Sample records for spin wave research

  1. Spin Waves in Terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Bjerrum Møller, Hans


    with increasing temperatures implies that the two-ion coupling is effectively isotropic above ∼ 150 K. We present arguments for concluding that, among the mechanisms which may introduce anisotropic two-ion couplings in the rare-earth metals, the modification of the indirect exchange interaction by the spin......The energies of spin waves propagating in the c direction of Tb have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering, as a function of a magnetic field applied along the easy and hard directions in the basal plane, and as a function of temperature. From a general spin Hamiltonian, consistent...... with the symmetry, we deduce the dispersion relation for the spin waves in a basal-plane ferromagnet. This phenomenological spin-wave theory accounts for the observed behavior of the magnon energies in Tb. The two q⃗-dependent Bogoliubov components of the magnon energies are derived from the experimental results...

  2. Excitations and spin waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgaard, P.-A.


    When neutron scattering data became available for the light rare earths (REs) and the RE compounds, a need was felt for a systematic theory for excitations in crystal-field dominated systems. The crystal field mixes the wavefunctions and provides a coupling between the ground state and the excited states for many operators, whereas for the Heisenberg system only J - has a nonzero matrix element to the first excited state. A review is given of successful applications of the theory in the interpretation of several experiments. The excitation spectrum for neutron scattering is simply given by the poles of the imaginary part of the enhanced wave-vector-dependent susceptibility tensor calculated in the random-phase approximation. A discussion of the effect of two-ion anisotropy is given. The formalism reduces to the conventional spin wave theory for the Heisenberg system when the crystal field is negligible compared to the exchange interaction. However, this theory has the drawback that it is necessary to know the crystal field in advance and each value of J must then be treated separately. A review of the results in the RE Laves-phase compounds and in the heavy rare earths is given, and the status of the current understanding of the interactions is rare earths and their compounds is discussed. (author)

  3. Snell's Law for Spin Waves (United States)

    Stigloher, J.; Decker, M.; Körner, H. S.; Tanabe, K.; Moriyama, T.; Taniguchi, T.; Hata, H.; Madami, M.; Gubbiotti, G.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T.; Back, C. H.


    We report the experimental observation of Snell's law for magnetostatic spin waves in thin ferromagnetic Permalloy films by imaging incident, refracted, and reflected waves. We use a thickness step as the interface between two media with different dispersion relations. Since the dispersion relation for magnetostatic waves in thin ferromagnetic films is anisotropic, deviations from the isotropic Snell's law known in optics are observed for incidence angles larger than 25 ° with respect to the interface normal between the two magnetic media. Furthermore, we can show that the thickness step modifies the wavelength and the amplitude of the incident waves. Our findings open up a new way of spin wave steering for magnonic applications.

  4. Spin Waves in Terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden


    The selection rules for the linear couplings between magnons and phonons propagating in the c direction of a simple basal-plane hcp ferromagnet are determined by general symmetry considerations. The acoustic-optical magnon-phonon interactions observed in the heavy-rare-earth metals have been...... explained by Liu as originating from the mixing of the spin states of the conduction electrons due to the spin-orbit coupling. We find that this coupling mechanism introduces interactions which violate the selection rules for a simple ferromagnet. The interactions between the magnons and phonons propagating...... in the c direction of Tb have been studied experimentally by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The magnons are coupled to both the acoustic- and optical-transverse phonons. By studying the behavior of the acoustic-optical coupling, we conclude that it is a spin-mixed-induced coupling as proposed...

  5. Spin Waves in Ho2Co17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Lebech, Bente


    Spin wave excitations in a single crystal of Ho2Co17 have been studied at 4.8 and 78 K. The results are discussed in terms of a linear spin wave model. At 78 K both ground state and excited state spin waves are observed.......Spin wave excitations in a single crystal of Ho2Co17 have been studied at 4.8 and 78 K. The results are discussed in terms of a linear spin wave model. At 78 K both ground state and excited state spin waves are observed....

  6. Lattice Waves, Spin Waves, and Neutron Scattering (United States)

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.


    Use of neutron inelastic scattering to study the forces between atoms in solids is treated. One-phonon processes and lattice vibrations are discussed, and experiments that verified the existence of the quantum of lattice vibrations, the phonon, are reviewed. Dispersion curves, phonon frequencies and absorption, and models for dispersion calculations are discussed. Experiments on the crystal dynamics of metals are examined. Dispersion curves are presented and analyzed; theory of lattice dynamics is considered; effects of Fermi surfaces on dispersion curves; electron-phonon interactions, electronic structure influence on lattice vibrations, and phonon lifetimes are explored. The dispersion relation of spin waves in crystals and experiments in which dispersion curves for spin waves in Co-Fe alloy and magnons in magnetite were obtained and the reality of the magnon was demonstrated are discussed. (D.C.W)

  7. Spin waves and spin instabilities in quantum plasmas


    Andreev, P. A.; Kuz'menkov, L. S.


    We describe main ideas of method of many-particle quantum hydrodynamics allows to derive equations for description of quantum plasma evolution. We also present definitions of collective quantum variables suitable for quantum plasmas. We show that evolution of magnetic moments (spins) in quantum plasmas leads to several new branches of wave dispersion: spin-electromagnetic plasma waves and self-consistent spin waves. Propagation of neutron beams through quantum plasmas is also considered. Inst...

  8. Excitation of coherent propagating spin waves by pure spin currents. (United States)

    Demidov, Vladislav E; Urazhdin, Sergei; Liu, Ronghua; Divinskiy, Boris; Telegin, Andrey; Demokritov, Sergej O


    Utilization of pure spin currents not accompanied by the flow of electrical charge provides unprecedented opportunities for the emerging technologies based on the electron's spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. It was recently shown that pure spin currents can be used to excite coherent magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures. However, because of the intrinsic nonlinear self-localization effects, magnetic auto-oscillations in the demonstrated devices were spatially confined, preventing their applications as sources of propagating spin waves in magnonic circuits using these waves as signal carriers. Here, we experimentally demonstrate efficient excitation and directional propagation of coherent spin waves generated by pure spin current. We show that this can be achieved by using the nonlocal spin injection mechanism, which enables flexible design of magnetic nanosystems and allows one to efficiently control their dynamic characteristics.

  9. Spin wave spectrum of magnetic nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.L.; Landeros, P.; Nunez, Alvaro S.


    We investigate the spin wave spectra associated to a vortex domain wall confined within a ferromagnetic nanotube. Basing our study upon a simple model for the energy functional we obtain the dispersion relation, the density of states and dissipation induced life-times of the spin wave excitations in presence of a magnetic domain wall. Our aim is to capture the basics spin wave physics behind the geometrical confinement of nobel magnetic textures.

  10. Spin-wave-induced spin torque in Rashba ferromagnets (United States)

    Umetsu, Nobuyuki; Miura, Daisuke; Sakuma, Akimasa


    We study the effects of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin torque induced by spin waves, which are the plane-wave dynamics of magnetization. The spin torque is derived from linear-response theory, and we calculate the dynamic spin torque by considering the impurity-ladder-sum vertex corrections. This dynamic spin torque is divided into three terms: a damping term, a distortion term, and a correction term for the equation of motion. The distorting torque describes a phenomenon unique to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling system, where the distorted motion of magnetization precession is subjected to the anisotropic force from the Rashba coupling. The oscillation mode of the precession exhibits an elliptical trajectory, and the ellipticity depends on the strength of the nesting effects, which could be reduced by decreasing the electron lifetime.

  11. Spin wave Feynman diagram vertex computation package (United States)

    Price, Alexander; Javernick, Philip; Datta, Trinanjan

    Spin wave theory is a well-established theoretical technique that can correctly predict the physical behavior of ordered magnetic states. However, computing the effects of an interacting spin wave theory incorporating magnons involve a laborious by hand derivation of Feynman diagram vertices. The process is tedious and time consuming. Hence, to improve productivity and have another means to check the analytical calculations, we have devised a Feynman Diagram Vertex Computation package. In this talk, we will describe our research group's effort to implement a Mathematica based symbolic Feynman diagram vertex computation package that computes spin wave vertices. Utilizing the non-commutative algebra package NCAlgebra as an add-on to Mathematica, symbolic expressions for the Feynman diagram vertices of a Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet are obtained. Our existing code reproduces the well-known expressions of a nearest neighbor square lattice Heisenberg model. We also discuss the case of a triangular lattice Heisenberg model where non collinear terms contribute to the vertex interactions.

  12. Antiferromagnetic Spin Wave Field-Effect Transistor (United States)

    Cheng, Ran; Daniels, Matthew W.; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Xiao, Di


    In a collinear antiferromagnet with easy-axis anisotropy, symmetry dictates that the spin wave modes must be doubly degenerate. Theses two modes, distinguished by their opposite polarization and available only in antiferromagnets, give rise to a novel degree of freedom to encode and process information. We show that the spin wave polarization can be manipulated by an electric field induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and magnetic anisotropy. We propose a prototype spin wave field-effect transistor which realizes a gate-tunable magnonic analog of the Faraday effect, and demonstrate its application in THz signal modulation. Our findings open up the exciting possibility of digital data processing utilizing antiferromagnetic spin waves and enable the direct projection of optical computing concepts onto the mesoscopic scale. PMID:27048928

  13. Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering: imaging spin waves at the nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSebastian


    Full Text Available Spin waves constitute an important part of research in the field of magnetization dynamics. Spin waves are the elementary excitations of the spin system in a magnetically ordered material state and magnons are their quasi particles. In the following article, we will discuss the optical method of Brillouin light scattering (BLS spectroscopy which is a now a well established tool for the characterization of spin waves. BLS is the inelastic scattering of light from spin waves and confers several benefits: the ability to map the spin wave intensity distribution with spatial resolution and high sensitivity as well as the potential to simultaneously measure the frequency and the wave vector and, therefore, the dispersion properties.For several decades, the field of spin waves gained huge interest by the scientific community due to its relevance regarding fundamental issues of spindynamics in the field of solid states physics. The ongoing research in recent years has put emphasis on the high potential of spin waves regarding information technology. In the emerging field of textit{magnonics}, several concepts for a spin-wave based logic have been proposed and realized. Opposed to charge-based schemes in conventional electronics and spintronics, magnons are charge-free currents of angular momentum, and, therefore, less subject to scattering processes that lead to heating and dissipation. This fact is highlighted by the possibility to utilize spin waves as information carriers in electrically insulating materials. These developments have propelled the quest for ways and mechanisms to guide and manipulate spin-wave transport. In particular, a lot of effort is put into the miniaturization of spin-wave waveguides and the excitation of spin waves in structures with sub-micrometer dimensions.For the further development of potential spin-wave-based devices, the ability to directly observe spin-wave propagation with spatial resolution is crucial. As an optical

  14. Spin Waves in the FCC Kagome Lattice (United States)

    Leblanc, Martin; Southern, Byron; Plumer, Martin; Whitehead, John


    The impact of an effective local cubic anisotropy on the spin wave excitations and inelastic neutron scattering intensity peaks of the Heisenberg model on the 3D fcc kagome lattice are examined through a linear spin wave theory. Previous Monte Carlo simulations revealed that the addition of anisotropy to the fcc kagome lattice changes the order of the phase transition from weakly first order to continuous and restricts the T = 0 spin configuration to a number of discrete ground states, removing the continuous degeneracy. It is shown that the addition of anisotropy removes the number of zero energy modes in the excitation spectrum associated with the removed degeneracies. These results are relevant to Ir-Mn alloys which have been widely used by the magnetic storage industry in thin-film form as the antiferromagnetic pinning layer in GMR and TMR spin valves. Supported by NSERC of Canada.

  15. Spin correlations and spin-wave excitations in Dirac-Weyl semimetals (United States)

    Araki, Yasufumi; Nomura, Kentaro

    We study correlations among magnetic dopants in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl semimetals. Effective field theory for localized magnetic moments is derived by integrating out the itinerant electron degrees of freedom. We find that spin correlation in the spatial direction parallel to local magnetization is more rigid than that in the perpendicular direction, reflecting spin-momentum locking nature of the Dirac Hamiltonian. Such an anisotropy becomes stronger for Fermi level close to the Dirac points, due to Van Vleck paramagnetism triggered by spin-orbit coupling. One can expect topologically nontrivial spin textures under this anisotropy, such as a hedgehog around a single point, or a radial vortex around an axis, as well as a uniform ferromagnetic order. We further investigate the characteristics of spin waves in the ferromagnetic state. Spin-wave dispersion also shows a spatial anisotropy, which is less dispersed in the direction transverse to the magnetization than that in the longitudinal direction. The spin-wave dispersion anisotropy can be traced back to the rigidity and flexibility of spin correlations discussed above. This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Grants No.15H05854, No.26107505, and No.26400308) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan.

  16. Spin waves theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stancil, Daniel D


    Magnetic materials can support propagating waves of magnetization; since these are oscillations in the magneto static properties of the material, they are called magneto static waves (sometimes 'magnons' or 'magnetic polarons'). This book discusses magnetic properties of materials, and magnetic moments of atoms and ions

  17. Spin wave theory of ferrimagnetic double perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackeli, G.


    We present a theoretical study of magnetic properties of metallic double perovskite ferrimagnets such as Sr 2 FeMoO 6 and Sr 2 FeReO 6 . The analysis is based on the Kondo-type Hamiltonian in which charge carriers are constrained to be antiparallel to Fe local moments with spin S. The spectrum of spin wave excitations is derived based on the model Hamiltonian within the 1/S expansion. The ground state phase diagram as a function of carrier density is also discussed

  18. Spin-wave propagation and spin-polarized electron transport in single-crystal iron films (United States)

    Gladii, O.; Halley, D.; Henry, Y.; Bailleul, M.


    The techniques of propagating spin-wave spectroscopy and current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift are applied to a 20-nm-thick Fe/MgO(001) film. The magnetic parameters extracted from the position of the spin-wave resonance peaks are very close to those tabulated for bulk iron. From the zero-current propagating wave forms, a group velocity of 4 km/s and an attenuation length of about 6 μ m are extracted for 1.6-μ m -wavelength spin wave at 18 GHz. From the measured current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift, we extract a surprisingly high degree of spin polarization of the current of 83 % , which constitutes the main finding of this work. This set of results makes single-crystalline iron a promising candidate for building devices utilizing high-frequency spin waves and spin-polarized currents.

  19. Model for a collimated spin wave beam generated by a single layer, spin torque nanocontact


    Hoefer, M. A.; Silva, T. J.; Stiles, M. D.


    A model of spin torque induced magnetization dynamics based upon semi-classical spin diffusion theory for a single layer nanocontact is presented. The model incorporates effects due to the current induced Oersted field and predicts the generation of a variety of spatially dependent, coherent, precessional magnetic wave structures. Directionally controllable collimated spin wave beams, vortex spiral waves, and localized standing waves are found to be excited by the interplay of the Oersted fie...

  20. Demonstration of a robust magnonic spin wave interferometer (United States)

    Kanazawa, Naoki; Goto, Taichi; Sekiguchi, Koji; Granovsky, Alexander B.; Ross, Caroline A.; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru


    Magnonics is an emerging field dealing with ultralow power consumption logic circuits, in which the flow of spin waves, rather than electric charges, transmits and processes information. Waves, including spin waves, excel at encoding information via their phase using interference. This enables a number of inputs to be processed in one device, which offers the promise of multi-input multi-output logic gates. To realize such an integrated device, it is essential to demonstrate spin wave interferometers using spatially isotropic spin waves with high operational stability. However, spin wave reflection at the waveguide edge has previously limited the stability of interfering waves, precluding the use of isotropic spin waves, i.e., forward volume waves. Here, a spin wave absorber is demonstrated comprising a yttrium iron garnet waveguide partially covered by gold. This device is shown experimentally to be a robust spin wave interferometer using the forward volume mode, with a large ON/OFF isolation value of 13.7 dB even in magnetic fields over 30 Oe.

  1. Experimental prototype of a spin-wave majority gate


    Fischer, T.; Kewenig, M.; Bozhko, D. A.; Serga, A. A.; Syvorotka, I. I.; Ciubotaru, F.; Adelmann, C.; Hillebrands, B.; Chumak, A. V.


    Featuring low heat dissipation, devices based on spin-wave logic gates promise to comply with increasing future requirements in information processing. In this work, we present the experimental realization of a majority gate based on the interference of spin waves in an Yttrium-Iron-Garnet-based waveguiding structure. This logic device features a three-input combiner with the logic information encoded in the phase of the spin waves. We show that the phase of the output signal represents the m...

  2. Light-front wave function of composite system with spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.


    The method to construct the relativistic wave function with spin on the light front is developed. The spin structure of the deuteron wave function in relativistic range is found. The calculation methods are illustrated by the calculation of elastic pd-scattering cross section. The consideration carried out is equivalent to the solution of the problem of taking into account the spins and angular momenta in the parton wave functions in the infinite momentum frame

  3. Stimulated polarization wave process in spin 3/2 chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G. B.


    Stimulated wave of polarization, triggered by a flip of a single spin, presents a simple model of quantum amplification. Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in an idealized one-dimensional Ising spin 1/2 chain with nearest-neighbor interactions and realistic spin 1/2 chain including the natural dipole-dipole interactions, irradiated by a weak resonant transverse field, a wave of flipped spins can be triggered by a single spin flip. Here we focuse on control of polarization wave in chain of spin 3/2, where the nuclear quadrupole interaction is dominant. Results of simulations for 1D spin chains and rings with up to five spins are presented.

  4. Spin Waves in a Classical Compressible Heisenberg Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fivez, J.; Raedt, H. De


    The effect of the spin—lattice interaction on the spin dynamics of a classical Heisenberg chain is studied by means of a truncated continued fraction. At low temperature, the spin correlation length and the spin wave frequency show the same simple dependence on the coupling.

  5. Theory of Spin Waves in Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Cooke, J. F.


    A new infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of spin waves in strongly anisotropic magnets is introduced. The system is transformed into one with effective two-ion anisotropy and considerably reduced ground-state corrections. A general expression for the spin-wave energy, valid to any...

  6. Bifurcation of the spin-wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascon, A.; Koiller, J.; Rezende, S.M.


    We study the bifurcations of the spin-wave equations that describe the parametric pumping of collective modes in magnetic media. Mechanisms describing the following dynamical phenomena are proposed: (i) sequential excitation of modes via zero eigenvalue bifurcations; (ii) Hopf bifurcations followed (or not) by Feingenbaum cascades of period doubling; (iii) local and global homoclinic phenomena. Two new organizing center for routes to chaos are identified; in the classification given by Guckenheimer and Holmes [GH], one is a codimension-two local bifurcation, with one pair of imaginary eigenvalues and a zero eigenvalue, to which many dynamical consequences are known; secondly, global homoclinic bifurcations associated to splitting of separatrices, in the limit where the system can be considered a Hamiltonian subjected to weak dissipation and forcing. We outline what further numerical and algebraic work is necessary for the detailed study following this program. (author)

  7. Spin wave vortex from the scattering on Bloch point solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho-Santos, V.L., E-mail: [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Baiano - Campus Senhor do Bonfim, Km 04 Estrada da Igara, 48970-000 Senhor do Bonfim, Bahia (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Elías, R.G., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Nunez, A.S., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago (Chile)


    The interaction of a spin wave with a stationary Bloch point is studied. The topological non-trivial structure of the Bloch point manifests in the propagation of spin waves endowing them with a gauge potential that resembles the one associated with the interaction of a magnetic monopole and an electron. By pursuing this analogy, we are led to the conclusion that the scattering of spin waves and Bloch points is accompanied by the creation of a magnon vortex. Interference between such a vortex and a plane wave leads to dislocations in the interference pattern that can be measurable by means of magnon holography.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In this report we present the research plan for the RHIC spin program. The report covers (1) the science of the RHIC spin program in a world-wide context; (2) the collider performance requirements for the RHIC spin program; (3) the detector upgrades required, including timelines; (4) time evolution of the spin program.

  9. Anomalous Tunneling of Spin Wave in Polar State of Spin-1 BEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Shohei; Ohashi, Yoji; Kato, Yusuke


    We investigate tunneling properties of collective spin-wave excitations in the polar state of a spin-1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. Within the mean-field theory at T = 0, we show that when the condensate is in the critical supercurrent state, the spin wave mode exhibits perfect transmission through a nonmagnetic potential barrier in the low energy limit, unless the strength of a spin-independent interaction c o equals that of a spin-dependent interaction c o Such an anomalous tunneling behavior is absent in the case of a magnetic barrier. We also clarify a scaling law of the transmission probability as a function of the mode energy.

  10. Anomalous Tunneling of Spin Wave in Polar State of Spin-1 BEC (United States)

    Watabe, Shohei; Kato, Yusuke; Ohashi, Yoji


    We investigate tunneling properties of collective spin-wave excitations in the polar state of a spin-1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. Within the mean-field theory at T = 0, we show that when the condensate is in the critical supercurrent state, the spin wave mode exhibits perfect transmission through a nonmagnetic potential barrier in the low energy limit, unless the strength of a spin-independent interaction co equals that of a spin-dependent interaction co Such an anomalous tunneling behavior is absent in the case of a magnetic barrier. We also clarify a scaling law of the transmission probability as a function of the mode energy.

  11. Perspectives of using spin waves for computing and signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csaba, György, E-mail: [Center for Nano Science and Technology, University of Notre Dame (United States); Faculty for Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University (Hungary); Papp, Ádám [Center for Nano Science and Technology, University of Notre Dame (United States); Faculty for Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University (Hungary); Porod, Wolfgang [Center for Nano Science and Technology, University of Notre Dame (United States)


    Highlights: • We give an overview of spin wave-based computing with emphasis on non-Boolean signal processors. • Spin waves can combine the best of electronics and photonics and do it in an on-chip and integrable way. • Copying successful approaches from microelectronics may not be the best way toward spin-wave based computing. • Practical devices can be constructed by minimizing the number of required magneto-electric interconnections. - Abstract: Almost all the world's information is processed and transmitted by either electric currents or photons. Now they may get a serious contender: spin-wave-based devices may just perform some information-processing tasks in a lot more efficient and practical way. In this article, we give an engineering perspective of the potential of spin-wave-based devices. After reviewing various flavors for spin-wave-based processing devices, we argue that the niche for spin-wave-based devices is low-power, compact and high-speed signal-processing devices, where most traditional electronics show poor performance.

  12. Perspectives of using spin waves for computing and signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaba, György; Papp, Ádám; Porod, Wolfgang


    Highlights: • We give an overview of spin wave-based computing with emphasis on non-Boolean signal processors. • Spin waves can combine the best of electronics and photonics and do it in an on-chip and integrable way. • Copying successful approaches from microelectronics may not be the best way toward spin-wave based computing. • Practical devices can be constructed by minimizing the number of required magneto-electric interconnections. - Abstract: Almost all the world's information is processed and transmitted by either electric currents or photons. Now they may get a serious contender: spin-wave-based devices may just perform some information-processing tasks in a lot more efficient and practical way. In this article, we give an engineering perspective of the potential of spin-wave-based devices. After reviewing various flavors for spin-wave-based processing devices, we argue that the niche for spin-wave-based devices is low-power, compact and high-speed signal-processing devices, where most traditional electronics show poor performance.

  13. Tunable spin waves in diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoribbon (United States)

    Lyu, Pin; Zhang, Jun-Yi


    The spin wave excitation spectrum in diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanoribbons was calculated by taking account of the quantum confinement effect of carriers and spin waves. By introducing the boundary condition for the spin waves, we derived the spin wave dispersion using the path-integral formulation and Green's function method. It was shown that the spin wave excitation spectrum is discrete due to the confinement effect and strongly dependent on the carrier density, the magnetic ion density, and the width of the nanoribbon. When the width of the nanoribbon is beyond the typical nanoscales, the size effect on the excitation energies of the spin waves disappears in our calculation, which is in qualitative agreement with no obvious size effect observed in the as-made nanodevices of (Ga,Mn)As in this size regime. Our results provide a potential way to control the spin waves in the DMS nanoribbon not only by the carrier density and the magnetic ion density but also by the nanostructure geometry.

  14. Gravitational waves from spinning eccentric binaries (United States)

    Csizmadia, Péter; Debreczeni, Gergely; Rácz, István; Vasúth, Mátyás


    This paper is to introduce a new software called CBwaves which provides a fast and accurate computational tool to determine the gravitational waveforms yielded by generic spinning binaries of neutron stars and/or black holes on eccentric orbits. This is done within the post-Newtonian (PN) framework by integrating the equations of motion and the spin precession equations, while the radiation field is determined by a simultaneous evaluation of the analytic waveforms. In applying CBwaves various physically interesting scenarios have been investigated. In particular, we have studied the appropriateness of the adiabatic approximation, and justified that the energy balance relation is indeed insensitive to the specific form of the applied radiation reaction term. By studying eccentric binary systems, it is demonstrated that circular template banks are very ineffective in identifying binaries even if they possess tiny residual orbital eccentricity, thus confirming a similar result obtained by Brown and Zimmerman (2010 Phys. Rev. D 81 024007). In addition, by investigating the validity of the energy balance relation we show that, contrary to the general expectations, the PN approximation should not be applied once the PN parameter gets beyond the critical value ˜0.08 - 0.1. Finally, by studying the early phase of the gravitational waves emitted by strongly eccentric binary systems—which could be formed e.g. in various many-body interactions in the galactic halo—we have found that they possess very specific characteristics which may be used to identify these type of binary systems. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our colleague and friend Péter Csizmadia a young physicist, computer expert and one of the best Hungarian mountaineers who disappeared in China’s Sichuan near the Ren Zhong Feng peak of the Himalayas on 23 Oct. 2009. We started to develop CBwaves jointly with Péter a couple of months before he left for China.

  15. Exchange interactions, spin waves, and transition temperatures in itinerant magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Bruno, P.


    Roč. 86, č. 12 (2006), s. 1713-1752 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010203; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS2041105; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0583; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/2111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : exchange interactions * spin waves * itinerant magnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.354, year: 2006

  16. Spin wave propagation in a uniformly biased curved magnonic waveguide (United States)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.; Romanenko, D. V.; Grishin, S. V.; Beginin, E. N.; Sharaevskii, Y. P.; Nikitov, S. A.


    Using Brillouin light scattering microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, we study the propagation and transformation of magnetostatic spin waves across uniformly biased curved magnonic waveguides. Our results demonstrate that the spin wave transmission through the bend can be enhanced or weakened by modifying the distribution of the inhomogeneous internal magnetic field spanning the structure. Our results open up the possibility of optimally molding the flow of spin waves across networks of magnonic waveguides, thereby representing a step forward in the design and construction of the more complex magnonic circuitry.

  17. Motion of a skyrmionium driven by spin wave (United States)

    Shen, Maokang; Zhang, Yue; Ou-Yang, Jun; Yang, Xiaofei; You, Long


    A skyrmionium is composed of two skyrmions with opposite skyrmion numbers and different sizes in the same track. In recent years, the motion of a skyrmionium driven by spin-polarized current has been investigated. However, the motion of a skyrmionium driven by a spin wave has not been reported. In this paper, we report our work concerning the numerical analysis of spin wave-driven motion of a skyrmionium in a nanotrack. The results show that the motion of a skyrmionium was significantly influenced by varying the frequency and amplitude of the AC magnetic field for exciting a spin wave, the distance between the spin wave source and the skyrmionium, the damping coefficient of the ferromagnetic track, and the track width. We found skyrmionium deformation during its initial motion process, but its shape could be recovered as it moved farther away from the spin wave source. Additionally, a series of velocity peaks were observed in the frequency range between 25 GHz and 175 GHz. When compared to a skyrmion, the skyrmionium could be driven by a spin wave to move in a wider frequency range at a higher velocity, and the velocity of the skyrmionium kept increasing with the increase in the track width till the track edge was far away from the skyrmionium. The result offers skyrmionium potential applications in wide-frequency spintronic devices.

  18. Experimental prototype of a spin-wave majority gate (United States)

    Fischer, T.; Kewenig, M.; Bozhko, D. A.; Serga, A. A.; Syvorotka, I. I.; Ciubotaru, F.; Adelmann, C.; Hillebrands, B.; Chumak, A. V.


    Featuring low heat dissipation, devices based on spin-wave logic gates promise to comply with increasing future requirements in information processing. In this work, we present the experimental realization of a majority gate based on the interference of spin waves in an Yttrium-Iron-Garnet-based waveguiding structure. This logic device features a three-input combiner with the logic information encoded in a phase of 0 or π of the input spin waves. We show that the phase of the output signal represents the majority of the three phase states of the spin waves in the three inputs. A switching time of about 10 ns in the prototype device provides evidence for the ability of sub-nanosecond data processing in future down-scaled devices.

  19. Scattering of spinning test particles by gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, D.; Gemelli, G.


    The authors study the motion of spinning particles in the gravitational plane-wave background and discuss particular solutions under a suitable choice of supplementary conditions. An analysis of the discontinuity of the motion across the wavefront is presented too

  20. Spin waves in antiferromagnetic FeF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, M T; Rainford, B.D.; Guggenheim, H J


    Spin-wave dispersion in antiferromagnetic FeF2 has been investigated by inelastic neutron scattering using a chopper time-of-flight spectrometer. The single mode observed has a relatively flat dispersion curve rising from 53 cm-1 at the zone centre to 79 cm-1 at the zone boundary. A spin...

  1. Spin waves and the order-disorder transition in chromium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O.W.


    The inelastic magnetic scattering of neutrons has been studied in Cr and Cr0.95-Mn0.05 both below and above the Neel temperature. The temperature dependence of the spin-wave velocity in the alloy has been measured below TN. The scattering above TN may also be interpreted in terms of spin-wavelike...

  2. Gravitational Waves and the Maximum Spin Frequency of Neutron Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patruno, A.; Haskell, B.; D'Angelo, C.


    In this paper, we re-examine the idea that gravitational waves are required as a braking mechanism to explain the observed maximum spin frequency of neutron stars. We show that for millisecond X-ray pulsars, the existence of spin equilibrium as set by the disk/magnetosphere interaction is sufficient

  3. Spin waves in vanadium sesquioxide V2O3 (United States)

    Word, R. E.; Werner, S. A.; Yelon, W. B.; Honig, J. M.; Shivashankar, S.


    We have carried out inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the spin waves propagating along the [00l] trigonal axis and along the [hh0] axis in the antiferromagnetic phase of V2O3. We find an energy gap in the spin-wave spectrum at the zone center of 4.75 meV. We obtain exchange parameters and the anisotropy energy from these data using a nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor Heisenberg Hamiltonian model.

  4. Model for a collimated spin-wave beam generated by a single-layer spin torque nanocontact (United States)

    Hoefer, M. A.; Silva, T. J.; Stiles, M. D.


    A model of spin-torque-induced magnetization dynamics based on semiclassical spin diffusion theory for a single-layer nanocontact is presented. The model incorporates effects due to the current-induced Oersted field and predicts the generation of a variety of spatially dependent, coherent, precessional magnetic wave structures. Directionally controllable collimated spin-wave beams, vortex spiral waves, and localized standing waves are found to be excited by the interplay of the Oersted field and the orientation of an applied field. These fields act as a spin-wave “corral” around the nanocontact that controls the propagation of spin waves in certain directions.

  5. Spin precession and spin waves in a chiral electron gas: Beyond Larmor's theorem (United States)

    Karimi, Shahrzad; Baboux, Florent; Perez, Florent; Ullrich, Carsten A.; Karczewski, Grzegorz; Wojtowicz, Tomasz


    Larmor's theorem holds for magnetic systems that are invariant under spin rotation. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling this invariance is lost and Larmor's theorem is broken: for systems of interacting electrons, this gives rise to a subtle interplay between the spin-orbit coupling acting on individual single-particle states and Coulomb many-body effects. We consider a quasi-two-dimensional, partially spin-polarized electron gas in a semiconductor quantum well in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. Using a linear-response approach based on time-dependent density-functional theory, we calculate the dispersions of spin-flip waves. We obtain analytic results for small wave vectors and up to second order in the Rashba and Dresselhaus coupling strengths α and β . Comparison with experimental data from inelastic light scattering allows us to extract α and β as well as the spin-wave stiffness very accurately. We find significant deviations from the local density approximation for spin-dependent electron systems.

  6. Spin waves propagation and confinement in magnetic microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailleul, Matthieu


    In this thesis, ferromagnetic thin film elements have been studied on a small scale (μm) and at high frequencies (GHz). For those studies, a microwave spectrometer based on the use of micro-antennae has been developed. It had been applied to two different systems. In a first time, we have launched and detected spin waves in continuous films. This allowed us to describe both the transduction process and the relaxation law for long wavelength spin waves. In a second time, we have studied micrometer-wide stripe for which the magnetic ground state is inhomogeneous. The obtained microwave response has been interpreted in terms of micro-magnetic phase transitions and in terms of spin waves confinement. (author)

  7. Oblique propagation of longitudinal waves in magnetized spin-1/2 plasmas: Independent evolution of spin-up and spin-down electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Pavel A.; Kuz’menkov, L.S.


    We consider quantum plasmas of electrons and motionless ions. We describe separate evolution of spin-up and spin-down electrons. We present corresponding set of quantum hydrodynamic equations. We assume that plasmas are placed in an uniform external magnetic field. We account different occupation of spin-up and spin-down quantum states in equilibrium degenerate plasmas. This effect is included via equations of state for pressure of each species of electrons. We study oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We show that instead of two well-known waves (the Langmuir wave and the Trivelpiece–Gould wave), plasmas reveal four wave solutions. New solutions exist due to both the separate consideration of spin-up and spin-down electrons and different occupation of spin-up and spin-down quantum states in equilibrium state of degenerate plasmas

  8. Observation of nuclear spin waves in spin-polarized atomic hydrogen gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johson, B.R.; Denker, J.S.; Bigelow, N.; Levy, L.P.; Freed, J.H.; Lee, D.M.


    We have observed narrow, distinct resonances in the NMR spectrum of dilute spin-polarized atomic hydrogen gas (nroughly-equal10/sup 16/ atoms/cm/sup 3/). The dependence of the observed spectra on temperature, density, polarization, and magnetic field gradient is consistent with theoretical predictions for spin-wave excitations damped by diffusion. We have measured the parameter, which is a measure of the importance of exchange effects in spin transport processes, and the diffusion coefficient D/sub 0/, both of which are in reasonable agreement with theory.

  9. Statistical mechanics of magnetic excitations from spin waves to stripes and checkerboards

    CERN Document Server

    Rastelli, Enrico


    The aim of this advanced textbook is to provide the reader with a comprehensive explanation of the ground state configurations, the spin wave excitations and the equilibrium properties of spin lattices described by the Ising-Heisenberg Hamiltonians in the presence of short (exchange) and long range (dipole) interactions.The arguments are presented in such detail so as to enable advanced undergraduate and graduate students to cross the threshold of active research in magnetism by using both analytic calculations and Monte Carlo simulations.Recent results about unorthodox spin configurations suc

  10. Micromagnetic computer simulations of spin waves in nanometre-scale patterned magnetic elements (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Koog


    Current needs for further advances in the nanotechnologies of information-storage and -processing devices have attracted a great deal of interest in spin (magnetization) dynamics in nanometre-scale patterned magnetic elements. For instance, the unique dynamic characteristics of non-uniform magnetic microstructures such as various types of domain walls, magnetic vortices and antivortices, as well as spin wave dynamics in laterally restricted thin-film geometries, have been at the centre of extensive and intensive researches. Understanding the fundamentals of their unique spin structure as well as their robust and novel dynamic properties allows us to implement new functionalities into existing or future devices. Although experimental tools and theoretical approaches are effective means of understanding the fundamentals of spin dynamics and of gaining new insights into them, the limitations of those same tools and approaches have left gaps of unresolved questions in the pertinent physics. As an alternative, however, micromagnetic modelling and numerical simulation has recently emerged as a powerful tool for the study of a variety of phenomena related to spin dynamics of nanometre-scale magnetic elements. In this review paper, I summarize the recent results of simulations of the excitation and propagation and other novel wave characteristics of spin waves, highlighting how the micromagnetic computer simulation approach contributes to an understanding of spin dynamics of nanomagnetism and considering some of the merits of numerical simulation studies. Many examples of micromagnetic modelling for numerical calculations, employing various dimensions and shapes of patterned magnetic elements, are given. The current limitations of continuum micromagnetic modelling and of simulations based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation of motion of magnetization are also discussed, along with further research directions for spin-wave studies.

  11. Temporal evolution of the spin-wave intensity and phase in a local parametric amplifier (United States)

    Brächer, T.; Heussner, F.; Meyer, T.; Fischer, T.; Geilen, M.; Heinz, B.; Lägel, B.; Hillebrands, B.; Pirro, P.


    We present a time-resolved study of the evolution of the spin-wave intensity and phase in a local parametric spin-wave amplifier at pumping powers close to the threshold of parametric generation. We show that the phase of the amplified spin waves is determined by the phase of the incoming signal-carrying spin waves and that it can be preserved on long time scales as long as the energy input by the input spin waves is provided. In contrast, the phase-information is lost in such a local spin-wave amplifier as soon as the input spin-wave is switched off. These findings are an important benchmark for the use of parametric amplifiers in logic circuits relying on the spin-wave phase as information carrier.

  12. Coherence and stiffness of spin waves in diluted ferromagnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav


    Roč. 94, č. 17 (2016), č. článku 174447. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13436S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : spin waves * diluted ferromagnets * disordered systems Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  13. Spin-wave and critical neutron scattering from chromium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Axe, J.D.; Shirane, G.


    Chromium and its dilute alloys are unique examples of magnetism caused by itinerant electrons. The magnetic excitations have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering using a high-resolution triple-axis spectrometer. Spin-wave peaks in q scans at constant energy transfer ℏω could, in general...

  14. Imperfect nesting and scattering effect in spin density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaozhou; Maki, Kazumi


    We study the impurity scattering in spin and charge density wave (SDW/CDW) with imperfect nesting. The impurity scattering suppresses both the SDW (or CDW) order parameter and the transition temperature like the pair-breaking effect in superconductor. Here we analyze the order parameter and the density of states of SDW (or CDW)

  15. Inelastic scattering of neutrons by spin waves in terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden


    Measurements of spin-wave dispersion relations for magnons propagating in symmetry directions in ferromagnetic Tb; it is first experiment to give detailed information on magnetic excitations in heavy rare earths; Tb was chosen for these measurements because it is one of few rare-earth metals which...

  16. Spin waves in terbium. III. Magnetic anisotropy at zero wave vector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Jensen, J.; Touborg, P.


    The energy gap at zero wave vector in the spin-wave dispersion relation of ferromagnetic. Tb has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. The energy was measured as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field, and the dynamic anisotropy parameters were deduced from the results...

  17. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Polzikova


    Full Text Available We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonator (HBAR formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.

  18. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polzikova, N. I., E-mail:; Alekseev, S. G.; Pyataikin, I. I.; Kotelyanskii, I. M.; Luzanov, V. A.; Orlov, A. P. [Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Mokhovaya 11, building 7, Moscow, 125009 (Russian Federation)


    We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator (HBAR) formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.

  19. Resonant tunneling of spin-wave packets via quantized states in potential wells. (United States)

    Hansen, Ulf-Hendrik; Gatzen, Marius; Demidov, Vladislav E; Demokritov, Sergej O


    We have studied the tunneling of spin-wave pulses through a system of two closely situated potential barriers. The barriers represent two areas of inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field, where the existence of spin waves is forbidden. We show that for certain values of the spin-wave frequency corresponding to the quantized spin-wave states existing in the well formed between the barriers, the tunneling has a resonant character. As a result, transmission of spin-wave packets through the double-barrier structure is much more efficient than the sequent tunneling through two single barriers.

  20. Observation of spin-wave dispersion in Nd-Fe-B magnets using neutron Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Inami, N.; Saito, K.; Takeichi, Y.; Kawana, D.; Yokoo, T.; Itoh, S.; Yano, M.; Shoji, T.; Manabe, A.; Kato, A.; Kaneko, Y.


    The low-energy spin-wave dispersion in polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets was observed using neutron Brillouin scattering (NBS). Low-energy spin-wave excitations for the lowest acoustic spin-wave mode were clearly observed. From the spin-wave dispersion, we were able to determine the spin-wave stiffness constant D sw (100.0 ± 4.9 meV.Å 2 ) and the exchange stiffness constant A (6.6 ± 0.3 pJ/m)

  1. Resonant spin wave excitations in a magnonic crystal cavity (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Prabhakar, A.


    Spin polarized electric current, injected into permalloy (Py) through a nano contact, exerts a torque on the magnetization. The spin waves (SWs) thus excited propagate radially outward. We propose an antidot magnonic crystal (MC) with a three-hole defect (L3) around the nano contact, designed so that the frequency of the excited SWs, lies in the band gap of the MC. L3 thus acts as a resonant SW cavity. The energy in this magnonic crystal cavity can be tapped by an adjacent MC waveguide (MCW). An analysis of the simulated micromagnetic power spectrum, at the output port of the MCW reveals stable SW oscillations. The quality factor of the device, calculated using the decay method, was estimated as Q > 105 for an injected spin current density of 7 ×1012 A/m2.

  2. Magnetic Snell's law and spin-wave fiber with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (United States)

    Yu, Weichao; Lan, Jin; Wu, Ruqian; Xiao, Jiang


    Spin waves are collective excitations propagating in the magnetic medium with ordered magnetizations. Magnonics, utilizing the spin wave (magnon) as an information carrier, is a promising candidate for low-dissipation computation and communication technologies. We discover that, due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the scattering behavior of the spin wave at a magnetic domain wall follows a generalized Snell's law, where two magnetic domains work as two different mediums. Similar to optical total reflection that occurs at water-air interfaces, spin waves may experience total reflection at the magnetic domain walls when their incident angle is larger than a critical value. We design a spin-wave fiber using a magnetic domain structure with two domain walls, and demonstrate that such a spin-wave fiber can transmit spin waves over long distances by total internal reflections, in analogy to an optical fiber.

  3. Homogeneous microwave field emitted propagating spin waves: Direct imaging and modeling (United States)

    Lohman, Mathis; Mozooni, Babak; McCord, Jeffrey


    We explore the generation of propagating dipolar spin waves by homogeneous magnetic field excitation in the proximity of the boundaries of magnetic microstructures. Domain wall motion, precessional dynamics, and propagating spin waves are directly imaged by time-resolved wide-field magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy. The aspects of spin wave generation are clarified by micromagnetic calculations matching the experimental results. The region of dipolar spin wave formation is confined to the local resonant excitation due to non-uniform internal demagnetization fields at the edges of the patterned sample. Magnetic domain walls act as a border for the propagation of plane and low damped spin waves, thus restraining the spin waves within the individual magnetic domains. The findings are of significance for the general understanding of structural and configurational magnetic boundaries for the creation, the propagation, and elimination of spin waves.

  4. Spin wave propagation in perpendicular magnetized 20 nm Yttrium Iron Garnet with different antenna design (United States)

    Chen, Jilei; Stueckler, Tobias; Zhang, Youguang; Zhao, Weisheng; Yu, Haiming; Chang, Houchen; Liu, Tao; Wu, Mingzhong; Liu, Chuanpu; Liao, Zhimin; Yu, Dapeng; Fert Beijing research institute Team; Colorado State University Team; Peking University Collaboration

    Magnonics offers a new way to transport information using spin waves free of charge current and could lead to a new paradigm in the area of computing. Forward volume (FV) mode spin wave with perpendicular magnetized configuration is suitable for spin wave logic device because it is free of non-reciprocity effect. Here, we study FV mode spin wave propagation in YIG thin film with an ultra-low damping. We integrated differently designed antenna i.e., coplanar waveguide and micro stripline with different dimensions. The k vectors of the spin waves defined by the design of the antenna are calculated using Fourier transform. We show FV mode spin wave propagation results by measuring S12 parameter from vector network analyzer and we extract the group velocity of the FV mode spin wave as well as its dispersion relations.

  5. Spin-density wave state in simple hexagonal graphite (United States)

    Mosoyan, K. S.; Rozhkov, A. V.; Sboychakov, A. O.; Rakhmanov, A. L.


    Simple hexagonal graphite, also known as AA graphite, is a metastable configuration of graphite. Using tight-binding approximation, it is easy to show that AA graphite is a metal with well-defined Fermi surface. The Fermi surface consists of two sheets, each shaped like a rugby ball. One sheet corresponds to electron states, another corresponds to hole states. The Fermi surface demonstrates good nesting: a suitable translation in the reciprocal space superposes one sheet onto another. In the presence of the electron-electron repulsion, a nested Fermi surface is unstable with respect to spin-density-wave ordering. This instability is studied using the mean-field theory at zero temperature, and the spin-density-wave order parameter is evaluated.

  6. Collective spin wave and phonon excitations in ferromagnetic organic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, Jit-Liang; Sun, Shih-Jye


    We proposed a model to investigate the properties of a conductive and ferromagnetic organic-polymer (OCP), which contains two collective excitations—spin wave and phonon—competing with each other; namely, the spin wave excitation accompanies the electron–phonon (e–ph) interactions in the conductive and ferromagnetic OCP. The ferromagnetism of the OCP is induced from the conductive carriers which couple with the phonon to become polarons. Due to the competition between both excitations, the Curie temperature (T C ) is sensitively suppressed by the e–ph interaction. In addition, an optimal T C with a small e–ph interaction exists in a specific density of conduction carrier, yet is contrary to the large e–ph interaction case. Furthermore, the dimerization, i.e. the atomic displacement induced from the e–ph interactions, increases with the strength of the e–ph interaction and decreases upon reaching the maximum dimerization. (paper)

  7. Spin wave steering in three-dimensional magnonic networks (United States)

    Beginin, E. N.; Sadovnikov, A. V.; Sharaevskaya, A. Yu.; Stognij, A. I.; Nikitov, S. A.


    We report the concept of three-dimensional (3D) magnonic structures which are especially promising for controlling and manipulating magnon currents. The approach for fabrication of 3D magnonic crystals (MCs) and 3D magnonic networks is presented. A meander type ferromagnetic film grown at the top of the initially structured substrate can be a candidate for such 3D crystals. Using the finite element method, transfer matrix method, and micromagnetic simulations, we study spin-wave propagation in both isolated and coupled 3D MCs and reconstruct spin-wave dispersion and transmission response to elucidate the mechanism of magnonic bandgap formation. Our results show the possibility of the utilization of proposed structures for fabrication of a 3D magnonic network.

  8. Linear spin waves in a trapped Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikuni, T.; Williams, J.E.; Clark, C.W.


    An ultracold Bose gas of two-level atoms can be thought of as a spin-1/2 Bose gas. It supports spin-wave collective modes due to the exchange mean field. Such collective spin oscillations have been observed in recent experiments at JILA with 87 Rb atoms confined in a harmonic trap. We present a theory of the spin-wave collective modes based on the moment method for trapped gases. In the collisionless and hydrodynamic limits, we derive analytic expressions for the frequencies and damping rates of modes with dipole and quadrupole symmetry. We find that the frequency for a given mode is given by a temperature-independent function of the peak density n, and falls off as 1/n. We also find that, to a very good approximation, excitations in the radial and axial directions are decoupled. We compare our model to the numerical integration of a one-dimensional version of the kinetic equation and find very good qualitative agreement. The damping rates, however, show the largest deviation for intermediate densities, where one expects Landau damping--which is unaccounted for in our moment approach--to play a significant role

  9. Part I: Spin wave dynamics in YIG spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    An experimental study is made of the interactions between spin wave modes excited in a sphere of yttrium iron garnet by pumping the Suhl subsidiary absorption with microwaves. The dynamical behavior of the magnetization is observed under high resolution by varying the dc field and microwave pump power. Varied behavior is found: (1) onset of the Suhl instability by excitation of a single spin wave mode; (2) when two or more modes are excited, interactions lead to auto-oscillations displaying period-doubling to chaos; (3) quasiperiodicity, locking, and chaos occur when three or more modes are excited; (4) abrupt transition to wide band power spectra (i.e., turbulence), with hysteresis; (5) irregular relaxation oscillations and aperiodic spiking behavior. A theoretical model is developed using the plane wave approximation obtaining the lowest order nonlinear interaction terms between the excited modes. Extension of this analysis to the true spherical spin-modes is discussed. Bifurcation behavior is examined, and dynamical behavior is numerically computed and compared to the experimental data. A theory is developed regarding the nature of the experimentally observed relaxation oscillations and spiking behavior based on the interaction of ''weak'' and ''strong'' modes, and this is demonstrated in the numerical simulations for two modes. Quasiperiodicity is shown to occur in the numerical study when at least 3 modes are excited with appropriate parameter values. A possible mechanism for generating microwave subharmonics at half of the pumping frequency is discussed. 57 refs., 25 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Gravitational waves from spinning compact binaries in hyperbolic orbits (United States)

    De Vittori, Lorenzo; Gopakumar, Achamveedu; Gupta, Anuradha; Jetzer, Philippe


    Compact binaries in hyperbolic orbits are plausible gravitational-wave (GW) sources for the upcoming and planned GW observatories. We develop an efficient prescription to compute post-Newtonian (PN)-accurate ready-to-use GW polarization states for spinning compact binaries, influenced by the dominant-order spin-orbit interactions, in hyperbolic orbits. This is achieved by invoking the 1.5PN-accurate quasi-Keplerian parametrization for the radial sector of the orbital dynamics. We probe the influences of spins and the gravitational radiation reaction on h+ and h× during the hyperbolic passage. It turns out that both polarization states exhibit the memory effect for GWs from spinning compact binaries in hyperbolic orbits. In contrast, only the cross-polarization state exhibits the memory effect for GWs from nonspinning compact binaries. Additionally, we compute 1PN-accurate amplitude corrected GW polarization states for hyperbolic nonspinning compact binaries in a fully parametric manner and perform initial comparisons with the existing waveforms.

  11. ''Spin off'' of solvated electron research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindewolf, U.


    Spin-off of solvated electron research in two applied fields is discussed: isotope separation and the destruction of a dangerous poison. The application of isotope separation can be used in heavy water production. The other application is in the destruction of cyanide wastes. (U.S.)

  12. Anomalous Tunneling of Spin Wave in Heisenberg Ferromagnet (United States)

    Kato, Yusuke; Watabe, Shohei; Ohashi, Yoji


    The ferromagnetic spin wave (FSW) in classical Heisenberg chain exhibits the perfect transmission in the long-wavelength limit in the transmission-reflection problem with an inhomogeneity of exchange integral. In the presence of local magnetic field, on the other hand, FSW undergoes the perfect reflection in the long-wavelength limit. This difference in the long-wavelength limit is attributed to the symmetry property of the scatterers; it is crucial whether the potential preserves or breaks the spin rotation symmetry. Our result implies that the anomalous tunneling (i.e., perfect transmission in the low-energy limit) found both in scalar and spinor BECs is not specific to gapless modes in superfluids but is a common property shared with generic Nambu-Goldstone modes in the presence of a symmetry-preserving potential scatterer.

  13. Anomalous Tunneling of Spin Wave in Heisenberg Ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yusuke; Watabe, Shohei; Ohashi, Yoji


    The ferromagnetic spin wave (FSW) in classical Heisenberg chain exhibits the perfect transmission in the long-wavelength limit in the transmission-reflection problem with an inhomogeneity of exchange integral. In the presence of local magnetic field, on the other hand, FSW undergoes the perfect reflection in the long-wavelength limit. This difference in the long-wavelength limit is attributed to the symmetry property of the scatterers; it is crucial whether the potential preserves or breaks the spin rotation symmetry. Our result implies that the anomalous tunneling (i.e., perfect transmission in the low-energy limit) found both in scalar and spinor BECs is not specific to gapless modes in superfluids but is a common property shared with generic Nambu-Goldstone modes in the presence of a symmetry-preserving potential scatterer.

  14. Spin-wave propagation spectrum in magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi-xiong; Wang, Meng-ning; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Wang, Dao-wei; Xia, Qing-lin [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)


    Spin-wave propagation in periodic magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowires is studied by micromagnetic simulation. Spin wave scattering at the interface of two magnetization segments causes a spin-wave band structure, which can be effectively tuned by changing either the magnetization modulation level or the period of the cylindrical nanowire magnonic crystal. The bandgap width is oscillating with either the period or magnetization modulation due to the oscillating variation of the spin wave transmission coefficient through the interface of the two magnetization segments. Analytical calculation based on band theory is used to account for the micromagnetic simulation results. - Highlights: • A magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowire magnonic crystal is proposed. • Propagating characteristics of spin waves in such magnonic crystal are studied. • Spin-wave spectra can be manipulated by changing modulation level and period.

  15. Spin-wave propagation spectrum in magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhi-xiong; Wang, Meng-ning; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Wang, Dao-wei; Xia, Qing-lin; Tang, Wei; Zeng, Zhong-ming; Guo, Guang-hua


    Spin-wave propagation in periodic magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowires is studied by micromagnetic simulation. Spin wave scattering at the interface of two magnetization segments causes a spin-wave band structure, which can be effectively tuned by changing either the magnetization modulation level or the period of the cylindrical nanowire magnonic crystal. The bandgap width is oscillating with either the period or magnetization modulation due to the oscillating variation of the spin wave transmission coefficient through the interface of the two magnetization segments. Analytical calculation based on band theory is used to account for the micromagnetic simulation results. - Highlights: • A magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowire magnonic crystal is proposed. • Propagating characteristics of spin waves in such magnonic crystal are studied. • Spin-wave spectra can be manipulated by changing modulation level and period.

