularly important mechanism, currently called the mechanism of energy exchange, is described in some detail. The mathematical problems and the physical processes involved are similar to those occurring in certain instability mechanisms in the 'magnetic bottle' designed for plasma containment. Speculations are given on the future developments of the theory and on observational programs. (Auth.)

  18. SHARC-2 350 Micron Observations of Distant Submillimeter Selected Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacs, A.; Chapman, S. C.; Dowell, C. D.; Blain, A. W.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Phillips, T. G.

    2006-01-01

    We present 350 micron observations of 15 Chapman et al. submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with radio counterparts and optical redshifts. We detect 12 and obtain sensitive upper limits for three, providing direct, precise measurements of their far-infrared luminosities and characteristic dust temperatures. With these, we verify the linear radio--far-infrared correlation at redshifts of z ~ 1--3 and luminosities of 10^11--10^13 L_sun, with a power-law index of 1.02+-0.12 and rms scatter of 0.12 dex...

  19. Three phase spiral liver Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyanja, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to perform rapid back-to-back spiral acquisitions is an important recent technical advantage of spiral CT. this allows imaging of the upper abdomen (liver) during peak arterial enhancement (arterial phase) and during peak hepatic parenchymal enhancement (portal venous phase). Breatheld spiral CT has completely replaced dynamic incremental CT for evaluation of the liver. in selected patients with hyper vascular metastasis (hepatoma, neuroendocrine tumors, renal cell carcinoma, etc.) a biphasic examination is performed with one spiral acquisition obtained during the hepatic arterial phase and a second acquisition during the portal venous phase

  20. A catalog of galaxy morphology and photometric redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nicholas; Shamir, Lior

    2018-01-01

    Morphology carries important information about the physical characteristics of a galaxy. Here we used machine learning to produce a catalog of ~3,000,000 SDSS galaxies classified by their broad morphology into spiral and elliptical galaxies. Comparison of the catalog to Galaxy Zooshows that the catalog contains a subset of 1.7*10^6 galaxies classified with the same level of consistency as the debiased “superclean” sub-sample. In addition to the morphology, we also computed the photometric redshifts of the galaxies. Several pattern recognition algorithms and variable selection strategies were tested, and the best accuracy of mean absolute error of ~0.0062 was achieved by using random forest with a combination of manually and automatically selected variables. The catalog shows that for redshift lower than 0.085 galaxies that visually look spiral become more prevalent as the redshift gets higher. For redshift greater than 0.085 galaxies thatvisually look elliptical become more prevalent. The catalog as well as the source code used to produce it is publicly available athttps://figshare.com/articles/Morphology_and_photometric_redshift_catalog/4833593 .

  1. Automatic Detection of Galaxy Type From Datasets of Galaxies Image Based on Image Retrieval Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Aziz, Mohamed; Selim, I M; Xiong, Shengwu

    2017-06-30

    This paper presents a new approach for the automatic detection of galaxy morphology from datasets based on an image-retrieval approach. Currently, there are several classification methods proposed to detect galaxy types within an image. However, in some situations, the aim is not only to determine the type of galaxy within the queried image, but also to determine the most similar images for query image. Therefore, this paper proposes an image-retrieval method to detect the type of galaxies within an image and return with the most similar image. The proposed method consists of two stages, in the first stage, a set of features is extracted based on shape, color and texture descriptors, then a binary sine cosine algorithm selects the most relevant features. In the second stage, the similarity between the features of the queried galaxy image and the features of other galaxy images is computed. Our experiments were performed using the EFIGI catalogue, which contains about 5000 galaxies images with different types (edge-on spiral, spiral, elliptical and irregular). We demonstrate that our proposed approach has better performance compared with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) methods.

  2. SDSS-IV MaNGA: faint quenched galaxies - I. Sample selection and evidence for environmental quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Samantha J.; Masters, Karen L.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Law, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Thomas, Daniel; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brownstein, Joel R.; Freischlad, Gordon; Gaulme, Patrick; Grabowski, Katie; Kinemuchi, Karen; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Wake, David A.

    2016-11-01

    Using kinematic maps from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, we reveal that the majority of low-mass quenched galaxies exhibit coherent rotation in their stellar kinematics. Our sample includes all 39 quenched low-mass galaxies observed in the first year of MaNGA. The galaxies are selected with Mr > -19.1, stellar masses 109 M⊙ 1.9. They lie on the size-magnitude and σ-luminosity relations for previously studied dwarf galaxies. Just six (15 ± 5.7 per cent) are found to have rotation speeds ve, rot 5 × 1010 M⊙), supporting the hypothesis that galaxy-galaxy or galaxy-group interactions quench star formation in low-mass galaxies. The local bright galaxy density for our sample is ρproj = 8.2 ± 2.0 Mpc-2, compared to ρproj = 2.1 ± 0.4 Mpc-2 for a star-forming comparison sample, confirming that the quenched low-mass galaxies are preferentially found in higher density environments.

  3. ON THE NATURE OF THE FIRST GALAXIES SELECTED AT 350 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sophia A.; Chanial, Pierre F.; Clements, David L.; Sumner, Timothy J.; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Pearson, Chris P.; Benford, Dominic J.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shafer, Richard A.; Staguhn, Johannes; Dye, Simon; Farrah, Duncan; Lebouteiller, V.; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Mainetti, Gabriele; Negrello, Mattia; Serjeant, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We present constraints on the nature of the first galaxies selected at 350 μm. The sample includes galaxies discovered in the deepest blank-field survey at 350 μm (in the Booetes Deep Field) and also later serendipitous detections in the Lockman Hole. In determining multiwavelength identifications, the 350 μm position and map resolution of the second generation Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera are critical, especially in the cases where multiple radio sources exist and the 24 μm counterparts are unresolved. Spectral energy distribution templates are fitted to identified counterparts, and the sample is found to comprise IR-luminous galaxies at 1 350 < 40 mJy) place these objects near the Herschel/SPIRE 350 μm confusion threshold, with the lower limit on the star formation rate density suggesting the bulk of the 350 μm contribution will come from less luminous infrared sources and normal galaxies. Therefore, the nature of the dominant source of the 350 μm background-star-forming galaxies in the epoch of peak star formation in the universe-could be more effectively probed using ground-based instruments with their angular resolution and sensitivity offering significant advantages over space-based imaging.

  4. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. I. Sample Selection and Redshift Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, D. A.; Kruhler, T.; Schulze, S.; Postigo, A. De Ugarte; Hjorth, J.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Chary, R.; Cucchiara, A.; Ellis, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (SHOALS), a multi-observatory high redshift galaxy survey targeting the largest unbiased sample of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts yet assembled (119 in total). We describe the motivations of the survey and the development of our selection criteria, including an assessment of the impact of various observability metrics on the success rate of afterglow-based redshift measurement. We briefly outline our host galaxy observational program, consisting of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging of every field supplemented by similarly deep, multicolor optical/near-IR photometry, plus spectroscopy of events without preexisting redshifts. Our optimized selection cuts combined with host galaxy follow-up have so far enabled redshift measurements for 110 targets (92%) and placed upper limits on all but one of the remainder. About 20% of GRBs in the sample are heavily dust obscured, and at most 2% originate from z > 5.5. Using this sample, we estimate the redshift-dependent GRB rate density, showing it to peak at z approx. 2.5 and fall by at least an order of magnitude toward low (z = 0) redshift, while declining more gradually toward high (z approx. 7) redshift. This behavior is consistent with a progenitor whose formation efficiency varies modestly over cosmic history. Our survey will permit the most detailed examination to date of the connection between the GRB host population and general star-forming galaxies, directly measure evolution in the host population over cosmic time and discern its causes, and provide new constraints on the fraction of cosmic star formation occurring in undetectable galaxies at all redshifts.

  5. THE MASS-DISTRIBUTION OF THE DWARF SPIRAL NGC-1560

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROEILS, AH

    H I synthesis observations with the WSRT and optical surface photometry of the dwarf spiral galaxy NGC 1560 are presented. This galaxy has an absolute luminosity of M(B) = -15.87. The observations show that the galaxy is gas rich, with an M(HI)/L(B) of 2.4. We obtained a very detailed rotation curve

  6. Infrared and radio emission from S0 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bally, J.; Thronson, H.A. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Far-IR data are presented on 74 early-type S0 galaxies that were selected on the basis of the availability of radio-continuum measurements. Most of the galaxies are detected at IR wavelengths with IRAS, indicating the presence of a cold interstellar medium (ISM) in these galaxies. The mass of gas in these systems is estimated to lie in the range of 10 to the 7th to 10 to the 10th solar. The most massive ISM in some S0s approaches that found in some spirals. The brighter IR-emitting galaxies all lie close to a relationship established for gas-rich spiral galaxies. None of these galaxies have large ratio fluxes, suggesting that strong nuclear radio sources or extended radio lobes and jets are absent or suppressed. Strong radio emission is found among those galaxies that are either faint or not detected at IR wavelengths. The absence of an ISM suggests that these galaxies are of an earlier type that those that have large IR fluxes. 38 references

  7. The first detection of neutral hydrogen in emission in a strong spiral lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnicky, Andrew; Chakrabarti, Sukanya; Wright, Melvyn C. H.; Blitz, Leo; Heiles, Carl; Cotton, William; Frayer, David; Blandford, Roger; Shu, Yiping; Bolton, Adam S.

    2018-05-01

    We report H I observations of eight spiral galaxies that are strongly lensing background sources. Our targets were selected from the Sloan WFC (Wide Field Camera) Edge-on Late-type Lens Survey (SWELLS) using the Arecibo, Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, and Green Bank telescopes. We securely detect J1703+2451 at z = 0.063 with a signal-to-noise ratio of 6.7 and W50 = 79 ± 13 km s-1, obtaining the first detection of H I emission in a strong spiral lens. We measure a mass of M_{H I} = (1.77± 0.06^{+0.35}_{-0.75})× 10^9 M_{⊙} for this source. We find that this lens is a normal spiral, with observable properties that are fairly typical of spiral galaxies. For three other sources, we did not secure a detection; however, we are able to place strong constraints on the H I masses of those galaxies. The observations for four of our sources were rendered unusable due to strong radio frequency interference.

  8. The First Detection of Neutral Hydrogen in Emission in a Strong Spiral Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnicky, Andrew; Chakrabarti, Sukanya; Wright, Melvyn C. H.; Blitz, Leo; Heiles, Carl; Cotton, William; Frayer, David; Blandford, Roger; Shu, Yiping; Bolton, Adam S.

    2018-02-01

    We report H I observations of eight spiral galaxies that are strongly lensing background sources. Our targets were selected from the Sloan WFC (Wide Field Camera) Edge-on Late-type Lens Survey (SWELLS) using the Arecibo, Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, and Green Bank telescopes. We securely detect J1703+2451 at z = 0.063 with a signal-to-noise of 6.7 and W50 = 79 ± 13 km s-1, obtaining the first detection of H I emission in a strong spiral lens. We measure a mass of M_{H I}= (1.77± 0.06^{+0.35}_{-0.75})× 10^9 {M}_{\\odot} for this source. We find that this lens is a normal spiral, with observable properties that are fairly typical of spiral galaxies. For three other sources we did not secure a detection; however, we are able to place strong constraints on the H I masses of those galaxies. The observations for four of our sources were rendered unusable due to strong radio frequency interference.

  9. X-RAY SELECTED AGN HOST GALAXIES ARE SIMILAR TO INACTIVE GALAXIES OUT TO z = 3: RESULTS FROM CANDELS/CDF-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario, D. J.; Wuyts, S.; Nandra, K.; Mozena, M.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Koekemoer, A.; Ferguson, H.; Grogin, N.; McGrath, E.; Hathi, N. P.; Dekel, A.; Donley, J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Giavalisco, M.; Guo, Y.; Kocevski, D. D.; Laird, E.; Rangel, C.; Newman, J.

    2013-01-01

    We use multi-band spatially resolved photometry from the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Legacy Survey in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South to explore the nuclear and extended colors, color gradients, and stellar populations of the host galaxies of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) out to z = 3. Based on a study of their central light, we develop X-ray based criteria to exclude objects with strong AGN contamination. We use stellar masses from the FIREWORKS database to understand and account for stellar mass selection effects and carefully study, for the first time, the resolved host galaxy properties of AGNs at z ∼ 2 in their rest-frame optical light without substantial nuclear contamination. AGN hosts span a sizable range of stellar masses, colors, and color gradients at these redshifts. Their colors, color gradients, and stellar population properties are very similar to inactive galaxies of the same stellar mass. At z ∼ 1, we find a slightly narrower range in host colors compared to inactive galaxies, as well as hints of more recent star formation. These differences are weaker or non-existent among AGN hosts at z ∼ 2. We discuss the importance of AGN-driven feedback in the quenching of galaxies at z ∼> 1 and speculate on possible evolution in the relationship between black hole accretion and the host galaxy toward high redshifts.

  10. X-RAY SELECTED AGN HOST GALAXIES ARE SIMILAR TO INACTIVE GALAXIES OUT TO z = 3: RESULTS FROM CANDELS/CDF-S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, D. J.; Wuyts, S.; Nandra, K. [Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, D-85748 (Germany); Mozena, M.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C. [Astronomy Department and UCO-Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Koekemoer, A.; Ferguson, H.; Grogin, N. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); McGrath, E. [Department of Physics, Colby College, Waterville, ME 04901 (United States); Hathi, N. P. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Dekel, A. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Donley, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Dunlop, J. S. [Institute for Astronomy, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Giavalisco, M.; Guo, Y. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Kocevski, D. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington KY 40506-0055 (United States); Laird, E.; Rangel, C. [Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Newman, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); and others

    2013-01-20

    We use multi-band spatially resolved photometry from the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Legacy Survey in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South to explore the nuclear and extended colors, color gradients, and stellar populations of the host galaxies of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) out to z = 3. Based on a study of their central light, we develop X-ray based criteria to exclude objects with strong AGN contamination. We use stellar masses from the FIREWORKS database to understand and account for stellar mass selection effects and carefully study, for the first time, the resolved host galaxy properties of AGNs at z {approx} 2 in their rest-frame optical light without substantial nuclear contamination. AGN hosts span a sizable range of stellar masses, colors, and color gradients at these redshifts. Their colors, color gradients, and stellar population properties are very similar to inactive galaxies of the same stellar mass. At z {approx} 1, we find a slightly narrower range in host colors compared to inactive galaxies, as well as hints of more recent star formation. These differences are weaker or non-existent among AGN hosts at z {approx} 2. We discuss the importance of AGN-driven feedback in the quenching of galaxies at z {approx}> 1 and speculate on possible evolution in the relationship between black hole accretion and the host galaxy toward high redshifts.

  11. No the Holmberg Effect for Galaxy Pairs Selected from the SDSS DR9 at z ≤ 0.06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrycheva, D. V.; Vavilova, I. B.

    We studied the Holmberg effect in galaxy pairs selected from the SDSS DR9, where 60561 galaxies were limited by redshift 0.02 21.5m for neighbor galaxies (N=41983). We have made a morphological classification for each galaxy using both the visual inspection and machine learning methods. We considered four morphological types of galaxy pairs (E, early, and L, late, types) for testing the Holmberg effect: E- E, E-L, L-E, L-L (first companion of pairs is a central galaxy and second one is a faint satellite galaxy). We concluded about the absence of the Holmberg effect: Rg-i = 0.3 for L-E pairs at 0.04 color indices in pairs for the samples of galaxies composed with the half of large sky surveys likely SDSS was not confirmed or confirmed partially. The Holmberg effect is rather connected with morphological types of galaxies than with their color indices. Taking into account a scenario of the secular evolution, the presence of at least one elliptical galaxy in pair may be indicator of previous mergers in the earlier epoch. So, figuring manifestations of the Holmberg effect in its original interpretation no longer seems such urgent.

  12. Mass and metallicity scaling relations of high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected by GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabsalmani, M.; Møller, P.; Perley, D. A.; Freudling, W.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Le Floc'h, E.; Zwaan, M. A.; Schulze, S.; Tanvir, N. R.; Christensen, L.; Levan, A. J.; Jakobsson, P.; Malesani, D.; Cano, Z.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Goldoni, P.; Gomboc, A.; Heintz, K. E.; Sparre, M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vergani, S. D.

    2018-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the relations between gas kinematics, metallicity and stellar mass in a sample of 82 gamma-ray burst (GRB)-selected galaxies using absorption and emission methods. We find the velocity widths of both emission and absorption profiles to be a proxy of stellar mass. We also investigate the velocity-metallicity correlation and its evolution with redshift. Using 33 GRB hosts with measured stellar mass and metallicity, we study the mass-metallicity relation for GRB host galaxies in a stellar mass range of 108.2-1011.1 M⊙ and a redshift range of z ∼ 0.3-3.4. The GRB-selected galaxies appear to track the mass-metallicity relation of star-forming galaxies but with an offset of 0.15 towards lower metallicities. This offset is comparable with the average error bar on the metallicity measurements of the GRB sample and also the scatter on the mass-metallicity relation of the general population. It is hard to decide whether this relatively small offset is due to systematic effects or the intrinsic nature of GRB hosts. We also investigate the possibility of using absorption-line metallicity measurements of GRB hosts to study the mass-metallicity relation at high redshifts. Our analysis shows that the metallicity measurements from absorption methods can significantly differ from emission metallicities and assuming identical measurements from the two methods may result in erroneous conclusions.

  13. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.

    2015-01-01

    We present CO(1-0) maps of 12 warm H-2-selected Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), covering 14 individually imaged warm H2 bright galaxies, with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy. We found a variety of molecular gas distributions within the HCGs, including regularly rotating disks......, bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression......-to-dust ratios of these galaxies to determine if an incorrect LCO-M(H2) conversion caused the apparent suppression and find that HCGs have normal gas-to-dust ratios. It is likely that the cause of the apparent suppression in these objects is associated with shocks injecting turbulence into the molecular gas...

  14. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A large spectroscopically selected sample of massive early-type lens galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, AS; Burles, S; Koopmans, LVE; Treu, T; Moustakas, LA

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple

  15. A comparison of the radial distribution of molecular gas and non-thermal radio continuum in spiral disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Nicholas A.; Young, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    The present study includes 65 spiral galaxies selected from the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) Extragalactic CO Survey for which the major axis distributions of CO emission and 1.49 GHz radio continuum emission are well determined. The radial distribution of the CO emission has been measured with the FCRAO at positions along the major axis that are spaced by one half power beam width (HPBW) (45 seconds). The radial profile of the 1.49 GHz radio continuum emission was constructed by determining the radio emission at the location of the CO measurements from the 1.49 GHz maps of Condon (1987). Large, greater than a factor of ten, radially decreasing gradients in the star formation efficiency are observed for a small percentage, approx. 10 percent, of the spirals in this sample. The majority of spirals, however, are associated with small gradients in the star formation efficiency that do not systematically increase or decrease with radius. That the star formation efficiency does not systematically decrease with radius tends to argue against a global dynamical mechanism, such as a spiral density wave, for being the dominant mechanism triggering disk star formation for the majority of spirals in this sample. The results tend to support the view that the star formation in spiral disks is dominated by a local process that depends more on the molecular cloud properties than the dynamical structure of a galaxy.

  16. Gaia17biu/SN 2017egm in NGC 3191: The Closest Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernova to Date Is in a “Normal,” Massive, Metal-rich Spiral Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Subhash; Dong, Subo; Pastorello, A.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kochanek, C. S.; Mauerhan, Jon; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Brink, Thomas G.; Chen, Ping; Prieto, J. L.; Post, R.; Ashall, Christopher; Grupe, Dirk; Tomasella, L.; Benetti, Stefano; Shappee, B. J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Cai, Zheng; Falco, E.; Lundqvist, Peter; Mattila, Seppo; Mutel, Robert; Ochner, Paolo; Pooley, David; Stritzinger, M. D.; Villanueva, S., Jr.; Zheng, WeiKang; Beswick, R. J.; Brown, Peter J.; Cappellaro, E.; Davis, Scott; Fraser, Morgan; de Jaeger, Thomas; Elias-Rosa, N.; Gall, C.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Hestenes, Julia; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Hsiao, E. Y.; Hu, Shaoming; Jaejin, Shin; Jeffers, Ben; Koff, R. A.; Kumar, Sahana; Kurtenkov, Alexander; Lau, Marie Wingyee; Prentice, Simon; Reynolds, T.; Rudy, Richard J.; Shahbandeh, Melissa; Somero, Auni; Stassun, Keivan G.; Thompson, Todd A.; Valenti, Stefano; Woo, Jong-Hak; Yunus, Sameen

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) have been predominantly found in low-metallicity, star-forming dwarf galaxies. Here we identify Gaia17biu/SN 2017egm as an SLSN-I occurring in a “normal” spiral galaxy (NGC 3191) in terms of stellar mass (several times 1010 M⊙) and metallicity (roughly solar). At redshift z = 0.031, Gaia17biu is also the lowest-redshift SLSN-I to date, and the absence of a larger population of SLSNe-I in dwarf galaxies of similar redshift suggests that metallicity is likely less important to the production of SLSNe-I than previously believed. With the smallest distance and highest apparent brightness for an SLSN-I, we are able to study Gaia17biu in unprecedented detail. Its pre-peak near-ultraviolet to optical color is similar to that of Gaia16apd and among the bluest observed for an SLSN-I, while its peak luminosity (Mg = ‑21 mag) is substantially lower than that of Gaia16apd. Thanks to the high signal-to-noise ratios of our spectra, we identify several new spectroscopic features that may help to probe the properties of these enigmatic explosions. We detect polarization at the ∼0.5% level that is not strongly dependent on wavelength, suggesting a modest, global departure from spherical symmetry. In addition, we put the tightest upper limit yet on the radio luminosity of an SLSN-I with rules out an association of this SLSN-I with known populations of gamma-ray-burst-like central engines.

  17. Creating lenticular galaxies with mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querejeta, Miguel; Eliche-Moral, M. Carmen; Tapia, Trinidad; Borlaff, Alejandro; van de Ven, Glenn; Lyubenova, Mariya; Martig, Marie; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Méndez-Abreu, Jairo; Zamorano, Jaime; Gallego, Jesús

    2017-03-01

    Lenticular galaxies (S0s) represent the majority of early-type galaxies in the local Universe, but their formation channels are still poorly understood. While galaxy mergers are obvious pathways to suppress star formation and increase bulge sizes, the marked parallelism between spiral and lenticular galaxies (e.g. photometric bulge-disc coupling) seemed to rule out a potential merger origin. Here, we summarise our recent work in which we have shown, through N-body numerical simulations, that disc-dominated lenticulars can emerge from major mergers of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with observational photometric scaling relations. Moreover, we show that mergers simultaneously increase the light concentration and reduce the angular momentum relative to their spiral progenitors. This explains the mismatch in angular momentum and concentration between spirals and lenticulars recently revealed by CALIFA observations, which is hard to reconcile with simple fading mechanisms (e.g. ram-pressure stripping).

  18. The formation of spiral galaxies: adiabatic compression with Young's algorithm and the relation of dark matter haloes to their primordial antecedents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katz, Harley; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Sellwood, J. A.; de Blok, W. J. G.

    We utilize Young's algorithm to model the adiabatic compression of the dark matter haloes of galaxies in the THINGS survey to determine the relationship between the halo fit to the rotation curve and the corresponding primordial halo prior to compression. Young's algorithm conserves radial action

  19. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A Large Spectroscopically Selected Sample of Massive Early-Type Lens Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple nebular emission lines at a redshift significantly higher than that of the SDSS target galaxy. The SLACS survey is optimized to detect bright early-type lens galaxies with faint lensed sources in order to increase the sample of known gravitational lenses suitable for detailed lensing, photometric, and dynamical modeling. In this paper, the first in a series on the current results of our HST Cycle 13 imaging survey, we present a catalog of 19 newly discovered gravitational lenses, along with nine other observed candidate systems that are either possible lenses, nonlenses, or nondetections. The survey efficiency is thus >=68%. We also present Gemini 8 m and Magellan 6.5 m integral-field spectroscopic data for nine of the SLACS targets, which further support the lensing interpretation. A new method for the effective subtraction of foreground galaxy images to reveal faint background features is presented. We show that the SLACS lens galaxies have colors and ellipticities typical of the spectroscopic parent sample from which they are drawn (SDSS luminous red galaxies and quiescent MAIN sample galaxies), but are somewhat brighter and more centrally concentrated. Several explanations for the latter bias are suggested. The SLACS survey provides the first statistically significant and homogeneously selected sample of bright early-type lens galaxies, furnishing a powerful probe of the structure of early-type galaxies within the half-light radius. The high confirmation rate of lenses in the SLACS survey suggests consideration of spectroscopic lens discovery as an explicit science goal of future spectroscopic galaxy surveys.

  20. Total molecular gas masses of Planck - Herschel selected strongly lensed hyper luminous infrared galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, K. C.; Yun, M. S.; Magnelli, B.; Frayer, D. T.; Karim, A.; Weiß, A.; Riechers, D.; Jiménez-Andrade, E. F.; Berman, D.; Lowenthal, J.; Bertoldi, F.

    2018-03-01

    We report the detection of CO(1-0) line emission from seven Planck and Herschel selected hyper luminous ({L_{IR (8-1000{μ m})} > 10^{13} L_{⊙}) infrared galaxies with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). CO(1-0) measurements are a vital tool to trace the bulk molecular gas mass across all redshifts. Our results place tight constraints on the total gas content of these most apparently luminous high-z star-forming galaxies (apparent IR luminosities of LIR > 1013 - 14 L⊙), while we confirm their predetermined redshifts measured using the Large Millimeter Telescope, LMT (zCO = 1.33-3.26). The CO(1-0) lines show similar profiles as compared to Jup = 2-4 transitions previously observed with the LMT. We report enhanced infrared to CO line luminosity ratios of = 110 ± 22 L_{⊙} (K km s^{-1} pc^{-2})^{-1} compared to normal star-forming galaxies, yet similar to those of well-studied IR-luminous galaxies at high-z. We find average brightness temperature ratios of 〈 r21〉 = 0.93 (2 sources), 〈 r31〉 = 0.34 (5 sources), and 〈 r41〉 = 0.18 (1 source). The r31 and r41 values are roughly half the average values for SMGs. We estimate the total gas mass content as {μ M_{H2} = (0.9-27.2) × 10^{11} (α _CO/0.8) M_{⊙}, where μ is the magnification factor and αCO is the CO line luminosity to molecular hydrogen gas mass conversion factor. The rapid gas depletion times, = 80} Myr, reveal vigorous starburst activity, and contrast the Gyr depletion time-scales observed in local, normal star-forming galaxies.

  1. Clustering properties of g -selected galaxies at z ~ 0.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favole, Ginevra; Comparat, Johan; Prada, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In current and future large redshift surveys, as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS-IV/eBOSS) or the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), we will use emission-line galaxies (ELGs) to probe cosmological models by mapping the large-scale structure of the Universe in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.7. We explore the halo-galaxy connection, with current data and by measuring three clustering properties of g-selected ELGs as matter tracers in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1: (i) the redshift-space two-point correlation function using spectroscopic redshifts from the BOSS ELG sample and VIPERS; (ii) the angular two-point correlation function on the footprint of the CFHT-LS; (iii) the galaxy-galaxy lensing signal around the ELGs using the CFHTLenS. Furthermore, we interpret these observations by mapping them on to the latest high-resolution MultiDark Planck N-body simulation, using a novel (Sub)Halo-Abundance Matching technique that accounts for the ELG incompleteness. ELGs at z ~ 0.8 live in haloes of (1 ± 0.5) × 10 12 h -1 M⊙ and 22.5 ± 2.5 per cent of them are satellites belonging to a larger halo. The halo occupation distribution of ELGs indicates that we are sampling the galaxies in which stars form in the most efficient way, according to their stellar-to-halo mass ratio.

  2. The luminosity function of field galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Mahtessian, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    Schmidt's method for construction of luminosity function of galaxies is generalized by taking into account the dependence of density of galaxies from the distance in the near Universe. The logarithmical luminosity function (LLF) of field galaxies depending on morphological type is constructed. We show that the LLF for all galaxies, and also separately for elliptical and lenticular galaxies can be presented by Schechter function in narrow area of absolute magnitudes. The LLF of spiral galaxies...

  3. Relative frequencies of supernovae versus properties of spiral hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Hakobyan, A. A.; Nazaryan, T. A.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Petrosian, A. R.; Aramyan, L. S.; Kunth, D.; Mamon, G. A.; de Lapparent, V.; Bertin, E.; Gomes, J. M.; Turatto, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present an analysis of SNe number ratios in spiral galaxies with different morphological subtypes, luminosities, sSFR, and metallicities, to provide important information about the physical properties of the progenitor populations.

  4. Near-infrared and optical broadband surface photometry of 86 face-on disk dominated galaxies .4. Using color profiles to study stellar and dust content of galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deJong, RS

    The stellar and dust content of spiral galaxies as function of radius has been investigated using near-infrared and optical broadband surface photometry of 86 face-on spiral galaxies. Colors of galaxies correlate with the azimuthally averaged local surface brightness both within and among galaxies,

  5. Far-ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry of X-ray selected Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.T.; Bowyer, S.; Grewing, M.; California Univ., Berkeley; Tuebingen Universitaet, West Germany)

    1986-01-01

    Five X-ray selected Seyfert galaxies were examined via near-simultaneous far-ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry in an effort to test models for excitation of emission lines by X-ray and ultraviolet continuum photoionization. The observed Ly-alpha/H-beta ratio in the present sample averages 22, with an increase found toward the high-velocity wings of the H lines in the spectrum of at least one of the Seyfert I nuclei. It is suggested that Seyfert galaxies with the most high-velocity gas exhibit the highest Ly-alpha/H-beta ratios at all velocities in the line profiles, and that sometimes this ratio may be highest for the highest velocity material in the broad-line clouds. Since broad-lined objects are least affected by Ly-alpha trapping effects, they have Ly-alpha/H-beta ratios much closer to those predicted by early photoionization calculations. 21 references

  6. OBSERVATIONS OF Mg II ABSORPTION NEAR z ∼ 1 GALAXIES SELECTED FROM THE DEEP2 REDSHIFT SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovegrove, Elizabeth; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    We study the frequency of Mg II absorption in the outer halos of galaxies at z = 0.6-1.4 (with median z = 0.87), using new spectra obtained of 10 background quasars with galaxy impact parameters of b r = 0.15-1.0 A, though not all absorbers correlate with DEEP galaxies. We find five unique absorbers within Δv = 500 km s -1 and b r > 1.0 A, consistent with other samples of galaxy-selected Mg II systems. We speculate that Mg II systems with 0.3 r r are more likely to reflect the more recent star-forming history of their associated galaxies.

  7. The spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bibace, Roger; Kharlamov, Nikita

    2013-01-01

    ’s work with Bernard Kaplan on symbol formation is a primer on this idea. This paper examines the idea of spirality and develops the notion of dynamic coexistence that can clarify the issue of directionality of development; that is, what is the general trajectory or ground plan that development assumes....... Directionality is discussed in terms of the organism-in-environment unfolding over time as the unit of developmental analysis. Thinking on this issue has proceeded from the nature–nurture debates, to recognition of the interaction of external and internal processes, to transactions between the organism...

