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Sample records for spin relaxation theory

  1. Nuclear spin relaxation in liquids theory, experiments, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalewski, Jozef

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is widely used across many fields because of the rich data it produces, and some of the most valuable data come from the study of nuclear spin relaxation in solution. While described to varying degrees in all major NMR books, spin relaxation is often perceived as a difficult, if not obscure, topic, and an accessible, cohesive treatment has been nearly impossible to find.Collecting relaxation theory, experimental techniques, and illustrative applications into a single volume, this book clarifies the nature of the phenomenon, shows how to study it, and explains why such studies are worthwhile. Coverage ranges from basic to rigorous theory and from simple to sophisticated experimental methods, and the level of detail is somewhat greater than most other NMR texts. Topics include cross-relaxation, multispin phenomena, relaxation studies of molecular dynamics and structure, and special topics such as relaxation in systems with quadrupolar nuclei and paramagnetic systems.Avoiding ove...

  2. Nuclear paramagnetic spin relaxation theory. Paramagnetic spin probes in homogeneous and micro-heterogeneous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westlund, P.O.

    1994-01-01

    Specific mechanisms of relaxation encountered in paramagnetic systems are described: the T1-NMRD curve and the paramagnetically enhanced nuclear spin relaxation (PER) are first discussed and a general theory of PER is proposed (nuclear paramagnetic spin relaxation theory, lattice operators, decomposition approximation, general expression of dipolar correlation functions for slow tumbling complexes, low-field approach). Numerically calculated NMRD curves are described (reorientation model, pseudo-rotation models, vibration models). Experimental studies are then analyzed: NMRD studies of paramagnetic species in an aqueous system, paramagnetic hydrated metal ions in poly-electrolytes and biochemical systems, lyotropic liquid crystalline phases, polymer solutions. 19 fig., 60 ref

  3. Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory: Multiscale spin relaxation in molecular fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relaxation of the molecular spin angular velocity in the framework of generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory. Using molecular dynamics simulations, it is shown that for uncharged diatomic molecules the relaxation time decreases with increasing molecular moment of inertia...

  4. Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory: multiscale spin relaxation in molecular fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J S

    2013-09-01

    This paper studies the relaxation of the molecular spin angular velocity in the framework of generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory. Using molecular dynamics simulations, it is shown that for uncharged diatomic molecules the relaxation time decreases with increasing molecular moment of inertia per unit mass. In the regime of large moment of inertia the fast relaxation is wave-vector independent and dominated by the coupling between spin and the fluid streaming velocity, whereas for small inertia the relaxation is slow and spin diffusion plays a significant role. The fast wave-vector-independent relaxation is also observed for highly packed systems. The transverse and longitudinal spin modes have, to a good approximation, identical relaxation, indicating that the longitudinal and transverse spin viscosities have same value. The relaxation is also shown to be isomorphic invariant. Finally, the effect of the coupling in the zero frequency and wave-vector limit is quantified by a characteristic length scale; if the system dimension is comparable to this length the coupling must be included into the fluid dynamical description. It is found that the length scale is independent of moment of inertia but dependent on the state point.

  5. Nuclear magnetic relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism: General theory with applications to two-spin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil

    2016-02-28

    In aqueous systems with immobilized macromolecules, including biological tissue, the longitudinal spin relaxation of water protons is primarily induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of intra- and intermolecular magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. We have embarked on a systematic program to develop, from the stochastic Liouville equation, a general and rigorous theory that can describe relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism over the full range of exchange rates, dipole coupling strengths, and Larmor frequencies. Here, we present a general theoretical framework applicable to spin systems of arbitrary size with symmetric or asymmetric exchange. So far, the dipolar EMOR theory is only available for a two-spin system with symmetric exchange. Asymmetric exchange, when the spin system is fragmented by the exchange, introduces new and unexpected phenomena. Notably, the anisotropic dipole couplings of non-exchanging spins break the axial symmetry in spin Liouville space, thereby opening up new relaxation channels in the locally anisotropic sites, including longitudinal-transverse cross relaxation. Such cross-mode relaxation operates only at low fields; at higher fields it becomes nonsecular, leading to an unusual inverted relaxation dispersion that splits the extreme-narrowing regime into two sub-regimes. The general dipolar EMOR theory is illustrated here by a detailed analysis of the asymmetric two-spin case, for which we present relaxation dispersion profiles over a wide range of conditions as well as analytical results for integral relaxation rates and time-dependent spin modes in the zero-field and motional-narrowing regimes. The general theoretical framework presented here will enable a quantitative analysis of frequency-dependent water-proton longitudinal relaxation in model systems with immobilized macromolecules and, ultimately, will provide a rigorous link between relaxation-based magnetic resonance image contrast and molecular parameters.

  6. Relaxation theory of spin-3/2 Ising system near phase transition temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Dynamics of a spin-3/2 Ising system Hamiltonian with bilinear and biquadratic nearest-neighbour exchange interactions is studied by a simple method in which the statistical equilibrium theory is combined with the Onsager's theory of irreversible thermodynamics. First, the equilibrium behaviour of the model in the molecular-field approximation is given briefly in order to obtain the phase transition temperatures, i.e. the first- and second-order and the tricritical points. Then, the Onsager theory is applied to the model and the kinetic or rate equations are obtained. By solving these equations three relaxation times are calculated and their behaviours are examined for temperatures near the phase transition points. Moreover, the z dynamic critical exponent is calculated and compared with the z values obtained for different systems experimentally and theoretically, and they are found to be in good agrement. (general)

  7. Spin relaxation in disordered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzheparov, F S

    2011-01-01

    A review is given on theoretical grounds and typical experimental appearances of spin dynamics and relaxation in solids containing randomly distributed nuclear and/or electronic spins. Brief content is as follows. Disordered and magnetically diluted systems. General outlines of the spin transport theory. Random walks in disordered systems (RWDS). Observable values in phase spin relaxation, free induction decay (FID). Interrelation of longitudinal and transversal relaxation related to dynamics of occupancies and phases. Occupation number representation for equations of motion. Continuum media approximation and inapplicability of moment expansions. Long-range transitions vs percolation theory. Concentration expansion as a general constructive basis for analytical methods. Scaling properties of propagators. Singular point. Dynamical and kinematical memory in RWDS. Ways of regrouping of concentration expansions. CTRW and semi-phenomenology. Coherent medium approximation for nuclear relaxation via paramagnetic impurities. Combining of memory functions and cumulant expansions for calculation of FID. Path integral representations for RWDS. Numerical simulations of RWDS. Spin dynamics in magnetically diluted systems with low Zeeman and medium low dipole temperatures. Cluster expansions, regularization of dipole interactions and spectral dynamics.

  8. Theory of relaxation phenomena in a spin-3/2 Ising system near the second-order phase transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Canko, Osman

    2005-01-01

    The relaxation behavior of the spin-3/2 Ising model Hamiltonian with bilinear and biquadratic interactions near the second-order phase transition temperature or critical temperature is studied by means of the Onsager's theory of irreversible thermodynamics or the Onsager reciprocity theorem (ORT). First, we give the equilibrium case briefly within the molecular-field approximation in order to study the relaxation behavior by using the ORT. Then, the ORT is applied to the model and the kinetic equations are obtained. By solving these equations, three relaxation times are calculated and examined for temperatures near the second-order phase transition temperature. It is found that one of the relaxation times goes to infinity near the critical temperature on either side, the second relaxation time makes a cusp at the critical temperature and third one behaves very differently in which it terminates at the critical temperature while approaching it, then showing a 'flatness' property and then decreases. We also study the influences of the Onsager rate coefficients on the relaxation times. The behavior of these relaxation times is discussed and compared with the spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising systems

  9. Universal Mechanism of Spin Relaxation in Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene

    2006-03-01

    Conventional elastic theory ignores internal local twists and torques. Meantime, spin-lattice relaxation is inherently coupled with local elastic twists through conservation of the total angular momentum (spin + lattice). This coupling gives universal lower bound (free of fitting parameters) on the relaxation of the atomic or molecular spin in a solid [1] and on the relaxation of the electron spin in a quantum dot [2]. [1] E. M. Chudnovsky, D. A. Garanin, and R. Schilling, Phys. Rev. B 72, 094426 (2005). [2] C. Calero, E. M. Chudnovsky, and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 166603 (2005).

  10. Muon spin relaxation in random spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshimitsu Yamazaki

    1981-01-01

    The longitudinal relaxation function Gsub(z)(t) of the positive muon can reflect dynamical characters of local field in a unique way even when the correlation time is longer than the Larmor period of local field. This method has been applied to studies of spin dynamics in spin glass systems, revealing sharp but continuous temperature dependence of the correlation time. Its principle and applications are reviewed. (author)

  11. Nuclear Spin Relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    In the context of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the term relaxation indicates the process by which the magnetic atomic nuclei reach thermal equilibrium with the chaotic molecular environment. In NMR, this process can be very slow, requiring between a fraction of a second to many minutes, depending on the.

  12. Electron spin-lattice relaxation in fractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, K.N.

    1986-08-01

    We have developed the theory of the spin-fracton interaction for paramagnetic ions in fractal structures. The interaction is exponentially damped by the self-similarity length of the fractal and by the range dimensionality d Φ . The relaxation time of the spin due to the absorption and emission of the fracton has been calculated for a general dimensionality called the Raman dimensionality d R , which for the fractons differs from the Hausdorff (fractal) dimensionality, D, as well as from the Euclidean dimensionality, d. The exponent of the energy level separation in the relaxation rate varies with d R d Φ /D. We have calculated the spin relaxation rate due to a new type of Raman process in which one fracton is absorbed to affect a spin transition from one electronic level to another and later another fracton is emitted along with a spin transition such that the difference in the energies of the two fractons is equal to the electronic energy level separation. The temperature and the dimensionality dependence of such a process has been found in several approximations. In one of the approximations where the van Vleck relaxation rate for a spin in a crystal is known to vary with temperature as T 9 , our calculated variation for fractals turns out to be T 6.6 , whereas the experimental value for Fe 3+ in frozen solutions of myoglobin azide is T 6.3 . Since we used d R =4/3 and the fracton range dimensionality d Φ =D/1.8, we expect to measure the dimensionalities of the problem by measuring the temperature dependence of the relaxation times. We have also calculated the shift of the paramagnetic resonance transition for a spin in a fractal for general dimensionalities. (author)

  13. Relaxation theory of the electronic spin of a complexed paramagnetic metal ion in solution beyond the Redfield limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Pascal H.; Belorizky, Elie

    2007-05-01

    The relaxation of the electronic spin S of a paramagnetic metal ion with fully quenched orbital angular momentum in its ground state is investigated in an external magnetic field through a systematic study of the time correlation functions governing the evolution of the statistical operator (density matrix). Let ω0 be the Larmor angular frequency of S. When the relaxation is induced by a time-fluctuating perturbing Hamiltonian ℏH1(t ) of time correlation τc, it is demonstrated that after a transient period the standard Redfield approximation is relevant to calculate the evolution of the populations of the spin states if ∥H1∥2τc2/(1+ω02τc2)≪1 and that this transient period becomes shorter than τc at sufficiently high field for a zero-field splitting perturbing Hamiltonian. This property, proven analytically and confirmed by numerical simulation, explains the surprising success of several simple expressions of the longitudinal electronic relaxation rate 1/T1e derived from the Redfield approximation well beyond its expected validity range ∥H1∥τc≪1. It has favorable practical consequences on the interpretation of the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement of nuclei used for structural and dynamic studies.

  14. Cross relaxation in nitroxide spin labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Cross relaxation, and mI-dependence of the intrinsic electron spin-lattice relaxation rate We, are incorporated explicitly into the rate equations for the electron-spin population differences that govern the saturation behaviour of 14N- and 15N-nitroxide spin labels. Both prove important in spin......-label EPR and ELDOR, particularly for saturation recovery studies. Neither for saturation recovery, nor for CW-saturation EPR and CW-ELDOR, can cross relaxation be described simply by increasing the value of We, the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate. Independence of the saturation recovery rates from...... the hyperfine line pumped or observed follows directly from solution of the rate equations including cross relaxation, even when the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate We is mI-dependent....

  15. Far-from-Equilibrium Field Theory of Many-Body Quantum Spin Systems: Prethermalization and Relaxation of Spin Spiral States in Three Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrtash Babadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study theoretically the far-from-equilibrium relaxation dynamics of spin spiral states in the three-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model. The investigated problem serves as an archetype for understanding quantum dynamics of isolated many-body systems in the vicinity of a spontaneously broken continuous symmetry. We present a field-theoretical formalism that systematically improves on the mean field for describing the real-time quantum dynamics of generic spin-1/2 systems. This is achieved by mapping spins to Majorana fermions followed by a 1/N expansion of the resulting two-particle-irreducible effective action. Our analysis reveals rich fluctuation-induced relaxation dynamics in the unitary evolution of spin spiral states. In particular, we find the sudden appearance of long-lived prethermalized plateaus with diverging lifetimes as the spiral winding is tuned toward the thermodynamically stable ferro- or antiferromagnetic phases. The emerging prethermalized states are characterized by different bosonic modes being thermally populated at different effective temperatures and by a hierarchical relaxation process reminiscent of glassy systems. Spin-spin correlators found by solving the nonequilibrium Bethe-Salpeter equation provide further insight into the dynamic formation of correlations, the fate of unstable collective modes, and the emergence of fluctuation-dissipation relations. Our predictions can be verified experimentally using recent realizations of spin spiral states with ultracold atoms in a quantum gas microscope [S. Hild et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 147205 (2014PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.147205].

  16. Spin transport and relaxation in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wei; McCreary, K.M.; Pi, K.; Wang, W.H.; Li Yan; Wen, H.; Chen, J.R.; Kawakami, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    We review our recent work on spin injection, transport and relaxation in graphene. The spin injection and transport in single layer graphene (SLG) were investigated using nonlocal magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. Spin injection was performed using either transparent contacts (Co/SLG) or tunneling contacts (Co/MgO/SLG). With tunneling contacts, the nonlocal MR was increased by a factor of ∼1000 and the spin injection/detection efficiency was greatly enhanced from ∼1% (transparent contacts) to ∼30%. Spin relaxation was investigated on graphene spin valves using nonlocal Hanle measurements. For transparent contacts, the spin lifetime was in the range of 50-100 ps. The effects of surface chemical doping showed that for spin lifetimes in the order of 100 ps, charged impurity scattering (Au) was not the dominant mechanism for spin relaxation. While using tunneling contacts to suppress the contact-induced spin relaxation, we observed the spin lifetimes as long as 771 ps at room temperature, 1.2 ns at 4 K in SLG, and 6.2 ns at 20 K in bilayer graphene (BLG). Furthermore, contrasting spin relaxation behaviors were observed in SLG and BLG. We found that Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation dominated in SLG at low temperatures whereas Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation dominated in BLG at low temperatures. Gate tunable spin transport was studied using the SLG property of gate tunable conductivity and incorporating different types of contacts (transparent and tunneling contacts). Consistent with theoretical predictions, the nonlocal MR was proportional to the SLG conductivity for transparent contacts and varied inversely with the SLG conductivity for tunneling contacts. Finally, bipolar spin transport in SLG was studied and an electron-hole asymmetry was observed for SLG spin valves with transparent contacts, in which nonlocal MR was roughly independent of DC bias current for electrons, but varied significantly with DC bias current for holes. These results are very important for

  17. Abrupt relaxation in high-spin molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-R.; Cheng, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    Mean-field model suggests that the rate of resonant quantum tunneling in high-spin molecules is not only field-dependent but also time-dependent. The relaxation-assisted resonant tunneling in high-spin molecules produces an abrupt magnetization change during relaxation. When the applied field is very close to the resonant field, a time-dependent interaction field gradually shifts the energies of different collective spin states, and magnetization tunneling is observed as two energies of the spin states coincide

  18. Field dependence of the electron spin relaxation in quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Carlos; Chudnovsky, E M; Garanin, D A

    2005-10-14

    The interaction of the electron spin with local elastic twists due to transverse phonons is studied. The universal dependence of the spin-relaxation rate on the strength and direction of the magnetic field is obtained in terms of the electron gyromagnetic tensor and macroscopic elastic constants of the solid. The theory contains no unknown parameters and it can be easily tested in experiment. At high magnetic field it provides a parameter-free lower bound on the electron spin relaxation in quantum dots.

  19. Electron spin relaxation in cryptochrome-based magnetoreception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattnig, Daniel R; Solov'yov, Ilia A; Hore, P J

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic compass sense of migratory birds is thought to rely on magnetically sensitive radical pairs formed photochemically in cryptochrome proteins in the retina. An important requirement of this hypothesis is that electron spin relaxation is slow enough for the Earth's magnetic field to have...... this question for a structurally characterized model cryptochrome expected to share many properties with the putative avian receptor protein. To this end we combine all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, Bloch-Redfield relaxation theory and spin dynamics calculations to assess the effects of spin relaxation...... on the performance of the protein as a compass sensor. Both flavin-tryptophan and flavin-Z˙ radical pairs are studied (Z˙ is a radical with no hyperfine interactions). Relaxation is considered to arise from modulation of hyperfine interactions by librational motions of the radicals and fluctuations in certain...

  20. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  1. Spin-lattice relaxation of individual solid-state spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, A.; Muñoz, E.; Dinani, H. T.; Jarmola, A.; Maletinsky, P.; Budker, D.; Maze, J. R.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the effect of vibrations on the relaxation process of individual spins is crucial for implementing nanosystems for quantum information and quantum metrology applications. In this work, we present a theoretical microscopic model to describe the spin-lattice relaxation of individual electronic spins associated to negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, although our results can be extended to other spin-boson systems. Starting from a general spin-lattice interaction Hamiltonian, we provide a detailed description and solution of the quantum master equation of an electronic spin-one system coupled to a phononic bath in thermal equilibrium. Special attention is given to the dynamics of one-phonon processes below 1 K where our results agree with recent experimental findings and analytically describe the temperature and magnetic-field scaling. At higher temperatures, linear and second-order terms in the interaction Hamiltonian are considered and the temperature scaling is discussed for acoustic and quasilocalized phonons when appropriate. Our results, in addition to confirming a T5 temperature dependence of the longitudinal relaxation rate at higher temperatures, in agreement with experimental observations, provide a theoretical background for modeling the spin-lattice relaxation at a wide range of temperatures where different temperature scalings might be expected.

  2. Muon spin-relaxation measurements of spin-correlation decay in spin-glass AgMn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffner, R.H.; Cooke, D.W.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Gupta, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The field (H) dependence of the muon longitudinal spin-lattice relaxation rate well below the spin-glass temperature in AgMn is found to obey an algebraic form given by (H)/sup nu-1/, with nu = 0.54 +- 0.05. This suggests that Mn spin correlations decay with time as t - /sup nu/, in agreement with mean field theories of spin-glass dynamics which yield nu less than or equal to 0.5. Near the glass temperature the agreement between the data and theory is not as good

  3. Universal Behavior of Spin Dipolar Relaxation in Atomic Condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuangang; Zhou, Yiquan; Deng, Min; Liu, Qi; Tey, Mengkhoon; Gao, Bo; You, Li

    2017-04-01

    The dipolar relaxation of atomic spinor condensates is studied in terms of the semi-analytical scattering wave functions by utilizing the quantum-defect theory. At nonzero magnetic fields, inelastic dipolar relaxation of exothermic reaction leads to loss of the atomic population. By tuning the bias field, we find that the dipolar relaxation rate exhibits a universal behavior involving a unique dip and peak structure, different from the commonly referenced result based on the Born or the distortedwave Born approximations. The positions for the dip and the peak are shown to be determined dominantly by the short-range s-wave scattering length and the Van der Waals radius, independent of the dipolar interaction strength of ultracold atoms. This is confirmed by the precision measured dipolar relaxation decay rate for both spin-polarized atomic coherent spin states and twin-Fock states of F = 1 87 Rb BoseEinstein condensates. We observe the dipolar relaxation suppression as predicted by our theory for the large bias field, a feature not previously studied experimentally. Our results implicate the possibility of extracting the short-range scattering length and the Van der Waals dispersion coefficient from spin dipolar decay measurements.