  16. Non-equilibrium study of spin wave interference in systems with both Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kuo-Chin; Su, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Ray; Chen, Son-Hsien


    We study the electron spin transport in two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system with both Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) spin-orbital coupling (SOC). We assume spatial behavior of spin precession in the non-equilibrium transport regime, and study also quantum interference induced by non-Abelian spin-orbit gauge field. The method we adopt in this article is the non-equilibrium Green's function within a tight binding framework. We consider one ferromagnetic lead which injects spin polarized electron to a system with equal strength of Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) SOC, and we observe the persistent spin helix property. We also consider two ferromagnetic leads injecting spin polarized electrons into a pure Dresselhaus SOC system, and we observe the resultant spin wave interference pattern

  17. Mapping of spin wave propagation in a one-dimensional magnonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordóñez-Romero, César L., E-mail:; Lazcano-Ortiz, Zorayda; Aguilar-Huerta, Melisa; Monsivais, Guillermo [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Drozdovskii, Andrey; Kalinikos, Boris [St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); International laboratory “MultiferrLab,” ITMO University, 197101 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Domínguez-Juárez, J. L. [Cátedras CONACyT, CFATA, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Juriquilla, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Lopez-Maldonado, Guillermo [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Lerma de Villada, 52006 Estado de México (Mexico); Qureshi, Naser; Kolokoltsev, Oleg [CCADET, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)


    The formation and evolution of spin wave band gaps in the transmission spectrum of a magnonic crystal have been studied. A time and space resolved magneto inductive probing system has been used to map the spin wave propagation and evolution in a geometrically structured yttrium iron garnet film. Experiments have been carried out using (1) a chemically etched magnonic crystal supporting the propagation of magnetostatic surface spin waves, (2) a short microwave pulsed excitation of the spin waves, and (3) direct spin wave detection using a movable magneto inductive probe connected to a synchronized fast oscilloscope. The results show that the periodic structure not only modifies the spectra of the transmitted spin waves but also influences the distribution of the spin wave energy inside the magnonic crystal as a function of the position and the transmitted frequency. These results comprise an experimental confirmation of Bloch′s theorem in a spin wave system and demonstrate good agreement with theoretical observations in analogue phononic and photonic systems. Theoretical prediction of the structured transmission spectra is achieved using a simple model based on microwave transmission lines theory. Here, a spin wave system illustrates in detail the evolution of a much more general physical concept: the band gap.

  18. Excitation of Self-Localized Spin-Wave Bullets by Spin-Polarized Current in In-Plane Magnetized Magnetic Nano-Contacts: A Micromagnetic Study (United States)


    excitation of microwave spin waves.3,10,11 The analytical theory of spin-wave excitation in magnetic nanocontacts by spin-polarized current performed...linear theory ,3 the propagating spin- wave mode excited at the threshold is a cylindrical spin- wave with the wave vector kL=1.2/Rc and frequency L... Oersted magnetic field, and/or by any other small interaction, neglected in the micromagnetic model. To make the excitation of subcritical modes12,15

  19. Spin wave mediated interaction as a mechanism of pairs formation in iron-based superconductors (United States)

    Lima, Leonardo S.


    The spin wave mediated interaction between electrons has been proposed as mechanism to formation of electron pairs in iron-based superconductors. We employe the diagrammatic expansion to calculate the binding energy of electrons pairs mediated by spin wave. Therefore, we propose the coupling of electrons in high-temperature superconductors mediated by spin waves, since that is well known that this class of superconductors materials if relates with spin-1/2 two-dimensional antiferromagnets, where it is well known there be an interplay between antiferromagnetism 2D and high-temperature superconductivity.

  20. Magnetic Spin Waves in CsNiF3 with an Applied Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, M.; Kjems, Jørgen


    The spin wave dispersion in the planar 1D ferromagnet CsNiF3 has been measured by inelastic neutron scattering in an external field. The spin wave linewidths are found to decrease with increasing field and become resolution-limited for H>10 kG at 4.2K. At high fields, H>10 kG, both energies...

  1. Spin-wave excitations and magnetism of sputtered Fe/Au multilayers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The spin-wave excitations and the magnetism of Fe/Au multilayers with different Fe thicknesses (tFe) grown by RF sputtering were investigated. The temperature dependence of spontaneous magnetization is well described by a T 3 / 2 law in all multilayers in the temperature range of 5–300 K. Spin-wave theory has been ...

  2. Magnetic anisotropy and quantized spin waves in hematite nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Stine Nyborg; Lefmann, Kim; Lindgård, Per-Anker


    We report on the observation of high-frequency collective magnetic excitations, (h) over bar omegaapproximate to1.1 meV, in hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) nanoparticles. The neutron scattering experiments include measurements at temperatures in the range 6-300 K and applied fields up to 7.5 T as well...... as polarization analysis. We give an explanation for the field- and temperature dependence of the excitations, which are found to have strongly elliptical out-of-plane precession. The frequency of the excitations gives information on the magnetic anisotropy constants in the system. We have in this way determined...... the temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy, which is strongly related to the suppression of the Morin transition in nanoparticles of hematite. Further, the localization of the signal in both energy and momentum transfer brings evidence for finite-size quantization of spin waves in the system....

  3. Are Gravitational Waves Spinning Down PSR J1023+0038? (United States)

    Haskell, B; Patruno, A


    The pulsar J1023+0038 rotates with a frequency ν≈592  Hz and has been observed to transition between a radio state, during which it is visible as a millisecond radio pulsar, and a low-mass x-ray binary (LMXB) state, during which accretion powered x-ray pulsations are visible. Timing during the two phases reveals that during the LMXB phase the neutron star is spinning down at a rate of ν[over ˙]≈-3×10^{-15}  Hz/s, which is approximately 27% faster than the rate measured during the radio phase, ν[over ˙]≈-2.4×10^{-15}  Hz/s, and is at odds with the predictions of accretion models. We suggest that the increase in spin-down rate is compatible with gravitational wave emission, particularly with the creation of a "mountain" during the accretion phase. We show that asymmetries in pycnonuclear reaction rates in the crust can lead to a large enough mass quadrupole to explain the observed spin-down rate, which thus far has no other self-consistent explanation. We also suggest two observational tests of this scenario, involving radio timing at the onset of the next millisecond radio pulsar phase, when the mountain should dissipate, and accurate timing during the next LMXB phase to track the increase in torque as the mountain builds up. Another possibility is that an unstable r mode with an amplitude α≈5×10^{-8} may be present in the system.

  4. Generation of spin waves by a train of fs-laser pulses: a novel approach for tuning magnon wavelength


    Savochkin, I. V.; J?ckl, M.; Belotelov, V. I.; Akimov, I. A.; Kozhaev, M. A.; Sylgacheva, D. A.; Chernov, A. I.; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Prokopov, A. R.; Berzhansky, V. N.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Bayer, M.


    Currently spin waves are considered for computation and data processing as an alternative to charge currents. Generation of spin waves by ultrashort laser pulses provides several important advances with respect to conventional approaches using microwaves. In particular, focused laser spot works as a point source for spin waves and allows for directional control of spin waves and switching between their different types. For further progress in this direction it is important to manipulate with ...

  5. Ion Bernstein wave heating research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masayuki.


    Ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) utilizes the ion Bernstein wave (IBW), a hot plasma wave, to carry the radio frequency (rf) power to heat tokamak reactor core. Earlier wave accessibility studies have shown that this finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) mode should penetrate into a hot dense reactor plasma core without significant attenuation. Moreover, the IBW's low phase velocity (ω/k perpendicular ∼ V Ti much-lt V α ) greatly reduces the otherwise serious wave absorption by the 3.5 MeV fusion α-particles. In addition, the property of IBW's that k perpendicular ρ i ∼ 1 makes localized bulk ion heating possible at the ion cyclotron harmonic layers. Such bulk ion heating can prove useful in optimizing fusion reactivity. In another vein, with proper selection of parameters, IBW's can be made subject to strong localized electron Landau damping near the major ion cyclotron harmonic resonance layers. This property can be useful, for example, for rf current drive in the reactor plasma core. This paper discusses this research

  6. Engineering spin-wave channels in submicrometer magnonic waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiangJun Xing


    Full Text Available Based on micromagnetic simulations and model calculations, we demonstrate that degenerate well and barrier magnon modes can exist concurrently in a single magnetic waveguide magnetized perpendicularly to the long axis in a broad frequency band, corresponding to copropagating edge and centre spin waves, respectively. The dispersion relations of these magnon modes clearly show that the edge and centre modes possess much different wave characteristics. By tailoring the antenna size, the edge mode can be selectively activated. If the antenna is sufficiently narrow, both the edge and centre modes are excited with considerable efficiency and propagate along the waveguide. By roughening the lateral boundary of the waveguide, the characteristics of the relevant channel can be easily engineered. Moreover, the coupling of the edge and centre modes can be conveniently controlled by scaling the width of the waveguide. For a wide waveguide with a narrow antenna, the edge and centre modes travel relatively independently in spatially-separate channels, whereas for a narrow strip, these modes strongly superpose in space. These discoveries might find potential applications in emerging magnonic devices.

  7. Spinning wave plate design for retinal birefringence scanning (United States)

    Irsch, K.; Gramatikov, B. I.; Wu, Y.-K.; Guyton, D. L.


    To enhance foveal fixation detection while bypassing the deleterious effects of corneal birefringence in retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), we developed a new RBS design introducing a double-pass spinning half wave plate (HWP) and a fixed double-pass retarder into the optical system. Utilizing the measured corneal birefringence from a data set of 300 human eyes, an algorithm and a related computer program, based on Mueller-Stokes matrix calculus, were developed in MATLAB for optimizing the properties of both wave plates. Foveal fixation detection was optimized with the HWP spun 9/16 as fast as the circular scan, with the fixed retarder having a retardance of 45° and fast axis at 90°. With this new RBS design, a significant statistical improvement of 7.3 times in signal strength, i.e. FFT power, was achieved for the available data set compared with the previous RBS design. The computer-model-optimized RBS design has the potential not only for eye alignment screening, but also for remote fixation sensing and eye tracking applications.

  8. Synchronization of propagating spin-wave modes in a double-contact spin-torque oscillator: A micromagnetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puliafito, V.; Consolo, G.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Azzerboni, B.


    This work tackles theoretical investigations on the synchronization of spin-wave modes generated by spin-transfer-torque in a double nano-contact geometry. The interaction mechanisms between the resulting oscillators are analyzed in the case of propagating modes which are excited via a normal-to-plane magnetic bias field. To characterize the underlying physical mechanisms, a multi-domain analysis is performed. It makes use of an equivalent electrical circuit, to deduce the output electrical power, and of micromagnetic simulations, through which information on the frequency spectra and on the spatial distribution of the wavefront of the emitted spin-waves is extracted. This study provides further and intriguing insights into the physical mechanisms giving rise to synchronization of spin-torque oscillators

  9. Kinetic description of the oblique propagating spin-electron acoustic waves in degenerate plasmas (United States)

    Andreev, Pavel A.


    An oblique propagation of the spin-electron acoustic waves in degenerate magnetized plasmas is considered in terms of quantum kinetics with the separate spin evolution, where the spin-up electrons and the spin-down electrons are considered as two different species with different equilibrium distributions. It is considered in the electrostatic limit. The corresponding dispersion equation is derived. Analysis of the dispersion equation is performed in the long-wavelength limit to find an approximate dispersion equation describing the spin-electron acoustic wave. The approximate dispersion equation is solved numerically. Real and imaginary parts of the spin-electron acoustic wave frequency are calculated for different values of the parameters describing the system. It is found that the increase in the angle between the direction of wave propagation and the external magnetic field reduces the real and imaginary parts of spin-electron acoustic wave frequency. The increase in the spin polarization decreases the real and imaginary parts of frequency either. The imaginary part of frequency has a nonmonotonic dependence on the wave vector which shows a single maximum. The imaginary part of frequency is small in comparison with the real part for all parameters in the area of applicability of the obtained dispersion equation.

  10. Recent advances of spin crossover research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutlich, P; van Koningsbruggen, PJ; Renz, F; Schonherr, T


    Thermal spin transition (spin crossover), one of the most fascinating dynamic electronic structure phenomena occurring in coordination compounds of third row transition metal ions, mostly of iron(II), iron(III) and cobalt(II) with critical ligand field strengths competing with the spin pairing

  11. High-efficiency control of spin-wave propagation in ultra-thin yttrium iron garnet by the spin-orbit torque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelt, M.; Demidov, V. E., E-mail: [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Bessonov, V. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Demokritov, S. O. [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Prieto, J. L. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnologa (UPM), Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Muñoz, M. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Ben Youssef, J. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Bretagne CNRS, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29285 Brest (France); Naletov, V. V. [Service de Physique de l' État Condensé, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Loubens, G. de [Service de Physique de l' État Condensé, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Klein, O. [INAC-SPINTEC, CEA/CNRS and Univ. Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); Collet, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, K.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767 Palaiseau (France)


    We study experimentally with submicrometer spatial resolution the propagation of spin waves in microscopic waveguides based on the nanometer-thick yttrium iron garnet and Pt layers. We demonstrate that by using the spin-orbit torque, the propagation length of the spin waves in such systems can be increased by nearly a factor of 10, which corresponds to the increase in the spin-wave intensity at the output of a 10 μm long transmission line by three orders of magnitude. We also show that, in the regime, where the magnetic damping is completely compensated by the spin-orbit torque, the spin-wave amplification is suppressed by the nonlinear scattering of the coherent spin waves from current-induced excitations.

  12. Spin waves in the soft layer of exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-min Xiong


    Full Text Available The magnetic dynamical properties of the soft layer in exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers have been investigated numerically using a one-dimensional atomic chain model. The frequencies and spatial profiles of spin wave eigenmodes are calculated during the magnetization reversal process of the soft layer. The spin wave modes exhibit a spatially modulated amplitude, which is especially evident for high-order modes. A dynamic pinning effect of surface magnetic moment is observed. The spin wave eigenfrequency decreases linearly with the increase of the magnetic field in the uniformly magnetized state and increases nonlinearly with field when spiral magnetization configuration is formed in the soft layer.

  13. Spin waves in the soft layer of exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Zheng-min; Ge, Su-qin; Wang, Xi-guang; Li, Zhi-xiong; Xia, Qing-lin; Wang, Dao-wei; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)


    The magnetic dynamical properties of the soft layer in exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers have been investigated numerically using a one-dimensional atomic chain model. The frequencies and spatial profiles of spin wave eigenmodes are calculated during the magnetization reversal process of the soft layer. The spin wave modes exhibit a spatially modulated amplitude, which is especially evident for high-order modes. A dynamic pinning effect of surface magnetic moment is observed. The spin wave eigenfrequency decreases linearly with the increase of the magnetic field in the uniformly magnetized state and increases nonlinearly with field when spiral magnetization configuration is formed in the soft layer.

  14. Long-distance excitation of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond via surface spin waves (United States)

    Kikuchi, Daisuke; Prananto, Dwi; Hayashi, Kunitaka; Laraoui, Abdelghani; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Hatano, Mutsuko; Saitoh, Eiji; Kim, Yousoo; Meriles, Carlos A.; An, Toshu


    We make use of room-temperature magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) to mediate the interaction between the microwave field from an antenna and the spin of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. We show that this transport spans distances exceeding 3 mm, a manifestation of the MSSW robustness and large diffusion length. Using the NV spins as a local sensor, we find that the MSSW couples resonantly, and the NV spins amplitude grow linearly with the applied microwave power, suggesting that this approach could be extended to amplify the signal from neighboring spin qubits by several orders of magnitude.

  15. Spinning Black Hole Pairs: Dynamics and Gravitational Waves (United States)

    Grossman, Rebecca

    Black hole binaries will be an important source of gravitational radiation for both ground-based and future space-based gravitational wave detectors. The study of such systems will offer a unique opportunity to test the dynamical predictions of general relativity when gravity is very strong. To date, most investigations of black hole binary dynamics have focused attention on restricted scenarios in which the black holes do not spin (and thus are confined to move in a plane) and/or in which they stay on quasi-circular orbits. However, spinning black hole pairs in eccentric orbits are now understood to be astrophysically equally important. These spinning binaries exhibit a range of complicated dynamical behaviors, even in the absence of radiation reaction. Their conservative dynamics is complicated by extreme perihelion precession compounded by spin-induced precession. Although the motion seems to defy simple decoding, we are able to quantitatively define and describe the fully three-dimensional motion of arbitrary mass-ratio binaries with at least one black hole spinning and expose an underlying simplicity. To do so, we untangle the dynamics by constructing an instantaneous orbital plane and showing that the motion captured in that plane obeys elegant topological rules. In this thesis, we apply the above prescription to two formal systems used to model black hole binaries. The first is defined by the conservative 3PN Hamiltonian plus spin-orbit coupling and is particularly suitable to comparable-mass binaries. The second is defined by geodesics of the Kerr metric and is used exclusively for extreme mass-ratio binaries. In both systems, we define a complete taxonomy for fully three-dimensional orbits. More than just a naming system, the taxonomy provides unambiguous and quantitative descriptions of the orbits, including a determination of the zoom-whirliness of any given orbit. Through a correspondence with the rational numbers, we are able to show that all of the

  16. Angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of square antidot lattices studied by Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IOM-CNR), Sede di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Madami, M.; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)


    The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission.

  17. Neutron-Scattering Study of Spin Waves in the Ferrimagnet RbNiF3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.


    by a 180° antiferromagnetic exchange between nearest-neighbor A, B spins and a 90° ferromagnetic exchange between nearest-neighbor B spins. In this paper we report a detailed inelastic-neutron-scattering study of the spin waves in RbNiF3 both at low temperatures and through Tc. The magnetic unit cell...... contains six Ni++ spins so that there are in general six distinct branches in the spin-wave spectrum. All six branches are observed in the ΓA direction (c axis), while only the lowest three are observed in the ΓM direction. The measured dispersion curves at 4.2°K may be accurately fitted using simple spin...

  18. Spin waves treatment of the antiferromagnetic ground state of two Ising-like systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegoke Kunle


    Full Text Available Using Anderson's spin wave theory, we derive expressions for the ground state energy of two Ising-like systems. Antiferromagnetic long range order is predicted for one of the systems.

  19. Charge and spin currents in normal metal sandwiched by tow p-wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Rahnavard


    Full Text Available Charge and spin transport properties of a clean $SNS$ Josephson junction (triplet superconductor-normal metal-triplet superconductor are studied using the quasiclassical Eilenberger equation of Green’s function. Our system consists of two p-wave superconducting crystals separated by a Copper nano layer. Effects of thickness of normal layer between superconductors on the spin and charge currents are investigated. Also misorientation between triplet superconductors which creates the spin current is another subject of this paper.

  20. Odd number of coupled antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains: Spin wave theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyoussef, A.


    The effect of the chain and perpendicular anisotropies on the energy gap for odd number of coupled quantum spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains is investigated using a spin wave theory. The energy gap opens above a critical anisotropic value. The known results of the isotropic case have been obtained. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs

  1. Beating the spin-down limit on gravitational wave emission from the Crab pulsar


    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, Bruce; Allen, Gabrielle; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Armor, P.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.


    We present direct upper limits on gravitational wave emission from the Crab pulsar using data from the first nine months of the fifth science run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). These limits are based on two searches. In the first we assume that the gravitational wave emission follows the observed radio timing, giving an upper limit on gravitational wave emission that beats indirect limits inferred from the spin-down and braking index of the pulsar and the e...

  2. Spin annihilations of and spin sifters for transverse electric and transverse magnetic waves in co- and counter-rotations. (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung-In; Mok, Jinsik


    This study is motivated in part to better understand multiplexing in wireless communications, which employs photons carrying varying angular momenta. In particular, we examine both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) waves in either co-rotations or counter-rotations. To this goal, we analyze both Poynting-vector flows and orbital and spin parts of the energy flow density for the combined fields. Consequently, we find not only enhancements but also cancellations between the two modes. To our surprise, the photon spins in the azimuthal direction exhibit a complete annihilation for the counter-rotational case even if the intensities of the colliding waves are of different magnitudes. In contrast, the orbital flow density disappears only if the two intensities satisfy a certain ratio. In addition, the concepts of spin sifters and enantiomer sorting are illustrated.

  3. Spin annihilations of and spin sifters for transverse electric and transverse magnetic waves in co- and counter-rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-In Lee


    Full Text Available This study is motivated in part to better understand multiplexing in wireless communications, which employs photons carrying varying angular momenta. In particular, we examine both transverse electric (TE and transverse magnetic (TM waves in either co-rotations or counter-rotations. To this goal, we analyze both Poynting-vector flows and orbital and spin parts of the energy flow density for the combined fields. Consequently, we find not only enhancements but also cancellations between the two modes. To our surprise, the photon spins in the azimuthal direction exhibit a complete annihilation for the counter-rotational case even if the intensities of the colliding waves are of different magnitudes. In contrast, the orbital flow density disappears only if the two intensities satisfy a certain ratio. In addition, the concepts of spin sifters and enantiomer sorting are illustrated.

  4. A cluster-bethe-lattice approach to spin-waves in dilute ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzberg, J.B.; Silva, C.E.T.G. da; Falicov, L.M.


    The spin-wave spectra of a dilute ferromagnet within the cluster-bethe-lattice approximation is studied. Short range order effects for the alloy are included. A study of finite size clusters connected at their edges to Bethe lattices of the same coordination number allows one to determine:(i) the stability condition for the magnetic system; (ii) the continuum spin-wave local density of states and (iii) the existence of localized states below and above the continuum states

  5. Suhl instabilities for spin waves in ferromagnetic nanostripes and ultrathin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghshenasfard, Zahra, E-mail:; Nguyen, Hoa T.; Cottam, Michael G., E-mail:


    A microscopic (or Hamiltonian-based) theory is employed for the spin-wave instability thresholds of nonlinear processes in ultrathin ferromagnetic stripes and films under perpendicular pumping with an intense microwave field. The spatially-quantized linear spin waves in these nanostructures may participate in parametric processes through the three-magnon interactions (the first-order Suhl process) and the four-magnon interactions (the second-order Suhl process) when pumped. By contrast with most previous studies of spin-wave instabilities made for larger samples, where macroscopic (or continuum) theories involving Maxwell's equations for magnetic dipolar effects are used, a discrete lattice of effective spins is employed. Then a dipole-exchange spin Hamiltonian is employed to investigate the behavior of the quantized spin waves under perpendicular pumping, when modifications due to the more extensive spatial confinement and edges effects in these nanostructures become pronounced. The instability thresholds versus applied magnetic field are calculated, with emphasis on the size effects and geometries of the nanostructures and on the different relative strengths of the magnetic dipole-dipole and exchange interactions in materials. Numerical results are presented using parameters for Permalloy, YIG, and EuS. - Highlights: • Suhl instabilities for spin waves in magnetic stripes and films are investigated. • Three- and four-magnon processes in perpendicular pumping are taken into account. • Numerical applications are made to Permalloy, YIG, and EuS.

  6. Assessing the Detectability of Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Binary Black Holes with Precessing Spin (United States)

    Frederick, Sara; Privitera, Stephen; Weinstein, Alan J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration


    The Advanced LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors will come online within the year and are expected to outperform the strain sensitivity of initial LIGO/Virgo detectors by an order of magnitude and operate with greater bandwidth, possibly to frequencies as low as 10 Hz. Coalescing binary black holes (BBH) are anticipated to be among the most likely sources of gravitational radiation observable by the detectors. Searches for such systems benefit greatly from the use of accurate predictions for the gravitational wave signal to filter the data. The component black holes of these systems are predicted to have substantial spin, which greatly influences the gravitational waveforms from these sources; however, recent LIGO/Virgo searches have made use of banks of waveform models which neglect the effects of the component spins. The inclusion of spinning components is relatively simplified when the spins are taken to be aligned with the orbital angular momentum, though the difficult task of including precession (allowing for mis-aligned component spins) remains a goal of this work. We aim to assess the ability of the GSTLAL gravitational wave search pipeline using IMR aligned-spin template waveforms to recover signals from generically spinning black hole binaries injected into simulated Advanced LIGO and Virgo detector noise. If black holes are highly spinning as predicted, use of aligned-spin template banks in upcoming searches could increase the detection rate of these systems in Advanced LIGO and Virgo data, providing the opportunity for a deeper understanding of the sources.

  7. Spin Waves in Magnetic Thin Films: New Types of Solitons and Electrical Control (United States)

    Wang, Zihui

    New types of spin-wave solitons in magnetic thin films and the methods to control spin waves electrically are studied in this thesis. In the first part, the first observation of chaotic spin-wave solitons in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin film-based active feedback rings is presented. At some ring gain levels, one observes the self-generation of a single spin-wave soliton pulse in the ring. When the pulse circulates in the ring, its amplitude varies chaotically with time. The excitation of dark spin-wave envelope solitons in YIG thin film strips is also described. The formation of a pair of black solitons with a phase jump of 180° is observed for the first time. The excitation of bright solitons in the case of repulsive nonlinearity is also observed and is reproduced by a numerical simulation based on a high-order nonlinear Schrodinger equation. In the second part, the control of magnetization relaxation in ferromagnetic insulators via interfacial spin scattering is presented. In the experiments nanometer-thick YIG/Pt bi-layered structures are used, with the Pt layer biased by an electric voltage. The bias voltage produces a spin current across the Pt layer thickness due to the spin Hall effect. As this current scatters off the YIG surface, it exerts a torque on the YIG surface spins. This torque can reduce or increase the damping and thereby compress or broaden the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth of the YIG film, depending on the field/current configuration. The control of spin waves in a YIG thin film via interfacial spin scattering is also presented. In the experiments a 4.6-microm-thick YIG film strip with a 20-nm-thick Pt capping layer is used. A DC current pulse is applied to the Pt layer and produced a spin current across the Pt layer. As the spin current scatters off the YIG surface, it can either amplify or attenuate spin-wave pulses that travel in the YIG strip, depending on the current/field configuration.

  8. Experimental Evidence of Self-Localized and Propagating Spin Wave Modes in Obliquely Magnetized Current-Driven Nanocontacts (United States)

    Bonetti, Stefano; Tiberkevich, Vasil; Consolo, Giancarlo; Finocchio, Giovanni; Muduli, Pranaba; Mancoff, Fred; Slavin, Andrei; Åkerman, Johan


    Through detailed experimental studies of the angular dependence of spin wave excitations in nanocontact-based spin-torque oscillators, we demonstrate that two distinct spin wave modes can be excited, with different frequency, threshold currents, and frequency tunability. Using analytical theory and micromagnetic simulations we identify one mode as an exchange-dominated propagating spin wave, and the other as a self-localized nonlinear spin wave bullet. Wavelet-based analysis of the simulations indicates that the apparent simultaneous excitation of both modes results from rapid mode hopping induced by the Oersted field.

  9. Excitations of breathers and rogue wave in the Heisenberg spin chain (United States)

    Qi, Jian-Wen; Duan, Liang; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Yang, Wen-Li


    We study the excitations of breathers and rogue wave in a classical Heisenberg spin chain with twist interaction, which is governed by a fourth-order integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The dynamics of these waves have been extracted from an exact solution. In particular, the corresponding existence conditions based on the parameters of perturbation wave number K, magnon number N, background wave vector ks and amplitude c are presented explicitly. Furthermore, the characteristics of magnetic moment distribution corresponding to these nonlinear waves are also investigated in detail. Finally, we discussed the state transition of three types nonlinear localized waves under the different excitation conditions.

  10. Counter-rotating standing spin waves: A magneto-optical illusion (United States)

    Shihab, S.; Thevenard, L.; Lemaître, A.; Gourdon, C.


    We excite perpendicular standing spin waves by a laser pulse in a GaMnAsP ferromagnetic layer and detect them using time-resolved magneto-optical effects. Quite counterintuitively, we find the first two excited modes to be of opposite chirality. We show that this can only be explained by taking into account absorption and optical phase shift inside the layer. This optical illusion is particularly strong in weakly absorbing layers. These results provide a correct identification of spin waves modes, enabling a trustworthy estimation of their respective weight as well as an unambiguous determination of the spin stiffness parameter.

  11. Distinguishing between coherent magnetization rotation and generation of incoherent spin waves in a spin-transfer effect experiment (United States)

    Bazaliy, Yaroslaw; Jones, Barbara


    Electric current flowing from one metallic ferromagnet to another induces an interaction between them [1,2]. This interaction is qualitatively different from the one observed in equilibrium and creates a so-called ``spin-transfer'' torque - a subject of recent interest in the field of spintronics. Technologically spin-transfer effect is very interesting due to its possible usefulness for the memory writing process based on ``current induced switching" in metallic magnetic structures. Physics of spin-transfer torque involves interesting issues of spin-injection, spin-accumulation and excitation of different types of magnetic modes in the ferromagnets. The result of spin-transfer torque action depends on which magnetic mode is most easily excited by the spin-polarized current. Currently there are two views on the nature of this mode. In one approach [1] it is assumed that a coherent rotation of magnetization is induced and in the other [2,3] - that incoherent spin waves are generated. While in a real experiment both modes are probably excited at the same time, intuitively it seems natural that coherent rotation is more likely to happen when the angle between injected spins and magnetization is large. On the contrary in a collinear case spin-wave generation is more likely to happen. In the experiments done so far [4] the effect of spin-transfer torque was studied in the collinear setup. In [5] we applied the general approach of Ref.1 to this experiment and were able to give exact predictions for the particular magnetic anisotropy of the experiment [4]. While those predictions do not completely agree with the experimental results, a theory based on spin-wave generation [6] also seems to be ruled out by [4]. Here we propose a relatively easy modification of experiment [4] in which the spin-polarization of incoming current is no longer collinear with magnetization and recalculate the switching behavior of the device. We expect that a better agreement with experiment will

  12. Spin-wave instabilities, auto-oscillations, and chaos in yttrium-iron-garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, S.M.; de Aguiar, F.M.


    Spin-wave instabilities driven by microwave fields display auto-oscillations, intermittency, quasiperiodicity, period-doubling and chaos like other nonlinear dynamic systems. Several of these phenomena, first observed nearly 30 years ago, only recently have been investigated systematically and understood in the light of modern nonlinear dynamics. The authors review recent experimental results in yttrium-iron-garnet subject to three different spin-wave pumping mechanisms: parallel pumping, subsidiary resonance (first-order Suhl process) and premature saturation of the main resonance (second-order Suhl process). A theoretical model derived from first principles leading to coupled nonlinear spin-ave equations is used to interpret the observed spin-wave instabilities, auto-oscillations, and chaotic dynamics. Improvements needed in the model are also indicated

  13. Self-generation and management of spin-electromagnetic wave solitons and chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, Alexey B.; Kondrashov, Alexandr V.; Nikitin, Andrey A.; Kalinikos, Boris A.


    Self-generation of microwave spin-electromagnetic wave envelope solitons and chaos has been observed and studied. For the investigation, we used a feedback active ring oscillator based on artificial multiferroic, which served as a nonlinear waveguide. We show that by increasing the wave amplification in the feedback ring circuit, a transition from monochromatic auto-generation to soliton train waveform and then to dynamical chaos occurs in accordance with the Ruelle-Takens scenario. Management of spin-electromagnetic-wave solitons and chaos parameters by both dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of the multiferroic waveguiding structure is demonstrated.

  14. Nonreciprocity of spin waves in magnonic crystals created by surface acoustic waves in structures with yttrium iron garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V., E-mail:


    Experimental results of investigations of nonreciprocity for surface magnetostatic spin waves (SMSW) in the magnonic crystal created by surface acoustic waves (SAW) in yttrium iron garnet films on a gallium gadolinium garnet substrate as without metallization and with aluminum films with different electrical conductivities (thicknesses) are presented. In structures without metallization, the frequency of magnonic gaps is dependent on mutual directions of propagation of the SAW and SMSW, showing nonreciprocal properties for SMSW in SAW – magnonic crystals even with the symmetrical dispersion characteristic. In metalized SAW – magnonic crystals the shift of the magnonic band gaps frequencies at the inversion of the biasing magnetic field was observed. The frequencies of magnonic band gaps as functions of SAW frequency are presented. Measured dependencies, showing the decrease of magnonic gaps frequency and the expansion of the magnonic band gap width with the decreasing of the metal film conductivity are given. Such nonreciprocal properties of the SAW – magnonic crystals are promising for signal processing in the GHz range. - Highlights: • Spin waves nonreciprocity in YIG magnonic crystals with SAW was studied. • SAW was shown to create nonreciprocity for spin waves in YIG–GGG even without metal. • Frequency and width of magnonic band gaps were measured versus metal conductivity. • Conductivity for practical use of spin waves in the structure YIG–metal was defined.

  15. Continuous wave protocol for simultaneous polarization and optical detection of P1-center electron spin resonance (United States)

    Kamp, E. J.; Carvajal, B.; Samarth, N.


    The ready optical detection and manipulation of bright nitrogen vacancy center spins in diamond plays a key role in contemporary quantum information science and quantum metrology. Other optically dark defects such as substitutional nitrogen atoms (`P1 centers') could also become potentially useful in this context if they could be as easily optically detected and manipulated. We develop a relatively straightforward continuous wave protocol that takes advantage of the dipolar coupling between nitrogen vacancy and P1 centers in type 1b diamond to detect and polarize the dark P1 spins. By combining mutual spin flip transitions with radio frequency driving, we demonstrate the simultaneous optical polarization and detection of the electron spin resonance of the P1 center. This technique should be applicable to detecting and manipulating a broad range of dark spin populations that couple to the nitrogen vacancy center via dipolar fields, allowing for quantum metrology using these spin populations.

  16. Dispersion characteristics of spin-electromagnetic waves in planar multiferroic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Andrey A.; Ustinov, Alexey B. [Department of Physical Electronics and Technology, St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta 53850 (Finland); Vitko, Vitaliy V.; Semenov, Alexander A.; Mironenko, Igor G. [Department of Physical Electronics and Technology, St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation); Belyavskiy, Pavel Yu.; Kalinikos, Boris A. [Department of Physical Electronics and Technology, St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation); International Laboratory “MultiferrLab,” ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Stashkevich, Andrey A. [International Laboratory “MultiferrLab,” ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407), Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Lähderanta, E. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta 53850 (Finland)


    A method of approximate boundary conditions is used to derive dispersion relations for spin-electromagnetic waves (SEWs) propagating in thin ferrite films and in multiferroic layered structures. A high accuracy of this method is proven. It was shown that the spin-electromagnetic wave propagating in the structure composed of a thin ferrite film, a thin ferroelectric film, and a slot transmission line is formed as a result of hybridization of the surface spin wave in the ferrite film and the electromagnetic wave in the slot-line. The structure demonstrates dual electric and magnetic field tunability of the SEW spectrum. The electric field tunability is provided by the thin ferroelectric film. Its efficiency increases with an increase in the thicknesses of the ferrite and ferroelectric films and with a decrease in the slot-line gap width. The theory is confirmed by experimental data.

  17. Distinguishing spin-aligned and isotropic black hole populations with gravitational waves. (United States)

    Farr, Will M; Stevenson, Simon; Miller, M Coleman; Mandel, Ilya; Farr, Ben; Vecchio, Alberto


    The direct detection of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes opens up a window into the environments in which binary black holes form. One signature of such environments is the angular distribution of the black hole spins. Binary systems that formed through dynamical interactions between already-compact objects are expected to have isotropic spin orientations (that is, the spins of the black holes are randomly oriented with respect to the orbit of the binary system), whereas those that formed from pairs of stars born together are more likely to have spins that are preferentially aligned with the orbit. The best-measured combination of spin parameters for each of the four likely binary black hole detections GW150914, LVT151012, GW151226 and GW170104 is the 'effective' spin. Here we report that, if the magnitudes of the black hole spins are allowed to extend to high values, the effective spins for these systems indicate a 0.015 odds ratio against an aligned angular distribution compared to an isotropic one. When considering the effect of ten additional detections, this odds ratio decreases to 2.9 × 10 -7 against alignment. The existing preference for either an isotropic spin distribution or low spin magnitudes for the observed systems will be confirmed (or overturned) confidently in the near future.

  18. Mutual influence between macrospin reversal order and spin-wave dynamics in isolated artificial spin-ice vertices (United States)

    Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L.; Bang, Wonbae; Ketterson, J. B.; Jungfleisch, M. B.; Hoffmann, A.; Farmer, B. W.; De Long, L. E.


    We theoretically and experimentally investigate magnetization reversal and associated spin-wave dynamics of isolated threefold vertices that constitute a Kagome lattice. The three permalloy macrospins making up the vertex have an elliptical cross section and a uniform thickness. We study the dc magnetization curve and the frequency versus field curves (dispersions) of those spin-wave modes that produce the largest response. We also investigate each macrospin reversal from a dynamic perspective, by performing micromagnetic simulations of the reversal processes, and revealing their relationships to the soft-mode profile calculated at the equilibrium state immediately before reversal. The theoretical results are compared with the measured magnetization curves and ferromagnetic resonance spectra. The agreement achieved suggests that a much deeper understanding of magnetization reversal and accompanying hysteresis can be achieved by combining theoretical calculations with static and dynamic magnetization experiments.

  19. Coupling a Surface Acoustic Wave to an Electron Spin in Diamond via a Dark State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Andrew Golter


    Full Text Available The emerging field of quantum acoustics explores interactions between acoustic waves and artificial atoms and their applications in quantum information processing. In this experimental study, we demonstrate the coupling between a surface acoustic wave (SAW and an electron spin in diamond by taking advantage of the strong strain coupling of the excited states of a nitrogen vacancy center while avoiding the short lifetime of these states. The SAW-spin coupling takes place through a Λ-type three-level system where two ground spin states couple to a common excited state through a phonon-assisted as well as a direct dipole optical transition. Both coherent population trapping and optically driven spin transitions have been realized. The coherent population trapping demonstrates the coupling between a SAW and an electron spin coherence through a dark state. The optically driven spin transitions, which resemble the sideband transitions in a trapped-ion system, can enable the quantum control of both spin and mechanical degrees of freedom and potentially a trapped-ion-like solid-state system for applications in quantum computing. These results establish an experimental platform for spin-based quantum acoustics, bridging the gap between spintronics and quantum acoustics.

  20. Observation of linear spin wave dispersion in the reentrant spin glass Fe sub 0 sub . sub 7 Al sub 0 sub . sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, S M; Raymond, S; Lee, S H; Motoya, K


    Fe sub 0 sub . sub 7 Al sub 0 sub . sub 3 is a reentrant spin glass, which undergoes a transition from a paramagnet to a disordered ferromagnet at T sub c propor to 500 K; at a lower temperature the spins progressively freeze and it exhibits a spin-glass-like behavior. In the ferromagnetic phase spin waves with a q sup 2 dispersion are observed at small q, which broaden rapidly and become diffusive beyond a critical wave vector q sub 0. On cooling the spin waves also disappear and a strong elastic central peak develops. For measurements around the (1,1,1) Bragg peak, a new sharp excitation is observed which has a linear dispersion behavior. It disappears above T sub c , but persists throughout the spin-glass phase. It is not present in the stoichiometric Fe sub 3 Al material. (orig.)

  1. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center workwhop on RHIC spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This RHIC Spin Workshop is the 1999 annual meeting of the RHIC Spin Collaboration, and the second to be hosted at Brookhaven and sponsored by the RIKEN BNL Research Center. The previous meetings were at Brookhaven (1998), Marseille (1996), MIT in 1995, Argonne 1994, Tucson in 1991, and the Polarized Collider Workshop at Penn State in 1990. As noted last year, the Center provides a home for combined work on spin by theorists, experimenters, and accelerator physicists. This proceedings, as last year, is a compilation of 1 page summaries and 5 selected transparencies for each speaker. It is designed to be available soon after the workshop is completed. Speakers are welcome to include web or other references for additional material. The RHIC spin program and RHIC are rapidly becoming reality. RHIC has completed its first commissioning run, as described here by Steve Peggs. The first Siberian Snake for spin has been completed and is being installed in RHIC. A new polarized source from KEK and Triumf with over 1 milliampere of polarized H{sup minus} is being installed, described by Anatoli Zelenski. They have had a successful test of a new polarimeter for RHIC, described by Kazu Kurita and Haixin Huang. Spin commissioning is expected next spring (2000), and the first physics run for spin is anticipated for spring 2001. The purpose of the workshop is to get everyone together about once per year and discuss goals of the spin program, progress, problems, and new ideas. They also have many separate regular forums on spin. There are spin discussion sessions every Tuesday, now organized by Naohito Saito and Werner Vogelsang. The spin discussion schedule and copies of presentations are posted on Speakers and other spinners are encouraged to come to BNL and to lead a discussion on your favorite idea. They also have regular polarimeter and snake meetings on alternate Thursdays, led by Bill McGahern, the lead engineer for the accelerator spin

  2. Current induced multi-mode propagating spin waves in a spin transfer torque nano-contact with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (United States)

    Mohseni, S. Morteza; Yazdi, H. F.; Hamdi, M.; Brächer, T.; Mohseni, S. Majid


    Current induced spin wave excitations in spin transfer torque nano-contacts are known as a promising way to generate exchange-dominated spin waves at the nano-scale. It has been shown that when these systems are magnetized in the film plane, broken spatial symmetry of the field around the nano-contact induced by the Oersted field opens the possibility for spin wave mode co-existence including a non-linear self-localized spin-wave bullet and a propagating mode. By means of micromagnetic simulations, here we show that in systems with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the free layer, two propagating spin wave modes with different frequency and spatial distribution can be excited simultaneously. Our results indicate that in-plane magnetized spin transfer nano-contacts in PMA materials do not host a solitonic self-localized spin-wave bullet, which is different from previous studies for systems with in plane magnetic anisotropy. This feature renders them interesting for nano-scale magnonic waveguides and crystals since magnon transport can be configured by tuning the applied current.

  3. Current status of IMS plasma wave research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.R.


    Much progress has been made in plasma wave research as a result of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) in all areas from ground-based studies to multiple-satellite observations. Studies in all the areas have contributed to better understanding of the propagation and generation of magnetospheric plasma waves and the impact the waves have on other magnetospheric phenomena. Plasma wave measurements have been used as both local and remote sensing determinations of plasma parameters. The role of plasma waves at the various magnetospheric boundaries has been extensively studied using the IMS sources. Plamsa wave observations during the IMS have tested many existing theories and led to the foundation of many new theories. Several suggestions for future directions of plamsa wave research are offered.

  4. Dipole-exchange spin waves in perpendicularly magnetized discs: Role of the Oersted field (United States)

    Arias, R. E.; Mills, D. L.


    We develop the theory of the exchange dipole spin waves in thin circular discs for the case where the magnetization is nominally perpendicular to the plane. Our interest is in the circumstance where a transport current is injected into the disc, with current also perpendicular to the plane of the disc. Such a current creates an azimuthal magnetic field, referred to often as the Oersted field. We develop the theory of the influence of the Oersted field on the spin-wave spectrum of the disc. This field produces a vortex state. We suggest that this vortex state is stable down to zero applied field. If the external applied field H0 is in the +z direction, perpendicular to the plane of the disc, the vortex state has magnetization at the center of the disc also parallel to +z always. This is the case even when H0<4πMS , where the magnetization at the center of the disc is antiparallel to the local field H0-4πMS there. We present calculations of the current dependence of spin-wave frequencies of several modes as a function of applied magnetic field. We also address an issue overlooked in previous studies of spin waves in thin discs. This is that for quantitative purposes, it is not sufficient to describe internal dipole fields generated by the spin motions simply by adding an effective internal field -4πmzẑ to the equations of motion, with mz the component of dynamic magnetization normal to the surface. For samples of present interest, we derive terms we call gradient corrections, and these play a role quantitatively comparable to exchange itself in the analysis of the spin-wave frequencies. Quantitative studies of spin dynamics in such samples thus must include the gradient corrections.

  5. Glass transition in the spin-density wave phase of (TMTSF)2PF6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasjaunias, J.C.; Biljakovic, K.; Nad, F.


    We present the results of low frequency dielectric measurements and a detailed kinetic investigation of the specific heat anomaly in the spin-density wave phase of (TMTSF)(2)PF6 in the temperature range between 2 and 4 K. The dielectric relaxation shows a critical slowing down towards a ''static'......'' glass transition around 2 K. The jump in the specific heat in different controlled kinetic conditions shows all the characteristics of freezing in supercooled liquids. Both effects give direct evidence of a glass transition in the spin-density wave ground state.......We present the results of low frequency dielectric measurements and a detailed kinetic investigation of the specific heat anomaly in the spin-density wave phase of (TMTSF)(2)PF6 in the temperature range between 2 and 4 K. The dielectric relaxation shows a critical slowing down towards a ''static...

  6. Demonstration of Atomic Frequency Comb Memory for Light with Spin-Wave Storage (United States)

    Afzelius, Mikael; Usmani, Imam; Amari, Atia; Lauritzen, Björn; Walther, Andreas; Simon, Christoph; Sangouard, Nicolas; Minář, Jiří; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Gisin, Nicolas; Kröll, Stefan


    We present a light-storage experiment in a praseodymium-doped crystal where the light is mapped onto an inhomogeneously broadened optical transition shaped into an atomic frequency comb. After absorption of the light, the optical excitation is converted into a spin-wave excitation by a control pulse. A second control pulse reads the memory (on-demand) by reconverting the spin-wave excitation to an optical one, where the comb structure causes a photon-echo-type rephasing of the dipole moments and directional retrieval of the light. This combination of photon-echo and spin-wave storage allows us to store submicrosecond (450 ns) pulses for up to 20μs. The scheme has a high potential for storing multiple temporal modes in the single-photon regime, which is an important resource for future long-distance quantum communication based on quantum repeaters.

  7. Incommensurate spin density wave in metallic V2-yO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, W.; Broholm, C.; Carter, S.A.; Rosenbaum, T.F.; Aeppli, G.; Trevino, S.F.; Metcalf, P.; Honig, J.M.; Spalek, J.


    We show by neutron diffraction that metallic V 2-7 O 3 develops a spin density wave below T N ∼9 K with incommensurate wave vector q∼1.7c * and an ordered moment of 0.15μ B . The weak ordering phenomenon is accompanied by strong, nonresonant spin fluctuations with a velocity c=67(4) meV A. The spin correlations of the metal are very different from those of the insulator and place V 2-y O 3 in a distinct class of Motte-Hubbard systems where the wave vector for magnetic order in the metal is far from a high symmetry commensurate reciprocal lattice point

  8. Generation of spin waves by a train of fs-laser pulses: a novel approach for tuning magnon wavelength. (United States)

    Savochkin, I V; Jäckl, M; Belotelov, V I; Akimov, I A; Kozhaev, M A; Sylgacheva, D A; Chernov, A I; Shaposhnikov, A N; Prokopov, A R; Berzhansky, V N; Yakovlev, D R; Zvezdin, A K; Bayer, M


    Currently spin waves are considered for computation and data processing as an alternative to charge currents. Generation of spin waves by ultrashort laser pulses provides several important advances with respect to conventional approaches using microwaves. In particular, focused laser spot works as a point source for spin waves and allows for directional control of spin waves and switching between their different types. For further progress in this direction it is important to manipulate with the spectrum of the optically generated spin waves. Here we tackle this problem by launching spin waves by a sequence of femtosecond laser pulses with pulse interval much shorter than the relaxation time of the magnetization oscillations. This leads to the cumulative phenomenon and allows us to generate magnons in a specific narrow range of wavenumbers. The wavelength of spin waves can be tuned from 15 μm to hundreds of microns by sweeping the external magnetic field by only 10 Oe or by slight variation of the pulse repetition rate. Our findings expand the capabilities of the optical spin pump-probe technique and provide a new method for the spin wave generation and control.

  9. Dielectric permeability tensor and linear waves in spin-1/2 quantum kinetics with non-trivial equilibrium spin-distribution functions (United States)

    Andreev, Pavel A.; Kuz'menkov, L. S.


    A consideration of waves propagating parallel to the external magnetic field is presented. The dielectric permeability tensor is derived from the quantum kinetic equations with non-trivial equilibrium spin-distribution functions in the linear approximation on the amplitude of wave perturbations. It is possible to consider the equilibrium spin-distribution functions with nonzero z-projection proportional to the difference of the Fermi steps of electrons with the chosen spin direction, while x- and y-projections are equal to zero. It is called the trivial equilibrium spin-distribution functions. In the general case, x- and y-projections of the spin-distribution functions are nonzero which is called the non-trivial regime. A corresponding equilibrium solution is found in Andreev [Phys. Plasmas 23, 062103 (2016)]. The contribution of the nontrivial part of the spin-distribution function appears in the dielectric permeability tensor in the additive form. It is explicitly found here. A corresponding modification in the dispersion equation for the transverse waves is derived. The contribution of the nontrivial part of the spin-distribution function in the spectrum of transverse waves is calculated numerically. It is found that the term caused by the nontrivial part of the spin-distribution function can be comparable with the classic terms for the relatively small wave vectors and frequencies above the cyclotron frequency. In a majority of regimes, the extra spin caused term dominates over the spin term found earlier, except the small frequency regime, where their contributions in the whistler spectrum are comparable. A decrease of the left-hand circularly polarized wave frequency, an increase of the high-frequency right-hand circularly polarized wave frequency, and a decrease of frequency changing by an increase of frequency at the growth of the wave vector for the whistler are found. A considerable decrease of the spin wave frequency is found either. It results in an

  10. Magnetic cellular nonlinear network with spin wave bus for image processing (United States)

    Khitun, Alexander; Bao, Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L.


    We describe and analyze a cellular nonlinear network based on magnetic nanostructures for image processing. The network consists of magneto-electric cells integrated onto a common ferromagnetic film-spin wave bus. The magneto-electric cell is an artificial two-phase multiferroic structure comprising piezoelectric and ferromagnetic materials. A bit of information is assigned to the cell's magnetic polarization, which can be controlled by the applied voltage. The information exchange among the cells is via the spin waves propagating in the spin wave bus. Each cell changes its state as a combined effect: magneto-electric coupling and the interaction with the spin waves. The distinct feature of a network with a spin wave bus is the ability to control the inter-cell communication by an external global parameter — magnetic field. The latter makes it possible to realize different image processing functions on the same template without rewiring or reconfiguration. We present the results of numerical simulations illustrating image filtering, erosion, dilation, horizontal and vertical line detection, inversion and edge detection accomplished on one template by the proper choice of the strength and direction of the external magnetic field. We also present numerical assets on the major network parameters such as cell density, power dissipation and functional throughput, and compare them with the parameters projected for other nano-architectures such as CMOL-CrossNet, Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata, and Quantum Dot-Image Processor. Potentially, the utilization of spin wave phenomena at the nanometer scale may provide a route to low-power consumption and functional logic circuits for special task data processing.

  11. Measuring the spin of black holes in binary systems using gravitational waves. (United States)

    Vitale, Salvatore; Lynch, Ryan; Veitch, John; Raymond, Vivien; Sturani, Riccardo


    Compact binary coalescences are the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for ground-based detectors. Binary systems containing one or two spinning black holes are particularly interesting due to spin-orbit (and eventual spin-spin) interactions and the opportunity of measuring spins directly through GW observations. In this Letter, we analyze simulated signals emitted by spinning binaries with several values of masses, spins, orientations, and signal-to-noise ratios, as detected by an advanced LIGO-Virgo network. We find that for moderate or high signal-to-noise ratio the spin magnitudes can be estimated with errors of a few percent (5%-30%) for neutron star-black hole (black hole-black hole) systems. Spins' tilt angle can be estimated with errors of 0.04 rad in the best cases, but typical values will be above 0.1 rad. Errors will be larger for signals barely above the threshold for detection. The difference in the azimuth angles of the spins, which may be used to check if spins are locked into resonant configurations, cannot be constrained. We observe that the best performances are obtained when the line of sight is perpendicular to the system's total angular momentum and that a sudden change of behavior occurs when a system is observed from angles such that the plane of the orbit can be seen both from above and below during the time the signal is in band. This study suggests that direct measurement of black hole spin by means of GWs can be as precise as what can be obtained from x-ray binaries.

  12. A spin-wave logic gate based on a width-modulated dynamic magnonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Andrey A. [Department of Physical Electronics and Technology, St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation); Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern 67663 (Germany); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta 53850 (Finland); Ustinov, Alexey B. [Department of Physical Electronics and Technology, St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta 53850 (Finland); Semenov, Alexander A.; Kalinikos, Boris A. [Department of Physical Electronics and Technology, St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation); Chumak, Andrii V.; Serga, Alexander A.; Vasyuchka, Vitaliy I.; Hillebrands, Burkard [Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern 67663 (Germany); Lähderanta, Erkki [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta 53850 (Finland)


    An electric current controlled spin-wave logic gate based on a width-modulated dynamic magnonic crystal is realized. The device utilizes a spin-wave waveguide fabricated from a single-crystal Yttrium Iron Garnet film and two conducting wires attached to the film surface. Application of electric currents to the wires provides a means for dynamic control of the effective geometry of waveguide and results in a suppression of the magnonic band gap. The performance of the magnonic crystal as an AND logic gate is demonstrated.