  8. The distribution of early- and late-type galaxies in the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Okamura, S.; Turner, E. L.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distribution and the morohology-density relation of Coma cluster galaxies are studied using a new homogeneous photmetric sample of 450 galaxies down to B = 16.0 mag with quantitative morphology classification. The sample covers a wide area (10 deg X 10 deg), extending well beyond the Coma cluster. Morphological classifications into early- (E+SO) and late-(S) type galaxies are made by an automated algorithm using simple photometric parameters, with which the misclassification rate is expected to be approximately 10% with respect to early and late types given in the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies. The flattened distribution of Coma cluster galaxies, as noted in previous studies, is most conspicuously seen if the early-type galaxies are selected. Early-type galaxies are distributed in a thick filament extended from the NE to the WSW direction that delineates a part of large-scale structure. Spiral galaxies show a distribution with a modest density gradient toward the cluster center; at least bright spiral galaxies are present close to the center of the Coma cluster. We also examine the morphology-density relation for the Coma cluster including its surrounding regions.

  9. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies: Evolution in Isolation M. Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    galaxies: ISM—galaxies: spiral—cosmology: dark matter. 1. Introduction. Giant Low Surface Brightness (GLSB) galaxies are some of the largest spiral galax- ies in our nearby universe. However, for decades these galaxies remained undetected in galaxy surveys. This is because their optically dim stellar disks have a bright-.

  10. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): blue spheroids within 87 Mpc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Smriti; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Driver, S.; Hopkins, A. M.; Graham, Alister W.; Brough, S.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Holwerda, B. W.; Owers, Matt S.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we test if nearby blue spheroid (BSph) galaxies may become the progenitors of star-forming spiral galaxies or passively evolving elliptical galaxies. Our sample comprises 428 galaxies of various morphologies in the redshift range 0.002 well as spirals in the multidimensional space mapped by luminosity-weighted age, metallicity, dust mass, and specific star formation rate. We use H I data to reveal that some of the BSphs are (further) developing their discs, hence their blue colours. They may eventually become spiral galaxies - if sufficient gas accretion occurs - or more likely fade into low-mass red galaxies.

  11. Dual Active Galactic Nuclei in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mousumi; Rubinur, Khatun; Karb, Preeti; Varghese, Ashlin; Novakkuni, Navyasree; James, Atul

    2018-04-01

    Galaxy mergers play a crucial role in the formation of massive galaxies and the buildup of their bulges. An important aspect of the merging process is the in-spiral of the supermassive black-holes (SMBHs) to the centre of the merger remnant and the eventual formation of a SMBH binary. If both the SMBHs are accreting they will form a dual or binary active galactic nucleus (DAGN). The final merger remnant is usually very bright and shows enhanced star formation. In this paper we summarise the current sample of DAGN from previous studies and describe methods that can be used to identify strong DAGN candidates from optical and spectroscopic surveys. These methods depend on the Doppler separation of the double peaked AGN emission lines, the nuclear velocity dispersion of the galaxies and their optical/UV colours. We describe two high resolution, radio observations of DAGN candidates that have been selected based on their double peaked optical emission lines (DPAGN). We also examine whether DAGN host galaxies have higher star formation rates (SFRs) compared to merging galaxies that do not appear to have DAGN. We find that the SFR is not higher for DAGN host galaxies. This suggests that the SFRs in DAGN host galaxies is due to the merging process itself and not related to the presence of two AGN in the system.

  12. The host galaxies of ultra hard X-ray selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael J.

    One of the great mysteries surrounding active galactic nuclei (AGN) is their triggering mechanism. Since the discovery that almost all massive galaxies host nuclear supermassive black holes, it has become clear that a trigger mechanism is required to 'turn on' and continue to fuel the central black hole. While it is established that accretion processes are responsible for the energy emitted, the source of the accreting material is still controversial. Furthermore, the energy input from phases of black hole growth is thought to be a key regulator in the formation of galaxies and the establishment of various scaling relations. Theorists often invoke galaxy mergers as the violent mechanism to drive gas into the central regions and ignite luminous quasars, but among more common moderate luminosity AGN, there has been great controversy whether secular processes or mergers dominate AGN fueling. A survey in the ultra hard X-ray band (14--195 keV) is an important new way to answer the fundamental question of AGN fueling. This method is independent of selection effects such as dust extinction and obscuration that plague surveys at other wavelengths because of the ability of the primary continuum to easily pass through large columns of obscuring gas and dust (2 keV) imaging.

  13. THE SDSS-IV EXTENDED BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: LUMINOUS RED GALAXY TARGET SELECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Abhishek; Licquia, Timothy C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Rao, Sandhya M. [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Ross, Ashley J. [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Dawson, Kyle S.; Bautista, Julian E.; Brownstein, Joel R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Observatoire de Sauverny, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Percival, Will J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Comparat, Johan [Instituto de Física Teórica, (UAM/CSIC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Tinker, Jeremy L. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tojeiro, Rita [School of Physics and Astronomy, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Ho, Shirley; Lang, Dustin [Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); McBride, Cameron K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zhu, Guangtun Ben, E-mail: abp15@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2016-06-01

    We describe the algorithm used to select the luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample for the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) using photometric data from both the SDSS and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer . LRG targets are required to meet a set of color selection criteria and have z -band and i -band MODEL magnitudes z < 19.95 and 19.9 < i < 21.8, respectively. Our algorithm selects roughly 50 LRG targets per square degree, the great majority of which lie in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.0 (median redshift 0.71). We demonstrate that our methods are highly effective at eliminating stellar contamination and lower-redshift galaxies. We perform a number of tests using spectroscopic data from SDSS-III/BOSS ancillary programs to determine the redshift reliability of our target selection and its ability to meet the science requirements of eBOSS. The SDSS spectra are of high enough signal-to-noise ratio that at least ∼89% of the target sample yields secure redshift measurements. We also present tests of the uniformity and homogeneity of the sample, demonstrating that it should be clean enough for studies of the large-scale structure of the universe at higher redshifts than SDSS-III/BOSS LRGs reached.

  14. ROSAT PSPC spectra of X-ray selected narrow emission line galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenero, E. Romero; Carrera, F. J.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Mittaz, J. P. D.; McHardy, I. M.; Jones, L. R.

    1996-01-01

    The Rosat Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) spectra of a sample of 35 X-ray selected Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELGs) are presented. Of these 35 objects, 16 are from the Rosat International X-ray Optical Survey (RIXOS) and the remaining 19 were discovered during the optical identification of Rosat U.K. deep survey sources. A power law model with low energy absorption set at the Galactic value is found to be a good fit for all sources. The results indicate that the spectral slope of NELGs is flatter than that of active galactic nuclei.

  15. Spiral-arm instability: giant clump formation via fragmentation of a galactic spiral arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shigeki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2018-03-01

    Fragmentation of a spiral arm is thought to drive the formation of giant clumps in galaxies. Using linear perturbation analysis for self-gravitating spiral arms, we derive an instability parameter and define the conditions for clump formation. We extend our analysis to multicomponent systems that consist of gas and stars in an external potential. We then perform numerical simulations of isolated disc galaxies with isothermal gas, and compare the results with the prediction of our analytic model. Our model describes accurately the evolution of the spiral arms in our simulations, even when spiral arms dynamically interact with one another. We show that most of the giant clumps formed in the simulated disc galaxies satisfy the instability condition. The clump masses predicted by our model are in agreement with the simulation results, but the growth time-scale of unstable perturbations is overestimated by a factor of a few. We also apply our instability analysis to derive scaling relations of clump properties. The expected scaling relation between the clump size, velocity dispersion, and circular velocity is slightly different from that given by the Toomre instability analyses, but neither is inconsistent with currently available observations. We argue that the spiral-arm instability is a viable formation mechanism of giant clumps in gas-rich disc galaxies.

  16. Spiral tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Asadiyan, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Spiral Tectonics (ST) is a new window to global tectonics introduced as alternative model for Plate Tectonics (PT). ST based upon Dahw(rolling) and Tahw(spreading) dynamics. Analogues to electric and magnetic components in the electromagnetic theory we could consider Dahw and Tahw as components of geodynamics, when one component increases the other decreases and vice versa. They are changed to each other during geological history. D-component represents continental crust and T-component represents oceanic crust. D and T are two arm of spiral-cell. T-arm 180 degree lags behind D-arm so named Retard-arm with respect to D or Forward-arm. It seems primary cell injected several billions years ago from Earth's center therefore the Earth's core was built up first then mantel and finally the crust was build up. Crust building initiate from Arabia (Mecca). As the universe extended gravitation wave swirled the earth fractaly along cycloid path from big to small scale. In global scale (order-0) ST collect continents in one side and abandoned Pacific Ocean in the other side. Recent researches also show two mantels upwelling in opposite side of the Earth: one under Africa (tectonic pose) and the other under Pacific Ocean (tectonic tail). In higher order (order-1) ST build up Africa in one side and S.America in the other side therefore left Atlantic Ocean meandered in between. In order-n e.g. Khoor Musa and Bandar-Deylam bay are seen meandered easterly in the Iranian part but Khoor Abdullah and Kuwait bay meandered westerly in the Arabian part, they are distributed symmetrically with respect to axis of Persian Gulf(PG), these two are fractal components of easterly Caspian-wing and westerly Black Sea-wing which split up from Anatoly. Caspian Sea and Black Sea make two legs of Y-like structure, this shape completely fitted with GPS-velocity map which start from PG and split up in the Catastrophic Point(Anatoly). We could consider PG as remnants of Ancient Ocean which spent up

  17. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  18. Interactions between intergalactic medium and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Saar, E.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of galaxies with the environmental gas both in clusters and in small groups of galaxies is investigated. Interaction between galaxies and the ambient medium can be considered simply as final touches in the process of galaxy formation. Large relative velocities of galaxies in their clusters and of the intercluster gas result in a loss of the intergalactic gas, that in its turn affects the morphology of cluster galaxies. Interaction between the coronal clouds and the gas in the disk of spiral galaxies may result in regular patterns of star formation and in the bending of planes of galaxies

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Dust properties of major-merger galaxy pairs (Domingue+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, D. L.; Cao, C.; Xu, C. K.; Jarrett, T. H.; Ronca, J.; Hill, E.; Jacques, A.

    2018-04-01

    We present an analysis of dust properties of a sample of close major-merger galaxy pairs selected by Ks magnitude and redshift. The pairs represent the two populations of spiral-spiral (S+S) and mixed morphology spiral-elliptical (S+E). The Code Investigating GALaxy Emission (CIGALE) software is used to fit dust models to the Two Micron All Sky Survey, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, and Herschel flux density measurements, and to derive the parameters describing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contribution, interstellar radiation field, and photodissociation regions. Model fits verify our previous Spitzer Space Telescope analysis that S+S and S+E pairs do not have the same level of enhancement of star formation and differ in dust composition. (1 data file).

  20. Neutral hydrogen observations of binary galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorsel, G.A. van.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation concerns a detailed neutral hydrogen study of a carefully selected sample of 16 double spiral galaxies with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). The observational data provide useful material for a number of questions concerning the dynamics of double galaxies, in particular the question of the mass distribution. In Chapter 2 the criteria used to select a sample of double galaxies for observation with the WSRT are discussed. Observing techniques and the reduction of the data using the GIPSY system are described in Chapter 3. Chapters 4 through 7 contain the observational results. In Chapter 8 the method of analysis is described. Masses for the individual galaxies derived from rotation curves are compared with the ''total'' masses estimated from the orbital motion. In this fashion a direct estimate of the amount of dark matter is obtained that avoids the use of mean M/L values. In Chapter 9 a mass estimator for groups is developed in a way analogous to the binary galaxy mass estimator described in Chapter 8. The question of selection effects and the bias of the mass estimator for the point mass model are discussed extensively in Chapter 10. The final results are discussed in Chapter 11. It is shown that the orbital mass exceeds the sum of the individual masses by a large factor for several pairs, indicating either that there is a large amount of dark matter or that something is amiss with the concept of a physical pair. (Auth.)

  1. Six Decades of Spiral Density Wave Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Frank H.

    2016-09-01

    The theory of spiral density waves had its origin approximately six decades ago in an attempt to reconcile the winding dilemma of material spiral arms in flattened disk galaxies. We begin with the earliest calculations of linear and nonlinear spiral density waves in disk galaxies, in which the hypothesis of quasi-stationary spiral structure (QSSS) plays a central role. The earliest success was the prediction of the nonlinear compression of the interstellar medium and its embedded magnetic field; the earliest failure, seemingly, was not detecting color gradients associated with the migration of OB stars whose formation is triggered downstream from the spiral shock front. We give the reasons for this apparent failure with an update on the current status of the problem of OB star formation, including its relationship to the feathering substructure of galactic spiral arms. Infrared images can show two-armed, grand design spirals, even when the optical and UV images show flocculent structures. We suggest how the nonlinear response of the interstellar gas, coupled with overlapping subharmonic resonances, might introduce chaotic behavior in the dynamics of the interstellar medium and Population I objects, even though the underlying forces to which they are subject are regular. We then move to a discussion of resonantly forced spiral density waves in a planetary ring and their relationship to the ideas of disk truncation, and the shepherding of narrow rings by satellites orbiting nearby. The back reaction of the rings on the satellites led to the prediction of planet migration in protoplanetary disks, which has had widespread application in the exploding data sets concerning hot Jupiters and extrasolar planetary systems. We then return to the issue of global normal modes in the stellar disk of spiral galaxies and its relationship to the QSSS hypothesis, where the central theoretical concepts involve waves with negative and positive surface densities of energy and angular

  2. Bulgeless galaxies at intermediate redshift: Sample selection, color properties, and the existence of powerful active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzocchi, Luca; Leonardo, Elvira; Grossi, Marco; Afonso, José; Fernandes, Cristina; Retrê, João [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa, Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisbon (Portugal); Filho, Mercedes E.; Lobo, Catarina [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Griffith, Roger L. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Anton, Sonia [Centro de Investigação em Ciências Geo-Espaciais, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Henriques, Bruno [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Messias, Hugo [Departamento de astronomía, Av. Esteban Iturra 6to piso, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción (Chile)

    2014-02-10

    We present a catalog of bulgeless galaxies, which includes 19,225 objects selected in four of the deepest, largest multi-wavelength data sets available—COSMOS, AEGIS, GEMS, and GOODS—at intermediate redshift (0.4 ≤ z ≤ 1.0). The morphological classification was provided by the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog (ACS-GC), which used publicly available data obtained with the ACS instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. Rest-frame photometric quantities were derived using kcorrect. We analyze the properties of the sample and the evolution of pure-disk systems with redshift. Very massive [log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) > 10.5] bulgeless galaxies contribute to ∼30% of the total galaxy population number density at z ≥ 0.7, but their number density drops substantially with decreasing redshift. We show that only a negligible fraction of pure disks appear to be quiescent systems, and red sequence bulgeless galaxies show indications of dust-obscured star formation. X-ray catalogs were used to search for X-ray emission within our sample. After visual inspection and detailed parametric morphological fitting we identify 30 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that reside in galaxies without a classical bulge. The finding of such peculiar objects at intermediate redshift shows that while AGN growth in merger-free systems is a rare event (0.2% AGN hosts in this sample of bulgeless galaxies), it can indeed happen relatively early in the history of the universe.

  3. THE HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF VARIABILITY SELECTED AGN IN THE PAN-STARRS1 MEDIUM DEEP SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinis, S.; Gezari, S.; Kumar, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Burgett, W. S.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We study the properties of 975 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected by variability in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium deep Survey. Using complementary multi-wavelength data from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared, we use spectral energy distribution fitting to determine the AGN and host properties at z < 1 and compare to a well-matched control sample. We confirm the trend previously observed: that the variability amplitude decreases with AGN luminosity, but we also observe that the slope of this relation steepens with wavelength, resulting in a “redder when brighter” trend at low luminosities. Our results show that AGNs are hosted by more massive hosts than control sample galaxies, while the rest frame dust-corrected NUV r color distribution of AGN hosts is similar to control galaxies. We find a positive correlation between the AGN luminosity and star formation rate (SFR), independent of redshift. AGN hosts populate the entire range of SFRs within and outside of the Main Sequence of star-forming galaxies. Comparing the distribution of AGN hosts and control galaxies, we show that AGN hosts are less likely to be hosted by quiescent galaxies and more likely to be hosted by Main Sequence or starburst galaxies.

  4. A Foreground Masking Strategy for [C II] Intensity Mapping Experiments Using Galaxies Selected by Stellar Mass and Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, G.; Moncelsi, L.; Viero, M. P.; Silva, M. B.; Bock, J.; Bradford, C. M.; Chang, T.-C.; Cheng, Y.-T.; Cooray, A. R.; Crites, A.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Uzgil, B.; Hunacek, J. R.; Zemcov, M.

    2018-04-01

    Intensity mapping provides a unique means to probe the epoch of reionization (EoR), when the neutral intergalactic medium was ionized by energetic photons emitted from the first galaxies. The [C II] 158 μm fine-structure line is typically one of the brightest emission lines of star-forming galaxies and thus a promising tracer of the global EoR star formation activity. However, [C II] intensity maps at 6 ≲ z ≲ 8 are contaminated by interloping CO rotational line emission (3 ≤ J upp ≤ 6) from lower-redshift galaxies. Here we present a strategy to remove the foreground contamination in upcoming [C II] intensity mapping experiments, guided by a model of CO emission from foreground galaxies. The model is based on empirical measurements of the mean and scatter of the total infrared luminosities of galaxies at z {10}8 {M}ȯ selected in the K-band from the COSMOS/UltraVISTA survey, which can be converted to CO line strengths. For a mock field of the Tomographic Ionized-carbon Mapping Experiment, we find that masking out the “voxels” (spectral–spatial elements) containing foreground galaxies identified using an optimized CO flux threshold results in a z-dependent criterion {m}{{K}}AB}≲ 22 (or {M}* ≳ {10}9 {M}ȯ ) at z cost of a moderate ≲8% loss of total survey volume.

  5. LENS MODELS OF HERSCHEL-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Ma, B.; Casey, C. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wardlow, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Amber, S. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Baes, M. [1 Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bourne, N.; Dye, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Bussmann, R. S. [Department of Astronomy, Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-12-20

    We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 μm bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (∼17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and previous lensing models for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). For four new sources that also have high-resolution submillimeter maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 μm magnification factor (μ{sub 880}) is ∼1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (μ{sub NIR}), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ∼2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.

  6. Ionized Gas Outflows in Infrared-bright Dust-obscured Galaxies Selected with WISE and SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Yoshiki; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Nagao, Tohru; Woo, Jong-Hak; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wagner, Alexander Y.; Sun, Ai-Lei; Chang, Yu-Yen

    2017-12-01

    We present the ionized gas properties of infrared (IR)-bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) that show an extreme optical/IR color, {(i-[22])}{AB}> 7.0, selected with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). For 36 IR-bright DOGs that show [O III]λ5007 emission in the SDSS spectra, we performed a detailed spectral analysis to investigate their ionized gas properties. In particular, we measured the velocity offset (the velocity with respect to the systemic velocity measured from the stellar absorption lines) and the velocity dispersion of the [O III] line. We found that the derived velocity offset and dispersion of most IR-bright DOGs are larger than those of Seyfert 2 galaxies (Sy2s) at z300 km s-1) velocity dispersion, which is a larger fraction compared to other AGN populations, suggests that IR-bright DOGs are good laboratories to investigate AGN feedback. The velocity offset and dispersion of [O III] and [Ne III]λ3869 are larger than those of [O II]λ3727, which indicates that the highly ionized gas tends to show stronger outflows.

  7. The Intrinsic Shape of Galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-01-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of SDSS DR8 galaxies we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of $E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026}$ in the SDSS r band. We als...

  8. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  9. GEMINI/GMOS SPECTROSCOPY OF 26 STRONG-LENSING-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER CORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Gladders, Michael D.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Sharon, Keren; Dahle, Haakon; Oguri, Masamune

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a spectroscopic program targeting 26 strong-lensing cluster cores that were visually identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Second Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS-2). The 26 galaxy cluster lenses span a redshift range of 0.2 Vir = 7.84 x 10 14 M sun h -1 0.7 , which is somewhat higher than predictions for strong-lensing-selected clusters in simulations. The disagreement is not significant considering the large uncertainty in our dynamical data, systematic uncertainties in the velocity dispersion calibration, and limitations of the theoretical modeling. Nevertheless our study represents an important first step toward characterizing large samples of clusters that are identified in a systematic way as systems exhibiting dramatic strong-lensing features.

  10. What Are S0 Galaxies?

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, Sidney van den

    2009-01-01

    The data collected in the Shapley-Ames catalog of bright galaxies show that lenticular (S0) galaxies are typically about a magnitude fainter than both elliptical (E) and early spiral (Sa) galaxies. Hubble (1936) was therefore wrong to regard S0 galaxies as being intermediate between morphological types E and Sa. The observation that E5-E7 galaxies are significantly fainter than objects of sub-types E0-E5 suggests that many of the flattest 'ellipticals' may actually be misclassified lenticular...

  11. Diverse Group of Galaxy Types, NGC 3190 Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image of a diverse group of galaxy types. NGC 3190 is a dusty edge on spiral galaxy. NGC 3187 is highly distorted. The two are separated by only 35 kilo-parsecs (about half the diameter of our own Milky Way galaxy). A ring, elliptical, and other irregular galaxies are also present.

  12. Selective deletion of cochlear hair cells causes rapid age-dependent changes in spiral ganglion and cochlear nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ling; Strong, Melissa K; Kaur, Tejbeer; Juiz, Jose M; Oesterle, Elizabeth C; Hume, Clifford; Warchol, Mark E; Palmiter, Richard D; Rubel, Edwin W

    2015-05-20

    During nervous system development, critical periods are usually defined as early periods during which manipulations dramatically change neuronal structure or function, whereas the same manipulations in mature animals have little or no effect on the same property. Neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (CN) are dependent on excitatory afferent input for survival during a critical period of development. Cochlear removal in young mammals and birds results in rapid death of target neurons in the CN. Cochlear removal in older animals results in little or no neuron death. However, the extent to which hair-cell-specific afferent activity prevents neuronal death in the neonatal brain is unknown. We further explore this phenomenon using a new mouse model that allows temporal control of cochlear hair cell deletion. Hair cells express the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor behind the Pou4f3 promoter. Injections of DT resulted in nearly complete loss of organ of Corti hair cells within 1 week of injection regardless of the age of injection. Injection of DT did not influence surrounding supporting cells directly in the sensory epithelium or spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Loss of hair cells in neonates resulted in rapid and profound neuronal loss in the ventral CN, but not when hair cells were eliminated at a more mature age. In addition, normal survival of SGNs was dependent on hair cell integrity early in development and less so in mature animals. This defines a previously undocumented critical period for SGN survival. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357878-14$15.00/0.

  13. IDCS J1433.2+3306: AN INFRARED-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Snyder, Gregory F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Dey, Arjun [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    We report the discovery of an IR-selected galaxy cluster in the IRAC Distant Cluster Survey (IDCS). New data from the Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopically confirm IDCS J1433.2+3306 at z = 1.89 with robust spectroscopic redshifts for seven members, two of which are based on the 4000 A break. Detected emission lines such as [O II] and H{beta} indicate star formation rates of {approx}>20 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for three galaxies within a 500 kpc projected radius of the cluster center. The cluster exhibits a red sequence with a scatter and color indicative of a formation redshift z{sub f} {approx}> 3.5. The stellar age of the early-type galaxy population is approximately consistent with those of clusters at lower redshift (1

  14. Geometric Offsets Across Spiral Arms in M51: Nature of Gas and Star Formation Tracers

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, M.; Koda, J.; Egusa, F.

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements of geometric offsets between gas spiral arms and associated star forming regions in the grand-design spiral galaxy M51. These offsets are a suggested measure of the star formation timescale after the compression of gas at spiral arm entry. A surprising discrepancy, by an order of magnitude, has been reported in recent offset measurements in nearby spiral galaxies. Measurements using CO and H-alpha emission find large and ordered offsets in M51. On the contrary, small or...

  15. The Spiral of Euroscepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galpin, Charlotte; Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Media scholars have increasingly examined the effects of a negativity bias that applies to political news. In the ‘spiral of cynicism’, journalist preferences for negative news correspond to public demands for sensational news. We argue that this spiral of cynicism in EU news results in a ‘spiral...

  16. The Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction of Emission Line-selected z ∼ 2.5 Galaxies Is Less Than 15%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, Michael J.; Hayes, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Scarlata, Claudia; Mehta, Vihang [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Henry, Alaina; Hathi, Nimish; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Haardt, Francesco [DiSAT, Università dellInsubria, via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Siana, Brian [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Recent work suggests that strong emission line, star-forming galaxies (SFGs) may be significant Lyman continuum leakers. We combine archival Hubble Space Telescope broadband ultraviolet and optical imaging (F275W and F606W, respectively) with emission line catalogs derived from WFC3 IR G141 grism spectroscopy to search for escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) emission from homogeneously selected z ∼ 2.5 SFGs. We detect no escaping Lyman continuum from SFGs selected on [O ii] nebular emission ( N = 208) and, within a narrow redshift range, on [O iii]/[O ii]. We measure 1 σ upper limits to the LyC escape fraction relative to the non-ionizing UV continuum from [O ii] emitters, f {sub esc} ≲ 5.6%, and strong [O iii]/[O ii] > 5 ELGs, f {sub esc} ≲ 14.0%. Our observations are not deep enough to detect f {sub esc} ∼ 10% typical of low-redshift Lyman continuum emitters. However, we find that this population represents a small fraction of the star-forming galaxy population at z ∼ 2. Thus, unless the number of extreme emission line galaxies grows substantially to z ≳ 6, such galaxies may be insufficient for reionization. Deeper survey data in the rest-frame ionizing UV will be necessary to determine whether strong line ratios could be useful for pre-selecting LyC leakers at high redshift.

  17. Radio haloes in Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-selected clusters of galaxies: the making of a halo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, A.; Intema, H.; Brüggen, M.; Vazza, F.; Basu, K.; Sommer, M.; Ebeling, H.; de Gasperin, F.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; van Weeren, R. J.; Cassano, R.

    2015-12-01

    Radio haloes are synchrotron radio sources detected in some massive galaxy clusters. Their size of Mpc indicates that (re)acceleration processes are taking place in the host cluster. X-ray catalogues of galaxy clusters have been used in the past to search for radio haloes and to understand their connection with cluster-cluster mergers and with the thermal component of the intracluster medium. More recently, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect has been proven to be a better route to search for massive clusters in a wider redshift range. With the aim of discovering new radio haloes and understanding their connection with cluster-cluster mergers, we have selected the most massive clusters from the Planck early source catalogue and we have observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 323 MHz those objects for which deep observations were not available. We have discovered new peculiar radio emission in three of the observed clusters, finding (i) a radio halo in the cluster RXCJ0949.8+1708, (ii) extended emission in Abell 1443 that we classify as a radio halo plus a radio relic, with a bright filament embedded in the radio halo, and (iii) low-power radio emission in CIZA J1938.3+5409 that is ten times below the radio-X-ray correlation and represents the first direct detection of the radio emission in the `upper-limit' region of the radio-X-ray diagram. We discuss the properties of these new radio haloes in the framework of theoretical models for the radio emission.

  18. SHARC-2 350 μm Observations of Distant Submillimeter-selected Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, A.; Chapman, S. C.; Dowell, C. D.; Blain, A. W.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Phillips, T. G.

    2006-10-01

    We present 350 μm observations of 15 Chapman et al. submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with radio counterparts and optical redshifts. We detect 12 and obtain sensitive upper limits for three, providing direct, precise measurements of their far-infrared luminosities and characteristic dust temperatures. With these, we verify the linear radio-far-infrared correlation at redshifts of z~1-3 and luminosities of 1011-1013 Lsolar, with a power-law index of 1.02+/-0.12 and rms scatter of 0.12 dex. However, either the correlation constant q or the dust emissivity index β is lower than measured locally. The best-fitting q~=2.14 is consistent with SMGs being predominantly starbust galaxies, without significant AGN contribution, at far-infrared wavelengths. Gas-to-dust mass ratios are estimated at 54+14-11(κ850μm/0.15 m2 kg-1), depending on the absoption efficiency κν, with intrinsic dispersion ~=40% around the mean value. Dust temperatures consistent with 34.6+/-3 K (1.5/β)0.71, at z~1.5-3.5, suggest that far-infrared photometric redshifts may be viable, and perhaps accurate to 10%<~dz/(1+z), for up to 80% of the SMG population in this range, if the above temperature characterizes the full range of SMGs. However, observed temperature evolution of Td~(1+z) is also plausible and could result from selection effects. From the observed luminosity-temperature (L-T) relation, L~T2.82+/-0.29obs, we derive scaling relations for dust mass versus dust temperature, and we identify expressions to interrelate the observed quantities. These suggest that measurements at a single wavelength, in the far-infrared, submillimeter, or radio wave bands, might constrain dust temperatures and far-infrared luminosities for most SMGs with redshifts at z~0.5-4.

  19. Inclination effects on the recognition of Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Axial ratios have been measured from images of 91 Seyfert galaxies thought to be disk systems, and their distribution as a function of axial ratio compared to that of field spirals similarly distributed in distance. There is a deficiency of nearly edge-on Seyfert 1 galaxies relative to the comparison sample. Examination of the visibility of nuclei in a sample of nearby spirals indicates that the effect is too large to be caused by absorption in the disks of normal spiral galaxies, while no absorption other than that expected from such disks is found in non-Seyfert Markarian spirals with bright, condensed nuclei

  20. On the dynamical basis of the classification of normal galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haass, J; Bertin, G; Lin, C C

    1982-06-01

    Some realistic galaxy models have been found to support discrete unstable spiral modes. Here, through the study of the relevant physical mechanisms and an extensive numerical investigation of the properties of the dominant modes in a wide class of galactic equilibria, we show how spiral structures are excited with different morphological features, depending on the properties of the equilibrium model. We identify the basic dynamical parameters and mechanisms and compare the resulting morphology of spiral modes with the actual classification of galaxies. The present study suggests a dynamical basis for the transition among various types and subclasses of normal and barred spiral galaxies.

  1. BVRI SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF ISOLATED GALAXY TRIPLETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Toledo, H. M.; Mendez-Hernandez, H.; Aceves, H.; OlguIn, L.