  4. Nuclear magnetic relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism: Multi-spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil

    2017-08-01

    In aqueous systems with immobilized macromolecules, including biological tissues, the longitudinal spin relaxation of water protons is primarily induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of intra- and intermolecular magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. Starting from the stochastic Liouville equation, we have previously developed a rigorous EMOR relaxation theory for dipole-coupled two-spin and three-spin systems. Here, we extend the stochastic Liouville theory to four-spin systems and use these exact results as a guide for constructing an approximate multi-spin theory, valid for spin systems of arbitrary size. This so-called generalized stochastic Redfield equation (GSRE) theory includes the effects of longitudinal-transverse cross-mode relaxation, which gives rise to an inverted step in the relaxation dispersion profile, and coherent spin mode transfer among solid-like spins, which may be regarded as generalized spin diffusion. The GSRE theory is compared to an existing theory, based on the extended Solomon equations, which does not incorporate these phenomena. Relaxation dispersion profiles are computed from the GSRE theory for systems of up to 16 protons, taken from protein crystal structures. These profiles span the range from the motional narrowing limit, where the coherent mode transfer plays a major role, to the ultra-slow motion limit, where the zero-field rate is closely related to the strong-collision limit of the dipolar relaxation rate. Although a quantitative analysis of experimental data is beyond the scope of this work, it is clear from the magnitude of the predicted relaxation rate and the shape of the relaxation dispersion profile that the dipolar EMOR mechanism is the principal cause of water-1H low-field longitudinal relaxation in aqueous systems of immobilized macromolecules, including soft biological tissues. The relaxation theory developed here therefore provides a basis for molecular-level interpretation of endogenous soft

  5. Spin relaxation through lateral spin transport in heavily doped n -type silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M.; Oka, T.; Fujita, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Saito, Y.; Hamaya, K.

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally study temperature-dependent spin relaxation including lateral spin diffusion in heavily doped n -type silicon (n+-Si ) layers by measuring nonlocal magnetoresistance in small-sized CoFe/MgO/Si lateral spin-valve (LSV) devices. Even at room temperature, we observe large spin signals, 50-fold the magnitude of those in previous works on n+-Si . By measuring spin signals in LSVs with various center-to-center distances between contacts, we reliably evaluate the temperature-dependent spin diffusion length (λSi) and spin lifetime (τSi). We find that the temperature dependence of τSi is affected by that of the diffusion constant in the n+-Si layers, meaning that it is important to understand the temperature dependence of the channel mobility. A possible origin of the temperature dependence of τSi is discussed in terms of the recent theories by Dery and co-workers.

  6. Mechanisms of relaxation and spin decoherence in nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Johan

    Relaxation in spin systems is of great interest with respect to various possible applications like quantum information processing and storage, spintronics, and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The implementation of high frequencies and fields is crucial in the study of systems with large zero-field splitting or large interactions, as for example molecular magnets and low dimensional magnetic materials. Here we will focus on the implementation of pulsed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (ERP) at multiple frequencies of 10, 95, 120, 240, and 336 GHz, and the relaxation and decoherence processes as a function of magnetic field and temperature. Firstly, at higher frequencies the direct single-phonon spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) is considerably enhanced, and will more often than not be the dominant relaxation mechanism at low temperatures, and can be much faster than at lower fields and frequencies. In principle the measurement of the SLR rates as a function of the frequency provides a means to map the phonon density of states. Secondly, the high electron spin polarization at high fields has a strong influence on the spin fluctuations in relatively concentrated spin systems, and the contribution of the electron-electron dipolar interactions to the coherence rate can be partially quenched at low temperatures. This not only allows the study of relatively concentrated spin systems by pulsed EPR (as for example magnetic nanoparticles and molecular magnets), it enables the separation of the contribution of the fluctuations of the electron spin system from other decoherence mechanisms. Besides choice of temperature and field, several strategies in sample design, pulse sequences, or clock transitions can be employed to extend the coherence time in nanomagnets. A review will be given of the decoherence mechanisms with an attempt at a quantitative comparison of experimental rates with theory.

  7. Muon spin relaxation in ferromagnetic PdMn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, S.A.; Gist, G.A.; Heffner, R.H.; Leon, M.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Mydosh, J.A.; Nieuwenhuys, G.J.; Schillaci, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Positive-muon (μ + ) spin relaxation experiments have been carried out in the dilute ferromagnetic alloy Pd + 2 at % Mn (T/sub c/ = 5.8 0 K). In the paramagnetic state the inhomogeneous μ + linewidth is proportional to the bulk magnetization. Below T/sub c/ the μ + linewidth and the width of the μ + local field distribution in zero applied field are both in qualitative accord with the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick theory of disordered magnets

  8. PREFACE: Muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Robert H.; Nagamine, Kanetada

    2004-10-01

    ), is currently being built to replace the current Japanese muSR capability at KEK. These muSR institutions provide scientists a variety of sample environments, including a range of temperatures, magnetic fields and applied pressure. In addition, very low-energy muon beams (Society of muSR Spectroscopy (http://musr.org/~isms/) in order to promote the health of this growing field of research. The 20 papers presented in this volume are intended to highlight some of the current muSR research activities of interest to condensed matter physicists. It is not an exhaustive review. In particular, the active and exciting area of muonium chemistry is left to a future volume. The group of papers in section I addresses the physics of strongly correlated electrons in solids, one of the most active fields of condensed matter research today. Strong electron correlations arise from (Coulomb) interactions which render Landau's theory of electron transport for weakly interacting systems invalid. Included in this category are unconventional heavy-fermion superconductors, high-temperature copper-oxide superconductors, non-Fermi liquid (NFL) systems and systems with strong electron-lattice-spin coupling, such as the colossal magnetoresistance manganites. Two key properties often make the muon a unique probe of these materials: (1) the muon's large magnetic moment (~3 mup) renders it extremely sensitive to the tiny magnetic fields (~1 Gauss) found, for example, in many NFL systems and in superconductors possessing time-reversal-violating order parameters, and (2) the muon's spin 1/2 creates a simple muSR lineshape (no quadrupolar coupling), ideal for measuring spin-lattice-relaxation, local susceptibilities and magnetic-field distributions in ordered magnets and superconductors. Section II contains studies which exploit the unique sensitivities of muSR just noted to elucidate new and hidden properties of novel magnetic materials, including the use of very low energy muons to study thin films

  9. Spin dynamics of the itinerant helimagnet MnSi studied by positive muon spin relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadono, R.; Matsuzaki, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Kreitzman, S.R.; Brewer, J.H.

    1990-03-01

    The local magnetic fields and spin dynamics of the itinerant helimagnet MnSi(T c ≅ 29.5 K) have been studied experimentally using positive muon spin rotation/relaxation (μ + SR) methods. In the ordered phase (T c ), zero-field μSR was used to measure the hyperfine fields at the muon sites as well as the muon spin-lattice relaxation time T 1 μ . Two magnetically inequivalent interstitial μ + sites were found with hyperfine coupling constants A hf (1) = -3.94 kOe/μ B and A hf (2) = -6.94 kOe/μ B , respectively. In the paramagnetic phase (T > T c ), the muon-nuclear spin double relaxation technique was used to simultaneously but independently determine the spin-lattice relaxation time T 1 Mn of 55 Mn spins and that of positive muons (T 1 μ ) over a wide temperature range (T c 1 Mn and T 1 μ in both phases shows systematic deviations from the predictions of self-consistent renormalization (SCR) theory. (author)

  10. Spin-Spin Cross Relaxation in Single-Molecule Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernsdorfer, W.; Bhaduri, S.; Tiron, R.; Hendrickson, D. N.; Christou, G.

    2002-10-01

    The one-body tunnel picture of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) is not always sufficient to explain the measured tunnel transitions. An improvement to the picture is proposed by including also two-body tunnel transitions such as spin-spin cross relaxation (SSCR) which are mediated by dipolar and weak superexchange interactions between molecules. A Mn4 SMM is used as a model system. At certain external fields, SSCRs lead to additional quantum resonances which show up in hysteresis loop measurements as well-defined steps. A simple model is used to explain quantitatively all observed transitions.

  11. Relaxation of coupled nuclear spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenigsberger, E.

    1985-05-01

    The subject of the present work is the relaxation behaviour of scalarly coupled spin-1/2 systems. In the theoretical part the semiclassical Redfield equations are used. Dipolar (D), Chemical Shift Anisotropy (CSA) and Random Field (RF) interactions are considered as relaxation mechanisms. Cross correlations of dipolar interactions of different nuclei pairs and those between the D and the CSA mechanisms are important. The model of anisotropic molecular rotational relaxation and the extreme narrowing approximation are used to obtain the spectral density functions. The longitudinal relaxation data are analyzed into normal modes following Werbelow and Grant. The time evolution of normal modes is derived for the AX system with D-CSA cross terms. In the experimental part the hypothesis of dimerization in the cinnamic acid and the methyl cinnamate - AMX systems with DD cross terms - is corroborated by T 1 -time measurements and a calculation of the diffusion constants. In pentachlorobenzene - an AX system - taking into account of D-CSA cross terms enables the complete determination of movements anosotropy and the determination of the sign of the indirect coupling constant 1 Jsub(CH). (G.Q.)

  12. Relaxations in spin glasses: Similarities and differences from ordinary glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngai, K.L.; Rajagopal, A.K.; Huang, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Relaxation phenomena have become a major concern in the physics of spin glasses. There are certain resemblances of these relaxation properties to those of ordinary glasses. In this work, we compare the relaxation properties of spin glasses near the freezing temperature with those of glasses near the glass transition temperature. There are similarities between the two types of glasses. Moreover, the relaxation properties of many glasses and spin glasses are in conformity with two coupled ''universality'' relations predicted by a recent model of relaxations in condensed matter

  13. Spin relaxation in quantum dots: Role of the phonon modulated spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, A. M.; Romano, C. L.; Sanz, L.; Marques, G. E.

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the spin relaxation rates in a parabolic InSb quantum dots due to the spin interaction with acoustical phonons. We considered the deformation potential mechanism as the dominant electron-phonon coupling in the Pavlov-Firsov spin-phonon Hamiltonian. We analyze the behavior of the spin relaxation rates as a function of an external magnetic field and mean quantum dot radius. Effects of the spin admixture due to Dresselhaus contribution to spin-orbit interaction are also discussed.

  14. Spin-relaxation time in the impurity band of wurtzite semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborenea, Pablo I.; Wellens, Thomas; Weinmann, Dietmar; Jalabert, Rodolfo A.

    2017-09-01

    The spin-relaxation time for electrons in the impurity band of semiconductors with wurtzite crystal structure is determined. The effective Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction Hamiltonian is taken as the source of the spin relaxation at low temperature and for doping densities corresponding to the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition. The spin-flip hopping matrix elements between impurity states are calculated and used to set up a tight-binding Hamiltonian that incorporates the symmetries of wurtzite semiconductors. The spin-relaxation time is obtained from a semiclassical model of spin diffusion, as well as from a microscopic self-consistent diagrammatic theory of spin and charge diffusion in doped semiconductors. Estimates are provided for particularly important materials. The theoretical spin-relaxation times compare favorably with the corresponding low-temperature measurements in GaN and ZnO. For InN and AlN we predict that tuning of the spin-orbit coupling constant induced by an external potential leads to a potentially dramatic increase of the spin-relaxation time related to the mechanism under study.

  15. Spin relaxation of iron in mixed state hemoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, E.; Kalinowski, H.J.; Bemski, G.; Helman, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    In pure states hemoproteins the relaxation of iron depends on its spin state. It is found that in both mixed state met-hemoglobin and met-myoglobin, the low and high spin states relax through an Orbach-like process. Also, very short (approx. 1 ns) and temperature independent transverse relaxation times T 2 were estimated. This peculiar behaviour of the relaxation may result from the unusual electronic structure of mixed state hemoproteins that allows thermal equilibrium and interconversion of the spin states. (Author) [pt

  16. Spin relaxation near the metal-insulator transition: dominance of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intronati, Guido A; Tamborenea, Pablo I; Weinmann, Dietmar; Jalabert, Rodolfo A

    2012-01-06

    We identify the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling as the source of the dominant spin-relaxation mechanism in the impurity band of a wide class of n-doped zinc blende semiconductors. The Dresselhaus hopping terms are derived and incorporated into a tight-binding model of impurity sites, and they are shown to unexpectedly dominate the spin relaxation, leading to spin-relaxation times in good agreement with experimental values. This conclusion is drawn from two complementary approaches: an analytical diffusive-evolution calculation and a numerical finite-size scaling study of the spin-relaxation time.

  17. Progressive muscle relaxation, yoga stretching, and ABC relaxation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Shahyad; Smith, Jonathan C

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the psychological effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and yoga stretching (hatha) exercises. Forty participants were randomly divided into two groups and taught PMR or yoga stretching exercises. Both groups practiced once a week for five weeks and were given the Smith Relaxation States Inventory before and after each session. As hypothesized, practitioners of PMR displayed higher levels of relaxation states (R-States) Physical Relaxation and Disengagement at Week 4 and higher levels of Mental Quiet and Joy as a posttraining aftereffect at Week 5. Contrary to what was hypothesized, groups did not display different levels of R-States Energized or Aware. Results suggest the value of supplementing traditional somatic conceptualizations of relaxation with the psychological approach embodied in ABC relaxation theory. Clinical and research implications are discussed. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol.

  18. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in carbon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panich, A.M., E-mail: pan@bgu.ac.i [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Sergeev, N.A. [Institute of Physics, University of Szczecin, 70-451 Szczecin (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Interpretation of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation data in the carbon nanostructures is usually based on the analysis of fluctuations of dipole-dipole interactions of nuclear spins and anisotropic electron-nuclear interactions responsible for chemical shielding, which are caused by molecular dynamics. However, many nanocarbon systems such as fullerene and nanotube derivatives, nanodiamonds and carbon onions reveal noticeable amount of paramagnetic defects with unpaired electrons originating from dangling bonds. The interaction between nuclear and electron spins strongly influences the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation, but usually is not taken into account, thus the relaxation data are not correctly interpreted. Here we report on the temperature dependent NMR spectra and spin-lattice relaxation measurements of intercalated fullerenes C{sub 60}(MF{sub 6}){sub 2} (M=As and Sb), where nuclear relaxation is caused by both molecular rotation and interaction between nuclei and unpaired electron spins. We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the spin-lattice relaxation data taking into account both these contributions. Good agreement between the experimental data and calculations is obtained. The developed approach would be useful in interpreting the NMR relaxation data in different nanostructures and their intercalation compounds.

  19. Electrical detection of spin current and spin relaxation in nonmagnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M Idrish

    2008-01-01

    We report an electrical method for the detection of spin current and spin relaxation in nonmagnetic semiconductors. Optically polarized spins are dragged by an electric field in GaAs. We use the anomalous Hall effect for the detection of spin current and spin relaxation. It is found that the effect depends on the electric field and doping density as well as on temperature, but not on the excitation power. A calculation for the effect is performed using the measured spin polarization by a pump-probe experiment. The results are also discussed in comparison with a quantitative evaluation of the spin lifetimes of the photogenerated electrons under drift in GaAs

  20. Electrical detection of spin current and spin relaxation in nonmagnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au

    2008-09-21

    We report an electrical method for the detection of spin current and spin relaxation in nonmagnetic semiconductors. Optically polarized spins are dragged by an electric field in GaAs. We use the anomalous Hall effect for the detection of spin current and spin relaxation. It is found that the effect depends on the electric field and doping density as well as on temperature, but not on the excitation power. A calculation for the effect is performed using the measured spin polarization by a pump-probe experiment. The results are also discussed in comparison with a quantitative evaluation of the spin lifetimes of the photogenerated electrons under drift in GaAs.

  1. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in nitroxide spin-label EPR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    that the definition of nitrogen nuclear relaxation rate Wn commonly used in the CW-EPR literature for 14N-nitroxyl spin labels is inconsistent with that currently adopted in time-resolved EPR measurements of saturation recovery. Redefinition of the normalised 14N spin-lattice relaxation rate, b = Wn/(2We), preserves...... of spin-lattice relaxation in this three-level system. Expressions for CW-saturation EPR with the revised definitions are summarised. Data on nitrogen nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times are compiled according to the three-level scheme for 14N-relaxation: T1 n = 1/Wn. Results are compared and contrasted...... the expressions used for CW-EPR, whilst rendering them consistent with expressions for saturation recovery rates in pulsed EPR. Furthermore, values routinely quoted for nuclear relaxation times that are deduced from EPR spectral diffusion rates in 14N-nitroxyl spin labels do not accord with conventional analysis...

  2. Two-channel model for spin-relaxation noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, S.; van Wees, B. J.; Vera-Marun, I. J.

    2017-12-01

    We develop a two-channel resistor model for simulating spin transport with general applicability. Using this model, for the case of graphene as a prototypical material, we calculate the spin signal consistent with experimental values. Using the same model we also simulate the charge and spin-dependent 1 /f noise, both in the local and nonlocal four-probe measurement schemes, and identify the noise from the spin-relaxation resistances as the major source of spin-dependent 1 /f noise.

  3. Relaxation of nuclear spin on holes in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gr'ncharova, E.I.; Perel', V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The longitudienal relaxation time T 1 of nuclear spins due to dipole-dipole interaction with holes in semiconductors is calculated. Expressions for T 1 in cubic and uniaxial semiconductors are obtained for non-degenerate and degenerate cases. On the basis of comparison with available experimental data for silicon the agreement with the theoretical results is obtained. It is demonstrated that in uniaxial semiconductors the time of relaxation on holes for a nuclear spin directed along the c axis is considerably greater than that for a spin in the normal direction

  4. Nuclear spin relaxation of methane in solid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takeru; Arakawa, Ichiro; Yamakawa, Koichiro

    2018-03-01

    Nuclear spin relaxation of methane in solid xenon has been studied by infrared spectroscopy. From the analysis of the temporal changes of the rovibrational peaks, the rates of the nuclear spin relaxation of I = 2 ← 1 correlated to the rotational relaxation of J = 0 ← 1 were obtained at temperatures of 5.1-11.5 K. On the basis of the temperature dependence of the relaxation rate, the activation energy of the indirect two-phonon process was determined to be 50 ± 6 K, which is in good agreement with the rotational transition energies of J = 2 ← 1 and J = 3 ← 1. Taking into account this result and the spin degeneracy, we argue that the lowest J = 3 level in which the I = 1 and I = 2 states are degenerate acts as the intermediate point of the indirect process.

  5. Measurements of spin-lattice relaxation time in mixed alkali halide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannus, A.

    1983-01-01

    Using magneto-optic techniques the ground state spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of 'F' centers in mixed Alkali Halide cristals (KCl-KBr), was studied. A computer assisted system to optically measure short relaxation times (approx. = 1mS), was described. The technique is based on the measurement of the Magnetic Circular Dicroism (MCD) presented by F centers. The T1 magnetic field dependency at 2 K (up to 65 KGauss), was obtained as well as the MCD spectra for different relative concentration at the mixed matrices. The theory developed by Panepucci and Mollenauer for F centers spin-lattice relaxation in pure matrices was modified to explain the behaviour of T1 in mixed cristals. The Direct Process results (T approx. = 2.0 K) compared against that theory shows that the main relaxation mecanism, up to 25 KGauss, continues to be phonon modulation of the hiperfine iteraction between F electrons and surrounding nuclei. (Author) [pt

  6. Low-frequency spin dynamics and NMR spin-lattice relaxation in antiferromagnetic rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itou, T.; Sagane, T.; Oyamada, A.; Maegawa, S.; Igarashi, S.; Yukawa, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a general theory of the spin dynamics of Heisenberg antiferromagnetic rings (HAFRs) that explains the mechanism of NMR spin-lattice relaxation at low temperatures. In HAFRs, the imaginary parts of the q-summed dynamic spin susceptibilities parallel and perpendicular to an applied static field, χsum∥″(ω) and χsum⊥″(ω), are composed of the sum of many slightly broadened δ-functional modes at many frequencies. The NMR relaxation is caused by the quasielastic mode in χsum∥″(ω) at around zero frequency. This quasielastic mode is characterized by two physical quantities, intensity P0∥ and frequency width Γ0∥. Although P0∥ has to date been assumed to be identical to the uniform static susceptibility, we point out that the two quantities are not identical. Without making this unreliable assumption for P0∥, we demonstrate experimentally how P0∥ and Γ0∥ behave, by analyzing the NMR relaxation rates of two different nuclei, H1 and C13, in a real HAFR. This analysis is more rigorous and thus can be used to estimate Γ0∥ and P0∥ more precisely than previously possible. We find that the temperature dependence of P0∥ exhibits activation-type behavior reflecting the first excitation gap. We also find that Γ0∥ decreases monotonically on cooling but saturates to a nonzero value at zero temperature. This strongly suggests that Γ0∥ is dominated not only by the electron-phonon interactions but also by internanomagnet dipole interactions, which have been neglected to date.