  13. Non-linear Alfvén waves in spin-1/2 quantum plasma (United States)

    Jan, Qasim; Mushtaq, A.; Ikram, M.


    Nonlinear circularly polarized Alfvén waves are studied in Fermionic spin-1/2 quantum plasmas. Using the basic equations for Hall magnetohydrodynamics including quantum corrections, the set of Zakharov-like equations are obtained for circularly polarized nonlinear Alfvén waves. In order to investigate the properties of the Alfvén solitary structure in the presence of spin magnetization and quantum plasma beta, the Sagdeev potential approach is employed. For the case of right-handed circularly polarized Alfvén waves, the amplitude of the Sagdeev potential and the associated solitary profile is observed to enhance with the increase of quantum plasma beta and magnetization energy due to electron spin-1/2 effects. However, it is found that the amplitude of the Sagdeev potential and the related solitary profile decrease with the increasing values of quantum plasma beta and magnetization energy for the case of left-handed circularly polarized Alfvén waves. An increase in the width of the solitary structure is also observed with the increase in the value of magnetization energy for the case of the left-handed circularly polarized wave. An investigation of the modulational instability is also inspected with the effects of spin magnetization and quantum plasma beta.

  14. Experimental methods of shock wave research

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, Friedrich


    This comprehensive and carefully edited volume presents a variety of experimental methods used in Shock Waves research. In 14 self contained chapters this 9th volume of the “Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library” presents the experimental methods used in Shock Tubes, Shock Tunnels and Expansion Tubes facilities. Also described is their set-up and operation. The uses of an arc heated wind tunnel and a gun tunnel are also contained in this volume. Whenever possible, in addition to the technical description some typical scientific results obtained using such facilities are described. Additionally, this authoritative book includes techniques for measuring physical properties of blast waves and laser generated shock waves. Information about active shock wave laboratories at different locations around the world that are not described in the chapters herein is given in the Appendix, making this book useful for every researcher involved in shock/blast wave phenomena.

  15. Non-stationary excitation of two localized spin-wave modes in a nano-contact spin torque oscillator (United States)

    Consolo, G.; Finocchio, G.; Siracusano, G.; Bonetti, S.; Eklund, A.; Åkerman, J.; Azzerboni, B.


    We measure and simulate micromagnetically a framework based upon a nano-contact spin torque oscillator where two distinct localized evanescent spin-wave modes can be detected. The resulting frequency spectrum is composed by two peaks, corresponding to the excited modes, which lie below the ferromagnetic resonance frequency, and a low-frequency tail, which we attribute to the non-stationary switching between these modes. By using Fourier, wavelet, and Hilbert-Huang transforms, we investigate the properties of these modes in time and spatial domains, together with their spatial distribution. The existence of an additional localized mode (which was neither predicted by theory nor by previous numerical and experimental findings) has to be attributed to the large influence of the current-induced Oersted field strength which, in the present setup, is of the same order of magnitude as the external field. As a further consequence, the excited spin-waves, contrarily to what usually assumed, do not possess cylindrical symmetry: the Oersted field induces these modes to be excited at the two opposite sides of the region beneath the nano-contact.

  16. Parametric excitation of nuclear spin waves in MnCO3 antiferromagnetic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorkov, S.A.; Tulin, V.A.


    Parametric excitation of nuclear spin waves in the antiferromagnetic crystal MnCO 3 is investigated at 1080 MHz by the parallel pumping technique. Two threshold processes are observed in the experiments. One refers to spin wave excitation in a nuclear magnetic system and the other to excitation of magneto-elastic waves. The post-threshold sample susceptibility in such processes is studied. After the second threshold a very pronounced overheating of the nuclear magnetic system of the sample with respect to the lattice is observed. The nature of these overheating phenomena shows that two magneto-elastic oscillation branches are excited in the second threshold process. The dependence of the threshold field on wave vector is more complicated in a small magnetic field due to magnetization processes in the sample. In a large magnetic field complications are evoked by the magneto-elastic coupling

  17. Toward nonlinear magnonics: Intensity-dependent spin-wave switching in insulating side-coupled magnetic stripes (United States)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Odintsov, S. A.; Beginin, E. N.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Nikitov, S. A.


    We demonstrate that the nonlinear spin-wave transport in two laterally parallel magnetic stripes exhibit the intensity-dependent power exchange between the adjacent spin-wave channels. By the means of Brillouin light scattering technique, we investigate collective nonlinear spin-wave dynamics in the presence of magnetodipolar coupling. The nonlinear intensity-dependent effect reveals itself in the spin-wave mode transformation and differential nonlinear spin-wave phase shift in each adjacent magnetic stripe. The proposed analytical theory, based on the coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations, predicts the geometry design involving the reduction of power requirement to the all-magnonic switching. A very good agreement between calculation and experiment was found. In addition, a micromagnetic and finite-element approach has been independently used to study the nonlinear behavior of spin waves in adjacent stripes and the nonlinear transformation of spatial profiles of spin-wave modes. Our results show that the proposed spin-wave coupling mechanism provides the basis for nonlinear magnonic circuits and opens the perspectives for all-magnonic computing architecture.

  18. Gravitational waves: History of black holes revealed by their spin (United States)

    Sigurðsson, Steinn


    Four probable detections of gravitational waves have so far been reported, each associated with the merger of two black holes. Analysis of the signals allows formation theories of such black-hole systems to be tested. See Letter p.426

  19. All optical detection of picosecond spin-wave dynamics in 2D annular antidot lattice (United States)

    Porwal, Nikita; Mondal, Sucheta; Choudhury, Samiran; De, Anulekha; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Barman, Anjan; Datta, Prasanta Kumar


    Novel magnetic structures with precisely controlled dimensions and shapes at the nanoscale have potential applications in spin logic, spintronics and other spin-based communication devices. We report the fabrication of 2D bi-structure magnonic crystal in the form of embedded nanodots in a periodic Ni80Fe20 antidot lattice structure (annular antidot) by focused ion-beam lithography. The spin-wave spectra of the annular antidot sample, studied for the first time by a time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect microscopy show a remarkable variation with bias field, which is important for the above device applications. The optically induced spin-wave spectra show multiple modes in the frequency range 14.7 GHz-3.5 GHz due to collective interactions between the dots and antidots as well as the annular elements within the whole array. Numerical simulations qualitatively reproduce the experimental results, and simulated mode profiles reveal the spatial distribution of the spin-wave modes and internal magnetic fields responsible for these observations. It is observed that the internal field strength increases by about 200 Oe inside each dot embedded within the hole of annular antidot lattice as compared to pure antidot lattice and pure dot lattice. The stray field for the annular antidot lattice is found to be significant (0.8 kOe) as opposed to the negligible values of the same for the pure dot lattice and pure antidot lattice. Our findings open up new possibilities for development of novel artificial crystals.

  20. The expected spins of gravitational wave sources with isolated field binary progenitors (United States)

    Zaldarriaga, Matias; Kushnir, Doron; Kollmeier, Juna A.


    We explore the consequences of dynamical evolution of field binaries composed of a primary black hole (BH) and a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star in the context of gravitational wave (GW) source progenitors. We argue, from general considerations, that the spin of the WR-descendent BH will be maximal in a significant number of cases due to dynamical effects. In other cases, the spin should reflect the natal spin of the primary BH which is currently theoretically unconstrained. We argue that the three currently published LIGO systems (GW150914, GW151226, LVT151012) suggest that this spin is small. The resultant effective spin distribution of gravitational wave sources should thus be bi-model if this classic GW progenitor channel is indeed dominant. While this is consistent with the LIGO detections thus far, it is in contrast to the three best-measured high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) systems. A comparison of the spin distribution of HMXBs and GW sources should ultimately reveal whether or not these systems arise from similar astrophysical channels.

  1. Breakdown of Spin-Waves in Anisotropic Magnets: Spin Dynamics in α-RuCl3 (United States)

    Winter, Stephen; Riedl, Kira; Honecker, Andreas; Valenti, Roser

    α -RuCl3 has recently emerged as a promising candidate for realizing the hexagonal Kitaev model in a real material. Similar to the related iridates (e.g. Na2IrO3), complex magnetic interactions arise from a competition between various similar energy scales, including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), Hund's coupling, and crystal-field splitting. Due to this complexity, the correct spin Hamiltonians for such systems remain hotly debated. For α-RuCl3, a combination of ab-initio calculations, microscopic considerations, and analysis of the static magnetic response have suggested off-diagonal couplings (Γ ,Γ') and long-range interactions in addition to the expected Kitaev exchange. However, the effect of such additional terms on the dynamic response remains unclear. In this contribution, we discuss the recently measured inelastic neutron scattering response in the context of realistic proposals for the microscopic spin Hamiltonian. We conclude that the observed scattering continuum, which has been taken as a signature of Kitaev spin liquid physics, likely persists over a broad range of parameters.

  2. Spin wave analysis to the spatially-anisotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnet on triangular lattice


    Trumper, Adolfo E.


    We study the phase diagram at T=0 of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the triangular lattice with spatially-anisotropic interactions. For values of the anisotropy very close to J_alpha/J_beta=0.50, conventional spin wave theory predicts that quantum fluctuations melt the classical structures, for S=1/2. For the regime J_beta

  3. Partial wave expansions for arbitrary spin and the role of non-central forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.


    The partial wave expansion of the amplitudes used by Hooton and Johnson for the scattering of particles of arbitrary spin is derived. A discussion is given of the extent to which effects arising from transition matrix elements that are diagonal and non-diagonal in orbital angular momentum can be distinguished in observables. (Auth.)

  4. Ferroelectricity Induced by Acentric Spin-Density Waves in YMn2O5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapon, L.C.; Radaelli, P.G.; Blake, G.R.; Park, S.; Cheong, S.-W.


    The commensurate and incommensurate magnetic structures of the magnetoelectric system YMn2O5, as determined from neutron diffraction, were found to be spin-density waves lacking a global center of symmetry. We propose a model, based on a simple magnetoelastic coupling to the lattice, which enables

  5. Unidirectional Spin-Wave-Propagation-Induced Seebeck Voltage in a PEDOT:PSS/YIG Bilayer (United States)

    Wang, P.; Zhou, L. F.; Jiang, S. W.; Luan, Z. Z.; Shu, D. J.; Ding, H. F.; Wu, D.


    We clarify the physical origin of the dc voltage generation in a bilayer of a conducting polymer film and a micrometer-thick magnetic insulator Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) film under ferromagnetic resonance and/or spin wave excitation conditions. The previous attributed mechanism, the inverse spin Hall effect in the polymer [Nat. Mater. 12, 622 (2013), 10.1038/nmat3634], is excluded by two control experiments. We find an in-plane temperature gradient in YIG which has the same angular dependence with the generated voltage. Both vanish when the YIG thickness is reduced to a few nanometers. Thus, we argue that the dc voltage is governed by the Seebeck effect in the polymer, where the temperature gradient is created by the nonreciprocal magnetostatic surface spin wave propagation in YIG.

  6. Fermi wave vector for the partially spin-polarized composite-fermion Fermi sea (United States)

    Balram, Ajit C.; Jain, J. K.


    The fully spin-polarized composite-fermion (CF) Fermi sea at the half-filled lowest Landau level has a Fermi wave vector kF*=√{4 π ρe } , where ρe is the density of electrons or composite fermions, supporting the notion that the interaction between composite fermions can be treated perturbatively. Away from ν =1 /2 , the area is seen to be consistent with kF*=√{4 π ρe } for ν 1 /2 , where ρh is the density of holes in the lowest Landau level. This result is consistent with particle-hole symmetry in the lowest Landau level. We investigate in this article the Fermi wave vector of the spin-singlet CF Fermi sea (CFFS) at ν =1 /2 , for which particle-hole symmetry is not a consideration. Using the microscopic CF theory, we find that for the spin-singlet CFFS the Fermi wave vectors for up- and down-spin CFFSs at ν =1 /2 are consistent with kF*↑,↓=√{4 π ρe↑,↓ } , where ρe↑=ρe↓=ρe/2 , which implies that the residual interactions between composite fermions do not cause a nonperturbative correction for spin-singlet CFFS either. Our results suggest the natural conjecture that for arbitrary spin polarization the CF Fermi wave vectors are given by kF*↑=√{4 π ρe↑ } and kF*↓=√{4 π ρe↓ } .

  7. Spin effects in nonlinear Compton scattering in a plane-wave laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boca, Madalina; Dinu, Victor; Florescu, Viorica


    We study theoretically the electron angular and energy distribution in the non-linear Compton effect in a finite plane-wave laser pulse. We first present analytical and numerical results for unpolarized electrons (described by a Volkov solution of the Dirac equation), in comparison with those corresponding to a spinless particle (obeying the Klein–Gordon equation). Then, in the spin 1/2 case, we include results for the spin flip probability. The regime in which the spin effects are negligible, i.e. the results for the unpolarized spin 1/2 particle coincide practically with those for the spinless particle, is the same as the regime in which the emitted radiation is well described by classical electrodynamics.

  8. Linear spin-wave theory of incommensurably modulated magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziman, Timothy; Lindgård, Per-Anker


    Calculations of linearized theories of spin dynamics encounter difficulties when applied to incommensurable magnetic phases: lack of translational invariance leads to an infinite coupled system of equations. The authors resolve this for the case of a `single-Q' structure by mapping onto the problem...... of diagonalizing a quasiperiodic Hamiltonian of tight-binding type in one dimension. This allows for calculation of the correlation functions relevant to neutron scattering or magnetic resonance experiments. With the application to the case of a longitudinally modulated magnet a number of new predictions are made...

  9. Spin waves and phonons in a paraelectric antiferromagnet EuTiO3 (United States)

    Cao, Huibo; Hong, Jiawang; Delaire, Olivier; Hahn, Steven; Ehlers, Georg; Chi, Songxue; Garlea, Vasile; Fernandez-Baca, Jaime; Chakoumakos, Bryan; Yan, Jiaqiang; Sales, Brian


    Perovskite titanates ATiO3 (A=Ba,Pb,Sr,Ca,Cd,or Eu) are widely studied for their interesting instabilities and broad applications. A ferroelectric (FE) transition occurs in Ba, Pb, and Cd titanates, but not in SrTiO3 (STO) or EuTiO3 (ETO). In the case of STO, fluctuations yield a quantum paraelectric state, but whether ETO is quantum paraelectric remains an open question. Despite a number of similarities with well-studied STO, ETO is also unique owing to the magnetic Eu ions. By applying a tuning parameter, such as bi-axial tension, ETO can be turned into a FE ferromagnet, the ideal multiferroic. [J. H. Lee, et al., Nature 466, 954 (2010)] Studies of spin-spin and spin-lattice couplings in ETO are of great interest not only from a fundamental standpoint, but also for technological applications. We successfully grew a large, high-quality isotopically-enriched ETO crystal for neutron scattering. The crystal and magnetic structures were characterized with single crystal diffraction at HB-3A at HFIR at ORNL. The spin waves and phonons were measured in the temperature range of 1.5-400 K with CNCS at SNS and HB-3 at HFIR at ORNL. In this presentation, we will discuss structural instabilities, spin-spin interactions, and spin-phonon couplings in ETO. This work was supported by Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Holocaust survivors: three waves of resilience research. (United States)

    Greene, Roberta R; Hantman, Shira; Sharabi, Adi; Cohen, Harriet


    Three waves of resilience research have resulted in resilience-enhancing educational and therapeutic interventions. In the first wave of inquiry, researchers explored the traits and environmental characteristics that enabled people to overcome adversity. In the second wave, researchers investigated the processes related to stress and coping. In the third wave, studies examined how people grow and are transformed following adverse events, often leading to self-actualize, client creativity and spirituality. In this article the authors examined data from a study, "Forgiveness, Resiliency, and Survivorship among Holocaust Survivors" funded by the John Templeton Foundation ( Greene, Armour, Hantman, Graham, & Sharabi, 2010 ). About 65% of the survivors scored on the high side for resilience traits. Of the survivors, 78% engaged in processes considered resilient and felt they were transcendent or had engaged in behaviors that help them grow and change over the years since the Holocaust, including leaving a legacy and contributing to the community.

  11. Spin-wave mode profiles versus surface/interface conditions in ferromagnetic Fe/Ni layered composites

    CERN Document Server

    Krawczyk, M; Levy, J C S; Mercier, D


    Spin-wave excitations in ferromagnetic layered composite (AB centre dot centre dot centre dot BA; A and B being different homogeneous ferromagnetic materials) are analysed theoretically, by means of the transfer matrix approach. The properties of multilayer spin-wave mode profiles are discussed in relation to multilayer characteristics, such as the filling fraction and the exchange or magnetization contrast; also, surface spin pinning conditions and dipolar interactions are taken into account. The interface conditions are satisfied by introducing an effective exchange field expressed by interface gradients of the exchange constant and the magnetization. This approach provides an easy way to find frequencies and amplitudes of standing spin waves in the multilayer. The developed theory is applied to interpretation of spin wave resonance (SWR) spectra obtained experimentally by Chambers et al in two systems: a bilayer Fe/Ni and a trilayer Ni/Fe/Ni, in perpendicular (to the multilayer surface) configuration of th...

  12. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G., E-mail:; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (IOM-CNR), Unità di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Del Bianco, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Tamisari, M. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)


    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  13. Spin-wave stiffness in the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya helimagnets Mn1 -xFexSi (United States)

    Grigoriev, S. V.; Altynbaev, E. V.; Siegfried, S.-A.; Pschenichnyi, K. A.; Menzel, D.; Heinemann, A.; Chaboussant, G.


    The small-angle neutron scattering is used to measure the spin-wave stiffness in the field-polarized state of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya helimagnets Mn1 -xFexSi with x =0.03 , 0.06, 0.09, and 0.10. The Mn1 -xFexSi compounds are helically ordered below Tc and show a helical fluctuation regime above Tc in a wide range up to TDM. The critical temperatures Tc and TDM decrease with x and tend to 0 at x =0.11 and 0.17, respectively. We have found that the spin-wave stiffness A change weakly with temperature for each individual Fe-doped compound. On the other hand, the spin-wave stiffness A decreases with x duplicating the TDM dependence on x , rather than Tc(x ) . These findings classify the thermal phase transition in all Mn1 -xFexSi compounds as an abrupt change in the spin state caused, most probably, by the features of an electronic band structure. Moreover, the criticality in these compounds is not related to the value of the ferromagnetic interaction but demonstrates the remarkable role of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction as a factor destabilizing the magnetic order.

  14. Ultrabroadband spin-wave propagation in Co2(Mn0.6Fe0.4) Si thin films (United States)

    Stückler, Tobias; Liu, Chuanpu; Liu, Tao; Yu, Haiming; Heimbach, Florian; Chen, Jilei; Hu, Junfeng; Tu, Sa; Zhang, Youguang; Granville, Simon; Wu, Mingzhong; Liao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Weisheng


    Ferromagnetic Heusler alloys with low magnetic damping are highly promising materials for magnonic devices, which rely on the excitation and detection of spin waves. Using all-electrical spin-wave spectroscopy we report spin-wave propagation in sputtered Co2(Mn0.6Fe0.4) Si Heusler alloy thin films with a thickness of 50 nm. We integrated a nanostructured microwave antenna to locally excite and detect propagating spin waves in a Damon-Eshbach configuration. We estimate the group velocity to be up to 12.0 km/s and we observe spin-wave propagation with a frequency band as broad as 15 GHz. From the experimental frequency dependence of group velocity we calculate the spin-wave dispersion. Our results show that all-electrical measurements are a powerful method for determining the fundamental spin-wave characteristics of Heusler alloys, over a broad and tunable range of frequencies, and with group velocities an order of magnitude higher than in conventional materials.

  15. Spin-wave analysis of the XXZ Heisenberg model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyoussef, A.; Boubekri, A.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.


    The effect of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction on the stability of the Neel phase and the energy gap for the XXZ Heisenberg model on a d-dimensional hypercubic lattice is investigated using the linear spin-wave theory. In one-dimension, the disordered phase disappears above a critical value of the spin-axis anisotropy. In two-dimension, the instability of the Neel order occurs below a critical value of the easy-axis anisotropy. We find that for all d-dimensional systems, the energy gap vanishes above a critical value of the DM interaction. (author)

  16. Evolution of spin wave excitations with Co-doping in the spinel MnV2O4 (United States)

    Hahn, Steven; Ma, Jie; Lee, Jun Hee; Hong, Tao; Cao, Huibo; Aczel, Adam; Dun, Zhiling; Stone, Matthew; Tian, Wei; Qiu, Yiming; Copley, John; Zhou, Haidong; Fishman, Randy; Matsuda, Masaaki


    Spin waves were measured at several levels of Co-doping in the spinel system MnV2O4 by inelastic neutron scattering and analyzed with first-principles-guided spin models. Co-doping creates a rich phase diagram encompassing the transition from localized- to itinerant-electron regimes. Increasing Co concentration weakens the single-ion anisotropy and increases both the magnitude and isotropy of the nearest-neighbor exchange interactions. First principles calculations emphasize the the distinctly different microscopic origins of the two-in-two-out magnetic structure at the Mn-rich and Co-rich limits. Research at HFIR and SNS, ORNL, were sponsored by the Scientific User Facilities Division and Materials Science and Engineering Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy.

  17. Nonautonomous matter waves in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Jia; Gao, Yi-Tian; Zuo, Da-Wei; Sun, Yu-Hao; Feng, Yu-Jie; Xue, Long


    To investigate nonautonomous matter waves with time-dependent modulation in a one-dimensional trapped spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate, we hereby work on the generalized three-coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations by means of the Hirota bilinear method. By modulating the external trap potential, atom gain or loss, and coupling coefficients, we can obtain several nonautonomous matter-wave solitons and rogue waves including "bright" and "dark" shapes and arrive at the following conclusions: (i) the external trap potential and atom gain or loss can influence the propagation of matter-wave solitons and the duration and frequency of bound solitonic interaction, but they have little effect on the head-on solitonic interaction; (ii) through numerical simulation, stable evolution of the matter-wave solitons is realized with a perturbation of 5% initial random noise, and the spin-exchange interaction of atoms can be affected by the time-dependent modulation; (iii) under the influence of a periodically modulated trap potential and periodic atom gain or loss, rogue waves can emerge in the superposition of localized character and periodic oscillating properties.

  18. Ab initio calculations of exchange interactions, spin-wave stiffness constants, and Curie temperatures of Fe, Co, and Ni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pajda, M.; Kudrnovský, Josef; Turek, Ilja; Drchal, Václav; Bruno, P.


    Roč. 64, - (2001), s. 174402-1-174402-9 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010829; GA MŠk OC P3.40; GA MŠk OC P3.70; GA ČR GA202/00/0122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A02/98:Z1-010-914 Keywords : spin-wave properties * 3d-ferromagnets * Curie temperature Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.070, year: 2001

  19. Anomalous spin waves and the commensurate-incommensurate magnetic phase transition in LiNiPO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius; Christensen, Niels Bech; Kenzelmann, M.


    Detailed spin-wave spectra of magnetoelectric LiNiPO4 have been measured by neutron scattering at low temperatures in the commensurate (C) antiferromagnetic (AF) phase below T-N=20.8 K. An anomalous shallow minimum is observed at the modulation vector of the incommensurate (IC) AF phase appearing...... above T-N. A linear spin-wave model based on Heisenberg exchange couplings and single-ion anisotropies accounts for all the observed spin-wave dispersions and intensities. Along the b axis an unusually strong next-nearest-neighbor AF coupling competes with the dominant nearest-neighbor AF exchange...

  20. Strong excitation of surface and bulk spin waves in yttrium iron garnet placed in a split ring resonator (United States)

    Tay, Z. J.; Soh, W. T.; Ong, C. K.


    This paper presents an experimental study of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in a bilayer consisting of a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and platinum (Pt) loaded on a metamaterial split ring resonator (SRR). The system is excited by a microstrip feed line which generates both surface and bulk spin waves in the YIG. The spin waves subsequently undergo spin pumping from the YIG film to an adjacent Pt layer, and is converted into a charge current via the ISHE. It is found that the presence of the SRR causes a significant enhancement of the mangetic field near the resonance frequency of the SRR, resulting in a significant increase in the ISHE signal. Furthermore, the type of spin wave generated in the system can be controlled by changing the external applied magnetic field angle (θH ). When the external applied magnetic field is near parallel to the microstrip line (θH = 0 ), magnetostatic surface spin waves are predominantly excited. On the other hand, when the external applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the microstrip line (θH = π/2 ), backward volume magnetostatic spin waves are predominantly excited. Hence, it can be seen that the SRR structure is a promising method of achieving spin-charge conversion, which has many advantages over a coaxial probe.

  1. Coherent Two-Dimensional Terahertz Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Collective Spin Waves. (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Li, Xian; Hwang, Harold Y; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K; Kurihara, Takayuki; Suemoto, Tohru; Nelson, Keith A


    We report a demonstration of two-dimensional (2D) terahertz (THz) magnetic resonance spectroscopy using the magnetic fields of two time-delayed THz pulses. We apply the methodology to directly reveal the nonlinear responses of collective spin waves (magnons) in a canted antiferromagnetic crystal. The 2D THz spectra show all of the third-order nonlinear magnon signals including magnon spin echoes, and 2-quantum signals that reveal pairwise correlations between magnons at the Brillouin zone center. We also observe second-order nonlinear magnon signals showing resonance-enhanced second-harmonic and difference-frequency generation. Numerical simulations of the spin dynamics reproduce all of the spectral features in excellent agreement with the experimental 2D THz spectra.

  2. Do spin-off companies make academics' heads spin? The impacts of research-based spin-off companies on the production of scientific knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, A.H.


    Public research organisations nowadays are very much involved in the commercialisation of their research results, especially by creating spin-off companies. Government generally views research commercialisation as an important driver of innovation and as an opportunity to supplement increasingly

  3. Polarization dependence of the spin-density-wave excitations in single-domain chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Roessli, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France); Sternlieb, B.J. [Brookhaven (United States); Lorenzo, E. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France); Werner, S.A. [Missouri (United States)


    A polarized neutron scattering experiment has been performed with a single-Q, single domain sample of chromium in a magnetic field of 4 T. It is confirmed that the longitudinal fluctuations are enhanced for small energy transfers and that the spin wave modes with {delta}S parallel to Q and {delta}S perpendicular to Q are similar. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  4. su(1,2) Algebraic Structure of XYZ Antiferromagnetic Model in Linear Spin-Wave Frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Shuo; Xie Binghao; Yu Zhaoxian; Hou Jingmin


    The XYZ antiferromagnetic model in linear spin-wave frame is shown explicitly to have an su(1,2) algebraic structure: the Hamiltonian can be written as a linear function of the su(1,2) algebra generators. Based on it, the energy eigenvalues are obtained by making use of the similar transformations, and the algebraic diagonalization method is investigated. Some numerical solutions are given, and the results indicate that only one group solution could be accepted in physics

  5. Spin-Wave Dispersion and Sublattice Magnetization in NiCl_2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Birgeneau, R. J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage


    temperature dependence on the sublattice magnetization, gap energy and specific heat. The authors report an inelastic neutron scattering study of the spin waves both at low temperatures and, for selected q-vectors, for temperatures up to TN=52.3K. The sublattice magnetization has been measured from 1.5K to TN......-dependent dispersion relations (together with the sublattice magnetization) and the gap energy up to approximately 0.4 TN are properly predicted....

  6. Magnetic Sensor for Detection of Ground Vehicles Based on Microwave Spin Wave Generation in Ferrite Films (United States)


    magnetic fields as small as parts of micro Oersted that is several orders below the magnitude of the constant Earth’s magnetic field. To...vehicle, is measured by the accurate frequency meter. Our main task is to develop an engineering theory of operation of the proposed devices and...scientific results. Using yttrium-iron garnet (YIG) as a medium for spin wave propagation, we developed engineering theory and experimentally tested (in

  7. Spin-off produced by the fusion research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Koichi; Konishi, T.; Tsuji, Hiroshi


    Nuclear fusion devices are constructed by the integration of many frontier technologies and fusion science based on a wide area of science such as physics, electromagnetics, thermodynamics, mechanics, electrical engineering, electronics, material engineering, heat transfer and heat flow, thermal engineering, neutronics, cryogenics, chemical engineering, control engineering, instrumentation engineering, vacuum engineering. For this, the research and development of elementary technology for fusion devices contributes to advance the technology level of each basic field. In addition, the mutual stimulus among various research fields contributes to increase the potential level of whole 'science and technology'. The spin-offs produced by the fusion technology development give much contribution not only to the general industrial technologies such as semiconductor technology, precision machining of large component, but also contribute to the progress of the accelerator technology, application technology of superconductivity, instrumentation and diagnostics, plasma application technology, heat-resistant and heavy radiation-resistant material technology, vacuum technology, and computer simulation technology. The spin-off produced by the fusion technology development expedite the development of frontier technology of other field and give much contribution to the progress of basic science on physics, space science, material science, medical science, communication, and environment. This report describes the current status of the spin-off effects of fusion research and development by focusing on the contribution of technology development for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) to industrial technology. The possibilities of future application in the future are also included in this report from the view point of researchers working for nuclear fusion development. Although the nuclear fusion research has a characteristic to integrate the frontier technologies of

  8. Edge-state-dependent tunneling of dipole-exchange spin waves in submicrometer magnetic strips with an air gap. (United States)

    Xing, X J; Zhang, D; Li, S W


    We have investigated the tunneling of dipole-exchange spin waves across an air gap in submicrometer-sized permalloy magnetic strips by means of micromagnetic simulations. The magnetizations beside the gap could form three distinct end-domain states with various strengths of dipolar coupling. Spin-wave tunneling through the gap at individual end-domain states is studied. It is found that the tunneling behavior is strongly dependent on these domain states. Nonmonotonic decay of transmission of spin waves with the increase of the gap width is observed. The underlying mechanism for these behaviors is proposed. The tunneling characteristics of the dipole-exchange spin waves differ essentially from those of the magnetostatic ones reported previously.

  9. Spin wave propagation detected over 100 μm in half-metallic Heusler alloy Co2MnSi (United States)

    Stückler, Tobias; Liu, Chuanpu; Yu, Haiming; Heimbach, Florian; Chen, Jilei; Hu, Junfeng; Tu, Sa; Alam, Md. Shah; Zhang, Jianyu; Zhang, Youguang; Farrell, Ian L.; Emeny, Chrissy; Granville, Simon; Liao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Weisheng


    The field of magnon spintronics offers a charge current free way of information transportation by using spin waves (SWs). Compared to forward volume spin waves for example, Damon-Eshbach (DE) SWs need a relatively weak external magnetic field which is suitable for small spintronic devices. In this work we study DE SWs in Co2MnSi, a half-metallic Heusler alloy with significant potential for magnonics. Thin films have been produced by pulsed laser deposition. Integrated coplanar waveguide (CPW) antennas with different distances between emitter and detection antenna have been prepared on a Co2MnSi film. We used a vector network analyzer to measure spin wave reflection and transmission. We observe spin wave propagation up to 100 μm, a new record for half-metallic Heusler thin films.

  10. Solid State Spin-Wave Quantum Memory for Time-Bin Qubits. (United States)

    Gündoğan, Mustafa; Ledingham, Patrick M; Kutluer, Kutlu; Mazzera, Margherita; de Riedmatten, Hugues


    We demonstrate the first solid-state spin-wave optical quantum memory with on-demand read-out. Using the full atomic frequency comb scheme in a Pr(3+):Y2SiO5 crystal, we store weak coherent pulses at the single-photon level with a signal-to-noise ratio >10. Narrow-band spectral filtering based on spectral hole burning in a second Pr(3+):Y2SiO5 crystal is used to filter out the excess noise created by control pulses to reach an unconditional noise level of (2.0±0.3)×10(-3) photons per pulse. We also report spin-wave storage of photonic time-bin qubits with conditional fidelities higher than achievable by a measure and prepare strategy, demonstrating that the spin-wave memory operates in the quantum regime. This makes our device the first demonstration of a quantum memory for time-bin qubits, with on-demand read-out of the stored quantum information. These results represent an important step for the use of solid-state quantum memories in scalable quantum networks.

  11. Spin wave spectrum in CeRhIn5 under applied magnetic fields (United States)

    Fobes, David; Lin, S.-Z.; Ghimire, N. J.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Batista, C. D.; Ehlers, G.; Janoschek, M.

    The phase diagram of CeRhIn5 is in many ways a prototypical example of a heavy fermion superconductor; it is a heavy fermion antiferromagnet that can be tuned to a quantum critical point (QCP) via pressure, around which unconventional superconductivity emerges. Closer inspection reveals unusual behavior however; the interplay between magnetism and unconventional superconductivity is atypical, and electrical transport behavior and changes in the Fermi surface at the QCP are not in agreement with the prototypical spin-density-wave-type scenario. This is supported by our previous measurements of the spin wave spectrum at ambient pressure replicated by a simple frustrated J1 -J2 model based on localized Ce 4 f electrons. We show that the addition of magnetic anisotropy and Zeeman terms to our Anisotropic Next-Nearest Neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model Hamiltonian quantitatively describes the spin wave spectrum under the application of magnetic field as obtained by neutron scattering, and reproduces the experimental magnetic phase diagram. Finally, this model predicts that the magnetic ordering vector should change logarithmically as a function of temperature across the high-field incommensurate-to-commensurate phase boundary, in agreement with our latest neutron diffraction results.

  12. Magnetic studies of spin wave excitations in Fe/Mn multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salhi, H. [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II de Casablanca, B.P. 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca (Morocco); LMPG, Ecole supérieure de technologie, Université Hassan de Casablanca, Casablanca (Morocco); Moubah, R.; El Bahoui, A.; Lassri, H. [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II de Casablanca, B.P. 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca (Morocco)


    The structural and magnetic properties of Fe/Mn multilayers grown by thermal evaporation technique were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and spin wave theory. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the Fe and Mn layers are continuous with a significant interfacial roughness. The magnetic properties of Fe/Mn multilayers were studied for various Fe thicknesses (t{sub Fe}). The change of magnetization as a function of temperature is well depicted by a T{sup 3/2} law. The Fe spin-wave constant was extracted and found to be larger than that reported for bulk Fe, which we attribute to the fluctuation of magnetic moments at the interface, due to the interfacial roughness. The experimental M (T) data were satisfactory fitted for multilayers with different Fe thicknesses; and several exchange interactions were extracted. - Highlights: • The structural and magnetic properties of Fe/Mn multilayers were studied. • Fe and Mn layers are continuous with an important interfacial roughness. • The Fe spin-wave constant is larger than that reported for bulk Fe due to the fluctuation of the interfacial magnetic moments.

  13. Physics Colloquium: Theory of the spin wave Seebeck effect in magnetic insulators

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève


    Geneva University Physics Department 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Lundi 28 février 2011 17h00 - École de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg Theory of the spin wave Seebeck effect in magnetic insulators Prof. Gerrit Bauer Delft University of Technology The subfield of spin caloritronics addresses the coupling of heat, charge and spin currents in nanostructures. In the center of interest is here the spin Seebeck effect, which was discovered in an iron-nickel alloy. Uchida et al. recently observed the effect also in an electrically insulating Yttrium Iron Garnett (YIG) thin magnetic film. To our knowledge this is the first observation of a Seebeck effect generated by an insulator, implying that the physics is fundamentally different from the conventional Seebeck effect in metals. We explain the experiments by the pumping of a spin current into the detecting contacts by the thermally excited magnetization dynamics. In this talk I will give a brief overview over the state o...

  14. Spin-wave dynamics in Invar Fe65Ni35 studied by small-angle polarized neutron scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brück, E.H.; Grigoriev, S.V.; Deriglazov, V.V.; Okorokov, A.I.; Dijk van, N.H.; Klaasse, J.C.P.


    Abstract. Spin dynamics in Fe65Ni35 Invar alloy has been studied by left-right asymmetry of small-angle polarized neutron scattering below TC=485 K in external magnetic fields of H=0.05-0.25 T inclined relative to the incident beam. The spin-wave stiffness D and the damping & were obtained by

  15. Exchange interactions, spin waves, and transition temperatures in itinerant magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Bruno, P.


    Roč. 1, č. 59 (2003), s. 112-147 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0943; GA AV ČR IAA1010203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : exchange interactions * itinerant magnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  16. Wave aberrations in a spinning pipe gas lens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C


    Full Text Available The graded index (GRIN-like) medium generated by a gas inside a heated pipe when it is rotated about its longitudinal axis has the ability to focus a laser beam. However, recent research has shown that the medium generated has a deleterious effect...

  17. Excitation of spin waves in BiFeO3 multiferroic film by the slot line transducer (United States)

    Korneev, V. I.; Popkov, A. F.; Solov'yov, S. V.


    Analysis of the efficiency of magnetoelectric excitation of spin-waves in BiFeO3 multiferroic films by a slot line is performed based on the solution of dynamic Ginzburg-Landau equations for the antiferromagnetic vector. The excitation efficiency is determined by the magnitude of the conversion coefficient of the electromagnetic wave to the spin wave by the slot line transducer or in other words, losses on conversion in the slot line. Calculations are made for a homogeneous antiferromagnetic state of the multiferroic in the presence of a sufficiently large magnetic field and for a spatially modulated spin state (SMSS) at zero magnetic field. It is shown that in the case of a homogeneous antiferromagnetic state, the losses on the excitation of spin waves exceed the excitation efficiency in the SMSS state; however, as the frequency approaches the spin excitation gap, it falls and becomes lower than in the SMSS state. Spin wave excitation in the presence of antiferromagnetic cycloid strongly depends on the relation of the slot width of the transducer to the cycloid periodicity and on the magnitude of the shift of the position of the transducer along the cycloid on its period. The usage of multiferroics for delay lines in the considered frequency range from 100 to 600 GHz requires significant reduction in conversion and propagation losses. More promising seems multiferroic usage in phase shifters and switches for this range.

  18. Dirac-fermions in graphene d-wave superconducting heterojunction with the spin orbit interaction (United States)

    Wang, Juntao; Wang, Andong; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Deng; Yang, Yanling


    In this study, based on the Dirac-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, we theoretically investigate the interaction effect between the anisotropic d-wave pairing symmetry and the spin orbit interaction (the Rashba spin orbit interaction (RSOI) and the Dresselhaus spin orbit interaction (DSOI)) in a graphene superconducting heterojunction. We find that the spin orbit interaction (SOI) plays a critical role on the tunneling conductance in the pristine case, but minimally affecting the tunneling conductance in the heavily doped case. As for the zero bias state, in contrast to the keep intact feature in the heavily doped case, it exhibits a distinct dependence on the RSOI and the DSOI in the pristine case. In particular, the damage of the zero bias state with a slight DSOI results in the disappearance of the zero bias conductance peak. Moreover, the tunneling conductances also show a qualitative difference with respect to the RSOI when both the RSOI and the DSOI are finite. These remarkable results suggest that the SOI and the anisotropic superconducting gap can be regarded as a key tool for diagnosing the specular Andreev reflection.

  19. Basic mode of nonlinear spin-wave resonance in normally magnetized ferrite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, Yu.V.; Zil'berman, P.E.; Timiryazev, A.G.; Tikhomirova, M.P.


    Modes of nonlinear and spin-wave resonance (SWR) in the normally magnetized ferrite films were studied both theoretically and experimentally. The particular emphasis was placed on the basic mode of SWR. One showed theoretically that with the growth of the precession amplitude the profile of the basic mode changed. The nonlinear shift of the resonance field depends on the parameters of fixing of the surface spins. Films of ferroyttrium garnet (FYG) with strong gradient of the single-axis anisotropy field along the film thickness, as well as, FYG films of the submicron thickness where investigated experimentally. With the intensification of Uhf-power one observed the sublinear shift of the basic mode resonance field following by the superlinear growth of the absorbed power. That kind of behaviour is explained by variation of the profile of the varying magnetization space distribution [ru

  20. Quantum Monte Carlo studies of a metallic spin-density wave transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Max Henner


    Plenty experimental evidence indicates that quantum critical phenomena give rise to much of the rich physics observed in strongly correlated itinerant electron systems such as the high temperature superconductors. A quantum critical point of particular interest is found at the zero-temperature onset of spin-density wave order in two-dimensional metals. The appropriate low-energy theory poses an exceptionally hard problem to analytic theory, therefore the unbiased and controlled numerical approach pursued in this thesis provides important contributions on the road to comprehensive understanding. After discussing the phenomenology of quantum criticality, a sign-problem-free determinantal quantum Monte Carlo approach is introduced and an extensive toolbox of numerical methods is described in a self-contained way. By the means of large-scale computer simulations we have solved a lattice realization of the universal effective theory of interest. The finite-temperature phase diagram, showing both a quasi-long-range spin-density wave ordered phase and a d-wave superconducting dome, is discussed in its entirety. Close to the quantum phase transition we find evidence for unusual scaling of the order parameter correlations and for non-Fermi liquid behavior at isolated hot spots on the Fermi surface.

  1. Introduction to Shock Waves and Shock Wave Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, William Wyatt [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    M-9 and a number of other organizations at LANL and elsewhere study materials in dynamic processes. Often, this is described as “shock wave research,” but in reality is broader than is implied by that term. Most of our work is focused on dynamic compression and associated phenomena, but you will find a wide variety of things we do that, while related, are not simple compression of materials, but involve a much richer variety of phenomena. This tutorial will introduce some of the underlying physics involved in this work, some of the more common types of phenomena we study, and common techniques. However, the list will not be exhaustive by any means.

  2. Formation of local spin-state concentration waves during the relaxation from a photoinduced state in a spin-crossover polymer. (United States)

    Mariette, Céline; Trzop, Elzbieta; Zerdane, Serhane; Fertey, Pierre; Zhang, Daopeng; Valverde-Muñoz, Francisco J; Real, José Antonio; Collet, Eric


    The complex relaxation from the photoinduced high-spin phase (PIHS) to the low-spin phase of the bimetallic two-dimensional coordination spin-crossover polymer [Fe[(Hg(SCN) 3 ) 2 ](4,4'-bipy) 2 ] n is reported. During the thermal relaxation, commensurate and incommensurate spin-state concentration waves (SSCWs) form. However, contrary to the steps forming at thermal equilibrium, associated with long-range SSCW order, the SSCWs forming during the relaxation from the PIHS phase correspond to short-range order, revealed by diffuse X-ray scattering. This is interpreted as resulting from the competition between the two types of SSCW order and another structural symmetry breaking, due to ligand ordering, occurring at low temperature and precluding long-range SSCW order.

  3. Rich eight-branch spectrum of the oblique propagating longitudinal waves in partially spin-polarized electron-positron-ion plasmas (United States)

    Andreev, Pavel A.; Iqbal, Z.


    We consider the separate spin evolution of electrons and positrons in electron-positron and electron-positron-ion plasmas. We consider the oblique propagating longitudinal waves in these systems. Working in a regime of high-density n0˜1027cm-3 and high-magnetic-field B0=1010 G, we report the presence of the spin-electron acoustic waves and their dispersion dependencies. In electron-positron plasmas, similarly to the electron-ion plasmas, we find one spin-electron acoustic wave (SEAW) at the propagation parallel or perpendicular to the external field and two spin-electron acoustic waves at the oblique propagation. At the parallel or perpendicular propagation of the longitudinal waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas, we find four branches: the Langmuir wave, the positron-acoustic wave, and a pair of waves having spin nature, they are the SEAW and the wave discovered in this paper, called the spin-electron-positron acoustic wave (SEPAW). At the oblique propagation we find eight longitudinal waves: the Langmuir wave, the Trivelpiece--Gould wave, a pair of positron-acoustic waves, a pair of SEAWs, and a pair of SEPAWs. Thus, for the first time, we report the existence of the second positron-acoustic wave existing at the oblique propagation and the existence of SEPAWs.

  4. Spin-wave excitation and Moessbauer spectrometry of amorphous interface in Tb/Fe multilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Khiraoui, S.; Sajieddine, M.; Lassri, H.; Sahlaoui, M.


    Magnetic properties of Tb(48 A)/Fe(26 A) multilayer were studied with Moessbauer spectrometry at different temperatures before and after isothermal annealing at 673 K. For this last case, a significant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is induced. This phenomenon is related to the existence of an amorphous and homogenous Tb-Fe alloy, located at the interfaces, which is produced by interdiffusion during the heat processing. The thermal evolution of hyperfine field deduced for interfacial Tb-Fe alloy is found to obey the Bloch law. The spin-wave stiffness constant, the distance between nearest magnetic atoms and the exchange parameter A were calculated from the experimental results

  5. Antenna design for propagating spin wave spectroscopy in ferromagnetic thin films (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yu, Ting; Chen, Ji-lei; Zhang, You-guang; Feng, Jian; Tu, Sa; Yu, Haiming


    In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of antenna for propagating-spin-wave-spectroscopy (PSWS) experiment in ferromagnetic thin films. Firstly, we simulate the amplitude and phase distribution of the high-frequency magnetic field around antenna by high frequency structure simulator (HFSS). And then k distribution of the antenna is obtained by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). Furthermore, three kinds of antenna designs, i.e. micro-strip line, coplanar waveguide (CPW), loop, are studied and compared. How the dimension parameter of antenna influence the corresponding high-frequency magnetic field amplitude and k distribution are investigated in details.

  6. High-energy spin waves in La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, S.M.; Aeppli, G.; Osborn, R.; Taylor, A.D.; Perring, T.G.; Cheong, S.; Fisk, Z.


    Time-of-flight spectrocopy using neutrons produced by a spallation source is used to measure the one-magnon scattering throughout the Brillouin zone for La 2 CuO 4 . The zone-boundary magnons have an energy ℎω ZB =0.312±0.005 eV and are good eigenstates of the quantum Heisenberg Hamiltonian in that they possess lifetimes >10/ω. A multiplicative renormalization of the overall frequency scale of classical spin-wave theory accounts for the quantum effects in the one-magnon spectrum

  7. Temperature Dependence of the Spin Waves in ErFe2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, K.; Rhyne, J. J.; Lebech, Bente


    The temperature renormalisation of the energies of the optic modes in ErFe2 has been determined from room temperature up to close to the Curie temperature (574K). It is found that the two modes, a dispersive transition-metal mode and a localised crystal-field-dominated mode, cross over at about 420......K. The experimental results have been interpreted and are well accounted for by a linear spin wave model, where the level scheme of the lowest J multiplet of the Er3+ site has been assumed to consist of pure Jz states with an equidistant energy spacing between the levels....

  8. Spin-wave excitations in the SDW state of iron pnictides: A comparison between the roles of interaction parameters (United States)

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar


    We investigate the roles of interaction parameters in the spin-wave excitations of the ( π,0 ) ordered magnetic state within a five-orbital tight-binding model for iron pnictides. To differentiate between the roles of intraorbital Coulomb interaction (U) and Hund's coupling (J), we focus on the self-consistently obtained mean-field spin-density wave state with a fixed magnetic moment obtained by using different combinations of interaction parameters. We find that J is crucial for the description of various experimentally observed characteristics of the spin-wave excitations including energy-dependent behavior, spin-wave spectral weight distribution, and anisotropy. In particular, J at the higher end of the range of various theoretical and experimental estimates ( J ˜U /4 ) is required to explain the sharp and well-defined spin-wave dispersion in most part of the high-symmetry directions. Moreover, a similar value is also needed for the spectral weight to be concentrated near energy ≳ 200 meV.

  9. Effect of spin-orbit coupling on the wave vector and spin dependent transmission probability for the GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M; Zhao, Z B; Fan, L B


    The effect of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit coupling (SOC) on the transmission of electrons through the GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is studied. It is found that the Dresselhaus SOC causes the evident dependence of the transmission probability on the spin polarization and the in-plane wave vector of electrons, and also induces evident spin splitting of the resonant peaks in the (E z -k) plane. Because the magnitude of the Rashba SOC is relatively small, its effect on the transmission of electrons is much less. As k increases, the peaks of transmission probability for spin-up electrons (T + ) shift to a higher energy region and increase in magnitude, while the peaks of transmission probability for spin-down electrons (T − ) shift to a lower energy region and decrease in magnitude. The polarization efficiency (P) is found to peak at the resonant energies and increases with the in-plane wave vector. Moreover, the built-in electric field caused by the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization can increase the amplitude of P. Results obtained here are helpful for the efficient spin injection into the III-nitride heterostructures by nonmagnetic means from the device point of view. (paper)

  10. Spin-wave excitations and electron-magnon scattering from many-body perturbation theory (United States)

    Friedrich, Christoph; Müller, Mathias C. T. D.; Blügel, Stefan

    We study the spin excitations and the electron-magnon scattering in bulk Fe, Co, and Ni within the framework of many-body perturbation theory as implemented in the full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave method. Starting from the GW approximation we obtain a Bethe-Salpeter equation for the magnetic susceptibility treating single-particle Stoner excitations and magnons on the same footing. Due to approximations used in the numerical scheme, the acoustic magnon dispersion exhibits a small but finite gap at Γ. We analyze this violation of the Goldstone theorem and present an approach that implements the magnetic susceptibility using a renormalized Green function instead of the non-interacting one, leading to a substantial improvement of the Goldstone-mode condition. Finally, we employ the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation to construct a self-energy that describes the scattering of electrons and magnons. The resulting renormalized band structures exhibit strong lifetime effects close to the Fermi energy. We also see kinks in the electronic bands, which we attribute to electron scattering with spatially extended spin waves.

  11. Magnetostatic Green's functions for the description of spin waves in finite rectangular magnetic dots and stripes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guslienko, Konstantin Y.; Slavin, Andrei N.


    We present derivation of the magnetostatic Green's functions used in calculations of spin-wave spectra of finite-size non-ellipsoidal (rectangular) magnetic elements. The elements (dots) are assumed to be single domain particles having uniform static magnetization. We consider the case of flat dots, when the in-plane dot size is much larger than the dot height (film thickness), and assume the uniform distribution of the variable magnetization along the dot height. The limiting cases of magnetic waveguides with rectangular cross-section and thin magnetic stripes are also considered. The developed method of tensorial Green's functions is used to solve the Maxwell equations in the magnetostatic limit, and to represent the Landau-Lifshitz equation of motion for the magnetization of a magnetic element in a closed integro-differential form. - Highlights: → The Green's functions method is used to solve the magnetostatic equations. → Explicit Green's functions are written for thin magnetic dots and stripes. → Spin-wave frequencies for finite rectangular magnetic elements are calculated.

  12. Spin-wave resonance frequency in ferromagnetic thin film with interlayer exchange coupling and surface anisotropy (United States)

    Zhang, Shuhui; Rong, Jianhong; Wang, Huan; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Lei


    We have investigated the dependence of spin-wave resonance(SWR) frequency on the surface anisotropy, the interlayer exchange coupling, the ferromagnetic layer thickness, the mode number and the external magnetic field in a ferromagnetic superlattice film by means of the linear spin-wave approximation and Green's function technique. The SWR frequency of the ferromagnetic thin film is shifted to higher values corresponding to those of above factors, respectively. It is found that the linear behavior of SWR frequency curves of all modes in the system is observed as the external magnetic field is increasing, however, SWR frequency curves are nonlinear with the lower and the higher modes for different surface anisotropy and interlayer exchange coupling in the system. In addition, the SWR frequency of the lowest (highest) mode is shifted to higher (lower) values when the film thickness is thinner. The interlayer exchange coupling is more important for the energetically higher modes than for the energetically lower modes. The surface anisotropy has a little effect on the SWR frequency of the highest mode, when the surface anisotropy field is further increased.

  13. Effect of antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling on spin-wave resonance frequency of multi-layer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Rong-ke, E-mail:; Cai, Wei


    Highlights: • A quantum approach is developed to study the SWR of a bicomponent multi-layer films. • The comparison of the SWR in films with FM and AFM interfacial coupling has been made. • The present results show the method to enhance and adjust the SWR frequency of films. - Abstract: We investigate the spin-wave resonance (SWR) frequency in a bicomponent bilayer and triple-layer films with antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic interfacial couplings, as function of interfacial coupling, surface anisotropy, interface anisotropy, thickness and external magnetic field, using the linear spin-wave approximation and Green’s function technique. The microwave properties for multi-layer magnetic film with antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling is different from those for multi-layer magnetic film with ferromagnetic interfacial coupling. For the bilayer film with antiferromagnetic interfacial couplings, as the lower (upper) surface anisotropy increases, only the SWR frequencies of the odd (even) number modes increase. The lower (upper) surface anisotropy does not affect the SWR frequencies of the even (odd) number modes{sub .} For the multi-layer film with antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling, the SWR frequency of modes m = 1, 3 and 4 decreases while that of mode m = 2 increases with increasing thickness of the film within a proper parameter region. The present results could be useful in enhancing our fundamental understanding and show the method to enhance and adjust the SWR frequency of bicomponent multi-layer magnetic films with antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic interfacial coupling.