    2011-01-01

    Optical broadband BVRI observations of 54 galaxies selected from the Catalog of Isolated Triplets of Galaxies in the Northern Hemisphere have been carried out at San Pedro Martir National Observatory to evaluate their photometric and morphological properties. We complement our analysis with Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images and look for signatures likely related to interactions/mergers. We report apparent/absolute BVRI magnitudes and colors for the 54 galaxies. The membership of these galaxies is re-evaluated by imposing a reasonable condition of concordant redshifts upon the original selection criteria, rendering a final sample of 34 galaxies in 13 triplets, 12 galaxies in close pairs, and 8 galaxy outliers. The triplets are spiral-dominated systems in different dynamical stages from loosely interacting to almost merged objects. The incidence fraction of features likely associated with interactions is ∼56%, similar to those found in northern and southern compact groups. The average fraction of bars is 35% with a mean value of maximum bar ellipticity ε max ∼ 0.4. Bars are hosted in the late-type triplet spirals, almost twice more than in early-type spirals. The global fraction of rings is 20%, all in the late-type components. The overdensity of triplets with respect to the background and their current dynamical status, as devised from our estimate of their dynamical parameters, namely the harmonic radius R H , velocity dispersion σ, dimensionless crossing time H 0 τ c , and virial mass M V , appear to be sufficient to favor galaxy transformations similar to those seen in dense groups and clusters. By contrast, the lower fraction of bonafide ellipticals and the relatively higher fraction of late-type spirals make these triplets essentially different from the Hickson Compact Groups and more representative of the field. A modest 1.6 enhancement factor in the optical luminosity of the late-type triplet components

  2. Ultraviolet Extinction in Backlit Galaxies - from Galaxy Zoo to GALEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Manning, A.; Holwerda, B. W.; Lintott, C.; Schawinski, K.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2012-01-01

    We examine the ultraviolet extinction of galaxies on large scales, combining optical and GALEX UV data on backlit galaxies (most found in the Galaxy Zoo citizen-science project). We analyze the images in matching ways, modelling both foreground and background galaxies by symmetry or elliptical isophote families as appropriate, and using the non-overlapping regions of the galaxies to estimate errors in the derived transmission T=e-κ. Spirals appear less symmetric in the UV, as star-forming regions become more dominant, so that our most reliable results are mean values across multiple regions and multiple galaxies. Our mean effective extinction curve is dominated by the contribution of luminous spirals,and shows a fairly flat gray" extinction law into the ultraviolet. For example, the median of κNUV/κB in spiral arms is only 1.3. Along with previous high-resolution HST studies of a few nearby backlit galaxies, this suggests that on kpc scales the effective extinction is dominated by the dust clumping rather than the intrinsic reddening law. This implies that extrapolation of local properties to short wavelengths, a step toward the history of dust in galaxies through comparison of local properties with a similar analysis in deep HST fields, can be done without introducing much additional error. This work was supported by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX10AD54G.

  3. Morphologies of Mid-IR Variability-Selected AGN Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimera, Mugdha; Sarajedini, Vicki; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, Giovanni G.

    2018-01-01

    We use multi-epoch 3.6 and 4.5 {μ m} data from the Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) to probe the AGN population among galaxies to redshifts ˜3 via their mid-IR variability. About 1% of all galaxies in our survey contain varying nuclei, 80% of which are likely to be AGN. Twenty-three percent of mid-IR variables are also X-ray sources. The mid-IR variables have a slightly greater fraction of weakly disturbed morphologies compared to a control sample of normal galaxies. The increased fraction of weakly distorted hosts becomes more significant when we remove the X-ray emitting AGN, while the frequency of strongly disturbed hosts remains similar to the control galaxy sample. These results suggest that mid-IR variability identifies a unique population of obscured, Compton-thick AGN revealing elevated levels of weak distortion among their host galaxies.

  4. ASSEMBLY OF THE RED SEQUENCE IN INFRARED-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTERS FROM THE IRAC SHALLOW CLUSTER SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Gregory F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Mancone, Conor M.; Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Zeimann, Gregory R.; Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brown, Michael J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Perlmutter, Saul [E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    We present results for the assembly and star formation histories (SFHs) of massive ({approx}L*) red sequence galaxies (RSGs) in 11 spectroscopically confirmed, infrared-selected galaxy clusters at 1.0 < z < 1.5, the precursors to present-day massive clusters with M {approx} 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun }. Using rest-frame optical photometry, we investigate evolution in the color and scatter of the RSG population, comparing with models of possible SFHs. In contrast to studies of central cluster galaxies at lower redshift (z < 1), these data are clearly inconsistent with the continued evolution of stars formed and assembled primarily at a single, much earlier time. Specifically, we find that the colors of massive cluster galaxies at z Almost-Equal-To 1.5 imply that the bulk of star formation occurred at z {approx} 3, whereas by z Almost-Equal-To 1 their colors imply formation at z {approx} 2; therefore these galaxies exhibit approximately the same luminosity-weighted stellar age at 1 < z < 1.5. This likely reflects star formation that occurs over an extended period, the effects of significant progenitor bias, or both. Our results generally indicate that massive cluster galaxy populations began forming a significant mass of stars at z {approx}> 4, contained some red spheroids by z Almost-Equal-To 1.5, and were actively assembling much of their final mass during 1 < z < 2 in the form of younger stars. Qualitatively, the slopes of the cluster color-magnitude relations are consistent with no significant evolution relative to local clusters.

  5. Classifying and modelling spiral structures in hydrodynamic simulations of astrophysical discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, D. H.; Ramón-Fox, F. G.; Bonnell, I. A.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate numerical techniques for automatic identification of individual spiral arms in hydrodynamic simulations of astrophysical discs. Building on our earlier work, which used tensor classification to identify regions that were `spiral-like', we can now obtain fits to spirals for individual arm elements. We show this process can even detect spirals in relatively flocculent spiral patterns, but the resulting fits to logarithmic `grand-design' spirals are less robust. Our methods not only permit the estimation of pitch angles, but also direct measurements of the spiral arm width and pattern speed. In principle, our techniques will allow the tracking of material as it passes through an arm. Our demonstration uses smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, but we stress that the method is suitable for any finite-element hydrodynamics system. We anticipate our techniques will be essential to studies of star formation in disc galaxies, and attempts to find the origin of recently observed spiral structure in protostellar discs.

  6. The peculiar spiral galaxy NGC 4258

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albada, G.D. van.

    1978-01-01

    Observations have been obtained of the 21 cm line and continuum emission, both with the WSRT and the 100m telescope of the Max Planck Institut fuer Radioastronomie in Bonn. The reduction of these observations is described, maps of the distribution of the neutral hydrogen and the continuum are presented and an analysis is given. The normal aspects and the anomalous arms are discussed. Methods for the reduction and analysis of H I observations are reviewed and how the ejected matter in NGC 4258 may have behaved is discussed. Some suggestions are made for further, mainly observational research. (C.F.)

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 44 SZ-selected galaxy clusters ACT observations (Sifon+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifon, C.; Battaglia, N.; Hasselfield, M.; Menanteau, F.; Barrientos, L. F.; Bond, J. R.; Crichton, D.; Devlin, M. J.; Dunner, R.; Hilton, M.; Hincks, A. D.; Hlozek, R.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hughes, J. P.; Infante, L.; Kosowsky, A.; Marsden, D.; Marriage, T. A.; Moodley, K.; Niemack, M. D.; Page, L. A.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; Trac, H.; Wollack, E. J.

    2017-11-01

    ACT is a 6-metre off-axis Gregorian telescope located at an altitude of 5200um in the Atacama desert in Chile, designed to observe the CMB at arcminute resolution. Galaxy clusters were detected in the 148GHz band by matched-filtering the maps with the pressure profile suggested by Arnaud et al. (2010A&A...517A..92A), fit to X-ray selected local (zDigital Sky Survey Data Release 8 (SDSS DR8; Aihara et al., 2011ApJS..193...29A) imaging, all cluster candidates were assessed with optical data (Menanteau et al., 2013ApJ...765...67M). We observed 20 clusters from the equatorial sample with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on the Gemini-South telescope, split in semesters 2011B (ObsID:GS-2011B-C-1, PI:Barrientos/Menanteau) and 2012A (ObsID:GS-2012A-C-1, PI:Menanteau), prioritizing clusters in the cosmological sample at 0.3file).

  8. redMaGiC: selecting luminous red galaxies from the DES Science Verification data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). et al.

    2016-05-30

    We introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the color-cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sam- ple of constant comoving density. Additionally, we demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine-learning based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalog sampling the redshift range z ϵ [0.2,0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10-3 (h-1Mpc)-3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec zphoto) and scatter (σz=(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017 respectively.The corresponding 5σ outlier fraction is 1.4%. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8) and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1% level.

  9. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dynamical Masses for 44 SZ-Selected Galaxy Clusters over 755 Square Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifon, Cristobal; Battaglia, Nick; Hasselfield, Matthew; Menanteau, Felipe; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Bond, J. Richard; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunner, Rolando; Hilton, Matt; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present galaxy velocity dispersions and dynamical mass estimates for 44 galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. Dynamical masses for 18 clusters are reported here for the first time. Using N-body simulations, we model the different observing strategies used to measure the velocity dispersions and account for systematic effects resulting from these strategies. We find that the galaxy velocity distributions may be treated as isotropic, and that an aperture correction of up to 7 per cent in the velocity dispersion is required if the spectroscopic galaxy sample is sufficiently concentrated towards the cluster centre. Accounting for the radial profile of the velocity dispersion in simulations enables consistent dynamical mass estimates regardless of the observing strategy. Cluster masses M200 are in the range (1 - 15) times 10 (sup 14) Solar Masses. Comparing with masses estimated from the SZ distortion assuming a gas pressure profile derived from X-ray observations gives a mean SZ-to-dynamical mass ratio of 1:10 plus or minus 0:13, but there is an additional 0.14 systematic uncertainty due to the unknown velocity bias; the statistical uncertainty is dominated by the scatter in the mass-velocity dispersion scaling relation. This ratio is consistent with previous determinations at these mass scales.

  10. GANIL-SPIRAL1-SPIRAL2: Highlights and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, S.

    2010-06-01

    GANIL presently offers unique opportunities in nuclear physics and many other fields that arise from not only the provision of low-energy stable beams, fragmentation beams and re-accelerated radioactive species, but also from the availability of a wide range of state-of-the-art spectrometers and instrumentation. A few examples of recent highlights are presented. With the construction of SPIRAL2 over the next few years, GANIL is in a good position to retain its world-leading capability. As selected by the ESFRI committee, the next generation of ISOL facility in Europe is represented by the SPIRAL2 project to be built at GANIL (Caen, France). SPIRAL 2 is based on a high power, CW, superconducting LINAC, delivering 5 mA of deuteron beams at 40 MeV (200 KW) directed on a C converter+ Uranium target and producing therefore more 1013 fissions/s. The expected radioactive beams intensities in the mass range from A = 60 to A = 140, will surpass by two order of magnitude any existing facilities in the world. These unstable atoms will be available at energies between few KeV/n to 15 MeV/n. The same driver will accelerate high intensity (100*A to 1 mA), heavier ions (Ar up to Xe) at maximum energy of 14 MeV/n. Under the 7FP program of European Union called*Preparatory phase*, the SPIRAL2 project has been granted a budget of about 4 M€ to build up an international consortium around this new venture. The status of the construction of SPIRAL2 accelerator and associated physics instruments in collaboration with EU and International partners will be presented.

  11. Morphological content and color indices bimodality of a new galaxy sample at the redshifts z < 0.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrycheva, D. V.

    2017-04-01

    The thesis deals with a study of the morphological content and color indices bimodality of a new sample of 317 018 galaxies with absolute magnitudes -24m classification on the base of relations between color indices and one of such parameters as the inverse concentration index, absolute magnitude, de Vaucouleurs radius or scale radius are proposed. It is allowed us to distinguish galaxies into three morphological classes: 1) early types - elliptical and lenticular, E-S0; 2) spirals, Sa-Scd; 3) last spirals, Sd-Sdm, and irregular galaxies, Im/BCG. We also applied the machine learning method for morphological classification of galaxies using absolute magnitudes, color indices, inverse concentration index C50/C90 of galaxies from our sample. We compared various methods, and found that the Random Forest method provides the highest accuracy, namely, 91% of galaxy types are classified correctly (96% early and 80% late types). Applying machine learning methods and two dimensional diagrams likely the color indices and one of the aforementioned parameters, we set the morphological content of galaxies from SDSS DR9 sample at z -20.7m (N = 137 786). The environmental density of galaxies was characterized by the value of inverse volume (1/V) of the Voronoi cell. It is found that the share of early-type galaxies (with quenching star formation) decrease with a redshift as compare with a share of the late types. When the environmental density of the central galaxies is higher (i.e., when 1/V is lower), it is more probably that the central galaxies are of the early morphological types. It is also shown that the higher the environmental density near the central galaxy, the more likely that it has an early morphological type. The fraction of the early type galaxies among the bright central galaxies is higher (78%) than in the sample of neighbor galaxies (26%). It is obtained that the higher percentage of the central early-type galaxies in the sample, the greater their share in the

  12. THE ROLE OF STARBURST-ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS COMPOSITES IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY MERGERS: INSIGHTS FROM THE NEW OPTICAL CLASSIFICATION SCHEME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, T.-T.; Kewley, L. J.; Sanders, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the fraction of starbursts, starburst-active galactic nucleus (AGN) composites, Seyferts, and low-ionization narrow emission-line region galaxies (LINERs) as a function of infrared luminosity (L IR ) and merger progress for ∼500 infrared (IR)-selected galaxies. Using the new optical classifications afforded by the extremely large data set of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that the fraction of LINERs in IR-selected samples is rare ( IR > 10 12 L sun ), starburst-AGN composite galaxies dominate at early-intermediate stages of the merger, and AGN galaxies dominate during the final merger stages. Our results are consistent with models for IR-luminous galaxies where mergers of gas-rich spirals fuel both starburst and AGN, and where the AGN becomes increasingly dominant during the final merger stages of the most luminous IR objects.

  13. Dark matter and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, Masayuki

    1987-01-01

    We propose a hybrid model of universe for galaxy formation, that is, an Einstein- de Sitter universe dominated by two-component dark matter: massive neutrinos and cold dark matter. In this hybrid model, the first luminous objects are dwarf galaxies. The neutrino density fluctuations produce large-scale high density and low density regions, which consequently evolve to superclusters of galaxies and voids, respectively. Dwarf galaxies are formed preferentially in supercluster regions. In voids, the formation of dwarf galaxies is fairly suppressed by diffuse UV flux from QSOs, and instead a number of expanding clouds are born, which produce Lyα forest as seen in QSO spectra. Ordinary galaxies are expected to form as aggregations of dwarf galaxies. In this model, some galaxies are born also in voids, and they tend to evolve to spiral galaxies. Additionally, if the same number of globular clusters are formed in a dwarf, the specific globular cluster frequencies are expected to be much larger in ellipticals than in spirals. (author)

  14. A Polarimetric Search for Hidden Quasars in Three Radio-selected Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H.D.; Brotherton, M.S.; Stanford, S.A.; Breugel, W. van; Dey, A.; Stern, D.; Antonucci, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have carried out a spectropolarimetric search for hidden broad-line quasars in three ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) discovered in the positional correlations between sources detected in deep radio surveys and the IRAS Faint Source Catalog. Only the high-ionization Seyfert 2 galaxy TF J1736+1122 is highly polarized, displaying a broad-line spectrum visible in polarized light. The other two objects, TF J1020+6436 and FF J1614+3234, display spectra dominated by a population of young (A type) stars similar to those of open-quotes E+Aclose quotes galaxies. They are unpolarized, showing no sign of hidden broad-line regions. The presence of young starburst components in all three galaxies indicates that the ULIRG phenomenon encompasses both active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and starburst activity, but the most energetic ULIRGs do not necessarily harbor open-quotes buried quasars.close quotes We find that a luminous infrared galaxy is most likely to host an obscured quasar if it exhibits a high-ionization ([O iii] λ5007/Hβ approx-gt 5) spectrum typical of a 'classic' Seyfert 2 galaxy with little or no Balmer absorption lines, is 'ultraluminous' (L IR approx-gt 10 12 L circle-dot ), and has a 'warm' IR color (f 25 /f 60 approx-gt 0.25). The detection of hidden quasars in this group but not in the low-ionization, starburst-dominated ULIRGs (classified as LINERs or H ii galaxies) may indicate an evolutionary connection, with the latter being found in younger systems. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  15. Implementing Maxwell's Aether Illuminates the Physics of Gravitation:. The Gravity-Electric (G-E) Field, Evident at Every Scale, From the Ionosphere to Spiral Galaxies and a Neutron-Star Extreme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    2013-09-01

    the means for displacing its local density exist; that, we show, is the nature of gravitational action and brings gravitation into the electromagnetic family of forces. Under (B) the particle mass is measured by the aether-sucking capability of its vortex, positiveonly gravitation being because the outward-diminishing force developed by each makes mutual convergence at any given point the statistically prevalent expectation. This activity maintains a radial aether (charge) density gradient - the Gravity-Electric (G-E) Field - around and within any gravitationally retained assemblage. So Newton's is an incomplete description of gravitation; the corresponding G-E field is an inseparable facet of the action. The effect on c of that charge density gradient yields gravitational lensing. We find that G-E field action on plasma is astronomically ubiquitous. This strictly radial outward force on ions has the property of increasing the orbital angular momentum of material, by moving it outwards, but at constant tangential velocity. Spiral galaxies no longer require Cold Dark Matter (CDM) to explain this. The force (maybe 30 V.m-1 at solar surface) has comprehensive relevance to the high orbital a.m. achieved during solar planet formation, to their prograde spins and to exoplanet observations. The growth of high-mass stars is impossible if radiation pressure rules, whereas G-E field repulsion is low during dust-opaque infall, driving their prodigious mass loss rates when infall ceases and the star establishes an ionized environment. Its biggest force-effect (~1012 V.m-1) is developed at neutron stars, where it is likely the force of supernova explosions, and leads to a fertile model for pulsars and the acceleration of 1019 eV extreme-energy cosmic rays. Our only directly observed measure of the G-E field is recorded at about 1 V.m-1 in the ionosphere-to-Earth electric potential. And temporary local changes of ionosphere electron density, monitored by radio and satellite, have

  16. Amazing Andromeda Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The many 'personalities' of our great galactic neighbor, the Andromeda galaxy, are exposed in this new composite image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The wide, ultraviolet eyes of Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveal Andromeda's 'fiery' nature -- hotter regions brimming with young and old stars. In contrast, Spitzer's super-sensitive infrared eyes show Andromeda's relatively 'cool' side, which includes embryonic stars hidden in their dusty cocoons. Galaxy Evolution Explorer detected young, hot, high-mass stars, which are represented in blue, while populations of relatively older stars are shown as green dots. The bright yellow spot at the galaxy's center depicts a particularly dense population of old stars. Swaths of red in the galaxy's disk indicate areas where Spitzer found cool, dusty regions where stars are forming. These stars are still shrouded by the cosmic clouds of dust and gas that collapsed to form them. Together, Galaxy Evolution Explorer and Spitzer complete the picture of Andromeda's swirling spiral arms. Hints of pinkish purple depict regions where the galaxy's populations of hot, high-mass stars and cooler, dust-enshrouded stars co-exist. Located 2.5 million light-years away, the Andromeda is our largest nearby galactic neighbor. The galaxy's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, our Milky Way galaxy's disk is about 100,000 light-years across. This image is a false color composite comprised of data from Galaxy Evolution Explorer's far-ultraviolet detector (blue), near-ultraviolet detector (green), and Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer at 24 microns (red).

  17. Morphology of Seyfert Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yen-Chen; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    We probed the relation between properties of Seyfert nuclei and morphology of their host galaxies. We selected Seyfert galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with redshifts less 0.2 identified by the V\\'{e}ron Catalog (13th). We used the "{\\it{FracDev}}" parameter from SDSS galaxy fitting models to represent the bulge fractions of the Seyfert host galaxies. We found that the host galaxies of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 are dominated by large bulge fractions, and Seyfert 2 galaxies are more li...

  18. Triangular spiral tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushida, Takamichi; Hizume, Akio; Yamagishi, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    The topology of spiral tilings is intimately related to phyllotaxis theory and continued fractions. A quadrilateral spiral tiling is determined by a suitable chosen triple (ζ, m, n), where ζ element of D/R, and m and n are relatively prime integers. We give a simple characterization when (ζ, m, n) produce a triangular spiral tiling. When m and n are fixed, the admissible generators ζ form a curve in the unit disk. The family of triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs (m, n) is parameterized by the divergence angle arg (ζ), while triangular spiral tilings with non-opposed parastichy pairs are parameterized by the plastochrone ratio 1/|ζ|. The generators for triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs are not dense in the complex parameter space, while those with non-opposed parastichy pairs are dense. The proofs will be given in a general setting of spiral multiple tilings. We present paper-folding (origami) sheets that build spiral towers whose top-down views are triangular tilings. (paper)

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Inner/outer HII regions: galaxy sample (Rodriguez-Baras+, 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Baras, M.; Diaz, A. I.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Sanchez, S. F.

    2017-11-01

    Physical properties for 263 isolated spiral galaxies, observed by the CALIFA survey, are presented. These galaxies compose this work galaxy sample. For each galaxy redshift, morphological type, inclination, distance, effective radius, g and r SDSS magnitudes, absolute B magnitude and total number of HII regions extracted in the galaxy are given. (1 data file).

  20. Star clusters in the Whirlpool Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepmaker, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of observational studies of the star cluster population in the interacting spiral galaxy M51, also known as the Whirlpool galaxy. Observations taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in the optical and the near-UV are used to determine fundamental properties of the star

  1. Kinematic analysis of Sculptor Group galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, RHM; Valtonen, MJ; Flynn, C

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the kinematics of the five major spiral galaxies in the Sculptor Group is presented. These galaxies are analyzed using the method of harmonic expansion of the velocity field as described in Schoenmakers, Franx and de Zeeuw (1997). Three different types of kinematic distortions were

  2. Planetary Nebulae as kinematic and dynamical tracers of galaxy halos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccato, Lodovico; Napolitano, Nicola; Arnaboldi, Magda; Cortesi, Arianna; Romanowsky, Aaron; Gerhard, Ortwin; Merrifield, Michael; Kuijken, Konrad; Freeman, Ken; Douglas, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The kinematics and dynamical properties of galaxy halos are difficult to measure, given the faint stellar surface brightness that characterizes those regions. Gas-rich systems such as spiral galaxies can be probed using the radio emission of their gas component. Early type galaxies contain less gas,

  3. The Frequency of Active and Quiescent Galaxies with Companions

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Henrique R.

    2002-01-01

    We study the percentage of active, HII and quiescent galaxies with companions in the Palomar survey. We find that when we separate the galaxies by their morphological types (ellipticals or spirals), to avoid morphology-density effects, there is no difference in the percentage of galaxies with companions among the different activity types.

  4. Seyfert Galaxies: Radio Continuum Emission Properties and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1989), hosted in spiral or lenticular galaxies (Weed- man 1977). Seyfert galaxies are broadly classified into type 1 and type 2 depending on the presence and absence of broad permitted emission lines in their optical spec- tra, respectively. Unification scheme of Seyfert galaxies hypothesizes that Seyfert type 1s and type 2s ...

  5. Spiral analysis-improved clinical utility with center detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Yu, Qiping; Kurtis, Mónica M; Floyd, Alicia G; Smith, Whitney A; Pullman, Seth L

    2008-06-30

    Spiral analysis is a computerized method that measures human motor performance from handwritten Archimedean spirals. It quantifies normal motor activity, and detects early disease as well as dysfunction in patients with movement disorders. The clinical utility of spiral analysis is based on kinematic and dynamic indices derived from the original spiral trace, which must be detected and transformed into mathematical expressions with great precision. Accurately determining the center of the spiral and reducing spurious low frequency noise caused by center selection error is important to the analysis. Handwritten spirals do not all start at the same point, even when marked on paper, and drawing artifacts are not easily filtered without distortion of the spiral data and corruption of the performance indices. In this report, we describe a method for detecting the optimal spiral center and reducing the unwanted drawing artifacts. To demonstrate overall improvement to spiral analysis, we study the impact of the optimal spiral center detection in different frequency domains separately and find that it notably improves the clinical spiral measurement accuracy in low frequency domains.

  6. Radio halos in SZ-selected clusters of galaxies: the making of a halo?

    OpenAIRE

    Bonafede, A.; Intema, H. T.; Brüggen, M.; Vazza, F.; Basu, K.; Sommer, M.; Ebeling, H.; de Gasperin, F.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; van Weeren, R. J.; Cassano, R.

    2015-01-01

    Radio halos are synchrotron radio sources detected in some massive galaxy clusters. Their Mpc-size indicates that (re)acceleration processes are taking place in the host cluster. X-ray catalogues of galaxy clusters have been used in the past to search for radio halos and to understand their connection with cluster-cluster mergers and with the thermal component of the intra-cluster medium. More recently, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect has been proven to be a better route to search for massive c...

  7. Opaque spiral disks - Some empirical facts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, Edwin A.

    1990-01-01

    Results for the Sb and Sc galaxies, as obtained from the analysis of the optical ESO-LV data, are reviewed, and the implied constraints for the properties of the absorbing components in spiral disks are discussed. An alternative interpretation of flat rotation curves and a revised extinction model

  8. DETECTION OF MOLECULAR GAS IN VOID GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR STAR FORMATION IN ISOLATED ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, M.; Honey, M. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore (India); Saito, T. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate school of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Iono, D. [Chile Observatory, NAOJ (Japan); Ramya, S., E-mail: mousumi@iiap.res.in [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Shanghai (China)

    2015-12-10

    We present the detection of molecular gas from galaxies located in nearby voids using the CO(1–0) line emission as a tracer. The observations were performed using the 45 m single dish radio telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. Void galaxies lie in the most underdense parts of our universe and a significant fraction of them are gas rich, late-type spiral galaxies. Although isolated, they have ongoing star formation but appear to be slowly evolving compared to galaxies in denser environments. Not much is known about their star formation properties or cold gas content. In this study, we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively high IRAS fluxes or Hα line luminosities, both of which signify ongoing star formation. All five galaxies appear to be isolated and two lie within the Bootes void. We detected CO(1–0) emission from four of the five galaxies in our sample and their molecular gas masses lie between 10{sup 8} and 10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙}. We conducted follow-up Hα imaging observations of three detected galaxies using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope and determined their star formation rates (SFRs) from their Hα fluxes. The SFR varies from 0.2 to 1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}; which is similar to that observed in local galaxies. Our study indicates that although void galaxies reside in underdense regions, their disks contain molecular gas and have SFRs similar to galaxies in denser environments. We discuss the implications of our results.

  9. The faint end of the red sequence galaxy luminosity function: unveiling surface brightness selection effects with the CLASH clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Nicolas; Durret, Florence; Adami, Christophe; Rudnick, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Characterizing the evolution of the faint end of the cluster red sequence (RS) galaxy luminosity function (GLF) with redshift is a milestone in understanding galaxy evolution. However, the community is still divided in that respect, hesitating between an enrichment of the RS due to efficient quenching of blue galaxies from z 1 to present-day or a scenario in which the RS is built at a higher redshift and does not evolve afterwards. Recently, it has been proposed that surface brightness (SB) selection effects could possibly solve the literature disagreement, accounting for the diminishing RS faint population in ground-based observations. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing the RS GLFs of 16 CLASH clusters computed independently from ground-based Subaru/Suprime-Cam V and Ip or Ic images and space-based HST/ACS F606W and F814W images in the redshift range 0.187 ≤ z ≤ 0.686. We stack individual cluster GLFs in two redshift bins (0.187 ≤ z ≤ 0.399 and 0.400 ≤ z ≤ 0.686) and two mass (6 × 1014M⊙ ≤ M200Japan.

  10. SIGNATURES OF LONG-LIVED SPIRAL PATTERNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.

    2013-01-01

    Azimuthal age/color gradients across spiral arms are a signature of long-lived spirals. From a sample of 19 normal (or weakly barred) spirals where we have previously found azimuthal age/color gradient candidates, 13 objects were further selected if a two-armed grand-design pattern survived in a surface density stellar mass map. Mass maps were obtained from optical and near-infrared imaging, by comparison with a Monte Carlo library of stellar population synthesis models that allowed us to obtain the mass-to-light ratio in the J band, (M/L) J , as a function of (g – i) versus (i – J) color. The selected spirals were analyzed with Fourier methods in search of other signatures of long-lived modes related to the gradients, such as the gradient divergence toward corotation, and the behavior of the phase angle of the two-armed spiral in different wavebands, as expected from theory. The results show additional signatures of long-lived spirals in at least 50% of the objects.

  11. SIGNATURES OF LONG-LIVED SPIRAL PATTERNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A., E-mail: ericmartinez@inaoep.mx, E-mail: martinez@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: r.gonzalez@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, C.P. 58089 (Mexico)

    2013-03-10

    Azimuthal age/color gradients across spiral arms are a signature of long-lived spirals. From a sample of 19 normal (or weakly barred) spirals where we have previously found azimuthal age/color gradient candidates, 13 objects were further selected if a two-armed grand-design pattern survived in a surface density stellar mass map. Mass maps were obtained from optical and near-infrared imaging, by comparison with a Monte Carlo library of stellar population synthesis models that allowed us to obtain the mass-to-light ratio in the J band, (M/L){sub J}, as a function of (g - i) versus (i - J) color. The selected spirals were analyzed with Fourier methods in search of other signatures of long-lived modes related to the gradients, such as the gradient divergence toward corotation, and the behavior of the phase angle of the two-armed spiral in different wavebands, as expected from theory. The results show additional signatures of long-lived spirals in at least 50% of the objects.

  12. A Century of Galaxy Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Vera C.

    1995-10-01

    The first successful spectrum of a galaxy, M31, was obtained in 1898 and published in a two-page paper in the young Astrophysical Journal (Scheiner 1899). Thus the first century of galaxy spectroscopy and the first century of the Astrophysical Journal are almost coincident; I celebrate both in this paper. I describe the very early history of the determination of internal kinematics in spiral galaxies, often by quoting the astronomers' own published words. By mid-century, observations with improved optical and radio telescopes offered evidence that much of the matter in a galaxy is dark. As the century ends, research interests have enlarged to include study of spheroidal and disk galaxies with complex nuclear (and other) kinematics. These complicated velocity patterns are understood as the result of interactions, acquisitions, and mergers, and offer clear evidence of the important role of gravitational effects in galaxy evolution.

  13. Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope HI Imaging of HI-selected Local Group Galaxy Candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, Elizabeth A.; Cannon, J. M.; Oosterloo, T.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.

    The paucity of low mass galaxies in the Universe is a long-standing problem. We recently presented a set of isolated ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) identified within the dataset of the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) HI line survey that are consistent with representing low mass

  14. The Herschel-ATLAS: magnifications and physical sizes of 500-μm-selected strongly lensed galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enia, A.; Negrello, M.; Gurwell, M.; Dye, S.; Rodighiero, G.; Massardi, M.; De Zotti, G.; Franceschini, A.; Cooray, A.; van der Werf, P.; Birkinshaw, M.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.

    2018-04-01

    We perform lens modelling and source reconstruction of Sub-millimetre Array (SMA) data for a sample of 12 strongly lensed galaxies selected at 500μm in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). A previous analysis of the same data set used a single Sérsic profile to model the light distribution of each background galaxy. Here we model the source brightness distribution with an adaptive pixel scale scheme, extended to work in the Fourier visibility space of interferometry. We also present new SMA observations for seven other candidate lensed galaxies from the H-ATLAS sample. Our derived lens model parameters are in general consistent with previous findings. However, our estimated magnification factors, ranging from 3 to 10, are lower. The discrepancies are observed in particular where the reconstructed source hints at the presence of multiple knots of emission. We define an effective radius of the reconstructed sources based on the area in the source plane where emission is detected above 5σ. We also fit the reconstructed source surface brightness with an elliptical Gaussian model. We derive a median value reff ˜ 1.77 kpc and a median Gaussian full width at half-maximum ˜1.47 kpc. After correction for magnification, our sources have intrinsic star formation rates (SFR) ˜ 900-3500 M⊙ yr-1, resulting in a median SFR surface density ΣSFR ˜ 132 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 (or ˜218 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 for the Gaussian fit). This is consistent with that observed for other star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts, and is significantly below the Eddington limit for a radiation pressure regulated starburst.