  7. ABC relaxation theory and the factor structure of relaxation states, recalled relaxation activities, dispositions, and motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J C; Wedell, A B; Kolotylo, C J; Lewis, J E; Byers, K Y; Segin, C M

    2000-06-01

    ABC Relaxation Theory proposes 15 psychological relaxation-related states (R-States): Sleepiness, Disengagement, Physical Relaxation, Mental Quiet, Rested/Refreshed, At Ease/At Peace, Energized, Aware, Joy, Thankfulness and Love, Prayerfulness, Childlike Innocence, Awe and Wonder, Mystery, and Timeless/Boundless/Infinite. The present study summarizes the results of 13 separate factor analyses of immediate relaxation-related states, states associated with recalled relaxation activities, relaxation dispositions, and relaxation motivations on a combined sample of 1,904 individuals (group average ages ranged from 28-40 yr.). Four exploratory factor analyses of Smith Relaxation Inventories yielded 15 items that most consistently and exclusively load (generally at least .70) on six replicated factors. These items included happy, joyful, energized, rested, at peace, warm, limp, silent, quiet, dozing, drowsy, prayerful, mystery, distant, and indifferent. Subsequent factor analyses restricted to these items and specifying six factors were performed on 13 different data sets. Each yielded the same six-factor solution: Factor 1: Centered Positive Affect, Factor 2: Sleepiness, Factor 3: Disengagement, Factor 4: Physical Relaxation, Factor 5: Mental Quiet, and Factor 6: Spiritual. Implications for ABC Relaxation Theory are discussed.

  8. Use of the Strong Collision Model to Calculate Spin Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Chow, K. H.; Smadella, M.; Hossain, M. D.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Morris, G. D.; Ofer, O.; Morenzoni, E.; Salman, Z.; Saadaoui, H.; Song, Q.; Kiefl, R. F.

    The strong collision model is used to calculate spin relaxation of a muon or polarized radioactive nucleus in contact with a fluctuating environment. We show that on a time scale much longer than the mean time between collisions (fluctuations) the longitudinal polarization decays exponentially with a relaxation rate equal to a sum of Lorentzians-one for each frequency component in the static polarization function ps(t).

  9. Magnetization relaxation in spin glasses above transition point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, I.A.; Minakov, A.A.; Galonzka, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetization relaxation of Cd 0.6 Zn 0.4 Cr 2 Se 4 and Cd 0.6 Mn 0.4 Te monocrystalline samples with T g =21 K and T g =12 K respectively and magnetic colloid is investigated. It is shown that magnetization inexponential relaxation detected experimentally in spin and dipole glasses is essentially higher than T g temperature transition. It is found that at temperatures higher than T g the essential difference is observed in behaviour of spin glasses with different Z and disorder types

  10. Spin relaxation and the Kondo effect in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostami, Habib; Moghaddam, Ali G; Asgari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the spin relaxation and Kondo resistivity caused by magnetic impurities in doped transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. We show that momentum and spin relaxation times, due to the exchange interaction by magnetic impurities, are much longer when the Fermi level is inside the spin-split region of the valence band. In contrast to the spin relaxation, we find that the dependence of Kondo temperature T K on the doping is not strongly affected by the spin–orbit induced splitting, although only one of the spin species are present at each valley. This result, which is obtained using both perturbation theory and the poor man’s scaling methods, originates from the intervalley spin-flip scattering in the spin-split region. We further demonstrate the decline in the conductivity with temperatures close to T K , which can vary with the doping. Our findings reveal the qualitative difference with the Kondo physics in conventional metallic systems and other Dirac materials. (paper)

  11. Detailed mechanisms of1H spin-lattice relaxation in ammonium dihydrogen phosphate confirmed by magic angle spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shigenobu; Jimura, Keiko

    2017-10-01

    Mechanisms of the 1 H spin-lattice relaxation in NH 4 H 2 PO 4 were studied in detail by use of the effect of magic angle spinning on the relaxation. The acid and the ammonium protons have different relaxation times at the spinning rates higher than 10 kHz due to suppression of spin diffusion between the two kinds of protons. The intrinsic relaxation times not affected by the spin diffusion and the spin-diffusion assisted relaxation times were evaluated separately, taking into consideration temperature dependence. Both mechanisms contribute to the 1 H relaxation of the acid protons comparatively. The spin-diffusion assisted relaxation mechanism was suppressed to the level lower than the experimental errors at the spinning rate of 30 kHz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The spin lattice relaxation of 8Li in simple metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. D.; Saadaoui, H.; Parolin, T. J.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.; Smadella, M.; Chow, K. H.; Egilmez, M.; Fan, I.; Kiefl, R. F.; Kreitzman, S. R.; Levy, C. D. P.; Morris, G. D.; Pearson, M. R.; Salman, Z.; MacFarlane, W. A.

    2009-04-01

    We report the modification to the linear temperature dependence of the Korringa nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate of an implanted NMR probe in silver, as it makes a thermally activated site change. We develop a simple model of this phenomenon, which is found in a number of metals including Au and Nb.

  13. Spin-lattice relaxation of magnetic centers in molecular crystals at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Le Tuan Anh; Chibotaru, Liviu F.

    2018-01-01

    We study the spin-phonon relaxation rate of both Kramers and non-Kramers molecular magnets in strongly diluted samples at low temperature. Using the "rotational" contribution to the spin-phonon Hamiltonian, universal formulas for the relaxation rate are obtained. Intriguingly, these formulas are all entirely expressed via measurable or ab initio computable physical quantities. Moreover, they are also independent of the energy gaps to excited states involved in the relaxation process. These obtained expressions for direct and Raman processes offer an easy way to determine the lowest limit of the spin-phonon relaxation of any spin system based on magnetic properties of the ground doublet only. In addition, some intriguing properties of Raman process are also found. Particularly, Raman process in Kramers system is found dependent on the magnetic field's orientation but independent of its magnitude, meanwhile, the same process in non-Kramers system is significantly reduced out of resonance, i.e., for an applied external field. Interestingly, Raman process is demonstrated to vary as T9 for both systems. Application of the theory to a recently investigated cobalt(II) complex shows that it can provide a reasonably good description for the relaxation. Based on these findings, a strategy in developing efficient single-molecule magnets by enhancing the mechanical rigidity of the molecular unit is proposed.

  14. Spin chains and string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczenski, Martin

    2004-10-15

    Recently, an important test of the anti de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence has been done using rotating strings with two angular momenta. We show that such a test can be described more generally as the agreement between two actions: one a low energy description of a spin chain appearing in the field theory side, and the other a limit of the string action in AdS5xS5. This gives a map between the mean value of the spin in the boundary theory and the position of the string in the bulk, and shows how a string action can emerge from a gauge theory in the large-N limit.

  15. Intersubband spin relaxation mechanism in n-doped[110] GaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Lena; Chen, Shijian; Doehrmann, Stefanie; Oertel, Stefan; Huebner, Jens; Oestreich, Michael [Institute for Solid State Physics, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University Hannover, Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Schuh, Dieter; Wegscheider, Werner [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The intersubband spin relaxation mechanism most likely represents the major spin dephasing channel in room temperature applications based upon heterostructures in (110) oriented GaAs for spins oriented along the growth direction. The electron spin relaxation time {tau}{sub s} in n-doped (110)GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells is investigated by time- and polarisation-resolved photoluminescence measurements in dependence on the subband energy splitting and subband occupancy. The influence by the subband energy splitting on {tau}{sub s} is deduced from well width dependent measurements, whereas different occupancies are adjusted by different sample temperatures. The n-doping suppresses the spin dephasing influence of holes created by the optical excitation. The (110) structure suppresses the Dyakonov-Perel relaxation mechanism for spins pointing in growth direction. Therefore the resulting spin relaxation times are long even at room temperature and the intersubband spin relaxation mechanism becomes the dominating spin relaxation mechanism.

  16. Logarithmically Slow Relaxation in Quasiperiodically Driven Random Spin Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Philipp T.; Vasseur, Romain; Potter, Andrew C.

    2018-02-01

    We simulate the dynamics of a disordered interacting spin chain subject to a quasiperiodic time-dependent drive, corresponding to a stroboscopic Fibonacci sequence of two distinct Hamiltonians. Exploiting the recursive drive structure, we can efficiently simulate exponentially long times. After an initial transient, the system exhibits a long-lived glassy regime characterized by a logarithmically slow growth of entanglement and decay of correlations analogous to the dynamics at the many-body delocalization transition. Ultimately, at long time scales, which diverge exponentially for weak or rapid drives, the system thermalizes to infinite temperature. The slow relaxation enables metastable dynamical phases, exemplified by a "time quasicrystal" in which spins exhibit persistent oscillations with a distinct quasiperiodic pattern from that of the drive. We show that in contrast with Floquet systems, a high-frequency expansion strictly breaks down above fourth order, and fails to produce an effective static Hamiltonian that would capture the prethermal glassy relaxation.

  17. Possible spin frustration in Nd2Ti2O7 probed by muon spin relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hanjie; Xing, Hui; Tong, Jun; Tao, Qian; Watanabe, Isao; Xu, Zhu-an

    2014-10-29

    Muon spin relaxation on Nd2Ti2O7 (NTO) and NdLaTi2O7 (NLTO) compounds are presented. The time spectra for both compounds are as expected for the paramagnetic state at high temperatures, but deviate from the exponential function below around 100 K. Firstly, the muon spin relaxation rate increases with decreasing temperature and then levels off below around 10 K, which is reminiscent of the frustrated systems. An enhancement of the relaxation rate by a longitudinal field in the paramagnetic state is observed for NTO and eliminated by a magnetic dilution for the NLTO sample. This suggests that the spectral density is modified by a magnetic dilution and thus indicates that the spins behave cooperatively rather than individually. The zero-field measurement at 0.3 K indicates that the magnetic ground state for NTO is ferromagnetic.

  18. Spin-flip relaxation via optical phonon scattering in quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zi-Wu, E-mail: zwwang@semi.ac.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Department of Physics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Lei [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215125 (China); Li, Shu-Shen [Institute of Semiconductor, CAS, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2013-12-14

    Based on the spin-orbit coupling admixture mechanism, we theoretically investigate the spin-flip relaxation via optical phonon scattering in quantum dots by considering the effect of lattice relaxation due to the electron-acoustic phonon deformation potential coupling. The relaxation rate displays a cusp-like structure (or a spin hot spot) that becomes more clearly with increasing temperature. We also calculate the relaxation rate of the spin-conserving process, which follows a Gaussian form and is several orders of magnitude larger than that of spin-flip process. Moreover, we find that the relaxation rate displays the oscillatory behavior due to the interplay effects between the magnetic and spatial confinement for the spin-flip process not for the spin-conserving process. The trends of increasing and decreasing temperature dependence of the relaxation rates for two relaxation processes are obtained in the present model.

  19. Spin relaxation mechanism in graphene: resonant scattering by magnetic impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, Denis; Gmitra, Martin; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2014-03-21

    We propose that the observed small (100 ps) spin relaxation time in graphene is due to resonant scattering by local magnetic moments. At resonances, magnetic moments behave as spin hot spots: the spin-flip scattering rates are as large as the spin-conserving ones, as long as the exchange interaction is greater than the resonance width. Smearing of the resonance peaks by the presence of electron-hole puddles gives quantitative agreement with experiment, for about 1 ppm of local moments. Although magnetic moments can come from a variety of sources, we specifically consider hydrogen adatoms, which are also resonant scatterers. The same mechanism would also work in the presence of a strong local spin-orbit interaction, but this would require heavy adatoms on graphene or a much greater coverage density of light adatoms. To make our mechanism more transparent, we also introduce toy atomic chain models for resonant scattering of electrons in the presence of a local magnetic moment and Rashba spin-orbit interaction.

  20. Muon spin relaxation studies in strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Y. J.; Luke, G. M.

    1993-05-01

    We describe recent progress of muon spin relaxation (μSR) studies in heavy-fermion (HF) and other strongly correlated electron systems. Measurements of the magnetic field penetration depth λ in HF superconductors UPt 3, URu 2Si 2, UPd 2Al 3 and U 2PtC 2 have revealed that these systems are characterized by large ratios Tc/ TF = 0.1-0.01 of Tc vs Fermi temperature TF derived from λ. This feature is common to high- Tc cuprate and other exotic superconductors. Zero-field μSR studies of magnetic order have elucidated a cross-over from spin glass ordering to nonmagnetic ground states in the ‘quadrupolar Kondo regime’ of (Y 1- xU x)Pd 3, and also suggested a possibility of incommensurate spin-density-wave (SDW) ordering in UNi 2Al 3.

  1. THEORY OF RELAXATION PROCESSES IN FERROMAGNETIC INSULATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Simplified description of ferromagnetic relaxation Detailed treatment of magnons Relaxation frequency calculations Summary of relaxation processes in YIG Summary of experimental results for YIG

  2. Semiclassical treatment of transport and spin relaxation in spin-orbit coupled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueffe, Matthias Clemens

    2012-02-10

    The coupling of orbital motion and spin, as derived from the relativistic Dirac equation, plays an important role not only in the atomic spectra but as well in solid state physics. Spin-orbit interactions are fundamental for the young research field of semiconductor spintronics, which is inspired by the idea to use the electron's spin instead of its charge for fast and power saving information processing in the future. However, on the route towards a functional spin transistor there is still some groundwork to be done, e.g., concerning the detailed understanding of spin relaxation in semiconductors. The first part of the present thesis can be placed in this context. We have investigated the processes contributing to the relaxation of a particularly long-lived spin-density wave, which can exist in semiconductor heterostructures with Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling of precisely the same magnitude. We have used a semiclassical spindiffusion equation to study the influence of the Coulomb interaction on the lifetime of this persistent spin helix. We have thus established that, in the presence of perturbations that violate the special symmetry of the problem, electron-electron scattering can have an impact on the relaxation of the spin helix. The resulting temperature-dependent lifetime reproduces the experimentally observed one in a satisfactory manner. It turns out that cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is the most important symmetry-breaking element. The Coulomb interaction affects the dynamics of the persistent spin helix also via an Hartree-Fock exchange field. As a consequence, the individual spins precess about the vector of the surrounding local spin density, thus causing a nonlinear dynamics. We have shown that, for an experimentally accessible degree of initial spin polarization, characteristic non-linear effects such as a dramatic increase of lifetime and the appearance of higher harmonics can be expected. Another fascinating solid

  3. Spin Relaxation Time in InAlAs/AlGaAs Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sellami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We report systematic temperature dependent measurements of spin relaxation time in self-assembled In0.72Al0.28As/Al0.28Ga0.72As quantum dots by continuous-wave photoluminescence. The degree of circular polarization decreases as a function of temperature. The spin relaxation time tS is deduced from the circular polarization degree using a three dimensional pseudo- spin precession model. The spin relaxation time decreases rapidly from few hundred picoseconds at 10 K to few tens picoseconds at 85 K. This large change of the spin relaxation time is explained in terms of acoustic phonon emission mechanism.

  4. Relaxation times of the two-phonon processes with spin-flip and spin-conserving in quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zi-Wu, E-mail: zwwang@semi.ac.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Department of Physics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Lei [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215125 (China); Li, Shu-Shen [Institute of Semiconductor, CAS, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-04-07

    We perform a theoretical investigation on the two-phonon processes of the spin-flip and spin-conserving relaxation in quantum dots in the frame of the Huang-Rhys' lattice relaxation model. We find that the relaxation time of the spin-flip is two orders of magnitude longer than that of the spin-conserving, which is in agreement with previous experimental measurements. Moreover, the opposite variational trends of the relaxation time as a function of the energy separation for two-phonon processes are obtained in different temperature regime. The relaxation times display the oscillatory behaviors at the demarcation point with increasing magnetic field, where the energy separation matches the optical phonon energy and results in the optical phonon resonance. These results are useful in understanding the intraband levels' relaxation in quantum dots and could be helpful in designing photoelectric and spin-memory devices.

  5. Contact induced spin relaxation in graphene spin valves with Al2O3 and MgO tunnel barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Amamou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate spin relaxation in graphene by systematically comparing the roles of spin absorption, other contact-induced effects (e.g., fringe fields, and bulk spin relaxation for graphene spin valves with MgO barriers, Al2O3 barriers, and transparent contacts. We obtain effective spin lifetimes by fitting the Hanle spin precession data with two models that include or exclude the effect of spin absorption. Results indicate that additional contact-induced spin relaxation other than spin absorption dominates the contact effect. For tunneling contacts, we find reasonable agreement between the two models with median discrepancy of ∼20% for MgO and ∼10% for Al2O3.

  6. Large spin relaxation anisotropy and valley-Zeeman spin-orbit coupling in WSe2/graphene/h -BN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlmann, Simon; Cummings, Aron W.; Garcia, Jose H.; Kedves, Máté; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Schönenberger, Christian; Makk, Péter

    2018-02-01

    Large spin-orbital proximity effects have been predicted in graphene interfaced with a transition-metal dichalcogenide layer. Whereas clear evidence for an enhanced spin-orbit coupling has been found at large carrier densities, the type of spin-orbit coupling and its relaxation mechanism remained unknown. We show an increased spin-orbit coupling close to the charge neutrality point in graphene, where topological states are expected to appear. Single-layer graphene encapsulated between the transition-metal dichalcogenide WSe2 and h -BN is found to exhibit exceptional quality with mobilities as high as 1 ×105 cm2 V-1 s-1. At the same time clear weak antilocalization indicates strong spin-orbit coupling, and a large spin relaxation anisotropy due to the presence of a dominating symmetric spin-orbit coupling is found. Doping-dependent measurements show that the spin relaxation of the in-plane spins is largely dominated by a valley-Zeeman spin-orbit coupling and that the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling plays a minor role in spin relaxation. The strong spin-valley coupling opens new possibilities in exploring spin and valley degree of freedom in graphene with the realization of new concepts in spin manipulation.

  7. Spin-lattice relaxation in phosphorescent triplet state molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeek, P.J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The present thesis contains the results of a study of spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) in the photo-excited triplet state of aromatic molecules, dissolved in a molecular host crystal. It appears that SLR in phosphorescent triplet state molecules often is related to the presence of so-called (pseudo) localized phonons in the molecular mixed crystals. These local phonons can be thought to correspond with vibrations (librations) of the guest molecule in the force field of the surrounding host molecules. Since the intermolecular forces are relatively weak, the frequencies corresponding with these vibrations are relatively low and usually are of the order of 10-30 cm -1 . (Auth.)

  8. Nuclear spin relaxation/resonance of 8Li in Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Salman, Z.; Chow, K. H.; Fan, I.; Hossain, M. D.; Keeler, T. A.; Kiefl, R. F.; Levy, C. D. P.; Mansour, A. I.; Morris, G. D.; Pearson, M. R.; Parolin, T. J.; Saadaoui, H.; Smadella, M.; Song, Q.; MacFarlane, W. A.