  14. Fourth-order wave equation in Bhabha-Madhavarao spin-3 2 theory (United States)

    Markov, Yu. A.; Markova, M. A.; Bondarenko, A. I.


    Within the framework of the Bhabha-Madhavarao formalism, a consistent approach to the derivation of a system of the fourth-order wave equations for the description of a spin-3 2 particle is suggested. For this purpose an additional algebraic object, the so-called q-commutator (q is a primitive fourth root of unity) and a new set of matrices ημ, instead of the original matrices βμ of the Bhabha-Madhavarao algebra, are introduced. It is shown that in terms of the ημ matrices we have succeeded in reducing a procedure of the construction of fourth root of the fourth-order wave operator to a few simple algebraic transformations and to some operation of the passage to the limit z → q, where z is some (complex) deformation parameter entering into the definition of the η-matrices. In addition, a set of the matrices 𝒫1/2 and 𝒫3/2(±)(q) possessing the properties of projectors is introduced. These operators project the matrices ημ onto the spins 1/2- and 3/2-sectors in the theory under consideration. A corresponding generalization of the obtained results to the case of the interaction with an external electromagnetic field introduced through the minimal coupling scheme is carried out. The application to the problem of construction of the path integral representation in para-superspace for the propagator of a massive spin-3 2 particle in a background gauge field within the Bhabha-Madhavarao approach is discussed.

  15. Tweaking the spin-wave dispersion and suppressing the incommensurate phase in LiNiPO4 by iron substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiying; Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius; Andersen, Niels Hessel


    ) indicates the instability of the Ising-type ground state that eventually evolves into the incommensurate phase as the temperature is raised. The pure LiNiPO4 system (x=0) undergoes a first-order magnetic phase transition from a long-range incommensurate phase to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state at TN......Elastic and inelastic neutron-scattering studies of Li(Ni1−xFex)PO4 single crystals reveal anomalous spin-wave dispersions along the crystallographic direction parallel to the characteristic wave vector of the magnetic incommensurate phase. The anomalous spin-wave dispersion (magnetic soft mode......=20.8 K. At 20% Fe concentrations, although the AFM ground state is to a large extent preserved as that of the pure system, the phase transition is second order, and the incommensurate phase is completely suppressed. Analysis of the dispersion curves using a Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian that includes...

  16. Nonlinear spin waves in dynamic magnonic crystals created by surface acoustic waves in yttrium iron garnet films (United States)

    Kryshtal, R. G.; Medved, A. V.


    Experimental results on the influence of the intensity of surface magnetostatic spin wave (SMSW) on its propagation in the dynamic magnonic crystals (MCs) created by surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film on the gallium gadolinium garnet (GGG) substrate are presented. The shift of the resonant frequency of the SMSW reflections (frequency of the magnonic gap) and widening of the resonant reflection curves (increasing the width of the magnonic band gap) from their former meanings (3730 MHz and 5.25 MHz, respectively) were observed at 20 MHz SAW of 20 mW in biasing magnetic field of 640 Oe at input microwave power exceeding the threshold value of  ‑5 dBm. At the input power of 10 dBm, the deviations of the magnonic gap frequency and of the width of the SMSW resonant reflected curves reach the values of 5 MHz and 2 MHz, respectively. At a frequency of 3730 MHz, a decrease in the reflection coefficient of the SMSW was observed at the input powers above the threshold. These results may be useful in investigations of MC and for creating new nonlinear signal processing devices.

  17. Spin Research Vehicle (SRV) in B-52 Captive Flight (United States)


    This in-flight photo of NASA's B-52 mothership shows the bomber carrying a subscale model of an Air Force F-15, a remotely piloted vehicle that was used to conduct spin research. The F-15 Remotely Piloted Research Vehicles (RPRV) was air launched from the B-52 at approximately 45,000 feet and was controlled by a pilot in a ground cockpit complete with flight controls and a television screen. The F-15 model in this particular configuration was known as the Spin Research Vehicle (SRV). NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST

  18. Spin-wave mode profiles versus surface/interface conditions in ferromagnetic Fe/Ni layered composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczyk, M; Puszkarski, H; Levy, J-C S; Mercier, D


    Spin-wave excitations in ferromagnetic layered composite (AB · · · BA; A and B being different homogeneous ferromagnetic materials) are analysed theoretically, by means of the transfer matrix approach. The properties of multilayer spin-wave mode profiles are discussed in relation to multilayer characteristics, such as the filling fraction and the exchange or magnetization contrast; also, surface spin pinning conditions and dipolar interactions are taken into account. The interface conditions are satisfied by introducing an effective exchange field expressed by interface gradients of the exchange constant and the magnetization. This approach provides an easy way to find frequencies and amplitudes of standing spin waves in the multilayer. The developed theory is applied to interpretation of spin wave resonance (SWR) spectra obtained experimentally by Chambers et al in two systems: a bilayer Fe/Ni and a trilayer Ni/Fe/Ni, in perpendicular (to the multilayer surface) configuration of the applied magnetic field. By fitting the SWR spectra obtained experimentally and those found numerically, the surface anisotropies are estimated on multilayer surfaces; then, the observed resonance lines are identified as associated with bulk, surface or interface modes. The theory can be extended to a general case of any multi-component layered system

  19. Temperature dependence of the magnetization in Fe islands on W(110): evidence for spin-wave quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Senz, V; Bansmann, J; Leupold, O; Meiwes-Broer, K H


    We have measured the temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field in Ag-coated Fe(110) islands on W(110) between 4 and 300 K using nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation. The decay of the spontaneous magnetization of the islands with increasing temperature differs distinctly from the bulk characteristics and is not described by a simple Bloch's T sup 3 sup / sup 2 law. The deviation is attributed to quantization of spin-waves as a result of geometric confinement in the islands. The data can be explained assuming an effective energy gap in the spin-wave spectrum of DELTA E = 6.7+-1 meV.

  20. Wave Energy Research, Testing and Demonstration Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batten, Belinda [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)


    The purpose of this project was to build upon the research, development and testing experience of the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC) to establish a non-grid connected open-ocean testing facility for wave energy converters (WECs) off the coast of Newport, Oregon. The test facility would serve as the first facility of its kind in the continental US with a fully energetic wave resource where WEC technologies could be proven for west coast US markets. The test facility would provide the opportunity for self-contained WEC testing or WEC testing connected via an umbilical cable to a mobile ocean test berth (MOTB). The MOTB would act as a “grid surrogate” measuring energy produced by the WEC and the environmental conditions under which the energy was produced. In order to realize this vision, the ocean site would need to be identified through outreach to community stakeholders, and then regulatory and permitting processes would be undertaken. Part of those processes would require environmental baseline studies and site analysis, including benthic, acoustic and wave resource characterization. The MOTB and its myriad systems would need to be designed and constructed.The first WEC test at the facility with the MOTB was completed within this project with the WET-NZ device in summer 2012. In summer 2013, the MOTB was deployed with load cells on its mooring lines to characterize forces on mooring systems in a variety of sea states. Throughout both testing seasons, studies were done to analyze environmental effects during testing operations. Test protocols and best management practices for open ocean operations were developed. As a result of this project, the non-grid connected fully energetic WEC test facility is operational, and the MOTB system developed provides a portable concept for WEC testing. The permitting process used provides a model for other wave energy projects, especially those in the Pacific Northwest that have similar

  1. Self-Calibrating Wave-Encoded Variable-Density Single-Shot Fast Spin Echo Imaging. (United States)

    Chen, Feiyu; Taviani, Valentina; Tamir, Jonathan I; Cheng, Joseph Y; Zhang, Tao; Song, Qiong; Hargreaves, Brian A; Pauly, John M; Vasanawala, Shreyas S


    It is highly desirable in clinical abdominal MR scans to accelerate single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) imaging and reduce blurring due to T 2 decay and partial-Fourier acquisition. To develop and investigate the clinical feasibility of wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE imaging for improved image quality and scan time reduction. Prospective controlled clinical trial. With Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, the proposed method was assessed on 20 consecutive adult patients (10 male, 10 female, range, 24-84 years). A wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE sequence was developed for clinical 3.0T abdominal scans to enable high acceleration (3.5×) with full-Fourier acquisitions by: 1) introducing wave encoding with self-refocusing gradient waveforms to improve acquisition efficiency; 2) developing self-calibrated estimation of wave-encoding point-spread function and coil sensitivity to improve motion robustness; and 3) incorporating a parallel imaging and compressed sensing reconstruction to reconstruct highly accelerated datasets. Image quality was compared pairwise with standard Cartesian acquisition independently and blindly by two radiologists on a scale from -2 to 2 for noise, contrast, confidence, sharpness, and artifacts. The average ratio of scan time between these two approaches was also compared. A Wilcoxon signed-rank tests with a P value under 0.05 considered statistically significant. Wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE significantly reduced the perceived noise level and improved the sharpness of the abdominal wall and the kidneys compared with standard acquisition (mean scores 0.8, 1.2, and 0.8, respectively, P variable-density sampling SSFSE achieves improved image quality with clinically relevant echo time and reduced scan time, thus providing a fast and robust approach for clinical SSFSE imaging. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 6 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:954-966. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Control of propagation characteristics of spin wave pulses via elastic and thermal effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Arista, Ivan [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Kolokoltsev, O., E-mail: [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Acevedo, A.; Qureshi, N. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Ordóñez-Romero, César L. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico)


    A study of the magnetoelastic (ME) and thermal effects governing the phase (φ) and amplitude of magnetostatic surface spin wave (MSSW) pulses propagating in Ga:YIG/GGG and permalloy magnonic waveguides is presented. The ME effects were studied in a flexural configuration, under punctual mechanical force (F). Thermally induced ME and demagnetization phenomena were controlled by optically injected thermal power P{sub th}. It was determined that in an unclamped Ga:YIG waveguide, the force F that induces the phase shift Δφ=π, decreases by a quadratic law in the range from 1 mN to nN, and the P{sub th} at which Δφ=π decreases linearly from mW to μW as the waveguide volume decreases from mm{sup 3} to nm{sup 3}. For nano-volume waveguides the ME control energy (E{sub me}) can be of order of aJ, and the thermal control energy (ΔE{sub th}) can be as small as 50 fJ. The response time of these effects lies in the ns time scale. Both the mechanical and the thermo-magnetic forces provide an effective control of MSSW pulse amplitude, in addition to its phase shift. The thermo-magnetic effect allows one to realize variable delays of a MSSW pulse. - Highlights: • The Magneto-elastic (ME) and optically induced thermal effects governing the phase and amplitude of magnetostatic surface spin wave (MSSW) pulses propagating in Ga:YIG/GGG and permalloy magnonic waveguides are presented. • A mechanical force that causes phase shift Δφ=π for spin waves in the waveguides decreases by a quadratic law in the range from 1 mN to nN, and the optical power that induces the phase shift Δφ=π, decreases linearly from mW to μW as the waveguide volume decreases from mm{sup 3} to nm{sup 3}. • The response time of these effects can lie in the ns time scale.

  3. Polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering from spin-density-wave modulation in chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsumi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Masaki


    We present a polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering in pure chromium. Satellite reflections are observed at +/-Q and +/-2Q, where Q is the modulation wave vector of an itinerant spin-density-wave. The first and second harmonics are confirmed to have magnetic and charge origin, respectively, by means of polarimetry without using an analyzer crystal. This alternative technique eliminates intolerable intensity loss at an analyzer by utilizing the sample crystal also as an analyzer crystal

  4. Tunneling Conductance in Ferromagnetic Metal/Normal Metal/Spin-Singlet -Wave Ferromagnetic Superconductor Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Emamipour


    Full Text Available In the framework of scattering theory, we study the tunneling conductance in a system including two junctions, ferromagnetic metal/normal metal/ferromagnetic superconductor, where ferromagnetic superconductor is in spin-singlet -wave pairing state. The non-magnetic normal metal is placed in the intermediate layer with the thickness ( which varies from 1 nm to 10000 nm. The interesting result which we have found is the existence of oscillations in conductance curves. The period of oscillations is independent of FS and FN exchange field while it depends on . The obtained results can serve as a useful tool to determine the kind of pairing symmetry in ferromagnetic superconductors.

  5. Integrable open spin chain in Super Yang-Mills and the plane-wave/SYM duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Wang Xiaojun; Wu Yongshi


    We investigate the integrable structures in an N = 2 superconfomal Sp(N) Yang-Mills theory with matter, which is dual to an open+closed string system. We restrict ourselves to the BMN operators that correspond to free string states. In the closed string sector, an integrable structure is inherited from its parent theory, N = 4 SYM. For the open string sector, the planar one-loop mixing matrix for gauge invariant holomorphic operators is identified with the Hamiltonian of an integrable SU(3) open spin chain. Using the K-matrix formalism we identify the integrable open-chain boundary conditions that correspond to string boundary conditions. The solutions to the algebraic Bethe ansatz equations (ABAE) with a few impurities are shown to recover the anomalous dimensions that exactly match the spectrum of free open string in the plane-wave background. We also discuss the properties of the solutions of ABAE beyond the BMN regime. (author)

  6. Size dependence of spin-wave modes in Ni80Fe20 nanodisks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lupo


    Full Text Available We investigate the radial and azimuthal spin-wave (SW resonance modes in permalloy (Py: Ni80Fe20 disks at zero external magnetic field, as function of disk diameter and thickness, using broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We observed, from both experimental and micromagnetic simulation results that the number of SW absorption peaks increases with disk diameter. Numerically calculated SW mode profiles revealed a characteristic minimum size, which does not scale proportionately with the increasing disk diameter. We show that higher order modes could thus be avoided with an appropriate choice of the disk diameter (smaller than the minimum mode size. Moreover, based on the mode profiles, the existence of azimuthal SW modes with even number of crests or troughs can be ruled out. These results could be useful in enhancing our fundamental understanding as well as engineering of new magnonic devices.

  7. Spin-wave dispersion relations in disordered Fe-V alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Y.; Schibuya, N.; Kunitomi, N.; Wakabayashi, N.; Cooke, J.F.


    The spin-wave dispersion relations of the ferromagnetic disordered alloys Fe/sub 1-x/V/sub x/(x = 0.076, 0.135, 0.160, and 0.187) were studied by means of the inelastic scattering of neutrons. The observed dispersion relations are adequately represented by the power law, E = Dq 2 (1-βq 2 ), in a wide energy range up to 80 meV. The concentration dependence of the exchange stiffness constant D shows good agreement with previous results obtained by means of the small-angle scattering of neutrons and by the analysis of the temperature dependence of the bulk magnetization. The observed results can be explained by the Heisenberg model and, to some extent, by the itinerant-electron model

  8. Spin wave propagation in perpendicularly magnetized nm-thick yttrium iron garnet films (United States)

    Chen, Jilei; Heimbach, Florian; Liu, Tao; Yu, Haiming; Liu, Chuanpu; Chang, Houchen; Stückler, Tobias; Hu, Junfeng; Zeng, Lang; Zhang, Youguang; Liao, Zhimin; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Weisheng; Wu, Mingzhong


    Magnonics offers a new way for information transport that uses spin waves (SWs) and is free of charge currents. Unlike Damon-Eshbach SWs, the magneto-static forward volume SWs offer the reciprocity configuration suitable for SW logic devices with low power consumption. Here, we study forward volume SW propagation in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films with an ultra-low damping constant α = 8 ×10-5 . We design different integrated microwave antenna with different k-vector excitation distributions on YIG thin films. Using a vector network analyzer, we measured SW transmission with the films magnetized in perpendicular orientation. Based on the experimental results, we extract the group velocity as well as the dispersion relation of SWs and directly compare the power efficiency of SW propagation in YIG using coplanar waveguide and micro stripline for SW excitation and detection.

  9. Itinerant Double-Q Spin-Density Wave in Iron Arsenide Superconductors (United States)

    Osborn, Raymond; Allred, Jared; Chmaissem, Omar; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Brown, Dennis; Taddei, Keith; Krogstad, Matthew; Bugaris, Daniel; Chung, Duck-Young; Claus, Helmut; Lapidus, Saul; Kanatzidis, Mercouri; Kang, Jian; Fernandes, Rafael; Eremin, Ilya

    The recent observation of a tetragonal magnetic (C4) phase in hole-doped iron arsenide superconductors has provided evidence of a magnetic origin for the electronic nematicity in the C2 phase of these compounds. Now, Mössbauer data shows that the new phase also establishes the itinerant character of the antiferromagnetism of these materials and the primary role played by magnetic over orbital degrees of freedom. Neutron diffraction had shown that the magnetic order in the C4 phase was compatible with a double-Q structure arising from a collinear spin-density wave along both the X and Y directions simultaneously. The coherent superposition of the two modulations produces a non-uniform magnetic structure, in which the spin amplitudes vanish on half of the sites and double on the others, a uniquely itinerant effect that is incompatible with local moment magnetism. Mössbauer spectra in the C4 phase confirm this double-Q structure, with 50% of the spectral weight in a zero-moment peak and 50% with double the magnetic splitting seen in the C2 phase. Supported by the US DOE Office of Science, Materials and Engineering Division.

  10. Long-range spin wave mediated control of defect qubits in nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrich, Paolo; de las Casas, Charles F.; Liu, Xiaoying; Bretscher, Hope L.; Berman, Jonson R.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Nealey, Paul F.; Awschalom, David D.


    Hybrid architectures that combine nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond with other materials and physical systems have been proposed to enhance the NV center’s capabilities in many quantum sensing and information applications. In particular, spin waves (SWs) in ferromagnetic materials are a promising candidate to implement these platforms due to their strong magnetic fields, which could be used to efficiently interact with the NV centers. Here we develop an yttrium iron garnet-nanodiamond hybrid architecture constructed with the help of directed assembly and transfer printing techniques. Operating at ambient conditions, we demonstrate that surface confined SWs excited in the ferromagnet (FM) can strongly amplify the interactions between a microwave source and the NV centers by enhancing the local microwave magnetic field by several orders of magnitude. Crucially, we show the existence of a regime in which coherent interactions between SWs and NV centers dominate over incoherent mechanisms associated with the broadband magnetic field noise generated by the FM. These accomplishments enable the SW mediated coherent control of spin qubits over distances larger than 200 um, and allow low power operations for future spintronic technologies.

  11. Right- and left-handed rules on the transverse spin angular momentum of a surface wave of photonic crystal. (United States)

    Hu, Jinbing; Xia, Tongnan; Cai, Xiaoshu; Tian, Shengnan; Guo, Hanming; Zhuang, Songlin


    By investigating the surface wave of photonic crystal, we put forward two sets of rules: the right-handed screw rule, judging the transverse spin angular momentum (SAM) directions according to the propagation direction of the surface wave; and the left-handed rule, judging the excitation direction of the surface wave in accordance to the SAM direction of incident circularly polarized light and the relative position of the dipole-like scatterer with respect to the interface where the surface wave propagates. Both right- and left-handed rules apply to the interface consisting of opposite-sign-permittivity materials. With the help of these two sets of rules, it is convenient to judge the direction of the transverse SAM and the excited surface wave, which facilitate the application involving transverse SAM of the surface wave.

  12. Renormalization of Long Wavelength Spin Waves in the 2d Ferromagnet Rb2CrCl4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Hutchings, M. T.


    Rb2CrCl4 is a nearly 2d-ferromagnetic, optically transparent insulator isomorphous with K2CuF4. High resolution neutron scattering data for temperatures below Tc = 52.4 K of the low energy long wavelength spin waves are presented and a Hartree-Fock analysis yields Hamiltonian parameters...

  13. Low-frequency permittivity of spin-density wave in (TMTSF)2PF6 at low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nad, F.; Monceau, P.; Bechgaard, K.


    Conductivity and permittivity epsilon of(TMTSF)(2)PF6 have been measured at low frequencies of (10(2)-10(7) Hz) at low temperatures below the spin-density wave (SDW) transition temperature T-p. The temperature dependence of the conductivity shows a deviation from thermally activated behavior at T...

  14. Inelastic neutron scattering in the spin wave energy gap of the polydomain γ-Mn(12%Ge) alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowska-Kisielinska, J.; Mikke, K.


    The subject of the present experiment was the investigation of the inelastic neutron scattering (INS) for energy transfers lower than and close to the energy gap of the spin wave spectrum for long wavelengths. The aim was a search for the excitations at the magnetic Brillouin zone (MBZ) boundary in polydomain Mn(12%Ge) alloy. The present measurements were performed by a 3-axis spectrometer at Maria Reactor at IEA in Swierk. We observed the INS in the polydomain Mn(12%Ge) alloy for energies smaller than and close to the energy gap value of the spin wave spectrum at room temperature. The observed intensity can be treated as a sum of intensity of neutrons scattered on spin waves around magnetic Brillouin zone centre and that of neutrons scattered on fluctuations at the zone boundary. The intensity of both components for energies 2-6 MeV was found to be of the same order. For higher energies spin waves around magnetic zone centre dominate. (author)

  15. Magnetic field dependence of the lowest-frequency edge-localized spin wave mode in a magnetic nanotriangle. (United States)

    Lin, C S; Lim, H S; Wang, Z K; Ng, S C; Kuok, M H; Adeyeye, A O


    An understanding of the spin dynamics of nanoscale magnetic elements is important for their applications in magnetic sensing and storage. Inhomogeneity of the demagnetizing field in a non-ellipsoidal magnetic element results in localization of spin waves near the edge of the element. However, relative little work has been carried out to investigate the effect of the applied magnetic fields on the nature of such localized modes. In this study, micromagnetic simulations are performed on an equilateral triangular nanomagnet to investigate the magnetic field dependence of the mode profiles of the lowest-frequency spin wave. Our findings reveal that the lowest-frequency mode is localized at the base edge of the equilateral triangle. The characteristics of its mode profile change with the ground state magnetization configuration of the nanotriangle, which, in turn, depends on the magnitude of the in-plane applied magnetic field.

  16. Chiral Spin-Density Wave, Spin-Charge-Chern Liquid, and d+id Superconductivity in 1/4-Doped Correlated Electronic Systems on the Honeycomb Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghan Jiang


    Full Text Available Recently, two interesting candidate quantum phases—the chiral spin-density wave state featuring anomalous quantum Hall effect and the d+id superconductor—were proposed for the Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4 doping. Using a combination of exact diagonalization, density matrix renormalization group, the variational Monte Carlo method, and quantum field theories, we study the quantum phase diagrams of both the Hubbard model and the t-J model on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4 doping. The main advantage of our approach is the use of symmetry quantum numbers of ground-state wave functions on finite-size systems (up to 32 sites to sharply distinguish different quantum phases. Our results show that for 1≲U/t<40 in the Hubbard model and for 0.1spin-density wave state or a spin-charge-Chern liquid, but not a d+id superconductor. However, in the t-J model, upon increasing J, the system goes through a first-order phase transition at J/t=0.80(2 into the d+id superconductor. Here, the spin-charge-Chern liquid state is a new type of topologically ordered quantum phase with Abelian anyons and fractionalized excitations. Experimental signatures of these quantum phases, such as tunneling conductance, are calculated. These results are discussed in the context of 1/4-doped graphene systems and other correlated electronic materials on the honeycomb lattice.

  17. Goos-Hänchen effect and bending of spin wave beams in thin magnetic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruszecki, P., E-mail:; Krawczyk, M., E-mail: [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 85, Poznań 61-614 (Poland); Romero-Vivas, J. [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Dadoenkova, Yu. S.; Dadoenkova, N. N. [Donetsk Physical and Technical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Ulyanovsk State University, 42 Leo Tolstoy str., 432000 Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Lyubchanskii, I. L. [Donetsk Physical and Technical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine)


    For magnon spintronic applications, the detailed knowledge of spin wave (SW) beam dispersion, transmission (reflection) of SWs passing through (reflected from) interfaces, or borders or the scattering of SWs by inhomogeneities is crucial. These wave properties are decisive factors on the usefulness of a particular device. Here, we demonstrate, using micromagnetic simulations supported by an analytical model, that the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift exists for SW reflecting from thin film edge and that with the effect becomes observable. We show that this effect will exist for a broad range of frequencies in the dipole-exchange range, with the magnetization degree of pinning at the film edge as the crucial parameter, whatever its nature. Moreover, we have also found that the GH effect can be accompanied or even dominating by a bending of the SW beam due to the inhomogeneity of the internal magnetic field. This inhomogeneity, created by demagnetizing field taking place at the film edge, causes gradual change of SWs refractive index. The refraction of the SW beams by the non-uniformity of the magnetic field enables the exploration of graded index magnonics and metamaterial properties for the transmission and processing of information at nanoscale.

  18. Goos-Hänchen effect and bending of spin wave beams in thin magnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruszecki, P.; Krawczyk, M.; Romero-Vivas, J.; Dadoenkova, Yu. S.; Dadoenkova, N. N.; Lyubchanskii, I. L.


    For magnon spintronic applications, the detailed knowledge of spin wave (SW) beam dispersion, transmission (reflection) of SWs passing through (reflected from) interfaces, or borders or the scattering of SWs by inhomogeneities is crucial. These wave properties are decisive factors on the usefulness of a particular device. Here, we demonstrate, using micromagnetic simulations supported by an analytical model, that the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift exists for SW reflecting from thin film edge and that with the effect becomes observable. We show that this effect will exist for a broad range of frequencies in the dipole-exchange range, with the magnetization degree of pinning at the film edge as the crucial parameter, whatever its nature. Moreover, we have also found that the GH effect can be accompanied or even dominating by a bending of the SW beam due to the inhomogeneity of the internal magnetic field. This inhomogeneity, created by demagnetizing field taking place at the film edge, causes gradual change of SWs refractive index. The refraction of the SW beams by the non-uniformity of the magnetic field enables the exploration of graded index magnonics and metamaterial properties for the transmission and processing of information at nanoscale

  19. Spin density waves predicted in zigzag puckered phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Wu


    Full Text Available The pursuit of controlled magnetism in semiconductors has been a persisting goal in condensed matter physics. Recently, Vene (phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene has been predicted as a new class of 2D-semiconductor with suitable band gap and high carrier mobility. In this work, we investigate the edge magnetism in zigzag puckered Vene nanoribbons (ZVNRs based on the density functional theory. The band structures of ZVNRs show half-filled bands crossing the Fermi level at the midpoint of reciprocal lattice vectors, indicating a strong Peierls instability. To remove this instability, we consider two different mechanisms, namely, spin density wave (SDW caused by electron-electron interaction and charge density wave (CDW caused by electron-phonon coupling. We have found that an antiferromagnetic Mott-insulating state defined by SDW is the ground state of ZVNRs. In particular, SDW in ZVNRs displays several surprising characteristics:1 comparing with other nanoribbon systems, their magnetic moments are antiparallelly arranged at each zigzag edge and almost independent on the width of nanoribbons; 2 comparing with other SDW systems, its magnetic moments and band gap of SDW are unexpectedly large, indicating a higher SDW transition temperature in ZVNRs; 3 SDW can be effectively modified by strains and charge doping, which indicates that ZVNRs have bright prospects in nanoelectronic device.

  20. Spin density waves predicted in zigzag puckered phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xianlong [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zeng, Zhi, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)


    The pursuit of controlled magnetism in semiconductors has been a persisting goal in condensed matter physics. Recently, Vene (phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene) has been predicted as a new class of 2D-semiconductor with suitable band gap and high carrier mobility. In this work, we investigate the edge magnetism in zigzag puckered Vene nanoribbons (ZVNRs) based on the density functional theory. The band structures of ZVNRs show half-filled bands crossing the Fermi level at the midpoint of reciprocal lattice vectors, indicating a strong Peierls instability. To remove this instability, we consider two different mechanisms, namely, spin density wave (SDW) caused by electron-electron interaction and charge density wave (CDW) caused by electron-phonon coupling. We have found that an antiferromagnetic Mott-insulating state defined by SDW is the ground state of ZVNRs. In particular, SDW in ZVNRs displays several surprising characteristics:1) comparing with other nanoribbon systems, their magnetic moments are antiparallelly arranged at each zigzag edge and almost independent on the width of nanoribbons; 2) comparing with other SDW systems, its magnetic moments and band gap of SDW are unexpectedly large, indicating a higher SDW transition temperature in ZVNRs; 3) SDW can be effectively modified by strains and charge doping, which indicates that ZVNRs have bright prospects in nanoelectronic device.

  1. A possible scheme for measuring gravitational waves by using a spinful quantum fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yao


    Full Text Available A method is proposed for measuring gravitational waves (GWs from the collective electromagnetic (EM response of a spinful quantum fluid, based on recent studies of the long-lived Mössbauer state 93mNb in a pure Nb crystal. A pronounced EM response was found for the geometric phase by rotating the sample in a magnetic field, suggesting that GWs could also be detected. It was recently suggested that the macroscopic wave functions confined in two twisted nonspherical superconductors would give a geometrical phase oscillation induced by GWs. The sensitivity to GWs would be inversely proportional to the square of the bound length, which is the detector size. The proposed sensitivity to GWs would be dramatically enhanced by changing the characteristic size, i.e., using the microscopic size of a non-spherical particle instead of the macroscopic detector size of a scalar quantum fluid. The collective EM response from the quantum fluid would allow the macroscopic geometrical phase to be read from microscopic particles. GWs in the millihertz range, with amplitude of 10−22, would be detectable.

  2. Light Spins of Cylindrical Electromagnetic Waves and their Jumps across Material Interfaces in the Presence of Energy Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mok


    Full Text Available We investigate light spins for cylindrical electromagnetic waves on resonance. To this goal, we consider both a dielectric cylinder of infinite length immersed in vacuum and a cylindrical hole punched through a dense dielectric medium. In order for waves of constant frequencies to be established through lossless media, energy absorption is allowed in the surrounding medium to compensate for radiation loss. The dispersion relation is then numerically solved for an asymmetry parameter implying a balance in energy exchange. Numerical studies are performed by varying parameters of refractive index contrast, azimuthal mode index, and size parameter of a cylindrical object. The resulting data is presented mostly in terms of a specific spin, defined as light spin per energy density. This specific spin is found to be bounded in its magnitude, with its maximum associated with either optical vortices or large rotations. Depending on parametric combinations, the specific spin could not only undergo finite jumps across the material interface but also exhibit limit behaviors.

  3. Research on the development of the centrifugal spinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhiming


    Full Text Available Centrifugal spinning is a new and efficient method to produce nanofibers quickly. It makes use of the centrifugal force instead of high voltage to produce the nanofibers. The centrifugal spinning has many advantages such as no high voltage, high yield, simple structure, no pollution and can be applied to high polymer material, ceramic and metal material. In order to have more understand about this novel nanofibers formation method, this paper introduces the method of centrifugal spinning and the effect of rotation speed, the properties of material such as viscosity and solvent evaporation, collector distance which have an impact on nanofibers morphology and diameter were also analyzed.

  4. Charge transport in 2DEG/s-wave superconductor junction with Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawa, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.


    We study spin-dependent charge transport in superconducting junctions. We consider ballistic two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG)/s-wave superconductor junctions with Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit coupling (DSOC). We calculate the conductance normalized by that in the normal state of superconductor in order to study the effect of DSOC in 2DEG on conductance, changing the height of insulating barrier. We find the DSOC suppresses the conductance for low insulating barrier, while it can slightly enhance the conductance for high insulating barrier. It has a reentrant dependence on DSOC for middle strength insulating barrier. The effect of DSOC is weaken as the insulating barrier becomes high

  5. Electron-spin filter and polarizer in a standing light wave (United States)

    Ahrens, Sven


    We demonstrate the theoretical feasibility of spin-dependent diffraction and spin polarization of an electron in two counterpropagating, circularly polarized laser beams. The spin dynamics appears in a two-photon process of the Kapitza-Dirac effect in the Bragg regime. We show the spin dependence of the diffraction process by comparison of the time evolution of spin-up and spin-down electrons in a relativistic quantum simulation. We further discuss the spin properties of the scattering by studying an analytically approximated solution of the time-evolution matrix. A classification scheme in terms of unitary or nonunitary propagation matrices is used for establishing a generalized and spin-independent description of the spin properties in the diffraction process.

  6. Quantum chaos in cold atoms and spin waves: The double kicked rotor (United States)

    Stocklin, Mischa

    The Kicked Rotor is a well studied example of a classical Hamiltonian chaotic system, where the momentum of a particle is altered periodically in time through a series of external impulses or kicks, forming a sinusoidal potential. In the chaotic regime this results in a diffusion mechanism, where the average energy of an ensemble of particles grows linearly in time, including certain corrections to the diffusion rate, arising from correlations between kicks at different times. This system has a quantum analogue, the Quantum Kicked Rotor, which exhibits the phenomenon of dynamical localization (DL), a quantum destructive interference effect, where the average energy increase is halted after a given time, and an asymptotic exponential momentum distribution is obtained. Experiments have been performed using ultracold atoms and standing waves of laser light. This thesis investigates the newly discovered Double Kicked Rotor, where pairs of closely spaced kicks are applied to particles. This results in momentum space being divided into a number of cells in which fast energy absorption occurs, whereas at the cell boundaries, termed momentum trapping regions, particles absorb almost no energy. It is shown that the effect is almost entirely independent of the time interval between the kick pairs. It is further shown that the diffusion mechanism is due to a strong momentum dependence of the kick correlations. Novel global long-range correlations in time are found to control the system behaviour significantly - a very unusual situation for a chaotic system. The Quantum Double Kicked Rotor is also investigated, both in the context of laser pulses applied to cold atoms and magnetic fields applied to Heisenberg spin chains. Trapping in momentum and position space occurs respectively, and DL results in an asymptotic imprint of the asymmetries in momentum or spin distributions. The classical diffusion calculations are used to explain the experimental results. Novel scaling

  7. Magnon Accumulation by Clocked Laser Excitation as Source of Long-Range Spin Waves in Transparent Magnetic Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jäckl


    Full Text Available Optical tools are promising for spin-wave generation because of the possibilities of ultrafast manipulation and local excitation. However, a single laser pulse can inject spin waves (SWs only with a broad frequency spectrum, resulting in short propagation distances and low wave amplitudes. Here, we excite a magnetic garnet film by a train of fs-laser pulses with a 1-GHz repetition rate so that the pulse separation is shorter than the decay time of magnetic modes, which allows us to achieve a collective impact on the magnetization and establish a quasistationary source of spin waves, namely, a coherent accumulation of magnons (“magnon cloud”. This approach has several appealing features: (i The magnon source is tunable, (ii the SW amplitude can be significantly enhanced, (iii the SW spectrum is quite narrow, providing long-distance propagation, (iv the periodic pumping results in an almost constant-in-time SW amplitude for the distances larger than 20  μm away from the source, and (v the SW emission shows pronounced directionality. These results expand the capabilities of ultrafast coherent optical control of magnetization and pave the way for applications in data processing, including the quantum regime. The quasistationary magnon accumulation might also be of interest for applications in magnon Bose-Einstein condensates.

  8. New materials research for high spin polarized current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Nobuki


    The author reports here a thorough investigation of structural and magnetic properties of Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 Heusler alloy films, and the tunnel magnetoresistance effect for junctions with Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 electrodes, spin injection into GaAs semiconductor from Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 , and spin filtering phenomena for junctions with CoFe 2 O 4 ferrite barrier. It was observed that tunnel magnetoresistance ratio up to 832%(386%) at 9 K (room temperature), which corresponds to the tunnel spin polarization of 0.90 (0.81) for the junctions using Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 Heusler electrodes by optimizing the fabrication condition. It was also found that the tunnel magnetoresistance ratio are almost the same between the junctions with Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 Heusler electrodes on Cr buffered (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) MgO substrates, which indicates that tunnel spin polarization of Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 for these two direction are almost the same. The next part of this paper is a spin filtering effect using a Co ferrite. The spin filtering effect was observed through a thin Co-ferrite barrier. The inverse type tunnel magnetoresistance ratio of −124% measured at 10 K was obtained. The inverse type magnetoresistance suggests the negative spin polarization of Co-ferrite barrier. The magnetoresistance ratio of −124% corresponds to the spin polarization of −0.77 by the Co-ferrite barrier. The last part is devoted to the spin injection from Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 into GaAs. The spin injection signal was clearly obtained by three terminal Hanle measurement. The spin relaxation time was estimated to be 380 ps measured at 5 K.

  9. Azimuthally spinning wave modes and heat release in an annular combustor (United States)

    Nygard, Hakon; Mazur, Marek; Dawson, James R.; Worth, Nicholas A.


    In order to reduce NOx emissions from aeroengines and stationary gas turbines the fuel-air mixture can be made leaner, at the risk of introducing potentially damaging thermo-acoustic instabilities. At present this phenomenon is not understood well enough to eliminate these instabilities at the design stage. Recently, the presence of different azimuthal modes in annular combustors has been demonstrated both experimentally and numerically. These naturally occurring instabilities in annular geometry have been observed to constantly switch between spinning and standing modes, making it more difficult to analyse the flame structure and dynamics. Very recently this issue was partially addressed using novel acoustic forcing to generate a standing mode. In the present study this concept has been developed further by creating an azimuthal array of loud speakers, which for the first time permits predominantly spinning modes to be set up inside the combustion chamber. The use of pressure and high speed OH* measurements enables the study of the flame dynamics and heat release rate oscillations of the combustor, which will be reported in the current paper. The ability to precisely control the azimuthal mode of oscillation greatly enhances our further understanding of the phenomenon. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant Agreement No 677931 TAIAC).

  10. Surface and bulk spin-wave resonances in La{sub 0.7}Mn{sub 1.3}O{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyakonov, V. [Donetsk Physics and Technology Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Prohorov, A.; Shapovalov, V.; Krivoruchko, V.; Pashchenko, V.; Zubov, E.; Mihailov, V. [Donetsk Physics and Technology Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine); Aleshkevych, P.; Berkowski, M.; Piechota, S.; Szymczak, H. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)


    In this work, we present the measurements of exchange-dominated nonpropagating surface and bulk spin-wave modes in the La-deficient epitaxial La{sub 0.7}Mn{sub 1.3}O{sub 3} films prepared by dc-magnetron sputtering. The angular and temperature dependences of the modes observed are discussed. The main result obtained is the observation of the spin-wave resonance (SWR) consisting of a series (17) of well resolved standing spin-wave modes in the perpendicular external magnetic field geometry. The surface spin-wave modes have been observed in manganites for the first time. As the magnetization is rotated out of perpendicular to the film surface, a 'critical angle', {phi}{sub cr}, is fixed, at which the surface and first spin-wave modes have been transformed into the uniform mode. It is shown that only the uniform mode exists in the region 0<{phi}<{phi}{sub cr}. The surface mode data are consistent with the surface-inhomogeneity model in which the surface-anisotropy field acts on the surface spin. Possible origins of the surface anisotropy are discussed. Based on the temperature and angular dependences of SWR spectra, the main microscopic parameters (the spin-wave stiffness, exchange constant and g-factor value) are established. (author)

  11. Electric-field tunable spin waves in PMN-PT/NiFe heterostructure: Experiment and micromagnetic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziȩtek, Slawomir, E-mail: [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Chȩciński, Jakub [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Frankowski, Marek; Skowroński, Witold; Stobiecki, Tomasz [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)


    We present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of voltage-controlled standing spin waves resonance (SSWR) in PMN-PT/NiFe multiferroic heterostructures patterned into microstrips. A spin-diode technique was used to observe ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) mode and SSWR in NiFe strip mechanically coupled with a piezoelectric substrate. Application of an electric field to a PMN-PT creates a strain in permalloy and thus shifts the FMR and SSWR fields due to the magnetostriction effect. The experimental results are compared with micromagnetic simulations and a good agreement between them is found for dynamics of FMR and SSWR with and without electric field. Moreover, micromagnetic simulations enable us to discuss the amplitude and phase spatial distributions of FMR and SSWR modes, which are not directly observable by means of spin diode detection technique.

  12. Alliances and the innovation performance of corporate and public research spin-off firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedoorn, John; Lokshin, Boris; Malo, Stéphane


    We explore the innovation performance benefits of alliances for spin-off firms, in particular spin-offs from either other firms or from public research organizations. During the early years of the emerging combinatorial chemistry industry, the industry on which our empirical analysis focuses,

  13. Spin polarization driven by a charge-density wave in monolayer 1T−TaS2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun


    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer T-phase TaS2. We demonstrate that a charge-density wave is energetically favorable at low temperature, similar to bulk 1T-TaS2. Electron-phonon coupling is found to be essential for the lattice reconstruction. The charge-density wave results in a strong localization of the electronic states near the Fermi level and consequently in spin polarization, transforming the material into a magnetic semiconductor with enhanced electronic correlations. The combination of inherent spin polarization with a semiconducting nature distinguishes the monolayer fundamentally from the bulk compound as well as from other two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Monolayer T-phase TaS2 therefore has the potential to enable two-dimensional spintronics. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  14. Proximity effects on the spin density waves in X/Cr(001) multilayers (X = Sn, V, and Mn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amitouche, F.; Bouarab, S.; Tazibt, S.; Vega, A.; Demangeat, C.


    We present ab initio density functional calculations of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of X 2 /Cr 36 (001) and X 1 /Cr 37 (001) multilayers, with X = Sn, V and Mn, to investigate the impact of the proximity effects of the X layers on the spin density waves of the Cr slab. We find different magnetic profiles corresponding to the spin density wave and to the layered antiferromagnetic configurations. The nature of the different magnetic solutions is discussed in terms of the different interfacial environments in the proximity of Sn, V or Mn. The magnetic behavior at the interface is discussed in connection with the electronic structure through the density of electronic states projected at the interfacial X and Cr sites. We compare the results with those previously obtained for Fe 3 /X 1 /Cr 37 /X 1 (001) multilayers to analyze the role played by the ferromagnetic iron slab.

  15. Spin wave eigenmodes in single and coupled sub-150 nm rectangular permalloy dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlotti, G., E-mail:; Madami, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (CNR-IOM), Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Perugia (Italy); Gubbiotti, G.; Dey, H.; Csaba, G.; Porod, W. [Center for Nano Science and Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)


    We present the results of a Brillouin light scattering investigation of thermally excited spin wave eigenmodes in square arrays of either isolated rectangular dots of permalloy or twins of dipolarly coupled elements, placed side-by-side or head-to-tail. The nanodots, fabricated by e-beam lithography and lift-off, are 20 nm thick and have the major size D in the range between 90 nm and 150 nm. The experimental spectra show the presence of two main peaks, corresponding to modes localized either at the edges or in the center of the dots. Their frequency dependence on the dot size and on the interaction with adjacent elements has been measured and successfully interpreted on the basis of dynamical micromagnetic simulations. The latter enabled us also to describe the spatial profile of the eigenmodes, putting in evidence the effects induced by the dipolar interaction between coupled dots. In particular, in twinned dots the demagnetizing field is appreciably modified in proximity of the “internal edges” if compared to the “external” ones, leading to a splitting of the edge mode. These results can be relevant for the exploitation of sub-150 nm magnetic dots in new applications, such as magnonic metamaterials, bit-patterned storage media, and nano-magnetic logic devices.

  16. Control of propagation characteristics of spin wave pulses via elastic and thermal effects (United States)

    Gómez-Arista, Ivan; Kolokoltsev, O.; Acevedo, A.; Qureshi, N.; Ordóñez-Romero, César L.


    A study of the magnetoelastic (ME) and thermal effects governing the phase (φ) and amplitude of magnetostatic surface spin wave (MSSW) pulses propagating in Ga:YIG/GGG and permalloy magnonic waveguides is presented. The ME effects were studied in a flexural configuration, under punctual mechanical force (F). Thermally induced ME and demagnetization phenomena were controlled by optically injected thermal power Pth. It was determined that in an unclamped Ga:YIG waveguide, the force F that induces the phase shift Δφ=π, decreases by a quadratic law in the range from 1 mN to nN, and the Pth at which Δφ=π decreases linearly from mW to μW as the waveguide volume decreases from mm3 to nm3. For nano-volume waveguides the ME control energy (Eme) can be of order of aJ, and the thermal control energy (ΔEth) can be as small as 50 fJ. The response time of these effects lies in the ns time scale. Both the mechanical and the thermo-magnetic forces provide an effective control of MSSW pulse amplitude, in addition to its phase shift. The thermo-magnetic effect allows one to realize variable delays of a MSSW pulse.

  17. Highly anisotropic quasiparticle interference patterns in the spin-density wave state of the iron pnictides (United States)

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar; Majumdar, Pinaki


    We investigate the impurity-scattering-induced quasiparticle interference in the (π ,0 ) spin-density wave phase of the iron pnictides. We use a five-orbital tight-binding model and our mean-field theory in the clean limit captures key features of the Fermi surface observed in angle-resolved photoemission. We use a t -matrix formalism to incorporate the effect of doping-induced impurities on this state. The impurities lead to a spatial modulation of the local density of states about the impurity site, with a periodicity of ˜8 aFe -Fe along the antiferromagnetic direction. The associated momentum space quasiparticle interference pattern is anisotropic, with major peaks located at ˜(±π /4 ,0 ) , consistent with spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. We trace the origin of this pattern to an elliptical contour of constant energy around momentum (0,0), with major axis oriented along the (0,1) direction, in the mean-field electronic structure.

  18. Commensurate and incommensurate spin-density waves in heavy electron systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schlottmann


    Full Text Available The nesting of the Fermi surfaces of an electron and a hole pocket separated by a nesting vector Q and the interaction between electrons gives rise to itinerant antiferromagnetism. The order can gradually be suppressed by mismatching the nesting and a quantum critical point (QCP is obtained as the Néel temperature tends to zero. The transfer of pairs of electrons between the pockets can lead to a superconducting dome above the QCP (if Q is commensurate with the lattice, i.e. equal to G/2. If the vector Q is not commensurate with the lattice there are eight possible phases: commensurate and incommensurate spin and charge density waves and four superconductivity phases, two of them with modulated order parameter of the FFLO type. The renormalization group equations are studied and numerically integrated. A re-entrant SDW phase (either commensurate or incommensurate is obtained as a function of the mismatch of the Fermi surfaces and the magnitude of |Q − G/2|.

  19. Research on Efficiency of a Wave Energy Conversion System (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyue; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Sun, Chongfei; Chen, Gewei


    The oceans are rich in wave energy that is green energy, and the wave energy are now being used to generate electricity on a massive scale. It can also be used as a single generator for beacon, buoy or underwater vehicle. Micro small wave energy power generation device is a kind of wave energy power generation devices, main characteristic is mobility is good, and can be directly assembled on various kinds of equipment for the power supply, with good prospects for development. The research object of the paper is a new adaptive reversing wave energy generating device belongs to micro-sized wave energy generating device. Using the upper and lower absorber blade groups, the low speed and large torque wave energy can be converted into electric energy which can be used for load and lithium battery charging.

  20. Spin wave collapse and incommensurate fluctuations in URu2Si2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buyers, W.J.L.; Tun, Z.; Petersen, T.


    To test if the T(N) = 17.7 K transition in URu2Si2 is driven by a divergence of a magnetic order parameter we performed high-resolution neutron scattering. At the ordering wave vector the spin-wave energy collapsed. and the susceptibility diverged as T(N) was approached. This confirms...... that the order parameter is the magnetic dipole, as shown by recent symmetry arguments and polarized neutron experiments [1]. We also observe incommensurate fluctuations, suggesting that competing temperature-dependent interactions may influence this weak-moment transition....

  1. Superconductor to spin-density-wave transition in quasi-one-dimensional metals with repulsive anisotropic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhkov, A.V.


    A mechanism for superconductivity in a quasi-one-dimensional system with repulsive Ising-anisotropic interaction is studied. The Ising anisotropy opens the gap Δ s in the spin sector of the model. This gap allows the triplet superconductivity and the spin-density wave as the only broken symmetry phases. These phases are separated by the first order transition. The transport properties of the system are investigated in different parts of the phase diagram. The calculation of DC conductivity σ(T) in the high-temperature phase shows that the function σ(T) cannot be used as an indicator of a superconducting ground state: even if σ(T) is a decreasing function at high temperature, yet, the ground state may be insulating spin-density wave; the opposite is also true. The calculation of the spin dynamical structure factor S zz (q, ω) demonstrates that it is affected by the superconducting phase transition in a qualitative fashion: below T c the structure factor develops a gap with a coherent excitation inside this gap

  2. Quasi-2D J1-J2 antiferromagnet Zn2VO(PO4)2 and its Ti-substituted derivative: A spin-wave analysis (United States)

    Kar, Satyaki; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri


    In this study, we present non-linear spin wave analysis of a quasi-2D spin-{1}/{2}J1-J2 antiferromagnet at the parameter regime relevant for the recently studied compound Zn2VO(PO4)2. We obtain the temperature dependence of the spin wave energy, susceptibility and magnetization using Green's function technique and Tyablikov's decoupling or Hartree-Fock factorization. The comparison of our numerical results with the experimental findings is discussed. Magnetic structure factor is calculated and compared with powder neutron diffraction data. We also study the spin wave behavior of the compound Zn2Ti0.25V0.75O(PO4)2 obtained by partial chemical substitution of Ti at V sites of the compound Zn2VO(PO4)2 [Kanungo, et al., Phys. Rev. B 87 (2013) 054431]. Due to the superlattice structure of the spin lattice, the substituted compound possesses multiple spin wave modes. The spin wave analysis confirms the quasi-1D nature of the substituted system.

  3. Experimental Research of a New Wave Energy Conversion Device (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyue; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Sun, Chongfei; Chen, Gewei


    With the increasing tension of contemporary social energy, the development and utilization of renewable energy has become an important development direction. As an important part of renewable energy, wave energy has the characteristics of green environmental protection and abundant reserves, attracting more investment and research. For small marine equipment energy supply problem, this paper puts forward a micro wave energy conversion device as the basic of heaving motion of waves in the ocean. This paper designed a new type of power output device can solve the micro wave energy conversion problem.

  4. Illuminating "spin-polarized" Bloch wave-function projection from degenerate bands in decomposable centrosymmetric lattices (United States)

    Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian


    The combination of space inversion and time-reversal symmetries results in doubly degenerate Bloch states with opposite spin. Many lattices with these symmetries can be constructed by combining a noncentrosymmetric potential (lacking this degeneracy) with its inverted copy. Using simple models, we unravel the evolution of local spin splitting during this process of inversion symmetry restoration, in the presence of spin-orbit interaction and sublattice coupling. Importantly, through an analysis of quantum mechanical commutativity, we examine the difficulty of identifying states that are simultaneously spatially segregated and spin polarized. We also explain how surface-sensitive experimental probes (such as angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, or ARPES) of "hidden spin polarization" in layered materials are susceptible to unrelated spin splitting intrinsically induced by broken inversion symmetry at the surface.

  5. Spin dynamics of qqq wave function on light front in high momentum limit of QCD: Role of qqq force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, A.N.


    The contribution of a spin-rich qqq force (in conjunction with pairwise qq forces) to the analytical structure of the qqq wave function is worked out in the high momentum regime of QCD where the confining interaction may be ignored, so that the dominant effect is Coulombic. A distinctive feature of this study is that the spin-rich qqq force is generated by a ggg vertex (a genuine part of the QCD Lagrangian) wherein the 3 radiating gluon lines end on as many quark lines, giving rise to a (Mercedes-Benz type) Y-shaped diagram. The dynamics is that of a Salpeter-like equation (3D support for the kernel) formulated covariantly on the light front, a la Markov-Yukawa Transversality Principle (MYTP) which warrants a 2-way interconnection between the 3D and 4D Bethe-Salpeter (BSE) forms for 2 as well as 3 fermion quarks. With these ingredients, the differential equation for the 3D wave function φ receives well-defined contributions from the qq and qqq forces. In particular a negative eigenvalue of the spin operator iσ 1 . σ 2 x σ 3 which is an integral part of the qqq force, causes a characteristic singularity in the differential equation, signalling the dynamical effect of a spin-rich qqq force not yet considered in the literature. The potentially crucial role of this interesting effect vis-a-vis the so-called 'spin anomaly' of the proton, is a subject of considerable physical interest

  6. Extraordinary Spin-Wave Thermal Conductivity in Low-Dimensional Copper Oxides (United States)


    excitations of spin degrees of freedom. We measmed for the first time the magnon -phonon coupling parameter of a spin-ladder compound over a wide temperatme...the first time the magnon -phonon coupling parameter of a spin-ladder compound over a wide temperature range. We developed advances in the analysis of...Scientific Instruments, (10 2014): 104903. doi: 10.1063/1.4897622 Gregory T. Hohensee, R. B. Wilson, Joseph P. Feser, David G. Cahill. Magnon -phonon

  7. Multiscaled Mathematics in Defense Research and its Spin-offs (United States)


    its Spin-offs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655-07-1-5049 5b. GRANT NUMBER CSP 07-5049 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S...breakout discussions took place predominantly in the following groups: Biomedical modelling led by Alistair Fitt , Nick Ovenden, with Robert Bowles...Allwright, Robert Bowles, Douglas Cochran, Alistair Fitt , Stephen Glavin, Anthony Hutton, George Klokkaris, Andrew Lacey, Alex Smith, Sarah Waters

  8. Localized spin-wave modes in a triangular magnetic element studied by micro-focused Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.; Kwon, J.-H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Grünberg, P. [Grünberg Center for Magnetic Nanomaterials, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B.K., E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Direct evidence of localized mode in a triangular nano-magnet using μ-BLS. • Localized regions are identified by the internal field distribution. • The spatially resolved measurement was performed to obtain 2-D intensity map. • Spin modes in same positions can be distinguish comparing with simulated spectrum. • Localized modes were identified by comparing with the simulated spatial profiles. - Abstract: Localized spin-wave modes, which were thermally excited at a specific position in a triangular magnetic element, were investigated using micro-focused Brillouin light scattering in two saturated states, the buckle and Y-states, with an applied magnetic field of 0.24 T parallel and perpendicular to the basal edge, respectively. The measured frequency spectrum at a specific beam spot position, rather than an integrated spectrum, was analyzed by comparing it with the simulation data at a precisely selected position within the beam spot area. The analyzed results were used to plot a two-dimensional intensity map and simulation spatial profile to verify the validity of the analysis. From the analysis process, two localized spin-wave modes in a triangular magnetic element were successfully identified near the apex region in the buckle state and near the basal edge region in the Y-state.