  15. Spiral Countercurrent Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoichiro; Knight, Martha; Finn, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    For many years, high-speed countercurrent chromatography conducted in open tubing coils has been widely used for the separation of natural and synthetic compounds. In this method, the retention of the stationary phase is solely provided by the Archimedean screw effect by rotating the coiled column in the centrifugal force field. However, the system fails to retain enough of the stationary phase for polar solvent systems such as the aqueous–aqueous polymer phase systems. To address this problem, the geometry of the coiled channel was modified to a spiral configuration so that the system could utilize the radially acting centrifugal force. This successfully improved the retention of the stationary phase. Two different types of spiral columns were fabricated: the spiral disk assembly, made by stacking multiple plastic disks with single or four interwoven spiral channels connected in series, and the spiral tube assembly, made by inserting the tetrafluoroethylene tubing into a spiral frame (spiral tube support). The capabilities of these column assemblies were successfully demonstrated by separations of peptides and proteins with polar two-phase solvent systems whose stationary phases had not been well retained in the earlier multilayer coil separation column for high-speed countercurrent chromatography. PMID:23833207

  16. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-luminous Infrared Galaxy Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; Donoso, Emilio; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol; Mace, Gregory; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, Ken; Padgett, Deborah; Petty, Sara; Ressler, Michael E.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Stanford, Spencer A.; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L.; Wu, Jingwen; Yan, Lin

    2012-11-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 μm photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 μm ~ 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (>20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of ~7.33 × 105 objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 μm photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.

  17. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-Selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-Lumninous Infrared Galaxy Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micrometer photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 m to approximately 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (greater than 20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of 7.33 x 10(exp 5) objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 m photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.

  18. EVIDENCE FOR THE UNIVERSALITY OF PROPERTIES OF RED-SEQUENCE GALAXIES IN X-RAY- AND RED-SEQUENCE-SELECTED CLUSTERS AT z ∼ 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, R.; Wilson, G.; DeGroot, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Rettura, A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, KS 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Van der Burg, R. F. J. [Laboratoire AIM, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique—CEA/DSM—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, Bât. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Muzzin, A. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Lidman, C. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Demarco, R. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Barrio Universitario. Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Nantais, Julie [Grupo Astronomi´a, Departamento de Ciencias Fi´sicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile); Yee, H., E-mail: ryan.foltz@email.ucr.edu, E-mail: gillian.wilson@ucr.edu, E-mail: adegr001@ucr.edu, E-mail: arettura@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: remco.van-der-burg@cea.fr, E-mail: avmuzzin@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: clidman@aao.gov.au, E-mail: rdemarco@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: julie.nantais@unab.cl, E-mail: hyee@astro.utoronto.ca [Dept of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 Saint George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2015-10-20

    We study the slope, intercept, and scatter of the color–magnitude and color–mass relations for a sample of 10 infrared red-sequence-selected clusters at z ∼ 1. The quiescent galaxies in these clusters formed the bulk of their stars above z ≳ 3 with an age spread Δt ≳ 1 Gyr. We compare UVJ color–color and spectroscopic-based galaxy selection techniques, and find a 15% difference in the galaxy populations classified as quiescent by these methods. We compare the color–magnitude relations from our red-sequence selected sample with X-ray- and photometric-redshift-selected cluster samples of similar mass and redshift. Within uncertainties, we are unable to detect any difference in the ages and star formation histories of quiescent cluster members in clusters selected by different methods, suggesting that the dominant quenching mechanism is insensitive to cluster baryon partitioning at z ∼ 1.

  19. Dark Matter Universal Properties in Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio Martins, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    In the past years a wealth of observations has unraveled the structural properties of dark and luminous mass distribution in galaxies, a benchmark for understanding dark matter and the process of galaxy formation. The study of the kinematics of over thousand spirals has evidenced a dark-luminous matter coupling and the presence of a series of scaling laws, pictured by the Universal Rotation Curve paradigm, an intriguing observational scenario not easily explained by present theories of galaxy formation.

  20. Dark Matter Universal Properties in Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Christiane Frigerio

    2010-01-01

    In the past years a wealth of observations has unraveled the structural properties of dark and luminous mass distribution in galaxies, a benchmark for understanding dark matter and the process of galaxy formation. The study of the kinematics of over thousand spirals has evidenced a dark-luminous matter coupling and the presence of a series of scaling laws, pictured by the Universal Rotation Curve paradigm, an intriguing observational scenario not easily explained by present theories of galaxy...

  1. Supernova rates, galaxy emission, and Hubble type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Bergh, S.

    1991-01-01

    Supernova discovery frequency is found to correlate with emission-line (H-alpha + forbidden N II line) equivalent width, except for the most active galaxies in which some supernovae might be hidden by dust. SNII occur preferentially in active galaxies with emission-line EW not less than 20 A, whereas SNIa favor less active galaxies with EW less than 20 A. The intrinsic frequency of supernovae is found to be an order of magnitude higher in Sc galaxies than it is in early type spirals. The relatively high frequency of SNIa in late-type galaxies suggests that not all such objects have old progenitors. 13 refs

  2. Structure of the Galaxy and its subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruprecht, J.

    1979-01-01

    Current knowledge is summed up of the structure of our galaxy consisting of more than 100 thousand million stars of an overal mass of 10 44 g, and of interstellar dust and gas. The galaxy comprises several subsystems, the oldest of which being of a spherical shape while the younger ones are more-or-less oblate rotational ellipsoids. It is considered on the basis of visual and radio observations that the galaxy has a spiral structure with many arms, similar to other galaxies. The structure of the galaxy nucleus has not yet been fully explained. (Ha)

  3. Spiral finned crucible pot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemowidagdo, Arianto Leman; Tiwan, Widarto, Ardian, Aan

    2018-02-01

    Innovation on a crucible furnace to increase its efficiency in aluminum melting has been done. The innovation was a spiral finned crucible pot. The inclination of the spiral finned was vary of 5, 10, 15, and 20 degrees. The spiral finned effects was determined from the performance test result. A crucible pot without fin was also tested as a control. The crucible pot was examined at the same process condition. The crucible pot with the inclined fin of 10 degrees gives an optimum performance. It gives effective heating rate so that more efficient in LPG consumption. Therefore it saves energy in the aluminum melting process.

  4. A Minuet of Galaxies: Hickson Compact Group 87 as Viewed by the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J.; Hunsberger, S.; Charlton, J.; Hamilton, F.; Bond, H. E.; Christian, C. A.; Frattare, L.; Levay, Z.; Noll, K.

    2000-05-01

    HCG 87 was selected from 3 visually, and scientifically, intriguing compact groups for HST WFPC2 imaging by members of the public who visited the Hubble Heritage website (http://heritage.stsci.edu) and registered their votes. The HST exposures in four filters (F450W, F555W, F675W and F814W) of the winning target were used to create a color image, released in September 1999 as part of the Hubble Heritage Team's program to provide images for public outreach and education. Along with these data and image, we present a preliminary determination of colors and brightness profiles for the large galaxies in this group. The pair of apparently interacting galaxies each harbour AGN. One is a ``boxy'' spiral with a prominent dust lane and the other a lenticular galaxy. Another group member is a smaller starbursting spiral galaxy. Our goal is to study their stellar populations and examine the influence of active nuclei on star formation histories. In addition, a similar analysis is being performed on all faint, extended objects distributed throughout the group. For those determined to be tidal dwarf galaxies, we plan to appraise the role gravitational instabilities play during their formation. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant number GO-07632.01-96A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under the NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  5. An Optimal Strategy for Accurate Bulge-to-disk Decomposition of Disk Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Hua [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-08-20

    The development of two-dimensional (2D) bulge-to-disk decomposition techniques has shown their advantages over traditional one-dimensional (1D) techniques, especially for galaxies with non-axisymmetric features. However, the full potential of 2D techniques has yet to be fully exploited. Secondary morphological features in nearby disk galaxies, such as bars, lenses, rings, disk breaks, and spiral arms, are seldom accounted for in 2D image decompositions, even though some image-fitting codes, such as GALFIT, are capable of handling them. We present detailed, 2D multi-model and multi-component decomposition of high-quality R -band images of a representative sample of nearby disk galaxies selected from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey, using the latest version of GALFIT. The sample consists of five barred and five unbarred galaxies, spanning Hubble types from S0 to Sc. Traditional 1D decomposition is also presented for comparison. In detailed case studies of the 10 galaxies, we successfully model the secondary morphological features. Through a comparison of best-fit parameters obtained from different input surface brightness models, we identify morphological features that significantly impact bulge measurements. We show that nuclear and inner lenses/rings and disk breaks must be properly taken into account to obtain accurate bulge parameters, whereas outer lenses/rings and spiral arms have a negligible effect. We provide an optimal strategy to measure bulge parameters of typical disk galaxies, as well as prescriptions to estimate realistic uncertainties of them, which will benefit subsequent decomposition of a larger galaxy sample.

  6. Redshift Survey of Galaxies around a Selected Sample of Compact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Reinaldo R.; Ribeiro, André L. B.; Capelato, Hugo V.; Zepf, Stephen E.

    We report the results of a spectroscopic survey of faint galaxies in the regions surrounding Hickson compact groups. Our sample is composed of 17 groups within 9000 km s-1. The spectra were taken at the prime focus of the Tololo 4 m telescope, using the ARGUS fiber-fed spectrograph. From these observations, redshifts were determined for the faint galaxies previously identified by de Carvalho, Ribeiro, & Zepf in the surroundings of the groups. Statistical methods were applied to the resultant catalog in order to determine the kinematical structure of each group. This analysis confirms the idea that the Hickson sample of compact groups contains a wide variety of projection and dynamical configurations. Our results demonstrate the necessity of new spectroscopic surveys around compact groups in order to assess their complete velocity distribution.

  7. Spiral 2 Week

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this meeting is to present and discuss the current status of the Spiral-2 project at GANIL in front of a large community of scientists and engineers. Different issues have been tackled particularly the equipment around Spiral-2 like injectors, cryo-modules or beam diagnostics, a workshop was devoted to other facilities dedicated to radioactive ion beam production. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  8. Spiral 2 Week

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The main goal of this meeting is to present and discuss the current status of the Spiral-2 project at GANIL in front of a large community of scientists and engineers. Different issues have been tackled particularly the equipment around Spiral-2 like injectors, cryo-modules or beam diagnostics, a workshop was devoted to other facilities dedicated to radioactive ion beam production. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  9. Spot the difference. Impact of different selection criteria on observed properties of passive galaxies in zCOSMOS-20k sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Cimatti, A.; Zamorani, G.; Bolzonella, M.; Lamareille, F.; Mignoli, M.; Zucca, E.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovač, K.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pelló, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Presotto, V.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Barnes, L.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Diener, C.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Le Floc'h, E.; López-Sanjuan, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Nair, P.; Oesch, P.; Scarlata, C.; Scoville, N.; Welikala, N.

    2013-10-01

    Aims: We present the analysis of photometric, spectroscopic, and morphological properties for differently selected samples of passive galaxies up to z = 1 extracted from the zCOSMOS-20k spectroscopic survey. This analysis intends toexplore the dependence of galaxy properties on the selection criterion adopted, study the degree of contamination due to star-forming outliers, and provide a comparison between different commonly used selection criteria. This work is a first step to fully investigating the selection effects of passive galaxies for future massive surveys such as Euclid. Methods: We extracted from the zCOSMOS-20k catalog six different samples of passive galaxies, based on morphology (3336 "morphological" early-type galaxies), optical colors (4889 "red-sequence" galaxies and 4882 "red UVJ" galaxies), specific star-formation rate (2937 "quiescent" galaxies), a best fit to the observed spectral energy distribution (2603 "red SED" galaxies), and a criterion that combines morphological, spectroscopic, and photometric information (1530 "red & passive early-type galaxies"). For all the samples, we studied optical and infrared colors, morphological properties, specific star-formation rates (SFRs), and the equivalent widths of the residual emission lines; this analysis was performed as a function of redshift and stellar mass to inspect further possible dependencies. Results: We find that each passive galaxy sample displays a certain level of contamination due to blue/star-forming/nonpassive outliers. The morphological sample is the one that presents the higher percentage of contamination, with ~12-65% (depending on the mass range) of galaxies not located in the red sequence, ~25-80% of galaxies with a specific SFR up to ~25 times higher than the adopted definition of passive, and significant emission lines found in the median stacked spectra, at least for log (M/M⊙) contamination in color 10.25, very limited tails in sSFR, a median value ~20% higher than the

  10. Counter-rotating gaseous disks in the 'Evil Eye' galaxy NGC4826

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Robert; Walterbos, Rene A. M.; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.

    1992-12-01

    The discovery of two counterrotating gaseous disks in the otherwise normal early-type spiral NGC4826 is reported. This is the most disklike galaxy in which any kinematic substructure has yet been found. This discovery raises the possibility that even spiral galaxies may have undergone a significant degree of structural evolution due to mergers.

  11. Xray cavities in a sample of 83 SPT-selected clusters galaxies. Tracing the evolution of AGN feedback in clusters of galaxies out to z=1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; McDonald, M.; Benson, B. A.; Forman, W. R.; Allen, S. W.; Bleem, L. E.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Dietrich, J. P.; Jones, C.; Liu, J.; Reichardt, C. L.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Schrabback, T.; Song, J.; Stalder, B.; Vikhlinin, A.; Zenteno, A.

    2015-05-18

    X-ray cavities are key tracers of mechanical (or radio mode) heating arising from the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). We report on a survey for X-ray cavities in 83 massive, high-redshift ($0.4\\lt z\\lt 1.2$) clusters of galaxies selected by their Sunyaev-Zel’dovich signature in the South Pole Telescope data. Based on Chandra X-ray images, we find a total of six clusters having symmetric pairs of surface brightness depressions consistent with the picture of radio jets inflating X-ray cavities in the intracluster medium (ICM). The majority of these detections are of relatively low significance and require deeper follow-up data in order to be confirmed. Further, this search will miss small (<10 kpc) X-ray cavities that are unresolved by Chandra at high ($z\\gtrsim 0.5$) redshift. Despite these limitations, our results suggest that the power generated by AGN feedback in BCGs has remained unchanged for over half of the age of the universe ($\\gt 7$ Gyr at $z\\sim 0.8$). On average, the detected X-ray cavities have powers of $(0.8-5)\\times {{10}^{45}}\\ {\\rm erg}\\ {{{\\rm s}}^{-1}}$, enthalpies of $(3-6)\\times {{10}^{59}}\\ {\\rm erg}$, and radii of ~17 kpc. Integrating over 7 Gyr, we find that the supermassive black holes in BCGs may have accreted 10(8) to several ${{10}^{9}}\\,{{M}_{\\odot }}$ of material to power these outflows. This level of accretion indicates that significant supermassive black hole growth may occur not only at early times, in the quasar era, but at late times as well. We also find that X-ray cavities at high redshift may inject an excess heat of 0.1–1.0 keV per particle into the hot ICM above and beyond the energy needed to offset cooling. Although this result needs to be confirmed, we note that the magnitude of excess heating is similar to the energy needed to preheat clusters, break self-similarity, and explain the excess entropy in hot atmospheres.

  12. Dark and luminous matter in the NGC 3992 group of galaxies - II. The dwarf companions UGC 6923, UGC 6940, UGC 6969, and the Tully-Fisher relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, R

    Detailed neutral hydrogen observations have been obtained of the large barred spiral galaxy NGC 3992 and its three small companion spiral galaxies, UGC 6923, UGC 6940, and UGC 6969. Contrary to the large galaxy, for the companions the Hi distribution ends quite abruptly at the optical edges.

  13. THE CONTRIBUTION OF SPIRAL ARMS TO THE THICK DISK ALONG THE HUBBLE SEQUENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Medina, L. A. [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-264, 04510, México D.F. (Mexico); Pérez-Villegas, A., E-mail: lmedina@fis.cinvestav.mx, E-mail: barbara@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: mperez@astro.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2015-04-01

    The first mechanism invoked to explain the existence of the thick disk in the Milky Way Galaxy was the spiral arms. Up-to-date work summons several other possibilities that together seem to better explain this component of our Galaxy. All these processes must affect distinct types of galaxies differently, but the contribution of each one has not been straightforward to quantify. In this work, we present the first comprehensive study of the effect of the spiral arms on the formation of thick disks, looking at early- to late-type disk galaxies in an attempt to characterize and quantify this specific mechanism in galactic potentials. To this purpose, we perform test particle numerical simulations in a three-dimensional spiral galactic potential (for early- to late-types spiral galaxies). By varying the parameters of the spiral arms we found that the vertical heating of the stellar disk becomes very important in some cases and strongly depends on the galactic morphology, pitch angle, arm mass, and the arm pattern speed. The later the galaxy type, the larger is the effect on the disk heating. This study shows that the physical mechanism causing the vertical heating is different from simple resonant excitation. The spiral pattern induces chaotic behavior not linked necessarily to resonances but to direct scattering of disk stars, which leads to an increase of the velocity dispersion. We applied this study to the specific example of the Milky Way Galaxy, for which we have also added an experiment that includes the Galactic bar. From this study we deduce that the effect of spiral arms of a Milky-Way-like potential on the dynamical vertical heating of the disk is negligible, unlike later galactic potentials for disks.

  14. Cosmic strings and galaxy formation: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbins, A.

    1987-04-01

    Successes and remaining problems with cosmic string theories of galaxy formation are outlined. Successes of the theory include predictions for the correct amplitude of initial inhomogeneities leading to galaxy formation, the distribution of observed inhomogeneities, the observed correlation function of clusters, and the density profiles of dark matter halos. Potentially serious problems which have been raised are the biased galaxy production (why do galaxies occur in clusters?), the core radius problem (density profiles of galactic halos do not match predictions), the maximal rotation velocity problem (why is there a sharp cutoff in observed rotational velocity of galaxies?), the small galaxy problem (why are all the galaxies relatively small structures?), the angular momentum problem (where do baryons acquire their angular momentum in order to form spirals), and the large-scale structure problem (why do most galaxies appear to lie on surfaces surrounding voids?). Possible approaches to each of these problems are suggested and the future of cosmic string theory is discussed. 25 refs

  15. RADIO GALAXY FEEDBACK IN X-RAY-SELECTED GROUPS FROM COSMOS: THE EFFECT ON THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giodini, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Boehringer, H.; Pierini, D.; Smolcic, V.; Massey, R.; BIrzan, L.; Zamorani, G.; Oklopcic, A.; Pratt, G. W.; Schinnerer, E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Thompson, D.

    2010-01-01

    We quantify the importance of the mechanical energy released by radio galaxies inside galaxy groups. We use scaling relations to estimate the mechanical energy released by 16 radio-active galactic nuclei located inside X-ray-detected galaxy groups in the COSMOS field. By comparing this energy output to the host groups' gravitational binding energy, we find that radio galaxies produce sufficient energy to unbind a significant fraction of the intragroup medium. This unbinding effect is negligible in massive galaxy clusters with deeper potential wells. Our results correctly reproduce the breaking of self-similarity observed in the scaling relation between entropy and temperature for galaxy groups.

  16. A New Search for Variability-Selected Active Galaxies Within the VST SUDARE-VOICE Survey: The Chandra Deep Field South and the SERVS-SWIRE Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falocco, S.; De Cicco, D.; Paolillo, M.; Covone, G.; Longo, G.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.; Vaccari, M.; Botticella, M. T.; Pignata, G.; Cappellaro, E.; Trevese, D.; Vagnetti, F.; Salvato, M.; Radovich, M.; Hsu, L.; Brandt, W. N.; Capaccioli, M.; Napolitano, N.; Baruffolo, A.; Cascone, E.; Schipani, P.

    This work makes use of the VST observations to select variable sources. We use also the IR photometry, SED fitting and X-ray information where available to confirm the nature of the AGN candidates. The IR data, available over the full survey area, allow to confirm the consistency of the variability selection with the IR color selection method, while the detection of variability may prove useful to detect the presence of an AGN in IR selected starburst galaxies.

  17. Observations of ultraviolet spectra of H II regions and galaxies with IUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1982-08-01

    The ultraviolet spectra, obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer, of a sample of H II regions and the nuclear regions of spiral and elliptical galaxies are described. The star formation rates in the nuclei of spiral galaxies are similar to the star formation rate in the solar neighbourhood. The data indicate that the current thinking on the synthesis of carbon and nitrogen in galaxies has to be revised and the K-corrections determined from the ultraviolet spectra of galaxies when compared with the photometry of distant galaxies suggests colour evolution of galaxies at z > 0.3. (author)

  18. The selection of window width and levels for measuring the airway dimensions with spiral CT scan: an experimental study in Japanese white big-ear rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xinwei; Lu Huuibing; Wu Gang; Ma Ji; Wang Nan; Si Jiangtao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the optimal window width and window level for measuring the airway dimensions with spiral CT scan in Japanese white big-ear rabbits so as to lay the foundation for airway stenting in animal experiments. Methods: Multi-slice spiral CT scanning of cervico-thoracic region was performed in 30 healthy adult Japanese white big-ear rabbits, the anteroposterior and transversal diameter of the thoracic trachea, the anteroposterior diameter of the right and left bronchus were measured with lung window, mediastinum window and special fat window separately. The revealing rate of the tracheal wall and the measuring results in different windows and levels were recorded and compared with the anatomical data. The differences of the relevant data were statistically analyzed. Results: With lung window, the tracheal wall was well demonstrated, but the relevant data were smaller than that with mediastinum window. With mediastinum window, the data were bigger and the tracheal wall border appeared blurred. The results obtained with fat window were close to the actual anatomical data. Conclusion: For accurately measuring the anteroposterior and transversal diameter of the thoracic trachea in Japanese white big-ear rabbits with multi- slice spiral CT scan, fat window should be adopted, which is helpful for the preparation of tracheal and bronchial stents. (authors)

  19. CLUSTERING PROPERTIES OF BzK-SELECTED GALAXIES IN GOODS-N: ENVIRONMENTAL QUENCHING AND TRIGGERING OF STAR FORMATION AT z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lihwai; Wang Weihao; Yan, Chi-Hung; Dickinson, Mark; Jian, Hung-Yu; Merson, A. I.; Baugh, C. M.; Helly, John; Lagos, Claudia del P; Scott, Douglas; Meger, Nicole; Foucaud, Sebastien; Yan Haojing; Cheng, Yi-Wen; Guo Yicheng; Pope, Alexandra; Kirsten, Franz; Koo, David C.; Messias, Hugo; Simard, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of BzK-selected galaxies at z ∼ 2 identified from the CFHT/WIRCAM near-infrared survey of GOODS-North, we discuss the relation between star formation rate (SFR), specific star formation rate (SSFR), and stellar mass (M * ), and the clustering of galaxies as a function of these parameters. For star-forming galaxies (sBzKs), the UV-based SFR, corrected for extinction, scales with the stellar mass as SFR∝M α * with α = 0.74 ± 0.20 down to M * ∼ 10 9 M ☉ , indicating a weak dependence on the stellar mass of the SFR efficiency, namely, SSFR. We also measure the angular correlation function and hence infer the correlation length for sBzK galaxies as a function of M * , SFR, and SSFR, as well as K-band apparent magnitude. We show that passive galaxies (pBzKs) are more strongly clustered than sBzK galaxies at a given stellar mass, mirroring the color-density relation seen at lower redshifts. We also find that the correlation length of sBzK galaxies ranges from 4 to 20 h –1 Mpc, being a strong function of M K , M * , and SFR. On the other hand, the clustering dependence on SSFR changes abruptly at 2 × 10 –9 yr –1 , which is the typical value for 'main-sequence' star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2. We show that the correlation length reaches a minimum at this characteristic value, and is larger for galaxies with both smaller and larger SSFRs; a dichotomy that is only marginally implied from the predictions of the semi-analytical models. Our results suggest that there are two types of environmental effects at work at z ∼ 2. Stronger clustering for relatively quiescent galaxies implies that the environment has started to play a role in quenching star formation. At the same time, stronger clustering for galaxies with elevated SSFRs ( s tarbursts ) might be attributed to an increased efficiency for galaxy interactions and mergers in dense environments.

  20. The Herschel* PEP-HERMES Luminosity Function- I. Probing the Evolution of PACS Selected Galaxies to z approx. equal to 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppioni, Carlotta; Pozzi, F.; Rodighiero, G.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; Pozzetti, L.; Zamorani, G.; Andreani, P.; Cimatti, A.; Ilbert, O.; hide

    2013-01-01

    ), is followed by an AGN-dominated phase, then evolving towards a local elliptical. On the other hand, moderately star-forming galaxies containing a low-luminosity AGN have various properties suggesting they are good candidates for systems in a transition phase preceding the formation of steady spiral galaxies.

  1. Plasma Generator Using Spiral Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Ticatch, Larry A. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A plasma generator includes a pair of identical spiraled electrical conductors separated by dielectric material. Both spiraled conductors have inductance and capacitance wherein, in the presence of a time-varying electromagnetic field, the spiraled conductors resonate to generate a harmonic electromagnetic field response. The spiraled conductors lie in parallel planes and partially overlap one another in a direction perpendicular to the parallel planes. The geometric centers of the spiraled conductors define endpoints of a line that is non-perpendicular with respect to the parallel planes. A voltage source coupled across the spiraled conductors applies a voltage sufficient to generate a plasma in at least a portion of the dielectric material.

  2. Nuclear Spiral Shocks and Induced Gas Inflows in Weak Oval Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong-Tae [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    Nuclear spirals are ubiquitous in galaxy centers. They exist not only in strong barred galaxies but also in galaxies without noticeable bars. We use high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of nuclear gas spirals driven by weak bar-like and oval potentials. The amplitude of the spirals increases toward the center by a geometric effect, readily developing into shocks at small radii even for very weak potentials. The shape of the spirals and shocks depends rather sensitively on the background shear. When shear is low, the nuclear spirals are loosely wound and the shocks are almost straight, resulting in large mass inflows toward the center. When shear is high, on the other hand, the spirals are tightly wound and the shocks are oblique, forming a circumnuclear disk through which gas flows inward at a relatively lower rate. The induced mass inflow rates are enough to power black hole accretion in various types of Seyfert galaxies as well as to drive supersonic turbulence at small radii.

  3. An X-ray View of Interacting Binaries Outside the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, A. H.

    2004-07-01

    Chandra and XMM-Newton are revolutionizing our understanding of compact binaries in external galaxies, allowing us to study sources in detail in Local Group Galaxies and study populations in more distant systems. In M31 the X-ray luminosity function depends on the local stellar population in the sense that areas with active star formation have more high luminosity sources, and a higher overall source density (Kong, Di Stefano, Garcia, & Greiner 2003). This result is also true in galaxies outside the Local Group; starburst galaxies have flatter X-ray luminosity functions than do spiral galaxies which are in turn flatter than elliptical galaxies. These observational results suggest that the high end of the luminosity function in star forming regions is dominated by short-lived high mass X-ray binaries. In Chandra Cycle 2 we started a Large Project to survey a sample of 11 nearby (< 10Mpc) face-on spiral galaxies. We find that sources can be approximately classified on the basis of their X-ray color into low mass X-ray binaries, high mass X-ray binaries and supersoft sources. There is an especially interesting class of source that has X-ray colors softer (``redder'') than a typical low mass X-ray binary source, but not so extreme as supersoft sources. Most of these are probably X-ray bright supernova remnants, but some may be a new type of black hole accretor. Finally, when we construct a luminosity function of sources selecting only sources with low mass X-ray binary colors (removing soft sources) we find that there is a dip or break probably associated with the Eddington luminosity for a neutron star.

  4. The spinning ball spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupeux, Guillaume; Le Goff, Anne; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2010-09-01

    We discuss the trajectory of a fast revolving solid ball moving in a fluid of comparable density. As the ball slows down owing to drag, its trajectory follows an exponential spiral as long as the rotation speed remains constant: at the characteristic distance L where the ball speed is significantly affected by the drag, the bending of the trajectory increases, surprisingly. Later, the rotation speed decreases, which makes the ball follow a second kind of spiral, also described in the paper. Finally, the use of these highly curved trajectories is shown to be relevant to sports.

  5. Quarkyonic Chiral Spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toru, Kojo; Hidaka, Y.; Pisarski, R.; McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    We argue the properties of confining dense quark matter, 'quarkyonic' matter, from the viewpoint of both bulk properties and excitation modes. After a brief review of confining aspects, the chiral breaking/restoration will be discussed. We argue that the strong infrared correlations induce the chiral spiral, i.e., the spatial modulation of the chiral condensate which breaks the chiral symmetry locally but restore it globally. The effective dimensional reduction takes place, allowing us to analyzing the system as 2D model in which several exact results can be explicitly derived. We also discuss the excitation spectra, both mesonic and baryonic ones, on the chiral spiral. (author)

  6. Star-Forming Complexes in Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2004-01-01

    Star complexes are the largest globular regions of star formation in galaxies. If there is a spiral density wave, nuclear ring, tidal arm, or other well-defined stellar structure, then gravitational instabilities in the gaseous component produce giant cloud complexes with a spacing of about three times the width. These gas complexes form star complexes, giving the familiar beads on a string of star formation along spiral arms, or nuclear hotspots in the case of a ring. Turbulence compression,...

  7. An Ultraviolet/Optical Atlas of Bright Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Pamela M.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Fanelli, Michael N.; Cornett, Robert H.; Waller, William H.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Neff, Susan G.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Cheng, K.-P.; Collins, Nicholas R.; Hennessy, Gregory S.; Hill, Jesse K.; Hill, Robert S.; Hintzen, Paul; Landsman, Wayne B.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Parise, Ronald A.; Smith, Eric P.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Kuchinski, Leslie E.; Madore, Barry; Angione, Ronald; Palma, Christopher; Talbert, Freddie; Stecher, Theodore P.