    2009-04-01

    A low energy beam of spin polarized 8Li has been used to study the behaviour of isolated 8Li implanted into a 150 nm thick film of Al on an MgO substrate. The spin relaxation rate 1/T1 and β-NMR lineshape were measured as a function of temperature in a large magnetic field of 4.1 T. The resonances from different sites are unresolved due to the large nuclear dipolar interaction with the host 27Al magnetic dipole moments. Nevertheless the temperature variation of the site averaged 1/T1 and Knight shift show evidence for a transition between the octahedral O and substitutional S sites at about 150 K, as observed in other fcc metals.

  9. Application of spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometry to the Cosmic Axion Spin Precession Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Kimball, Derek F. Jackson; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Aybas, Deniz; Blanchard, John W.; Centers, Gary; Kelley, Sean R. O.'; Wickenbrock, Arne; Fang, Jiancheng; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-03-01

    The Cosmic Axion Spin Precession Experiment (CASPEr) seeks to measure oscillating torques on nuclear spins caused by axion or axion-like-particle (ALP) dark matter via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. A sample spin-polarized along a leading magnetic field experiences a resonance when the Larmor frequency matches the axion/ALP Compton frequency, generating precessing transverse nuclear magnetization. Here we demonstrate a Spin-Exchange Relaxation-Free (SERF) magnetometer with sensitivity ≈ 1 fT /√{ Hz } and an effective sensing volume of 0.1 cm3 that may be useful for NMR detection in CASPEr. A potential drawback of SERF-magnetometer-based NMR detection is the SERF's limited dynamic range. Use of a magnetic flux transformer to suppress the leading magnetic field is considered as a potential method to expand the SERF's dynamic range in order to probe higher axion/ALP Compton frequencies.

  10. A fast determination method for transverse relaxation of spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jixi, E-mail: lujixi@buaa.edu.cn; Qian, Zheng; Fang, Jiancheng [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-04-15

    We propose a fast and accurate determination method for transverse relaxation of the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer. This method is based on the measurement of magnetic resonance linewidth via a chirped magnetic field excitation and the amplitude spectrum analysis. Compared with the frequency sweeping via separate sinusoidal excitation, our method can realize linewidth determination within only few seconds and meanwhile obtain good frequency resolution. Therefore, it can avoid the drift error in long term measurement and improve the accuracy of the determination. As the magnetic resonance frequency of the SERF magnetometer is very low, we include the effect of the negative resonance frequency caused by the chirp and achieve the coefficient of determination of the fitting results better than 0.998 with 95% confidence bounds to the theoretical equation. The experimental results are in good agreement with our theoretical analysis.

  11. Spin relaxation and antisymmetric exchange in n-doped III-V semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor'kov, L. P.; Krotkov, P. L.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, Kavokin [Phys. Rev. B 64, 075305 (2001)] suggested that the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction between localized electrons governs slow spin relaxation in n-doped GaAs in the regime close to the metal-insulator transition. We derive the correct spin Hamiltonian and apply it to the determination of spin dephasing time using the method of moments expansion. Our estimates would give longer than the observed values of the spin-relaxation time.

  12. Spinning particle approach to higher spin field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, Olindo

    2011-01-01

    We shortly review on the connection between higher-spin gauge field theories and supersymmetric spinning particle models. In such approach the higher spin equations of motion are linked to the first-class constraint algebra associated with the quantization of particle models. Here we consider a class of spinning particle models characterized by local O(N)-extended supersymmetry since these models are known to provide an alternative approach to the geometric formulation of higher spin field theory. We describe the canonical quantization of the models in curved target space and discuss the obstructions that appear in presence of an arbitrarily curved background. We then point out the special role that conformally flat spaces appear to have in such models and present a derivation of the higher-spin curvatures for maximally symmetric spaces.

  13. Spin-lattice relaxation within a dimerized Ising chain in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, Rıza, E-mail: rerdem@akdeniz.edu.tr, E-mail: rerdem29@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Akdeniz University, 07058 Antalya (Turkey); Gülpınar, Gül [Department of Physics, Dokuz Eylül University, 35160 İzmir (Turkey); Yalçın, Orhan [Department of Physics, Niğde University, 51240 Niğde (Turkey); Pawlak, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61–614 Poznań (Poland)

    2014-07-21

    A qualitative study of the spin-lattice relaxation within a dimerized Ising chain in a magnetic field is presented. We have first determined the time dependence of the deviation of the lattice distortion parameter δΔ from the equilibrium state within framework of a technique combining the statistical equilibrium theory based on the transfer matrix method and the linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. We have shown that the time dependence of the lattice distortion parameter is characterized by a single time constant (τ) which diverges around the critical point in both dimerized (Δ≠0) and uniform (Δ=0) phase regions. When the temperature and magnetic field are fixed to certain values, the time τ depends only on exchange coupling between the spins. It is a characteristic time associated with the long wavelength fluctuations of distortion. We have also taken into account the effects of spatial fluctuations on the relaxation time using the full Landau-Ginzburg free energy functional. We have found an explicit expression for the relaxation time as a function of temperature, coupling constant and wave vector (q) and shown that the critical mode corresponds to the case q=0. Finally, our results are found to be in good qualitative agreement with the results obtained in recent experimental study on synchrotron x-ray scattering and muon spin relaxation in diluted material Cu{sub 1−y}Mg{sub y}GeO{sub 3} where the composition y is very close to 0.0209. These results can be considered as natural extensions of some previous works on static aspects of the problem.

  14. Theory of spin Hall effect

    OpenAIRE

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.

    2007-01-01

    An extension of Drude model is proposed that accounts for spin and spin-orbit interaction of charge carriers. Spin currents appear due to combined action of the external electric field, crystal field and scattering of charge carriers. The expression for spin Hall conductivity is derived for metals and semiconductors that is independent of the scattering mechanism. In cubic metals, spin Hall conductivity $\\sigma_s$ and charge conductivity $\\sigma_c$ are related through $\\sigma_s = [2 \\pi \\hbar...

  15. Optical Transient-Grating Measurements of Spin Diffusion and Relaxation in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    Spin diffusion in n-GaAs quantum wells, as measured by our optical transient-grating technique, is strongly suppressed relative to that of charge. Over a broad range of temperatures and dopings, the suppression of Ds relative to Dc agrees quantitatively with the prediction of ''spin Coulomb dra'' theory, which takes into account the exchange of spin in electron-electron collisions. Moreover, the spin-diffusion length, Ls, is a nearly constant 1 micrometer over the same range of T and n, despite Ds's varying by nearly two orders of magnitude. This constancy supports the D'yakonov-Perel'-Kachorovskii model of spin relaxation through interrupted precessional dephasing in the spin-orbit field

  16. Optical Transient-Grating Measurements of Spin Diffusion andRelaxation in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christopher Phillip [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Spin diffusion in n-GaAs quantum wells, as measured by our optical transient-grating technique, is strongly suppressed relative to that of charge. Over a broad range of temperatures and dopings, the suppression of Ds relative to Dc agrees quantitatively with the prediction of ''spin Coulomb dra'' theory, which takes into account the exchange of spin in electron-electron collisions. Moreover, the spin-diffusion length, Ls, is a nearly constant 1 micrometer over the same range of T and n, despite Ds's varying by nearly two orders of magnitude. This constancy supports the D'yakonov-Perel'-Kachorovskii model of spin relaxation through interrupted precessional dephasing in the spin-orbit field.

  17. Probing the Nuclear Spin-Lattice Relaxation Time at the Nanoscale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.C.; Den Haan, A. M J; de Voogd, J.M.; Bossoni, L; de Jong, T.A.; de Wit, M.; Bastiaans, K. M.; Thoen, D.J.; Endo, A.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Zaanen, J.; Oosterkamp, TH

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times are measured on copper using magnetic-resonance force microscopy performed at temperatures down to 42 mK. The low temperature is verified by comparison with the Korringa relation. Measuring spin-lattice relaxation times locally at very low temperatures opens up

  18. Zen meditation and ABC relaxation theory: an exploration of relaxation states, beliefs, dispositions, and motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillani, N B; Smith, J C

    2001-06-01

    This study is an attempt to rigorously map the psychological effects of Zen meditation among experienced practitioners. Fifty-nine Zen meditators with at least six years of experience practiced an hour of traditional Zazen seated meditation. A control group of 24 college students spent 60 min silently reading popular magazines. Before relaxation, all participants took the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (SRSI), the Smith Relaxation Dispositions/Motivations Inventory (SRD/MI), and the Smith Relaxation Beliefs Inventory (SRBI). After practice, participants again took the SRSI. Analyses revealed that meditators are less likely to believe in God, more likely to believe in Inner Wisdom, and more likely to display the relaxation dispositions Mental Quiet, Mental Relaxation, and Timeless/Boundless/Infinite. Pre- and postsession analyses revealed that meditators showed greater increments in the relaxation states Mental Quiet, Love and Thankfulness, and Prayerfulness, as well as reduced Worry. Results support Smith's ABC Relaxation Theory.

  19. Spin-lattice relaxation of magnetic centers in molecular crystals at low temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Le Tuan Anh; Chibotaru, Liviu F.

    2017-01-01

    We study the spin-phonon relaxation rate of both Kramers and non-Kramers molecular magnets in strongly diluted samples at low temperature. Using the "rotational" contribution to the spin-phonon Hamiltonian, universal formulae for the relaxation rate are obtained. Intriguingly, these formulae are all entirely expressed via measurable or \\emph{ab initio} computable physical quantities. Moreover, they are also independent of the energy gaps to excited states involved in the relaxation process. T...

  20. Theory of the spin Peltier effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, Y.; Matsuo, M.; Maekawa, S.

    2017-10-01

    A microscopic theory of the spin Peltier effect in a bilayer structure comprising a paramagnetic metal (PM) and a ferromagnetic insulator (FI) based on the nonequilibrium Green's function method is presented. Spin current and heat current driven by temperature gradient and spin accumulation are formulated as functions of spin susceptibilities in the PM and the FI, and are summarized by Onsager's reciprocal relations. By using the current formulas, we estimate heat generation and absorption at the interface driven by the heat-current injection mediated by spins from PM into FI.

  1. Electron spin relaxation in organic semiconductors probed through {mu}SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuccio, L; Willis, M; Drew, A J [Queen Mary University of London, Department of Physics, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Schulz, L; Bernhard, C [Department of Physics and FriMat, University of Fribourg, Ch. du Musee 3, 1700 Fribourg, CH (Germany); Pratt, F L [ISIS Muon Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Heeney, M; Stingelin, N, E-mail: l.nuccio@qmul.ac.uk [Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London, SW7 2AZ, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-01

    Muon spin spectroscopy and in particular the avoided level crossing technique is introduced, with the aim of showing it as a very sensitive local probe for electron spin relaxation in organic semiconductors. Avoided level crossing data on TMS-pentacene at different temperatures are presented, and they are analysed to extract the electron spin relaxation rate, that is shown to increase on increasing the temperature from 0.02 MHz to 0.33 MHz at 3 K and 300 K respectively.

  2. Spin-Relaxation Anisotropy in a GaAs Quantum Dot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarlino, P.; Kawakami, E.; Stano, P.; Shafiei, M.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2014-01-01

    We report that the electron spin-relaxation time T1 in a GaAs quantum dot with a spin-1/2 ground state has a 180° periodicity in the orientation of the in-plane magnetic field. This periodicity has been predicted for circular dots as being due to the interplay of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin orbit

  3. Picosecond spin relaxation in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, M.; Honda, K.; Yasue, Y.; Tackeuchi, A., E-mail: atacke@waseda.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Lu, S. L.; Dai, P. [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Science, Suzhou (China)

    2014-03-24

    The spin relaxation process of low-temperature-grown GaAs is investigated by spin-dependent pump and probe reflectance measurements with a sub-picosecond time resolution. Two very short carrier lifetimes of 2.0 ps and 28 ps, which can be attributed to nonradiative recombinations related to defects, are observed at 10 K. The observed spin polarization shows double exponential decay with spin relaxation times of 46.2 ps (8.0 ps) and 509 ps (60 ps) at 10 K (200 K). The observed picosecond spin relaxation, which is considerably shorter than that of conventional GaAs, indicates the strong relevance of the Elliott-Yafet process as the spin relaxation mechanism. For the first (second) spin relaxation component, the temperature and carrier density dependences of the spin relaxation time indicate that the Bir-Aronov-Pikus process is also effective at temperatures between 10 K and 77 K, and that the D'yakonov-Perel’ process is effective between 125 K (77 K) and 200 K.

  4. Spin-Spin Relaxation and Karyagin-Gol'danskii Effect in FeCl3·6H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, N.; Trumpy, Georg

    1970-01-01

    . Qualitatively, the experimental results can be explained by a combination of a temperature-and magnetic-field-dependent spin-spin relaxation and the Karyagin-Gol'danskii effect. This implies that the zero-field splitting is about 20°K between the lowest-lying Kramers doublet, found to be the |±1 / 2...

  5. Observations of exciton and carrier spin relaxation in Be doped p-type GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaka, Naohiro; Harasawa, Ryo; Tackeuchi, Atsushi, E-mail: atacke@waseda.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Lu, Shulong; Dai, Pan [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dushu Lake Higher Education Town, Ruoshui Road 398, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215028 (China)

    2014-03-17

    We have investigated the exciton and carrier spin relaxation in Be-doped p-type GaAs. Time-resolved spin-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed spin relaxation behaviors between 10 and 100 K. Two PL peaks were observed at 1.511 eV (peak 1) and 1.497 eV (peak 2) at 10 K, and are attributed to the recombination of excitons bound to neutral Be acceptors (peak 1) and the band-to-acceptor transition (peak 2). The spin relaxation times of both PL peaks were measured to be 1.3–3.1 ns at 10–100 K, and found to originate from common electron spin relaxation. The observed existence of a carrier density dependence of the spin relaxation time at 10–77 K indicates that the Bir-Aronov-Pikus process is the dominant spin relaxation mechanism.

  6. Low-field cross spin relaxation of L8i in superconducting NbSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. D.; Salman, Z.; Wang, D.; Chow, K. H.; Kreitzman, S.; Keeler, T. A.; Levy, C. D. P.; Macfarlane, W. A.; Miller, R. I.; Morris, G. D.; Parolin, T. J.; Pearson, M.; Saadaoui, H.; Kiefl, R. F.

    2009-04-01

    A low energy beam of spin polarized L8i has been used to investigate nuclear spin relaxation in the multiband superconductor NbSe2 . In low magnetic fields there is significant cross relaxation between the L8i and the host N93b spins, which is driven by low frequency fluctuations in the nuclear magnetic dipolar interaction. The rate of cross relaxation is strongly field dependent and thus the 1/T1 spin relaxation rate of the L8i is a sensitive monitor of the static local magnetic field B just below the surface. This in turn is used to determine the absolute value of the magnetic penetration depth λ in the Meissner state. The temperature variations in 1/T1 and λ are consistent with a wide distribution of superconducting gaps expected for a multiband superconductor.

  7. β -detected NMR spin relaxation in a thin film heterostructure of ferromagnetic EuO

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, W. A.; Song, Q.; Ingle, N. J. C.; Chow, K. H.; Egilmez, M.; Fan, I.; Hossain, M. D.; Kiefl, R. F.; Levy, C. D. P.; Morris, G. D.; Parolin, T. J.; Pearson, M. R.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Wang, D.

    2015-08-01

    We present β -detected NMR measurements of the spin-lattice relaxation of +8Li implanted into an epitaxial heterostructure based on a 100 nm thick film of ferromagnetic (FM) EuO as a function of temperature through its FM transition. In the FM state, the spin-lattice relaxation rate follows the same temperature dependence, determined by magnon scattering mechanisms, observed in the bulk by 153Eu NMR, but above 40 K, the signal is wiped out. We also find that +8Li stopped in material adjacent to the magnetic layer exhibits spin relaxation related to the critical slowing of the Eu spins. A particularly strong relaxation in the Au overlayer suggests an unusual strong nonlocal coupling mechanism to 8Li in the metal.

  8. Intrinsic spin-relaxation induced negative tunnel magnetoresistance in a single-molecule magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiqing; Wang, Qiang; Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, HuJun; Liang, J.-Q.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate theoretically the effects of intrinsic spin-relaxation on the spin-dependent transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM), which is weakly coupled to ferromagnetic leads. The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) is obtained by means of the rate-equation approach including not only the sequential but also the cotunneling processes. It is shown that the TMR is strongly suppressed by the fast spin-relaxation in the sequential region and can vary from a large positive to slight negative value in the cotunneling region. Moreover, with an external magnetic field along the easy-axis of SMM, a large negative TMR is found when the relaxation strength increases. Finally, in the high bias voltage limit the TMR for the negative bias is slightly larger than its characteristic value of the sequential region; however, it can become negative for the positive bias caused by the fast spin-relaxation.

  9. A statistical correlation investigation for the role of surface spins to the spin relaxation of nitrogen vacancy centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xuerui; Zhang, Jian; Feng, Fupan; Wang, Junfeng; Zhang, Wenlong; Lou, Liren; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Guanzhong, E-mail: gzwang@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale, and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China)

    2014-04-15

    We investigated the influence of spins on surface of nanodiamonds (NDs) to the longitudinal relaxation time (T{sub 1}) and transverse relaxation time (T{sub 2}) of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in ND. A spherical model of the NDs was suggested to account for the experimental results of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}, and the density of surface spins was roughly estimated based on the statistical analysis of experimental results of 72 NDs containing a single NV center. For NDs studied here, the T{sub 1} of NV center inside is highly dependent to the surface spins of the NDs. However, for the T{sub 2} of NV center, intrinsic contributions must be much pronounced than that by surface spins. In other words, T{sub 1} of an NV center in NDs is more sensitive to the change of the surface spin density than T{sub 2}.

  10. A statistical correlation investigation for the role of surface spins to the spin relaxation of nitrogen vacancy centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuerui Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of spins on surface of nanodiamonds (NDs to the longitudinal relaxation time (T1 and transverse relaxation time (T2 of nitrogen vacancy (NV centers in ND. A spherical model of the NDs was suggested to account for the experimental results of T1 and T2, and the density of surface spins was roughly estimated based on the statistical analysis of experimental results of 72 NDs containing a single NV center. For NDs studied here, the T1 of NV center inside is highly dependent to the surface spins of the NDs. However, for the T2 of NV center, intrinsic contributions must be much pronounced than that by surface spins. In other words, T1 of an NV center in NDs is more sensitive to the change of the surface spin density than T2.

  11. Exchange-mediated spin-lattice relaxation of Fe3+ ions in borate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sushil K; Pilbrow, John R

    2007-03-01

    Spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of two borate glasses doped with different concentrations of Fe2O3 were measured using the Electron Spin-Echo (ESE) technique at X-band (9.630 GHz) in the temperature range 2-6K. In comparison with a previous investigation of Fe3+-doped silicate glasses, the relaxation rates were comparable and differed by no more than a factor of two. The data presented here extend those previously reported for borate glasses in the 10-250K range but measured using the amplitude-modulation technique. The T1 values were found to depend on temperature (T) as T(n) with n approximately 1 for the 1% and 0.1% Fe2O3-doped glass samples. These results are consistent with spin-lattice relaxation as effected by exchange interaction of a Fe3+ spin exchange-coupled to another Fe3+ spin in an amorphous material.

  12. Relaxation of the electron spin in quantum dots via one- and two-phonon processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calero, C.; Chudnovsky, E.M.; Garanin, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    We have studied direct and Raman processes of the decay of electron spin states in a quantum dot via radiation of phonons corresponding to elastic twists. Universal dependence of the spin relaxation rate on the strength and direction of the magnetic field has been obtained in terms of the electron gyromagnetic tensor and macroscopic elastic constants of the solid

  13. Relaxation of the electron spin in quantum dots via one- and two-phonon processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calero, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)]. E-mail: carlos.calero-borrallo@lehman.cuny.edu; Chudnovsky, E.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States); Garanin, D.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    We have studied direct and Raman processes of the decay of electron spin states in a quantum dot via radiation of phonons corresponding to elastic twists. Universal dependence of the spin relaxation rate on the strength and direction of the magnetic field has been obtained in terms of the electron gyromagnetic tensor and macroscopic elastic constants of the solid.