  9. Spin-wave dynamics in Invar Fe sub 6 sub 5 Ni sub 3 sub 5 alloy studied by small-angle polarized neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoriev, S V; Deriglazov, V V; Okorokov, A I; Dijk, N H V; Brück, E; Klaasse, J C P; Eckerlebe, H; Kozik, G


    Spin dynamics in Fe sub 6 sub 5 Ni sub 3 sub 5 Invar alloy has been studied by left-right asymmetry of small-angle polarized neutron scattering below T sub C =485 K in external magnetic fields of H=0.05-0.25 T inclined relative to the incident beam. The spin-wave stiffness D and the damping GAMMA were obtained by fitting the antisymmetrical contribution to the scattering. The spin-wave stiffness extrapolated by a (T/T sub C) sup 5 sup / sup 2 law to T=0 K is D sub 0 =117+-2 meVA sup 2 , which is somewhat smaller than the spin-wave stiffness obtained by triple-axis spectrometry. (orig.)

  10. First-principles modeling of the Invar effect in Fe65Ni35 by the spin-wave method (United States)

    Ruban, A. V.


    Thermal lattice expansion of the Invar Fe0.65Ni0.35 alloy is investigated in first-principles calculations using the spin-wave method, which is generalized here for the ferromagnetic state with short-range order. It is shown that magnetic short-range order effects make a substantial contribution to the equilibrium lattice constant and cannot be neglected in the accurate ab initio modeling of the thermal expansion in Fe-Ni alloys. We also demonstrate that at high temperatures, close to and above the magnetic transition, magnetic entropy associated with transverse and longitudinal spin fluctuations yields a noticeable contribution to the equilibrium lattice constant. The obtained theoretical results for the temperature dependent lattice constant are in semiquantitative agreement with the experimental data apart from the region close the magnetic transition.

  11. Advances in Inner Magnetosphere Passive and Active Wave Research (United States)

    Green, James L.; Fung, Shing F.


    This review identifies a number of the principal research advancements that have occurred over the last five years in the study of electromagnetic (EM) waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The observations used in this study are from the plasma wave instruments and radio sounders on Cluster, IMAGE, Geotail, Wind, Polar, Interball, and others. The data from passive plasma wave instruments have led to a number of advances such as: determining the origin and importance of whistler mode waves in the plasmasphere, discovery of the source of kilometric continuum radiation, mapping AKR source regions with "pinpoint" accuracy, and correlating the AKR source location with dipole tilt angle. Active magnetospheric wave experiments have shown that long range ducted and direct echoes can be used to obtain the density distribution of electrons in the polar cap and along plasmaspheric field lines, providing key information on plasmaspheric filling rates and polar cap outflows.

  12. Unidirectional spin density wave state in metallic (Sr1−xLax)2IrO4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiang; Schmehr, Julian L.; Islam, Zahirul; Porter, Zach; Zoghlin, Eli; Finkelstein, Kenneth; Ruff, Jacob P. C.; Wilson, Stephen D.


    Materials that exhibit both strong spin–orbit coupling and electron correlation effects are predicted to host numerous new electronic states. One prominent example is the Jeff = 1/2 Mott state in Sr2IrO4, where introducing carriers is predicted to manifest high temperature superconductivity analogous to the S=1/2 Mott state of La2CuO4. While bulk super- conductivity currently remains elusive, anomalous quasiparticle behaviors paralleling those in the cuprates such as pseudogap formation and the formation of a d-wave gap are observed upon electron-doping Sr2IrO4. Here we establish a magnetic parallel between electron-doped Sr2IrO4 and hole-doped La2CuO4 by unveiling a spin density wave state in electron-doped Sr2IrO4. Our magnetic resonant X-ray scattering data reveal the presence of an incom- mensurate magnetic state reminiscent of the diagonal spin density wave state observed in the monolayer cuprate (La1−xSrx)2CuO4. This link supports the conjecture that the quenched Mott phases in electron-doped Sr2IrO4 and hole-doped La2CuO4 support common competing electronic phases.

  13. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: Brookhaven Summer Program on Nucleon Spin Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenauer, A.; Qiu, Jianwei; Vogelsang, W.; Yuan, F.


    Understanding the structure of the nucleon is of fundamental importance in sub-atomic physics. Already the experimental studies on the electro-magnetic form factors in the 1950s showed that the nucleon has a nontrivial internal structure, and the deep inelastic scattering experiments in the 1970s revealed the partonic substructure of the nucleon. Modern research focuses in particular on the spin and the gluonic structure of the nucleon. Experiments using deep inelastic scattering or polarized p-p collisions are carried out in the US at the CEBAF and RHIC facilities, respectively, and there are other experimental facilities around the world. More than twenty years ago, the European Muon Collaboration published their first experimental results on the proton spin structure as revealed in polarized deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, and concluded that quarks contribute very little to the proton's spin. With additional experimental and theoretical investigations and progress in the following years, it is now established that, contrary to naive quark model expectations, quarks and anti-quarks carry only about 30% of the total spin of the proton. Twenty years later, the discovery from the polarized hadron collider at RHIC was equally surprising. For the phase space probed by existing RHIC experiments, gluons do not seem to contribute any to the proton's spin. To find out what carries the remaining part of proton's spin is a key focus in current hadronic physics and also a major driving force for the new generation of spin experiments at RHIC and Jefferson Lab and at a future Electron Ion Collider. It is therefore very important and timely to organize a series of annual spin physics meetings to summarize the status of proton spin physics, to focus the effort, and to layout the future perspectives. This summer program on 'Nucleon Spin Physics' held at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on July 14-27, 2010 [] is the

  14. Multi-frequency force-detected electron spin resonance in the millimeter-wave region up to 150 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmichi, E., E-mail:; Tokuda, Y.; Tabuse, R.; Tsubokura, D.; Okamoto, T. [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohta, H. [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)


    In this article, a novel technique is developed for multi-frequency force-detected electron spin resonance (ESR) in the millimeter-wave region. We constructed a compact ESR probehead, in which the cantilever bending is sensitively detected by a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer. With this setup, ESR absorption of diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical (<1 μg) was clearly observed at multiple frequencies of up to 150 GHz. We also observed the hyperfine splitting of low-concentration Mn{sup 2+} impurities(∼0.2%) in MgO.

  15. Polarized-neutron-scattering study of the spin-wave excitations in the 3-k ordered phase of uranium antimonide. (United States)

    Magnani, N; Caciuffo, R; Lander, G H; Hiess, A; Regnault, L-P


    The anisotropy of magnetic fluctuations propagating along the [1 1 0] direction in the ordered phase of uranium antimonide has been studied using polarized inelastic neutron scattering. The observed polarization behavior of the spin waves is a natural consequence of the longitudinal 3-k magnetic structure; together with recent results on the 3-k-transverse uranium dioxide, these findings establish this technique as an important tool to study complex magnetic arrangements. Selected details of the magnon excitation spectra of USb have also been reinvestigated, indicating the need to revise the currently accepted theoretical picture for this material.

  16. Spin wave excitation in sub-micrometer thick Y3Fe5O12 films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on garnet and silicon substrates: A comparative study (United States)

    Balinskiy, Michael; Ojha, Shuchi; Chiang, Howard; Ranjbar, Mojtaba; Ross, Caroline A.; Khitun, Alexander


    The development of yttrium iron garnet nanostructures on a silicon substrate is critically important for the integration of magnonic components with conventional electronic circuits. In this work, we present experimental data on spin wave excitation and propagation in 700 nm thick planar Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) films fabricated on gadolinium gallium garnet Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) and silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The spin wave spectroscopy measurements were accomplished using a set of micro-antennas placed directly on the film surface. The data were collected in a frequency range of 0.5-7 GHz and a bias magnetic field from 0 to 2000 Oe. We compare and analyze the spectra obtained for YIG/GGG and YIG/Si. Fitting to the Kittel formula yields the effective magnetization of the samples which is compared with the results obtained by magnetometry. Application of spin wave spectroscopy for magnetic film characterization allows us to extract valuable information on the magnetic texture. Understanding the mechanisms leading to the spin wave damping modification is the key to low-loss spin wave devices compatible with conventional silicon-based technology.

  17. Optically induced spin wave dynamics in [Co/Pd]{sub 8} antidot lattices with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, S.; Das, K.; Barman, A., E-mail: [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Nanodevice Technology and Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Klos, J. W.; Gruszecki, P.; Krawczyk, M., E-mail: [Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Hellwig, O. [San Jose Research Center, HGST, a Western Digital Company, 3403 Yerba Buena Rd., San Jose, California 95135 (United States)


    We present an all-optical time-resolved measurement of spin wave (SW) dynamics in a series of antidot lattices based on [Co(0.75 nm)/Pd(0.9 nm)]{sub 8} multilayer (ML) systems with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The spectra depend significantly on the areal density of the antidots. The observed SW modes are qualitatively reproduced by the plane wave method. The interesting results found in our measurements and calculations at small lattice constants can be attributed to the increase of areal density of the shells with modified magnetic properties probably due to distortion of the regular ML structure by the Ga ion bombardment and to increased coupling between localized modes. We propose and discuss the possible mechanisms for this coupling including exchange interaction, tunnelling, and dipolar interactions.

  18. Effects of square-wave magnetic fields on synchronization of nonlinear spin precession for sensitivity improvement of MX magnetometers (United States)

    Ranjbaran, M.; Tehranchi, M. M.; Hamidi, S. M.; Khalkhali, S. M. H.


    Optically pumped atomic magnetometers have found widespread application in biomagnetic studies. Most of the studies utilize MX gradiometers as sensitive and simple arrangements. One the sensitivity improvement methods in the MX configurations is detection of magnetic resonance at higher harmonics due to nonlinear precession of spin polarization. To enhance the harmonic components, we have proposed square wave RF magnetic fields with various duty cycles as substitute for sinusoidal fields. Our results revealed that detection of the 5th harmonic of a 10% duty cycle square wave magnetic field, improved the magnetometer sensitivity by a factor of 4.5 respect to the first harmonic which could be a reliable option to generate high sensitivity MX magnetometers in the MCG applications.

  19. PREFACE: Spin Electronics (United States)

    Dieny, B.; Sousa, R.; Prejbeanu, L.


    Conventional electronics has in the past ignored the spin on the electron, however things began to change in 1988 with the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in metallic thin film stacks which led to the development of a new research area, so called spin-electronics. In the last 10 years, spin-electronics has achieved a number of breakthroughs from the point of view of both basic science and application. Materials research has led to several major discoveries: very large tunnel magnetoresistance effects in tunnel junctions with crystalline barriers due to a new spin-filtering mechanism associated with the spin-dependent symmetry of the electron wave functions new magnetic tunnelling barriers leading to spin-dependent tunnelling barrier heights and acting as spin-filters magnetic semiconductors with increasingly high ordering temperature. New phenomena have been predicted and observed: the possibility of acting on the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure with a spin-polarized current. This effect, due to a transfer of angular momentum between the spin polarized conduction electrons and the local magnetization, can be viewed as the reciprocal of giant or tunnel magnetoresistance. It can be used to switch the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure or to generate steady magnetic excitations in the system. the possibility of generating and manipulating spin current without charge current by creating non-equilibrium local accumulation of spin up or spin down electrons. The range of applications of spin electronics materials and phenomena is expanding: the first devices based on giant magnetoresistance were the magnetoresistive read-heads for computer disk drives. These heads, introduced in 1998 with current-in plane spin-valves, have evolved towards low resistance tunnel magnetoresistice heads in 2005. Besides magnetic recording technology, these very sensitive magnetoresistive sensors are finding applications in other areas, in particular in biology. magnetic

  20. Electromagnetic waves for thermonuclear fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucato, Ernesto


    The science of magnetically confined plasmas covers the entire spectrum of physics from classical and relativistic electrodynamics to quantum mechanics. During the last sixty years of research, our initial primitive understanding of plasma physics has made impressive progress thanks to a variety of experiments - from tabletop devices with plasma temperatures of a few thousands of degrees and confinement times of less than 100 microseconds, to large tokamaks with plasma temperatures of up to five hundred million degrees and confinement times approaching one second. We discovered that plasma con

  1. Proximity effects on the spin density waves in X/Cr(001) multilayers (X = Sn, V, and Mn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amitouche, F. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. No17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Bouarab, S., E-mail: bouarab_said@mail.ummto.d [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. No17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Tazibt, S. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. No17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Vega, A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Demangeat, C. [Institut de Physique, 3 rue de l' Universite 67000 Strasbourg (France)


    We present ab initio density functional calculations of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of X{sub 2}/Cr{sub 36}(001) and X{sub 1}/Cr{sub 37}(001) multilayers, with X = Sn, V and Mn, to investigate the impact of the proximity effects of the X layers on the spin density waves of the Cr slab. We find different magnetic profiles corresponding to the spin density wave and to the layered antiferromagnetic configurations. The nature of the different magnetic solutions is discussed in terms of the different interfacial environments in the proximity of Sn, V or Mn. The magnetic behavior at the interface is discussed in connection with the electronic structure through the density of electronic states projected at the interfacial X and Cr sites. We compare the results with those previously obtained for Fe{sub 3}/X{sub 1}/Cr{sub 37}/X{sub 1}(001) multilayers to analyze the role played by the ferromagnetic iron slab.

  2. Hydrodynamic and kinetic models for spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas: Annihilation interaction, helicity conservation, and wave dispersion in magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, Pavel A., E-mail: [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction.

  3. Modified spin-wave theory with ordering vector optimization: frustrated bosons on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauke, Philipp [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Meditarranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Roscilde, Tommaso [Laboratoire de Physique, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 Allee d' Italie, F-69007 Lyon (France); Murg, Valentin; Ignacio Cirac, J; Schmied, Roman, E-mail: Philipp.Hauke@icfo.e [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)


    We investigate a system of frustrated hardcore bosons, modeled by an XY antiferromagnet on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice, using Takahashi's modified spin-wave (MSW) theory. In particular, we implement ordering vector optimization on the ordered reference state of MSW theory, which leads to significant improvement of the theory and accounts for quantum corrections to the classically ordered state. The MSW results at zero temperature compare favorably to exact diagonalization (ED) and projected entangled-pair state (PEPS) calculations. The resulting zero-temperature phase diagram includes a one-dimensional (1D) quasi-ordered phase, a 2D Neel ordered phase and a 2D spiraling ordered phase. Strong indications coming from the ED and PEPS calculations, as well as from the breakdown of MSW theory, suggest that the various ordered or quasi-ordered phases are separated by spin-liquid phases with short-range correlations, in analogy to what has been predicted for the Heisenberg model on the same lattice. Within MSW theory, we also explore the finite-temperature phase diagram. In agreement with the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory, we find that zero-temperature long-range-ordered phases turn into quasi-ordered phases (up to a BKT transition temperature), while zero-temperature quasi-ordered phases become short-range correlated at finite temperature. These results show that, despite its simplicity, MSW theory is very well suited to describing ordered and quasi-ordered phases of frustrated XY spins (or, equivalently, of frustrated lattice bosons) both at zero and finite temperatures. While MSW theory, just as other theoretical methods, cannot describe spin-liquid phases, its breakdown provides a fast and reliable method for singling out Hamiltonians that may feature these intriguing quantum phases. We thus suggest a tool for guiding our search for interesting systems whose properties are necessarily studied with a physical quantum simulator

  4. Modified spin-wave theory with ordering vector optimization: frustrated bosons on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice (United States)

    Hauke, Philipp; Roscilde, Tommaso; Murg, Valentin; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Schmied, Roman


    We investigate a system of frustrated hardcore bosons, modeled by an XY antiferromagnet on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice, using Takahashi's modified spin-wave (MSW) theory. In particular, we implement ordering vector optimization on the ordered reference state of MSW theory, which leads to significant improvement of the theory and accounts for quantum corrections to the classically ordered state. The MSW results at zero temperature compare favorably to exact diagonalization (ED) and projected entangled-pair state (PEPS) calculations. The resulting zero-temperature phase diagram includes a one-dimensional (1D) quasi-ordered phase, a 2D Néel ordered phase and a 2D spiraling ordered phase. Strong indications coming from the ED and PEPS calculations, as well as from the breakdown of MSW theory, suggest that the various ordered or quasi-ordered phases are separated by spin-liquid phases with short-range correlations, in analogy to what has been predicted for the Heisenberg model on the same lattice. Within MSW theory, we also explore the finite-temperature phase diagram. In agreement with the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory, we find that zero-temperature long-range-ordered phases turn into quasi-ordered phases (up to a BKT transition temperature), while zero-temperature quasi-ordered phases become short-range correlated at finite temperature. These results show that, despite its simplicity, MSW theory is very well suited to describing ordered and quasi-ordered phases of frustrated XY spins (or, equivalently, of frustrated lattice bosons) both at zero and finite temperatures. While MSW theory, just as other theoretical methods, cannot describe spin-liquid phases, its breakdown provides a fast and reliable method for singling out Hamiltonians that may feature these intriguing quantum phases. We thus suggest a tool for guiding our search for interesting systems whose properties are necessarily studied with a physical quantum simulator instead

  5. Research progress of terahertz wave technology in food inspection (United States)

    Yan, Zhanke; Ying, Yibin; Zhang, Hongjian; Yu, Haiyan


    Food safety and quality concern have become more and more significant in recent years. There is therefore an increasing focus on new technologies that can be applied to food quality evaluation or safety inspection, either to simplify or speed up the checking process, or to provide additional functionality. For example, the technique of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used for the authentication of agricultural products and food samples. Terahertz (THz) radiation, or THz wave, is electromagnetic wave lies between mid-infrared and microwave radiation. During the past decade, THz waves have been used to characterize the electronic, vibrational and compositional properties of solid, liquid and gas phase materials. The main two applications in which THz fields involved are THz spectroscopy and THz imaging. Terahertz wave technology, as a new area of research, has shown its wide prospects in imaging, diagnosis, detection, and monitoring, etc. Recently, THz technology has gained a lot of attention from biological spectral analysis to bio-medical imaging due to its unique features compared with microwave and optical waves. In this paper, a brief review is given to summarize the progress of THz techqiues in the field of food inspection. The properties of THz wave, its uniqueness in sensing and imaging applications, and the prospect of this novel technology in food industry were discussed.

  6. Coherent structural trapping through wave packet dispersion during photoinduced spin state switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Henrik T.; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Hartsock, Robert


    is distinguished from the structural trapping dynamics, which launches a coherent oscillating wave packet (265 fs period), clearly identified as molecular breathing. Throughout the structural trapping, the dispersion of the wave packet along the reaction coordinate reveals details of intramolecular vibronic...

  7. Electric-field effect on spin-wave resonance in a nanoscale CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junction (United States)

    Dohi, T.; Kanai, S.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.


    We investigate the electric-field effect on the exchange stiffness constant in a CoFeB/MgO junction through the observation of the spin-wave resonance in a nanoscale magnetic tunnel junction. We evaluate the electric-field dependence of the stiffness constant from the separation between resonance fields for the Kittel and spin-wave modes under electric fields. The obtained stiffness constant increases when the interfacial electron density is decreased. This dependence is consistent with that determined from the observation of electric-field dependent domain structures.

  8. Spin-wave excitations and magnetism of sputtered Fe/Au multilayers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the pairs of nearest-neighbour atoms within the same plane or adjacent magnetic planes. The contribution of the surface anisotropy is ... uniaxial out-of-plane and in-plane components, respectively. In the Holstein–Primakoff formulation [16], the creation. + and annihilation operators (aiαμ and aiαμ) for each atomic spin are ...

  9. Research on a new wave energy absorption device (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyue; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Sun, Chongfei; Zhu, Yiming


    To reduce impact of global warming and the energy crisis problems caused by pollution of energy combustion, the research on renewable and clean energies becomes more and more important. This paper designed a new wave absorption device, and also gave an introduction on its mechanical structure. The flow tube model is analyzed, and presented the formulation of the proposed method. To verify the principle of wave absorbing device, an experiment was carried out in a laboratory environment, and the results of the experiment can be applied for optimizing the structure design of output power.

  10. Spin-off from Research Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia


    The purpose of fundamental research in physics is to discover the laws of Nature. The results of this research become available to all mankind, allowing breakthroughs in high technology and in the development of human civilization. Modern physics makes a decisive contribution to such highly important areas as cancer treatment, medical applications of nuclear detectors, computer tomography, World Wide Web, safe nuclear power, and many others.

  11. Bloch spin waves and emergent structure in protein folding with HIV envelope glycoprotein as an example (United States)

    Dai, Jin; Niemi, Antti J.; He, Jianfeng; Sieradzan, Adam; Ilieva, Nevena


    We inquire how structure emerges during the process of protein folding. For this we scrutinize collective many-atom motions during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We introduce, develop, and employ various topological techniques, in combination with analytic tools that we deduce from the concept of integrable models and structure of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The example we consider is an α -helical subunit of the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp41. The helical structure is stable when the subunit is part of the biological oligomer. But in isolation, the helix becomes unstable, and the monomer starts deforming. We follow the process computationally. We interpret the evolving structure both in terms of a backbone based Heisenberg spin chain and in terms of a side chain based XY spin chain. We find that in both cases the formation of protein supersecondary structure is akin the formation of a topological Bloch domain wall along a spin chain. During the process we identify three individual Bloch walls and we show that each of them can be modelled with a precision of tenths to several angstroms in terms of a soliton solution to a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  12. Leadership in applied psychology: Three waves of theory and research. (United States)

    Lord, Robert G; Day, David V; Zaccaro, Stephen J; Avolio, Bruce J; Eagly, Alice H


    Although in the early years of the Journal leadership research was rare and focused primarily on traits differentiating leaders from nonleaders, subsequent to World War II the research area developed in 3 major waves of conceptual, empirical, and methodological advances: (a) behavioral and attitude research; (b) behavioral, social-cognitive, and contingency research; and (c) transformational, social exchange, team, and gender-related research. Our review of this work shows dramatic increases in sophistication from early research focusing on personnel issues associated with World War I to contemporary multilevel models and meta-analyses on teams, shared leadership, leader-member exchange, gender, ethical, abusive, charismatic, and transformational leadership. Yet, many of the themes that characterize contemporary leadership research were also present in earlier research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. A temperature dependent tunneling study of the spin density wave gap in EuFe2As2 single crystals. (United States)

    Dutta, Anirban; Anupam; Hossain, Z; Gupta, Anjan K


    We report temperature dependent scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements on single crystals of EuFe2As2 in the 15-292 K temperature range. The in situ cleaved crystals show atomic terraces with homogeneous tunnel spectra that correlate well with the spin density wave (SDW) transition at a temperature, TSDW ≈ 186 K. Above TSDW the local tunnel spectra show a small depression in the density of states (DOS) near the Fermi energy (EF). The gap becomes more pronounced upon entering the SDW state with a gap value ∼90 meV at 15 K. However, the zero bias conductance remains finite down to 15 K indicating a finite DOS at the EF in the SDW phase. Furthermore, no noticeable change is observed in the DOS at the antiferromagnetic ordering transition of Eu(2+) moments at 19 K.

  14. Advanced magneto-optical microscopy: Imaging from picoseconds to centimeters - imaging spin waves and temperature distributions (invited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necdet Onur Urs


    Full Text Available Recent developments in the observation of magnetic domains and domain walls by wide-field optical microscopy based on the magneto-optical Kerr, Faraday, Voigt, and Gradient effect are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the existence of higher order magneto-optical effects for advanced magnetic imaging. Fundamental concepts and advances in methodology are discussed that allow for imaging of magnetic domains on various length and time scales. Time-resolved imaging of electric field induced domain wall rotation is shown. Visualization of magnetization dynamics down to picosecond temporal resolution for the imaging of spin-waves and magneto-optical multi-effect domain imaging techniques for obtaining vectorial information are demonstrated. Beyond conventional domain imaging, the use of a magneto-optical indicator technique for local temperature sensing is shown.

  15. Spin-off from Research Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia


    Politicians have come to realize the necessity of uniting the efforts of scientists. This is clear from the address of the President of Georgia, Eduard Shevardnadze, to the JINR scientists: "The idea of collective participation in fundamental research is not only valuable per se. It is another opportunity for harmonious co-operation of representatives of different peoples and scientific schools in the single process of evolution of the world civilization."

  16. Resonant spin-wave modes in trilayered magnetic nanowires studied in the parallel and antiparallel ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Nguyen, H.T.; Hiramatsu, R.; Tacchi, S.; Cottam, M.G.; Ono, T.


    Brillouin light scattering has been utilized to study the field dependence of resonant spin-wave modes in layered NiFe(30 nm)/Cu(10 nm)/NiFe(15 nm)/Cu(10 nm)/NiFe(30 nm) nanowires of rectangular cross section, 150 nm wide and formed in arrays that are spaced laterally by 400 nm. The major and minor longitudinal hysteresis curves have been measured by the magneto-optical Kerr effect technique, with applied field parallel to the length of the nanowires. The light-scattering spectra were recorded as a function of the magnetic field strength, encompassing both the parallel and antiparallel alignments of the middle stripe with respect to the magnetization direction of the outermost ones. The field ranges for the antiparallel state are different from those for the parallel case, while the mode frequencies change abruptly at the parallel-to-antiparallel transition field (and vice versa). The modes detected in the antiparallel state are found to have only a weak dependence on the applied magnetic field, whether along the major or minor hysteresis curves, while in the parallel state the mode frequencies monotonically increase with the applied magnetic field. The experimental results have been successfully interpreted, across the whole range of the magnetic fields investigated, in terms of the mode localizations across the width and in the layered structure. This was accomplished by means of a microscopic (Hamiltonian-based) theory, which has been extended here to the case of non-parallel magnetic ground states. - Highlights: • We study the resonant spin waves in layered nanowires of rectangular cross section. • Both the parallel and antiparallel magnetization alignments have been explored. • Frequency of modes in the antiparallel state are independent on the magnetic field. • Experimental results we interpreted by means of an Hamiltonian-based theory

  17. Neutron Scattering Investigation of the Temperature Dependence of Long-Wavelength Spin Waves in Ferromagnetic Rb2CrCI4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, M T; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Lindgård, Per-Anker


    The long-wavelength spin waves in Rb2CrCl4, a nearly two-dimensional ferromagnet, have been investigated at several temperatures below Tc=52.4K using neutron inelastic scattering techniques. The data have been analysed in terms of a Hartree-Fock theory using matching-matrix elements to give...

  18. Characterisation of spin-waves in copper(II) deuteroformate tetradeuterate: A square ¤S¤=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, S.J.; Harrison, A.; Mason, T.E.


    Copper(II) formate tetrahydrate (CFTH) is a model square S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet with T-N = 16.54 +/- 0.05 K. The dispersion of spin-waves in the magnetic layers of a fully deuterated sample of this material has been mapped at 4.3 K by inelastic neutron scattering from the zone centre...

  19. Scaling of spin-density-wave effects in the quantum critical (Cr{sub 86}Ru{sub 14}){sub 1-x}V{sub x} alloy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, L; Alberts, H L; Prinsloo, A R E; Strydom, A M, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006 (South Africa)


    An analysis of experimental data on the electrical resistivity, Hall coefficient and electronic specific heat coefficient of a quantum critical (Cr{sub 86}Ru{sub 14}){sub 1-x}V{sub x} alloy system, is reported. The results give information on the role of spin-density-wave effects on the zero temperature relationships between these physical properties.

  20. Magnetic field induced directional dichroism of spin waves in multiferroic BiFeO3 at THz frequencies (United States)

    Nagel, Urmas; Rõõm, T.; Bordács, S.; Kézsmárki, I.; Yi, H. T.; Cheong, S.-W.; Lee, Jun Hee; Fishman, Randy S.


    Using far infrared spectroscopy in high magnetic fields we show that spin excitations in BiFeO3 simultaneously interact with the electric and magnetic field components of light resulting in directional dichroism (DD) of absorption. DD in BiFeO3 arises because an applied static magnetic field induces a toroidal moment in the cycloidal spin structure. Strong DD is observed even in the room-temperature state of the material. The results are explained on the microscopic level as an interplay of five different interactions: isotropic exchange couplings between nearest and next nearest neighbors, an easy-axis anisotropy along the ferroelectric polarization, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction that creates the cycloid and DM interaction that causes spin canting. Research sponsored by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (IUT23-3), Estonian Science Foundation (ETF8703), and U.S. Department of Energy (JL), Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division (RF and JL) and Office of Basis En.

  1. Nurture or nature? The growth paradox of research-based spin-offs


    Zerbinati, S.; Souitaris, V.; Moray, N.


    This study explores the effect of institutional origin (‘nurture’) and economic context (‘nature’) on the financial resource endowment and subsequent early employment growth of research-based spin-offs (RBSOs). The nurture dimensions capture the relationship between the parent research institution and the RBSO during the start-up phase: the type of incubation model, the formal vs informal transfer of technology and the extent of inventors’ involvement with the firm. The nature dimensions incl...

  2. Spin-offs from Research Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia


    It is well known that the results of fundamental research can have unexpected and suc-cessful applications in different fields of human activity. A good example is that of nuclear track membranes. These membranes are produced by exposing polymer films to ion beams at isochronous cyclotrons in JINR. They are used in all fields that require reliable and ecologically safe filters; e.g. in medicine and in the food and elec-tronics industries. It is not surprising that Finnish businessmen readily accepted the proposal of the specialists from JINR's Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions to establish a joint venture for production of household water filters, and that these simple but effective devices are now used in many countries.

  3. Massive-spin-1/2 wave around a Kerr-Newman black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.H.


    Using the separation of variables of the Dirac equations for the electron in the Kerr-Newman geometry, it is explicitly shown that the super-radiant scattering is not allowed for the electron wave on a Kerr-Newman black hole

  4. Advanced accelerator and mm-wave structure research at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This document outlines acceleration projects and mm-wave structure research performed at LANL. The motivation for PBG research is described first, with reference to couplers for superconducting accelerators and structures for room-temperature accelerators and W-band TWTs. These topics are then taken up in greater detail: PBG structures and the MIT PBG accelerator; SRF PBG cavities at LANL; X-band PBG cavities at LANL; and W-band PBG TWT at LANL. The presentation concludes by describing other advanced accelerator projects: beam shaping with an Emittance Exchanger, diamond field emitter array cathodes, and additive manufacturing of novel accelerator structures.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Circum-Pan-Pacific Riken Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics was held at Oukouchi Memorial Hall in Riken from November 3 through 6, 1999. It was held as a joint meeting of the 2nd Circum-Pan-Pacific Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics and the 3rd of the series of Riken Symposia related to the RHIC-SPIN. The 1st Circum-Pan-Pacific Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics was held at Kobe in 1996 and the RHIC-SPIN Riken Symposia had been held every two years since 1995. As Prof. Ozaki mentioned in his talk at the beginning of this meeting, the RHIC was ready for the first beam, physics experiments scheduled in 2000, and the RHIC-SPIN would start in 2001. It was therefore considered to be very timely for the researchers in the field of high energy spin physics to get together, clarifying the present status of the field and discussing interesting and important topics as well as experimental subjects to be pursued. It is especially important for the success of the RHIC-SPIN project that the researchers in the neighboring countries surrounding the Pacific are actively involved in it. This is why the above two series were joined in this. symposium. The subjects discussed in the symposium include: Hard processes probing spin-structure functions, polarization mechanisms in high energy reactions, lattice studies of polarized structure functions, theoretical models for the nucleon and its spin structure, RHIC and RHIC-SPIN projects, results and future projects of existing experimental facilities. Totally 73 scientists participated in the symposium, 27 from abroad and 46 from Japan. it consisted of 13 main sessions, with 33 invited and contributed talks, and 4 discussion sessions covering recent experimental and theoretical developments and important topics in high energy spin physics and closely related fields.

  6. Commercializing Academic Research Results and the Role of Spin-off Companies. (United States)

    Reutimann, Herbert


    The commercialization of academic research results is often difficult and requires a flexible approach that depends on the nature of the project. Most technologies are very early-stage and often not mature enough for industry partners or financial investors. Spin-off companies play an important role in this process. Through their activities universities make an important contribution to the innovation capacity of industry.

  7. Cosmic Rays & ULF Waves: Research in Schools Projects in London (United States)

    Archer, Martin


    Research in Schools (RiS) projects offer school students opportunities to experience scientific research over prolonged periods within their school environment. Over the past two years we have piloted a RiS programme with five London schools across two research areas: the cosmic ray muons which serve as backgrounds to current neutrino experiments; and the magnetospheric ultra-low frequency waves that play a key role within space weather. From the evaluation of this pilot programme we have found that RiS can have significantly positive results on students' understanding and appreciation of science, as well as equipping them with vital skills. Teachers are also found to benefit from the projects, reconnecting them with their subject at an academic level, challenging them and aiding towards their professional development. It is important to note that supervision from current researchers was key to these outcomes. Finally, a number of recommendations on project structure, resources and workloads are presented.

  8. The influence of the spin-dependent phases of tunneling electrons on the conductance of a point ferromagnet/isolator/d-wave superconductor contact. (United States)

    Vodopyanov, B P


    The influence of the spin-dependent phase shifts (SDPSs) associated with the electronic reflection and transmission amplitudes acquired by electrons upon scattering at the potential barrier on the Andreev reflection probability of electron and hole excitations for a ferromagnet/isolator/d-wave superconductor (FIS) contact and on the charge conductance of the FIS contact is studied. Various superconductor orientations are considered. It has been found that for strong ferromagnets and ultrathin interface potential for the {110} oriented d-wave superconductor the presence of the SDPS can lead to the appearance of finite-voltage peaks in the charge conductance of the F/I/d-wave superconductor contact. On the contrary, for the {100} orientation of the d-wave superconductor the presence of the SDPS can lead to restoration of the zero-voltage peak and suppression of finite-voltage peaks. The spin-dependent amplitudes of the Andreev reflection probability and energy levels of the spin-dependent Andreev bound states are found.

  9. Accretion-induced spin-wandering effects on the neutron star in Scorpius X-1: Implications for continuous gravitational wave searches (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arunava; Messenger, Chris; Riles, Keith


    The LIGO's discovery of binary black hole mergers has opened up a new era of transient gravitational wave astronomy. The potential detection of gravitational radiation from another class of astronomical objects, rapidly spinning nonaxisymmetric neutron stars, would constitute a new area of gravitational wave astronomy. Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) is one of the most promising sources of continuous gravitational radiation to be detected with present-generation ground-based gravitational wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. As the sensitivity of these detectors improve in the coming years, so will power of the search algorithms being used to find gravitational wave signals. Those searches will still require integration over nearly year long observational spans to detect the incredibly weak signals from rotating neutron stars. For low mass X-ray binaries such as Sco X-1 this difficult task is compounded by neutron star "spin wandering" caused by stochastic accretion fluctuations. In this paper, we analyze X-ray data from the R X T E satellite to infer the fluctuating torque on the neutron star in Sco X-1. We then perform a large-scale simulation to quantify the statistical properties of spin-wandering effects on the gravitational wave signal frequency and phase evolution. We find that there are a broad range of expected maximum levels of frequency wandering corresponding to maximum drifts of between 0.3 - 50 μ Hz /sec over a year at 99% confidence. These results can be cast in terms of the maximum allowed length of a coherent signal model neglecting spin-wandering effects as ranging between 5-80 days. This study is designed to guide the development and evaluation of Sco X-1 search algorithms.

  10. Applications of Shock Wave Research to Developments of Therapeutic Devices. (United States)

    Takayama, Kazuyoshi


    Underwater shock wave research applied to medicine started in 1980 by exploding micro lead azide pellets in water. Collaboration with urologists in the School of Medicine, Tohoku University at the same time was directed to disintegration of kidney stones by controlling shock waves. We initially proposed a miniature truncated ellipsoidal cavity for generating high-pressures enough to disintegrate the stone but gave up the idea, when encountering the Dornie Systems' invention of an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL). Then we confirmed its effectiveness by using 10 mg silver azide pellets and constructed our own lithotripter, which was officially approved for a clinical use in 1987. Tissue damage during ESWL was attributable to bubble collapse and we convinced it could be done in a controlled fashion. In 1996, we used 160 mJ pulsed Ho:YAG laser beam focusing inside a catheter for shock generation and applied it to the revascularization of cerebral embolism, which is recently expanded to the treatment of pulmonary infarction. Micro water jets discharged in air were so effective to dissect soft tissues preserving small blood vessels. Animal experiments are successfully performed with high frequency water jets driven by an actuator-assisted micro-pump. A metal foil is deformed at high speed by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser beam loading. We used this technique to project micro-particles or dry drugs attached on its reverse side and extended it to a laser ablation assisted dry drug delivery or DNA introductory system.

  11. Matter-waves in Bose-Einstein condensates with spin-orbit and Rabi couplings (United States)

    Chiquillo, Emerson


    We investigate the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) reduction of a quantum field theory starting from the three-dimensional (3D) many-body Hamiltonian of interacting bosons with spin-orbit (SO) and Rabi couplings. We obtain the effective time-dependent 1D and 2D nonpolynomial Heisenberg equations for both the repulsive and attractive signs of the inter-atomic interaction. Our findings show that in the case in which the many-body state coincides with the Glauber coherent state, the 1D and 2D Heisenberg equations become 1D and 2D nonpolynomial Schrödinger equations (NPSEs). These models were derived in a mean-field approximation from 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE), describing a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with SO and Rabi couplings. In the present work self-repulsive and self-attractive localized solutions of the 1D NPSE and the 1D GPE are obtained in a numerical form. The combined action of SO and Rabi couplings produces conspicuous sidelobes on the density profile, for both signs of the interaction. In the case of the attractive nonlinearity, an essential result is the possibility of getting an unstable condensate by the increasing of SO coupling.

  12. A simple way to test for collinearity in spin symmetry broken wave functions: general theory and application to generalized Hartree Fock. (United States)

    Small, David W; Sundstrom, Eric J; Head-Gordon, Martin


    We introduce a necessary and sufficient condition for an arbitrary wavefunction to be collinear, i.e., its spin is quantized along some axis. It may be used to obtain a cheap and simple computational procedure to test for collinearity in electronic structure theory calculations. We adapt the procedure for Generalized Hartree Fock (GHF), and use it to study two dissociation pathways in CO2. For these dissociation processes, the GHF wave functions transform from low-spin Unrestricted Hartree Fock (UHF) type states to noncollinear GHF states and on to high-spin UHF type states, phenomena that are succinctly illustrated by the constituents of the collinearity test. This complements earlier GHF work on this molecule.

  13. Spin-wave dynamics and exchange interactions in multiferroic NdFe3(BO3)4 explored by inelastic neutron scattering (United States)

    Golosovsky, I. V.; Ovsyanikov, A. K.; Aristov, D. N.; Matveeva, P. G.; Mukhin, A. A.; Boehm, M.; Regnault, L.-P.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.


    Magnetic excitations and exchange interactions in multiferroic NdFe3(BO3)4 were studied by inelastic neutron scattering in the phase with commensurate antiferromagnetic structure. The observed spectra were analyzed in the frame of the linear spin-wave theory. It was shown that only the model, which includes the exchange interactions within eight coordination spheres, describes satisfactorily all observed dispersion curves. The calculation showed that the spin-wave dynamics is governed by the strongest antiferromagnetic intra-chain interaction and three almost the same inter-chain interactions. Other interactions, including ferromagnetic exchange, appeared to be insignificant. The overall energy balance of the antiferromagnetic inter-chain exchange interactions, which couple the moments from the adjacent ferromagnetic layers as well as within a layer, stabilizes ferromagnetic arrangement in the latter. It demonstrates that the pathway geometry plays a crucial role in forming of the magnetic structure.

  14. Generation of Light with Multimode Time-Delayed Entanglement Using Storage in a Solid-State Spin-Wave Quantum Memory. (United States)

    Ferguson, Kate R; Beavan, Sarah E; Longdell, Jevon J; Sellars, Matthew J


    Here, we demonstrate generating and storing entanglement in a solid-state spin-wave quantum memory with on-demand readout using the process of rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE). Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), resulting from an inverted ensemble of Pr^{3+} ions doped into a Y_{2}SiO_{5} crystal, generates entanglement between collective states of the praseodymium ensemble and the output light. The ensemble is then rephased using a four-level photon echo technique. Entanglement between the ASE and its echo is confirmed and the inseparability violation preserved when the RASE is stored as a spin wave for up to 5  μs. RASE is shown to be temporally multimode with almost perfect distinguishability between two temporal modes demonstrated. These results pave the way for the use of multimode solid-state quantum memories in scalable quantum networks.

  15. Development of Millimeter Wave Fabry-Pérot Resonator for Simultaneous Electron-Spin and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurement (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yuya; Ohya, Kenta; Fujii, Yutaka; Fukuda, Akira; Miura, Shunsuke; Mitsudo, Seitaro; Yamamori, Hidetomo; Kikuchi, Hikomitsu


    We report a Fabry-Pérot resonator with spherical and flat mirrors to allow simultaneous electron-spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements that could be used for double magnetic resonance (DoMR). In order to perform simultaneous ESR and NMR measurements, the flat mirror must reflect millimeter wavelength electromagnetic waves and the resonator must have a high Q value ( Q > 3000) for ESR frequencies, while the mirror must simultaneously let NMR frequencies pass through. This requirement can be achieved by exploiting the difference of skin depth for the two frequencies, since skin depth is inversely proportional to the square root of the frequency. In consideration of the skin depth, the optimum conditions for conducting ESR and NMR using a gold thin film are explored by examining the relation between the Q value and the film thickness. A flat mirror with a gold thin film was fabricated by sputtering gold on an epoxy plate. We also installed a Helmholtz radio frequency coil for NMR and tested the system both at room and low temperatures with an optimally thick gold film. As a result, signals were obtained at 0.18 K for ESR and at 1.3 K for NMR. A flat-mirrored resonator with a thin gold film surface is an effective way to locate NMR coils closer to the sample being examined with DoMR.

  16. Toward increased concentration sensitivity for continuous wave EPR investigations of spin-labeled biological macromolecules at high fields (United States)

    Song, Likai; Liu, Zhanglong; Kaur, Pavanjeet; Esquiaqui, Jackie M.; Hunter, Robert I.; Hill, Stephen; Smith, Graham M.; Fanucci, Gail E.


    High-field, high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at W-(∼94 GHz) and D-band (∼140 GHz) is important for investigating the conformational dynamics of flexible biological macromolecules because this frequency range has increased spectral sensitivity to nitroxide motion over the 100 ps to 2 ns regime. However, low concentration sensitivity remains a roadblock for studying aqueous samples at high magnetic fields. Here, we examine the sensitivity of a non-resonant thin-layer cylindrical sample holder, coupled to a quasi-optical induction-mode W-band EPR spectrometer (HiPER), for continuous wave (CW) EPR analyses of: (i) the aqueous nitroxide standard, TEMPO; (ii) the unstructured to α-helical transition of a model IDP protein; and (iii) the base-stacking transition in a kink-turn motif of a large 232 nt RNA. For sample volumes of ∼50 μL, concentration sensitivities of 2-20 μM were achieved, representing a ∼10-fold enhancement compared to a cylindrical TE011 resonator on a commercial Bruker W-band spectrometer. These results therefore highlight the sensitivity of the thin-layer sample holders employed in HiPER for spin-labeling studies of biological macromolecules at high fields, where applications can extend to other systems that are facilitated by the modest sample volumes and ease of sample loading and geometry.

  17. Spin wave relaxation and magnetic properties in [M/Cu] super-lattices; M=Fe, Co and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmi, A.; Qachaou, A.


    In this work, we study the elementary excitations and magnetic properties of the [M/Cu] super-lattices with: M=Fe, Co and Ni, represented by a Heisenberg ferromagnetic system with N atomic planes. The nearest neighbour (NN), next nearest neighbour (NNN) exchange, dipolar interactions and surface anisotropy effects are taken into account and the Hamiltonian is studied in the framework of the linear spin wave theory. In the presence of the exchange alone, the excitation spectrum E(k) and the magnetization z >/S analytical expressions are obtained using the Green's function formalism. The obtained relaxation time of the magnon populations is nearly the same in the Fe and Co-based super-lattices, while these magnetic excitations would last much longer in the Ni-based super lattice. A numerical study of the surface anisotropy and long-ranged dipolar interaction combined effects are also reported. The exchange integral values deduced from a comparison with experience for the three super-lattices are coherent.

  18. The magnetic particle in a box: Analytic and micromagnetic analysis of probe-localized spin wave modes (United States)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Manuilov, Sergei A.; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Fengyuan; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris


    The dipole field from a probe magnet can be used to localize a discrete spectrum of standing spin wave modes in a continuous ferromagnetic thin film without lithographic modification to the film. Obtaining the resonance field for a localized mode is not trivial due to the effect of the confined and inhomogeneous magnetization precession. We compare the results of micromagnetic and analytic methods to find the resonance field of localized modes in a ferromagnetic thin film, and investigate the accuracy of these methods by comparing with a numerical minimization technique that assumes Bessel function modes with pinned boundary conditions. We find that the micromagnetic technique, while computationally more intensive, reveals that the true magnetization profiles of localized modes are similar to Bessel functions with gradually decaying dynamic magnetization at the mode edges. We also find that an analytic solution, which is simple to implement and computationally much faster than other methods, accurately describes the resonance field of localized modes when exchange fields are negligible, and demonstrating the accessibility of localized mode analysis.

  19. Azimuthal spin-wave excitations in magnetic nanodots over the soliton background: Vortex, Bloch, and Néel-like skyrmions (United States)

    Mruczkiewicz, M.; Gruszecki, P.; Krawczyk, M.; Guslienko, K. Y.


    We study azimuthal spin-wave (SW) excitations in a circular ferromagnetic nanodot in different inhomogeneous, topologically nontrivial magnetization states, specifically, vortex, Bloch-type skyrmion, and Néel-type skyrmion states. A continuous transition between these states is realized by gradually changing the out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange interaction (DMI), and the corresponding SW spectra are calculated for each state. We observe the lifting of degeneracy of SW mode frequencies and a change in the systematics of frequency levels. The latter effect is induced by the geometric Berry phase, which occurs in SWs localized at the edge of the dot in the vortex state, and vanishes in the skyrmion states. Furthermore, channeling of edge-localized azimuthal SWs and a related large frequency splitting are observed in the skyrmion states. This is attributed to DMI-induced nonreciprocity, while the coupling of the breathing and gyrotropic modes is related to the skyrmion motion. Finally, we demonstrate efficient coupling of the dynamic magnetization to a uniform magnetic field in nanodots of noncircular symmetry in the skyrmion states.

  20. Excitation of coherent propagating spin waves in ultrathin CoFeB film by voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (United States)

    Rana, Bivas; Fukuma, Yasuhiro; Miura, Katsuya; Takahashi, Hiromasa; Otani, YoshiChika


    Spin waves (SWs) may be used as potential information carriers in next generation low-power spintronics devices. Here, we report an experimental study on the excitation of propagating magnetostatic surface SWs by voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy in a 2 nm thick CoFeB film. The SWs are detected by a pico-second time-resolved longitudinal Kerr microscope with a spatial resolution of 600 nm. We found a linear increase in the SW amplitude with the applied rf voltage. We show that in this ultrathin film, the voltage excited SWs can propagate up to micrometer distances which decrease with the increase in the bias magnetic field value. This is also supported by micromagnetic simulation results. Furthermore, we show that voltage excitations are spatially localized as opposed to conventional microstrip antenna induced Oersted field excitations. We discuss about the advantage of voltage excitation compared to the Oersted field excitation. We believe that voltage excitation of SWs will be more suitable and useful for the development of all-voltage-controlled nanoscale spintronics devices with a high density of integration.

  1. Magnetic Spin-Wave Properties of Ferromagnetic Nanosystems of Various Shapes. Peculiarities of the Border Conditions Accounting in the Process of the Wavenumber Values Spectrum Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Kulish


    Conclusions. The obtained expressions for the spectrum of the values of the investigated spin waves’ wavenumbers can be used for a wider range of cases than the ones obtained in the previous papers dedicated to the investigated configurations of nanosystems. For a nanotube of the circular cross-section with small (compared to the inverse characteristic size of the nanotube cross-section values of the longitudinal wave number, the dependence of the latter on the transverse wave number is weak, as well as for the big longitudinal to transverse wavenumber component ratio. The obtained dependence is also represented graphically.

  2. Application of the Mössbauer Spectroscopy to Study Harmonically Modulated Electronic Structures: Case Study of Charge- and Spin-Density Waves in Cr and Its Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Mieczyslaw Dubiel


    Full Text Available Relevance of the Mössbauer spectroscopy in the study of harmonically modulated electronic structures i.e. spin-density waves (SDWs and charge-density waves (CDWs is presented and discussed. First, the effect of various parameters pertinent to the SDWs and CDWs is outlined on simulated 119Sn spectra and distributions of the hyperfine field and the isomer shift. Next, various examples of the 119Sn spectra measured on single-crystals and polycrystalline samples of Cr and Cr-V are reviewed.

  3. Spins, Stalls, and Shutdowns: Pitfalls of Qualitative Policing and Security Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy K. Lippert


    Full Text Available This article explores key elements of qualitative research on policing and security agencies, including barriers encountered and strategies to prevent them. While it is oft-assumed that policing/security agencies are difficult to access due to their clandestine or bureaucratic nature, this article demonstrates this is not necessarily the case, as access was gained for three distinct qualitative research projects. Yet, access and subsequent research were not without pitfalls, which we term security spins, security stalls, and security shutdowns. We illustrate how each was encountered and argue these pitfalls are akin to researchers falling into risk categories, not unlike those used by policing/security agents in their work. Before concluding we discuss methodological strategies for scholars to avoid these pitfalls and to advance research that critically interrogates the immense policing/security realm. URN:


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    as jet and W+charrn final states and spin asymmetries in Z production, were proposed and discussed. All of the talks attracted much interest and initiated active discussions. This was a very successful workshop. It stimulated many discussions and new collaborations. We are grateful to all participants and speakers for coming to the Center, and for their excellent work. The support provided for this workshop by Dr. N. Samios and his RIKEN-BNL Research Center has been magnificent, and we are very grateful for it. We thank Brookhaven National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy for providing the facilities to hold the workshop. Finally, sincere thanks go to Jane Lysik for her efficient work on organizing and running the workshop

  5. The finite element simulation analysis research of 38CrSi cylindrical power spinning (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Lv, Qiongying; Zhao, Yujuan; Lv, Yunxia


    In order to grope for the influence of the main cylindrical spinning process parameters on the spinning process, this paper combines with real tube power spinning process and uses ABAQUS finite element analysis software to simulate the tube power spinning process of 38CrSi steel materials, through the analysis of the stress, strain of the part forming process, analyzes the influence of the thickness reduction and the feed rate to the forming process, and analyzes the variation of the spinning force, finally determines the reasonable main spinning process parameters combination.

  6. Some recent advances of shock wave physics research at the Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research

    CERN Document Server

    Jing Fu Qian


    Progress made in recent years on three topics that have been investigated at the Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research are presented in this report. (1) A new equation of state (EOS) has been derived which can be used from a standard state to predict state variable change along an isobaric path. Good agreements between calculations for some representative metals using this new EOS and experiments have been found, covering a wide range from hundreds of MPa to hundreds of GPa and from ambient temperature to tens of thousands of GPa. (2) An empirical relation of Y/G = constant (Y is yield strength, G is shear modulus) at HT-HP has been reinvestigated and confirmed by shock wave experiment. 93W alloy was chosen as a model material. The advantage of this relation is that it is beneficial to formulate a kind of simplified constitutive equation for metallic solids under shock loading, and thus to faithfully describe the behaviours of shocked solids through hydrodynamic simulations. (3) An attempt...

  7. Optically Driven Spin Based Quantum Dots for Quantum Computing - Research Area 6 Physics 6.3.2 (United States)


    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This program conducted experimental and theoretical research aimed at developing an optically driven quantum dot quantum, where, the qubit is the spin of the electron trapped in a self-assembled quantum dot in InAs. Optical manipulation using the trion state...reports. In this reporting period, we discovered the nuclear spin quieting first discovered in 2008 is present in vertically coupled quantum dots but

  8. Electron Bernstein Wave Research on NSTX and PEGASUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diem, S. J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Taylor, G.; Caughman, J. B.; Bigelow, T.; Wilgen, J. B.; Garstka, G. D.; Harvey, R. W.; Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Sabbagh, S. A.