    2001-02-01

    We present wide-field imagery and photometry of 43 selected nearby galaxies of all morphological types at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. The ultraviolet (UV) images, in two broad bands at 1500 and 2500 Å, were obtained using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) during the Astro-1 Spacelab mission. The UV images have ~3" resolution, and the comparison sets of ground-based CCD images (in one or more of B, V, R, and Hα) have pixel scales and fields of view closely matching the UV frames. The atlas consists of multiband images and plots of UV/optical surface brightness and color profiles. Other associated parameters, such as integrated photometry and half-light radii, are tabulated. In an appendix, we discuss the sensitivity of different wavebands to a galaxy's star formation history in the form of ``history weighting functions'' and emphasize the importance of UV observations as probes of evolution during the past 10-1000 Myr. We find that UV galaxy morphologies are usually significantly different from visible band morphologies as a consequence of spatially inhomogeneous stellar populations. Differences are quite pronounced for systems in the middle range of Hubble types, Sa through Sc, but less so for ellipticals or late-type disks. Normal ellipticals and large spiral bulges are fainter and more compact in the UV. However, they typically exhibit smooth UV profiles with far-UV/optical color gradients which are larger than any at optical/IR wavelengths. The far-UV light in these cases is probably produced by extreme horizontal branch stars and their descendants in the dominant, low-mass, metal-rich population. The cool stars in the large bulges of Sa and Sb spirals fade in the UV while hot OB stars in their disks brighten, such that their Hubble classifications become significantly later. In the far-UV, early-type spirals often appear as peculiar, ringlike systems. In some spiral disks, UV-bright structures closely outline the spiral pattern; in others, the

  8. FINDING η CAR ANALOGS IN NEARBY GALAXIES USING SPITZER. I. CANDIDATE SELECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Rubab; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    The late-stage evolution of the most massive stars such as η Carinae is controlled by the effects of mass loss, which may be dominated by poorly understood eruptive mass ejections. Understanding this population is challenging because no true analogs of η Car have been clearly identified in the Milky Way or other galaxies. We utilize Spitzer IRAC images of seven nearby (∼ 10 5 L ☉ in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8.0 μm) and are not known to be background sources. Based on our estimates for the expected number of background sources, we expect that follow-up observations will show that most of these candidates are not dust enshrouded massive stars, with an expectation of only 6 ± 6 surviving candidates. Since we would detect true analogs of η Car for roughly 200 years post-eruption, this implies that the rate of eruptions like η Car is less than the core-collapse supernova rate. It is possible, however, that every M > 40 M ☉ star undergoes such eruptions given our initial results. In Paper II we will characterize the candidates through further analysis and follow-up observations, and there is no barrier to increasing the galaxy sample by an order of magnitude. The primary limitation of the present search is that Spitzer's resolution limits us to the shorter wavelength IRAC bands. With the James Webb Space Telescope, such surveys can be carried out at the far more optimal wavelengths of 10-30 μm, allowing identification of η Car analogs for millennia rather than centuries post-eruption.

  9. IDCS J1426.5+3508: DISCOVERY OF A MASSIVE, INFRARED-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, S. A.; Zeimann, Greg [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, P. R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Dey, Arjun [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Snyder, Gregory F., E-mail: stanford@physics.ucdavis.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    We report the discovery of an IR-selected massive galaxy cluster in the IRAC Deep Cluster Survey (IDCS). We present new data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the W. M. Keck Observatory that spectroscopically confirm IDCS J1426.5+3508 at z = 1.75. Moreover, the cluster is detected in archival Chandra data as an extended X-ray source, comprising 53 counts after the removal of point sources. We calculate an X-ray luminosity of L{sub 0.5-2keV} = (5.4 {+-} 1.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} within r = 60 arcsec ({approx}1 Mpc diameter), which implies M{sub 200,L{sub x}}= (5.3{+-}1.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }. IDCS J1426.5+3508 appears to be an exceptionally massive cluster for its redshift.

  10. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. II. Spectroscopic redshifts and comparisons to color selections of high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, H.; Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Conseil, S.; Hamer, S.; Akhlaghi, M.; Bouché, N.; Clément, B.; Desprez, G.; Drake, A. B.; Hashimoto, T.; Leclercq, F.; Maseda, M.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Paalvast, M.; Tresse, L.; Ventou, E.; Kollatschny, W.; Boogaard, L. A.; Finley, H.; Marino, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-11-01

    We have conducted a two-layered spectroscopic survey (1' × 1' ultra deep and 3' × 3' deep regions) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE). The combination of a large field of view, high sensitivity, and wide wavelength coverage provides an order of magnitude improvement in spectroscopically confirmed redshifts in the HUDF; i.e., 1206 secure spectroscopic redshifts for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continuum selected objects, which corresponds to 15% of the total (7904). The redshift distribution extends well beyond z> 3 and to HST/F775W magnitudes as faint as ≈ 30 mag (AB, 1σ). In addition, 132 secure redshifts were obtained for sources with no HST counterparts that were discovered in the MUSE data cubes by a blind search for emission-line features. In total, we present 1338 high quality redshifts, which is a factor of eight increase compared with the previously known spectroscopic redshifts in the same field. We assessed redshifts mainly with the spectral features [O II] at z< 1.5 (473 objects) and Lyα at 2.9 selection (dropout) diagrams of high-z galaxies. The selection condition for F336W dropouts successfully captures ≈ 80% of the targeted z 2.7 galaxies. However, for higher redshift selections (F435W, F606W, and F775W dropouts), the success rates decrease to ≈ 20-40%. We empirically redefine the selection boundaries to make an attempt to improve them to ≈ 60%. The revised boundaries allow bluer colors that capture Lyα emitters with high Lyα equivalent widths falling in the broadbands used for the color-color selection. Along with this paper, we release the redshift and line flux catalog. Based on observations made with

  11. On the dynamics of binary galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verner, D.A.; Chernin, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of close noncontact binary galaxies is investigated. It is demonsrated that the tidal interaction is ineffective for circularization of galaxy orbits. Nonsphericity of galaxies develops a torque in a binary system. For a pair of elliptical galaxies this torque leads to swinging of the galaxies with respect to the orbital plane (which can be observed as a rotation about the minor axis) and to the excitation of internal degrees of freedom. Besides, this pendulum effect may be effective for elliptical galaxies in clusters due to the presence of the torque produced by a cluster as a whole. In the case of spiral galaxies the torque leads to the precession of their rotational axes. However this effect seems to be too weak to be observable

  12. The Cambridge photographic atlas of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    König, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Galaxies - the Milky Way's siblings - offer a surprising variety of forms and colours. Displaying symmetrical spiral arms, glowing red nebulae or diffuse halos, even the image of a galaxy can reveal much about its construction. All galaxies consist of gas, dust and stars, but the effects of gravity, dark matter and the interaction of star formation and stellar explosions all influence their appearances. This volume showcases more than 250 of the most beautiful galaxies within an amateur's reach and uses them to explain current astrophysical research. It features fantastic photographs, unique insights into our knowledge, tips on astrophotography and essential facts and figures based on the latest science. From the Andromeda Galaxy to galaxy clusters and gravitational lenses, the nature of galaxies is revealed through these stunning amateur photographs. This well illustrated reference atlas deserves a place on the bookshelves of astronomical imagers, observers and armchair enthusiasts.

  13. Spiral CT manifestations of spherical pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Yang Hongwei; Xu Chunmin; Qin Xiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the Spiral CT manifestations and differential diagnosis of spherical pneumonia. Methods: 18 cases of spherical pneumonia and 20 cases of peripheral pulmonary carcinoma were selected, both of them were confirmed by clinic and/or pathology. The SCT findings of both groups were compared retrospectively. Results: Main spiral CT findings of spherical pneumonia were showed as followings: square or triangular lesions adjacent to pleura; with irregular shape, blurry, slightly lobulated margin, sometimes with halo sign. Small inflammatory patches and intensified vascular markings around the lesions were seen. Lesions became smaller or vanished after short-term anti-inflammatory treatment. Conclusion: Spherical pneumonia showed some characteristics on Spiral CT scan, which are helpful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this disease. (authors)

  14. Dependence between the colour of galaxies in pairs (Holmberg effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.V.; Zasov, A.V.; Dibaj, Eh.A.; Tomov, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Proceeding from the data of photoelectric photometpy by Tomov, the colours of galaxies in double systems are studied For the most of the paips formed by elliptical (EE) or by spiral (SS) galaxies, the difference between the corrected colour indices (B-V)sub(T)sup(0) of components does not exceed 0.10 and does not depend on the difference ΔT of their morphological types The correlation between the colours of galaxies in EE-pairs can be explained by the similaritins of element abundances but not of the luminosities of galaxies. The elliptical and SO-galaxies in pairs with the spiral galaxies ape noticeably bluep on the avepage. The relation between the colours of galaxies in ES-pairs is possible. The colours of early-type spiral galaxies (T < 4) in most of the SS-systems are more blue as compared to the mean colours of galaxies of the same type T. A similarity of the colours of the galaxies in many of the SS-pairs can be a result of the periodically repeated bursts of star formation which take place in both galaxies simultaneously

  15. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined by the...

  16. Spiraling into Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranton, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how technical and vocational learning may spiral into transformative learning. Transformative learning theory is reviewed and the learning tasks of critical theory are used to integrate various approaches to transformative learning. With this as a foundation, the article explores how transformative learning can be fostered in…

  17. Archimedean Voronoi spiral tilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Yoshikazu; Sushida, Takamichi

    2018-01-01

    We study the transition of the number of spirals (called parastichy in the theory of phyllotaxis) within a Voronoi tiling for Archimedean spiral lattices. The transition of local parastichy numbers within a tiling is regarded as a transition at the base site point in a continuous family of tilings. This gives a natural description of the quasiperiodic structure of the grain boundaries. It is proved that the number of tiles in the grain boundaries are denominators of rational approximations of the argument (called the divergence angle) of the generator. The local parastichy numbers are non-decreasing functions of the plastochron parameter. The bifurcation diagram of local parastichy numbers has a Farey tree structure. We also prove Richards’ formula of spiral phyllotaxis in the case of Archimedean Voronoi spiral tilings, and show that, if the divergence angle is a quadratic irrational number, then the shapes of tiles in the grain boundaries are close to rectangles. If the divergence angle is linearly equivalent to the golden section, then the shape of tiles in the grain boundaries is close to square.

  18. Properties of spiral resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.

    1989-10-01

    The present thesis deals with the calculation and the study of the application possibilities of single and double spiral resonators. The main aim was the development and the construction of reliable and effective high-power spiral resonators for the UNILAC of the GSI in Darmstadt and the H - -injector for the storage ring HERA of DESY in Hamburg. After the presentation of the construction and the properties of spiral resonators and their description by oscillating-circuit models the theoretical foundations of the bunching are presented and some examples of a rebuncher and debuncher and their influence on the longitudinal particle dynamics are shown. After the description of the characteristic accelerator quantities by means of an oscillating-circuit model and the theory of an inhomogeneous λ/4 line it is shown, how the resonance frequency and the efficiency of single and double spiral resonators can be calculated from the geometrical quantities of the structure. In the following the dependence of the maximal reachable resonator voltage in dependence on the gap width and the surface of the drift tubes is studied. Furthermore the high-power resonators are presented, which were built for the different applications for the GSI in Darmstadt, DESY in Hamburg, and for the FOM Institute in Amsterdam. (orig./HSI) [de

  19. Important Nearby Galaxies without Accurate Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) and its offspring programs (e.g., THINGS, HERACLES, KINGFISH) have resulted in a fundamental change in our view of star formation and the ISM in galaxies, and together they represent the most complete multi-wavelength data set yet assembled for a large sample of nearby galaxies. These great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the goal of understanding the interstellar medium, the star formation process, and, more generally, galactic evolution at the present epoch. Nearby galaxies provide the basis for which we interpret the distant universe, and the SINGS sample represents the best studied nearby galaxies.Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of galaxies. Surprisingly, many of the SINGS spiral galaxies have numerous distance estimates resulting in confusion. We can rectify this situation for 8 of the SINGS spiral galaxies within 10 Mpc at a very low cost through measurements of the tip of the red giant branch. The proposed observations will provide an accuracy of better than 0.1 in distance modulus. Our sample includes such well known galaxies as M51 (the Whirlpool), M63 (the Sunflower), M104 (the Sombrero), and M74 (the archetypal grand design spiral).We are also proposing coordinated parallel WFC3 UV observations of the central regions of the galaxies, rich with high-mass UV-bright stars. As a secondary science goal we will compare the resolved UV stellar populations with integrated UV emission measurements used in calibrating star formation rates. Our observations will complement the growing HST UV atlas of high resolution images of nearby galaxies.

  20. Detailed Quantitative Classifications of Galaxy Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Preethi

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the physical processes responsible for the growth of galaxies is one of the key challenges in extragalactic astronomy. The assembly history of a galaxy is imprinted in a galaxy’s detailed morphology. The bulge-to-total ratio of galaxies, the presence or absence of bars, rings, spiral arms, tidal tails etc, all have implications for the past merger, star formation, and feedback history of a galaxy. However, current quantitative galaxy classification schemes are only useful for broad binning. They cannot classify or exploit the wide variety of galaxy structures seen in nature. Therefore, comparisons of observations with theoretical predictions of secular structure formation have only been conducted on small samples of visually classified galaxies. However large samples are needed to disentangle the complex physical processes of galaxy formation. With the advent of large surveys, like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and WFIRST, the problem of statistics will be resolved. However, the need for a robust quantitative classification scheme will still remain. Here I will present early results on promising machine learning algorithms that are providing detailed classifications, identifying bars, rings, multi-armed spiral galaxies, and Hubble type.

  1. The power spectra of non-circular motions in disk galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Kyle; Laws, Anna S. E.; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the first year of the SDSS-IV/MaNGA survey, we present a preliminary study of the amplitude of non-circular motions in a sample of disk galaxies. We select galaxies that have either a visual classification as a spiral galaxy by the Galaxy Zoo project (Lintott et al. 2011) and/or a measured Sersic index of less than 2.5 from the NASA-Sloan Atlas (nsatlas.org). We also remove high-inclination systems by selecting galaxies with isophotal ellipticity measurements of less than 0.6, implying an inclination of less than 65 degrees. For each galaxy, we fit a tilted-disk model to the observed line-of-sight velocities (Andersen & Bershady 2013). The geometric projection of the circularly rotating disk is simultaneously fit to both the ionized-gas (H-alpha) and stellar kinematics, whereas the rotation curves of the two dynamical tracers are allowed to be independent. We deproject the residuals of the velocity-field fit to the disk-plane polar coordinates and select a radial region that is fully covered in aziumuth, yet not undersampled by the on-sky spaxel. Similar to the approach taken by Bovy et al. (2015) for the Milky Way, we then compute the two-dimensional power spectrum of this velocity-residual map, which provides the amplitude of non-circular motions at all modes probed by the data. Our preliminary analysis reveals disk-plane non-circular motions in both the stars and ionized-gas with typical peak amplitudes of approximately 20 km/s. Additionally, our initial findings appear to demonstrate that non-circular motions in barred galaxies are stronger in the ionized gas than in the stars, a trend not seen in unbarred galaxies.

  2. The SAURON project - XI. Stellar populations from absorption-line strength maps of 24 early-type spirals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Ganda, Katia; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; van de Ven, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    We present absorption-line strength maps of a sample of 24 representative early-type spiral galaxies, mostly of type Sa, obtained as part of the SAURON (Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae) survey of nearby galaxies using our custom-built integral-field spectrograph. Using

  3. Balance of dark and luminous mass in rotating galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, Stacy S

    2005-10-21

    A fine balance between dark and baryonic mass is observed in spiral galaxies. As the contribution of the baryons to the total rotation velocity increases, the contribution of the dark matter decreases by a compensating amount. This poses a fine-tuning problem for galaxy formation models, and may point to new physics for dark matter particles or even a modification of gravity.

  4. Dynamical decomposition of galaxies across the Hubble sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, L.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; van de Ven, G.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Lyubenova, M.; Meidt, S. E.; Martig, M.; Yildirim, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing and upcoming integral-field spectroscopic surveys will provide stellar kinematic maps of thousands of nearby galaxies across the Hubble sequence. For the first time, we have been able to construct Schwarzschild dynamical models that fit in detail elliptical through spiral galaxies from the

  5. The rotation curves shapes of late-type dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaters, R. A.; Sancisi, R.; van Albada, T. S.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    We present rotation curves derived from Hi observations for a sample of 62 galaxies that have been observed as part of the Westerbork Hi Survey of Spiral and Irregular Galaxies (WHISP) project. These rotation curves have been derived by interactively fitting model data cubes to the observed cubes.

  6. The mass distribution in early type disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E; van der Hulst, T; Sancisi, R; Swaters, R; Ryder, SD; Pisano, DJ; Walker, MA; Freeman, KC

    2004-01-01

    We are studying the mass distribution in a sample of 50 early type spiral galaxies, with morphological type betweens SO and Sab and absolute magnitudes M-B between -18 and -22; they form the massive and high-surface brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population. Our study is designed to

  7. The mass distribution in early type disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E.; Hulst, J. M. van der; Sancisi, R.; Swaters, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: We are studying the mass distribution in a sample of 50 early type spiral galaxies, with morphological type betweens S0 and Sab and absolute magnitudes M_B between -18 and -22; they form the massive and high-surface brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population. Our study is designed to

  8. Winding sense of galaxies around the local supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryal, Binil

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the winding sense (S and Z-shapes) of 1621 field galaxies that have radial velocity between 3000 km s -1 and 5000 km s -1 . The preferred alignments of S- and Z-shaped galaxies are studied using chi-square, autocorrelation and Fourier series tests. We classify all the galaxies into 32 subsamples and notice a good agreement between the position angle (PA) distribution of the S- and Z-shaped galaxies. The homogeneous distribution of the S- and Z-shaped galaxies is more noticeable for the late-type spirals (Sc, Scd, Sd and Sm) than for the early-types (Sa, Sab, Sb and Sbc). A significant dominance of S-mode galaxies is apparent in the barred spirals. A random alignment is evident in the PA-distribution of Z- and S-mode spirals. In addition, a homogeneous distribution of the S- and Z-shaped galaxies is found to be invariant under global expansion. The PA-distribution of the total S-mode galaxies is found to be random, whereas a preferred alignment is clear for all the Z-mode galaxies. It is found that the galactic planes of Z-mode galaxies tend to lie in the equatorial plane.

  9. Spiral 2 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The accelerator and experimental facilities at GANIL will be transformed over the next 5-10 years. The centerpiece of the additions to the accelerator complex will be Spiral-2. This is the first phase of a new radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL principle. The main aim of Spiral-2 will be to produce intense, high quality beams of neutron-rich nuclei created in neutron-induced fission of heavy elements and accelerated by the existing CIME cyclotron. The principal aims of this workshop will be a) to publicize the new facilities, b) to discuss and define the science which might be carried out with them, c) to discuss the instrumentation and infrastructure required to exploit the new facilities and d) to help form collaborations of scientists wishing to design and construct the equipment needed to undertake the science programme. This document gathers most of the slides presented in the workshop.

  10. Clear New View of a Classic Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    ESO is releasing a beautiful image of the nearby galaxy Messier 83 taken by the HAWK-I instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. The picture shows the galaxy in infrared light and demonstrates the impressive power of the camera to create one of the sharpest and most detailed pictures of Messier 83 ever taken from the ground. The galaxy Messier 83 (eso0825) is located about 15 million light-years away in the constellation of Hydra (the Sea Serpent). It spans over 40 000 light-years, only 40 percent the size of the Milky Way, but in many ways is quite similar to our home galaxy, both in its spiral shape and the presence of a bar of stars across its centre. Messier 83 is famous among astronomers for its many supernovae: vast explosions that end the lives of some stars. Over the last century, six supernovae have been observed in Messier 83 - a record number that is matched by only one other galaxy. Even without supernovae, Messier 83 is one of the brightest nearby galaxies, visible using just binoculars. Messier 83 has been observed in the infrared part of the spectrum using HAWK-I [1], a powerful camera on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). When viewed in infrared light most of the obscuring dust that hides much of Messier 83 becomes transparent. The brightly lit gas around hot young stars in the spiral arms is also less prominent in infrared pictures. As a result much more of the structure of the galaxy and the vast hordes of its constituent stars can be seen. This clear view is important for astronomers looking for clusters of young stars, especially those hidden in dusty regions of the galaxy. Studying such star clusters was one of the main scientific goals of these observations [2]. When compared to earlier images, the acute vision of HAWK-I reveals far more stars within the galaxy. The combination of the huge mirror of the VLT, the large field of view and great sensitivity of the camera, and the superb observing conditions

  11. An H I view of galaxy conformity: H I-rich environment around H I-excess galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jing; Serra, Paolo; Józsa, Gyula I. G.; Koribalski, Bärbel; van der Hulst, Thijs; Kamphuis, Peter; Li, Cheng; Fu, Jian; Xiao, Ting; Overzier, Roderik; Wieringa, Mark; Wang, Enci

    2015-01-01

    Using data taken as part of the Bluedisk project, we study the connection between neutral hydrogen (H I) in the environment of spiral galaxies and that in the galaxies themselves. We measure the total H I mass present in the environment in a statistical way by studying the distribution of noise

  12. Testing the Link Between Terrestrial Climate Change and Galactic Spiral Arm Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Andrew C.; Melott, Adrian L.; Pohl, Martin

    2009-11-01

    We re-examine past suggestions of a close link between terrestrial climate change and the Sun's transit of spiral arms in its path through the Milky Way galaxy. These links produced concrete fits, deriving the unknown spiral pattern speed from terrestrial climate correlations. We test these fits against new data on spiral structure based on CO data that do not make simplifying assumptions about symmetry and circular rotation. If we compare the times of these transits with changes in the climate of Earth, the claimed correlations not only disappear, but we also find that they cannot be resurrected for any reasonable pattern speed.

  13. B and R CCD surface photometry of selected low surface brightness galaxies in the region of the Fornax cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The recent discoveries of large numbers of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in clusters and of the extreme LSB giant galaxy Malin 1 are changing our view of the galactic contents of the Universe. In this paper we describe B and R band CCD photometry of a sample of LSB galaxies previously identified from photographic plates of the Fornax cluster. This sample contains some of the lowest surface brightness galaxies known, one having the same central surface brightness as Main 1. The objects in this sample have a wide range of morphologies, and galaxies of similar appearance may have very different (B-R) colours. The range of (B-R) colours for this sample (almost all of which would have been described as dE from their B band morphology alone) is as large as that of the entire Hubble sequence. (author)

  14. UNCOVERING THE ORIGINS OF SPIRAL STRUCTURE BY MEASURING RADIAL VARIATION IN PATTERN SPEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meidt, Sharon E.; Rand, Richard J.; Merrifield, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Current theories of spiral and bar structure predict a variety of pattern speed behaviors, calling for detailed, direct measurement of the radial variation of pattern speeds. Our recently developed Radial Tremaine-Weinberg (TWR) method allows this goal to be achieved for the first time. Here, we present TWR spiral pattern speed estimates for M101, IC 342, NGC 3938, and NGC 3344 in order to investigate whether spiral structure is steady or winding, whether spirals are described by multiple pattern speeds, and the relation between bar and spiral speeds. Where possible, we interpret our pattern speeds estimates according to the resonance radii associated with each (established with the disk angular rotation), and compare these to previous determinations. By analyzing the high-quality H I and CO data cubes available for these galaxies, we show that it is possible to determine directly multiple pattern speeds within these systems, and hence identify the characteristic signatures of the processes that drive the spiral structure. Even this small sample of galaxies reveals a surprisingly complex taxonomy, with the first direct evidence for the presence of resonant coupling of multiple patterns found in some systems, and the measurement of a simple single-pattern speed in others. Overall, this study demonstrates that we are now in a position to uncover more of the apparently complex physics that lies behind spiral structure.

  15. The visibility of high-redshift galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Davies, J.I.; Disney, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The most visible galaxies - that is, those which have the largest apparent sizes and isophotal luminosities when seen at a given distance - are those with a particular observed surface brightness. Extending this argument to high-redshift galaxies, it is clear that this optimum surface brightness moves progressively to brighter intrinsic surface brightnesses, so as to counteract the effect of K-corrections and cosmological dimming. Thus the galaxies appearing in faint surveys will be from a population distinctly different from those 'normal' galaxies observed nearby. Galaxies in deep surveys are more likely to be spirals and to be of high surface brightness. This has very important implications for observational studies of galaxy evolution. (author)

  16. Investigation of morphological features of six interacting galaxies. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroviakovskaia, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The morphology of six groups of interacting galaxies in Vorontsov-Vel'iaminov's atlas is investigated by digital filtering methods using large-scale photographs obtained with the 6-m telescope. It is shown that of five groups of galaxies that might appear as chains in direct photographs, only one is probably a real chain. In the group VV 551, which was previously classified as a blue nest consisting of four or five members, only two spiral galaxies have been found

  17. The role of black holes in galaxy formation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, A; Faber, S M; Binney, J; Dekel, A; Kormendy, J; Mushotzky, R; Babul, A; Best, P N; Brüggen, M; Fabian, A C; Frenk, C S; Khalatyan, A; Netzer, H; Mahdavi, A; Silk, J; Steinmetz, M; Wisotzki, L

    2009-07-09

    Virtually all massive galaxies, including our own, host central black holes ranging in mass from millions to billions of solar masses. The growth of these black holes releases vast amounts of energy that powers quasars and other weaker active galactic nuclei. A tiny fraction of this energy, if absorbed by the host galaxy, could halt star formation by heating and ejecting ambient gas. A central question in galaxy evolution is the degree to which this process has caused the decline of star formation in large elliptical galaxies, which typically have little cold gas and few young stars, unlike spiral galaxies.

  18. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our...... analyses are biased towards the brightest galaxies at all times (as these are easier to observe and identify). A complementary method relies on the absorption imprint from neutral gas in galaxies, the so-called damped Ly absorbers (DLAs) seen towards distant bright objects. This thesis seeks to understand...... how the absorption selected galaxies relate to the emission selected galaxies by identifying the faint glow from the absorbing galaxies at redshift z 2. In Chapters 2 and 3, the emission properties of DLAs are studied in detail using state-of-the-art instrumentation. The specific DLA studied...

  19. Chronic neurotrophin delivery promotes ectopic neurite growth from the spiral ganglion of deafened cochleae without compromising the spatial selectivity of cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Thomas G; Fallon, James B; Wise, Andrew K; Shepherd, Robert K

    2013-08-15

    Cochlear implants restore hearing cues in the severe-profoundly deaf by electrically stimulating spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). However, SGNs degenerate following loss of cochlear hair cells, due at least in part to a reduction in the endogenous neurotrophin (NT) supply, normally provided by hair cells and supporting cells of the organ of Corti. Delivering exogenous NTs to the cochlea can rescue SGNs from degeneration and can also promote the ectopic growth of SGN neurites. This resprouting may disrupt the cochleotopic organization upon which cochlear implants rely to impart pitch cues. Using retrograde labeling and confocal imaging of SGNs, we determined the extent of neurite growth following 28 days of exogenous NT treatment in deafened guinea pigs with and without chronic electrical stimulation (ES). On completion of this treatment, we measured the spread of neural activation to intracochlear ES by recording neural responses across the cochleotopically organized inferior colliculus using multichannel recording techniques. Although NT treatment significantly increased both the length and the lateral extent of growth of neurites along the cochlea compared with deafened controls, these anatomical changes did not affect the spread of neural activation when examined immediately after 28 days of NT treatment. NT treatment did, however, result in lower excitation thresholds compared with deafened controls. These data support the application of NTs for improved clinical outcomes for cochlear implant patients. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dark matter halo properties from galaxy-galaxy lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brimioulle, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    The scientific results over the past years have shown that the Universe is by far not only composed of baryonic matter. In fact the major energy content of 72% of the Universe appears to be represented by so-called dark energy, while even from the remaining components only about one fifth is of baryonic origin, whereas 80% have to be attributed to dark matter. Originally appearing in observations of spiral galaxy rotation curves, the need for dark matter has also been verified investigating elliptical galaxies and galaxy clusters. In fact, it appears that dark matter played a major role during structure formation in the early Universe. Shortly after the Big Bang, when the matter distribution was almost homogeneous, initially very small inhomogeneities in the matter distribution formed the seeds for the gravitational collapse of the matter structures. Numerical n-body simulations, for instance, clearly indicate that the presently observable evolutionary state and complexity of the matter structure in the Universe would not have been possible without dark matter, which significantly accelerated the structure collapse due to its gravitational interaction. As dark matter does not interact electromagnetically and therefore is non-luminous but only interacts gravitationally, the gravitational lens effect provides an excellent opportunity for its detection and estimation of its amount. Weak gravitational lensing is a technique that makes use of the random orientation of the intrinsic galaxy ellipticities and thus their uniform distribution. Gravitational tidal forces introduce a coherent distortion of the background object shapes, leading to a deviation from the uniform distribution which depends on the lens galaxy properties and therefore can be used to study them. This thesis describes the galaxy-galaxy lensing analysis of 89deg 2 of optical data, observed within the CFHTLS-WIDE survey. In the framework of this thesis the data were used in order to create photometric

  1. Band-notched spiral antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jae; Chang, John

    2018-03-13

    A band-notched spiral antenna having one or more spiral arms extending from a radially inner end to a radially outer end for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic radiation over a frequency range, and one or more resonance structures positioned adjacent one or more segments of the spiral arm associated with a notch frequency band or bands of the frequency range so as to resonate and suppress the transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation over said notch frequency band or bands.

  2. Cosmic Collisions: Galaxy Mergers and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouille, Laura; Willett, Kyle; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Christopher; Whyte, Laura; Lynn, Stuart; Tremonti, Christina A.

    2014-08-01

    Over the years evidence has mounted for a significant mode of galaxy evolution via mergers. This process links gas-rich, spiral galaxies; starbursting galaxies; active galactic nuclei (AGN); post-starburst galaxies; and gas-poor, elliptical galaxies, as objects representing different phases of major galaxy mergers. The post-starburst phase is particularly interesting because nearly every galaxy that evolves from star-forming to quiescent must pass through it. In essence, this phase is a sort of galaxy evolution “bottleneck” that indicates that a galaxy is actively evolving through important physical transitions. In this talk I will present the results from the ‘Galaxy Zoo Quench’ project - using post-starburst galaxies to place observational constraints on the role of mergers and AGN activity in quenching star formation. `Quench’ is the first fully collaborative research project with Zooniverse citizen scientists online; engaging the public in all phases of research, from classification to data analysis and discussion to writing the article and submission to a refereed journal.

  3. Using CO as a Physical Probe of the SF Activity in the Planck-Herschel Selected Hyper Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Multi-J CO line studies are essential for quantifying the physical properties of the star-forming ISM, yet it is observationally expensive to detect those faint CO emission lines at high redshift. Our eight Planck-Herschel selected galaxies, with apparent LIR > 1013‑14 L⊙, serve as the best laboratories to conduct such a CO spectral line energy distribution analysis at high-z. Using our GBT and LMT (Jup = 1-3) measurements, we trace the bulk molecular gas mass, finding relatively large star formation efficiencies (as traced by the LIR-to-L’CO(1‑0) ratio) consistent with a starburst mode of activity. With our mid-J (Jup = 4-8) CO line measurements, obtained with the IRAM 30m telescope, we find gas excitation conditions ranging from sub-thermal SMGs to highly excited local starbursts out to Jup = 5-8. The consistently high velocity-integrated line intensities at Jup = 5-8 indicates the presence a warm/dense component responsible for exciting the higher-J CO lines, therefore we use coupled non-LTE large velocity gradient and dust radiative transfer models to begin characterising the two-component molecular ISM in these strongly lensed systems.

  4. J1649+2635: A Grand-Design Spiral with a Large Double-Lobed Radio Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Minnie Y.; Owen, Frazer; Duffin, Ryan; Keel, Bill; Lacy, Mark; Momjian, Emmanuel; Morrison, Glenn; Mroczkowski, Tony; Neff, Susan; Norris, Ray P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a grand-design spiral galaxy associated with a double-lobed radio source. J1649+2635 (z = 0.0545) is a red spiral galaxy with a prominent bulge that it is associated with a L(1.4GHz) is approximately 10(exp24) W Hz(exp-1) double-lobed radio source that spans almost 100 kpc. J1649+2635 has a black hole mass of M(BH) is approximately 3-7 × 10(exp8) Solar mass and SFR is approximately 0.26 - 2.6 solar mass year(exp-1). The galaxy hosts a approximately 96 kpc diffuse optical halo, which is unprecedented for spiral galaxies. We find that J1649+2635 resides in an overdense environment with a mass of M(dyn) = 7.7(+7.9/-4.3) × 10(exp13) Solar mass, likely a galaxy group below the detection threshold of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. We suggest one possible scenario for the association of double-lobed radio emission from J1649+2635 is that the source may be similar to a Seyfert galaxy, located in a denser-than-normal environment. The study of spiral galaxies that host large-scale radio emission is important because although rare in the local Universe, these sources may be more common at high-redshifts.