  14. Spin dynamics of the positive muon radicals in the presence of rapid electron spin exchange: frequency shift and relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, Masayoshi; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC

    1991-01-01

    The spin dynamics of the positive muon in a muonium-like radical has been investigated in the case where the unpaired electron of the radical undergoes rapid spin flip collisions. If the spin flip rate λ SF is much faster than the hyperfine frequency of the radical, the behaviour of the muon spin is very similar to that of a positive muon in diamagnetic environments. It has been shown that in a transverse field, the relaxation rate and precession frequency of the apparent diamagnetic muon are related to the time evolution function of the muon spin in muonium. The relaxation rate of such an apparent diamagnetic signal has a characteristic field dependence which is very sensitive to the hyperfine frequency of the radical. The fractional frequency shift with respect to the positive muon precession frequency (ω D -ω μ )/ω μ is shown to be field-dependent, in contrast to the case of Knight shifts in metals. The field dependence of the relaxation and frequency shift will provide a tool to distinguish experimentally the muon in a radical which behaves like a free positive muon from a genuine diamagnetic muon. This work can be applied to a variety of fields involving muonium and hydrogen, such as spin dynamic in the gas phase and the muonium-like (hydrogen-like) states in semiconductors. The case where the muon undergoes both spin flip and charge transfer collisions is also discussed. (author)

  15. Mozart versus new age music: relaxation states, stress, and ABC relaxation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan C; Joyce, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    Smith's (2001) Attentional Behavioral Cognitive (ABC) relaxation theory proposes that all approaches to relaxation (including music) have the potential for evoking one or more of 15 factor-analytically derived relaxation states, or "R-States" (Sleepiness, Disengagement, Rested / Refreshed, Energized, Physical Relaxation, At Ease/Peace, Joy, Mental Quiet, Childlike Innocence, Thankfulness and Love, Mystery, Awe and Wonder, Prayerfulness, Timeless/Boundless/Infinite, and Aware). The present study investigated R-States and stress symptom-patterns associated with listening to Mozart versus New Age music. Students (N = 63) were divided into three relaxation groups based on previously determined preferences. Fourteen listened to a 28-minute tape recording of Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik and 14 listened to a 28-minute tape of Steven Halpern's New Age Serenity Suite. Others (n = 35) did not want music and instead chose a set of popular recreational magazines. Participants engaged in their relaxation activity at home for three consecutive days for 28 minutes a session. Before and after each session, each person completed the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (Smith, 2001), a comprehensive questionnaire tapping 15 R-States as well as the stress states of somatic stress, worry, and negative emotion. Results revealed no differences at Session 1. At Session 2, those who listened to Mozart reported higher levels of At Ease/Peace and lower levels of Negative Emotion. Pronounced differences emerged at Session 3. Mozart listeners uniquely reported substantially higher levels of Mental Quiet, Awe and Wonder, and Mystery. Mozart listeners reported higher levels, and New Age listeners slightly elevated levels, of At Ease/Peace and Rested/Refreshed. Both Mozart and New Age listeners reported higher levels of Thankfulness and Love. In summary, those who listened to Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik reported more psychological relaxation and less stress than either those who listened to

  16. The eigenmode perspective of NMR spin relaxation in proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Yury E., E-mail: shapiro@nmrsgi4.ls.biu.ac.il, E-mail: eva.meirovitch@biu.ac.il; Meirovitch, Eva, E-mail: shapiro@nmrsgi4.ls.biu.ac.il, E-mail: eva.meirovitch@biu.ac.il [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900-02 (Israel)

    2013-12-14

    We developed in recent years the two-body (protein and probe) coupled-rotator slowly relaxing local structure (SRLS) approach for elucidating protein dynamics from NMR spin relaxation. So far we used as descriptors the set of physical parameters that enter the SRLS model. They include the global (protein-related) diffusion tensor, D{sub 1}, the local (probe-related) diffusion tensor, D{sub 2}, and the local coupling/ordering potential, u. As common in analyzes based on mesoscopic dynamic models, these parameters have been determined with data-fitting techniques. In this study, we describe structural dynamics in terms of the eigenmodes comprising the SRLS time correlation functions (TCFs) generated by using the best-fit parameters as input to the Smoluchowski equation. An eigenmode is a weighted exponential with decay constant given by an eigenvalue of the Smoluchowski operator, and weighting factor determined by the corresponding eigenvector. Obviously, both quantities depend on the SRLS parameters as determined by the SRLS model. Unlike the set of best-fit parameters, the eigenmodes represent patterns of motion of the probe-protein system. The following new information is obtained for the typical probe, the {sup 15}N−{sup 1}H bond. Two eigenmodes, associated with the protein and the probe, dominate when the time scale separation is large (i.e., D{sub 2} ≫ D{sub 1}), the tensorial properties are simple, and the local potential is either very strong or very weak. When the potential exceeds these limits while the remaining conditions are preserved, new eigenmodes arise. The multi-exponentiality of the TCFs is associated in this case with the restricted nature of the local motion. When the time scale separation is no longer large, the rotational degrees of freedom of the protein and the probe become statistically dependent (coupled dynamically). The multi-exponentiality of the TCFs is associated in this case with the restricted nature of both the local and the

  17. The eigenmode perspective of NMR spin relaxation in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Yury E.; Meirovitch, Eva

    2013-12-01

    We developed in recent years the two-body (protein and probe) coupled-rotator slowly relaxing local structure (SRLS) approach for elucidating protein dynamics from NMR spin relaxation. So far we used as descriptors the set of physical parameters that enter the SRLS model. They include the global (protein-related) diffusion tensor, D1, the local (probe-related) diffusion tensor, D2, and the local coupling/ordering potential, u. As common in analyzes based on mesoscopic dynamic models, these parameters have been determined with data-fitting techniques. In this study, we describe structural dynamics in terms of the eigenmodes comprising the SRLS time correlation functions (TCFs) generated by using the best-fit parameters as input to the Smoluchowski equation. An eigenmode is a weighted exponential with decay constant given by an eigenvalue of the Smoluchowski operator, and weighting factor determined by the corresponding eigenvector. Obviously, both quantities depend on the SRLS parameters as determined by the SRLS model. Unlike the set of best-fit parameters, the eigenmodes represent patterns of motion of the probe-protein system. The following new information is obtained for the typical probe, the 15N-1H bond. Two eigenmodes, associated with the protein and the probe, dominate when the time scale separation is large (i.e., D2 ≫ D1), the tensorial properties are simple, and the local potential is either very strong or very weak. When the potential exceeds these limits while the remaining conditions are preserved, new eigenmodes arise. The multi-exponentiality of the TCFs is associated in this case with the restricted nature of the local motion. When the time scale separation is no longer large, the rotational degrees of freedom of the protein and the probe become statistically dependent (coupled dynamically). The multi-exponentiality of the TCFs is associated in this case with the restricted nature of both the local and the global motion. The effects of local

  18. Spin relaxation in InGaN quantum disks in GaN nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Banerjee, Animesh

    2011-12-14

    The spin relaxation time of photoinduced conduction electrons has been measured in InGaN quantum disks in GaN nanowires as a function of temperature and In composition in the disks. The relaxation times are of the order of ∼100 ps at 300 K and are weakly dependent on temperature. Theoretical considerations show that the Elliott-Yafet scattering mechanism is essentially absent in these materials and the results are interpreted in terms of the D\\'yakonov-Perel\\' relaxation mechanism in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling of the wurtzite structure. The calculated spin relaxation times are in good agreement with the measured values. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Spin lattice relaxation of 8Li in a ferromagnetic EuO epitaxial thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Q.; Chow, K. H.; Egilmez, M.; Fan, I.; Hossain, M. D.; Kiefl, R. F.; Kreitzman, S. R.; Levy, C. D. P.; Morris, G. D.; Parolin, T. J.; Pearson, M. R.; Salman, Z.; Saadaoui, H.; Smadella, M.; Wang, D.; Ingle, N. J. C.; MacFarlane, W. A.

    2009-04-01

    We inject a low energy spin polarized Li+8 beam into an epitaxially grown multilayer film consisting of Au(20 nm)/EuO(100 nm)/ LaAlO3, and investigate the nuclear spin relaxation at 3.33 T. The relaxation varies with implantation energy below 28 keV as the fraction of the probe Li8 stopping in each layer changes. We attribute the fast relaxating component to the EuO, while the much slower relaxation has contributions from both the Au and the substrate. However, fast relaxation is still observed at the lowest implantation energy where all the Li8 stops in the Au capping layer. This may be due to a proximity effect from the EuO.

  20. Spin lattice relaxation of {sup 8}Li in a ferromagnetic EuO epitaxial thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Q., E-mail: susan@phas.ubc.c [Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Chow, K.H.; Egilmez, M.; Fan, I. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Hossain, M.D. [Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kiefl, R.F. [Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Canadian Institute of Advanced Research (Canada); Kreitzman, S.R.; Levy, C.D.P.; Morris, G.D. [TRIMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Parolin, T.J. [Chemistry Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Pearson, M.R. [TRIMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Salman, Z. [TRIMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Physics Department, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Saadaoui, H.; Smadella, M.; Wang, D. [Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Ingle, N.J.C. [AMPEL, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); MacFarlane, W.A. [Chemistry Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    We inject a low energy spin polarized {sup 8}Li{sup +} beam into an epitaxially grown multilayer film consisting of Au(20 nm)/EuO(100 nm)/LaAlO{sub 3}, and investigate the nuclear spin relaxation at 3.33 T. The relaxation varies with implantation energy below 28 keV as the fraction of the probe {sup 8}Li stopping in each layer changes. We attribute the fast relaxating component to the EuO, while the much slower relaxation has contributions from both the Au and the substrate. However, fast relaxation is still observed at the lowest implantation energy where all the {sup 8}Li stops in the Au capping layer. This may be due to a proximity effect from the EuO.

  1. Spin-lattice relaxation times and knight shift in InSb and InAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, P.; Grande, S.

    1976-01-01

    For a dominant contact interaction between nuclei and conduction electrons the relaxation rate is deduced. The extreme cases of degenerate and non-degenerate semiconductors are separately discussed. At strong degeneracy the product of the Knight shift and relaxation time gives the Korringa relation for metals. Measurements of the NMR spin-lattice relaxation times of 115 InSb and 115 InAs were made between 4.2 and 300 K for strongly degenerated samples. The different relaxation mechanisms are discussed and the experimental and theoretical results are compared. (author)

  2. High field electron-spin transport and observation of the Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation of drifting electrons in low temperature-grown gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2008-01-01

    High field electron-spin transport in low temperature-grown gallium arsenide is studied. We generate electron spins in the samples by optical pumping. During transport, we observe the Dyakonov-Perel (DP) [M.I. Dyakonov, V.I. Perel, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 60 (1971) 1954] spin relaxation of the drifting electrons. The results are discussed and are compared with those obtained in calculations of the DP spin relaxation frequency of the hot electrons. A good agreement is obtained

  3. High field electron-spin transport and observation of the Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation of drifting electrons in low temperature-grown gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au

    2008-11-17

    High field electron-spin transport in low temperature-grown gallium arsenide is studied. We generate electron spins in the samples by optical pumping. During transport, we observe the Dyakonov-Perel (DP) [M.I. Dyakonov, V.I. Perel, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 60 (1971) 1954] spin relaxation of the drifting electrons. The results are discussed and are compared with those obtained in calculations of the DP spin relaxation frequency of the hot electrons. A good agreement is obtained.

  4. NMR relaxation in spin ice at low temperature due to diffusing emergent monopoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Christopher L.

    2013-03-01

    At low temperatures, spin dynamics in ideal spin ice is due mainly to dilute, thermally excited magnetic ``monopole'' excitations. I consider how these will affect the longitudinal (T1) and dephasing (T2) relaxation functions of a nuclear spin in the spin-ice pyrochlore Dy2Ti2O4. Up to the time scale for nearby monopoles to be rearranged, a stretched-exponential form of the relaxation functions is expected, due to averaging over nuclei that have different local environments. ror the dephasing (T2) relaxation, the power of time in the stretched exponential is 3/2 in the case of diffusing monopoles, but 1/2 in the case of fixed, fluctuating magnetic impurities. The flip rate and density of fluctuating spins (whatever their nature) can be extracted from the measured relaxation times T1 and T2, and from known parameters. However, the actual experimental relaxation measured by Kitagawa and Takigawa becomes temperature independent in the very low T limit, and the T2 has a power t 1 / 2 in the exponential, neither of which can be explained by monopoles. I suggest the very low T behavior could be due to magnetic impurities on the (normally nonmagnetic) Ti sites. Supported by NSF grant DMR-1005466.

  5. Intramolecular Energy Relaxation and Statistical Rate Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Okitsugu, KAJIMOTO; Department of Chemistry, Kyoto University

    1994-01-01

    Statistical rate theory is essentially based on the state counting without any restrictions other than the energy and the angular momentum conservation. In this work, two kinds of restrictions are introduced into the statistical theory. The first restriction is related to the intramolecular energy flow within the reacting molecular system. The excess energy of reaction is made distributed with some bias favoring a specific degree of freedom. That is, the statistical weight of each product sta...

  6. Spin-spin cross relaxation and spin-Hamiltonian spectroscopy by optical pumping of Pr/sup 3+/:LaF3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukac, M.; Otto, F.W.; Hahn, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    We report the observation of an anticrossing in solid-state laser spectroscopy produced by cross relaxation. Spin-spin cross relaxation between the /sup 141/Pr- and /sup 19/F-spin reservoirs in Pr/sup 3+/:LaF 3 and its influence on the /sup 141/Pr NMR spectrum is detected by means of optical pumping. The technique employed combines optical pumping and hole burning with either external magnetic field sweep or rf resonance saturation in order to produce slow transient changes in resonant laser transmission. At a certain value of the external Zeeman field, where the energy-level splittings of Pr and F spins match, a level repulsion and discontinuity of the Pr/sup 3+/ NMR lines is observed. This effect is interpreted as the ''anticrossing'' of the combined Pr-F spin-spin reservoir energy states. The Zeeman-quadrupole-Hamiltonian spectrum of the hyperfine optical ground states of Pr/sup 3+/:LaF 3 is mapped out over a wide range of Zeeman magnetic fields. A new scheme is proposed for dynamic polarization of nuclei by means of optical pumping, based on resonant cross relaxation between rare spins and spin reservoirs

  7. Thermal relaxation and heat transport in spin ice Dy{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemke, Bastian; Meissner, M.; Tennant, D.A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (Germany); Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Strehlow, P. [Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Institut Berlin (Germany); Kiefer, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (Germany); Grigera, S.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Instituto de Fisica de Liquidos y Sistemas Biologicos, CONICET, UNLP, La Plata (Argentina)

    2011-07-01

    The thermal properties of single crystalline Dy{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} have been studied at temperature below 30 K and magnetic fields applied along [110] direction up to 1.5 T. Based on a thermodynamic field theory (TFT) various heat relaxation and thermal transport measurements were analysed. So we were able to present not only the heat capacity of Dy{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, but also for the first time the different contributions of the magnetic excitations and their corresponding relaxation times in the spin ice phase. In addition, the thermal conductivity and the shortest relaxation time were determined by thermodynamic analysis of steady state heat transport measurements. Finally, we were able to reproduce the temperature profiles recorded in heat pulse experiments on the basis of TFT using the previously determined heat capacity and thermal conductivity data without additional parameters. Thus, TFT has been proved to be thermodynamically consistent in describing three thermal transport experiments on different time scales. The observed temperature and field dependencies of heat capacity contributions and relaxation times indicate the magnetic excitations in the spin ice Dy{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} as thermally activated monopole-antimonopole defects.

  8. Resonant Scattering by Magnetic Impurities as a Model for Spin Relaxation in Bilayer Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, Denis; Irmer, Susanne; Gmitra, Martin; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2015-11-06

    We propose that the observed spin relaxation in bilayer graphene is due to resonant scattering by magnetic impurities. We analyze a resonant scattering model due to adatoms on both dimer and nondimer sites, finding that only the former give narrow resonances at the charge neutrality point. Opposite to single-layer graphene, the measured spin-relaxation rate in the graphene bilayer increases with carrier density. Although it has been commonly argued that a different mechanism must be at play for the two structures, our model explains this behavior rather naturally in terms of different broadening scales for the same underlying resonant processes. Not only do our results-using robust and first-principles inspired parameters-agree with experiment, they also predict an experimentally testable sharp decrease of the spin-relaxation rate at high carrier densities.

  9. Relaxation of an Isolated Dipolar-Interacting Rydberg Quantum Spin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orioli, A. Piñeiro; Signoles, A.; Wildhagen, H.; Günter, G.; Berges, J.; Whitlock, S.; Weidemüller, M.

    2018-02-01

    How do isolated quantum systems approach an equilibrium state? We experimentally and theoretically address this question for a prototypical spin system formed by ultracold atoms prepared in two Rydberg states with different orbital angular momenta. By coupling these states with a resonant microwave driving, we realize a dipolar X Y spin-1 /2 model in an external field. Starting from a spin-polarized state, we suddenly switch on the external field and monitor the subsequent many-body dynamics. Our key observation is density dependent relaxation of the total magnetization much faster than typical decoherence rates. To determine the processes governing this relaxation, we employ different theoretical approaches that treat quantum effects on initial conditions and dynamical laws separately. This allows us to identify an intrinsically quantum component to the relaxation attributed to primordial quantum fluctuations.

  10. Quantum mechanical alternative to Arrhenius equation in the interpretation of proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in solids

    KAUST Repository

    Bernatowicz, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Theory of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in methyl groups in solids has been a recurring problem in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The current view is that, except for extreme cases of low torsional barriers where special quantum effects are at stake, the relaxation behaviour of the nuclear spins in methyl groups is controlled by thermally activated classical jumps of the methyl group between its three orientations. The temperature effects on the relaxation rates can be modelled by Arrhenius behaviour of the correlation time of the jump process. The entire variety of relaxation effects in protonated methyl groups has recently been given a consistently quantum mechanical explanation not invoking the jump model regardless of the temperature range. It exploits the damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory originally developed to describe NMR line shape effects for hindered methyl groups. In the DQR model, the incoherent dynamics of the methyl group include two quantum rate, i.e., coherence-damping processes. For proton relaxation only one of these processes is relevant. In this paper, temperature-dependent proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in polycrystalline methyltriphenyl silane and methyltriphenyl germanium, both deuterated in aromatic positions, are reported and interpreted in terms of the DQR model. A comparison with the conventional approach exploiting the phenomenological Arrhenius equation is made. The present observations provide further indications that incoherent motions of molecular moieties in condensed phase can retain quantum character over much broad temperature range than is commonly thought.

  11. Mn-based hard magnets with small saturation magnetization and low spin relaxation for spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizukami, S.; Sakuma, A.; Sugihara, A.; Suzuki, K.Z.; Ranjbar, R.

    2016-01-01

    The pursuit of high saturation magnetization is an important area of hard magnetic materials research. However, spintronics requires hard magnets exhibiting small saturation magnetization and low spin relaxation. Mn-based alloys that are composed of Mn and light group III and/or group IV elements exhibit such properties and may belong to a new category of magnetic materials. In this article, we review the magnetic properties of Mn-based hard magnet films. In particular, we focus on low spin relaxation as a new viewpoint for hard magnets, and we discuss the origin of their extraordinary magnetism in terms of their unique electronic structures.

  12. Optimal Configuration for Relaxation Times Estimation in Complex Spin Echo Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Baselice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many pathologies can be identified by evaluating differences raised in the physical parameters of involved tissues. In a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI framework, spin-lattice T1 and spin-spin T2 relaxation time parameters play a major role in such an identification. In this manuscript, a theoretical study related to the evaluation of the achievable performances in the estimation of relaxation times in MRI is proposed. After a discussion about the considered acquisition model, an analysis on the ideal imaging acquisition parameters in the case of spin echo sequences, i.e., echo and repetition times, is conducted. In particular, the aim of the manuscript consists in providing an empirical rule for optimal imaging parameter identification with respect to the tissues under investigation. Theoretical results are validated on different datasets in order to show the effectiveness of the presented study and of the proposed methodology.