    Spherical tokamaks (STs) routinely operate in the overdense regime (ω pe >>ω ce ), prohibiting the use of standard ECCD and ECRH. However, the electrostatic electron Bernstein wave (EBW) can propagate in the overdense regime and is strongly absorbed and emitted at the electron cyclotron resonances. As such, EBWs offer the potential for local electron temperature measurements and local electron heating and current drive. A critical challenge for these applications is to establish efficient coupling between the EBWs and electromagnetic waves outside the cutoff layer. Two STs in the U.S., the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX, at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) and PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment (University of Wisconsin-Madison) are focused on studying EBWs for heating and current drive. On NSTX, two remotely steered, quad-ridged antennas have been installed to measure 8-40 GHz (fundamental, second and third harmonics) thermal EBW emission (EBE) via the oblique B-X-O mode conversion process. This diagnostic has been successfully used to map the EBW mode conversion efficiency as a function of poloidal and toroidal angles on NSTX. Experimentally measured mode conversion efficiencies of 70±20% have been measured for 15.5 GHz (fundamental) emission in L-mode discharges, in agreement with a numerical EBE simulation. However, much lower mode conversion efficiencies of 25±10% have been measured for 25 GHz (second harmonic) emission in L-mode plasmas. Numerical modeling of EBW propagation and damping on the very-low aspect ratio PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment has been performed using the GENRAY ray-tracing code and CQL3D Fokker-Planck code in support of planned EBW heating and current drive (EBWCD) experiments. Calculations were performed for 2.45 GHz waves launched with a 10 cm poloidal extent for a variety of plasma equilibrium configurations. Poloidal launch scans show that driven current is maximum when the poloidal launch angle is between 10 and 25 degrees

  9. Kondratiev cycles and so-called long waves. The early research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)


    textabstractThis paper recalls some early work of the Dutch pioneers of long-wave research which anticipated many of the contemporary debates. Various explanations which have been advanced for the existence of long waves are reviewed, and the applicability of long-wave theories in a number of

  10. Particle size, spin wave and surface effects on magnetic properties of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslibeiki, B., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-16471 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Varvaro, G.; Peddis, D. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, National Research Council, Monterotondo Scalo, Roma 00015 (Italy); Kameli, P. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Magnesium ferrite, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, nanoparticles with a mean diameter varying from ∼6 to ∼17 nm were successfully synthesized using a simple thermal decomposition method at different annealing temperatures ranging in between 400 and 600 °C. Pure spinel ferrite nanoparticles were obtained at temperatures lower than 500 °C, while the presence of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) impurities was observed at higher temperatures. Single-phase samples show a superparamagnetic behavior at 300 K, the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) becoming larger with the increase of particles size. The temperature dependence of M{sub s} was explained in terms of surface spin-canting as well as spin wave excitations in the core. Using a modified Bloch law, [M{sub s}(T)=M{sub s}(0)(1−βT{sup α})], we observed a size dependent behavior of the Bloch constant β and the exponent α, whose values increase and decrease, respectively, as the particle size reduces. - Highlights: • MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized using a thermal decomposition method. • Pure ferrite nanoparticles were obtained at temperatures lower than 500 °C. • Samples show a superparamagnetic behavior at room temperatures. • Spin wave excitations were studied using a modified Bloch law.

  11. Heat and spin interconversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Yuichi; Matsuo, Mamoru; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Saitoh, Eeiji


    Spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects, which are mutual conversion phenomena of heat and spin, are discussed on the basis of the microscopic theory. First, the spin Seebeck effect, which is the spin-current generation due to heat current, is discussed. The recent progress in research on the spin Seebeck effect are introduced. We explain the origin of the observed sign changes of the spin Seebeck effect in compensated ferromagnets. Next, the spin Peltier effect, which is the heat-current generation due to spin current, is discussed. Finally, we show that the spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects are summarized by Onsager's reciprocal relation and derive Kelvin's relation for the spin and heat transports. (author)

  12. Spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton


    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  13. Optical orientation and spin-dependent recombination in GaAsN alloys under continuous-wave pumping. (United States)

    Ivchenko, E L; Kalevich, V K; Shiryaev, A Yu; Afanasiev, M M; Masumoto, Y


    We present a systematic theoretical study of spin-dependent recombination and its effect on optical orientation of photoelectron spins in semiconductors with deep paramagnetic centers. For this aim we generalize the Shockley-Read theory of recombination of electrons and holes through the deep centers with allowance for optically-induced spin polarization of free and bound electrons. Starting from consideration of defects with three charge states we turn to the two-charge-state model possessing nine parameters and show that it is compatible with available experimental data on undoped GaAsN alloys. In the weak- and strong-pumping limits, we derive simple analytic equations which are useful in prediction and interpretation of experimental results. Experimental and theoretical dependences of the spin-dependent recombination ratio and degree of photoluminescence circular polarization on the pumping intensity and the transverse magnetic field are compared and discussed.

  14. Facilitating Heliophysics Research by the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO) Context Data Search Capability (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.; Shao, Xi; Garcia, Leonard N.; Galkin, Ivan A.; Benson, Robert F.


    Wave phenomena, ranging from freely propagating electromagnetic radiation (e.g., solar radio bursts, AKR) to plasma wave modes trapped in various plasma regimes (e.g., whistlers, Langmuir and ULF waves) and atmospheric gravity waves, are ubiquitous in the heliosphere. Because waves can propagate, wave data obtained at a given observing location may pertain to wave oscillations generated locally or from afar. While wave data analysis requires knowledge of wave characteristics specific to different wave modes, the search for appropriate data for heliophysics wave studies also requires knowledge of wave phenomena. In addition to deciding whether the interested wave activity is electrostatic (i.e., locally trapped) or electromagnetic (with propagation over distances), considerations must be given to the dependence of the wave activity on observer's location or viewing geometry, propagating frequency range and whether the wave data were acquired by passive or active observations. Occurances of natural wave emissions i the magnetosphere (e.g, auroral kilometric radiation) are often dependent also on the state (e.e., context) of the magnetosphere that varies with the changing solar wind, IMF and geomagnetic conditions. Fung and Shao [2008] showed recently that magnetospheric state can be specified by a set of suitably time-shifted solar wind, IMF and the multi-scale geomagnetic response parameters. These parameters form a magnetospheric state vector that provides the basis for searching magnetospheric wave data by their context conditions. Using the IMAGE Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) data and the NASA Magnetospheric State Query System (MSOS) [Fung, 2004], this presentation demonstrates the VWO context data search capability under development and solicits feedback from the Heliophysics research community for improvements.

  15. Collaborative Research: Dynamics of Electrostatic Solitary Waves on Current Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, Jolene S.


    The research carried out under the subject grant has provided insight into the generation of Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs), which are nonlinear structures observed in space plasma data. These ESWs, appearing as pulses in the electric field time series data, represent the presence of several hundred meters to kilometer size positive potential structures, similar to champagne bubbles, where the electrons have been depleted, and which travel along Earth's magnetic field lines. The laboratory experiments carried out at the UCLA LAPD under the grant allowed us the opportunity to change various plasma and field conditions within the plasma device, and experiment with injection of suprathermal electron beams, in order to create ESWs. This then allowed us to determine the most likely method of generation of the ESWs. By comparing the properties of the ESWs observed in the LAPD to those observed in space and the plasma and field conditions under which those ESWs were observed in both locations, we were able to evaluate various ESW generation mechanisms. The findings of the laboratory experiments are that ESWs are generated through a lower hybrid instability. The ESWs observed in Earth's auroral current regions have similar characteristics to those generated by the laboratory when referenced to basic plasma and field characteristics, leading us to the conclusion that the lower hybrid drift instability is certainly a possibility for generation of the ESWs, at least in the auroral (northern/southern lights) regions. Due to space instrumentation insufficiencies and the limitations on telemetry, and thus poor time resolution, it is not possible to determine absolutely what generates these bubbles in space, but the laboratory experiments and supporting simulations have helped us to further our understanding of the processes under which they are generated. The public benefits from the findings of this research because the research is focused on current layers

  16. Gravitational waves from a compact star in a circular, inspiral orbit, in the equatorial plane of a massive, spinning black hole, as observed by LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, Lee Samuel; Thorne, Kip S.


    Results are presented from high-precision computations of the orbital evolution and emitted gravitational waves for a stellar-mass object spiraling into a massive black hole in a slowly shrinking, circular, equatorial orbit. The focus of these computations is inspiral near the innermost stable circular orbit (isco) -- more particularly, on orbits for which the angular velocity Ω is 0.03∼ isco ≤1.0. The computations are based on the Teuksolsky-Sasaki-Nakamura formalism, and the results are tabulated in a set of functions that are of order unity and represent relativistic corrections to low-orbital-velocity formulas. These tables can form a foundation for future design studies for the LISA space-based gravitational-wave mission. A first survey of applications to LISA is presented: Signal to noise ratios S/N are computed and graphed as functions of the time-evolving gravitational-wave frequency for the lowest three harmonics of the orbital period, and for various representative values of the hole's mass M and spin a and the inspiraling object's mass μ, with the distance to Earth chosen to be r o =1 Gpc. These S/N's show a very strong dependence on the black-hole spin, as well as on M and μ. Graphs are presented showing the range of the {M,a,μ} parameter space, for which S/N>10 at r 0 =1 Gpc during the last year of inspiral. The hole's spin a has a factor of ∼10 influence on the range of M (at fixed μ) for which S/N>10, and the presence or absence of a white-dwarf--binary background has a factor of ∼3 influence. A comparison with predicted event rates shows strong promise for detecting these waves, but not beyond about 1 Gpc if the inspiraling object is a white dwarf or neutron star. This argues for a modest lowering of LISA's noise floor. A brief discussion is given of the prospects for extracting information from the observed waves

  17. Dimensional reduction by pressure in the magnetic framework material CuF2(D2O)2 (pyz): From spin-wave to spinon excitations (United States)

    Skoulatos, M.; Mânsson, M.; Fiolka, C.; Krämer, K. W.; Schefer, J.; White, J. S.; Rüegg, Ch.


    Metal organic magnets have enormous potential to host a variety of electronic and magnetic phases that originate from a strong interplay between the spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom. We control this interplay in the quantum magnet CuF2(D2O )2(pyz ) by using high pressure to drive the system through structural and magnetic phase transitions. Using neutron scattering, we show that the low pressure state, which hosts a two-dimensional square lattice with spin-wave excitations and a dominant exchange coupling of 0.89 meV, transforms at high pressure into a one-dimensional spin chain hallmarked by a spinon continuum and a reduced exchange interaction of 0.43 meV. This direct microscopic observation of a magnetic dimensional crossover as a function of pressure opens up new possibilities for studying the evolution of fractionalised excitations in low-dimensional quantum magnets and eventually pressure-controlled metal-insulator transitions.

  18. Universal scaling of Néel temperature, staggered magnetization density, and spin-wave velocity of three-dimensional disordered and clean quantum antiferromagnets (United States)

    Tan, D.-R.; Jiang, F.-J.


    The Néel temperature, staggered magnetization density, as well as the spin-wave velocity of a three-dimensional (3D) quantum Heisenberg model with antiferromagnetic disorder (randomness) are calculated using first-principles nonperturbative quantum Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we examine the validity of universal scaling relations that are related to these three studied physical quantities. These relations are relevant to experimental data and are firmly established for clean (regular) 3D dimerized spin-1/2 Heisenberg models. Remarkably, our numerical results show that the considered scaling relations remain true for the investigated model with the introduced disorder. In addition, while the presence of disorder may change the physical properties of regular dimerized models, hence leading to different critical theories, both the obtained data of Néel temperature and staggered magnetization density in our study are fully compatible with the expected critical behavior for clean dimerized systems. As a result, it is persuasive to conclude that the related quantum phase transitions of the considered disordered model and its clean analogues are governed by the same critical theory, which is not always the case in general. Finally, we also find smooth scaling curves even emerging when both the data of the investigated disordered model as well as its associated clean system are taken into account concurrently. This in turn implies that, while in a restricted sense, the considered scaling relations for 3D spin-1/2 antiferromagnets are indeed universal.

  19. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael


    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  20. Spin density wave in (Fe{sub x}V{sub 3-x})S{sub 4} and the coexistence of normal and condensate states: A Moessbauer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embaid, B.P., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 47586, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gonzalez-Jimenez, F. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 47586, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)


    Iron-vanadium sulfides of the monoclinic system Fe{sub x}V{sub 3-x}S{sub 4} (1.0{<=}x{<=}2.0) have been investigated by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy in the temperature range 30-300 K. Incommensurate spin density waves (SDW) have been found in this system. An alternative treatment of the spectra allows a direct measurement of the temperature evolution of condensate density of the SDW state which follows the Maki-Virosztek formula. For composition (x=1.0) the SDW condensate is unpinned while for compositions (x>1.0) the SDW condensate is pinned. Possible causes of the pinning-unpinning SDW will be discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sub x}V{sub 3-x}S{sub 4}(1.0{<=}x{<=}2.0) system was investigated by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incommensurate spin density wave (SDW) has been found in this system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the temperature evolution of the condensate density of SDW state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For composition (x=1.0) the SDW is unpinned while for (x>1.0) is pinned.

  1. Research Update: Spin transfer torques in permalloy on monolayer MoS 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Sklenar, Joseph; Hsu, Bo; Jiang, Wanjun; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Xiao, Jiao; Fradin, Frank Y.; Liu, Yaohua; Pearson, John E.; Ketterson, John B.; Yang, Zheng; Hoffmann, Axel


    We observe current induced spin transfer torque resonance in permalloy (Py) grown on monolayer MoS2. By passing rf current through the Py/MoS2 bilayer, field-like and damping-like torques are induced which excite the ferromagnetic resonance of Py. The signals are detected via a homodyne voltage from anisotropic magnetoresistance of Py. In comparison to other bilayer systems with strong spin-orbit torques, the monolayer MoS2 cannot provide bulk spin Hall effects and thus indicates the purely interfacial nature of the spin transfer torques. Therefore our results indicate the potential of two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide for the use of interfacial spin-orbitronics applications.

  2. Research Update: Spin transfer torques in permalloy on monolayer MoS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang


    Full Text Available We observe current induced spin transfer torque resonance in permalloy (Py grown on monolayer MoS2. By passing rf current through the Py/MoS2 bilayer, field-like and damping-like torques are induced which excite the ferromagnetic resonance of Py. The signals are detected via a homodyne voltage from anisotropic magnetoresistance of Py. In comparison to other bilayer systems with strong spin-orbit torques, the monolayer MoS2 cannot provide bulk spin Hall effects and thus indicates the purely interfacial nature of the spin transfer torques. Therefore our results indicate the potential of two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide for the use of interfacial spin-orbitronics applications.

  3. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop, RHIC Spin Physics V, Volume 32, February 21, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) was established in April 1997 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is funded by the ''Rikagaku Kenkysho'' (RIKEN, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) of Japan. The Center is dedicated to the study of strong interactions, including spin physics, lattice QCD and RHIC physics through the nurturing of a new generation of young physicists. During the fast year, the Center had only a Theory Group. In the second year, an Experimental Group was also established at the Center. At present, there are seven Fellows and nine post dots in these two groups. During the third year, we started a new Tenure Track Strong Interaction Theory RHIC Physics Fellow Program, with six positions in the academic year 1999-2000; this program will increase to include eleven theorists in the next academic year, and, in the year after, also be extended to experimental physics. In addition, the Center has an active workshop program on strong interaction physics, about ten workshops a year, with each workshop focused on a specific physics problem. Each workshop speaker is encouraged to select few of the most important transparencies from his or her presentation, accompanied by a page of explanation. This material is collected at the end of the workshop by the organizer to form proceedings, which can therefore be available within a short time. The construction of a 0.6 teraflop parallel processor, which was begun at the Center on February 19, 1998, was completed on August 28, 1998

  4. Hidden Markov model tracking of continuous gravitational waves from a binary neutron star with wandering spin. II. Binary orbital phase tracking (United States)

    Suvorova, S.; Clearwater, P.; Melatos, A.; Sun, L.; Moran, W.; Evans, R. J.


    A hidden Markov model (HMM) scheme for tracking continuous-wave gravitational radiation from neutron stars in low-mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs) with wandering spin is extended by introducing a frequency-domain matched filter, called the J -statistic, which sums the signal power in orbital sidebands coherently. The J -statistic is similar but not identical to the binary-modulated F -statistic computed by demodulation or resampling. By injecting synthetic LMXB signals into Gaussian noise characteristic of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO), it is shown that the J -statistic HMM tracker detects signals with characteristic wave strain h0≥2 ×10-26 in 370 d of data from two interferometers, divided into 37 coherent blocks of equal length. When applied to data from Stage I of the Scorpius X-1 Mock Data Challenge organized by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, the tracker detects all 50 closed injections (h0≥6.84 ×10-26), recovering the frequency with a root-mean-square accuracy of ≤1.95 ×10-5 Hz . Of the 50 injections, 43 (with h0≥1.09 ×10-25) are detected in a single, coherent 10 d block of data. The tracker employs an efficient, recursive HMM solver based on the Viterbi algorithm, which requires ˜105 CPU-hours for a typical broadband (0.5 kHz) LMXB search.

  5. Imaging interfaces defined by abruptly varying internal magnetic fields by means of scanned nanoscale spin wave modes (United States)

    Du, Chunhui; Lee, Inhee; Adur, Rohan; Obukhov, Yuri; Hamann, Christine; Buchner, Bernd; McCord, Jeffrey; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris


    Nanoscale devices fabricated out of magnetic heterostructures are central to the emerging field of spintronics, so understanding of magnetization dynamics at interfaces between dissimilar materials is essential. Here we report local imaging of magnetization dynamics at the interface formed by a sharp discontinuity in the magnetic properties of a ferromagnetic thin film using localized mode ferromagnetic resonance force microscopy (FMRFM). The behavior of the localized modes near the interface evolves with increasing magnitude of the FMRFM probe field due to its competition with the steplike internal demagnetizing field. We use micromagnetic modeling to visualize the evolution of the localized mode as the magnetic probe is scanned across the interface. Our results demonstrate the ability to image sharp changes in internal magnetic properties in nanoscale devices and provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the generation and manipulation of localized modes near the interface, thus providing a new tool for microscopic studies of spin transport across magnetic interfaces and spin dynamics in their vicinity.

  6. Mechanical design of a rotary balance system for NASA. Langley Research Center's vertical spin tunnel (United States)

    Allred, J. W.; Fleck, V. J.


    A new lightweight Rotary Balance System is presently being fabricated and installed as part of a major upgrade to the existing 20 Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel. This upgrade to improve model testing productivity of the only free spinning vertical wind tunnel includes a modern fan/drive and tunnel control system, an updated video recording system, and the new rotary balance system. The rotary balance is a mechanical apparatus which enables the measurement of aerodynamic force and moment data under spinning conditions (100 rpm). This data is used in spin analysis and is vital to the implementation of large amplitude maneuvering simulations required for all new high performance aircraft. The new rotary balance system described in this report will permit greater test efficiency and improved data accuracy. Rotary Balance testing with the model enclosed in a tare bag can also be performed to obtain resulting model forces from the spinning operation. The rotary balance system will be stored against the tunnel sidewall during free flight model testing.

  7. Magnetic Nanostructures Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Farle, Michael


    Nanomagnetism and spintronics is a rapidly expanding and increasingly important field of research with many applications already on the market and many more to be expected in the near future. This field started in the mid-1980s with the discovery of the GMR effect, recently awarded with the Nobel prize to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg. The present volume covers the most important and most timely aspects of magnetic heterostructures, including spin torque effects, spin injection, spin transport, spin fluctuations, proximity effects, and electrical control of spin valves. The chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields and provide an overview of the latest status.

  8. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo


    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...

  9. Public acceptance of fusion energy and scientific feasibility of a fusion reactor. Spin-off effects of fusion research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morino, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Yuichi


    It is observed that new and sophisticated technologies developed through research and development in relation to magnetic confinement fusion have been transferred to other industrial and scientific fields with remarkable spin-off effects. Approximately 10 years ago, the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) has investigated technical transfer and spin-off effects of fusion technologies developed in Japan. The essence of the results of this investigation as well as high technologies developed in the last decade, some of which are in the early stage of technical spin-off, are described. It is additionally explained that independent technical development conducted by our country as well as by engineers themselves is important in achieving effective spin-off. An outline of scientific spin-off effects is also described, including utilization technologies of fusion reactions besides those for energy production purposes, the progress of scientific understanding in the course of fusion research, and scientific information transfer and communication with other fields. (author)

  10. Waves and turbulences studies in plasmas: ten years of research on quiescent plasmas at the Brazilian Space Research National Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.


    Quiescent plasmas generated by thermionic discharges and surface confined by multipole magnetic fields have been used in basic plasma research since 1973. The first machine was developed at UCLA (USA) to produce an uniform plasma for beam and waves studies in large cross section plasmas. A double quiescent plasma machine was constructed at the plasma laboratory of INPE in 1981, it began its operation producing linear ion-acoustic waves in an Argon plasma. Later on non linear ion acoustic waves and solitons were studied in plasma containing several species of negative and positive ions. The anomalous particle transport across multipole magnetic fields were also investigated. An anomalous resistivity associated with an ion acoustic turbulence is responsible for the formation of a small amplitude double-layer. The existence of a bootstrap mechanism is shown experimentally. Today, the main interest is toward the generation of Langmuir waves in non uniform plasmas. An experimental study on Langmuir wave generation using a grid system is been carried on. A magnetized quiescent plasma device for studies of whistle wave generation is been constructed. This machine will make possible future studies on several wave modes of magnetized plasmas. (author). 31 refs, 16 figs

  11. Experimental Research on the Characteristic of a Generator Used in Wave Energy Conversion (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyue; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Sun, Chongfei; Wu, Guoheng


    Due to the environmental issues like global warming and pollution, the exploration for ocean energy becomes important. Selecting the suitable generator for wave energy generation system is essential to improve the efficiency of power generation system. Thus, the object of the research is the generator of a self-adaptation inversion type wave energy absorption device. The major focus of this paper is the characteristics and the technique of the generator used in prototype. By setting up the generator performance test platform, the output voltage, efficiency and performance of the generator are tested to select the suitable generator for the wave energy generating system.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLAND, L.; SAITO, N.


    The sixth meeting of the RHIC Spin Collaboration (RSC) took place on October 1, 2001 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. RHIC is now in its second year of operation for physics production and the first polarized proton collision run at √s=200 GeV is expected to start in eight weeks. The RSC has developed a plan for this coming run through two previous meetings, RHIC Spin Physics III (August 3, 2000) and IV (October 13-14, 2000). We requested the following: two weeks of polarized proton studies in AGS, three weeks of polarized collider commissioning, and five weeks of polarized proton physics run. As a result, we have obtained all we asked and the above plans are implemented in the current operation schedule. The focus of the present meeting was to bring all involved in the RHIC Spin activities up-to-date on the progress of machine development, theory issues, and experimental issues. This meeting was right after the Program Advisory Committee (PAC) meeting and it started with the comments on the PAC discussion by Gerry Bunce, who was informed about the PAC deliberations by Tom Kirk. The PAC was fully supportive to complete the proposed spin program within the currently available budget for RHIC run 2 operations. Gerry further explained the expected luminosity to be ∫ Ldt = 0.5 pb -1 per week, reflecting the current machine status. The introductory session also had a talk from Werner Vogelsang that reviewed the progress in perturbative QCD theory focused on spin effects

  13. Data analysis of gravitational-wave signals from spinning neutron stars. IV. An all-sky search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astone, Pia; Borkowski, Kazimierz M.; Jaranowski, Piotr; Krolak, Andrzej


    We develop a set of data analysis tools for a realistic all-sky search for continuous gravitational-wave signals and we test our tools against simulated data. The aim of the paper is to prepare for an analysis of the real data from the EXPLORER bar detector; however, the methods that we present apply both to data from the resonant bar detectors that are currently in operation and the laser interferometric detectors that are in the final stages of construction and commissioning. With our techniques we shall be able to perform an all-sky coherent search of 2 days of data from the EXPLORER detector for a frequency bandwidth of 0.76 Hz in one month with 250 Mflops computing power. This search will detect all the continuous gravitational-wave signals with the dimensionless amplitude larger than 2.8x10 -23 with 99% confidence, assuming that the noise in the detector is Gaussian

  14. High-Frequency Gravitational Wave research and application to exoplanet studies (United States)

    Baker, R. M. L., Jr.


    A discussion of the history of High-Frequency Gravitational Wave (HFGW) research is first presented. Over the years until modern times, starting with the first mention of Gravitational Waves by Poincaré in 1905 and the definition of HFGWs in 1961 by Robert L. Forward, the discussion continues concerning the international research efforts to detect HFGWs. The article highlights the accomplishments of HFGW researchers in China, Russia, Ukraine, England, Australia, Japan, Germany, Spain, Italy, and the United States. Comparisons are made with Low-Frequency Gravitational Wave (LFGW) research, especially concerning the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Observatory or LIGO. In fine, there are presented several interesting perspectives concerning cosmology, the speed of time and, especially, exoplanet applications of HFGWs.

  15. Soft mode and energy gap in spin wave spectrum for a second order orientation phase transition. AFMR in YFe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbashov, A.M.; Berezin, A.G.; Gufan, Yu.M.; Kolyadko, G.S.; Marchukov, P.Yu.; Rudashevskij, E.G.


    A pronounced energy gap of a nonmagnetoelastic origin is observed experimentally in the spectrum of the low-frequency (quasiferromagnetic) antiferromagnetic resonance branch during a second order spin-flip phase transition in an external magnetic field directed along the a axis of the rhombic weak ferromagnetic YFeO 3 . From the theory developed which takes into account the susceptibility along the antiferromagnetism axis and dissipation processes, it follows that beside the usual AFMR oscillatory branches there should also be a relaxation mode which is ''soft'' fo the given transition. The magnitude of the energy gaps, the values of the kinetic coefficients, Dzyaloshinsky field strengths and ratio of the longitudinal susceptibility to the transverse susceptibility are determined by analyzing the experimental data obtained in fields up to 130 kOe in the frequency range from 60 to 400 GHz at room temperature

  16. ElectroEncephaloGraphics: Making waves in computer graphics research. (United States)

    Mustafa, Maryam; Magnor, Marcus


    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a novel modality for investigating perceptual graphics problems. Until recently, EEG has predominantly been used for clinical diagnosis, in psychology, and by the brain-computer-interface community. Researchers are extending it to help understand the perception of visual output from graphics applications and to create approaches based on direct neural feedback. Researchers have applied EEG to graphics to determine perceived image and video quality by detecting typical rendering artifacts, to evaluate visualization effectiveness by calculating the cognitive load, and to automatically optimize rendering parameters for images and videos on the basis of implicit neural feedback.

  17. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server


    This book offers an extensive introduction to the extremely rich and intriguing field of spin-related phenomena in semiconductors. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated to include the latest experimental and theoretical research. Furthermore, it covers the entire field: bulk semiconductors, two-dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum dots, optical and electric effects, spin-related effects, electron-nuclei spin interactions, Spin Hall effect, spin torques, etc. Thanks to its self-contained style, the book is ideally suited for graduate students and researchers new to the field.

  18. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in orthopedics, basic research, and clinical implications (United States)

    Hausdorf, Joerg; Jansson, Volkmar; Maier, Markus; Delius, Michael


    The molecular events following shock wave treatment of bone are widely unknown. Nevertheless patients with osteonecrosis and non unions are already treated partly successful with shock waves. Concerning the first indication, the question of the permeation of the shock wave into the bone was addressed. Therefore shockwaves were applied to porcine femoral heads and the intraosseous pressure was measured. A linear correlation of the pressure to the intraosseous distance was found. Approximately 50% of the pressure are still measurable 10 mm inside the femoral head. These findings should encourage continued shock wave research on this indication. Concerning the second indication (non union), osteoblasts were subjected to 250 or 500 shock waves at 25 kV. After 24, 48, and 72 h the levels of the bone and vascular growth factors bFGF, TGFbeta1, and VEGF were examined. After 24 h there was a significant increase in bFGF levels (p<0.05) with significant correlation (p<0.05) to the number of impulses. TGFbeta1, and VEGF showed no significant changes. This may be one piece in the cascade of new bone formation following shock wave treatment and may lead to a more specific application of shock waves in orthopedic surgery.

  19. Improving Data Collection and Analysis Interface for the Data Acquisition Software of the Spin Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Curatolo, Ben S.; Woike, Mark R.


    In jet engines, turbines spin at high rotational speeds. The forces generated from these high speeds make the rotating components of the turbines susceptible to developing cracks that can lead to major engine failures. The current inspection technologies only allow periodic examinations to check for cracks and other anomalies due to the requirements involved, which often necessitate entire engine disassembly. Also, many of these technologies cannot detect cracks that are below the surface or closed when the crack is at rest. Therefore, to overcome these limitations, efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center are underway to develop techniques and algorithms to detect cracks in rotating engine components. As a part of these activities, a high-precision spin laboratory is being utilized to expand and conduct highly specialized tests to develop methodologies that can assist in detecting predetermined cracks in a rotating turbine engine rotor. This paper discusses the various features involved in the ongoing testing at the spin laboratory and elaborates on its functionality and on the supporting data system tools needed to enable successfully running optimal tests and collecting accurate results. The data acquisition system and the associated software were updated and customized to adapt to the changes implemented on the test rig system and to accommodate the data produced by various sensor technologies. Discussion and presentation of these updates and the new attributes implemented are herein reported

  20. Research program in nuclear and solid state physics. [including pion absorption spectra and muon spin precession (United States)


    The survey of negative pion absorption reactions on light and medium nuclei was continued. Muon spin precession was studied using an iron target. An impulse approximation model of the pion absorption process implied that the ion will absorb almost exclusively on nucleon pairs, single nucleon absorption being suppressed by energy and momentum conservation requirements. For measurements on both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic iron, the external magnetic field was supplied by a large C-type electromagnet carrying a current of about 100 amperes.

  1. Managing Research Portfolios in the Knowledge Enterprise: A University Spin-Out Case Study (United States)

    Stantchev, Vladimir; Tamm, Gerrit

    Purely knowledge-based activities are of an increasing importance for modern enterprises. Moreover, innovative companies are focusing entirely on such high-profile activities and outsourcing the supporting tasks. In this work we focus on university spin-outs as an example. Such companies often enjoy the provision of administrative infrastructure (e.g., accounting, facilities) within an "incubator" area and can focus exclusively on innovation.

  2. Spin wave and percolation studies in epitaxial La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettayfi, A. [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain chock, Université Hassan II de Casablanca, B.P. 5366 Casablanca (Morocco); Moubah, R., E-mail: [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain chock, Université Hassan II de Casablanca, B.P. 5366 Casablanca (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Colis, S.; Lenertz, M.; Dinia, A. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS), UMR 7504 UDS-CNRS (UDS-ECPM), 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, F-67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Lassri, H. [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain chock, Université Hassan II de Casablanca, B.P. 5366 Casablanca (Morocco)


    We investigate the magnetic and transport properties of high quality La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction shows that the deposited films are epitaxial with the expected pseudo-cubic structure. Using the spin wave theory, the temperature dependence of magnetization was satisfactory modeled at low temperature, in which several fundamental magnetic parameters were obtained (spin wave stiffness, exchange constants, Fermi wave-vector, Mn–Mn interatomic distance). The transport properties were studied via the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity [ρ(T)], which shows a peak at Curie temperature due to metal to insulator transition. The percolation theory was used to simulate ρ(T) in both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases. Reasonable agreement with the experimental data is reported. - Highlights: • The magnetic and transport properties of epitaxial La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin films are investigated. • The M(T) curve was modeled at low temperature, and several magnetic parameters were obtained using spin wave theory. • The percolation theory was used to simulate ρ(T) in both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases.

  3. Optical Diode Effect at Spin-Wave Excitations of the Room-Temperature Multiferroic BiFeO_{3}. (United States)

    Kézsmárki, I; Nagel, U; Bordács, S; Fishman, R S; Lee, J H; Yi, Hee Taek; Cheong, S-W; Rõõm, T


    Multiferroics permit the magnetic control of the electric polarization and the electric control of the magnetization. These static magnetoelectric (ME) effects are of enormous interest: The ability to read and write a magnetic state current-free by an electric voltage would provide a huge technological advantage. Dynamic or optical ME effects are equally interesting, because they give rise to unidirectional light propagation as recently observed in low-temperature multiferroics. This phenomenon, if realized at room temperature, would allow the development of optical diodes which transmit unpolarized light in one, but not in the opposite, direction. Here, we report strong unidirectional transmission in the room-temperature multiferroic BiFeO_{3} over the gigahertz-terahertz frequency range. The supporting theory attributes the observed unidirectional transmission to the spin-current-driven dynamic ME effect. These findings are an important step toward the realization of optical diodes, supplemented by the ability to switch the transmission direction with a magnetic or electric field.

  4. Modeling the Multi-band Afterglow of GRB 130831A: Evidence for a Spinning-down Magnetar Dominated by Gravitational Wave Losses? (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Huang, Y. F.; Zong, H. S.


    The X-ray afterglow of GRB 130831A shows an “internal plateau” with a decay slope of ˜0.8, followed by a steep drop at around 105 s with a slope of ˜6. After the drop, the X-ray afterglow continues with a much shallower decay. The optical afterglow exhibits two segments of plateaus separated by a luminous optical flare, followed by a normal decay with a slope basically consistent with that of the late-time X-ray afterglow. The decay of the internal X-ray plateau is much steeper than what we expect in the simplest magnetar model. We propose a scenario in which the magnetar undergoes gravitational-wave-driven r-mode instability, and the spin-down is dominated by gravitational wave losses up to the end of the steep plateau, so that such a relatively steep plateau can be interpreted as the internal emission of the magnetar wind and the sharp drop can be produced when the magnetar collapses into a black hole. This scenario also predicts an initial X-ray plateau lasting for hundreds of seconds with an approximately constant flux which is compatible with observation. Assuming that the magnetar wind has a negligible contribution in the optical band, we interpret the optical afterglow as the forward shock emission by invoking the energy injection from a continuously refreshed shock following the prompt emission phase. It is shown that our model can basically describe the temporal evolution of the multi-band afterglow of GRB 130831A.

  5. Semiclassical treatment of transport and spin relaxation in spin-orbit coupled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueffe, Matthias Clemens


    The coupling of orbital motion and spin, as derived from the relativistic Dirac equation, plays an important role not only in the atomic spectra but as well in solid state physics. Spin-orbit interactions are fundamental for the young research field of semiconductor spintronics, which is inspired by the idea to use the electron's spin instead of its charge for fast and power saving information processing in the future. However, on the route towards a functional spin transistor there is still some groundwork to be done, e.g., concerning the detailed understanding of spin relaxation in semiconductors. The first part of the present thesis can be placed in this context. We have investigated the processes contributing to the relaxation of a particularly long-lived spin-density wave, which can exist in semiconductor heterostructures with Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling of precisely the same magnitude. We have used a semiclassical spindiffusion equation to study the influence of the Coulomb interaction on the lifetime of this persistent spin helix. We have thus established that, in the presence of perturbations that violate the special symmetry of the problem, electron-electron scattering can have an impact on the relaxation of the spin helix. The resulting temperature-dependent lifetime reproduces the experimentally observed one in a satisfactory manner. It turns out that cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is the most important symmetry-breaking element. The Coulomb interaction affects the dynamics of the persistent spin helix also via an Hartree-Fock exchange field. As a consequence, the individual spins precess about the vector of the surrounding local spin density, thus causing a nonlinear dynamics. We have shown that, for an experimentally accessible degree of initial spin polarization, characteristic non-linear effects such as a dramatic increase of lifetime and the appearance of higher harmonics can be expected. Another fascinating solid

  6. Effects of the competition between the exchange and dipolar interactions in the spin-wave spectrum of two-dimensional circularly magnetized nanodots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamica, S; Krawczyk, M; Lévy, J-C S


    We use a microscopic theory taking into account the dipolar and nearest-neighbour exchange interactions for exploring spin-wave excitations in two-dimensional magnetic dots in the vortex state. Normal modes of different profiles are observed: azimuthal and radial modes, as well as fundamental (quasiuniform) and highly localized modes. We examine the dependence of the frequencies and profiles of these modes on the dipolar-to-exchange interaction ratio and the size of the dot. Special attention is paid to some particular modes, including the lowest mode in the spectrum and the evolution of its profile, and the fundamental mode, the frequency of which proves almost independent of the dipolar-to-exchange interaction ratio. We also provide a selective overview of the experimental, analytical and numerical results from the literature, where different profiles of the lowest mode are reported. We attribute this diversity to the competition between the dipolar and exchange interactions. Finally, we study the hybridization of the modes, show the multi-mode hybridization and explain the selection rules. (paper)

  7. Finite-temperature coupled-cluster, many-body perturbation, and restricted and unrestricted Hartree-Fock study on one-dimensional solids: Luttinger liquids, Peierls transitions, and spin- and charge-density waves. (United States)

    Hermes, Matthew R; Hirata, So


    One-dimensional (1D) solids exhibit a number of striking electronic structures including charge-density wave (CDW) and spin-density wave (SDW). Also, the Peierls theorem states that at zero temperature, a 1D system predicted by simple band theory to be a metal will spontaneously dimerize and open a finite fundamental bandgap, while at higher temperatures, it will assume the equidistant geometry with zero bandgap (a Peierls transition). We computationally study these unique electronic structures and transition in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene using finite-temperature generalizations of ab initio spin-unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) and spin-restricted coupled-cluster doubles (CCD) theories, extending upon previous work [He et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024702 (2014)] that is based on spin-restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories. Unlike RHF, UHF can predict SDW as well as CDW and metallic states, and unlike MP2, CCD does not diverge even if the underlying RHF reference wave function is metallic. UHF predicts a gapped SDW state with no dimerization at low temperatures, which gradually becomes metallic as the temperature is raised. CCD, meanwhile, confirms that electron correlation lowers the Peierls transition temperature. Furthermore, we show that the results from all theories for both polymers are subject to a unified interpretation in terms of the UHF solutions to the Hubbard-Peierls model using different values of the electron-electron interaction strength, U/t, in its Hamiltonian. The CCD wave function is shown to encompass the form of the exact solution of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model and is thus expected to describe accurately the electronic structure of Luttinger liquids.

  8. Research on definition of hard rock shear wave velocity of site for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Zhenkun; Xia Zufeng


    Background: The definition of hard rock shear wave velocity is one of the most critical issues in the work of site selection. Purpose: To make a definition of hard rock site on which the model can be assumed as fixed-base condition, a series of research had been done. Several possible hard rock site soil models were developed. Methods: Shear wave velocity of hard rock had been assumed from 1100 m/s to 3200 m/s. For each case, free field analysis and soil structure analysis had been performed. And responses in soil and key nodes of structure were compared. Results: In free field analysis, responses of models that shear wave velocity below 2400 m/s decreased a lot. In SSI analysis, structure responses didn't change much when shear wave velocity was above 2400 m/s. Conclusions: 2400 m/s was the lowest shear wave velocity for hard rock site for fixed-base assumption. (authors)

  9. Experimental Research about Shock Wave in a 1+1/2 Counter-Rotating Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chao


    Full Text Available To investigate the internal distribution regularities of shock wave structure in 1+1/2 counter-rotating turbine, numerical simulation and experimental research about the shock wave structure were conducted by using the schlieren apparatus under different working conditions.From the point of the unsteady results, the unsteady effect has few influence on the flow field of high pressure guide vane, but the wake of the high pressure guide leaves periodically sweeps through the front edge of the high pressure blade and there presents strong unsteady effect on flow field of high pressure rotor. Because of periodic influence of external wake and shock wave, the unsteadiness of flow in low pressure rotor is still strong but not that drastic compared to the high pressure rotor. 50% height section of the blade of the three types of blades are extracted respectively to make plane cascades which are conducted blowing experiments in supersonic wind tunnel. The final photograph were analyzed by comparing with the CFD results. Results show that with the increase of expansion ratio, the wave structures in blade channel move toward the exit and the caudal interference between the outer tail wave and is strengthened gradually.

  10. Some little-known facts and events from the history of gravitational wave research in Ukraine (United States)

    Yatskiv, Ya. S.,; Vavilova, I. B.; Romanets, O. A.; Savchuk, V. S.


    The paper deals with the history of gravitational wave research in Ukraine and describes two little-known facts and events. The first one is concerning with a short period of Dr. Nathan Rosen's life in Kyiv and his scientific activity at the Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the UkrSSR in 1936-1938 years. At that time, he has published several papers, which promoted the first steps in the creation of modern theories in the fields of gravity and quantum physics. These papers, including "Plane-polarized waves in the General Theory of Relativity", have been issued in the "Ukrainian Physical Notes" ("Ukrainski Fizychni Zapysky"), which was not widely accessed. We quote also some parts from correspondence of N. Rosen and A. Einstein in this period. The second comment is related to the history of gravitational wave experimental research in Kyiv, which were initiated in 1970s by Prof. Aleksey Z. Petrov at the Institute of Theoretical Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the UkrSSR. We describe briefly the development of the detector of high-frequency gravitational waves (the Weber type antenna) as well as results obtained by K.A. Piragas's group.

  11. Spin Hall effect devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; Wunderlich, Joerg; Olejník, Kamil


    Roč. 11, č. 5 (2012), s. 382-390 ISSN 1476-1122 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN; European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : spin Hall effect * spintronics * spin transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 35.749, year: 2012

  12. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi


    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  13. Spin equilibrium with or without gravitational wave emission: the case of XTE J1814-338 and SAX J1808.4-3658

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haskell, B.D.L.; Patruno, A.


    In this Letter we present a new analysis of the torques acting on the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars SAX J1808.4-3658 and XTE J1814-338, and show how our results can be used to constrain theoretical models of the spin evolution. In particular, we find upper limits on any spin-up/down phase of

  14. A controllable spin prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakioglu, T


    Based on Khodas et al (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 086602), we propose a device acting like a controllable prism for an incident spin. The device is a large quantum well where Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are present and controlled by the plunger gate potential, the electric field and the barrier height. A totally destructive interference can be manipulated externally between the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings. The spin-dependent transmission/reflection amplitudes are calculated as the control parameters are changed. The device operates as a spin prism/converter/filter in different regimes and may stimulate research in promising directions in spintronics in analogy with linear optics.

  15. Human responses to wave slamming vibration on a polar supply and research vessel. (United States)

    Omer, H; Bekker, A


    A polar supply and research vessel is pre-disposed to wave slamming which has caused complaints among crew and researchers regarding interference with sleep, equipment use and research activities. The present work undertook to survey passenger claims of sleep interference, disturbed motor tasks and equipment damage as a result of wave slamming during normal operations of this vessel. The hypothesis was investigated that whole-body vibration metrics from ISO 2631-1 are potentially suitable for the prediction of human slamming complaints. Full-scale acceleration measurements were performed and wave slamming events were subsequently identified from the human weighted acceleration time histories. A daily diary survey was also conducted to gather the human response. The vibration caused by wave slamming was found to be strongly correlated with sleep disturbances and activity interference. Sleep and equipment use were found to be the most affected parameters by slamming. Daily vibration dose values were determined by accumulating the vibration as a result of slamming over 24 h periods. This metric accounted for increased magnitudes and frequency of slamming incidents and proved to be the best metric to represent human responses to slamming vibration. The greatest percentage of activities affected by slamming related to sleep regardless of daily cumulative VDV magnitude. More than 50% of the recorded responses related to sleep when the daily cumulative VDV ranged between 8.0 m/s 1.75 -10.0 m/s 1.75 . The peak vertical vibration levels recorded on the vessel reach magnitudes which are associated with sleep disturbance in environments where acoustic noise is present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spin-controlled atom-ion chemistry. (United States)

    Sikorsky, Tomas; Meir, Ziv; Ben-Shlomi, Ruti; Akerman, Nitzan; Ozeri, Roee


    Quantum control of chemical reactions is an important goal in chemistry and physics. Ultracold chemical reactions are often controlled by preparing the reactants in specific quantum states. Here we demonstrate spin-controlled atom-ion inelastic (spin-exchange) processes and chemical (charge-exchange) reactions in an ultracold Rb-Sr + mixture. The ion's spin state is controlled by the atomic hyperfine spin state via spin-exchange collisions, which polarize the ion's spin parallel to the atomic spin. We achieve ~ 90% spin polarization due to the absence of strong spin-relaxation channel. Charge-exchange collisions involving electron transfer are only allowed for (RbSr) + colliding in the singlet manifold. Initializing the atoms in various spin states affects the overlap of the collision wave function with the singlet molecular manifold and therefore also the reaction rate. Our observations agree with theoretical predictions.

  17. Observation of the spin Nernst effect (United States)

    Meyer, S.; Chen, Y.-T.; Wimmer, S.; Althammer, M.; Wimmer, T.; Schlitz, R.; Geprägs, S.; Huebl, H.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Ebert, H.; Bauer, G. E. W.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.


    The observation of the spin Hall effect triggered intense research on pure spin current transport. With the spin Hall effect, the spin Seebeck effect and the spin Peltier effect already observed, our picture of pure spin current transport is almost complete. The only missing piece is the spin Nernst (-Ettingshausen) effect, which so far has been discussed only on theoretical grounds. Here, we report the observation of the spin Nernst effect. By applying a longitudinal temperature gradient, we generate a pure transverse spin current in a Pt thin film. For readout, we exploit the magnetization-orientation-dependent spin transfer to an adjacent yttrium iron garnet layer, converting the spin Nernst current in Pt into a controlled change of the longitudinal and transverse thermopower voltage. Our experiments show that the spin Nernst and the spin Hall effect in Pt are of comparable magnitude, but differ in sign, as corroborated by first-principles calculations.

  18. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump (United States)

    Ting, David Z.


    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  19. Physics lab in spin

    CERN Multimedia

    Hawkes, N


    RAL is fostering commerical exploitation of its research and facilities in two main ways : spin-out companies exploit work done at the lab, spin-in companies work on site taking advantage of the facilities and the expertise available (1/2 page).

  20. A transportable hybrid antenna-transmitter system for the generation of elliptically polarized waves for NVIS propagation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, Ben A.; Laanstra, Geert J.; van Maanen, Erik; Alsina-Pagès, Rosa M.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Slump, Cornelis H.; Schiphorst, Roelof


    For empirical research on Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) characteristic wave propagation, a beacon transmitter system is needed that can be programmed to emit precisely defined elliptically and circularly polarized waves at high elevation angles. This paper proposes a novel hybrid

  1. Dynamics of Coupled Quantum Spin Chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, H.J.


    Static and dynamical properties of weakly coupled antiferromagnetic spin chains are treated using a mean-field approximation for the interchain coupling and exact results for the resulting effective one-dimensional problem. Results for staggered magnetization, Nacute eel temperature, and spin wave excitations are in agreement with experiments on KCuF 3 . The existence of a narrow longitudinal mode is predicted. The results are in agreement with general scaling arguments, contrary to spin wave theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. The Cerebral Blood Flow Biomedical Informatics Research Network (CBFBIRN Database and Analysis Pipeline for Arterial Spin Labeling MRI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. Shin


    Full Text Available Arterial spin labeling (ASL is a MRI technique that provides a noninvasive and quantitative measure of cerebral blood flow (CBF. After more than a decade of active research, ASL is now emerging as a robust and reliable CBF measurement technique with increased availability and ease of use. There is a growing number of research and clinical sites using ASL for neuroscience research and clinical care. In this paper, we present an online CBF Database and Analysis Pipeline, collectively called the CBFBIRN that allows researchers to upload and share ASL and clinical data. In addition to serving the role as a central data repository, the CBFBIRN provides a streamlined data processing infrastructure for CBF quantification and group analysis, which has the potential to accelerate the discovery of new scientific and clinical knowledge. All capabilities and features built into the CBFBIRN are accessed online using a web browser through a secure login. In this work, we begin with a general description of the CBFBIRN system data model and its architecture, then devote the remainder of the paper to the CBFBIRN capabilities. The latter part of our work is divided into two processing modules: 1 Data Upload and CBF Quantification Module; 2 Group Analysis Module that supports three types of analysis commonly used in neuroscience research. To date, the CBFBIRN hosts CBF maps and associated clinical data from more than 1300 individual subjects. The data have been contributed by more than 20 different research studies, investigating the effect of various conditions on CBF including Alzheimer’s, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, traumatic brain injury, HIV, caffeine usage and Methamphetamine abuse. Several example results, generated by the CBFBIRN processing modules, are presented. We conclude with the lessons learned during implementation and deployment of the CBFBIRN and our experience in promoting data sharing.

  3. Topics in numerical relativity : the periodic standing-wave approximation, the stability of constraints in free evolution, and the spin of dynamical black holes (United States)

    Owen, Robert

    This thesis concerns numerical relativity, the attempt to study Einstein's theory of gravitation using numerical discretization. The goal of the field, the study of gravitational dynamics in cases where symmetry reduction or perturbation theory are not possible, finally seems to be coming to fruition, at least for the archetypal problem of the inspiral and coalescence of binary black hole systems. This thesis presents three episodes that each bear some relationship to this story.Chapters 2 and 3 present previously published work in collaboration with Richard Price and others on the so-called periodic standing-wave (PSW) approximation for binary inspiral. The approximation is to balance outgoing radiation with incoming radiation, stabilizing the orbit and making the problem stationary in a rotating frame. Chapters 2 and 3 apply the method to the problem of co-orbiting charges coupled to a nonlinear scalar field in three dimensions.Chapters 4, 5, and 6 concern the stability of constraint fields in conventional numerical relativity simulations. Chapter 4 (also previously published work, in collaboration with the Caltech numerical relativity group, along with Michael Holst and Lawrence Kidder) presents a method for immediately correcting violations of constraints after they have arisen. Chapters 5 and 6 present methods to ``damp' away constraint violations dynamically in two specific contexts. Chapter 5 (previously published work in collaboration with the Caltech numerical relativity group and Lawrence Kidder) presents a first-order linearly degenerate symmetric hyperbolic representation of Einstein's equations in generalized harmonic gauge. A representation is presented that stabilizes all constraints, including those that appear when the system is written in first-order form. Chapter 6 presents a generalization of the Kidder-Scheel-Teukolsky evolution systems that provides much-improved stability. This is investigated with numerical simulations of a single black hole

  4. Anomalous triple point effects in the spin-density-wave Cr{sub 1−x}Al{sub x} alloy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, C.J., E-mail: [Physics Department, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Prinsloo, A.R.E.; Alberts, H.L.; Muchono, B. [Physics Department, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Strydom, A.M. [Physics Department, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzerstr. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)


    Highlights: • Extensive investigation into the physical properties of Cr–Al single crystals. • Unusual and prominent influence of SDW reflected in physical properties. • Alternative magnetic phase diagram suggested for Cr–Al system. • Triple point on phase diagram minimum appears to be deeper and narrower. • Triple point appears to be enigmatic critical point to be further investigated. - Abstract: It was recently suggested that for the Cr{sub 1−x}Al{sub x} alloy system the Sommerfeld specific heat coefficient (γ) as a function of x may peak at the triple point (TP) concentration (x{sub t}) of the x–T magnetic phase diagram. The TP at (x{sub t}, T{sub t}) represents the intersection point of three magnetic phase transition lines at which incommensurate (I) and commensurate (C) spin-density-wave (SDW) phases are expected to coexist with the paramagnetic (P) phase. A comprehensive experimental study on the physical properties of single crystalline Cr{sub 1−x}Al{sub x} alloys in the concentration range 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.034, that encloses x{sub t}, is reported here for further investigations of the above conjecture and possible anomalous behaviour in other physical properties near x{sub t}. The measurements include the electrical resistivity (ρ), Seebeck coefficient (S), specific heat (C{sub p}), Hall coefficient (R{sub H}), magnetic susceptibility (χ) and thermal conductivity (κ). All these properties, except for κ, depict anomalous temperature and concentration dependencies of SDW origin for x close to x{sub t}. The present study indicates a value of x{sub t} rather close to x = 0.022. The x-dependence of γ exhibits an extraordinary large and sharp peak near this concentration. This observation is interpreted as indication that the temperature of the TP is likely situated at 0 K. A new magnetic phase diagram is therefore proposed for the Cr{sub 1−x}Al{sub x} alloy system for x in the region of x{sub t}. This study presents novel experimental

  5. Researchers Who Surf: Riding the Waves of Analysis in Self-Study Research (United States)

    Conley, Matthew D.; Colabucci, Lesley


    In this paper, two beginning qualitative researchers describe the challenges and successes of conducting a collaborative self-study. For two academic years, the authors wrote and analyzed personal narratives related to their experiences as a lesbian and a gay man, respectively, in educational contexts. This article addresses the data analysis…

  6. Experimental imaging research on continuous-wave terahertz in-line digital holography (United States)

    Huang, Haochong; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin


    The terahertz (THz) imaging is an advanced technique on the basis of the unique characteristics of terahertz radiation. Due to its noncontact, non-invasive and high-resolution capabilities, it has already shown great application prospects in biomedical observation, sample measurement, and quality control. The continuous-wave terahertz in-line digital holography is a combination of terahertz technology and in-line digital holography of which the source is a continuous-wave terahertz laser. Over the past decade, many researchers used different terahertz sources and detectors to undertake experiments. In this paper, the pre-process of the hologram is accomplished after the holograms' recording process because of the negative pixels in the pyroelectric detector and the air vibration caused by the chopper inside the camera. To improve the quality of images, the phase retrieval algorithm is applied to eliminate the twin images. In the experiment, the pin which terahertz wave can't penetrate and the TPX slice carved letters "THz" are chosen for the samples. The amplitude and phase images of samples are obtained and the twin image and noise in the reconstructed images are suppressed. The results validate the feasibility of the terahertz in-line digital holographic imaging technique. This work also shows the terahertz in-line digital holography technique's prospects in materials science and biological samples' detection.