  5. The subtropical nutrient spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, William J.; Doney, Scott C.

    2003-12-01

    We present an extended series of observations and more comprehensive analysis of a tracer-based measure of new production in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda using the 3He flux gauge technique. The estimated annually averaged nitrate flux of 0.84 ± 0.26 mol m-2 yr-1 constitutes only that nitrate physically transported to the euphotic zone, not nitrogen from biological sources (e.g., nitrogen fixation or zooplankton migration). We show that the flux estimate is quantitatively consistent with other observations, including decade timescale evolution of the 3H + 3He inventory in the main thermocline and export production estimates. However, we argue that the flux cannot be supplied in the long term by local diapycnal or isopycnal processes. These considerations lead us to propose a three-dimensional pathway whereby nutrients remineralized within the main thermocline are returned to the seasonally accessible layers within the subtropical gyre. We describe this mechanism, which we call "the nutrient spiral," as a sequence of steps where (1) nutrient-rich thermocline waters are entrained into the Gulf Stream, (2) enhanced diapycnal mixing moves nutrients upward onto lighter densities, (3) detrainment and enhanced isopycnal mixing injects these waters into the seasonally accessible layer of the gyre recirculation region, and (4) the nutrients become available to biota via eddy heaving and wintertime convection. The spiral is closed when nutrients are utilized, exported, and then remineralized within the thermocline. We present evidence regarding the characteristics of the spiral and discuss some implications of its operation within the biogeochemical cycle of the subtropical ocean.

  6. CERN News: Selection of the type of superconducting coil for the Omega project; New intensity records at the proton synchrotron; Progress with the Spiral Reader film measuring equipment; New technique at transition energy on the proton synchrotron; CERN Courier 10th anniversary; Equipment travelling from and to Serpukhov

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    CERN News: Selection of the type of superconducting coil for the Omega project; New intensity records at the proton synchrotron; Progress with the Spiral Reader film measuring equipment; New technique at transition energy on the proton synchrotron; CERN Courier 10th anniversary; Equipment travelling from and to Serpukhov

  7. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  8. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR SPIRALS: FEEDING THE BLACK HOLE IN NGC 1097

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Ven, Glenn; Fathi, Kambiz

    2010-01-01

    We present a harmonic expansion of the observed line-of-sight velocity field as a method to recover and investigate spiral structures in the nuclear regions of galaxies. We apply it to the emission-line velocity field within the circumnuclear star-forming ring of NGC 1097, obtained with the GMOS-IFU spectrograph. The radial variation of the third harmonic terms is well described by a logarithmic spiral, from which we interpret that the gravitational potential is weakly perturbed by a two-arm spiral density wave with an inferred pitch angle of 52 0 ± 4 0 . This interpretation predicts a two-arm spiral distortion in the surface brightness, as hinted by the dust structures in central images of NGC 1097, and predicts a combined one-arm and three-arm spiral structure in the velocity field, as revealed in the non-circular motions of the ionized gas. Next, we use a simple spiral perturbation model to constrain the fraction of the measured non-circular motions that is due to radial inflow. We combine the resulting inflow velocity with the gas density in the spiral arms, inferred from emission-line ratios, to estimate the mass inflow rate as a function of radius, which reaches about 0.011 M sun yr -1 at a distance of 70 pc from the center. This value corresponds to a fraction of about 4.2 x 10 -3 of the Eddington mass accretion rate onto the central black hole in this LINER/Seyfert1 galaxy. We conclude that the line-of-sight velocity can not only provide a cleaner view of nuclear spirals than the associated dust, but that the presented method also allows the quantitative study of these possibly important links in fueling the centers of galaxies, including providing a constraint on the mass inflow rate as a function of radius.

  9. GANIL-SPIRAL2: A new era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, Sydney

    2011-05-01

    GANIL presently offers unique opportunities in nuclear physics and many other fields that arise from not only the provision of low-energy stable beams, fragmentation beams and re-accelerated radioactive species, but also from the availability of a wide range of state-of-the-art spectrometers and instrumentation. A few examples of recent highlights are discussed in the present paper. With the construction of SPIRAL2 over the next few years, GANIL is in a good position to retain its world-leading capability. As selected by the ESFRI committee, the next generation of ISOL facility in Europe is represented by the SPIRAL2 project to be built at GANIL (Caen, France). SPIRAL 2 is based on a high power, CW, superconducting LINAC, delivering 5 mA of deuteron beams at 40 MeV (200 KW) directed on a C converter+ Uranium target and producing therefore more than 1013 fissions/s. The expected radioactive beam intensities in the mass range from A = 60 to A = 140, will surpass by two orders of magnitude any existing facilities in the world. These unstable atoms will be available at energies between few KeV/n to 15 MeV/n. The same driver will accelerate high intensity (100 μA to 1 mA), heavier ions (Ar up to Xe) at maximum energy of 14 MeV/n. Under the 7FP program of European Union called *Preparatory phase*, the SPIRAL2 project has been granted a budget of about 4M€ to build up an international consortium around this new venture. The status of the construction of SPIRAL2 accelerator and associated physics instruments in collaboration with EU and International partners will be presented.

  10. SPIRAL2 at GANIL: Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, S.

    2008-05-01

    To pursue the investigation of a new territory of nuclei with extreme N/Z called ``terra incognita'' several projects, all aiming at the increase by several orders of magnitude of the RIB intensities are now under discussions worldwide. In Europe, two major new projects have been approved recently FAIRatGSI using the so-called ``in-flight'' method and SPIRAL2atGANIL, based on the ISOL method. Both projects were selected in the European Strategic Roadmap For research Infrastructures (ESFRI). The main goal of SPIRAL2 is clearly to extend our knowledge of the limit of existence and the structure of nuclei deeply in the medium and heavy mass region (A = 60 to 140) which is to day an almost unexplored continent. SPIRAL 2 is based on a high power, CW, superconducting driver LINAC, delivering 5 mA of deuteron beams at 40 MeV (200 KW) directed on a C converter+ Uranium target and producing therefore more 1013 fissions/s. The expected radioactive beams intensities for exotic species in the mass range from A = 60 to A = 140, of the order of 106 to 1010 pps will surpass by two order of magnitude any existing facilities in the world. These unstable atoms will be available at energies between few KeV/n to 15 MeV/n. The same driver will accelerate high intensity (100 μA to 1 mA), heavier ions up to Ar at 14 MeV/n producing also proton rich exotic nuclei. In applied areas SPIRAL2 is considered as a powerful variable energy neutron source, a must to study the impact of nuclear fission and fusion on materials. The intensities of these unstable species are excellent opportunities for new tracers and diagnostics either for solid state, material or for radiobiological science and medicine. The ``Go'' decision has been taken in May 2005. The investments and personnel costs amount to 190 M€, for the construction period 2006-2012. Construction of the SPIRAL2 facility is shared by ten French laboratories and a network of international partners. Under the 7FP program of European Union

  11. IMAGES. I. Strong evolution of galaxy kinematics since z = 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Flores, H.; Hammer, F.; Neichel, B.; Puech, M.; Nesvadba, N.; Rawat, A.; Cesarsky, C.; Lehnert, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Fuentes-Carrera, I.; Amram, P.; Balkowski, C.; Dannerbauer, H.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Guiderdoni, B.; Kembhavi, A.; Liang, Y. C.; Östlin, G.; Ravikumar, C. D.; Vergani, D.; Vernet, J.; Wozniak, H.

    2008-01-01

    Nearly half the stellar mass of present-day spiral galaxies has formed since z = 1, and galaxy kinematics is an ideal tool to identify the underlying mechanisms responsible for the galaxy mass assembly since that epoch. Here, we present the first results of the ESO large program, “IMAGES”, which aims at obtaining robust measurements of the kinematics of distant galaxies using the multi-IFU mode of GIRAFFE on the VLT. 3D spectroscopy is essential to robustly measure the often distorted kinematics of distant galaxies (e.g., Flores et al. 2006, A&A, 455, 107). We derive the velocity fields and σ-maps of 36 galaxies at 0.4 evolution of the galaxy kinematics that we observe. Intermediate MAss Galaxy Evolution Sequence, ESO programs 174.B-0328(A), 174.B-0328(A), 174.B-0328(E).

  12. Starbursts and IRAS galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfort, P.

    1987-01-01

    Several observational hints suggest that most of the IRAS galaxies are undergoing bursts of star formation. A simple photometric model of starburst galaxy was developed in order to check whether starburst events are really able to account for the far-infrared and optical properties of all the IRAS galaxies with HII region-like spectra. FIR activities up to a few hundred are actually easily reached with rather small bursts in red host-galaxies, and L IR /L B , EW(Hα) and U-B) versus (B-V) diagrams can be used to estimate burst strength and extinction. But more observations are required to conclude about the most extreme cases. Four typical infrared-selected IRAS galaxies are presented and their burst strength and extinction estimated

  13. First Results from the VIRIAL Survey: The Stellar Content of UVJ-selected Quiescent Galaxies at 1.5 < z < 2 from KMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, J. Trevor; Saglia, Roberto P.; Bender, Ralf; Beifiori, Alessandra; Chan, Jeffrey; Fossati, Matteo; Wilman, David J.; Bandara, Kaushala; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Galametz, Audrey; Kulkarni, Sandesh; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Wuyts, Stijn

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the stellar populations of 25 massive galaxies (log [{{M}*}/{{M}⊙ }]≥slant 10.9) at 1.5\\lt z\\lt 2 using data obtained with the K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph (KMOS) on the ESO VLT. Targets were selected to be quiescent based on their broadband colors and redshifts using data from the 3D-HST grism survey. The mean redshift of our sample is \\bar{z}=1.75, where KMOS YJ-band data probe age- and metallicity-sensitive absorption features in the rest-frame optical, including the G-band, Fe i, and high-order Balmer lines. Fitting simple stellar population models to a stack of our KMOS spectra, we derive a mean age of 1.03-0.08+0.13 Gyr. We confirm previous results suggesting a correlation between color and age for quiescent galaxies, finding mean ages of 1.22-0.19+0.56 Gyr and 0.85-0.05+0.08 Gyr for the reddest and bluest galaxies in our sample. Combining our KMOS measurements with those obtained from previous studies at 0.2\\lt z\\lt 2 we find evidence for a 2-3 Gyr spread in the formation epoch of massive galaxies. At z\\lt 1 the measured stellar ages are consistent with passive evolution, while at 1\\lt z≲ 2 they appear to saturate at ˜1 Gyr, which likely reflects changing demographics of the (mean) progenitor population. By comparing to star formation histories inferred for “normal” star-forming galaxies, we show that the timescales required to form massive galaxies at z≳ 1.5 are consistent with the enhanced α-element abundances found in massive local early-type galaxies. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDs 092.A-0091, 093.A-0079, 093.A-0187, and 094.A-0287). This work is further based on observations taken by the 3D-HST Treasury Program (GO 12177 and 12328) with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  14. An Elegant Galaxy in an Unusual Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    A new image taken with the powerful HAWK-I camera on ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory in Chile shows the beautiful barred spiral galaxy NGC 1365 in infrared light. NGC 1365 is a member of the Fornax cluster of galaxies, and lies about 60 million light-years from Earth. NGC 1365 is one of the best known and most studied barred spiral galaxies and is sometimes nicknamed the Great Barred Spiral Galaxy because of its strikingly perfect form, with the straight bar and two very prominent outer spiral arms. Closer to the centre there is also a second spiral structure and the whole galaxy is laced with delicate dust lanes. This galaxy is an excellent laboratory for astronomers to study how spiral galaxies form and evolve. The new infrared images from HAWK-I are less affected by the dust that obscures parts of the galaxy than images in visible light (potw1037a) and they reveal very clearly the glow from vast numbers of stars in both the bar and the spiral arms. These data were acquired to help astronomers understand the complex flow of material within the galaxy and how it affects the reservoirs of gas from which new stars can form. The huge bar disturbs the shape of the gravitational field of the galaxy and this leads to regions where gas is compressed and star formation is triggered. Many huge young star clusters trace out the main spiral arms and each contains hundreds or thousands of bright young stars that are less than ten million years old. The galaxy is too remote for single stars to be seen in this image and most of the tiny clumps visible in the picture are really star clusters. Over the whole galaxy, stars are forming at a rate of about three times the mass of our Sun per year. While the bar of the galaxy consists mainly of older stars long past their prime, many new stars are born in stellar nurseries of gas and dust in the inner spiral close to the nucleus. The bar also funnels gas and dust gravitationally into the very centre of the galaxy

  15. Interstellar Hydrogen in Galaxies: Radio observations of neutral hydrogen yield valuable information on the properties of galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M S

    1974-02-01

    Measurement of the 21-cm line radiation originating from the interstellar neutral hydrogen in a galaxy yields information on the total mass and total hydrogen content of the galaxy. The ratio of these two quantities is correlated with structural type in the sense that the later type galaxies contain a higher fraction of their total mass in the form of interstellar hydrogen This ratio is one of the few physical parameters known to correlate with structural type. It need not, however, reflect an evolutionary sequence, such as more hydrogen implying a younger galaxy. Efficiency of conversion of hydrogen to stars can just as easily explain the correlation. Except for the very latest systems, the total mass of a spiral does not appear to be correlated with type. Red shifts of galaxies measured at optical wavelengths and at 21 cm are in excellent agreement. The form of the Doppler expression has been shown to hold over a wavelength range of 5 x 105. All spirals earlier than type Ir which have been studied with adequate resolution show a central minimum in their hydrogen distribution. The region of maximum projected HI surface density occurs at some distance from the center. In the earlier type spirals the optical arms are located in the region of this maximum surface density. In the later type spirals the maximum HI density and prominent optical arms are less well correlated and, at times, are anticorrelated. Detailed studies of the HI distribution and motions within a galaxy require the high relative resolution of beam synthesis arrays. We may expect significant new information from such studies, which are now in progress. Filled-aperture telescopes will supply the necessary observations at zero spacing and vital statistical information on large numbers of galaxies, peculiar systems and groups and clusters of galaxies. The two types of telescope systems will complement one another. In the near future we should have a much better description of spiral galaxies and, we

  16. ATLASGAL-selected massive clumps in the inner Galaxy. V. Temperature structure and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, A.; Leurini, S.; Wyrowski, F.; Urquhart, J.; Csengeri, T.; Menten, K. M.; König, C.; Güsten, R.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Observational identification of a solid evolutionary sequence for high-mass star-forming regions is still missing. Spectroscopic observations give the opportunity to test possible schemes and connect the phases identified to physical processes. Aims: We aim to use the progressive heating of the gas caused by the feedback of high-mass young stellar objects to prove the statistical validity of the most common schemes used to observationally define an evolutionary sequence for high-mass clumps, and characterise the sensitivity of different tracers to this process. Methods: From the spectroscopic follow-ups carried out towards submillimeter continuum (dust) emission-selected massive clumps (the ATLASGAL TOP100 sample) with the IRAM 30 m, Mopra, and APEX telescopes between 84 GHz and 365 GHz, we selected several multiplets of CH3CN, CH3CCH, and CH3OH emission lines to derive and compare the physical properties of the gas in the clumps along the evolutionary sequence, fitting simultaneously the large number of lines that these molecules have in the observed band. Our findings are compared with results obtained from optically thin CO isotopologues, dust, and ammonia from previous studies on the same sample. Results: The chemical properties of each species have a major role on the measured physical properties. Low temperatures are traced by ammonia, methanol, and CO (in the early phases), the warm and dense envelope can be probed with CH3CN, CH3CCH, and, in evolved sources where CO is abundant in the gas phase, via its optically thin isotopologues. CH3OH and CH3CN are also abundant in the hot cores, and we suggest that their high-excitation transitions are good tools to study the kinematics in the hot gas associated with the inner envelope surrounding the young stellar objects that these clumps are hosting. All tracers show, to different degrees according to their properties, progressive warming with evolution. The relation between gas temperature and the

  17. Galaxies on the Blue Edge

    OpenAIRE

    Cabanela, J. E.; Dickey, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    We have successfully constructed a catalog of HI-rich galaxies selected from the Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner Catalog of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS I) based solely on optical criteria. We identify HI-rich candidates by selecting the bluest galaxies at a given apparent magnitude, those galaxies on the "blue edge" of POSS I color-magnitude parameter space. Subsequent 21-cm observations on the upgraded Arecibo 305m dish detected over 50% of the observed candidates. The detecte...

  18. An Exploration of Dusty Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    and Durham University) to identify the multi-wavelength properties of these galaxies in a pilot study that they hope to extend to many more similar galaxies in the future.Lessons from Distant GalaxiesWhat did Simpson and collaborators learn in this study?Photometric redshift distribution of the ALMA-identified submillimeter galaxies in the authors sample (grey). [Simpson et al. 2017]For the set of galaxies for which the team could measure photometric redshifts, the median redshift was z 2.65 (though redshifts ranged up to z 5).Submillimeter galaxies are cooler and larger than local far-infrared galaxies (known as ULIRGs). The authors therefore argue that its unlikely that ULIRGs are evolved versions of submillimeter galaxies.Estimates of dust mass in these galaxies suggest that effectively all of the optical-to-near-infrared light from colocated stars is obscured by dust.Estimates of the future stellar mass of these galaxies suggest that they cannot evolve into lenticular or spiral galaxies. Instead, the authors conclude, submillimeter galaxies must be the progenitors of local elliptical galaxies.CitationJ. M. Simpson et al 2017 ApJ 839 58. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa65d0

  19. Galaxy formation: internal mechanisms and cosmological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martig, Marie

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to galaxy formation and evolution in a cosmological context. Cosmological simulations have unveiled two main modes of galaxy growth: hierarchical growth by mergers and accretion of cold gas from cosmic filaments. However, these simulations rarely take into account small scale mechanisms, that govern internal evolution and that are a key ingredient to understand galaxy formation and evolution. Thanks to a new simulation technique that I have developed, I first studied the colors of galaxies, and in particular the reddening of elliptical galaxies. I showed that the gas disk in an elliptical galaxy could be stabilized against star formation because of the galaxy's stellar component being within a spheroid instead of a disk. This mechanism can explain the red colors of some elliptical galaxies that contain a gas disk. I also studied the formation of spiral galaxies: most cosmological simulations cannot explain the formation of Milky Way-like galaxies, i.e. with a large disk and a small bulge. I showed that this issue could be partly solved by taking into account in the simulations the mass loss from evolved stars through stellar winds, planetary nebulae and supernovae explosions. (author) [fr

  20. Colors and the evolution of amorphous galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.S. III; Hunter, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    UBVRI and H-alpha photometric observations are presented for 16 amorphous galaxies and a comparison sample of Magellanic irregular (Im) and Sc spiral galaxies. These data are analyzed in terms of star-formation rates and histories in amorphous galaxies. Amorphous galaxies have mean global colors and star-formation rates per unit area that are similar to those in giant Im systems, despite differences in spatial distributions of star-forming centers in these two galactic structural classes. Amorphous galaxies differ from giant Im systems in having somewhat wider scatter in relationships between B - V and U - B colors, and between U - B and L(H-alpha)/L(B). This scatter is interpreted as resulting from rapid variations in star-formation rates during the recent past, which could be a natural consequence of the concentration of star-forming activity into centrally located, supergiant young stellar complexes in many amorphous galaxies. While the unusual spatial distribution and intensity of star formation in some amorphous galaxies is due to interactions with other galaxies, several amorphous galaxies are relatively isolated and thus the processes must be internal. The ultimate evolutionary fate of rapidly evolving amorphous galaxies remains unknown. 77 references

  1. Morphology and Structures of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mira; Ann, HongBae

    2015-08-01

    We performed an analysis of the structure of nearby dwarf galaxies based on a 2-dimensional decomposition of galaxy images using GALFIT. The present sample consists of ~1,100 dwarf galaxies with redshift less than z = 0.01, which is is derived from the morphology catalog of the Visually classified galaxies in the local universe (Ann, Seo, and Ha 2015). In this catalog, dwarf galaxies are divided into 5 subtypes: dS0, dE, dSph, dEbc, dEblue with distinction of the presence of nucleation in dE, dSph, and dS0. We found that dSph and dEblue galaxies are fainter than other subtypes of dwarf galaxies. In most cases, single component, represented by the Sersic profile with n=1~1.5, well describes the luminosity distribution of dwarf galaxies in the present sample. However, a significant fraction of dS0, dEbc, and dEbue galaxies show sub-structures such as spiral arms and rings. We will discuss the morphology dependent evolutionary history of the local dwarf galaxies.

  2. Galaxy mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis contains a series of four papers dealing with the effects of interactions among galaxies during the epoch of cluster formation. Galaxy interactions are investigated and the results incorporated in numerical simulations of the formation of groups and clusters of galaxies. The role of galaxy interactions is analysed in the more general context of simulations of an expanding universe. The evolution of galaxies in rich clusters is discussed. The results of the investigations are presented and their relation to other work done in the field are briefly reviewed and an attempt is made to link galaxy mergers to the occurrence of activity in galactic nuclei. (Auth.)

  3. Hydrostatic Chandra X-ray analysis of SPT-selected galaxy clusters - I. Evolution of profiles and core properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J. S.; Fabian, A. C.; Russell, H. R.; Walker, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    We analyse Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of a set of galaxy clusters selected by the South Pole Telescope using a new publicly available forward-modelling projection code, MBPROJ2, assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. By fitting a power law plus constant entropy model we find no evidence for a central entropy floor in the lowest entropy systems. A model of the underlying central entropy distribution shows a narrow peak close to zero entropy which accounts for 60 per cent of the systems, and a second broader peak around 130 keV cm2. We look for evolution over the 0.28-1.2 redshift range of the sample in density, pressure, entropy and cooling time at 0.015R500 and at 10 kpc radius. By modelling the evolution of the central quantities with a simple model, we find no evidence for a non-zero slope with redshift. In addition, a non-parametric sliding median shows no significant change. The fraction of cool-core clusters with central cooling times below 2 Gyr is consistent above and below z = 0.6 (˜30-40 per cent). Both by comparing the median thermodynamic profiles, centrally biased towards cool cores, in two redshift bins, and by modelling the evolution of the unbiased average profile as a function of redshift, we find no significant evolution beyond self-similar scaling in any of our examined quantities. Our average modelled radial density, entropy and cooling-time profiles appear as power laws with breaks around 0.2R500. The dispersion in these quantities rises inwards of this radius to around 0.4 dex, although some of this scatter can be fitted by a bimodal model.

  4. A REVISED PARALLEL-SEQUENCE MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF GALAXIES: STRUCTURE AND FORMATION OF S0 AND SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    We update van den Bergh's parallel-sequence galaxy classification in which S0 galaxies form a sequence S0a-S0b-S0c that parallels the sequence Sa-Sb-Sc of spiral galaxies. The ratio B/T of bulge-to-total light defines the position of a galaxy in this tuning-fork diagram. Our classification makes one major improvement. We extend the S0a-S0b-S0c sequence to spheroidal ('Sph') galaxies that are positioned in parallel to irregular galaxies in a similarly extended Sa-Sb-Sc-Im sequence. This provides a natural 'home' for spheroidals, which previously were omitted from galaxy classification schemes or inappropriately combined with ellipticals. To motivate our juxtaposition of Sph and Im galaxies, we present photometry and bulge-disk decompositions of four rare, late-type S0s that bridge the gap between the more common S0b and Sph galaxies. NGC 4762 is an edge-on SB0bc galaxy with a very small classical-bulge-to-total ratio of B/T = 0.13 ± 0.02. NGC 4452 is an edge-on SB0 galaxy with an even tinier pseudobulge-to-total ratio of PB/T = 0.017 ± 0.004. It is therefore an SB0c. VCC 2048, whose published classification is S0, contains an edge-on disk, but its 'bulge' plots in the structural parameter sequence of spheroidals. It is therefore a disky Sph. And NGC 4638 is similarly a 'missing link' between S0s and Sphs—it has a tiny bulge and an edge-on disk embedded in an Sph halo. In the Appendix, we present photometry and bulge-disk decompositions of all Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys Virgo Cluster Survey S0s that do not have published decompositions. We use these data to update the structural parameter correlations of Sph, S+Im, and E galaxies. We show that Sph galaxies of increasing luminosity form a continuous sequence with the disks (but not bulges) of S0c-S0b-S0a galaxies. Remarkably, the Sph-S0-disk sequence is almost identical to that of Im galaxies and spiral galaxy disks. We review published observations for galaxy transformation processes

  5. A Revised Parallel-sequence Morphological Classification of Galaxies: Structure and Formation of S0 and Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    We update van den Bergh's parallel-sequence galaxy classification in which S0 galaxies form a sequence S0a-S0b-S0c that parallels the sequence Sa-Sb-Sc of spiral galaxies. The ratio B/T of bulge-to-total light defines the position of a galaxy in this tuning-fork diagram. Our classification makes one major improvement. We extend the S0a-S0b-S0c sequence to spheroidal ("Sph") galaxies that are positioned in parallel to irregular galaxies in a similarly extended Sa-Sb-Sc-Im sequence. This provides a natural "home" for spheroidals, which previously were omitted from galaxy classification schemes or inappropriately combined with ellipticals. To motivate our juxtaposition of Sph and Im galaxies, we present photometry and bulge-disk decompositions of four rare, late-type S0s that bridge the gap between the more common S0b and Sph galaxies. NGC 4762 is an edge-on SB0bc galaxy with a very small classical-bulge-to-total ratio of B/T = 0.13 ± 0.02. NGC 4452 is an edge-on SB0 galaxy with an even tinier pseudobulge-to-total ratio of PB/T = 0.017 ± 0.004. It is therefore an SB0c. VCC 2048, whose published classification is S0, contains an edge-on disk, but its "bulge" plots in the structural parameter sequence of spheroidals. It is therefore a disky Sph. And NGC 4638 is similarly a "missing link" between S0s and Sphs—it has a tiny bulge and an edge-on disk embedded in an Sph halo. In the Appendix, we present photometry and bulge-disk decompositions of all Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys Virgo Cluster Survey S0s that do not have published decompositions. We use these data to update the structural parameter correlations of Sph, S+Im, and E galaxies. We show that Sph galaxies of increasing luminosity form a continuous sequence with the disks (but not bulges) of S0c-S0b-S0a galaxies. Remarkably, the Sph-S0-disk sequence is almost identical to that of Im galaxies and spiral galaxy disks. We review published observations for galaxy transformation processes

  6. Stars and dark matter in the spiral gravitational lens 2237+0305

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trott, C. M.; Treu, T.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Webster, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    We construct a mass model for the spiral lens galaxy 2237+ 0305, at redshift z(1) = 0.04, based on gravitational-lensing constraints, HI rotation, and new stellar-kinematic information, based on data taken with the Echelle Spectrograph and Imager (ESI) spectrograph on the 10-m Keck-II Telescope.

  7. C II 158 ??bservations of a Sample of Late-type Galaxies from the Virgo Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, K.; Volk, H.; Heinrichsen, I.; Hippelein, H.; Metcalfe, L.; Pierini, D.; Popescu, C.; Tuffs, R.; Xu, C.

    1999-01-01

    We have observed 19 Virgo cluster spiral galaxies with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard ESAs Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) obtaining spectra around the [CII] 157.741 ??ine structure line.

  8. Gas Kinematics in GRB Host Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabsalmani, Maryam

    The star formation history of the Universe is one of the most complex and interesting chapters in our quest to understand galaxy formation and evolution. Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are beacons of actively star forming galaxies from redshifts near zero back to the cosmic dawn. In addition, they provide...... a unique method for selecting galaxies without a luminosity bias as the GRB detectability is unrelated to the brightness of the host galaxy. Even at the highest redshifts, where the hosts are often too faint to be detected in emission, their properties can be inferred from the absorption features...... selected galaxies. Moreover, it is crucial to investigate whether this galaxy population differs from the general population of star forming galaxies (if GRB hosts are a distinct galaxy population), before applying the findings from this selected population to the general population of galaxies...

  9. Galaxy Zoo: quantifying morphological indicators of galaxy interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteels, Kevin. R. V.; Bamford, Steven P.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Masters, Karen L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Keel, William C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Nichol, Robert C.; Smith, Arfon M.

    2013-02-01

    We use Galaxy Zoo 2 visual classifications to study the morphological signatures of interaction between similar-mass galaxy pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that many observable features correlate with projected pair separation - not only obvious indicators of merging, disturbance and tidal tails, but also more regular features, such as spiral arms and bars. These trends are robustly quantified, using a control sample to account for observational biases, producing measurements of the strength and separation scale of various morphological responses to pair interaction. For example, we find that the presence of spiral features is enhanced at scales ≲ 70 h- 170 kpc, probably due to both increased star formation and the formation of tidal tails. On the other hand, the likelihood of identifying a bar decreases significantly in pairs with separations ≲ 30 h- 170 kpc, suggesting that bars are suppressed by close interactions between galaxies of similar mass. We go on to show how morphological indicators of physical interactions provide a way of significantly refining standard estimates for the frequency of close pair interactions, based on velocity offset and projected separation. The presence of loosely wound spiral arms is found to be a particularly reliable signal of an interaction, for projected pair separations up to ˜100 h- 170 kpc. We use this indicator to demonstrate our method, constraining the fraction of low-redshift galaxies in truly interacting pairs, with M* > 109.5 M⊙ and mass ratio <4, to be between 0.4 and 2.7 per cent.

  10. Hurricane Spiral Bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Thomas A.; Schubert, Wayne H.

    1993-10-01

    The spiral bands that occur in tropical cyclones can be conveniently divided into two classes-outer bands and inner bands. Evidence is presented here that the outer bands form as the result of nonlinear effects during the breakdown of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) through barotropic instability. In this process a zonal strip of high potential vorticity (the ITCZ shear zone or monsoon trough) begins to distort in a varicose fashion, with the potential vorticity (PV) becoming pooled in local regions that are connected by filaments of high PV. As the pooled regions become more axisymmetric, the filaments become thinner and begin to wrap around the PV centers.It is argued that inner bands form in a different manner. As a tropical cyclone intensifies due to latent heat release, the PV field becomes nearly circular with the highest values of PV in the cyclone center. The radial gradient of PV provides a state on which PV waves (the generalization of Rossby waves) can propagate. The nonlinear breaking of PV waves then leads to an irreversible distortion of the PV contours and a downgradient flux of PV. The continuation of this proem tends to erode the high PV core of the tropical cyclone, to produce a surrounding surf zone, and hence to spread the PV horizontally. In a similar fashion, inner bands can also form by the merger of a vortex with a patch of relatively high PV air. As the merger proem occurs the patch of PV is quickly elongated and wrapped around the vortex. The resulting vortex is generally larger in horizontal extent and exhibits a spiral band of PV.When the formation of outer and inner bands is interpreted in the context of a normal-mode spectral model, they emerge as slow manifold phenomena; that is, they have both rotational and (balanced or slaved) gravitational mode aspects. In this sense, regarding them as simply gravity waves leads to an incomplete dynamical picture.