  13. Lattice relaxation theory of localized excitations in quasi-one-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuilin; Su Zhaobin; Yu Lu.

    1993-04-01

    The lattice relaxation theory developed earlier by Su and Yu for solitons and polarons in conducting polymers is applied to systems with both electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions, described by a single band Peierls-Hubbard model. The localized excitations in the competing bond-order-wave (BOW), charge-density-wave (CDW) and spin-density-wave (SDW) systems show interesting new features in their dynamics. In particular, a non-monotonic dependence of the relaxation rate on the coupling strength is predicted from the theory. The possible connection of this effect with photo-luminescence experiments is discussed. Similar phenomena may occur in other quasi-one-dimensional systems as well. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs

  14. NMR longitudinal relaxation enhancement in metal halides by heteronuclear polarization exchange during magic-angle spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmyreva, Anna A. [Center for Magnetic Resonance, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Safdari, Majid; Furó, István [Department of Chemistry, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Dvinskikh, Sergey V., E-mail: sergeid@kth.se [Department of Chemistry, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Laboratory of Biomolecular NMR, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-14

    Orders of magnitude decrease of {sup 207}Pb and {sup 199}Hg NMR longitudinal relaxation times T{sub 1} upon magic-angle-spinning (MAS) are observed and systematically investigated in solid lead and mercury halides MeX{sub 2} (Me = Pb, Hg and X = Cl, Br, I). In lead(II) halides, the most dramatic decrease of T{sub 1} relative to that in a static sample is in PbI{sub 2}, while it is smaller but still significant in PbBr{sub 2}, and not detectable in PbCl{sub 2}. The effect is magnetic-field dependent but independent of the spinning speed in the range 200–15 000 Hz. The observed relaxation enhancement is explained by laboratory-frame heteronuclear polarization exchange due to crossing between energy levels of spin-1/2 metal nuclei and adjacent quadrupolar-spin halogen nuclei. The enhancement effect is also present in lead-containing organometal halide perovskites. Our results demonstrate that in affected samples, it is the relaxation data recorded under non-spinning conditions that characterize the local properties at the metal sites. A practical advantage of fast relaxation at slow MAS is that spectral shapes with orientational chemical shift anisotropy information well retained can be acquired within a shorter experimental time.

  15. Generalized BRST symmetry for arbitrary spin conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker, E-mail: sudhakerupadhyay@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Mandal, Bhabani Prasad, E-mail: bhabani.mandal@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-05-11

    We develop the finite field-dependent BRST (FFBRST) transformation for arbitrary spin-s conformal field theories. We discuss the novel features of the FFBRST transformation in these systems. To illustrate the results we consider the spin-1 and spin-2 conformal field theories in two examples. Within the formalism we found that FFBRST transformation connects the generating functionals of spin-1 and spin-2 conformal field theories in linear and non-linear gauges. Further, the conformal field theories in the framework of FFBRST transformation are also analyzed in Batalin–Vilkovisky (BV) formulation to establish the results.

  16. Matrix-assisted relaxation in Fe(phen)2(NCS)2 spin-crossover microparticles, experimental and theoretical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enachescu, Cristian; Stancu, Alexandru; Tanasa, Radu; Tissot, Antoine; Laisney, Jérôme; Boillot, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present the influence of the embedding matrix on the relaxation of Fe(phen) 2 (NCS) 2 (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) spin-transition microparticles as revealed by experiments and provide an explanation within the framework of an elastic model based on a Monte-Carlo method. Experiments show that the shape of the high-spin → low-spin relaxation curves is drastically changed when the particles are dispersed in glycerol. This effect was considered in the model by means of interactions between the microparticles and the matrix. A faster start of the relaxation for microparticles embedded in glycerol is due to an initial positive local pressure acting on the edge spin-crossover molecules from the matrix side. This local pressure diminishes and eventually becomes negative during relaxation, as an effect of the decrease of the volume of spin-crossover microparticles from high-spin to low-spin.

  17. Higher spin gauge theories in any dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Some general properties of higher spin (HS) gauge theories are summarized, with the emphasize on the nonlinear theories in any dimension. The main conclusion is that nonlinear HS theories exist in any dimension. Note that HS gauge symmetries in the nonlinear HS theory differ from the Yang-Mills gauging of the global HS symmetry of a free theory one starts with by HS field strength dependent nonlinear corrections resulting from the partial gauge fixing of spontaneously broken HS symmetries in the extended non-commutative space. The HS geometry is that of the fuzzy hyperboloid in the auxiliary (fiber) non-commutative space. Its radius depends on the Weyl 0-forms which take values in the infinitive-dimensional module dual to the space of single-particle states in the system

  18. Partially massless higher-spin theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brust, Christopher [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Hinterbichler, Kurt [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University,10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2017-02-16

    We study a generalization of the D-dimensional Vasiliev theory to include a tower of partially massless fields. This theory is obtained by replacing the usual higher-spin algebra of Killing tensors on (A)dS with a generalization that includes “third-order” Killing tensors. Gauging this algebra with the Vasiliev formalism leads to a fully non-linear theory which is expected to be UV complete, includes gravity, and can live on dS as well as AdS. The linearized spectrum includes three massive particles and an infinite tower of partially massless particles, in addition to the usual spectrum of particles present in the Vasiliev theory, in agreement with predictions from a putative dual CFT with the same symmetry algebra. We compute the masses of the particles which are not fixed by the massless or partially massless gauge symmetry, finding precise agreement with the CFT predictions. This involves computing several dozen of the lowest-lying terms in the expansion of the trilinear form of the enlarged higher-spin algebra. We also discuss nuances in the theory that occur in specific dimensions; in particular, the theory dramatically truncates in bulk dimensions D=3,5 and has non-diagonalizable mixings which occur in D=4,7.

  19. Partially massless higher-spin theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brust, Christopher; Hinterbichler, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    We study a generalization of the D-dimensional Vasiliev theory to include a tower of partially massless fields. This theory is obtained by replacing the usual higher-spin algebra of Killing tensors on (A)dS with a generalization that includes “third-order” Killing tensors. Gauging this algebra with the Vasiliev formalism leads to a fully non-linear theory which is expected to be UV complete, includes gravity, and can live on dS as well as AdS. The linearized spectrum includes three massive particles and an infinite tower of partially massless particles, in addition to the usual spectrum of particles present in the Vasiliev theory, in agreement with predictions from a putative dual CFT with the same symmetry algebra. We compute the masses of the particles which are not fixed by the massless or partially massless gauge symmetry, finding precise agreement with the CFT predictions. This involves computing several dozen of the lowest-lying terms in the expansion of the trilinear form of the enlarged higher-spin algebra. We also discuss nuances in the theory that occur in specific dimensions; in particular, the theory dramatically truncates in bulk dimensions D=3,5 and has non-diagonalizable mixings which occur in D=4,7.

  20. Analyticity in spin in conformal theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron-Huot, Simon

    2017-09-01

    Conformal theory correlators are characterized by the spectrum and three-point functions of local operators. We present a formula which extracts this data as an analytic function of spin. In analogy with a classic formula due to Froissart and Gribov, it is sensitive only to an "imaginary part" which appears after analytic continuation to Lorentzian signature, and it converges thanks to recent bounds on the high-energy Regge limit. At large spin, substituting in cross-channel data, the formula yields 1 /J expansions with controlled errors. In large- N theories, the imaginary part is saturated by single-trace operators. For a sparse spectrum, it manifests the suppression of bulk higher-derivative interactions that constitutes the signature of a local gravity dual in Anti-de-Sitter space.

  1. Conical defects in higher spin theories

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Castro, A.; Gopakumar, R.; Gutperle, M.; Raeymaekers, Joris

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 2 (2012), 1-33 ISSN 1126-6708 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/1388 Grant - others:EUROHORC and ESF(XE) EYI/07/E010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : conformal field theory * higher spin * gauge transformation * minimal models * holonomy * Chern-Simons theory Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.618, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FJHEP02%282012%29096

  2. Long Spin-Relaxation Times in a Transition-Metal Atom in Direct Contact to a Metal Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenau, Jan; Ternes, Markus; Steinbrecher, Manuel; Wiesendanger, Roland; Wiebe, Jens

    2018-03-14

    Long spin-relaxation times are a prerequisite for the use of spins in data storage or nanospintronics technologies. An atomic-scale solid-state realization of such a system is the spin of a transition-metal atom adsorbed on a suitable substrate. For the case of a metallic substrate, which enables the direct addressing of the spin by conduction electrons, the experimentally measured lifetimes reported to date are on the order of only hundreds of femtoseconds. Here, we show that the spin states of iron atoms adsorbed directly on a conductive platinum substrate have a surprisingly long spin-relaxation time in the nanosecond regime, which is comparable to that of a transition metal atom decoupled from the substrate electrons by a thin decoupling layer. The combination of long spin-relaxation times and strong coupling to conduction electrons implies the possibility to use flexible coupling schemes to process the spin information.

  3. Long Spin-Relaxation Times in a Transition-Metal Atom in Direct Contact to a Metal Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenau, Jan; Ternes, Markus; Steinbrecher, Manuel; Wiesendanger, Roland; Wiebe, Jens

    2018-03-01

    Long spin relaxation times are a prerequisite for the use of spins in data storage or nanospintronics technologies. An atomic-scale solid-state realization of such a system is the spin of a transition metal atom adsorbed on a suitable substrate. For the case of a metallic substrate, which enables directly addressing the spin by conduction electrons, the experimentally measured lifetimes reported to date are on the order of only hundreds of femtoseconds. Here, we show that the spin states of iron atoms adsorbed directly on a conductive platinum substrate have an astonishingly long spin relaxation time in the nanosecond regime, which is comparable to that of a transition metal atom decoupled from the substrate electrons by a thin decoupling layer. The combination of long spin relaxation times and strong coupling to conduction electrons implies the possibility to use flexible coupling schemes in order to process the spin-information.

  4. The spin lattice relaxation of {sup 8}Li in simple metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, M.D.; Saadaoui, H. [Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Parolin, T.J. [Chemistry Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Song, Q.; Wang, D.; Smadella, M. [Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Chow, K.H.; Egilmez, M.; Fan, I. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Kiefl, R.F. [Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Canadian Institute of Advanced Research (Canada); Kreitzman, S.R.; Levy, C.D.P.; Morris, G.D.; Pearson, M.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Salman, Z. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); MacFarlane, W.A., E-mail: wam@chem.ubc.c [Chemistry Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    We report the modification to the linear temperature dependence of the Korringa nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate of an implanted NMR probe in silver, as it makes a thermally activated site change. We develop a simple model of this phenomenon, which is found in a number of metals including Au and Nb.

  5. Thermal conduction effects in spin-lattice relaxation experiments on ytterbium chloride hexahydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra, Jakob; Gerritsma, G.J.; Blokhuis, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The anomalous behaviour of the spin-lattice relaxation observed for single crystals of ytterbium chloride hexahydrate at fields stronger than 5 kOe is due to the poor heat transfer in the liquid-helium bath. The thermal conduction effects can be explained by means of a thermal conduction model for

  6. Criteria for accurate determination of the magnon relaxation length from the nonlocal spin Seebeck effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, Juan; Cornelissen, Ludo Johannes; Liu, Jing; Ben Youssef, J.; Liang, Lei; van Wees, Bart

    2017-01-01

    The nonlocal transport of thermally generated magnons not only unveils the underlying mechanism of the spin Seebeck effect, but also allows for the extraction of the magnon relaxation length (λm) in a magnetic material, the average distance over which thermal magnons can propagate. In this study, we

  7. Muon Spin Relaxation Evidence for the U(1) Quantum Spin-Liquid Ground State in the Triangular Antiferromagnet YbMgGaO_{4}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuesheng; Adroja, Devashibhai; Biswas, Pabitra K; Baker, Peter J; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Juanjuan; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Gegenwart, Philipp; Zhang, Qingming

    2016-08-26

    Muon spin relaxation (μSR) experiments on single crystals of the structurally perfect triangular antiferromagnet YbMgGaO_{4} indicate the absence of both static long-range magnetic order and spin freezing down to 0.048 K in a zero field. Below 0.4 K, the μ^{+} spin relaxation rates, which are proportional to the dynamic correlation function of the Yb^{3+} spins, exhibit temperature-independent plateaus. All these μSR results unequivocally support the formation of a gapless U(1) quantum spin liquid ground state in the triangular antiferromagnet YbMgGaO_{4}.

  8. Spin diffusion and1H spin-lattice relaxation in Cs2(HSO4)(H2PO4) containing a small amount of ammonium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shigenobu; Jimura, Keiko

    2017-11-01

    Inorganic solid acid salts with hydrogen bond networks frequently show very long spin-lattice relaxation times even for 1 H because the hydrogen bonds suppress motions. In the present work, the 1 H spin-lattice relaxation in Cs 2 (HSO 4 )(H 2 PO 4 ) containing a small amount of ammonium ions were studied in detail by use of the effect of magic angle spinning (MAS) on the relaxation. The 1 H spin-lattice relaxation times of the acid protons decrease with increase in the content of ammonium ions. Reorientation of the NH 4 group fluctuates the dipole-dipole interaction and relaxes the ammonium protons as well as the acid protons. The 1 H relaxation times of the acid protons are a little bit longer than those of the ammonium protons at the MAS rate of 8 kHz. The spinning at 50 kHz makes the relaxation times of the acid protons longer and those of the ammonium protons shorter. Spin diffusion between the acid and the ammonium protons averages partially the 1 H relaxation of the acid and the ammonium protons at the MAS rate of 8 kHz. The spin diffusion is suppressed completely at the MAS rate of 50 kHz. Spin diffusion between the acid protons is not suppressed at the MAS rate of 50 kHz. The acid protons always show the same relaxation times. The intrinsic relaxation times not affected by spin diffusion are evaluated quantitatively for both the acid and the ammonium protons. Those values are independent of the ammonium content. Contribution of the spin diffusion between the acid and the ammonium protons to the relaxation is estimated quantitatively. Using those parameters, the effect of ammonium ions on the 1 H spin-lattice relaxation can be predicted. The 1 H spin-lattice relaxation is a sensitive tool to study the distribution of ammonium ions in solids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spin time-relaxation within strongly coupled paramagnetic systems exhibiting paramagnetic-ferrimagnetic transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Chahid, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is a quantitative study of the spin time relaxation within superweak ferrimagnetic materials exhibiting a paramagnetic-ferrimagnetic transition, when the temperature is changed from an initial value T sub i to a final one T sub f very close to the critical temperature T sub c. From a magnetic point of view, the material under investigation is considered to be made of two strongly coupled paramagnetic sublattices of respective moments phi (cursive,open) Greek and psi. Calculations are made within a Landau mean-field theory, whose free energy involves, in addition to quadratic and quartic terms in both moments phi (cursive,open) Greek and psi, a lowest-order coupling - Cphi (cursive,open) Greek psi, where C<0 stands for the coupling constant measuring the interaction between the two sublattices. We first determine the time dependence of the shifts of the order parameters delta phi (cursive,open) Greek and delta psi from the equilibrium state. We find that this time dependence ...

  10. Electric field dependence of the spin relaxation anisotropy in (111) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balocchi, A; Amand, T; Renucci, P; Duong, Q H; Marie, X; Wang, G; Liu, B L

    2013-01-01

    Time-resolved optical spectroscopy experiments in (111)-oriented GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QWs) show a strong electric field dependence of the conduction electron spin relaxation anisotropy. This results from the interplay between the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin splitting in this system with C 3v symmetry. By varying the electric field applied perpendicular to the QW plane from 20 to 50 kV cm −1 the anisotropy of the spin relaxation time parallel (τ s ∥ ) and perpendicular (τ s ⊥ ) to the growth axis can be first canceled and eventually inversed with respect to the one usually observed in III–V zinc-blende QW (τ s ⊥ = 2τ s ∥ ). This dependence stems from the nonlinear contributions of the k-dependent conduction band spin splitting terms which begin to play the dominant spin relaxing role while the linear Dresselhaus terms are compensated by the Rashba ones through the applied bias. A spin density matrix model for the conduction band spin splitting including both linear and cubic terms of the Dresselhaus Hamiltonian is used which allows a quantitative description of the measured electric field dependence of the spin relaxation anisotropy. The existence of an isotropic point where the spin relaxation tensor reduces to a scalar is predicted and confirmed experimentally. The spin splitting compensation electric field and collision processes type in the QW can be likewise directly extracted from the model without complementary measurements. (paper)

  11. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and information theory: basic concepts and relaxing dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaner, Bernhard

    2017-11-01

    Thermodynamics is based on the notions of energy and entropy. While energy is the elementary quantity governing physical dynamics, entropy is the fundamental concept in information theory. In this work, starting from first principles, we give a detailed didactic account on the relations between energy and entropy and thus physics and information theory. We show that thermodynamic process inequalities, like the second law, are equivalent to the requirement that an effective description for physical dynamics is strongly relaxing. From the perspective of information theory, strongly relaxing dynamics govern the irreversible convergence of a statistical ensemble towards the maximally non-commital probability distribution that is compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium parameters. In particular, Markov processes that converge to a thermodynamic equilibrium state are strongly relaxing. Our framework generalizes previous results to arbitrary open and driven systems, yielding novel thermodynamic bounds for idealized and real processes. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. A. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Bernhard Altaner was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. A as an Emerging Talent.

  12. An inversion-relaxation approach for sampling stationary points of spin model Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Ciaran; Mehta, Dhagash; Wales, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Sampling the stationary points of a complicated potential energy landscape is a challenging problem. Here, we introduce a sampling method based on relaxation from stationary points of the highest index of the Hessian matrix. We illustrate how this approach can find all the stationary points for potentials or Hamiltonians bounded from above, which includes a large class of important spin models, and we show that it is far more efficient than previous methods. For potentials unbounded from above, the relaxation part of the method is still efficient in finding minima and transition states, which are usually the primary focus of attention for atomistic systems

  13. The impact of structural relaxation on spin polarization and magnetization reversal of individual nano structures studied by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Dirk; Phark, Soo-Hyon; Corbetta, Marco; Fischer, Jeison A; Oka, Hirofumi; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    The application of low temperature spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy in magnetic fields for the quantitative characterization of spin polarization, magnetization reversal and magnetic anisotropy of individual nano structures is reviewed. We find that structural relaxation, spin polarization and magnetic anisotropy vary on the nm scale near the border of a bilayer Co island on Cu(1 1 1). This relaxation is lifted by perimetric decoration with Fe. We discuss the role of spatial variations of the spin-dependent electronic properties within and at the edge of a single nano structure for its magnetic properties.

  14. Dynamical transition in molecular glasses and proteins observed by spin relaxation of nitroxide spin probes and labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golysheva, Elena A.; Shevelev, Georgiy Yu.; Dzuba, Sergei A.