  7. It's All How You "Spin" It: Interpretive Bias in Research Findings in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Literature. (United States)

    Turrentine, Mark


    Scientific publications can be subject to varying degrees of interpretive bias, also known as spin. The rate of spin in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with nonsignificant primary outcomes in the general obstetrics and gynecology literature is unknown. A decade (January 2006 through December 2015) of the tables of contents of Obstetrics & Gynecology and the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology were screened, with 503 RCTs identified. Limiting assessment to only parallel-group RCTs with a nonsignificant primary outcome (P≥.05) resulted in the identification of 194 studies. The abstracts of the articles reported the primary outcome in 93% of studies with 79% containing a precision estimate but only 25% noting an effect size. The extent of any type of spin occurred in 43% of abstracts and 50% of the main text. In articles that contained spin in the abstract, the more common types were: emphasizing statistically significant secondary results despite a nonsignificant primary outcome (40%); interpreting statistically nonsignificant primary results as showing treatment equivalence or comparable effectiveness (37%); and emphasizing the beneficial effect of the treatment despite statistically nonsignificant results (15%). Half of parallel-group RCTs with nonsignificant primary outcomes published in the two leading journals in general obstetrics and gynecology contains some level of spin. As readers of the medical literature, we should be aware of the concept of spin, the diversity and heterogeneity of spin in the reporting of conclusions, and its effects, particularly when discussing articles that may change clinical practice.

  8. Spin dynamics with inertia in metallic ferromagnets (United States)

    Kikuchi, Toru; Tatara, Gen


    The nonadiabatic contribution of environmental degrees of freedom yields an effective inertia of spin in the effective spin dynamics. In this paper, we study several aspects of the inertia of spin in metallic ferromagnets: (i) a concrete expression of the spin inertia ms: ms=ℏ Sc/(2 gsd) , where Sc is the spin polarization of conduction electrons and gsd is the s d coupling constant; (ii) a dynamical behavior of spin with inertia, discussed from the viewpoints of a spinning top and of a particle on a sphere; (iii) the behavior of spin waves and domain walls in the presence of inertia and the behavior of spin with inertia under a time-dependent magnetic field.

  9. Progress Report on the GROWTH (GNSS Reflectometry for Ocean Waves, Tides, and Height) Research Project (United States)

    Kitazawa, Y.; Ichikawa, K.; Akiyama, H.; Ebinuma, T.; Isoguchi, O.; Kimura, N.; Konda, M.; Kouguchi, N.; Tamura, H.; Tomita, H.; Yoshikawa, Y.; Waseda, T.


    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as GPS is a system of satellites that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location to high precision using radio signals transmitted from satellites, GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) involves making measurements from the reflections from the Earth of navigation signals from GNSS satellites. Reflected signals from sea surface are considered that those are useful to observe sea state and sea surface height. We have started a research program for GNSS-R applications on oceanographic observations under the contract with MEXT (Ministry of Education Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN) and launched a Japanese research consortium, GROWTH (GNSS Reflectometry for Ocean Waves, Tides, and Height). It is aiming to evaluate the capabilities of GNSS-R observations for oceanographic phenomena with different time scales, such as ocean waves (1/10 to tens of seconds), tides (one or half days), and sea surface dynamic height (a few days to years). In situ observations of ocean wave spectrum, wind speed vertical profile, and sea surface height will be quantitatively compared with equivalent estimates from simultaneous GNSS-R measurements. The GROWTH project will utilize different types of observation platforms; marine observation towers (about 20 m height), multi-copters (about 100 to 150 m height), and much higher-altitude CYGNSS data. Cross-platform data, together with in situ oceanographic observations, will be compared after adequate temporal averaging that accounts differences of the footprint sizes and temporal and spatial scales of oceanographic phenomena. This paper will provide overview of the GROWTH project, preliminary test results, obtained by the multi-sensor platform at observation towers, suggest actual footprint sizes and identification of swell. Preparation status of a ground station which will be supplied to receive CYGNSS data

  10. Spin-polarized free electron beam interaction with radiation and superradiant spin-flip radiative emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gover


    Full Text Available The problems of spin-polarized free-electron beam interaction with electromagnetic wave at electron-spin resonance conditions in a magnetic field and of superradiant spin-flip radiative emission are analyzed in the framework of a comprehensive classical model. The spontaneous emission of spin-flip radiation from electron beams is very weak. We show that the detectivity of electron spin resonant spin-flip and combined spin-flip/cyclotron-resonance-emission radiation can be substantially enhanced by operating with ultrashort spin-polarized electron beam bunches under conditions of superradiant (coherent emission. The proposed radiative spin-state modulation and the spin-flip radiative emission schemes can be used for control and noninvasive diagnostics of polarized electron/positron beams. Such schemes are of relevance in important scattering experiments off nucleons in nuclear physics and off magnetic targets in condensed matter physics.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The much anticipated RHIC spin physics program will commence this fall when the first physics run with colliding beams of polarized protons is expected. More specifically, the planned year-1 RHIC-Spin measurements are (1) the double-spin asymmetry A{sub LL}{sup {pi}} in production of pions by collisions of longitudinally polarized protons (in order to obtain first information on the proton's spin-dependent gluon density, {Delta}g); (2) the transverse single-spin asymmetry A{sub N}{sup {pi}} for pion production. These two reactions provided part of the motivation for our workshop. On the first day there were informative talks on the specific plans of STAR (by Rakness) and PHENIX (by Goto) for the polarized run of Year-1. Some of the theoretical questions related to the double-spin asymmetry A{sub LL}{sup {pi}} were discussed on the first day by Vogelsang and Kretzer, which centered mostly around the questions of how well the unpolarized fragmentation functions are known, the need for next-to-leading order calculations, and on how sensitive the asymmetry is to the possible {Delta}g distributions. Vetterli presented HERMES measurements of fragmentation functions, which overlap in Q{sup 2} with the future lower-p{sub T} measurements at RHIC.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The much anticipated RHIC spin physics program will commence this fall when the first physics run with colliding beams of polarized protons is expected. More specifically, the planned year-1 RHIC-Spin measurements are (1) the double-spin asymmetry A LL π in production of pions by collisions of longitudinally polarized protons (in order to obtain first information on the proton's spin-dependent gluon density, Δg); (2) the transverse single-spin asymmetry A N π for pion production. These two reactions provided part of the motivation for our workshop. On the first day there were informative talks on the specific plans of STAR (by Rakness) and PHENIX (by Goto) for the polarized run of Year-1. Some of the theoretical questions related to the double-spin asymmetry A LL π were discussed on the first day by Vogelsang and Kretzer, which centered mostly around the questions of how well the unpolarized fragmentation functions are known, the need for next-to-leading order calculations, and on how sensitive the asymmetry is to the possible Δg distributions. Vetterli presented HERMES measurements of fragmentation functions, which overlap in Q 2 with the future lower-p T measurements at RHIC

  13. Quantum revivals and magnetization tunneling in effective spin systems (United States)

    Krizanac, M.; Altwein, D.; Vedmedenko, E. Y.; Wiesendanger, R.


    Quantum mechanical objects or nano-objects have been proposed as bits for information storage. While time-averaged properties of magnetic, quantum-mechanical particles have been extensively studied experimentally and theoretically, experimental investigations of the real time evolution of magnetization in the quantum regime were not possible until recent developments in pump-probe techniques. Here we investigate the quantum dynamics of effective spin systems by means of analytical and numerical treatments. Particular attention is paid to the quantum revival time and its relation to the magnetization tunneling. The quantum revival time has been initially defined as the recurrence time of a total wave-function. Here we show that the quantum revivals of wave-functions and expectation values in spin systems may be quite different which gives rise to a more sophisticated definition of the quantum revival within the realm of experimental research. Particularly, the revival times for integer spins coincide which is not the case for half-integer spins. Furthermore, the quantum revival is found to be shortest for integer ratios between the on-site anisotropy and an external magnetic field paving the way to novel methods of anisotropy measurements. We show that the quantum tunneling of magnetization at avoided level crossing is coherent to the quantum revival time of expectation values, leading to a connection between these two fundamental properties of quantum mechanical spins.

  14. On the distribution of stellar-sized black hole spins


    Nielsen, Alex B.


    Black hole spin will have a large impact on searches for gravitational waves with advanced detectors. While only a few stellar mass black hole spins have been measured using X- ray techniques, gravitational wave detectors have the capacity to greatly increase the statistics of black hole spin measurements. We show what we might learn from these measurements and how the black hole spin values are influenced by their formation channels.

  15. On the distribution of stellar-sized black hole spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Alex B.


    Black hole spin will have a large impact on searches for gravitational waves with advanced detectors. While only a few stellar mass black hole spins have been measured using X- ray techniques, gravitational wave detectors have the capacity to greatly increase the statistics of black hole spin measurements. We show what we might learn from these measurements and how the black hole spin values are influenced by their formation channels. (paper)

  16. Issues related to YIG spintronics - thin film growth, spin pumping efficiency, and spin current generation (United States)

    Wu, Mingzhong


    If a magnetic field is applied to a magnetic material, the field produces a torque on the magnetization of the material and drives it to precess. This precession is similar to the motion of a spinning top where the gravitational field produces a torque, instead of the magnetic field. It turns out that magnetization precession in yttrium iron garnets (YIG) decays slower than in any other known magnetic materials. This fact gives rise to the recent birth of a new paradigm in the discipline of spintronics - ``spintronics using YIG.'' This talk will touch on several topics related to YIG spintronics. The first part will demonstrate the feasibility of the use of pulsed laser deposition and magnetron sputtering to grow low-damping, nanometer-thick YIG films. The second part will address the efficiency of spin angular momentum transfer across YIG/normal metal interfaces. The last part will report on the use of YIG thin films to produce pure spin currents; Detailed discussions will be provided on the comparison between spin current generations using traveling spin waves and uniform ferromagnetic resonance modes, the field dependence of spin current generation, and spin current enhancement in YIG/Pt structures via the use of a thin Cu spacer. This work was supported in part by U.S. National Science Foundation (No. ECCS-1231598), the U.S. Army Research Office (No. W911NF-12-1-0518, No. W911NF-11-C-0075), and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (No. 60NANB10D011).

  17. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi


    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  18. Estimation of Directional Surface Wave Spectra from a Towed Research Catamaran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Kurt


    During the High Resolution Remote Sensing Main Experiment, wave height was estimated from a moving catamaran using pitch rate and roll rate sensors, a three axis accelerometer, and a capacitive wave wire...

  19. Frustrated spin systems

    CERN Document Server


    This book covers all principal aspects of currently investigated frustrated systems, from exactly solved frustrated models to real experimental frustrated systems, going through renormalization group treatment, Monte Carlo investigation of frustrated classical Ising and vector spin models, low-dimensional systems, spin ice and quantum spin glass. The reader can - within a single book - obtain a global view of the current research development in the field of frustrated systems.This new edition is updated with recent theoretical, numerical and experimental developments in the field of frustrated

  20. Spin Hall effect transistor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wunderlich, Joerg; Park, B.G.; Irvine, A.C.; Zarbo, Liviu; Rozkotová, E.; Němec, P.; Novák, Vít; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomáš


    Roč. 330, č. 6012 (2010), s. 1801-1804 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk LC510 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : spin Hall effect * spintronics * spin transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 31.364, year: 2010

  1. Spin Transport in Semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinescu, Domnita Catalina


    The focus of the research performed under this grant has been the investigation of spin transport in magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. The interest in these systems is motivated both by their intriguing physical properties, as the physical embodiment of a spin-polarized Fermi liquid, as well as by their potential applications as spintronics devices. In our work we have analyzed several different problems that affect the spin dynamics in single and bi-layer spin-polarized two-dimensional (2D) systems. The topics of interests ranged from the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions, to collective spin and charge density excitations and spin transport in the presence of the spin-orbit coupling. The common denominator of these subjects is the impact at the macroscopic scale of the spin-dependent electron-electron interaction, which plays a much more subtle role than in unpolarized electron systems. Our calculations of several measurable parameters, such as the excitation frequencies of magneto-plasma modes, the spin mass, and the spin transresistivity, propose realistic theoretical estimates of the opposite-spin many-body effects, in particular opposite-spin correlations, that can be directly connected with experimental measurements.

  2. Spin Electronics (United States)


    applications, a ferromagnetic metal may be used as a source of spin-polarized electronics to be injected into a semiconductor, a superconductor or a...physical phenomena in II-VI and III-V semiconductors. In II-VI systems, the Mn2+ ions act to boost the electron spin precession up to terahertz ...conductors, proximity effect between ferromagnets and superconductors , and the effects of spin injection on the physical properties of the

  3. Spin doctoring


    Vozková, Markéta


    1 ABSTRACT The aim of this text is to provide an analysis of the phenomenon of spin doctoring in the Euro-Atlantic area. Spin doctors are educated people in the fields of semiotics, cultural studies, public relations, political communication and especially familiar with the infrastructure and the functioning of the media industry. Critical reflection of manipulative communication techniques puts spin phenomenon in historical perspective and traces its practical use in today's social communica...

  4. The continuous spin limit of higher spin field equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekaert, Xavier [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, Le Bois-Marie, 35 route de Chartres, 91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Mourad, Jihad [APC, Universite Paris VII, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France); LPT, Bat. 210, Universite Paris XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)


    We show that the Wigner equations describing the continuous spin representations can be obtained as a limit of massive higher-spin field equations. The limit involves a suitable scaling of the wave function, the mass going to zero and the spin to infinity with their product being fixed. The result allows to transform the Wigner equations to a gauge invariant Fronsdal-like form. We also give the generalisation of the Wigner equations to higher dimensions with fields belonging to arbitrary representations of the massless little group.

  5. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.


    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies...

  6. Numerical modeling and characterization of blast waves for application in blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury research (United States)

    Phillips, Michael G.

    Human exposure to blast waves, including blast-induced traumatic brain injury, is a developing field in medical research. Experiments with explosives have many disadvantages including safety, cost, and required area for trials. Shock tubes provide an alternative method to produce free field blast wave profiles. A compressed nitrogen shock tube experiment instrumented with static and reflective pressure taps is modeled using a numerical simulation. The geometry of the numerical model is simplified and blast wave characteristics are derived based upon static and pressure profiles. The pressure profiles are analyzed along the shock tube centerline and radially away from the tube axis. The blast wave parameters found from the pressure profiles provide guidelines for spatial location of a specimen. The location could be based on multiple parameters and provides a distribution of anticipated pressure profiles experience by the specimen.

  7. Nanopatterning spin-textures: A route to reconfigurable magnonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Albisetti


    Full Text Available Magnonics is envisioned to enable highly efficient data transport and processing, by exploiting propagating perturbations in the spin-texture of magnetic materials. Despite the demonstrations of a plethora of proof-of-principle devices, the efficient excitation, transport and manipulation of spin-waves at the nanoscale is still an open challenge. Recently, we demonstrated that the spin-wave excitation and propagation can be controlled by nanopatterning reconfigurable spin-textures in a continuous exchange biased ferromagnetic film. Here, we show that by patterning 90° stripe-shaped magnetic domains, we spatially modulate the spin-wave excitation in a continuous film, and that by applying an external magnetic field we can reversibly “switch-off” the spin-wave excitation. This opens the way to the use of nanopatterned spin-textures, such as domains and domain walls, for exciting and manipulating magnons in reconfigurable nanocircuits.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat


    Full Text Available The paper deals with current issues of the interference theory development of gas-dynamic discontinuities as applied to a problem of propulsion refinement for the air-spacecrafts, designed for hypersonic flight speeds. In the first part of the review we have presented the history of detonation study and different concepts of detonation engines, as well as air intakes designed for hypersonic flight speeds. The second part provides an overview of works on the interference theory development for gas-dynamic discontinuities. We report about classification of the gas-dynamic discontinuities, shock wave propagation, shock-wave structures and triple configurations of shock waves. We have shown that many of these processes are accompanied by a hysteresis phenomenon, there are areas of ambiguity; therefore, in the design of engines and air intakes optimal shock-wave structures should be provided and their sustainability should be ensured. Much attention has recently been given to the use of the air intakes in the shock-wave structures with the rereflection of shock waves and the interference of shock waves in the opposite directions. This review provides increased focus on it, contains references to landmark works, the last calculated and experimental results. Unfortunately, foreign surveys missed many landmark works of the Soviet and Russian researchers, as they were not published in English. At the same time, it was the Soviet school of gas dynamics that has formulated the interference theory of gas-dynamic discontinuities in its present form. To fill this gap is one of this review scopes. The review may be recommended for professionals, engineers and scientists working in the field of aerospace engineering.

  9. Collaborative research: Dynamics of electrostatic solitary waves and their effects on current layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li-Jen


    The project has accomplished the following achievements including the goals outlined in the original proposal. Generation and measurements of Debye-scale electron holes in laboratory: We have generated by beam injections electron solitary waves in the LAPD experiments. The measurements were made possible by the fabrication of the state-of-the-art microprobes at UCLA to measure Debye-scale electric fields [Chiang et al., 2011]. We obtained a result that challenged the state of knowledge about electron hole generation. We found that the electron holes were not due to two-stream instability, but generated by a current-driven instability that also generated whistler-mode waves [Lefebvre et al., 2011, 2010b]. Most of the grant supported a young research scientist Bertrand Lefebvre who led the dissemination of the laboratory experimental results. In addition to two publications, our work relevant to the laboratory experiments on electron holes has resulted in 7 invited talks [Chen, 2007, 2009; Pickett et al., 2009a; Lefebvre et al., 2010a; Pickett et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2011c, b] (including those given by the co-I Jolene Pickett) and 2 contributed talks [Lefebvre et al., 2009b, a]. Discovery of elecctron phase-space-hole structure in the reconnection electron layer: Our theoretical analyses and simulations under this project led to the discovery of an inversion electric field layer whose phase-space signature is an electron hole within the electron diffusion layer in 2D anti-parallel reconnection [Chen et al., 2011a]. We carried out particle tracing studies to understand the electron orbits that result in the phase-space hole structure. Most importantly, we showed that the current density in the electron layer is limited in collisionless reconnection with negligible guide field by the cyclotron turning of meandering electrons. Comparison of electrostatic solitary waves in current layers observed by Cluster and in LAPD: We compared the ESWs observed in a supersubstorm

  10. Spin Currents and Spin Orbit Torques in Ferromagnets and Antiferromagnets (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Ming

    This thesis focuses on the interactions of spin currents and materials with magnetic order, e.g., ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic thin films. The spin current is generated in two ways. First by spin-polarized conduction-electrons associated with the spin Hall effect in heavy metals (HMs) and, second, by exciting spin-waves in ferrimagnetic insulators using a microwave frequency magnetic field. A conduction-electron spin current can be generated by spin-orbit coupling in a heavy non-magnetic metal and transfer its spin angular momentum to a ferromagnet, providing a means of reversing the magnetization of perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin films with currents that flow in the plane of the layers. The torques on the magnetization are known as spin-orbit torques (SOT). In the first part of my thesis project I investigated and contrasted the quasistatic (slowly swept current) and pulsed current-induced switching characteristics of micrometer scale Hall crosses consisting of very thin (thesis project studies and considers applications of SOT-driven domain wall (DW) motion in a perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin ferromagnet sandwiched between a heavy metal and an oxide. My experiment results demonstrate that the DW motion can be explained by a combination of the spin Hall effect, which generates a SOT, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which stabilizes chiral Neel-type DW. Based on SOT-driven DW motion and magnetic coupling between electrically isolated ferromagnetic elements, I proposed a new type of spin logic devices. I then demonstrate the device operation by using micromagnetic modeling which involves studying the magnetic coupling induced by fringe fields from chiral DWs in perpendicularly magnetized nanowires. The last part of my thesis project reports spin transport and spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O 12 (YIG)/NiO/Pt trilayers with varied NiO thickness. To characterize the spin transport through NiO we excite

  11. Extrinsic spin Hall effect in graphene (United States)

    Rappoport, Tatiana

    The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in graphene is extremely weak, making it a promising spin conductor for spintronic devices. In addition, many applications also require the generation of spin currents in graphene. Theoretical predictions and recent experimental results suggest one can engineer the spin Hall effect in graphene by greatly enhancing the spin-orbit coupling in the vicinity of an impurity. The extrinsic spin Hall effect then results from the spin-dependent skew scattering of electrons by impurities in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. This effect can be used to efficiently convert charge currents into spin-polarized currents. I will discuss recent experimental results on spin Hall effect in graphene decorated with adatoms and metallic cluster and show that a large spin Hall effect can appear due to skew scattering. While this spin-orbit coupling is small if compared with what it is found in metals, the effect is strongly enhanced in the presence of resonant scattering, giving rise to robust spin Hall angles. I will present our single impurity scattering calculations done with exact partial-wave expansions and complement the analysis with numerical results from a novel real-space implementation of the Kubo formalism for tight-binding Hamiltonians. The author acknowledges the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ and INCT de Nanoestruturas de Carbono for financial support.

  12. Spin density wave behaviour in the (Cr98.4Al1.6)100-y Mo y and (Cr100-x Al x )95Mo5 alloy series (United States)

    Muchono, B.; Prinsloo, ARE; Sheppard, CJ; Venter, AM; Liss, KD


    Neutron diffraction studies of the spin-density-wave (SDW) behaviour in antiferromagnetic (Cr98.4Al1.6)100-y Mo y with y = 0, 3.7 and 4.2, as well as (Cr100-x Al x )95Mo5 with x = 0 and 4.6 alloy systems are reported. The results confirm an incommensurate (I) SDW to paramagnetic (P) phase transition at the quantum critical point of the (Cr98.4Al1.6)100-y Mo y series. In addition two further quantum critical magnetic phase transitions are proposed for the (Cr100-x Al x )95Mo5 series, one from ISDW to P and the other from P to commensurate (C) SDW.

  13. Research into the further development of the LIMPET shoreline wave energy plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarises the findings of a project focussing on technical issues associated with the design of the LIMPET shoreline oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy plant. Fifteen tasks are listed as the objectives of the project which was carried out to broaden the knowledge of the wave environment and the construction and operation of a wave energy plant. The experience gained in LIMPET instrumentation, control systems, and grid integration issues are discussed.

  14. Spin-density-wave effects in the (Cr{sub 98.4}Al{sub 1.6}){sub 100−y}Mo{sub y} alloy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchono, B.; Prinsloo, A.R.E.; Sheppard, C.J., E-mail:; Alberts, H.L.; Strydom, A.M.


    The possibility of quantum critical behaviour in a spin-density-wave antiferromagnetic (Cr{sub 98.4}Al{sub 1.6}){sub 100−y}Mo{sub y} alloy system is investigated through electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and specific heat measurements. Magnetic resistivity anomalies associated with the Néel transition temperature are highly enhanced in the thermoelectric measurements, allowing for complementary methods in obtaining the Néel temperatures of these alloys. The results indicate a suppression of the Néel temperatures to below 2 K for alloy concentrations y≳4.5. This aspect is strongly reflected in the y-dependence of the residual resistivity and Sommerfeld specific heat coefficient. Both parameters depict rather sharp changes, related to spin-density-wave energy gap influences, on entering the antiferromagnetic phase when y is decreased at 2 K through y{sub c}≈4.5 on the concentration-temperature magnetic phase diagram. The behaviour of the concentration dependence of the Sommerfeld specific heat coefficient is suggestive of quantum critical behaviour in this alloy system, with a quantum critical point at y≈y{sub c}. - Highlights: • The magnetic phase diagram is obtained for the (Cr{sub 98.4}Al{sub 1.6}){sub 100−y}Mo{sub y} alloy system. • It indicates a putative quantum critical point at y{sub c}=4.5. • Specific heat measurements support this conjecture. • Novel triple point behaviour is indicated for the Cr{sub 1−z}Al{sub z} alloy system.

  15. Quantum Computing with an Electron Spin Ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesenberg, Janus; Ardavan, A.; Briggs, G.A.D.


    We propose to encode a register of quantum bits in different collective electron spin wave excitations in a solid medium. Coupling to spins is enabled by locating them in the vicinity of a superconducting transmission line cavity, and making use of their strong collective coupling to the quantized...

  16. Research on Band-limited Local Plane Wave Propagator and Imaging Method in TI Medium (United States)

    Han, B.; Gu, H.; Liu, S.


    Traditional ray-based seismic wave propagators, under the infinite frequency assumption, are widely used in seismic wave propagation and imaging due to its efficiency and flexibility. Seismic wave is a typical band-limited signal; consequently, the high-frequency ray theory is difficult to accurately describe the propagation characteristics of the band-limited signals, and it cannot avoid ray shading zones and caustics. As for wave equation based operators, even though they can propagate band-limited waves accurately, they are computationally demanding. In this study, under the framework of traditional ray theory, a seismic wave propagator applicable to transverse anisotropic medium is proposed, which is based on the local plane wave assumption. The proposed band-limited local plane wave propagator not only preserves the advantages of conventional ray-based propagators but also propagates band-limited waves accurately. To be detailed, a band-limited Snell's Law is constructed by solving the Kirchhoff boundary integral in a local plane, which is perpendicular to the central ray. Then band-limited rays are traced following the band-limited Snell's Law, and equivalent ray parameters are calculated by averaging local plane wave parameters. Physically, band-limited Snell's Law depicts that the directions of band-limited wavefields with maximum energy rays in the first Fresnel zone. Finally, the band-limited beam migration method in TI medium is developed by combining the paraxial beams with the band-limited central rays. Numerical experiments show that the local plane wave propagator can enhance the illumination in shadow zone and the imaging qualities of complex structures, such as rugose salt boundaries. Compared to conventional beam migration, our method generates better angle domain common imaging gathers (ADCIGs).

  17. Spin fluctuations in EuS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, A.


    Demagnetization effects break the isotropy of spin waves. During spring 1995, Peter Boeni et al. performed polarized neutron measurements on EuS using the triple axis spectrometer IN14 at the ILL in Grenoble, in order to investigate the influence of dipolar interactions on the spin waves. In the following work the analysis of the experimental data is described. (author) 25 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  18. Concepts and Engineering Aspects of a Neutron Resonance Spin-Echo Spectrometer for the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research (United States)

    Cook, Jeremy C.


    Following a brief introduction, the Neutron Resonance Spin-Echo (NRSE) principle is discussed classically in Sec. 2. In Sec. 3, two idealized 4-coil NRSE spectrometers are discussed (one using single π-flipper coil units and one using paired “bootstrap” coils); some idealized (exact π-flip) expressions are given for the spin-echo signal and some theoretical limitations are discussed. A more quantum mechanical discussion of NRSE is presented in Sec. 4 and additional theory related to the spin-echo signal, including wavelength-dependence, is given is Sec. 5. Factors affecting the instrumental resolution are discussed in Sec. 6. In Sec. 7, a variety of engineering issues are assessed in the context of challenging performance goals for a NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) NRSE spectrometer. In Sec. 8, some Monte Carlo simulations are presented that examine the combined influences of spectrometer imperfections on the NRSE signal. These are compared with analytical predictions developed in previous sections. In Sec. 9, possible alternatives for a NCNR NRSE spectrometer configuration are discussed together with a preliminary assessment of the spectrometer neutron guide requirements. A summary of some of the useful formulas is given in Appendix A. PMID:26601027

  19. Research on linear driving of wave maker; Zoha sochi no linear drive ka kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, I.; Taniguchi, S.; Nohara, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The water tank test of marine structures or submarine structures uses a wave maker to generate waves. A typical flap wave maker uses the wave making flap penetrating a water surface whose bottom is fixed on a tank bottom through a hinge, and the top is connected with a rod driven by rotating servomotor for reciprocating motion of the flap. However, this driving gear using a rotating servomotor and a bowl- screw has some defects such as noise caused by bowl rotation, backlash due to wear and limited driving speed. A linear motor with less friction mechanisms was thus applied to the driving gear. The performance test result of the prototype driving gear using a linear motor showed the possibility of the linear driven wave maker. The linear driven wave maker could also achieve low noise and simple mechanism. The sufficient durability and applicability of the linear driven wave maker mechanism were confirmed through strength calculation necessary for improving the prototype wave maker. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW: Spin current, spin accumulation and spin Hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Takahashi and Sadamichi Maekawa


    Full Text Available Nonlocal spin transport in nanostructured devices with ferromagnetic injector (F1 and detector (F2 electrodes connected to a normal conductor (N is studied. We reveal how the spin transport depends on interface resistance, electrode resistance, spin polarization and spin diffusion length, and obtain the conditions for efficient spin injection, spin accumulation and spin current in the device. It is demonstrated that the spin Hall effect is caused by spin–orbit scattering in nonmagnetic conductors and gives rise to the conversion between spin and charge currents in a nonlocal device. A method of evaluating spin–orbit coupling in nonmagnetic metals is proposed.

  1. Polarized hyperons probe dynamics of quark spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel S. Carman; T. S. Harry Lee; Mac Mestayer; Reinhard Schumacher


    Researchers at Jefferson Laboratory demonstrate how two analyses of the same data provide two plausible models of spin transfer in exclusive hyperon production, yielding quite different pictures of quark spin dynamics and challenging existing theories

  2. Spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.H.; Hertz, J.A.


    Spin glasses, simply defined by the authors as a collection of spins (i.e., magnetic moments) whose low-temperature state is a frozen disordered one, represent one of the fascinating new fields of study in condensed matter physics, and this book is the first to offer a comprehensive account of the subject. Included are discussions of the most important developments in theory, experimental work, and computer modeling of spin glasses, all of which have taken place essentially within the last two decades. The first part of the book gives a general introduction to the basic concepts and a discussion of mean field theory, while the second half concentrates on experimental results, scaling theory, and computer simulation of the structure of spin glasses

  3. Promoting equal opportunity within the transregional Collabortive Research Center "Waves to Weather" (W2W) (United States)

    Laurian, Audine; Craig, George


    The promotion of equal opportunity (EO) is a central commitment of the transregional Collaborative Research Center "Waves to Weather" (W2W) funded by the DFG. Intense efforts are made to promote EO measures and to support female scientists and parents of young children throughout their career within the consortium. Since the start of W2W in July 2015, the following actions have been undertaken: - an EO committee has been created, which consists of parents of young children and a PhD student from the main partner institutions in Munich, in Mainz and in Karlsruhe. The EO committee has agreed on a list of EO measures to be offered within the consortium and a flyer advertising these measures has been designed, produced and distributed - childcare has been organized during the meetings organized by W2W - outreach events addressed to school girls and promoting the study of physics and mathematics at the university (e.g. Girls' Day) has been organized in Munich, in Mainz and in Karlsruhe - student helpers have been hired to reduce the workload of female principal investigators with young children - efforts are made to invite female keynote speakers to the annual meetings of W2W - regular meetings with the Women's Officer for the Faculty of Physics at the LMU are taking place, e..g to setup a parent-child office. These measures have received very positive feedback from the W2W community and from the partner institutions. Discussions and exchanges of experience with colleagues from other research programs and institutions regarding EO measures would be greatly beneficial to promote EO further.

  4. The second wave of violence scholarship: South African synergies with a global research agenda. (United States)

    Bowman, Brett; Stevens, Garth; Eagle, Gillian; Langa, Malose; Kramer, Sherianne; Kiguwa, Peace; Nduna, Mzikazi


    Violence is a serious public health and human rights challenge with global psychosocial impacts across the human lifespan. As a middle-income country (MIC), South Africa experiences high levels of interpersonal, self-directed and collective violence, taking physical, sexual and/or psychological forms. Careful epidemiological research has consistently shown that complex causal pathways bind the social fabric of structural inequality, socio-cultural tolerance of violence, militarized masculinity, disrupted community and family life, and erosion of social capital, to individual-level biological, developmental and personality-related risk factors to produce this polymorphic profile of violence in the country. Engaging with a concern that violence studies may have reached something of a theoretical impasse, 'second wave' violence scholars have argued that the future of violence research may not lie primarily in merely amassing more data on risk but rather in better theorizing the mechanisms that translate risk into enactment, and that mobilize individual and collective aspects of subjectivity within these enactments. With reference to several illustrative forms of violence in South Africa, in this article we suggest revisiting two conceptual orientations to violence, arguing that this may be useful in developing thinking in line with this new global agenda. Firstly, the definition of our object of enquiry requires revisiting to fully capture its complexity. Secondly, we advocate for the utility of specific incident analyses/case studies of violent encounters to explore the mechanisms of translation and mobilization of multiple interactive factors in enactments of violence. We argue that addressing some of the moral and methodological challenges highlighted in revisiting these orientations requires integrating critical social science theory with insights derived from epidemiology and, that combining these approaches may take us further in understanding and addressing the

  5. Estimation of directional surface wave spectra from a towed research catamaran (United States)

    Hanson, K.A.; Hara, T.; Bock, E.J.; Karachintsev, A.B.


    During the High-Resolution Remote Sensing Main Experiment (1993), wave height was estimated from a moving catamaran using pitch-rate and roll-rate sensors, a three-axis accelerometer, and a capacitive wave wire. The wave spectrum in the frequency band ranging roughly from 0.08 to 0.3 Hz was verified by independent buoy measurements. To estimate the directional frequency spectrum from a wave-wire array, the Data-Adaptive Spectral Estimator is extended to include the Doppler shifting effects of a moving platform. The method is applied to data obtained from a fixed platform during the Ris?? Air-Sea Experiment (1994) and to data obtained from a moving platform during the Coastal Ocean Processes Experiment (1995). Both results show that the propagation direction of the peak wind waves compares well with the measured wind direction. When swells and local wind waves are not aligned, the method can resolve the difference of propagation directions. Using the fixed platform data a numerical test is conducted that shows that the method is able to distinguish two wave systems propagating at the same frequency but in two different directions.

  6. Research and application of spectral inversion technique in frequency domain to improve resolution of converted PS-wave (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; He, Zhen-Hua; Li, Ya-Lin; Li, Rui; He, Guamg-Ming; Li, Zhong


    Multi-wave exploration is an effective means for improving precision in the exploration and development of complex oil and gas reservoirs that are dense and have low permeability. However, converted wave data is characterized by a low signal-to-noise ratio and low resolution, because the conventional deconvolution technology is easily affected by the frequency range limits, and there is limited scope for improving its resolution. The spectral inversion techniques is used to identify λ/8 thin layers and its breakthrough regarding band range limits has greatly improved the seismic resolution. The difficulty associated with this technology is how to use the stable inversion algorithm to obtain a high-precision reflection coefficient, and then to use this reflection coefficient to reconstruct broadband data for processing. In this paper, we focus on how to improve the vertical resolution of the converted PS-wave for multi-wave data processing. Based on previous research, we propose a least squares inversion algorithm with a total variation constraint, in which we uses the total variance as a priori information to solve under-determined problems, thereby improving the accuracy and stability of the inversion. Here, we simulate the Gaussian fitting amplitude spectrum to obtain broadband wavelet data, which we then process to obtain a higher resolution converted wave. We successfully apply the proposed inversion technology in the processing of high-resolution data from the Penglai region to obtain higher resolution converted wave data, which we then verify in a theoretical test. Improving the resolution of converted PS-wave data will provide more accurate data for subsequent velocity inversion and the extraction of reservoir reflection information.

  7. Spin-Hall nano-oscillator: A micromagnetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, A.; Azzerboni, B.; Finocchio, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, C.da di Dio, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Carpentieri, M. [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Politecnico of Bari, via E. Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Laudani, A. [Department of Engineering, University of Roma Tre, via V. Volterra 62, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Gubbiotti, G. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (CNR-IOM), Unità di Perugia c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy)


    This Letter studies the dynamical behavior of spin-Hall nanoscillators from a micromagnetic point of view. The model parameters have been identified by reproducing recent experimental data quantitatively. Our results indicate that a strongly localized mode is observed for in-plane bias fields such as in the experiments, while predict the excitation of an asymmetric propagating mode for large enough out-of plane bias field similarly to what observed in spin-torque nanocontact oscillators. Our findings show that spin-Hall nanoscillators can find application as spin-wave emitters for magnonic applications where spin waves are used for transmission and processing information on nanoscale.

  8. Electron-Spin Filters Would Offer Spin Polarization Greater than 1 (United States)

    Ting, David Z.


    A proposal has been made to develop devices that would generate spin-polarized electron currents characterized by polarization ratios having magnitudes in excess of 1. Heretofore, such devices (denoted, variously, as spin injectors, spin polarizers, and spin filters) have typically offered polarization ratios having magnitudes in the approximate range of 0.01 to 0.1. The proposed devices could be useful as efficient sources of spin-polarized electron currents for research on spintronics and development of practical spintronic devices.

  9. Highly dispersive spin excitations in the chain cuprate Li.sub.2./sub.CuO.sub.2./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorenz, W.E.A.; Kuzian, R. O.; Drechsler, S.-L.; Stein, W.-D.; Wizent, N.; Behr, G.; Málek, Jiří; Nitzsche, U.; Rosner, H.; Hiess, A.; Schmidt, W.; Klingeler, R.; Loewenhaupt, M.; Büchner, B.


    Roč. 88, č. 3 (2009), 37002/p1-37002/p9 ISSN 0295-5075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : neutron inelastic scattering * spin waves * exact diagonalization Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.893, year: 2009

  10. Inferences about Supernova Physics from Gravitational-Wave Measurements: GW151226 Spin Misalignment as an Indicator of Strong Black-Hole Natal Kicks. (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Gerosa, Davide; Wysocki, Daniel


    The inferred parameters of the binary black hole GW151226 are consistent with nonzero spin for the most massive black hole, misaligned from the binary's orbital angular momentum. If the black holes formed through isolated binary evolution from an initially aligned binary star, this misalignment would then arise from a natal kick imparted to the first-born black hole at its birth during stellar collapse. We use simple kinematic arguments to constrain the characteristic magnitude of this kick, and find that a natal kick v_{k}≳50  km/s must be imparted to the black hole at birth to produce misalignments consistent with GW151226. Such large natal kicks exceed those adopted by default in most of the current supernova and binary evolution models.

  11. [Research on the Method of Blood Pressure Monitoring Based on Multiple Parameters of Pulse Wave]. (United States)

    Miao, Changyun; Mu, Dianwei; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Chunjiao; Li, Hongqiang


    In order to improve the accuracy of blood pressure measurement in wearable devices, this paper presents a method for detecting blood pressure based on multiple parameters of pulse wave. Based on regression analysis between blood pressure and the characteristic parameters of pulse wave, such as the pulse wave transit time (PWTT), cardiac output, coefficient of pulse wave, the average slope of the ascending branch, heart rate, etc. we established a model to calculate blood pressure. For overcoming the application deficiencies caused by measuring ECG in wearable device, such as replacing electrodes and ECG lead sets which are not convenient, we calculated the PWTT with heart sound as reference (PWTT(PCG)). We experimentally verified the detection of blood pressure based on PWTT(PCG) and based on multiple parameters of pulse wave. The experiment results showed that it was feasible to calculate the PWTT from PWTT(PCG). The mean measurement error of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure calculated by the model based on multiple parameters of pulse wave is 1.62 mm Hg and 1.12 mm Hg, increased by 57% and 53% compared to those of the model based on simple parameter. This method has more measurement accuracy.

  12. Research of the elastic waves generated by a pulse laser. Excitation mechanism of elastic waves and application to nondestructive testing; Pulse laser de reikishita danseiha ni kansuru kenkyu. Danseiha reiki no mechanism to hihakai kensa eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Engineering


    A bulk wave is generated when a pulse laser is irradiated to the material, and the characteristics of a Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio can be nondestructively estimated from the bulk wave. The generation mechanism of laser ultrasonic waves must be first clarified for such application. In this paper, fundamental research was conducted to study the generation mechanism of the elastic waves excited by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser, and the generation method and characteristics of Rayleigh waves. The following result was obtained. A bulk wave is generated by the disk-like adiabatic expansion near the surface if the laser power is small when a spot-shape pulse laser was irradiated. A bulk wave is generated by the thin disk-like adiabatic expansion beneath the surface due to the thermal diffusion in the depth direction of a base material when the laser power becomes large. Moreover, a bulk wave is generated by the impact force due to abrasion and plasma when the power becomes still larger. The information on the bulk wave characteristics and Rayleigh wave was also obtained. 25 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Electrical Spin Generation and Transport in Spin-Orbit Coupled Systems (United States)

    Niu, Qian


    We consider spin generation and transport in bands with built-in spin-orbit coupling. A number of fundamental issues will be discussed: (1) the existence of spin-dipole and torque-dipole of wave packets which model the carriers; (2) source terms in the continuity equation (spin generation and relaxation); (3) the composition of the spin current (Berry phase and more); (4) spin Hall conductivity and its reciprocal; (5) the spin current responsible for spin accumulation. *References: *1 D. Culcer, J. Sinova, N. A. Sinitsyn, T. Jungwirth, A. H.MacDonald, Q. Niu, `Semiclassical theory of spin transport in spin-orbit coupled systems', Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 046602 (2004). *2 P. Zhang and Q. Niu, `Charge-Hall effect driven by spin force: reciprocal of the spin-Hall effect' Cond-mat/0406436. *3 D. Culcer, Y. G. Yao, A. H. MacDonald, and Q. Niu, `Electric generation of spin in crystals with reduced symmetry', Cond-mat/0408020.

  14. Dynamics of the collective modes of an inhomogeneous spin ensemble in a cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesenberg, Janus; Kurucz, Zoltan; Mølmer, Klaus


    We study the excitation dynamics of an inhomogeneously broadened spin ensemble coupled to a single cavity mode. The collective excitations of the spin ensemble can be described in terms of generalized spin waves, and, in the absence of the cavity, the free evolution of the spin ensemble can be de...... without dispersion from negative to positive-valued wavenumbers without populating the zero wavenumber spin wave mode. The results are relevant for multimode collective quantum memories where qubits are encoded in different spin waves....

  15. Birefringence (spin rotation and spin dichroism) of high-energy deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshevskij, V.G.; Rovba, A.A.


    The phenomenon of birefringence (spin rotation and spin dichroism) of high-energy deuterons, currently observed in experiments, is the macroscopic quantum effect similar to the birefringence effect known in optics. This paper considers the contribution coming to the spin dichroism effect from the interaction of deuteron electric quadrupole moment and nuclear electric field. The effect proves to be responsive to the behavior of deuteron ground state wave functions at a small distance. [ru

  16. Research on the relationship of institutional innovation, organizational learning and synergistic effect: An empirical study of chineses university spin-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hao


    Full Text Available Purpose: At present, the Central Government of China pays more attention to the synergistic innovation, and the national strategy policy of “innovation driven development” are made to implementations. Thus, the university plays an important role in the national innovation system, so that how the university gets involved in innovative activities becomes the primary problem of innovation strategy. This paper utilizes Chinese university spin-offs survey data to identify the influence process from institutional innovation and organizational learning to synergistic effect of organization. Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, we found that following the procedural view, each one of these three elements can be divided into two parts. Then, we established structural equation modeling with the connections between these six subdivisions. Secondly, by taking 270 university Spin-offs in China as samples, we verified the fit of the model through statistical data on the questionnaire survey. Thirdly, we analyzed the relationship and influence path of the institutional innovation, organizational learning and synergistic effect. Findings: The results of empirical research show that institutional implementation process is positive correlation on both sides of synergistic effect, and, the intermediary role is obvious that external organizational learning played a regulatory role between institutional innovation synergistic effects. Research limitations/implications: A large-scale questionnaire survey showed that the influence path of “institutions -organization-innovation performance" are existed. Therefore, the system analysis framework should be introduced to the emergence and development of University spin-offs, and further explored the synergistic process of institutional change and organizational evolution. Practical implications: University spin-offs are a mode of university - industry cooperation, and it takes participation in market competition

  17. The field with spin 2. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nous, M.H.


    The plane-wave solution for the fourth-rank spinor psisub(abcd)(x), which represents the massive spin-2 field, is discussed. The relativistic transformations of this field and the bilinear combinations of the components of the wave function are considered

  18. Nuclear spin-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This booklet gives examples of 'nuclear spin off', from research programmes carried out for the UKAEA, under the following headings; non destructive testing; tribology; environmental protection; flow measurement; material sciences; mechanical engineering; marine services; biochemical technology; electronic instrumentation. (U.K.)

  19. Spin gating electrical current

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ciccarelli, C.; Zarbo, Liviu; Irvine, A.C.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Wunderlich, Joerg; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Ferguson, A.J.


    Roč. 101, č. 12 (2012), , , "122411-1"-"122411-4" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100100802; GA AV ČR KAN400100652 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN; European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ferromagnetic resonance * spin-orbit coupling * nanodevices Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2012

  20. Research on Ground Motion Metal Target Based on Rocket Projectile by Using Millimeter Wave Radiometer Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongyang


    Full Text Available How to detect the ground motion metal target effectively is an important guarantee for precision strike in the process of Rocket Projectile flight. Accordingly and in view of the millimeter- wave radiation characteristic of the ground motion metal target, a mathematical model was established based on Rocket Projectile about millimeter-wave detection to the ground motion metal target. Through changing various parameters in the process of Rocket Projectile flight, the detection model was studied by simulation. The parameters variation and effective range of millimeter wave radiometer were obtained in the process of rotation and horizontal flight. So a certain theoretical basis was formed for the precision strike to the ground motion metal target.

  1. Envisioning a Future Contemplative Science of Mindfulness: Fruitful Methods and New Content for the Next Wave of Research


    Garland, Eric; Gaylord, Susan


    Mindfulness is an ancient spiritual practice as well as a unique behavioral technique involving the cultivation of non-judgmental, non-reactive, metacognitive awareness of present-moment experience. Given the growing interest in mindfulness across numerous academic and clinical disciplines, an agenda is needed to guide the next wave of research. Here, we suggest four areas that, in our view, are important for a future contemplative science of mindfulness: performance-based measures of mindful...

  2. Spin caloritronics, origin and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Haiming, E-mail: [Fert Beijing Institute, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, BDBC, Beihang University (China); Brechet, Sylvain D. [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland); Ansermet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland)


    Spin caloritronics refers to research efforts in spintronics when a heat current plays a role. In this review, we start out by reviewing the predictions that can be drawn from the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. This serves as a conceptual framework in which to analyze the interplay of charge, spin and heat transport. This formalism predicts tensorial relations between vectorial quantities such as currents and gradients of chemical potentials or of temperature. Transverse effects such as the Nernst or Hall effects are predicted on the basis that these tensors can include an anti-symmetric contribution, which can be written with a vectorial cross-product. The local symmetry of the system may determine the direction of the vector defining such transverse effects, such as the surface of an isotropic medium. By including magnetization as state field in the thermodynamic description, spin currents appear naturally from the continuity equation for the magnetization, and dissipative spin torques are derived, which are charge-driven or heat-driven. Thermodynamics does not give the strength of these effects, but may provide relationships between them. Based on this framework, the review proceeds by showing how these effects have been observed in various systems. Spintronics has become a vast field of research, and the experiments highlighted in this review pertain only to heat effects on transport and magnetization dynamics, such as magneto-thermoelectric power, or the spin-dependence of the Seebeck effect, the spin-dependence of the Peltier effect, the spin Seebeck effect, the magnetic Seebeck effect, or the Nernst effect. The review concludes by pointing out predicted effects that are yet to be verified experimentally, and in what novel materials the standard thermal spin effects could be investigated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic description of transport: three-current model. • Magneto-thermoelectric power and spin-dependent Peltier effects. • Thermal

  3. Interference Spins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovski, Petar; Simeone, Osvaldo; Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen


    on traffic load and interference condition leads to performance gains. In this letter, a general network of multiple interfering two-way links is studied under the assumption of a balanced load in the two directions for each link. Using the notion of interference spin, we introduce an algebraic framework...

  4. Spinning worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, H.


    The thesis "Spinning Worlds" is about the characterisation of two types of gas-giant exoplanets: Hot Jupiters, with orbital periods of fewer than five days, and young, wide-orbit gas giants, with orbital periods as long as thousands of years. The thesis is based on near-infrared observations of 1

  5. Experimental researches of marine wave parameters in the Black Sea Basin (United States)

    Panaitescu, Fanel-Viorel; Panaitescu, Mariana; Anton, Iulia-Alina


    In this paper are presented the process of measuring parameters of marine waves with performed devices which permit to obtain the values of the speed and current division marine wave amplitude and direction of the wave at each measurement, the number of measurements, date, hour, minute and second of measurement. This monitoring, which comprises the period of one year including, reveals an amplitude an annual average of the wave of hmed=1.53 m, obtained by taking maximum envelope appeared in a measurement range of 120 seconds. The value is unexpectedly high, taking into account of the fact that on the coastline it was found of: hmed =0.467 m at Constanta Station and hmed =0.23 m at Mangalia Station. These results reveal that there is a energy potential that exceeds expectations, much larger in the area of off shore, that is to say, in more than 12 Mm off shore, in front of the coastal zone. These measurements were applied with two devices-one device for measuring hidrostatic amplitude test and other device, ADV(Advanced Doppler velocymmeter).

  6. Non magnetic neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitter and a phase-spin echo interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebisawa, T.; Tasaki, S.; Kawai, T.; Akiyoshi, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Achiwa, N.; Hino, M.; Otake, Y.; Funahashi, H.


    The authors have developed cold neutron optics and interferometry using multilayer mirrors. The advantages of the multilayer mirrors are their applicability to long wavelength neutrons and a great variety of the mirror performance. The idea of the present spin interferometry is based on nonmagnetic neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitters. The equation for polarized neutrons means that the polarized neutrons are equivalent to the coherent superposition of two parallel spin eigenstates. The structure and principle of a multilayer spin splitter are explained, and the nonmagnetic gap layer of the multilayer spin splitter gives rise to neutron spin quantum precession. The performance test of the multilayer spin splitter were made with a new spin interferometer, which is analogous optically to a spin echo system with vertical precession field. The spin interferometers were installed at Kyoto University research reactor and the JRR-3. The testing method and the results are reported. The performance tests on a new phase-spin echo interferometer are described, and its applications to the development of a high resolution spin echo system and a Jamin type cold neutron interferometer are proposed. (K.I.)

  7. Spin excitation in granular structures with ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Lutsev, L V


    In terms of s-d-exchange model one studied spin excitations and relaxation in granular structures with metallic ferromagnetic nanoparticles in an insulating amorphous matrix. One studies spins of granule as a d-system; s-system represents a multitude of localized electrons of amorphous matrix. In terms of single-ring approximation on the basis of s-d-exchange interaction for the Green spin function expansion one determined spectrum of spin excitations composed of spin-wave excitations of granules and spin-polarization excitations. One studied spin-polarization relaxation occurring by way of spin-polarization excitations. Spin-polarization relaxation was determined to be efficient one within wide range of frequencies. Evaluations made for structures containing cobalt granules show that one should observe it in the centimeter, the millimeter and the submillimeter ranges of wavelength

  8. Whistler wave propagation in the antenna near and far fields in the Naval Research Laboratory Space Physics Simulation Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, David D.; Walker, David N.; Amatucci, William E.


    In previous papers, early whistler propagation measurements were presented [W. E. Amatucci et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 33, 637 (2005)] as well as antenna impedance measurements [D. D. Blackwell et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 092106 (2007)] performed in the Naval Research Laboratory Space Physics Simulation Chamber (SPSC). Since that time there have been major upgrades in the experimental capabilities of the laboratory in the form of improvement of both the plasma source and antennas. This has allowed access to plasma parameter space that was previously unattainable, and has resulted in measurements that provide a significantly clearer picture of whistler propagation in the laboratory environment. This paper presents some of the first whistler experimental results from the upgraded SPSC. Whereas previously measurements were limited to measuring the cyclotron resonance cutoff and elliptical polarization indicative of the whistler mode, now it is possible to experimentally plot the dispersion relation itself. The waves are driven and detected using balanced dipole and loop antennas connected to a network analyzer, which measures the amplitude and phase of the wave in two dimensions (r and z). In addition the frequency of the signals is also swept over a range of several hundreds of megahertz, providing a comprehensive picture of the near and far field antenna radiation patterns over a variety of plasma conditions. The magnetic field is varied from a few gauss to 200 G, with the density variable over at least 3 decades from 10 7 to 10 10 cm -3 . The waves are shown to lie on the dispersion surface for whistler waves, with observation of resonance cones in agreement with theoretical predictions. The waves are also observed to propagate without loss of amplitude at higher power, a result in agreement with previous experiments and the notion of ducted whistlers.