  11. Age bimodality in the central region of pseudo-bulges in S0 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Preetish K.; Barway, Sudhanshu; Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2017-11-01

    We present evidence for bimodal stellar age distribution of pseudo-bulges of S0 galaxies as probed by the Dn(4000) index. We do not observe any bimodality in age distribution for pseudo-bulges in spiral galaxies. Our sample is flux limited and contains 2067 S0 and 2630 spiral galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We identify pseudo-bulges in S0 and spiral galaxies, based on the position of the bulge on the Kormendy diagram and their central velocity dispersion. Dividing the pseudo-bulges of S0 galaxies into those containing old and young stellar populations, we study the connection between global star formation and pseudo-bulge age on the u - r colour-mass diagram. We find that most old pseudo-bulges are hosted by passive galaxies while majority of young bulges are hosted by galaxies that are star forming. Dividing our sample of S0 galaxies into early-type S0s and S0/a galaxies, we find that old pseudo-bulges are mainly hosted by early-type S0 galaxies while most of the pseudo-bulges in S0/a galaxies are young. We speculate that morphology plays a strong role in quenching of star formation in the disc of these S0 galaxies, which stops the growth of pseudo-bulges, giving rise to old pseudo-bulges and the observed age bimodality.

  12. Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece

    Galaxy formation and evolution is one of the main research themes of modern astronomy. Active galaxies such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are important evolutionary stages of galaxies. The ULIRG stage is mostly associated with galaxy mergers...... and interactions. During the interactions of gas-rich galaxies, the gas inflows towards the centers of the galaxies and can trigger both star formation and AGN activity. The ULIRG stage includes rapid star formation activity and fast black hole growth that is enshrouded by dust. Once the AGN emission...... one is related to the mass estimates of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Mass estimates of SMBHs are important to understand the formation and evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. Black hole masses in Type 1 AGN are measured with the reverberation mapping (RM) technique. Reverberation mapping...

  13. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  14. The galaxy ancestor problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, M. J.; Lang, R. H.

    2012-11-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) findsgalaxies whose Tolman dimming exceeds 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore the latter hypothesis and argue that surface brightness selection effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus, the HST z = 7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighbourhood easily today. Conversely, the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbours would have completely sunk below the sky at z > 1.2, unless they were more luminous in the past, although their diffused light could account for the missing re-ionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well even without evolution, including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightness found in deep fields, the angular size ˜(1 + z)-1 law, 'downsizing' which turns out to be an 'illusion' in the sense that it does not imply evolution, 'infant mortality', that is, the discrepancy between stars born and stars seen, the existence of 'red nuggets', and finally the recently discovered and unexpected excess of quasar absorption line damped Lyα systems at high redshift. If galaxies were not significantly brighter in the past and the SPDH were true, then a large proportion of galaxies could remain sunk from sight, possibly at all redshifts, and these sunken galaxies could supply the missing re-ionization flux. We show that fishing these sunken galaxies out of the sky by their optical emissions alone is practically impossible, even when they are nearby. More ingenious methods are needed to detect them. It follows that disentangling galaxy evolution through studying ever higher redshift galaxies may be a forlorn hope because one could

  15. ALMA 26 arcmin2 Survey of GOODS-S at One-millimeter (ASAGAO): X-Ray AGN Properties of Millimeter-selected Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Y.; Hatsukade, B.; Kohno, K.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Tamura, Y.; Umehata, H.; Akiyama, M.; Ao, Y.; Aretxaga, I.; Caputi, K.; Dunlop, J. S.; Espada, D.; Fujimoto, S.; Hayatsu, N. H.; Imanishi, M.; Inoue, A. K.; Ivison, R. J.; Kodama, T.; Lee, M. M.; Matsuoka, K.; Miyaji, T.; Morokuma-Matsui, K.; Nagao, T.; Nakanishi, K.; Nyland, K.; Ohta, K.; Ouchi, M.; Rujopakarn, W.; Saito, T.; Tadaki, K.; Tanaka, I.; Taniguchi, Y.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.-H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Yun, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN) properties of millimeter galaxies in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South (GOODS-S) field detected with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), by utilizing the Chandra 7-Ms data, the deepest X-ray survey to date. Our millimeter galaxy sample comes from the ASAGAO survey covering 26 arcmin2 (12 sources at a 1.2 mm flux-density limit of ≈ 0.6 mJy), supplemented by the deeper but narrower 1.3 mm survey of a part of the ASAGAO field by Dunlop et al. Ofthe 25 total millimeter galaxies, 14 have Chandra counterparts. The observed AGN fractions at z=1.5{--}3 are found to be {90}-19+8% and {57}-25+23% for the ultra-luminous and luminous infrared galaxies with log {L}{IR}/{L}ȯ = 12–12.8 and log {L}{IR}/{L}ȯ = 11.5–12, respectively. The majority (∼2/3) of the ALMA and/or Herschel detected X-ray AGNs at z = 1.5‑3 appear to be star-formation-dominant populations, having {L}{{X}}/ {L}{IR} ratios smaller than the “simultaneous evolution” value expected from the local black-hole-mass-to-stellar-mass ({M}{BH}–M *) relation. On the basis of the {L}{{X}} and stellar mass relation, we infer that a large fraction of star-forming galaxies at z=1.5{--}3 have black hole masses that are smaller than those expected from the local {M}{BH}–M * relation. This contrasts previous reports on luminous AGNs at the same redshifts detected in wider and shallower surveys, which are subject to selection biases against lower luminosity AGNs. Our results are consistent with an evolutionary scenario in which star formation occurs first, and an AGN-dominant phase follows later, in objects that finally evolve into galaxies with classical bulges.

  16. The Norma spiral arm: large-scale pitch angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Jacques P.

    2017-09-01

    In the inner Galaxy, we statistically find the mean pitch angle of the recently mapped Norma arm in two galactic quadrants (observed tangentially at galactic longitudes near l=328° and near l=20°), using the twin-tangent method, and obtain -13.7°± 1.4°. We compared with other measurements in the literature. Also, using the latest published data on pitch angle and the latest published data on the radial starting point of the four arms (R_{Gal} = 2.2 kpc) in each galactic quadrant, a revised velocity plot of the Norma spiral arm is made, along with other spiral arms in the Milky Way, in each Galactic quadrant.

  17. An Hα Imaging Survey of the Low-surface-brightness Galaxies Selected from the Fall Sky Region of the 40% ALFALFA H I Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Feng-Jie; Wu, Hong; Du, Wei; Zhu, Yi-Nan; Lam, Man-I.; Zhou, Zhi-Min; He, Min; Jin, Jun-Jie; Cao, Tian-Wen; Zhao, Pin-Song; Yang, Fan; Wu, Chao-Jian; Li, Hong-Bin; Ren, Juan-Juan

    2018-03-01

    We present the observed Hα flux and derived star formation rates (SFRs) for a fall sample of low-surface-brightness galaxies (LSBGs). The sample is selected from the fall sky region of the 40% ALFALFA H I Survey–SDSS DR7 photometric data, and all the Hα images were obtained using the 2.16 m telescope, operated by the National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A total of 111 LSBGs were observed and Hα flux was measured in 92 of them. Though almost all the LSBGs in our sample are H I-rich, their SFRs, derived from the extinction and filter-transmission-corrected Hα flux, are less than 1 M ⊙ yr‑1. LSBGs and star-forming galaxies have similar H I surface densities, but LSBGs have much lower SFRs and SFR surface densities than star-forming galaxies. Our results show that LSBGs deviate from the Kennicutt–Schmidt law significantly, which indicates that they have low star formation efficiency. The SFRs of LSBGs are close to average SFRs in Hubble time and support previous arguments that most of the LSBGs are stable systems and they tend to seldom contain strong interactions or major mergers in their star formation histories.

  18. Environment effects on the flattening distribution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Pacheco, J.A. de; Souza, R.E. de; Arakaki, L.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a study of environment effects on the flattening distribution of galaxies are presented. Samples of different morphological types in regions of high and low projected galaxian density were prepared using the Uppsala General Catalogue of Galaxies. No significant differences were detected for the E and Spiral galaxies. However this study suggest that there is an excess of flat S phi systems in regions of high galaxian density with respect the field systems. These 'flat' S phi's are interpreted as being gas stripped Sa galaxies and the consequences of such a hypothesis are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  19. Geometric Offsets across Spiral Arms in M51: Nature of Gas and Star Formation Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Melissa; Koda, Jin; Egusa, Fumi

    2013-02-01

    We report measurements of geometric offsets between gas spiral arms and associated star-forming regions in the grand-design spiral galaxy M51. These offsets are a suggested measure of the star formation timescale after the compression of gas at spiral arm entry. A surprising discrepancy, by an order of magnitude, has been reported in recent offset measurements in nearby spiral galaxies. Measurements using CO and Hα emission find large and ordered offsets in M51. On the contrary, small or non-ordered offsets have been found using the H I 21 cm and 24 μm emissions, possible evidence against gas flow through spiral arms, and thus against the conventional density-wave theory with a stationary spiral pattern. The goal of this paper is to understand the cause of this discrepancy. We investigate potential causes by repeating those previous measurements using equivalent data, methods, and parameters. We find offsets consistent with the previous measurements and conclude that the difference of gas tracers, i.e., H I versus CO, is the primary cause. The H I emission is contaminated significantly by the gas photodissociated by recently formed stars and does not necessarily trace the compressed gas, the precursor of star formation. The H I gas and star-forming regions coincide spatially and tend to show small offsets. We find mostly positive offsets with substantial scatter between CO and Hα, suggesting that gas flow through spiral arms (i.e., density wave) though the spiral pattern may not necessarily be stationary.

  20. Measuring with the spiral reader

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The spiral reader shown here was at the time, together with the Shivamatic scanning system, the basic equipment used for measuring bubble chamber pictures. Anne Anton sits at the table. (See Photo Archive 7408343.)

  1. THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF THE MEAN TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE, AND ENTROPY PROFILES IN 80 SPT-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.; Benson, B. A.; Vikhlinin, A.; Aird, K. A.; Allen, S. W.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Liu, J.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Miller, E. D.; Mocanu, L.; Mohr, J. J.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Stubbs, C. W.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

    2014-09-24

    We present the results of an X-ray analysis of 80 galaxy clusters selected in the 2500 deg(2) South Pole Telescope survey and observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We divide the full sample into subsamples of ~20 clusters based on redshift and central density, performing a joint X-ray spectral fit to all clusters in a subsample simultaneously, assuming self-similarity of the temperature profile. This approach allows us to constrain the shape of the temperature profile over 0 < r < 1.5R (500), which would be impossible on a per-cluster basis, since the observations of individual clusters have, on average, 2000 X-ray counts. The results presented here represent the first constraints on the evolution of the average temperature profile from z = 0 to z = 1.2. We find that high-z (0.6 < z < 1.2) clusters are slightly (~30%) cooler both in the inner (r < 0.1R (500)) and outer (r > R (500)) regions than their low-z (0.3 < z < 0.6) counterparts. Combining the average temperature profile with measured gas density profiles from our earlier work, we infer the average pressure and entropy profiles for each subsample. Confirming earlier results from this data set, we find an absence of strong cool cores at high z, manifested in this analysis as a significantly lower observed pressure in the central 0.1R (500) of the high-z cool-core subset of clusters compared to the low-z cool-core subset. Overall, our observed pressure profiles agree well with earlier lower-redshift measurements, suggesting minimal redshift evolution in the pressure profile outside of the core. We find no measurable redshift evolution in the entropy profile at r lsim 0.7R (500)—this may reflect a long-standing balance between cooling and feedback over long timescales and large physical scales. We observe a slight flattening of the entropy profile at r gsim R (500) in our high-z subsample. This flattening is consistent with a temperature bias due to the enhanced (~3×) rate at which group-mass (~2

  2. Gemini/GMOS imaging of globular clusters in the Virgo galaxy NGC 4649 (M60)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Duncan A.; Faifer, Favio Raúl; Forte, Juan Carlos; Bridges, Terry; Beasley, Michael A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hanes, David A.; Sharples, Ray; Zepf, Stephen E.

    2004-12-01

    We present Sloan g and i imaging from the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph (GMOS) instrument on the Gemini North telescope for the globular cluster (GC) system around the Virgo galaxy NGC 4649 (M60). Our three pointings, taken in good seeing conditions, cover an area of about 90 square arcmin. We detect 2151 unresolved sources. Applying colour and magnitude selection criteria to this source list gives 995 candidate GCs. Our source list is greater than 90 per cent complete to a magnitude of i= 23.6, and has little contamination from background galaxies. We find fewer than half a dozen potential ultracompact dwarf galaxies around NGC 4649. Foreground extinction from the nearby spiral NGC 4647 is limited to be AV < 0.1. We confirm the bimodality in the GC colour distribution found by earlier work using Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 imaging. As is commonly seen in other galaxies, the red GCs are concentrated towards the centre of the galaxy, having a steeper number density profile than the blue GC subpopulation. The varying ratio of red-to-blue GCs with radius can largely explain the overall GC system colour gradient. The underlying galaxy starlight has a similar density profile slope and colour to the red GCs. This suggests a direct connection between the galaxy field stars and the red GC subpopulation. We estimate a total GC population of 3700 +/- 900, with the uncertainty dominated by the extrapolation to larger radii than observed. This total number corresponds to a specific frequency SN= 4.1 +/- 1.0. Future work will present properties derived from GMOS spectra of the NGC 4649 GCs.

  3. FIRST SPECTROSCOPIC MEASUREMENTS OF [O III] EMISSION FROM Lyα SELECTED FIELD GALAXIES AT z ∼ 3.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLinden, Emily M.; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Hibon, Pascale; Richardson, Mark L. A.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Cresci, Giovanni; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Pasquali, Anna; Bian Fuyan; Fan Xiaohui; Woodward, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first spectroscopic measurements of the [O III] 5007 A line in two z ∼ 3.1 Lyα emitting galaxies (LAEs) using the new near-infrared instrument LUCIFER1 on the 8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope. We also describe the optical imaging and spectroscopic observations used to identify these LAEs. Using the [O III] line we have measured accurate systemic redshifts for these two galaxies, and discovered a velocity offset between the [O III] and Lyα lines in both, with the Lyα line peaking 342 and 125 km s -1 redward of the systemic velocity. These velocity offsets imply that there are powerful outflows in high-redshift LAEs. They also ease the transmission of Lyα photons through the interstellar medium and intergalactic medium around the galaxies. By measuring these offsets directly, we can refine both Lyα-based tests for reionization, and Lyα luminosity function measurements where the Lyα forest affects the blue wing of the line. Our work also provides the first direct constraints on the strength of the [O III] line in high-redshift LAEs. We find [O III] fluxes of 7 and 36 x10 -17 erg s -1 cm -2 in two z ∼ 3.1 LAEs. These lines are strong enough to dominate broadband flux measurements that include the line (in this case, K s -band photometry). Spectral energy distribution fits that do not account for the lines would therefore overestimate the 4000 A (and/or Balmer) break strength in such galaxies, and hence also the ages and stellar masses of such high-z galaxies.

  4. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-08-20

    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  5. Spiral inlets for steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škach, Radek; Uher, Jan

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the design process of special nozzle blades for spiral inlets. Spiral inlets are used for the first stages of high pressure and intermediate pressure steam turbines with both reaction and impulse blades when throttling or sliding pressure control is applied. They improve the steam flow uniformity from the inlet pipe and thus decrease the aerodynamic losses. The proposed evaluation of the inlet angle is based on the free vortex law.

  6. A Picture-perfect Pure-disc Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The bright galaxy NGC 3621, captured here using the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, appears to be a fine example of a classical spiral. But it is in fact rather unusual: it does not have a central bulge and is therefore described as a pure-disc galaxy. NGC 3621 is a spiral galaxy about 22 million light-years away in the constellation of Hydra (The Sea Snake). It is comparatively bright and can be seen well in moderate-sized telescopes. This picture was taken using the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. The data were selected from the ESO archive by Joe DePasquale as part of the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. Joe's picture of NGC 3621 was ranked fifth in the competition. This galaxy has a flat pancake shape, indicating that it hasn't yet come face to face with another galaxy as such a galactic collision would have disturbed the thin disc of stars, creating a small bulge in its centre. Most astronomers think that galaxies grow by merging with other galaxies, in a process called hierarchical galaxy formation. Over time, this should create large bulges in the centres of spirals. Recent research, however, has suggested that bulgeless, or pure-disc, spiral galaxies like NGC 3621 are actually fairly common. This galaxy is of further interest to astronomers because its relative proximity allows them to study a wide range of astronomical objects within it, including stellar nurseries, dust clouds, and pulsating stars called Cepheid variables, which astronomers use as distance markers in the Universe [2]. In the late 1990s, NGC 3621 was one of 18 galaxies selected for a Key Project of the Hubble Space Telescope: to observe Cepheid variables and measure the rate of expansion of the Universe to a higher accuracy than had been possible before. In the successful project, 69 Cepheid variables were observed in this galaxy alone. Multiple monochrome images taken through

  7. LOW CO LUMINOSITIES IN DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Leroy, Adam K.; Bigiel, Frank; Brinks, Elias; De Blok, W. J. G.; Kramer, Carsten; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schuster, Karl; Usero, Antonio; Weiss, Axel; Wiesemeyer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    We present maps of 12 COJ = 2-1 emission covering the entire star-forming disks of 16 nearby dwarf galaxies observed by the IRAM HERACLES survey. The data have 13'' angular resolution, ∼250 pc at our average distance of D = 4 Mpc, and sample the galaxies by 10-1000 resolution elements. We apply stacking techniques to perform the first sensitive search for CO emission in dwarf galaxies outside the Local Group ranging from individual lines of sight, stacking over IR-bright regions of embedded star formation, and stacking over the entire galaxy. We detect five galaxies in CO with total CO luminosities of L CO2-1 = (3-28) × 10 6 K km s –1 pc 2 . The other 11 galaxies remain undetected in CO even in the stacked images and have L CO2-1 ∼ 6 K km s –1 pc 2 . We combine our sample of dwarf galaxies with a large sample of spiral galaxies from the literature to study scaling relations of L CO with M B and metallicity. We find that dwarf galaxies with metallicities of Z ≈ 1/2-1/10 Z ☉ have L CO of 2-4 orders of magnitude smaller than massive spiral galaxies and that their L CO per unit L B is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller. A comparison with tracers of star formation (FUV and 24 μm) shows that L CO per unit star formation rate (SFR) is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller in dwarf galaxies. One possible interpretation is that dwarf galaxies form stars much more efficiently: we argue that the low L CO /SFR ratio is due to the fact that the CO-to-H 2 conversion factor, α CO , changes significantly in low-metallicity environments. Assuming that a constant H 2 depletion time of τ dep = 1.8 Gyr holds in dwarf galaxies (as found for a large sample of nearby spirals) implies α CO values for dwarf galaxies with Z ≈ 1/2-1/10 Z ☉ that are more than one order of magnitude higher than those found in solar metallicity spiral galaxies. Such a significant increase of α CO at low metallicity is consistent with previous studies, in particular those of Local Group dwarf

  8. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect and X-ray Scaling Relations from Weak-Lensing Mass Calibration of 32 SPT Selected Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, J.P.; et al.

    2017-11-14

    Uncertainty in the mass-observable scaling relations is currently the limiting factor for galaxy cluster based cosmology. Weak gravitational lensing can provide a direct mass calibration and reduce the mass uncertainty. We present new ground-based weak lensing observations of 19 South Pole Telescope (SPT) selected clusters and combine them with previously reported space-based observations of 13 galaxy clusters to constrain the cluster mass scaling relations with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE), the cluster gas mass $M_\\mathrm{gas}$, and $Y_\\mathrm{X}$, the product of $M_\\mathrm{gas}$ and X-ray temperature. We extend a previously used framework for the analysis of scaling relations and cosmological constraints obtained from SPT-selected clusters to make use of weak lensing information. We introduce a new approach to estimate the effective average redshift distribution of background galaxies and quantify a number of systematic errors affecting the weak lensing modelling. These errors include a calibration of the bias incurred by fitting a Navarro-Frenk-White profile to the reduced shear using $N$-body simulations. We blind the analysis to avoid confirmation bias. We are able to limit the systematic uncertainties to 6.4% in cluster mass (68% confidence). Our constraints on the mass-X-ray observable scaling relations parameters are consistent with those obtained by earlier studies, and our constraints for the mass-SZE scaling relation are consistent with the the simulation-based prior used in the most recent SPT-SZ cosmology analysis. We can now replace the external mass calibration priors used in previous SPT-SZ cosmology studies with a direct, internal calibration obtained on the same clusters.

  9. On the interdependence of galaxy morphology, star formation and environment in massive galaxies in the nearby Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bait, Omkar; Barway, Sudhanshu; Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2017-11-01

    Using multiwavelength data, from ultraviolet to optical to near-infrared to mid-infrared, for ˜6000 galaxies in the local Universe, we study the dependence of star formation on the morphological T-types for massive galaxies (log M*/M⊙ ≥ 10). We find that, early-type spirals (Sa-Sbc) and S0s predominate in the green valley, which is a transition zone between the star forming and quenched regions. Within the early-type spirals, as we move from Sa to Sbc spirals the fraction of green valley and quenched galaxies decreases, indicating the important role of the bulge in the quenching of galaxies. The fraction of early-type spirals decreases as we enter the green valley from the blue cloud, which coincides with the increase in the fraction of S0s. These points towards the morphological transformation of early-type spiral galaxies into S0s, which can happen due to environmental effects such as ram-pressure stripping, galaxy harassment or tidal interactions. We also find a second population of S0s that are actively star forming and are present in all environments. Since morphological T-type, specific star formation rate (sSFR), and environmental density are all correlated with each other, we compute the partial correlation coefficient for each pair of parameters while keeping the third parameter as a control variable. We find that morphology most strongly correlates with sSFR, independent of the environment, while the other two correlations (morphology-density and sSFR-environment) are weaker. Thus, we conclude that, for massive galaxies in the local Universe, the physical processes that shape their morphology are also the ones that determine their star-forming state.

  10. Monitoring survey of pulsating giant stars in the Local Group galaxies: survey description, science goals, target selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saremi, E; Abedi, A; Javadi, A; Khosroshahi, H; Molaei Nezhad, A; Van Loon, J Th; Bamber, J; Hashemi, S A; Nikzat, F

    2017-01-01

    The population of nearby dwarf galaxies in the Local Group constitutes a complete galactic environment, perfect suited for studying the connection between stellar populations and galaxy evolution. In this study, we are conducting an optical monitoring survey of the majority of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, with the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), to identify long period variable stars (LPVs). These stars are at the end points of their evolution and therefore their luminosity can be directly translated into their birth masses; this enables us to reconstruct the star formation history. By the end of the monitoring survey, we will have performed observations over ten epochs, spaced approximately three months apart, and identified long-period, dust-producing AGB stars; five epochs of data have been obtained already. LPVs are also the main source of dust; in combination with Spitzer Space Telescope images at mid-IR wavelengths we will quantify the mass loss, and provide a detailed map of the mass feedback into the interstellar medium. We will also use the amplitudes in different optical passbands to determine the radius variations of the stars, and relate this to their mass loss. (paper)

  11. Monitoring survey of pulsating giant stars in the Local Group galaxies: survey description, science goals, target selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, E.; Javadi, A.; van Loon, J. Th; Khosroshahi, H.; Abedi, A.; Bamber, J.; Hashemi, S. A.; Nikzat, F.; Molaei Nezhad, A.

    2017-06-01

    The population of nearby dwarf galaxies in the Local Group constitutes a complete galactic environment, perfect suited for studying the connection between stellar populations and galaxy evolution. In this study, we are conducting an optical monitoring survey of the majority of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, with the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), to identify long period variable stars (LPVs). These stars are at the end points of their evolution and therefore their luminosity can be directly translated into their birth masses; this enables us to reconstruct the star formation history. By the end of the monitoring survey, we will have performed observations over ten epochs, spaced approximately three months apart, and identified long-period, dust-producing AGB stars; five epochs of data have been obtained already. LPVs are also the main source of dust; in combination with Spitzer Space Telescope images at mid-IR wavelengths we will quantify the mass loss, and provide a detailed map of the mass feedback into the interstellar medium. We will also use the amplitudes in different optical passbands to determine the radius variations of the stars, and relate this to their mass loss.

  12. Quintessential Haloes around Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, A; Salati, Pierre; Arbey, Alexandre; Lesgourgues, Julien; Salati, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    The nature of the dark matter that binds galaxies remains an open question. The favoured candidate has been so far the neutralino. This massive species with evanescent interactions is now in difficulty. It would actually collapse in dense clumps and would therefore play havoc with the matter it is supposed to shepherd. We focus here on a massive and non-interacting charged scalar field as an alternate option to the astronomical missing mass. We investigate the classical solutions that describe the Bose condensate of such a field in gravitational interaction with matter. This simplistic model accounts quite well for the dark matter inside low-luminosity spirals whereas the agreement lessens for the brightest objects where baryons dominate. A scalar mass around m = 10^{-24} eV is derived when both high and low-luminosity spirals are fitted at the same time. Comparison with astronomical observations is made quantitative through a chi-squared analysis. We conclude that scalar fields offer a promising direction wo...

  13. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  14. The most luminous heavily obscured quasars have a high merger fraction: morphological study of wise -selected hot dust-obscured galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Lulu; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qiaoqian; Yang, Jun; Li, Zhao [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Science, Shandong University, Weihai 264209 (China); Han, Yunkun [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Fang, Guanwen, E-mail: llfan@sdu.edu.cn, E-mail: hanyk@ynao.ac.cn [Institute for Astronomy and History of Science and Technology, Dali University, Dali 671003 (China)

    2016-05-10

    Previous studies have shown that Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer -selected hyperluminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are powered by highly dust-obscured, possibly Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs). High obscuration provides us a good chance to study the host morphology of the most luminous AGNs directly. We analyze the host morphology of 18 Hot DOGs at z ∼ 3 using Hubble Space Telescope /WFC3 imaging. We find that Hot DOGs have a high merger fraction (62 ± 14%). By fitting the surface brightness profiles, we find that the distribution of Sérsic indices in our Hot DOG sample peaks around 2, which suggests that most Hot DOGs have transforming morphologies. We also derive the AGN bolometric luminosity (∼10{sup 14} L {sub ⊙}) of our Hot DOG sample by using IR spectral energy distributions decomposition. The derived merger fraction and AGN bolometric luminosity relation is well consistent with the variability-based model prediction. Both the high merger fraction in an IR-luminous AGN sample and relatively low merger fraction in a UV/optical-selected, unobscured AGN sample can be expected in the merger-driven evolutionary model. Finally, we conclude that Hot DOGs are merger-driven and may represent a transit phase during the evolution of massive galaxies, transforming from the dusty starburst-dominated phase to the unobscured QSO phase.

  15. The most luminous heavily obscured quasars have a high merger fraction: morphological study of wise -selected hot dust-obscured galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Lulu; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qiaoqian; Yang, Jun; Li, Zhao; Han, Yunkun; Fang, Guanwen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer -selected hyperluminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are powered by highly dust-obscured, possibly Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs). High obscuration provides us a good chance to study the host morphology of the most luminous AGNs directly. We analyze the host morphology of 18 Hot DOGs at z ∼ 3 using Hubble Space Telescope /WFC3 imaging. We find that Hot DOGs have a high merger fraction (62 ± 14%). By fitting the surface brightness profiles, we find that the distribution of Sérsic indices in our Hot DOG sample peaks around 2, which suggests that most Hot DOGs have transforming morphologies. We also derive the AGN bolometric luminosity (∼10 14 L ⊙ ) of our Hot DOG sample by using IR spectral energy distributions decomposition. The derived merger fraction and AGN bolometric luminosity relation is well consistent with the variability-based model prediction. Both the high merger fraction in an IR-luminous AGN sample and relatively low merger fraction in a UV/optical-selected, unobscured AGN sample can be expected in the merger-driven evolutionary model. Finally, we conclude that Hot DOGs are merger-driven and may represent a transit phase during the evolution of massive galaxies, transforming from the dusty starburst-dominated phase to the unobscured QSO phase.

  16. Evidence for strong dynamical evolution in disc galaxies through the last 11 Gyr. GHASP VIII - a local reference sample of rotating disc galaxies for high-redshift studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epinat, B.; Amram, P.; Balkowski, C.; Marcelin, M.

    2010-02-01

    Due to their large distances, high-redshift galaxies are observed at a very low spatial resolution. In order to disentangle the evolution of galaxy kinematics from low-resolution effects, we have used Fabry-Pérot 3D Hα data cubes of 153 nearby isolated galaxies selected from the Gassendi Hα survey of SPirals (GHASP) to simulate data cubes of galaxies at redshift z = 1.7 using a pixel size of 0.125arcsec and a 0.5arcsec seeing. We have derived Hα flux, velocity and velocity dispersion maps. From these data, we show that the inner velocity gradient is lowered and is responsible for a peak in the velocity dispersion map. This signature in the velocity dispersion map can be used to make a kinematical classification, but misses 30 per cent of the regular rotating discs in our sample. Toy models of rotating discs have been built to recover the kinematical parameters and the rotation curves from low-resolution data. The poor resolution makes the kinematical inclination uncertain and the position of galaxy centre difficult to recover. The position angle of the major axis is retrieved with an accuracy higher than 5° for 70 per cent of the sample. Toy models also enable us to retrieve statistically the maximum velocity and the mean velocity dispersion of galaxies with a satisfying accuracy. This validates the use of the Tully-Fisher relation for high-redshift galaxies, but the loss of resolution induces a lower slope of the relation despite the beam smearing corrections. We conclude that the main kinematic parameters are better constrained for galaxies with an optical radius at least as large as three times the seeing. The simulated data have been compared to actual high-redshift galaxy data observed with VLT/SINFONI, Keck/OSIRIS and VLT/GIRAFFE in the redshift range 3 > z > 0.4, allowing us to follow galaxy evolution from 11 to 4Gyr. For rotation-dominated galaxies, we find that the use of the velocity dispersion central peak as a signature of rotating discs may

  17. Neutral hydrogen and optical observations of edge-on galaxies : Hunting for warps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Ruiz, [No Value; Sancisi, R; Kuijken, K

    2002-01-01

    We present 21-cm HI line and optical R-band observations for a sample of 26 edge-on galaxies. The HI observations were obtained with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, and are part of the WHISP database (Westerbork HI Survey of Spiral and Irregular Galaxies). We present HI maps, optical

  18. General solution of Poisson equation in three dimensions for disk-like galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Y.; Zheng, X.; Peng, O.

    1982-01-01

    The general solution of the Poisson equation is solved by means of integral transformations for Vertical BarkVertical Barr>>1 provided that the perturbed density of disk-like galaxies distributes along the radial direction according to the Hankel function. This solution can more accurately represent the outer spiral arms of disk-like galaxies

  19. Revealing S0 Galaxies' Formation Histories Using the Stellar Kinematics of the Faint Outer Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortesi, A.; Merrifield, M. R.; Noordermeer, E.; Coccato, L.; Bamford, S.; Napolitano, N. R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Das, P.; Douglas, N. G.; Kuijken, K.; Freeman, K. C.; Capaccioli, M.; Debattista, Victor P.; Popescu, Cristina C.