    2017-08-01

    In glassy substances and biological media, dynamical transitions are observed in neutron scattering that manifests itself as deviations of the translational mean-squared displacement, , of hydrogen atoms from harmonic dynamics. In biological media, the deviation occurs at two temperature intervals, at ˜100-150 K and at ˜170-230 K, and it is attributed to the motion of methyl groups in the former case and to the transition from harmonic to anharmonic or diffusive motions in the latter case. In this work, electron spin echo (ESE) spectroscopy—a pulsed version of electron paramagnetic resonance—is applied to study the spin relaxation of nitroxide spin probes and labels introduced in molecular glass former o-terphenyl and in protein lysozyme. The anisotropic contribution to the rate of the two-pulse ESE decay, ΔW, is induced by spin relaxation appearing because of restricted orientational stochastic molecular motion; it is proportional to τc, where is the mean-squared angle of reorientation of the nitroxide molecule around the equilibrium position and τc is the correlation time of reorientation. The ESE time window allows us to study motions with τc τc temperature dependence shows a transition near 240 K, which is in agreement with the literature data on . For spin probes of essentially different size, the obtained data were found to be close, which evidences that motion is cooperative, involving a nanocluster of several neighboring molecules. For the dry lysozyme, the τc values below 260 K were found to linearly depend on the temperature in the same way as it was observed in neutron scattering for . As spin relaxation is influenced only by stochastic motion, the harmonic motions seen in ESE must be overdamped. In the hydrated lysozyme, ESE data show transitions near 130 K for all nitroxides, near 160 K for the probe located in the hydration layer, and near 180 K for the label in the protein interior. For this system, the two latter transitions are not

  15. Electron Tunneling in Lithium Ammonia Solutions Probed by Frequency-Dependent Electron-Spin Relaxation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kiminori; Lodge, Matthew T.J.; Harmer, Jeffrey; Freed, Jack H.; Edwards, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    Electron transfer or quantum tunneling dynamics for excess or solvated electrons in dilute lithium-ammonia solutions have been studied by pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at both X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) frequencies. The electron spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation data indicate an extremely fast transfer or quantum tunneling rate of the solvated electron in these solutions which serves to modulate the hyperfine (Fermi-contact) interaction with nitrogen nuclei in the solvation shells of ammonia molecules surrounding the localized, solvated electron. The donor and acceptor states of the solvated electron in these solutions are the initial and final electron solvation sites found before, and after, the transfer or tunneling process. To interpret and model our electron spin relaxation data from the two observation EPR frequencies requires a consideration of a multi-exponential correlation function. The electron transfer or tunneling process that we monitor through the correlation time of the nitrogen Fermi-contact interaction has a time scale of (1–10)×10−12 s over a temperature range 230–290K in our most dilute solution of lithium in ammonia. Two types of electron-solvent interaction mechanisms are proposed to account for our experimental findings. The dominant electron spin relaxation mechanism results from an electron tunneling process characterized by a variable donor-acceptor distance or range (consistent with such a rapidly fluctuating liquid structure) in which the solvent shell that ultimately accepts the transferring electron is formed from random, thermal fluctuations of the liquid structure in, and around, a natural hole or Bjerrum-like defect vacancy in the liquid. Following transfer and capture of the tunneling electron, further solvent-cage relaxation with a timescale of ca. 10−13 s results in a minor contribution to the electron spin relaxation times. This investigation illustrates the great potential

  16. Electron tunneling in lithium-ammonia solutions probed by frequency-dependent electron spin relaxation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kiminori; Lodge, Matthew T J; Harmer, Jeffrey; Freed, Jack H; Edwards, Peter P

    2012-06-06

    Electron transfer or quantum tunneling dynamics for excess or solvated electrons in dilute lithium-ammonia solutions have been studied by pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at both X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) frequencies. The electron spin-lattice (T(1)) and spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation data indicate an extremely fast transfer or quantum tunneling rate of the solvated electron in these solutions which serves to modulate the hyperfine (Fermi-contact) interaction with nitrogen nuclei in the solvation shells of ammonia molecules surrounding the localized, solvated electron. The donor and acceptor states of the solvated electron in these solutions are the initial and final electron solvation sites found before, and after, the transfer or tunneling process. To interpret and model our electron spin relaxation data from the two observation EPR frequencies requires a consideration of a multiexponential correlation function. The electron transfer or tunneling process that we monitor through the correlation time of the nitrogen Fermi-contact interaction has a time scale of (1-10) × 10(-12) s over a temperature range 230-290 K in our most dilute solution of lithium in ammonia. Two types of electron-solvent interaction mechanisms are proposed to account for our experimental findings. The dominant electron spin relaxation mechanism results from an electron tunneling process characterized by a variable donor-acceptor distance or range (consistent with such a rapidly fluctuating liquid structure) in which the solvent shell that ultimately accepts the transferring electron is formed from random, thermal fluctuations of the liquid structure in, and around, a natural hole or Bjerrum-like defect vacancy in the liquid. Following transfer and capture of the tunneling electron, further solvent-cage relaxation with a time scale of ∼10(-13) s results in a minor contribution to the electron spin relaxation times. This investigation illustrates the great

  17. A post-processing method for multiexponential spin-spin relaxation analysis of MRI signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensanne, D [Laboratoire de Chimie Bioinorganique Medicale, Imagerie therapeutique et diagnostique, CNRS FR 2599, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Josse, G [Centre Europeen de Recherche et d' Evaluation sur la Peau et les Epitheliums de Revetement, Institut de Recherche Pierre Fabre, 2, rue Viguerie, BP 3071 31025 Toulouse Cedex 3 (France); Lagarde, J M [Centre Europeen de Recherche et d' Evaluation sur la Peau et les Epitheliums de Revetement, Institut de Recherche Pierre Fabre, 2, rue Viguerie, BP 3071 31025 Toulouse Cedex 3 (France); Vincensini, D [Laboratoire de Chimie Bioinorganique Medicale, Imagerie therapeutique et diagnostique, CNRS FR 2599, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2005-08-21

    Quantitative MR imaging is a potential tool for tissue characterization; in particular, proton density and proton relaxation times can be derived from MR signal analysis. However, MR image noise affects the accuracy of measurements and the number of tissue parameters that can be reliably estimated. Filtering can be used to limit image noise; however this reduces spatial resolution. In this work we studied, using both simulations and experiments, a filter called a 'selective blurring filter'. Compared to other classical filters, this filter achieves the best compromise between spatial resolution and noise reduction. The filter was specifically used to reliably determine the bi-component transverse relaxation of protons in adipose tissue. Long and short relaxation times and the relative proton fraction of each component were obtained with a degree of uncertainty of less than 10% and an accuracy of 95%.

  18. Quantitative study of optical pumping in the presence of spin-exchange relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongqi; Scholtes, Theo; Grujić, Zoran D.; Lebedev, Victor; Dolgovskiy, Vladimir; Weis, Antoine

    2018-01-01

    We have performed quantitative measurements of the variation of the on-resonance absorption coefficients κ0 of the four hyperfine components of the Cs D1 transition as a function of laser power P , for pumping with linearly and with circularly polarized light. Sublevel populations derived from rate equations assuming isotropic population relaxation (at a rate γ1) yield algebraic κ0(P ) dependences that do not reproduce the experimental findings from Cs vapor in a paraffin-coated cell. However, numerical results that consider spin-exchange relaxation (at a rate γse) and isotropic relaxation fit the experimental data perfectly well. The fit parameters, viz., the absolute value of κ0, the optical pumping saturation power Psat, and the ratio γse/γ1 , are well described by the experimental conditions and yield absolute values for γ1 and γse. The latter is consistent with the previously published Cs-Cs spin-exchange relaxation cross section.

  19. Optically-detected spin-echo method for relaxation times measurements in a Rb atomic vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharavipour, M.; Affolderbach, C.; Gruet, F.; Radojičić, I. S.; Krmpot, A. J.; Jelenković, B. M.; Mileti, G.

    2017-06-01

    We introduce and demonstrate an experimental method, optically-detected spin-echo (ODSE), to measure ground-state relaxation times of a rubidium (Rb) atomic vapor held in a glass cell with buffer-gas. The work is motivated by our studies on high-performance Rb atomic clocks, where both population and coherence relaxation times (T 1 and T 2, respectively) of the ‘clock transition’ (52S1/2 | {F}g = 1,{m}F=0> ≤ftrightarrow | {F}g=2,{m}F=0> ) are relevant. Our ODSE method is inspired by classical nuclear magnetic resonance spin-echo method, combined with optical detection. In contrast to other existing methods, like continuous-wave double-resonance (CW-DR) and Ramsey-DR, principles of the ODSE method allow suppression of decoherence arising from the inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field across the vapor cell, thus enabling measurements of intrinsic relaxation rates, as properties of the cell alone. Our experimental result for the coherence relaxation time, specific for the clock transition, measured with the ODSE method is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction, and the ODSE results are validated by comparison to those obtained with Franzen, CW-DR and Ramsey-DR methods. The method is of interest for a wide variety of quantum optics experiments with optical signal readout.

  20. Perturbative analysis in higher-spin theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didenko, V.E. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Misuna, N.G. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutsky lane 9, 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, M.A. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-28

    A new scheme of the perturbative analysis of the nonlinear HS equations is developed giving directly the final result for the successive application of the homotopy integrations which appear in the standard approach. It drastically simplifies the analysis and results from the application of the standard spectral sequence approach to the higher-spin covariant derivatives, allowing us in particular to reduce multiple homotopy integrals resulting from the successive application of the homotopy trick to a single integral. Efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated by various examples. In particular, it is shown how the Central on-shell theorem of the free theory immediately results from the nonlinear HS field equations with no intermediate computations.

  1. Spin-spin cross-relaxation of optically-excited rare-earth ions in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, F.W.; D'Amato, F.X.; Hahn, E.L.; Lukas, M.

    1986-01-01

    A laser saturation grating experiment is applied for the measurement of electron hyperfine state spin orientation diffusion among Tm +2 impurity ion hyperfine ground states in SrF 2 . A strong laser pulse at λ 1 produces a spatial grating of excited spin states followed by a probe at λ 2 . The probe transmission intensity is to assess diffusion of non-equilibrium spin population into regions not excited by the pulse at λ 1 . In a second experiment, a field sweep laser hole burning method enables measurement of Pr +3 optical ion hyperfine coupling of optical ground states to the reservoir of F nuclear moments in LaF 3 by level crossing. A related procedure with external RF resonance sweep excitation maps out the nuclear Zeeman-electric quadrupole coupled spectrum of Pr +3 over a wide range by monitoring laser beam transmission absorption

  2. On higher spin theory: strings, BRST, dimensional reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, X.; Buchbinder, I. L.; Pashnev, A.; Tsulaia, M.

    2004-05-01

    We briefly review some modern developments in higher spin field theory and their links with superstring theory. The analysis is based on various BRST constructions allowing us to derive the Lagrangians for massive and massless higher spin fields on flat or constant curvature backgrounds of arbitrary dimensions.

  3. NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation time of human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Rosenthal, J.S.; Winston, A.; Stern, A.

    1988-01-01

    NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation times were studied as probes of water structure in human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions. Normal saline had a relaxation time of about 3000 ms while packed red blood cells had a relaxation time of about 500 ms. The relaxation time of a red blood cell suspension at 50% hematocrit was about 750 ms showing that surface charges and polar groups of the red cell membrane effectively structure extracellular water. Incubation of red cells in hypotonic saline increases relaxation time whereas hypertonic saline decreases relaxation time. Relaxation times varied independently of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in a sample population. Studies with lysates and resealed membrane ghosts show that hemoglobin is very effective in lowering water-proton relaxation time whereas resealed membrane ghosts in the absence of hemoglobin are less effective than intact red cells. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  4. Resonances in field-cycling NMR on molecular crystals. (reversible) Spin dynamics or (irreversible) relaxation?; Resonanzen in Field-Cycling-NMR an Molekuelkristallen. (reversible) Spindynamik oder (irreversible) Relaxation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacke, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Multi spin systems with spin 1/2 nuclei and dipolar coupled quadrupolar nuclei can show so called ''quadrupolar dips''. There are two main reasons for this behavior: polarization transfer and relaxation. They look quite alike and without additional research cannot be differentiated easily in most cases. These two phenomena have quite different physical and theoretical backgrounds. For no or very slow dynamics, polarization transfer will take place, which is energy conserving inside the spin system. This effect can entirely be described using quantum mechanics on the spin system. Detailed knowledge about the crystallography is needed, because this affects the relevant hamiltonians directly. For systems with fast enough dynamics, relaxation takes over, and the energy flows from the spin system to the lattice; thus a more complex theoretical description is needed. This description has to include a dynamic model, usually in the form of a spectral density function. Both models should include detailed modelling of the complete spin system. A software library was developed to be able to model complex spin systems. It allows to simulate polarization transfer or relaxation effects. NMR measurements were performed on the protonic conductor K{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}. A single crystal shows sharp quadrupolar dips at room temperature. Dynamics could be excluded using relaxation measurements and literature values. Thus, a polarization transfer analysis was used to describe those dips with good agreement. As a second system, imidazolium based molecular crystals were analyzed. The quadrupolar dips were expected to be caused by polarization transfer; this was carefully analyzed and found not to be true. A relaxation based analysis shows good agreement with the measured data in the high temperature area. It leverages a two step spectral density function, which indicates two distinct dynamic processes happening in this system.

  5. Spin Canting and Magnetic Relaxation Phenomena in Mn0.25Zn0.75Fe2O4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anhøj, T. A.; Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Thomsen, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    affected by transverse relaxation at relatively low temperatures. A third group of 13-site ions has negligible canting at low temperatures and these ions are only slightly affected by relaxation below 60 K. At low temperatures the material can be described as a cluster spin glass. Above 60 K part...

  6. Spin-orbit relaxation of Cl(2P½) and F(2P½) in a gas of H2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamsson, E.; Groenenboom, G.C.; Krems, R.V.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present quantum scattering calculations of rate coefficients for the spin-orbit relaxation of F(P-2(1/2)) atoms in a gas of H-2 molecules and Cl(P-2(1/2)) atoms in a gas of H-2 and D-2 molecules. Their calculation of the thermally averaged rate coefficient for the electronic relaxation

  7. The effect of a broad activation energy distribution on deuteron spin-lattice relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, E E; Punkkinen, M; Birczyński, A; Lalowicz, Z T

    2015-10-01

    Deuteron NMR spectra and spin-lattice relaxation were studied experimentally in zeolite NaY(2.4) samples containing 100% or 200% of CD3OH or CD3OD molecules of the total coverage of Na atoms in the temperature range 20-150K. The activation energies describing the methyl and hydroxyl motions show broad distributions. The relaxation data were interpreted by improving a recent model (Stoch et al., 2013 [16]) in which the nonexponential relaxation curves are at first described by a sum of three exponentials with adjustable relaxation rates and weights. Then a broad distribution of activation energies (the mean activation energy A0 and the width σ) was assumed for each essentially different methyl and hydroxyl position. The correlation times were calculated from the Arrhenius equation (containing the pre-exponential factor τ0), individual relaxation rates computed and classified into three classes, and finally initial relaxation rates and weights for each class formed. These were compared with experimental data, motional parameters changed slightly and new improved rates and weights for each class calculated, etc. This method was improved by deriving for the deuterons of the A and E species methyl groups relaxation rates, which depend explicitly on the tunnel frequency ωt. The temperature dependence of ωt and of the low-temperature correlation time were obtained by using the solutions of the Mathieu equation for a threefold potential. These dependencies were included in the simulations and as the result sets of A0, σ and τ0 obtained, which describe the methyl and hydroxyl motions in different positions in zeolite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Formation of local spin-state concentration waves during the relaxation from a photoinduced state in a spin-crossover polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, Céline; Trzop, Elzbieta; Zerdane, Serhane; Fertey, Pierre; Zhang, Daopeng; Valverde-Muñoz, Francisco J; Real, José Antonio; Collet, Eric

    2017-08-01

    The complex relaxation from the photoinduced high-spin phase (PIHS) to the low-spin phase of the bimetallic two-dimensional coordination spin-crossover polymer [Fe[(Hg(SCN) 3 ) 2 ](4,4'-bipy) 2 ] n is reported. During the thermal relaxation, commensurate and incommensurate spin-state concentration waves (SSCWs) form. However, contrary to the steps forming at thermal equilibrium, associated with long-range SSCW order, the SSCWs forming during the relaxation from the PIHS phase correspond to short-range order, revealed by diffuse X-ray scattering. This is interpreted as resulting from the competition between the two types of SSCW order and another structural symmetry breaking, due to ligand ordering, occurring at low temperature and precluding long-range SSCW order.

  9. Conformal higher spin theory and twistor space actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähnel, Philipp; McLoughlin, Tristan

    2017-12-01

    We consider the twistor description of conformal higher spin theories and give twistor space actions for the self-dual sector of theories with spin greater than two that produce the correct flat space-time spectrum. We identify a ghost-free subsector, analogous to the embedding of Einstein gravity with cosmological constant in Weyl gravity, which generates the unique spin-s three-point anti-MHV amplitude consistent with Poincaré invariance and helicity constraints. By including interactions between the infinite tower of higher-spin fields we give a geometric interpretation to the twistor equations of motion as the integrability condition for a holomorphic structure on an infinite jet bundle. Finally, we conjecture anti-self-dual interaction terms which give an implicit definition of a twistor action for the full conformal higher spin theory.

  10. Light-front higher-spin theories in flat space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Dmitry; Skvortsov, Evgeny

    2017-03-01

    We revisit the problem of interactions of higher-spin fields in flat space. We argue that all no-go theorems can be avoided by the light-cone approach, which results in more interaction vertices as compared to the usual covariant approaches. It is stressed that there exist two-derivative gravitational couplings of higher-spin fields. We show that some reincarnation of the equivalence principle still holds for higher-spin fields—the strength of gravitational interaction does not depend on spin. Moreover, it follows from the results by Metsaev that there exists a complete chiral higher-spin theory in four dimensions. We give a simple derivation of this theory and show that the four-point scattering amplitude vanishes. Also, we reconstruct the quartic vertex of the scalar field in the unitary higher-spin theory, which turns out to be perturbatively local.

  11. Light-front higher-spin theories in flat space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, Dmitry; Skvortsov, Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    We revisit the problem of interactions of higher-spin fields in flat space. We argue that all no-go theorems can be avoided by the light-cone approach, which results in more interaction vertices as compared to the usual covariant approaches. It is stressed that there exist two-derivative gravitational couplings of higher-spin fields. We show that some reincarnation of the equivalence principle still holds for higher-spin fields—the strength of gravitational interaction does not depend on spin. Moreover, it follows from the results by Metsaev that there exists a complete chiral higher-spin theory in four dimensions. We give a simple derivation of this theory and show that the four-point scattering amplitude vanishes. Also, we reconstruct the quartic vertex of the scalar field in the unitary higher-spin theory, which turns out to be perturbatively local. (paper)

  12. Magnetic properties and proton spin-lattice relaxation in molecular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allalen, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we studied magnetic properties of molecular magnets of the new heteropolyanion {Cu 20 }, dodecanuclear cluster {Ni 12 }, and the heterometallic {Cr 7 M} wheels, in which one of the Cr III ions of Cr 8 has been replaced by a Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, ion with this extra-spin acts as local probe for the spin dynamics. Such systems have been synthesized recently and they are well described using the Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian with a Zeeman term of an applied magnetic field along the z-axis. Using the numerical exact diagonalization method, we have calculated the energy spectrum and the eigenstates for different compounds, and we have used them for reexamining the available experimental susceptibility data to determine the values of exchange parameters. We have studied the thermodynamic properties such magnetization, susceptibility, heat-capacity. At low temperature regions molecular magnets act as individual quantum nanomagnets and can display super-paramagnetic phenomena like macroscopic quantum tunneling, ground state degeneracy, level-crossing. A crucial issue for understanding these phenomena is the coupling between magnetic molecular levels and the environment such as nuclear spins. We have modeled the behavior of the proton spin lattice relaxation rate as a function of applied magnetic field for low temperatures as it is measured in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments. (orig.)