  9. Potential energy surfaces for electron dynamics modeled by floating and breathing Gaussian wave packets with valence-bond spin-coupling: An analysis of high-harmonic generation spectrum (United States)

    Ando, Koji


    A model of localized electron wave packets (EWPs), floating and breathing Gaussians with non-orthogonal valence-bond spin-coupling, is applied to compute the high-harmonic generation (HHG) spectrum from a LiH molecule induced by an intense laser pulse. The characteristic features of the spectrum, a plateau up to 50 harmonic-order and a cutoff, agreed well with those from the previous time-dependent complete active-space self-consistent-field calculation [T. Sato and K. L. Ishikawa, Phys. Rev. A 91, 023417 (2015)]. In contrast to the conventional molecular orbital picture in which the Li 2s and H 1s atomic orbitals are strongly mixed, the present calculation indicates that an incoherent sum of responses of single electrons reproduces the HHG spectrum, in which the contribution from the H 1s electron dominates the plateau and cutoff, whereas the Li 2s electron contributes to the lower frequency response. The results are comprehensive in terms of the shapes of single-electron potential energy curves constructed from the localized EWP model.

  10. Spin-independent transparency of pure spin current at normal/ferromagnetic metal interface (United States)

    Hao, Runrun; Zhong, Hai; Kang, Yun; Tian, Yufei; Yan, Shishen; Liu, Guolei; Han, Guangbing; Yu, Shuyun; Mei, Liangmo; Kang, Shishou


    The spin transparency at the normal/ferromagnetic metal (NM/FM) interface was studied in Pt/YIG/Cu/FM multilayers. The spin current generated by the spin Hall effect (SHE) in Pt flows into Cu/FM due to magnetic insulator YIG blocking charge current and transmitting spin current via the magnon current. Therefore, the nonlocal voltage induced by an inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in FM can be detected. With the magnetization of FM parallel or antiparallel to the spin polarization of pure spin currents ({{\\boldsymbol{σ }}}sc}), the spin-independent nonlocal voltage is induced. This indicates that the spin transparency at the Cu/FM interface is spin-independent, which demonstrates that the influence of spin-dependent electrochemical potential due to spin accumulation on the interfacial spin transparency is negligible. Furthermore, a larger spin Hall angle of Fe20Ni80 (Py) than that of Ni is obtained from the nonlocal voltage measurements. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB921502), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474184 and 11627805), the 111 Project, China (Grant No. B13029), and the Fundamental Research Funds of Shandong University, China.

  11. Disorder and Quantum Spin Ice (United States)

    Martin, N.; Bonville, P.; Lhotel, E.; Guitteny, S.; Wildes, A.; Decorse, C.; Ciomaga Hatnean, M.; Balakrishnan, G.; Mirebeau, I.; Petit, S.


    We report on diffuse neutron scattering experiments providing evidence for the presence of random strains in the quantum spin-ice candidate Pr2Zr2O7 . Since Pr3 + is a non-Kramers ion, the strain deeply modifies the picture of Ising magnetic moments governing the low-temperature properties of this material. It is shown that the derived strain distribution accounts for the temperature dependence of the specific heat and of the spin-excitation spectra. Taking advantage of mean-field and spin-dynamics simulations, we argue that the randomness in Pr2Zr2O7 promotes a new state of matter, which is disordered yet characterized by short-range antiferroquadrupolar correlations, and from which emerge spin-ice-like excitations. Thus, this study gives an original research route in the field of quantum spin ice.

  12. Disorder and Quantum Spin Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Martin


    Full Text Available We report on diffuse neutron scattering experiments providing evidence for the presence of random strains in the quantum spin-ice candidate Pr_{2}Zr_{2}O_{7}. Since Pr^{3+} is a non-Kramers ion, the strain deeply modifies the picture of Ising magnetic moments governing the low-temperature properties of this material. It is shown that the derived strain distribution accounts for the temperature dependence of the specific heat and of the spin-excitation spectra. Taking advantage of mean-field and spin-dynamics simulations, we argue that the randomness in Pr_{2}Zr_{2}O_{7} promotes a new state of matter, which is disordered yet characterized by short-range antiferroquadrupolar correlations, and from which emerge spin-ice-like excitations. Thus, this study gives an original research route in the field of quantum spin ice.

  13. Research on Formation Mechanism of Dynamic Response and Residual Stress of Sheet Metal Induced by Laser Shock Wave (United States)

    Feng, Aixin; Cao, Yupeng; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Zhengang


    In order to reveal the quantitative control of the residual stress on the surface of metal materials, the relevant theoretical and experimental studies were carried out to investigate the dynamic response of metal thin plates and the formation mechanism of residual stress induced by laser shock wave. In this paper, the latest research trends on the surface residual stress of laser shock processing technology were elaborated. The main progress of laser shock wave propagation mechanism and dynamic response, laser shock, and surface residual stress were discussed. It is pointed out that the multi-scale characterization of laser and material, surface residual stress and microstructure change is a new hotspot in laser shock strengthening technology.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    International workshop on II Polarized Partons at High Q2 region 11 was held at the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan on October 13-14, 2000, as a satellite of the international conference ''SPIN 2000'' (Osaka, Japan, October 16-21,2000). This workshop was supported by RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and by Yukawa Institute. The scientific program was focused on the upcoming polarized collider RHIC. The workshop was also an annual meeting of RHIC Spin Collaboration (RSC). The number of participants was 55, including 28 foreign visitors and 8 foreign-resident Japanese participants, reflecting the international nature of the RHIC spin program. At the workshop there were 25 oral presentations in four sessions, (1) RHIC Spin Commissioning, (2) Polarized Partons, Present and Future, (3) New Ideas on Polarization Phenomena, (4) Strategy for the Coming Spin Running. In (1) the successful polarized proton commissioning and the readiness of the accelerator for the physics program impressed us. In (2) and (3) active discussions were made on the new structure function to be firstly measured at RHIC, and several new theoretical ideas were presented. In session (4) we have established a plan for the beam time requirement toward the first collision of polarized protons. These proceedings include the transparencies presented at the workshop. The discussion on ''Strategy for the Coming Spin Running'' was summarized by the chairman of the session, S. Vigdor and G. Bunce.

  15. Research status of wave energy conversion (WEC) device of raft structure (United States)

    Dong, Jianguo; Gao, Jingwei; Tao, Liang; Zheng, Peng


    This paper has briefly described the concept of wave energy generation and six typical conversion devices. As for raft structure, detailed analysis is provided from its development process to typical devices. Taking the design process and working principle of Plamis as an example, the general principle of raft structure is briefly described. After that, a variety of raft structure models are introduced. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages, and development trend of raft structure are pointed out.

  16. Phase-to-intensity conversion of magnonic spin currents and application to the design of a majority gate (United States)

    Brächer, T.; Heussner, F.; Pirro, P.; Meyer, T.; Fischer, T.; Geilen, M.; Heinz, B.; Lägel, B.; Serga, A. A.; Hillebrands, B.


    Magnonic spin currents in the form of spin waves and their quanta, magnons, are a promising candidate for a new generation of wave-based logic devices beyond CMOS, where information is encoded in the phase of travelling spin-wave packets. The direct readout of this phase on a chip is of vital importance to couple magnonic circuits to conventional CMOS electronics. Here, we present the conversion of the spin-wave phase into a spin-wave intensity by local non-adiabatic parallel pumping in a microstructure. This conversion takes place within the spin-wave system itself and the resulting spin-wave intensity can be conveniently transformed into a DC voltage. We also demonstrate how the phase-to-intensity conversion can be used to extract the majority information from an all-magnonic majority gate. This conversion method promises a convenient readout of the magnon phase in future magnon-based devices.

  17. Prediction for spin Fano factor generated by biased quantum spin chains (United States)

    Aftergood, Joshua; Takei, So

    We theoretically study noise in the spin current injected into a normal metal from a 1D Heisenberg spin- 1 / 2 antiferromagnet. We consider the noise generated in two separate scenarios: first by inducing an over-population of one chiral mode relative to the other in the spin chain at uniform temperature, and second by elevating the temperature of the spin chain relative to the metal, i.e., by way of the spin Seebeck effect. We compute excess noise in the normal metal generated by the coupling to the spin chain and predict the spin Fano factor, defined as the noise in the spin current normalized by the average spin current, for both scenarios. The authors thank the PSC-CUNY Research Award Program for its support.

  18. Diffraction-dependent spin splitting in spin Hall effect of light on reflection. (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaodong; Xie, Linguo; Qiu, Jiangdong; Zhang, Zhiyou; Du, Jinglei; Gao, Fuhua


    We report on a diffraction-dependent spin splitting of the paraxial Gaussian light beams on reflection theoretically and experimentally. In the case of horizontal incident polarization, the spin splitting is proportional to the diffraction length of light beams near the Brewster angle. However, the spin splitting is nearly independent with the diffraction length for the vertical incident polarization. By means of the angular spectrum theory, we find that the diffraction-dependent spin splitting is attributed to the first order expansion term of the reflection coefficients with respect to the transverse wave-vector which is closely related to the diffraction length.

  19. In a spin at Brookhaven spin physics

    CERN Document Server

    Makdisi, Y I


    The mysterious quantity that is spin took centre stage at Brookhaven for the SPIN2002 meeting last September. The 15th biennial International Spin Physics Symposium (SPIN2002) was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on 9-14 September 2002. Some 250 spin enthusiasts attended, including experimenters and theorists in both nuclear and high-energy physics, as well as accelerator physicists and polarized target and polarized source experts. The six-day symposium included 23 plenary talks and 150 parallel talks. SPIN2002 was preceded by a one-day spin physics tutorial for students, postdocs, and anyone else who felt the need for a refresher course. (2 refs).

  20. Spin-Circuit Representation of Spin Pumping (United States)

    Roy, Kuntal


    Circuit theory has been tremendously successful in translating physical equations into circuit elements in an organized form for further analysis and proposing creative designs for applications. With the advent of new materials and phenomena in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics, it is imperative to construct the spin-circuit representations for different materials and phenomena. Spin pumping is a phenomenon by which a pure spin current can be injected into the adjacent layers. If the adjacent layer is a material with a high spin-orbit coupling, a considerable amount of charge voltage can be generated via the inverse spin Hall effect allowing spin detection. Here we develop the spin-circuit representation of spin pumping. We then combine it with the spin-circuit representation for the materials having spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces the standard results as in the literature. We further show how complex multilayers can be analyzed by simply writing a netlist.

  1. Spin Coherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flatte, Michael E


    ... dots, tuning of spin coherence times for electron spin, tuning of dipolar magnetic fields for nuclear spin, spontaneous spin polarization generation and new designs for spin-based teleportation and spin transistors...

  2. Spin Transport in a Unitary Fermi Gas (United States)

    Thywissen, Joseph


    We study spin transport in a quantum degenerate Fermi gas of 40K near an s-wave interaction resonance. The starting point of our measurements is a transversely spin-polarized gas, where each atom is in a superposition of the lowest two Zeeman eigenstates. In the presence of an external gradient, a spin texture develops across the cloud, which drives diffusive spin currents. Spin transport is described with two coefficients: D0⊥, the transverse spin diffusivity, and γ, the Leggett-Rice parameter. Diffusion is a dissipative effect that increases the entropy of the gas, eventually creating a mixture of spin states. γ parameterizes the rate at which spin current precesses around the local magnetization. Using a spin-echo sequence, we measure these transport parameters for a range of interaction strengths and temperatures. At unitarity, for a normal-state gas initially at one fifth of the Fermi temperature, we find D0⊥ = 2 . 3 (4) ℏ / m and γ = 1 . 08 (9) , where m is the atomic mass. In the limit of zero temperature, γ and D0⊥ are scale-invariant universal parameters of the unitary Fermi gas. The value of D0⊥ reveals strong scattering and is near its proposed quantum limit, such that the inferred value of the transport lifetime τ⊥ is comparable to ℏ /ɛF . This raises the possibility that incoherent transport may play a role. The nonzero value of γ tells us that spin waves in unitary Fermi gas are dispersive, or in other words, that the gas has a spin stiffness in the long-wavelength limit. Time permitting, we will also discuss a time-resolved measurement of the contact, through which we observe the microscopic transformation of the gas from ideal to strongly correlated.

  3. Mbarara University Research Training Initiative: a spin-off of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakida E


    Full Text Available Edith Wakida,1 Samuel Maling,2 Celestino Obua3 1Office of Research Administration, 2Department of Psychiatry, Office of the Dean, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Pharmacomology and Therapeutics, Office of the Vice Chancellor, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda Abstract: Scientific productivity in Africa is insignificant compared to that in the rest of the world. This has been attributed to the fact that, in spite of academic qualifications, junior ­faculty, who form the majority of academics in low- and middle-income countries lack experience in research. This calls for a need to put in place programs that provide hands-on training in research so that junior faculty can conduct relevant research. The Mbarara University Research ­Training Initiative, a Fogarty International Center-funded program, is one such program that was developed to provide research capacity training for junior faculty at the Mbarara University of Science and Technology. The program utilizes health priority areas to provide research training to junior faculty. During the training, they are given short-term-focused research training on particular knowledge and skills, which they apply while conducting the mentored research. Keywords: junior faculty, MURTI, short training, mentored research

  4. Research and analysis of private cloud: evaluation of a case with Eucalyptus and WaveMaker (United States)

    Chen, Shi; He, Jianzhong; Yu, Xiaoyuan


    Private cloud as one model of cloud computing has its own special features, compared with public cloud. It is designed to supply more control over the data to one organization with implementation in a private network. This paper makes a comparison of public cloud and private cloud. After this comparison, we choose Eucalyptus to do a case study on the private cloud. Furthermore, we realize a kind of prototype of SaaS based on Eucalyptus by WaveMaker. We also do some experimental evaluation of this cloud platform services.

  5. To Jump the Wave or Not: Teachers' Perceptions of Research Evidence in Education (United States)

    Mausethagen, Sølvi; Raaen, Finn Daniel


    This article presents a microanalysis of how a group of primary school teachers deals with research evidence in their work. Based on analysis of a group of Norwegian teachers' interactions over issues of educational research and research-based knowledge, we find that teachers' representations of educational research particularly center on the…

  6. Spin dynamics of bilayer manganites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gations to understand the microscopic mechanism of this phenomenon. Together .... La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7 optic acoustic. Figure 2. Q scans along [1 0 0] at T = 1.6. K for different constant energy transfers through the reciprocal point Q = (1, 0, 1) ... The optic spin-wave energy gap directly gives the intra-bilayer exchange inter-.

  7. Magnonic Charge Pumping via Spin-Orbit Coupling (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Chiara; Hals, Kjetil; Irvine, Andrew; Novak, Vit; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Kurebayashi, Hidekazu; Brataas, Arne; Ferguson, Andrew


    The interplay between spin, charge and orbital degrees of freedom has led to the development of spintronic devices such as spin-torque oscillators and spin-transfer torque MRAM. In this development, spin pumping represents a convenient way to electrically detect magnetization dynamics. The effect originates from direct conversion of low-energy quantized spin waves in the magnet, known as magnons, into a flow of spins from the precessing magnet to adjacent leads. In this case, a secondary spin-charge conversion element, such as heavy metals with large spin Hall angle or multilayer layouts, is required to convert the spin current into a charge signal. Here, we report the observation of charge pumping in which a precessing ferromagnet pumps a charge current, demonstrating direct conversion of magnons into high-frequency currents via spin-orbit interaction. The generated electric current, unlike spin currents generated by spin-pumping, can be directly detected without the need of any additional spin-charge conversion mechanism. The charge-pumping phenomenon is generic and gives a deeper understanding of its reciprocal effect, the spin orbit torque, which is currently attracting interest for their potential in manipulating magnetic information.

  8. [Research on ursolic acid production of Eriobotrya japonica cell suspension culture in WAVE bioreactor]. (United States)

    Li, Hui-hua; Yao, De-heng; Xu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Chang, Qiang; Su, Ming-hua


    Through scale-up cultivation of Eriobotrya japonica suspension cells using WAVE bioreactor, the cell growth and ursolic acid (UA) accumulation were studied. The comparison test was carried out in the flask and the reactor with cell dry weight (DW) and UA content as evaluation indexes. The culture medium, DW and UA content were compared in 1 L and 5 L working volumes of bioreactor. The orthogonal test with main actors of inoculation amount, speed and angle of rotation was developed to find the optimal combination, in 1 L working volume of bioreactor. DW of the cell growth and the UA content in bioreactor were higher than those of the shaker by 105.5% and 27.65% respectively. In bioreactor, the dynamic changes of elements in the fluid culture, the dry weight of the cell growth and the UA content in 1 L and 5 L working volumes were similar. Inoculation of 80 g, rotational speed of 26 r · min(-1), and angle of 6 ° was the optimal combination, and the cell biomass of 19.01 g · L(-1) and the UA content of 27.750 mg · g(-1) were achieved after 100 h cultivation in 1 L working volume of bioreactor. WAVE Bioreactor is more suitable than flasks for the E. japonica cell suspension culture, and culture parameters can be achieved from 1 L to 5 L amplification.

  9. Research of large-amplitude waves evolution in the framework of shallow water equations and their implication for people's safety in extreme situations (United States)

    Pelinovsky, Efim; Chaikovskaia, Natalya; Rodin, Artem


    The paper presents the analysis of the formation and evolution of shock wave in shallow water with no restrictions on its amplitude in the framework of the nonlinear shallow water equations. It is shown that in the case of large-amplitude waves appears a new nonlinear effect of reflection from the shock front of incident wave. These results are important for the assessment of coastal flooding by tsunami waves and storm surges. Very often the largest number of victims was observed on the coastline where the wave moved breaking. Many people, instead of running away, were just looking at the movement of the "raging wall" and lost time. This fact highlights the importance of researching the problem of security and optimal behavior of people in situations with increased risk. Usually there is uncertainty about the exact time, when rogue waves will impact. This fact limits the ability of people to adjust their behavior psychologically to the stressful situations. It concerns specialists, who are busy both in the field of flying activity and marine service as well as adults, young people and children, who live on the coastal zone. The rogue wave research is very important and it demands cooperation of different scientists - mathematicians and physicists, as well as sociologists and psychologists, because the final goal of efforts of all scientists is minimization of the harm, brought by rogue waves to humanity.

  10. Spin-dependent optics with metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Shiyi


    Full Text Available Optical spin-Hall effect (OSHE is a spin-dependent transportation phenomenon of light as an analogy to its counterpart in condensed matter physics. Although being predicted and observed for decades, this effect has recently attracted enormous interests due to the development of metamaterials and metasurfaces, which can provide us tailor-made control of the light-matter interaction and spin-orbit interaction. In parallel to the developments of OSHE, metasurface gives us opportunities to manipulate OSHE in achieving a stronger response, a higher efficiency, a higher resolution, or more degrees of freedom in controlling the wave front. Here, we give an overview of the OSHE based on metasurface-enabled geometric phases in different kinds of configurational spaces and their applications on spin-dependent beam steering, focusing, holograms, structured light generation, and detection. These developments mark the beginning of a new era of spin-enabled optics for future optical components.

  11. Direct evidence for the spin cycloid in strained nanoscale bismuth ferrite thin films (United States)

    Bertinshaw, Joel; Maran, Ronald; Callori, Sara J.; Ramesh, Vidya; Cheung, Jeffery; Danilkin, Sergey A.; Lee, Wai Tung; Hu, Songbai; Seidel, Jan; Valanoor, Nagarajan; Ulrich, Clemens


    Magnonic devices that utilize electric control of spin waves mediated by complex spin textures are an emerging direction in spintronics research. Room-temperature multiferroic materials, such as bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3), would be ideal candidates for this purpose. To realize magnonic devices, a robust long-range spin cycloid with well-known direction is desired, since it is a prerequisite for the magnetoelectric coupling. Despite extensive investigation, the stabilization of a large-scale uniform spin cycloid in nanoscale (100 nm) thin BiFeO3 films has not been accomplished. Here, we demonstrate cycloidal spin order in 100 nm BiFeO3 thin films through the careful choice of crystallographic orientation, and control of the electrostatic and strain boundary conditions. Neutron diffraction, in conjunction with X-ray diffraction, reveals an incommensurate spin cycloid with a unique [11] propagation direction. While this direction is different from bulk BiFeO3, the cycloid length and Néel temperature remain equivalent to bulk at room temperature.

  12. Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors: Challenges

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sep 14, 2015 ... Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors: Challenges. The IndiGO Consortium & The LIGO Scientific ... of spinning objects (Gravity Probe-B). 6) Black holes. 7) Gravitational Waves .... Scheme of the advanced Interferometric GW detector. 300 times. 300 times. 40 times. Adding up all innovations, we ...

  13. Experimental Research on the Impact of Thin-Wall Ratio and the Fillet Radius of Forming Roller on the Limiting Spinning Ratio of AMS 5504 Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kut S.


    Full Text Available Results of experimental investigations of metal spinning process of AMS 5504 sheets. cylindrical drawpieces with use of discs-shaped sheet with various diameter and thickness were shown in this work. Tests were performed on two roller metal spinning machine of a vertical axis Leifeld SFC 800 V500.

  14. Researching of the reduction of shock waves intensivity in the “pseudo boiling” layer (United States)

    Pavlov, G. I.; Telyashov, D. A.; Kochergin, A. V.; Nakoryakov, P. V.; Sukhovaya, E. A.


    This article applies to the field of acoustics and deals with noise reduction of pulsating combustion chambers, in particular the reduction of the shock waves’ intensity with the help of pseudo boiling layer. In the course of work on a test stand that included a pulsator, a compressor with the receiver and a high pressure fan was simulated gas jet flowing from the chamber pulsating combustion and studied the effect of different types of fluidization on effect of reducing the sound pressure levels. Were obtained the experimental dependence of the sound pressure levels from parameters such as: height of the layer of granules; diameter of the used granules; amplitude of the pressure pulsations in the gas stream at the entrance to the camera; frequency of pressure pulsations. Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that the using of a pseudo boiling layer is promising for reducing shock wave noise.

  15. Research of process of shock wave flow around the lightly armored vehicles hulls


    Васильев, Антон Юрьевич


    Решена задача разработки методики анализа процесса обтекания корпусов легкобронированных машин ударной волной от мощного взрыва. The methods of shock wave flow analysis of lightly armored vehicles hulls was developed.

  16. Theoretical foundations of electron spin resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Harriman, John E


    Theoretical Foundations of Electron Spin Resonance deals with the theoretical approach to electron paramagnetic resonance. The book discusses electron spin resonance in applications related to polyatomic, probably organic, free radicals in condensed phases. The book also focuses on essentially static phenomena, that is, the description and determination of stationary-state energy levels. The author reviews the Dirac theory of the electron in which a four-component wave function is responsible for the behavior of the electron. The author then connects this theory with the nonrelativistic wave f

  17. Acquisition of a Spinning Disk Confocal Microscope to Enhance Research and Teaching Capabilities in the STEM Fields at Howard University (United States)


    Washington, DC. April 16, 2015 Conference: Howard University Research Day 2015 Abstract: Background: The Ceanorhabditis elegans Myt-1 ortholog...the nematode, Ceanorhabditis elegans . One manner in which they characterized the effect of their specific gene knockdown was to determine whether...peer-reviewed journals: (c) Presentations 1) Identifying new players in meiosis using C. elegans depleted of the meiotic inhibitory kinase WEE-1.3

  18. The Ripples and Waves of Educational Effectiveness Research: Some Comments to "Getting Lost in Translation" (United States)

    Scheerens, Jaap


    The article "Getting lost in translation" by Harris, Chapman, Muijs and Reynolds addresses the engagement of policy-makers and educational practitioners with (the results of) educational effectiveness and improvement research. In this commentary the article is discussed from the perspectives of research utilisation, the solidity of the…

  19. Muon spin rotation studies (United States)


    The bulk of the muon spin rotation research work centered around the development of the muon spin rotation facility at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The collimation system was both designed and fabricated at Virginia State University. This improved collimation system, plus improvements in detectors and electronics enabled the acquisition of spectra free of background out to 15 microseconds. There were two runs at Brookhaven in 1984, one run was devoted primarily to beam development and the other run allowed several successful experiments to be performed. The effect of uniaxial strain on an Fe(Si) crystal at elevated temperature (360K) was measured and the results are incorporated herein. A complete analysis of Fe pulling data taken earlier is included.

  20. Relativistic wave mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Corinaldesi, Ernesto


    Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, this text provides readers with a background in relativistic wave mechanics and prepares them for the study of field theory. The treatment originated as a series of lectures from a course on advanced quantum mechanics that has been further amplified by student contributions.An introductory section related to particles and wave functions precedes the three-part treatment. An examination of particles of spin zero follows, addressing wave equation, Lagrangian formalism, physical quantities as mean values, translation and rotat

  1. Vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliski, S


    This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth

  2. Nuclear spin pumping and electron spin susceptibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danon, J.; Nazarov, Y.V.


    In this work we present a new formalism to evaluate the nuclear spin dynamics driven by hyperfine interaction with nonequilibrium electron spins. To describe the dynamics up to second order in the hyperfine coupling it suffices to evaluate the susceptibility and fluctuations of the electron spin.

  3. CFD model of a spinning pipe gas lens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snedden, Glen C


    Full Text Available Slides on: Spinning Pipe Gas Lens; Focal Length; Refractive Index; Gas Dynamics; Guess at the gas dynamics; Density Profile; Flow Profile; Rosby Waves; Rayleigh–Taylor Instabilities...

  4. The second wave: Toward responsible inclusion of pregnant women in research. (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Little, Margaret Olivia; Faden, Ruth


    Though much progress has been made on inclusion of non-pregnant women in research, thoughtful discussion about including pregnant women has lagged behind. We outline resulting knowledge gaps and their costs and then highlight four reasons why ethically we are obliged to confront the challenges of including pregnant women in clinical research. These are: the need for effective treatment for women during pregnancy, fetal safety, harm from the reticence to prescribe potentially beneficial medication, and the broader issues of justice and access to benefits of research participation. Going forward requires shifting the burden of justification from inclusion to exclusion and developing an adequate ethical framework that specifies suitable justifications for excluding pregnant women from research.

  5. Deep Geothermal Drilling Using Millimeter Wave Technology. Final Technical Research Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, Kenneth [Impact Technologies LLC, Tulsa, OK (United States); Woskov, Paul [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Einstein, Herbert [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Livesay, Bill [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Conventional drilling methods are very mature, but still have difficulty drilling through very deep,very hard and hot rocks for geothermal, nuclear waste entombment and oil and gas applications.This project demonstrated the capabilities of utilizing only high energy beams to drill such rocks,commonly called ‘Direct Energy Drilling’, which has been the dream of industry since the invention of the laser in the 1960s. A new region of the electromagnetic spectrum, millimeter wave (MMW) wavelengths at 30-300 giga-hertz (GHz) frequency was used to accomplish this feat. To demonstrate MMW beam drilling capabilities a lab bench waveguide delivery, monitoring and instrument system was designed, built and tested around an existing (but non-optimal) 28 GHz frequency, 10 kilowatt (kW) gyrotron. Low waveguide efficiency, plasma generation and reflected power challenges were overcome. Real-time monitoring of the drilling process was also demonstrated. Then the technical capability of using only high power intense millimeter waves to melt (with some vaporization) four different rock types (granite, basalt, sandstone, limestone) was demonstrated through 36 bench tests. Full bore drilling up to 2” diameter (size limited by the available MMW power) was demonstrated through granite and basalt samples. The project also demonstrated that MMW beam transmission losses through high temperature (260°C, 500oF), high pressure (34.5 MPa, 5000 psi) nitrogen gas was below the error range of the meter long path length test equipment and instruments utilized. To refine those transmission losses closer, to allow extrapolation to very great distances, will require a new test cell design and higher sensitivity instruments. All rock samples subjected to high peak temperature by MMW beams developed fractures due to thermal stresses, although the peak temperature was thermodynamically limited by radiative losses. Therefore, this limited drill rate and rock strength data were not able to be

  6. Impactful times memories of 60 years of shock wave research at Sandia National Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Asay, James R; Lawrence, R Jeffery; Sweeney, Mary Ann


    This book presents a history of shock compression science, including development of experimental, material modeling, and hydrodynamics code technologies over the past six decades at Sandia National Laboratories. The book is organized into a discussion of major accomplishments by decade with over 900 references, followed by a unique collection of 45 personal recollections detailing the trials, tribulations, and successes of building a world-class organization in the field. It explains some of the challenges researchers faced and the gratification they experienced when a discovery was made. Several visionary researchers made pioneering advances that integrated these three technologies into a cohesive capability to solve complex scientific and engineering problems. What approaches worked, which ones did not, and the applications of the research are described. Notable applications include the turret explosion aboard the USS Iowa and the Shoemaker-Levy comet impact on Jupiter. The personal anecdotes and recollec...

  7. Spin Light (United States)

    Bordovitsyn, V. A.; Gushchina, V. S.


    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Classical Theory of μ-Radiation * Equations of an Electromagnetic Field * Potentials and Fields of a Relativistic Magneton * Wave Zone and Radiation Field * Total Radiation Power in a Uniform Motion of a Magneton * Radiation of the Relativistic Magnetic Moment in Uniform Fields * Angular Distribution and Frequency of Radiation * Linear and Circular Polarization of the Radiation * Ultrarelativistic Case * Spectral Composition of the Radiation * Relativistic Semiclassical Radiation Theory * Recoil Effects and Mixed eμ-Radiation * Mixed eμL- and eμTh-Radiation of Relativistic Electron * The Structure of Quantum Corrections to SR * `True' Magnetic Moment Radiation * Bibliography

  8. Single-pulse terahertz coherent control of spin resonance in the canted antiferromagnet YFeO3, mediated by dielectric anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zuanming; Mics, Zoltán; Ma, Guohong


    We report on the coherent control of terahertz (THz) spin waves in a canted antiferromagnet yttrium orthoferrite, YFeO3, associated with a quasiferromagnetic (quasi-FM) spin resonance at a frequency of 0.3 THz, using a single-incident THz pulse. The spin resonance is excited impulsively by the ma...... polarization of the THz oscillation at the spin resonance frequency, suggests a key role of magnon–phonon coupling in spin-wave energy dissipation....

  9. Wave Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alikhani, Amir; Frigaard, Peter; Burcharth, Hans F.


    The data collected over the course of the experiment must be analysed and converted into a form suitable for its intended use. Type of analyses range from simple to sophisticated. Depending on the particular experiment and the needs of the researcher. In this study three main part of irregular wave...... data analyses are presented e.g. Time Domain (Statistical) Analyses, Frequency Domain (Spectral) Analyses and Wave Reflection Analyses. Random wave profile and definitions of representative waves, distributions of individual wave height and wave periods and spectra of sea waves are presented....

  10. Graphene based superconducting junctions as spin sources for spintronics (United States)

    Emamipour, Hamidreza


    We investigate spin-polarized transport in graphene-based ferromagnet-superconductor junctions within the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism by using spin-polarized Dirac-Bogoliubov-de-Gennes equations. We consider superconductor in spin-singlet s-wave pairing state and ferromagnet is modeled by an exchange field with energy of Ex. We have found that graphene-based junctions can be used to produce highly spin-polarized current in different situations. For example, if we design a junction with high Ex and EF compared to order parameter of superconductor, then one can have a large spin-polarized current which is tunable in magnitude and sign by bias voltage and Ex. Therefore graphene-based superconducting junction can be used in spintronic devices in alternative to conventional junctions or half-metallic ferromagnets. Also, we have found that the calculated spin polarization can be used as a tool to distinguish specular Andreev reflection (SAR) from the conventional Andreev reflection (CAR) such that in the case of CAR, spin polarization in sub-gap region is completely negative which means that spin-down current is greater than spin-up current. When the SAR is dominated, the spin polarization is positive at all bias-voltages, which itself shows that spin-up current is greater than spin-down current.

  11. Starting with Style: Toward a Second Wave of Hip-Hop Education Research and Practice (United States)

    Petchauer, Emery


    One fundamental breakthrough in the field of hip-hop education in recent years is the shift from understanding hip-hop solely as content to understanding hip-hop also as aesthetic form. In this article, I chart the roots of this shift across disciplines and focus on what it might mean for the future of hip-hop education, pedagogy, and research in…

  12. Enclosure Requirements to Protect Personnel from Spinning Rotor Frailures at the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeever, John W [ORNL


    Performance evaluation of electric motors is a major function of the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC). Normally these motors have a fixed wire-wound stator and a rotating rotor, which may have conductors embedded in a ferromagnetic core (induction motors), magnets mounted on the surface of the ferromagnetic core with a thin metal or composite cylinder or ring to hold them in place, or magnets embedded in the ferromagnetic core. Most of the work currently involves the last two permanent magnet (PM) configurations. Although the stator of a radial-gap motor can absorb energy from many of the fragments ejected from the rotor during operation, the stator of an axial-gap motor is not positioned to provide significant protection. The housing of each motor can also absorb some of the energy. The most conservative approach, however, is to assume that all fragments from the rotor must be contained by a protective enclosure. An ideal enclosure is transparent. Manufacturers of such plastics as Lexan, Tuffak, and Cyrolon sell different variations of transparent enclosure material. Lexan is a polycarbonate sheet. Lexgard{reg_sign} is a penetration resistant material made by layering polycarbonate material between pieces of ordinary glass. A fragment striking a sheet of enclosure material will pierce the surface layer, but the layered polycarbonate-glass material is able to absorb the fragment's energy before it completes penetration. Tuffak{reg_sign} is Lexan polycarbonate. Cyrolon{reg_sign} bullet resistant material is acrylic sheet. The ability of the enclosure to stop a fragment depends on its thickness as well as the penetration capability of the fragment; for example, a lead fragment has much less penetrating capability than a steel fragment. Enclosure thicknesses are commercially available to provide several levels of protection. These levels depend on the momentum of the fragments and have been evaluated for some common types of

  13. Stationary and moving solitons in spin-orbit-coupled spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates (United States)

    Li, Yu-E.; Xue, Ju-Kui


    We investigate the matter-wave solitons in a spin-orbit-coupled spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate using a multiscale perturbation method. Beginning with the one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled threecomponent Gross-Pitaevskii equations, we derive a single nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which allows determination of the analytical soliton solutions of the system. Stationary and moving solitons in the system are derived. In particular, a parameter space for different existing soliton types is provided. It is shown that there exist only dark or bright solitons when the spin-orbit coupling is weak, with the solitons depending on the atomic interactions. However, when the spin-orbit coupling is strong, both dark and bright solitons exist, being determined by the Raman coupling. Our analytical solutions are confirmed by direct numerical simulations.

  14. Decoherence dynamics of a single spin versus spin ensemble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrovitski, V.V.; Feiguin, A.E.; Awschalom, D.D.; Hanson, R.


    We study decoherence of central spins by a spin bath, focusing on the difference between measurement of a single central spin and measurement of a large number of central spins (as found in typical spin-resonance experiments). For a dilute spin bath, the single spin demonstrates Gaussian

  15. Persistent Spin Current in a Hard-Wall Confining Quantum Wire with Weak Dresselhaus Spin-Orbit Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xi; Zhou Guanghui


    We investigate theoretically the spin current in a quantum wire with weak Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling connected to two normal conductors. Both the quantum wire and conductors are described by a hard-wall confining potential. Using the electron wave-functions in the quantum wire and a new definition of spin current, we have calculated the elements of linear spin current density j s,xi T and j s,yi T (i = x, y, z). We find that the elements j T s,xx and j T s,yy have a antisymmetrical relation and the element j T s,yz has the same amount level as j s,xx T and j s,yy T . We also find a net linear spin current density, which has peaks at the center of quantum wire. The net linear spin current can induce a linear electric field, which may imply a way of spin current detection.

  16. Selectivity of alkyl radical formation from branched alkanes studied by electron spin resonance and electron spin echo spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuneki, Ichikawa; Hiroshi, Yoshida


    Alkyl radicals generated from branched alkanes by γ radiation are being measuring by electron spin resonance and electron spin echo spectroscopy. This research is being conducted to determine the mechanism of selective alkyl radical formation in low-temperature solids

  17. Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates (United States)


    Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose- Einstein Condensates This ARO research proposal entitled "SPIN-ORBIT COUPLED BOSE- EINSTEIN CONDENSATES" (SOBECs) explored...Administration 3112 Lee Building 7809 Regents Drive College Park, MD 20742 -5141 ABSTRACT Final Report: Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose- Einstein Condensates...Report Title This ARO research proposal entitled "SPIN-ORBIT COUPLED BOSE- EINSTEIN CONDENSATES" (SOBECs) explored properties of the fundamentally new

  18. Spin-polarized spin excitation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J


    We report on the spin dependence of elastic and inelastic electron tunneling through transition metal atoms. Mn, Fe and Cu atoms were deposited onto a monolayer of Cu 2 N on Cu(100) and individually addressed with the probe tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. Electrons tunneling between the tip and the substrate exchange energy and spin angular momentum with the surface-bound magnetic atoms. The conservation of energy during the tunneling process results in a distinct onset threshold voltage above which the tunneling electrons create spin excitations in the Mn and Fe atoms. Here we show that the additional conservation of spin angular momentum leads to different cross-sections for spin excitations depending on the relative alignment of the surface spin and the spin of the tunneling electron. For this purpose, we developed a technique for measuring the same local spin with a spin-polarized and a non-spin-polarized tip by exchanging the last apex atom of the probe tip between different transition metal atoms. We derive a quantitative model describing the observed excitation cross-sections on the basis of an exchange scattering process.

  19. Magnons, Spin Current and Spin Seebeck Effect (United States)

    Maekawa, Sadamichi


    When metals and semiconductors are placed in a temperature gradient, the electric voltage is generated. This mechanism to convert heat into electricity, the so-called Seebeck effect, has attracted much attention recently as the mechanism for utilizing wasted heat energy. [1]. Ferromagnetic insulators are good conductors of spin current, i.e., the flow of electron spins [2]. When they are placed in a temperature gradient, generated are magnons, spin current and the spin voltage [3], i.e., spin accumulation. Once the spin voltage is converted into the electric voltage by inverse spin Hall effect in attached metal films such as Pt, the electric voltage is obtained from heat energy [4-5]. This is called the spin Seebeck effect. Here, we present the linear-response theory of spin Seebeck effect based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem [6-8] and discuss a variety of the devices. [4pt] [1] S. Maekawa et al, Physics of Transition Metal Oxides (Springer, 2004). [0pt] [2] S. Maekawa: Nature Materials 8, 777 (2009). [0pt] [3] Concept in Spin Electronics, eds. S. Maekawa (Oxford University Press, 2006). [0pt] [4] K. Uchida et al., Nature 455, 778 (2008). [0pt] [5] K. Uchida et al., Nature Materials 9, 894 (2010) [0pt] [6] H. Adachi et al., APL 97, 252506 (2010) and Phys. Rev. B 83, 094410 (2011). [0pt] [7] J. Ohe et al., Phys. Rev. B (2011) [0pt] [8] K. Uchida et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 104419 (2010).

  20. Atom Wave Interferometers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritchard, David


    Long-term research objective: Matter wave interferometers, in which de Broglie waves are coherently split and then recombined to produce interference fringes, have opened exciting new possibilities for precision and fundamental...

  1. Coherent manipulation of single spins in semiconductors. (United States)

    Hanson, Ronald; Awschalom, David D


    During the past few years, researchers have gained unprecedented control over spins in the solid state. What was considered almost impossible a decade ago, in both conceptual and practical terms, is now a reality: single spins can be isolated, initialized, coherently manipulated and read out using both electrical and optical techniques. Progress has been made towards full control of the quantum states of single and coupled spins in a variety of semiconductors and nanostructures, and towards understanding the mechanisms through which spins lose coherence in these systems. These abilities will allow pioneering investigations of fundamental quantum-mechanical processes and provide pathways towards applications in quantum information processing.

  2. Handbook of spin transport and magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y


    In the past several decades, the research on spin transport and magnetism has led to remarkable scientific and technological breakthroughs, including Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg's Nobel Prize-winning discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in magnetic metallic multilayers. Handbook of Spin Transport and Magnetism provides a comprehensive, balanced account of the state of the art in the field known as spin electronics or spintronics. It reveals how key phenomena first discovered in one class of materials, such as spin injection in metals, have been revisited decades later in other materia

  3. 21st International Symposium on Spin Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Bo-Qiang; SPIN 2014; SPIN2014


    This special volume collected important papers written by leading experts, highlighting the latest research findings in various topics of spin phenomena in particle and nuclear physics. The contents are originated from the plenary talks at the latest symposium of the Spin Physics series (SPIN2014) which was held in Beijing, China, October 20-24, 2014.The volume also comprises a special collection of contributions in memory of the late Professor Michel Borghini, an outstanding physicist well remembered for his great contributions to the progress of high energy spin physics.

  4. Correlation functions of electronic and nuclear spins in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet semi-infinite media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, E.F.


    Results are found for the correlation dynamic functions (or the correspondent green functions) between any combination including pairs of electronic anel nuclear spin operators in an antiferromagnet semi-infinite media., at low temperature T N . These correlation functions, are used to investigate, at the same time, the properties of surface spin waves in volume and surface. The dispersion relatons of nuclear and electronic spin waves coupled modes, in surface are found, resolving a system of linearized equatons of spin operators a system of linearized equations of spin operators. (author) [pt

  5. Turning the tide or surfing the wave? Responsible Research and Innovation, fundamental rights and neoliberal virtues. (United States)

    Arnaldi, Simone; Gorgoni, Guido


    The notion of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) has increasingly attracted attention in the academic literature. Up until now, however, the literature has focused on clarifying the principles for which research and innovation are responsible and on examining the conditions that account for managing them responsibly. Little attention has been reserved to exploring the political-economic context in which the notion of RRI has become progressively more prominent. This article tries to address this aspect and suggests some preliminary considerations on the connections between the specific understanding of responsibility in RRI and the framing of responsibility in what has been synthetically defined as 'neoliberalism'. To do so, we try to illustrate how the idea of responsibility has evolved over time so that the specific characteristics of RRI can be better highlighted. These characteristics will then be discussed against the features of neoliberalism and its understanding of responsibility. Eventually, we reaffirm a view of RRI centred on fundamental rights as a possible point of departure between these two perspectives on responsibility.

  6. Manipulating spin transfer torque with light (United States)

    Vendelbjerg, Karsten Leding; Rontani, Massimo


    We study the spin transfer torque (STT) induced onto a nanomagnet as a spin-polarized current flows through a junction made of the magnet sandwiched between two semiconductors. This junction is one-dimensional and highly idealized, the thin magnetic layer being mimicked by a spin-dependent contact force. We show that the STT may be externally controlled by shining the junction at sub-bandgap frequency with an intense laser beam. The excitonic coherence driven by the laser dresses the virtual electron-hole pairs coupling conduction and valence bands and inducing evanescent waves at the junction interface. The Fano-like quantum interference between these localized states and the continuum spectrum, being different in the two spin channels, significantly affects the STT.

  7. Electron Spins in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanson, R.


    This thesis describes a series of experiments aimed at understanding and controlling the behavior of the spin degree of freedom of single electrons, confined in semiconductor quantum dots. This research work is motivated by the prospects of using the electron spin as a quantum bit (qubit), the basic

  8. Spin physics at RHIC: Present and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. November 2003 physics pp. 859–864. Spin physics at RHIC: Present and future. ABHAY DESHPANDE. RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000, USA. Abstract. ..... [5] G Rakness et al, Proceedings of SPIN2002 Symposium (to be published by APS). [6] Y Fukao et al ...

  9. Muon spin rotation research program (United States)

    Stronach, C. E.


    Data from cyclotron experiments and room temperature studies of dilute iron alloys and iron crystals under strain were analyzed. The Fe(Mo) data indicate that the effect upon the contact hyperfine field in Fe due to the introduction of Mo is considerably less than that expected from pure dilution, and the muon (+) are attracted to the Mo impurity sites. There is a significant change in the interstitial magnetic field with Nb concentration. The Fe(Ti) data, for which precession could clearly be observed early only at 468K and above, show that the Ti impurities are attractive to muon (+), and the magnitude of B(hf) is reduced far beyond the amount expected from pure dilution. Changes in the intersitital magnetic field with the introduction of Cr, W, Ge, and Si are also discussed. When strained to the elastic limit, the interstitial magnetic field in Fe crystals is reduced by 33 gauss, and the relaxation rate of the precession signal increases by 47%.

  10. 16th Workshop on High Energy Spin Physics

    CERN Document Server


    The Workshop will cover a wide range of spin phenomena at high and intermediate energies such as: recent experimental data on spin physics the nucleon spin structure and GPD's spin physics and QCD spin physics in the Standard Model and beyond T-odd spin effects polarization and heavy ion physics spin in gravity and astrophysics the future spin physics facilities spin physics at NICA polarimeters for high energy polarized beams acceleration and storage of polarized beams the new polarization technology related subjects The Workshop will be held in the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia. The program of the workshop will include plenary and parallel (if necessary) sessions. Plenary sessions will be held in the Conference Hall. Parallel sections will take place in the same building. There will be invited talks (up to 40 min) and original reports (20 min). The invited speakers will present new experimental and theoretical re...

  11. The transverse spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artru, X. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)


    The aim of this introduction, which is far from exhaustive, was to give an overview on the richness of transverse spin quantity and its differences in comparison with helicity. From the experimental point of view, the physics of quark transversity in deep inelastic reaction is still practically unexplored. This situation will certainly change rapidly, with planned experiments at DESY (HERMES), Brookhaven (RHIC) and CERN (COMPAS), but there is a long way before knowing the transversity distribution, {delta}q(x), as precisely as the helicity distribution, {delta}q(x), now. Unless polarized anti-proton beams become feasible, experiments probing quark transversity will rely mainly on 'quark polarimeters', like {lambda}'s or the Collins effect. These polarimeters will have to be calibrated at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. The Collins polarimeter will by the way allow the flavor decomposition of {delta}q(x), using mesons of various charging and strangeness. Quark polarimetry is by itself an interesting topic of non-perturbative QCD, and may teach us something about the breaking of chiral symmetry. Let us recall that, if chiral symmetry were unbroken, transversity would be undefined. The transversity physics program is not at all a 'remake' of the helicity one. Helicity and transversity probe rather different aspects of the hadron structure. Differences between {delta}q(x) and {delta}q(x) will reveal non-relativistic effects in the baryon wave function. Also {delta}q(x) does not couples to gluon distributions, thus it is free from anomaly. In that respect it is a more clean probe than {delta}q(x). In fact, the combination of helicity and transversity measurements will perhaps be the most interesting. Polarized parton densities taking only the helicity degree of freedom are almost 'classical'. Quantum aspects of spin correlations, like violation of Bell's inequality, can be found only when varying the spin quantification axis

  12. Spin-Mechatronics (United States)

    Matsuo, Mamoru; Saitoh, Eiji; Maekawa, Sadamichi


    We investigate the interconversion phenomena between spin and mechanical angular momentum in moving objects. In particular, the recent results on spin manipulation and spin-current generation by mechanical motion are examined. In accelerating systems, spin-dependent gauge fields emerge, which enable the conversion from mechanical angular momentum into spins. Such a spin-mechanical effect is predicted by quantum theory in a non-inertial frame. Experiments which confirm the effect, i.e., the resonance frequency shift in nuclear magnetic resonance, the stray field measurement of rotating metals, and electric voltage generation in liquid metals, are discussed.

  13. The spin-partitioned total position-spread tensor: An application to Heisenberg spin chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertitta, Edoardo; Paulus, Beate [Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); El Khatib, Muammar; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique Quantiques–LCPQ/IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse (UPS) et CNRS (UMR-5626), 118 Route de Narbonne, Toulouse Cedex 31062 (France); Bendazzoli, Gian Luigi [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale “Toso Montanari,” Università di Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I–40136 Bologna (Italy)


    The spin partition of the Total Position-Spread (TPS) tensor has been performed for one-dimensional Heisenberg chains with open boundary conditions. Both the cases of a ferromagnetic (high-spin) and an anti-ferromagnetic (low-spin) ground-state have been considered. In the case of a low-spin ground-state, the use of alternating magnetic couplings allowed to investigate the effect of spin-pairing. The behavior of the spin-partitioned TPS (SP-TPS) tensor as a function of the number of sites turned to be closely related to the presence of an energy gap between the ground-state and the first excited-state at the thermodynamic limit. Indeed, a gapped energy spectrum is associated to a linear growth of the SP-TPS tensor with the number of sites. On the other hand, in gapless situations, the spread presents a faster-than-linear growth, resulting in the divergence of its per-site value. Finally, for the case of a high-spin wave function, an analytical expression of the dependence of the SP-TPS on the number of sites n and the total spin-projection S{sub z} has been derived.

  14. Spin-Hall conductivity and electric polarization in metallic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui


    We predict theoretically that when a normal metallic thin film (without bulk spin-orbit coupling, such as Cu or Al) is sandwiched by two insulators, two prominent effects arise due to the interfacial spin-orbit coupling: a giant spin-Hall conductivity due to the surface scattering and a transverse electric polarization due to the spin-dependent phase shift in the spinor wave functions.

  15. Two-dimensional spin diffusion in multiterminal lateral spin valves (United States)

    Saha, D.; Basu, D.; Holub, M.; Bhattacharya, P.


    The effects of two-dimensional spin diffusion on spin extraction in lateral semiconductor spin valves have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. A ferromagnetic collector terminal of variable size is placed between the ferromagnetic electron spin injector and detector of a conventional lateral spin valve for spin extraction. It is observed that transverse spin diffusion beneath the collector terminal plays an important role along with the conventional longitudinal spin diffusion in describing the overall transport of spin carriers. Two-dimensional spin diffusion reduces the perturbation of the channel electrochemical potentials and improves spin extraction.

  16. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar (United States)


    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope have discovered the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, a 20-mile-diameter superdense pulsar whirling faster than the blades of a kitchen blender. Their work yields important new information about the nature of one of the most exotic forms of matter known in the Universe. Pulsar Graphic Pulsars Are Spinning Neutron Stars CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) "We believe that the matter in neutron stars is denser than an atomic nucleus, but it is unclear by how much. Our observations of such a rapidly rotating star set a hard upper limit on its size, and hence on how dense the star can be.," said Jason Hessels, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal. Hessels and his colleagues presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its "normal" life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name "neutron star." "Neutron stars are incredible laboratories for learning about the physics of the fundamental particles of nature, and this pulsar has given us an important new limit," explained Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and one of Hessels' collaborators on this work. The scientists discovered the pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, in a globular cluster of stars called Terzan 5, located some 28,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. The newly-discovered pulsar is spinning 716 times per second, or at 716 Hertz (Hz), readily beating the previous record of 642 Hz from a pulsar

  17. Spinning pipe gas lens revisited

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C


    Full Text Available , there is little information on optical phase aberrations and no study to date on the propagation parameters of the laser beam, but has rather remained rooted in the domain of ray optics. Researchers revisit the spinning pipe gas lens in this paper with new...

  18. Spin-Orbitronics at Transition Metal Interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien


    The presence of large spin–orbit interaction at transition metal interfaces enables the emergence of a variety of fascinating phenomena that have been at the forefront of spintronics research in the past 10 years. The objective of the present chapter is to offer a review of these various effects from a theoretical perspective, with a particular focus on spin transport, chiral magnetism, and their interplay. After a brief description of the orbital hybridization scheme at transition metal interfaces, we address the impact of spin–orbit coupling on the interfacial magnetic configuration, through the celebrated Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction. We then discuss the physics of spin transport and subsequent torques occurring at these interfaces. We particularly address the spin Hall, spin swapping, and inverse spin-galvanic effects. Finally, the interplay between flowing charges and chiral magnetic textures and their induced dynamics are presented. We conclude this chapter by proposing some perspectives on promising research directions.

  19. Quantum mechanical calculation of electron spin (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Long


    The classical and quantum mechanical methods are used respectively to calculate the electron spin. It is shown that the classical method cannot derive the correct magnetic moment value. Assuming that the rest energy of the electron originates from the kinetic energy of the virtual particles, the electron spin motion equation and spin wave function can be derived. In the case of the quantum numbers of spin angular momentum and magnetic moment being 1/2 and 1 respectively, their correct values can be obtained. In the meanwhile, the anomalous magnetic moment is evaluated based on the wave function of the spinning electron. Suppose the probability of virtual photons converting into electron-positron pairs to be 0.00141, the result agrees with that of quantum electrodynamics. Given that the energy of the virtual photon obeys the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, the self-energy of the electron will be finite. In addition, the hierarchy problem can be solved with the same hypothesis.

  20. The spin symmetry for deformed generalized Poeschl-Teller potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Gaofeng; Dong Shihai


    In the case of spin symmetry we solve the Dirac equation with scalar and vector deformed generalized Poeschl-Teller (DGPT) potential and obtain exact energy equation and spinor wave functions for s-wave bound states. We find that there are only positive energy states for bound states in the case of spin symmetry based on the strong regularity restriction condition λ<-η for the wave functions. The energy eigenvalue approaches a constant when the potential parameter α goes to zero. Two special cases such as generalized PT potential and standard PT potential are also briefly discussed.