    Lenticular galaxies display the prominent disks that are characteristic of late-type galaxies, but contain no gas, dust or star formation like early-type systems. So are they more closely related to spiral or ellipticals?. One important clue to their origin is recorded in the kinematics. If they are

  20. Testing the dark matter hypothesis with low surface brightness galaxies and other evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGaugh, SS; de Blok, WJG

    1998-01-01

    The severity of the mass discrepancy in spiral galaxies is strongly correlated with the central surface brightness of their disks. Progressively lower surface brightness galaxies have ever larger mass discrepancies. No other parameter (luminosity, size, velocity, morphology) is so well correlated

  1. Estimating gas accretion in disc galaxies using the Kennicutt-Schmidt law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraternali, Filippo; Tomassetti, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We show how the existence of a relation between the star formation rate (SFR) and the gas density, i.e. the KennicuttSchmidt law, implies a continuous accretion of fresh gas from the environment into the discs of spiral galaxies. We present a method to derive the gas infall rate in a galaxy disc as

  2. Revealing the Heart of the Galaxy : The Milky Way and its Black Hole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction: the luminous pathway; 2. The discovery of the Milky Way Galaxy; 3. The new physics; 4. Parting the veil with radio astronomy; 5. The violent Universe; 6. New windows on the Galactic Center; 7. The Milky Way as a barred spiral galaxy; 8. The evolving view of active galactic nuclei;

  3. Testing the nature of SO galaxies using planetary nebula kinematics in NGC 1023

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E.; Merrifield, M. R.; Coccato, L.; Arnaboldi, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Douglas, N. G.; Freeman, K. C.; Gerhard, O.; Kuijken, K.; De Lorenzi, F.; Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the manner in which lenticular galaxies are formed by studying their stellar kinematics: an S0 formed from a fading spiral galaxy should display similar cold outer disc kinematics to its progenitor, while an S0 formed in a minor merger should be more dominated by random motions. In a

  4. [C II] 158-micrometer Observations of a Sample of Late-type Galaxies from the Virgo Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, K. J.; Volk, H. J.; Heinrichsen, I.; Hippelein, H.; Metcalfe, L.; Pierini, D.; Popescu, C. C.; Tuffs, R. J.; Xu, C.

    1998-01-01

    We have observed 19 Virgo cluster spiral galaxies with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard ESAs Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) obtaining spectral around the (C II) 157.741-micrometer fine structure line.

  5. Measuring ultraviolet extinction with GALEX in overlapping galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    Dust in spiral galaxies is an all encompassing factor in star formation history, measurements of luminosity, and galaxy dynamics. To learn more about galaxy formation and the influence of dust, White & Keel 1992 formulated a direct method to estimate optical depth. In the past few years, with the aid of the Galaxy Zoo forum and its members, known as zooites, a scientifically acceptable number of galaxy pairs have been identified to create a full catalog for this particular research. The White & Keel 1992 method uses differential photometry which eliminates many of the errors that plague statistical techniques that rely on the internal structure of a galaxy to estimate optical depth. The method relies heavily on the symmetry of the galaxies that make up the pair. To fulfill the symmetry requirement of the ideal geometry, the most suitable pair consists of a foreground spiral backlit by an elliptical galaxy. As evidenced here, non-interacting visually symmetric galaxies pairs yield the best results. Observations at the WIYN telescope combined with exposures downloaded from the GALEX archive are used to estimate the optical depth in these pairs as outlined by White & Keel 1992 and additionally, to trace the star formation in UV detections. Two examples of extended dust far beyond the optical radius were observed and analyzed for extinction. In this sample of galaxies, the optical depth of each wavelength scaled to the B filter was generally constant across the wavelengths observed. The effects of clumpy dust structure in the spiral arms dominated the reddening law which likely resulted in an overestimate of the optical depth measurements.

  6. Dwarf elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Henry C.; Binggeli, Bruno

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies, with blue absolute magnitudes typically fainter than M(sub B) = -16, are the most numerous type of galaxy in the nearby universe. Tremendous advances have been made over the past several years in delineating the properties of both Local Group satellite dE's and the large dE populations of nearby clusters. We review some of these advances, with particular attention to how well currently availiable data can constrain (a) models for the formation of dE's, (b) the physical and evolutionary connections between different types of galaxies that overlap in the same portion of the mass-spectrum of galaxies, (c) the contribution of dE's to the galaxy luminosity functions in clusters and the field, (d) the star-forming histories of dE's and their possible contribution to faint galaxy counts, and (e) the clustering properties of dE's. In addressing these issues, we highlight the extent to which selection effects temper these constraints, and outline areas where new data would be particularly valuable.

  7. Spiral Inflector For Compact Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Karamysheva, G A

    2004-01-01

    Compact cyclotron for explosives detection by nuclear resonance absorption of γ-rays in nitrogen is under development [1] Cyclotron will be equipped with the external ion source. The injection system consists of a double-drift beam bunching system, a spiral inflector, beam diagnostics, focusing and adjustment elements [2]. The spiral inflector for ion bending from axial to median plane is used. Computer model of spiral inflector for the Customs cyclotron is developed. 3D electrostatic field calculations of the designed inflector are performed. Calculated electric field map and magnetic field map of the cyclotron [3] are used for beam dynamic simulations. Numeric simulations are carried out for 500 particles using code for calculation of particle dynamics by integration of differential equations in Cartesian coordinate system written in MATLAB. Direct Coulomb particle-to-particle method is used to take into account space-charge effects.

  8. Structure and dynamics of ringed galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buta, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In many spiral and SO galaxies, single or multiple ring structures are visible in the disk. These inner rings (r), outer rings (R), and nuclear rings (nr) were investigated by means of morphology, photometry, and spectroscopy in order to provide basic data on a long neglected phenomenon. The metric properties of each ring are investigated and found to correlate with the structure of the parent galaxy. When properly calibrated, inner rings in barred (SB) systems can be used as geometric extragalactic distance indicators to distances in excess of 100 Mpc. Other statistics are presented that confirm previous indications that the rings have preferred shapes, relative sizes, and orientations with respect to bars. A survey is made of the less homogeneous non-barred (SA) ringed systems, and the causes of the inhomogeneity are isolated. It is shown that rings can be identified in multiple-ring SA systems that are exactly analogous to those in barred spirals

  9. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Physical Properties and Purity of a Galaxy Cluster Sample Selected Via the Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau, Felipe; Gonzalez, Jorge; Juin, Jean-Baptiste; Marriage, Tobias; Reese, Erik D.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Aguirre, Paula; Appel, John Willam; Baker, Andrew J.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present optical and X-ray properties for the first confirmed galaxy cluster sample selected by the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect from 148 GHz maps over 455 square degrees of sky made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. These maps. coupled with multi-band imaging on 4-meter-class optical telescopes, have yielded a sample of 23 galaxy clusters with redshifts between 0.118 and 1.066. Of these 23 clusters, 10 are newly discovered. The selection of this sample is approximately mass limited and essentially independent of redshift. We provide optical positions, images, redshifts and X-ray fluxes and luminosities for the full sample, and X-ray temperatures of an important subset. The mass limit of the full sample is around 8.0 x 10(exp 14) Stellar Mass. with a number distribution that peaks around a redshift of 0.4. For the 10 highest significance SZE-selected cluster candidates, all of which are optically confirmed, the mass threshold is 1 x 10(exp 15) Stellar Mass and the redshift range is 0.167 to 1.066. Archival observations from Chandra, XMM-Newton. and ROSAT provide X-ray luminosities and temperatures that are broadly consistent with this mass threshold. Our optical follow-up procedure also allowed us to assess the purity of the ACT cluster sample. Eighty (one hundred) percent of the 148 GHz candidates with signal-to-noise ratios greater than 5.1 (5.7) are confirmed as massive clusters. The reported sample represents one of the largest SZE-selected sample of massive clusters over all redshifts within a cosmologically-significant survey volume, which will enable cosmological studies as well as future studies on the evolution, morphology, and stellar populations in the most massive clusters in the Universe.

  10. The clustering and bias of radio-selected AGN and star-forming galaxies in the COSMOS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, C. L.; Jarvis, M. J.; Delvecchio, I.; Hatfield, P. W.; Novak, M.; Smolčić, V.; Zamorani, G.

    2018-03-01

    Dark matter haloes in which galaxies reside are likely to have a significant impact on their evolution. We investigate the link between dark matter haloes and their constituent galaxies by measuring the angular two-point correlation function of radio sources, using recently released 3 GHz imaging over ˜2 deg2 of the Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. We split the radio source population into star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and active galactic nuclei (AGN), and further separate the AGN into radiatively efficient and inefficient accreters. Restricting our analysis to z hand, AGN are significantly more strongly clustered with b = 2.1 ± 0.2 at a median redshift of 0.7. This supports the idea that AGN are hosted by more massive haloes than SFGs. We also find low accretion rate AGN are more clustered (b = 2.9 ± 0.3) than high accretion rate AGN (b = 1.8^{+0.4}_{-0.5}) at the same redshift (z ˜ 0.7), suggesting that low accretion rate AGN reside in higher mass haloes. This supports previous evidence that the relatively hot gas that inhabits the most massive haloes is unable to be easily accreted by the central AGN, causing them to be inefficient. We also find evidence that low accretion rate AGN appear to reside in halo masses of Mh ˜ 3-4 × 1013 h-1 M⊙ at all redshifts. On the other hand, the efficient accreters reside in haloes of Mh ˜ 1-2 × 1013 h-1 M⊙ at low redshift but can reside in relatively lower mass haloes at higher redshifts. This could be due to the increased prevalence of cold gas in lower mass haloes at z ≥ 1 compared to z < 1.

  11. ISO far-infrared observations of rich galaxy clusters I. Abell 2670

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Jorgensen, H.E.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

    1999-01-01

    As part of an investigation of far-infrared emission from rich galaxy clusters the central part of Abell 2670 has been mapped with ISO at 60 mu m, 100 mu m, 135 mu m, and 200 mu m using the PHT-C camera. Point sources detected in the field have infrared fluxes comparable to normal spirals...... at the cluster distance. Probable optical counterparts are cluster galaxies with various characteristics such as blue colour, Ha emission, or double nuclei. One source is extended which could possibly be emission from intracluster dust in debris from spiral galaxies....

  12. Exploring Our Galaxy's Thick Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    What is the structure of the Milky Ways disk, and how did it form? A new study uses giant stars to explore these questions.A View from the InsideSchematic showing an edge-on, not-to-scale view of what we think the Milky Ways structurelookslike. The thick disk is shown in yellow and the thin disk is shown in green. [Gaba p]Spiral galaxies like ours are often observed to have disks consisting of two components: a thin disk that lies close to the galactic midplane, and a thick disk that extends above and below this. Past studies have suggested that the Milky Ways disk hosts the same structure, but our position embedded in the Milky Way makes this difficult to confirm.If we can measure the properties of a broad sample of distant tracer stars and use this to better understand the construction of the Milky Ways disk, then we can start to ask additional questions like, how did the disk components form? Formation pictures for the thick disk generally fall into two categories:Stars in the thick disk formed within the Milky Way either in situ or by migrating to their current locations.Stars in the thick disk formed in satellite galaxies around the Milky Way and then accreted when the satellites were disrupted.Scientists Chengdong Li and Gang Zhao (NAO Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences) have now used observations of giant stars which can be detected out to great distances due to their brightness to trace the properties of the Milky Ways thick disk and address the question of its origin.Best fits for the radial (top) and vertical (bottom) metallicity gradients of the thick-disk stars. [Adapted from Li Zhao 2017]Probing OriginsLi and Zhao used data from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) in China to examine a sample of 35,000 giant stars. The authors sorted these stars into different disk components halo, thin disk, and thick disk based on their kinematic properties, and then explored how the orbital and

  13. Island universes structure and evolution of disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    DE JONG, R. S

    2007-01-01

    This book contains an up-to-date review of the structure and evolution of disk galaxies from both the observational and theoretical point of view. The book is the proceedings of the "Island Universes" conference held at the island of Terschelling, The Netherlands in July 2005, which attracted about 130 experts and students in the field. The conference was organized as a tribute to Dr. Piet C. van der Kruit for receiving the honorary Jacobus C. Kapteyn Professorship in Astronomy. The eight topical themes discussed at the meeting are reflected in these proceedings: 1) Properties of Stellar Disks, 2) Kinematics and Dynamics of Disk Galaxies, 3) Bars, Spiral Structure, and Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies, 4) The Outskirts and Environment of Disk Galaxies, 5) Interstellar Matter, 6) (Evolution of) Star Formation in Galactic Disks, 7) Disk Galaxies through Cosmic Time, and 8) Formation Models of Disk Galaxies. These proceedings are concluded with a conference summary reflecting on the most significant recent pro...

  14. Herschel Spectroscopy of Early-type Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapham, Ryen Carl; Young, Lisa M. [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Crocker, Alison, E-mail: ryen.lapham@student.nmt.edu, E-mail: lyoung@physics.nmt.edu, E-mail: crockera@reed.edu [Physics Department, Reed College, Portland, OR 97202 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We present Herschel spectroscopy of atomic lines arising in photodissociation regions as well as ionization regions of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs), focusing on the volume-limited Atlas3D sample. Our data include the [C ii], [O i], and [N ii] 122 and 205 μ m lines, along with ancillary data including CO and H i maps. We find that ETGs have [C ii]/FIR ratios slightly lower than spiral galaxies in the KINGFISH sample, and several ETGs have unusually large [N ii] 122/[C ii] ratios. The [N ii] 122/[C ii] ratio is correlated with UV colors and there is a strong anti-correlation of [C ii]/FIR with NUV-K seen in both spirals and ETGs, likely due to a softer radiation field with fewer photons available to ionize carbon and heat the gas. The correlation thus makes a [C ii] deficit in galaxies with redder stellar populations. The high [N ii] 122/[C ii] (and low [C ii]/FIR) line ratios could also be affected by the removal of much of the diffuse, low-density gas, which is consistent with the low H i/H{sub 2} ratios. [C ii] is now being used as a star-formation indicator, and we find that it is just as good for ETGs as in spirals. The [C ii]/CO ratios found are also similar to those found in spiral galaxies. Through the use of the [N ii] 205 μ m line, estimates of the percentage of [C ii] emission arising from ionized gas indicate that a significant portion could arise in ionized regions.

  15. Diffuse HI Disks in Isolated Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Hogg, David E.; Roberts, Morton S.; Haynes, Martha P.; Maddalena, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the contribution of diffuse components to their total HI emission, we have obtained high precision HI line flux densities with the 100m Green Bank Telescope for a sample of 100 isolated spiral and irregular galaxies which we have previously observed with the 43m telescope. A comparison of the observed HI line fluxes obtained with the two different telescopes, characterized by half-power beam widths of 9 arcmin and 21 arcmin respectively, exploits a ``beam matching'' te...

  16. A new southern Seyfert 1 galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    West, R M; Danks, A C

    1978-01-01

    ESO 140-G43 (Fairall-51) is confirmed as a 14/sup m/ type 1 Seyfert galaxy at V/sub 0/=4150 km s/sup -1/. M/sub V/=-20.8; largest diameter 40 kpc (H/sub 0/=55 km s/sup -1/ Mpc/sup -1/). It has two open spiral arms. R.A.=18/sup h/40/sup m/.2; Decl.=-62 degrees 25' (1950). (8 refs).

  17. Occurrence of LINER galaxies within the galaxy group environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, Georgina V.; Pereyra, Luis; Alonso, Sol; Donoso, Emilio; Duplancic, Fernanda

    2017-05-01

    We study the properties of a sample of 3967 low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies selected from SDSS-DR7, with respect to their proximity to galaxy groups. The host galaxies of LINERs have been analysed and compared with a well-defined control sample of 3841 non-LINER galaxies matched in redshift, luminosity, colour, morphology, age and stellar mass content. We find no difference between LINER and control galaxies in terms of the colour and age of stellar population as a function of the virial mass and distance to the geometric centre of the group. However, we find that LINERs are more likely to populate low-density environments in spite of their morphology, which is typical of high-density regions such as rich galaxy clusters. For rich (poor) galaxy groups, the occurrence of LINERs is approximately two times lower (higher) than the occurrence of matched, non-LINER galaxies. Moreover, LINER hosts do not seem to follow the expected morphology-density relation in groups of high virial mass. The high frequency of LINERs in low-density regions could be due to the combination of a sufficient gas reservoir to power the low-ionization emission and/or enhanced galaxy interaction rates benefiting the gas flow towards their central regions.

  18. The Unexpected Past of a Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    New Light on Cannibalism in the Local Group of Galaxies The Local Group of Galaxies consists of a few large spiral galaxies - for instance the Milky Way galaxy in which we live, and the Andromeda galaxy that is visible to the unaided eye in the northern constellation of the same name - as well as two dozen much smaller galaxies of mostly irregular shape. Whereas the larger galaxies have extended halos of very old stars, no such halos have ever been seen around the smaller ones. Now, however, Dante Minniti and Albert Zijlstra [1], working at the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT), have found a large halo of old and metal-poor stars around one of the dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. This finding is quite unexpected. It revises our understanding of star formation in these galaxies and provides important information about the past evolution of galaxies [2]. Galaxy halos The Milky Way galaxy is surrounded by a large, roughly spherical halo of old stars. The diameter is about 100,000 light years and the stars therein, known as Population II stars, are among the oldest known, with ages of 10 billion years or even more. They also differ from the younger stars nearer to the main plane of the Milky Way (in which our 4.7 billion year old Sun is located) by being very metal-poor. Many of the halo stars consist almost solely of hydrogen and helium, reflecting the composition of matter in the young Universe. This halo is important for our understanding of the processes that led to the formation of the Milky Way galaxy. It is believed that many of the halo stars and those of the same type found in globular clusters existed already before the Milky Way had fully formed. Galaxy cannibalism Many astronomers suspect that galaxies evolve and gradually grow larger and heavier by practising cannibalism on their own kind. In this picture, when two galaxies collide in space, the stars and nebulae in the smaller one will disperse and soon be taken over by the larger one, which

  19. NIBLES - an HI census of stellar mass selected SDSS galaxies. II. Arecibo follow-up HI observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Z.; Schneider, S.; van Driel, W.; Lehnert, M. D.; Minchin, R.

    2016-11-01

    We obtained Arecibo Hi line follow-up observations of 154 of the 2600 galaxies in the Nançay Interstellar Baryons Legacy Extragalactic Survey (NIBLES) sample. These observations are on average four times more sensitive than the original observations at the Nançay Radio Telescope. The main goal of this survey is to characterize the underlying Hi properties of the NIBLES galaxies which were undetected or marginally detected at Nançay. Of the Nançay non-detections, 85% were either clearly or marginally detected at Arecibo, while 89% of the Nançay marginal detections were clearly detected. Based on the statistics of the detections relative to g-I color and r-band luminosity (Lr) distribution among our Arecibo observations, we anticipate 60% of our 867 Nançay non-detections and marginal detections could be detected at the sensitivity of our Arecibo observations. Follow-up observations of our low luminosity (Lr ALFALFA surveys respectively. Reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/A60

  20. Quasicrystallography on the spiral of Archimedes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of a spiral lattice is discussed. Some examples of known mineral structures, namely clino asbestos, halloysite and cylindrite, are then interpreted in terms of this structural principle. An example of a synthetic sulphide catalyst spiral structure having atomic dimensions is also described. All of these inorganic spiral structures are based on the sprial of Archimedes. The principles for a new type of crystallography, based on the Archimedian spiral, are then presented. 45 refs., 8 figs

  1. SHARC-2 350 micron observations of distant submillimeter-selected galaxies and techniques for the optimal analysis and observing of weak signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, A.

    2006-06-01

    New 350 micron data constrain accurately the thermal far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 12 distant submillimeter selected galaxies (SMGs). The results confirm that the linear radio to far-infrared correlation, established for local infrared galaxies, holds out to high redshifts z ~ 1--3. The low correlation constant q ~ 2.14 is more indicative of star formation than AGN-fueled dust heating. The sample exhibits an apparent luminosity--temperature relation (L_FIR ~ T_d^2.89), possibly owing to selection effects. As a result, photometric redshifts in the radio or far-infrared may not be viable, but expressions may relate the observed quantities for current flux and volume limited SMG samples. These suggest that SED estimation may be possible, for objects similarly selected, based on a single radio or far-infrared flux measurement. The detection of these faint objects (~10 mJy at 350 micron) from the ground is complicated by a bright (~1000 Jy) and highly variable (~10 Jy RMS in 10 minutes of integration) atmosphere with a 1/f^2 noise spectrum and by instrumental 1/f noise. To reach optimum sensitivities, a careful analysis of the data is required, and well-chosen observing strategies are helpful. The principal techniques that aid the extraction of weak signals from colored noise are presented. Close to optimal analysis is implemented effectively by the CRUSH software. Both the computing and storage requirement of the implementation scales linearly with the size of the data set, making this approach superior to the computationally expensive alternatives for handling the very large data volumes expected from future instruments.

  2. Inspired Spirals. Teaching Art with Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses spirals in nature, man-made objects, and art. Focuses on art that incorporates the spiral, including works by M. C. Escher and Frank Lloyd Wright, an African headdress, and a burial urn. Describes activities to help students make spirals of their own, such as constructing a coil clay pot. (CMK)

  3. The HIX galaxy survey II: HI kinematics of HI eXtreme galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-02-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected HI content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these HI eXtreme (HIX) galaxies to be so HI-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed HIX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in HIX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of HIX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) HIX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most HIX galaxies live in higher-spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that HIX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the HIX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of HIX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) through the large program C 2705.

  4. Dwarf Galaxies in Voids: Galaxy Luminosity and HI Mass Functions Using SDSS and ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Crystal M.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Alfalfa Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We examine the first statistically-significant sample of dwarf galaxies in voids with matched optical (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) and radio (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey) observations, which allow us to probe the impact of voids on the luminosity function, the HI mass function, and star formation history of galaxies. Large-scale voids provide a unique environment for studying galaxy formation and evolution. Previous theoretical work predicts that galaxies residing in large-scale voids evolve as if they were in a universe with lower matter density, higher dark energy density, and larger Hubble constant. Environmental processes such as ram pressure stripping and galaxy-galaxy interactions should be less important for void galaxies than for galaxies in denser regions (wall galaxies). We measure the effects of environment on two fundamental tests of galaxy formation: the galaxy luminosity function (LF) and the HI mass function (HIMF). In both cases, we find a significant shift towards lower-mass, fainter galaxies in voids. However, we do not detect a dependence on environment of the low-mass/faint end slope of the HIMF and LF. We further investigate how surface brightness selection effects impact the r-band LF. We also examine how HI selection of galaxies affects the optical LF. Utilizing both optical and HI information on nearby galaxies, we determine how star formation efficiency and star formation rates depend on environment.

  5. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND GALAXY FORMATION REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Fall, S. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j * and mass M * (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j * reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j * in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of ∼100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j * versus M * . The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j * -M * tracks, with log-slopes of ∼0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of ∼3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and ∼7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j * -M * trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow separate, fundamental j * -M * scaling relations. This provides a

  6. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND GALAXY FORMATION REVISITED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanowsky, Aaron J. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Fall, S. Michael [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j{sub *} and mass M{sub *} (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j{sub *} reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j{sub *} in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of {approx}100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j{sub *} versus M{sub *}. The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j{sub *}-M{sub *} tracks, with log-slopes of {approx}0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of {approx}3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and {approx}7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j{sub *}-M{sub *} trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow

  7. The Spiral Pattern During Development*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-08-07

    Aug 7, 1971 ... which are destined to become the limb areas bud out laterally. Fig. 8. The early cells, which are destined to develop into the upper and the lower limbs, after lateral budding has occurred. Fig. 11 demonstrates the human embryo of about 5 mm. CR length and age of about 32 days. The spiral pattern is.

  8. THE SLOAN GREAT WALL. MORPHOLOGY AND GALAXY CONTENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, M.; Liivamaegi, L. J.; Tempel, E.; Saar, E.; Tago, E.; Einasto, P.; Enkvist, I.; Einasto, J.; MartInez, V. J.; Heinaemaeki, P.; Nurmi, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the morphology and galaxy content of the Sloan Great Wall (SGW), the richest galaxy system in the nearby universe. We use the luminosity density field to determine superclusters in the SGW, and the fourth Minkowski functional V 3 and the morphological signature (the K 1 -K 2 shapefinder curve) to show the different morphologies of the SGW, from a single filament to a multibranching, clumpy planar system. We show that the richest supercluster in the SGW, SCl 126, and especially its core, resembles a very rich filament, while another rich supercluster in the SGW, SCl 111, resembles a 'multispider'-an assembly of high-density regions connected by chains of galaxies. We study the substructure of individual galaxy populations determined by their color in these superclusters using Minkowski functionals and find that in the high-density core of the SGW the clumpiness of red and blue galaxies is similar, but in the outskirts of superclusters the distribution of red galaxies is clumpier than that of blue galaxies. At intermediate densities, the systems of blue galaxies have tunnels through them. We assess the statistical significance of our results using the halo model and smoothed bootstrap. We study the galaxy content and the properties of groups of galaxies in the two richest superclusters of the SGW, paying special attention to bright red galaxies (BRGs) and the first ranked (the most luminous) galaxies in SGW groups. The BRGs are the nearby luminous red galaxies; they are mostly bright and red and typically reside in groups (several groups host five or more BRGs). About one-third of the BRGs are spirals. The scatter of colors of elliptical BRGs is smaller than that of spiral BRGs. About half of the BRGs and of first ranked galaxies in groups have large peculiar velocities. Groups with elliptical BRGs as their first ranked galaxies populate superclusters more uniformly than the groups that have a spiral BRG as their first ranked

  9. The Inner Regions of Disk Galaxies: A Constant Baryonic Fraction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelli, Federico

    For disk galaxies (spirals and irregulars), the inner circular-velocity gradient (inner steepness of the rotation curve) correlates with the central surface brightness with a slope of ~0.5. This implies that the central dynamical mass density scales almost linearly with the central baryonic density.

  10. The ursa major cluster of galaxies - IV. HI synthesis observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, MAW; Sancisi, R

    In this data paper we present the results of an extensive 21 cm-line synthesis imaging survey of 43 spiral galaxies in the nearby Ursa Major cluster using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. Detailed kinematic information in the form of position-velocity diagrams and rotation curves is

  11. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies: Evolution in Isolation M. Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are much lower than that of normal late type spirals (de Blok et al. 1996). The thinness of the HI distribution has ... 2000) but this is not suprising considering their low star forma- tion rates and low metallicities (Schombert ... normal galaxies in surface brightness and structure (Barth 2007). Galex UV obser- vations of the disks ...

  12. HI observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 2146

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taramopoulos, A; Payne, H; Briggs, FH

    NGC 2146 is a peculiar spiral galaxy which is currently undergoing a major burst of star formation and is immersed in a extended HT structure that has morphological and kinematical resemblence to a strong tidal interaction. This paper reports aperture synthesis observations carried out in the 21 cm

  13. Galaxy Clustering and Merging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z. L.

    2011-09-01

    Cosmic structure formation and galaxy evolution are important subjects in astrophysics. The thesis consists of two parts: (1) identification of galaxy clusters and studies of their properties; (2) identification of the mergers of luminous early-type galaxies and gravitational waves (GWs). Most of the galaxy clusters in the previous catalogs have redshifts z≤0.3 with richnesses not well determined. Using the photometric redshifts of galaxies from the Sixth Data Release of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR6), we identify 39716 clusters in the redshift range of 0.05contamination rate and the completeness of member galaxies are found to be ˜20% and ∼90%, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations show that the cluster detection rate is larger than 90% for the massive (M_{200}>2×10^{14} M_{⊙}) clusters with z≤0.42. The false detection rate is ˜5%. We obtain the richness, the summed luminosity and the gross galaxy number. They are tightly correlated with the X-ray luminosity and the temperature of clusters. The cluster mass is also found to be tightly related to the richness and summed luminosity in the form of M_{200}∝ R^{1.90±0.04} and M_{200}∝ L_r^{1.64±0.03}, respectively. In addition, 790 new candidates of X-ray clusters are found by cross-identification of our clusters with the unidentified source list of the ROSAT X-ray survey. By visual inspections of the detected clusters, we recognize 13 gravitational lensing candidates. Among all the candidates, four can be sure strong lensing systems even without further spectroscopic identification, five are more probable and four are possible lenses. In the second part, we discuss the merger rates of luminous early-type galaxies and GWs from the mergers of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). The merger rates of massive galaxies in the local universe are still not clear so far. We select a large sample (1209) of close pairs of galaxies with projected separations 7 kpc

  14. High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of an Equivalent Width-Selected Sample of Starbursting Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseda, Michael V.; VanDerWeL, Arjen; DaChuna, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Pacafichi, Camilla; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Franx, Marijn; VanDokkum, Pieter; Bell, Eric F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations from the Large Binocular Telescope and the Very Large Telescope reveal kinematically narrow lines (approx. 50 km/s) for a sample of 14 Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (EELGs) at redshifts 1.4 < zeta < 2.3. These measurements imply that the total dynamical masses of these systems are low ( 3 × 10(exp 9) M). Their large [O III]5007 equivalent widths (500 - 1100 A) and faint blue continuum emission imply young ages of 10-100 Myr and stellar masses of 10(exp 8)-10(exp 9) M, confirming the presence of a violent starburst. The stellar mass formed in this vigorous starburst phase thus represents a large fraction of the total (dynamical) mass, without a significantly massive underlying population of older stars. The occurrence of such intense events in shallow potentials strongly suggests that supernova-driven winds must be of critical importance in the subsequent evolution of these systems.

  15. Analysis of WFCAM images of M33 galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najme Golabtooni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 1200 images and catalogues of M33 spiral galaxy taken by WFCAM camera at UKIRT telescope in J, H and K bands. Cross correlation methods were employed to identify stars in overlapping regions from among images taken in different dates. Careful astrometric and photometric analysis was made to calibrate stellar positions and magnitudes using their 2MASS near infra red survey. The final catalogue consisted of 445303 stars and covered more than 0.75 square degrees of sky centered on M33 core, which included the bulge and spiral arms. This is the biggest catalogue ever made from a nearby spiral galaxy in near infrared. A color magnitude diagram in near infrared was plotted, which shows a bunch of very red stars that extended to J-K = 4.

  16. Galaxies in x-ray selected clusters and groups in Dark Energy Survey Data I: Stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies since Z similar to 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; Rooney, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Romer, A. K.; Perfecto, R.; Song, J; Desai, S.; Mohr, J. J.; Vikram, V.

    2016-01-10

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z similar to 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into an analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation, m(*) proportional to (M-200/1.5 x 10(14)M(circle dot))(0.24 +/- 0.08)(1+z)(-0.19 +/- 0.34), and compare the observed relation to the model prediction. We estimate the average growth rate since z = 1.0 for BCGs hosted by clusters of M-200,M-z = 10(13.8)M(circle dot); at z = 1.0: m(*, BCG) appears to have grown by 0.13 +/- 0.11 dex, in tension at the similar to 2.5 sigma significance level with the 0.40 dex growth rate expected from the semi-analytic model. We show that the build-up of extended intracluster light after z = 1.0 may alleviate this tension in BCG growth rates.

  17. Selectio