  13. Generalized theory of spin fluctuations in itinerant electron magnets: Crucial role of spin anharmonicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solontsov, A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper critically overviews the recent developments of the theory of spatially dispersive spin fluctuations (SF) in itinerant electron magnetism with particular emphasis on spin-fluctuation coupling or spin anharmonicity. It is argued that the conventional self-consistent renormalized (SCR) theory of spin fluctuations is usually used aside of the range of its applicability actually defined by the constraint of weak spin anharmonicity based on the random phase approximation (RPA) arguments. An essential step in understanding SF in itinerant magnets beyond RPA-like arguments was made recently within the soft-mode theory of SF accounting for strong spin anharmonicity caused by zero-point SF. In the present paper we generalize it to apply for a wider range of temperatures and regimes of SF and show it to lead to qualitatively new results caused by zero-point effects. - Highlights: • We review the spin-fluctuation theory of itinerant electron magnets with account of zero-point effects. • We generalize the existing theory to account for different regimes of spin fluctuations. • We show that zero-point spin fluctuations play a crucial role in both low- and high-temperature properties of metallic magnets. • We argue that a new scheme of calculation of ground state properties of magnets is needed including zero-point effects

  14. Investigation of proton spin relaxation in water with dispersed silicon nanoparticles for potential magnetic resonance imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargina, Yu. V.; Gongalsky, M. B.; Perepukhov, A. M.; Gippius, A. A.; Minnekhanov, A. A.; Zvereva, E. A.; Maximychev, A. V.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Porous and nonporous silicon (Si) nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by ball-milling of electrochemically etched porous Si layers and crystalline Si wafers were studied as potential agents for enhancement of the proton spin relaxation in aqueous media. While nonporous Si NPs did not significantly influence the spin relaxation, the porous ones resulted in strong shortening of the transverse relaxation times. In order to investigate an effect of the electron spin density in porous Si NPs on the proton spin relaxation, we use thermal annealing of the NPs in vacuum or in air. The transverse relaxation rate of about 0.5 l/(g s) was achieved for microporous Si NPs, which were thermally annealing in vacuum to obtain the electron spin density of the order of 1017 g-1. The transverse relaxation rate was found to be almost proportional to the concentration of porous Si NPs in the range from 0.1 to 20 g/l. The obtained results are discussed in view of possible biomedical applications of Si NPs as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

  15. Calculation of the electron spin relaxation time in a quantum limit using a state-independent projection reduction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam Lyong

    2018-02-01

    A new formula for determining the electron spin relaxation time in a system of electrons interacting with acoustic deformation phonons through phonon-modulated spin–orbit coupling is derived using the state-independent projection reduction method. The spin flip and conserving processes are explained in an organized manner because the obtained results properly contain the distribution functions for electrons and phonons. The electron spin relaxation time is calculated directly from the lineshape function without calculating the magnetic susceptibility. The temperature (T) and magnetic field (B) dependences of the electron spin relaxation time (T 1) in Si are shown by T 1 ≈ T ‑1.55 and T 1 ≈ B ‑1.96 in the quantum limit, respectively.

  16. Insight into lithium transport in lithium nitridometallate battery materials from muon spin relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Andrew S; Stoeva, Zlatka; Lord, James S; Smith, Ronald I; Gregory, Duncan H; Titman, Jeremy J

    2013-01-21

    Muon spin relaxation and powder neutron diffraction have been combined to study three lithium cobalt nitride battery materials. Neutron diffraction shows that these retain the P6/mmm space group of Li(3)N with Co located only on Li(1) sites. The lattice parameters vary smoothly with the degree of metal substitution, such that the [Li(2)N] layers expand while the layer separation contracts, as observed previously for similar series of Cu- and Ni-substituted materials. However, in contrast to the latter, the Li(3-x-y)Co(x)N phases exhibit Curie-Weiss paramagnetism and this prevents the use of nuclear magnetic resonance to measure Li(+) transport parameters. Therefore, muon spin relaxation has been employed here as an alternative technique to obtain quantitative information about Li(+) diffusion. Muon spin relaxation shows that Li(+) diffusion in Li(3-x-y)Co(x)N is anisotropic with transport confined to the [Li(2)N] plane at low temperature and exchange between Li(1) and Li(2) sites dominant at high temperature. By a comparison with previous studies some general trends have been established across a range of Cu-, Ni- and Co-substituted materials. For intra-layer diffusion E(a) decreases as metal substitution increases and the corresponding expansion of the layers results in a more open pathway for Li(+) diffusion. However, an optimal value of x is found with a ≈ 3.69 Å after which the concomitant contraction in layer spacing reduces the polarizability of the lattice framework.

  17. Nuclear spin relaxation/resonance of {sup 8}Li in Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Salman, Z. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); ISIS Facility, Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Chow, K.H.; Fan, I. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Hossain, M.D.; Keeler, T.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kiefl, R.F., E-mail: kiefl@triumf.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (Canada); Levy, C.D.P. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Mansour, A.I. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Morris, G.D.; Pearson, M.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Parolin, T.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Saadaoui, H.; Smadella, M.; Song, Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); MacFarlane, W.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    A low energy beam of spin polarized {sup 8}Li has been used to study the behaviour of isolated {sup 8}Li implanted into a 150 nm thick film of Al on an MgO substrate. The spin relaxation rate 1/T{sub 1} and beta-NMR lineshape were measured as a function of temperature in a large magnetic field of 4.1 T. The resonances from different sites are unresolved due to the large nuclear dipolar interaction with the host {sup 27}Al magnetic dipole moments. Nevertheless the temperature variation of the site averaged 1/T{sub 1} and Knight shift show evidence for a transition between the octahedral O and substitutional S sites at about 150 K, as observed in other fcc metals.

  18. Thermodynamics of spinning branes and their dual field theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmark, Troels; Obers, N. A.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss general spinning p-branes of string and M-theory and use their thermodynamics along with the correspondence between near-horizon brane solutions and field theories with 16 supercharges to describe the thermodynamic behavior of these theories in the presence of voltages under the R...... limits are remarkably close and (ii) The tree-level R^4 corrections to the spinning D3-brane generate a decrease in the free energy at strong coupling towards the weak coupling result. We also comment on the generalization to spinning brane bound states and their thermodynamics, which are relevant...

  19. Perturbation theory of higher-spin conserved currents off criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelli, A.; Latorre, J.I.

    1990-01-01

    Minimal conformal theories perturbed by the least relevant field are an interesting and computable framework for studying the Zamolodchikov currents of higher spin, which suggest the integrability of the off-critical theory. After clarifying the perturbative technique, a generalization of the c-theorem for currents of any spin is given and applied in this context. Mixing of descendant fields in the infrared limit of the renormalization-group flow is shown. The Ward identity for conservation of the spin-four current is given, and shown to encode a dynamical symmetry of the theory away from criticality. (orig.)

  20. 55Mn nuclear spin relaxation and lifetime of magnons in MnF2 near the spin-flop transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, J.P.; King, A.R.

    1977-01-01

    A divergence in the nuclear relaxation rate (T 1 -1 ) of 55 Mn is observed in MnF 2 when the magnetic field approaches the field of the spin-flop transition (H=92.94Oe). The field dependence of T 1 -1 at 4.2 and 2K was studied together with its temperature dependence at 92.4 and 85 kOe. Near the transition, T 1 -1 is governed, below 8K, by the processes induced by the dipolar coupling and, above 8K, by those induced by exchange interactions. On the contrary, in weaker fields (H=85Oe), the only exchange induced processes are important [fr

  1. Theory of Spin Waves in Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Cooke, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A new infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of spin waves in strongly anisotropic magnets is introduced. The system is transformed into one with effective two-ion anisotropy and considerably reduced ground-state corrections. A general expression for the spin-wave energy, valid to any...

  2. Coexisting static magnetic ordering and superconductivity in CeCu2.1Si2 found by muon spin relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Y. J.; Kossler, W. J.; Yu, X. H.; Schone, H. E.; Kempton, J. R.; Stronach, C. E.; Barth, S.; Gygax, F. N.; Hitti, B.; Schenck, A.

    1988-01-01

    Zero- and longitudinal-field muon spin relaxation measurements on a heavy fermion system CeCu2.1 Si2 have revealed an onset of static magnetic ordering below T(M) approximately 0.8 K, which coexists with superconductivity below T(c) = 0.7 K. The line shapes of the observed muon spin depolarization functions suggest an ordering in either spin glass or incommensurate spin-density-wave state, with a small averaged static moment of the order of 0.1 micro-B per formula unit at T approaches 0.

  3. Unconventional superconductivity in Y5Rh6Sn18 probed by muon spin relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Amitava; Adroja, Devashibhai; Kase, Naoki; Hillier, Adrian; Akimitsu, Jun; Strydom, Andre

    2015-08-19

    Conventional superconductors are robust diamagnets that expel magnetic fields through the Meissner effect. It would therefore be unexpected if a superconducting ground state would support spontaneous magnetics fields. Such broken time-reversal symmetry states have been suggested for the high-temperature superconductors, but their identification remains experimentally controversial. We present magnetization, heat capacity, zero field and transverse field muon spin relaxation experiments on the recently discovered caged type superconductor Y5Rh6Sn18 ( TC= 3.0 K). The electronic heat capacity of Y5Rh6Sn18 shows a T(3) dependence below Tc indicating an anisotropic superconducting gap with a point node. This result is in sharp contrast to that observed in the isostructural Lu5Rh6Sn18 which is a strong coupling s-wave superconductor. The temperature dependence of the deduced superfluid in density Y5Rh6Sn18 is consistent with a BCS s-wave gap function, while the zero-field muon spin relaxation measurements strongly evidences unconventional superconductivity through a spontaneous appearance of an internal magnetic field below the superconducting transition temperature, signifying that the superconducting state is categorized by the broken time-reversal symmetry.

  4. Magnetization and 13C NMR spin-lattice relaxation of nanodiamond powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, E.M.; Fang, X.W.; Bud' ko, S.L.; Straszheim, W.E.; McCallum, R.W.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2008-02-15

    The bulk magnetization at temperatures of 1.8-400 K and in magnetic fields up to 70 kOe, the ambient temperature {sup 13}C NMR spin-lattice relaxation, T{sub 1,c}, and the elemental composition of three nanodiamond powder samples have been studied. The total magnetization of nanodiamond can be explained in terms of contributions from (1) the diamagnetic effect of carbon, (2) the paramagnetic effect of unpaired electrons present in nanodiamond grains, and (3) ferromagnetic-like and (4) superparamagnetic contributions from Fe-containing particles detected in spatially resolved energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Contributions (1) and (2) are intrinsic to nanodiamond, while contributions (3) and (4) arise from impurities naturally present in detonation nanodiamond samples. {sup 13}C NMR T{sub 1,c} relaxation would be unaffected by the presence of the ferromagnetic particles with the bulk magnetization of {approx} 0.01 emu/g at 300 K. Thus, a reduction of T{sub 1,c} by 3 orders of magnitude compared to natural and synthetic microdiamonds confirms the presence of unpaired electrons in the nanodiamond grains. The spin concentration in nanodiamond powder corresponds to {approx}30 unpaired electrons per {approx}4.6 nm diameter nanodiamond grain.

  5. Quantum spin correction scheme based on spin-correlation functional for Kohn-Sham spin density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Shusuke; Takeda, Ryo; Nakata, Kazuto; Takada, Toshikazu; Shoji, Mitsuo; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple quantum correction scheme for ab initio Kohn-Sham spin density functional theory (KS-SDFT). This scheme is based on a mapping from ab initio results to a Heisenberg model Hamiltonian. The effective exchange integral is estimated by using energies and spin correlation functionals calculated by ab initio KS-SDFT. The quantum-corrected spin-correlation functional is open to be designed to cover specific quantum spin fluctuations. In this article, we present a simple correction for dinuclear compounds having multiple bonds. The computational results are discussed in relation to multireference (MR) DFT, by which we treat the quantum many-body effects explicitly

  6. Spin-polarization dependent carrier recombination dynamics and spin relaxation mechanism in asymmetrically doped (110) n-GaAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lihua; Jiang, Tianran; Wang, Xia; Lai, Tianshu

    2018-05-01

    Carrier recombination and electron spin relaxation dynamics in asymmetric n-doped (110) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells are investigated with time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy. The experiment results reveal that the measured carrier recombination time depends strongly on the polarization of pump pulse. With the same pump photon flux densities, the recombination time of spin-polarized carriers is always longer than that of the spin-balanced carriers except at low pump photon flux densities, this anomaly originates from the polarization-sensitive nonlinear absorption effect. Differing from the traditional views, in the low carrier density regime, the D'yakonov-Perel' (DP) mechanism can be more important than the Bir-Aronov-Pikus (BAP) mechanism, since the DP mechanism takes effect, the spin relaxation time in (110) GaAs QWs is shortened obviously via asymmetric doping.

  7. Solute-Vacancy Clustering In Al-Mg-Si Alloys Studied By Muon Spin Relaxation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimura K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zero-field muon spin relaxation experiments were carried out with Al-1.6%Mg2Si, Al-0.5%Mg, and Al-0.5%Si alloys. Observed relaxation spectra were compared with the calculated relaxation functions based on the Monte Carlo simulation to extract the dipolar width (Δ, trapping (νt, and detrapping rates (νd, with the initially trapped muon fraction (P0. The fitting analysis has elucidated that the muon trapping rates depended on the heat treatment and solute concentrations. The dissolved Mg in Al dominated the νt at lower temperatures below 120 K, therefore the similar temperature variations of νt were observed with the samples mixed with Mg. The νt around 200 K remarkably reflected the heat treatment effect on the samples, and the largest νt value was found with the sample annealed at 100°C among Al-1.6%Mg2Si alloys. The as-quenched Al-0.5%Si sample showed significant νt values between 80 and 280 K relating with Si-vacancy clusters, but such clusters disappeared with the natural aged Al-0.5%Si sample.

  8. Chiral higher spin theories and self-duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Dmitry

    2017-12-01

    We study recently proposed chiral higher spin theories — cubic theories of interacting massless higher spin fields in four-dimensional flat space. We show that they are naturally associated with gauge algebras, which manifest themselves in several related ways. Firstly, the chiral higher spin equations of motion can be reformulated as the self-dual Yang-Mills equations with the associated gauge algebras instead of the usual colour gauge algebra. We also demonstrate that the chiral higher spin field equations, similarly to the self-dual Yang-Mills equations, feature an infinite algebra of hidden symmetries, which ensures their integrability. Secondly, we show that off-shell amplitudes in chiral higher spin theories satisfy the generalised BCJ relations with the usual colour structure constants replaced by the structure constants of higher spin gauge algebras. We also propose generalised double copy procedures featuring higher spin theory amplitudes. Finally, using the light-cone deformation procedure we prove that the structure of the Lagrangian that leads to all these properties is universal and follows from Lorentz invariance.

  9. Ginzburg-Landau-type theory of nonpolarized spin superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Peng; Bao, Zhi-qiang; Guo, Ai-Min; Xie, X. C.; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Since the concept of spin superconductor was proposed, all the related studies concentrate on the spin-polarized case. Here, we generalize the study to the spin-non-polarized case. The free energy of nonpolarized spin superconductor is obtained, and Ginzburg-Landau-type equations are derived by using the variational method. These Ginzburg-Landau-type equations can be reduced to the spin-polarized case when the spin direction is fixed. Moreover, the expressions of super linear and angular spin currents inside the superconductor are derived. We demonstrate that the electric field induced by the super spin current is equal to the one induced by an equivalent charge obtained from the second Ginzburg-Landau-type equation, which shows self-consistency of our theory. By applying these Ginzburg-Landau-type equations, the effect of electric field on the superconductor is also studied. These results will help us get a better understanding of the spin superconductor and related topics such as the Bose-Einstein condensate of magnons and spin superfluidity.

  10. Lattice dynamics, phase transitions and spin relaxation in [Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}] PF{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herber, R. H.; Felner, I.; Nowik, I., E-mail: nowik@vms.huji.ac.il [The Hebrew University, Racah Institute of Physics (Israel)

    2016-12-15

    The organometallic compound ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate, [Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}] PF{sub 6}, has been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy in the past, mainly to determine the crystal structure at high temperatures. Here we present studies at 95 K to 305 K and analyze the spectra in terms of spin relaxation theory which yields accurately the hyperfine interaction parameters and the spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation rates in this paramagnetic compound. The spectral area under the resonance curve yields the recoil free fraction and thus the mean square of the vibration amplitude . One observes a large discontinuity in the slope of versus T at 210 K, indicative of a phase transition. The analysis of the spectra proves that the quadrupole interaction is small but certainly negative, ½e{sup 2}qQ = -0.12(2) mm/s, and causes the asymmetry observed in the spectra. The detailed analysis yields also, for the first time, the fluctuating effective magnetic hyperfine field, H {sub eff} = 180(50) kOe.

  11. Extended dynamic spin-fluctuation theory of metallic magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, N B [Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Reser, B I; Grebennikov, V I, E-mail: melnikov@cs.msu.su, E-mail: reser@imp.uran.ru, E-mail: greben@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-13

    A dynamic spin-fluctuation theory that directly takes into account nonlocality of thermal spin fluctuations and their mode-mode interactions is developed. The Gaussian approximation in the theory is improved by a self-consistent renormalization of the mean field and spin susceptibility due to the third- and fourth-order terms of the free energy, respectively. This eliminates the fictitious first-order phase transition, which is typical for the Gaussian approximation, and yields a proper second-order phase transition. The effect of nonlocal spin correlations is enhanced by taking into account uniform fluctuations in the single-site mean Green function. Explicit computational formulae for basic magnetic characteristics are obtained. The extended theory is applied to the calculation of magnetic properties of Fe-Ni Invar. Almost full agreement with experiment is achieved for the magnetization, Curie temperature, and local and effective magnetic moments.

  12. Interaction study of polyisobutylene with paraffins by NMR using the evaluation of spin-lattice relaxation times for hydrogen nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Rosana G.G.; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The evaluation of spin-lattice relaxation times of 1 H for polyisobutylene/paraffin systems, were obtained using the classic inversion recovery technique, and also through Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (CP/MAS) techniques varying the contact time and also by the delayed contact time pulse sequence. NMR results showed that the polyisobutylene/paraffin systems in which high molecular weight paraffins were used, is heterogeneous. However, for paraffins with low molecular weight, the system presents good homogeneity. (author)

  13. Matrix-assisted relaxation in Fe(phen){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} spin-crossover microparticles, experimental and theoretical investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enachescu, Cristian, E-mail: cristian.enachescu@uaic.ro; Stancu, Alexandru [Faculty of Physics, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Tanasa, Radu [Faculty of Physics, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Tissot, Antoine [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d' Orsay, Université Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, 91405 Orsay (France); Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, UMR 8180, CNRS, Université de Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines, 78035 Versailles (France); Laisney, Jérôme; Boillot, Marie-Laure, E-mail: marie-laure.boillot@u-psud.fr [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d' Orsay, Université Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-07-18

    In this study, we present the influence of the embedding matrix on the relaxation of Fe(phen){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) spin-transition microparticles as revealed by experiments and provide an explanation within the framework of an elastic model based on a Monte-Carlo method. Experiments show that the shape of the high-spin → low-spin relaxation curves is drastically changed when the particles are dispersed in glycerol. This effect was considered in the model by means of interactions between the microparticles and the matrix. A faster start of the relaxation for microparticles embedded in glycerol is due to an initial positive local pressure acting on the edge spin-crossover molecules from the matrix side. This local pressure diminishes and eventually becomes negative during relaxation, as an effect of the decrease of the volume of spin-crossover microparticles from high-spin to low-spin.

  14. New directions in the theory of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelman, J.M.V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The three chapters of this thesis dealing with collisions between hydrogen (or deuterium) atoms in their ground state, each treat a different development in the theory of atomic hydrogen or deuterium gas. The decay due to interatomic collisions hindered till now all attempts to reach the low temperature, high-density regime where effects due to degeneracy are expected to show up. In ch. 2 a simple way out is presented for the case of Fermi gases: In spin-polarized Fermi systems at very low temperatures collisions are much effective than in Bose systems. For the Fermi gas, consisting of magnetically confined deuterium atoms, it appears that fast spin-exchange collisions automatically lead to a completely spin-polarized gas for which the spin-relaxation limited lifetime increases dramatically with decreasing temperature. As also the ratio of internal thermalization rate over decay rate increases with decreasing temperature, this gas can be cooled by forced evaporation down to very low temperatures. In ch. 3 it iis shown that the nuclear spin dynamics due to the hyperfine interaction during collisions, strongly limits the improvement in frequency stability attainable by H masers operating at low temperatures. In ch. 4 the phenomenon of spin waves is studied. It is shown that, despite the fact that interactions between two atoms are nuclear-spin independent, the outcome of a scattering event does not depend on the nuclear spins involved due to the particle indistinguishability effects at low collision energies. This effect gives rise to quantum phenomena on a macroscopic scale via the occurrence of spin waves. (author). 185 refs.; 34 figs

  15. On field theory for 1 and 3/2 spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spehler, D.

    1979-01-01

    Bargmann-Wigner's theory is employed in studying fields with spin 1 and 3/2. It is shown that in the case of spin 1 this theory is equivalent to Proca's theory. Using the commutation relations for Proca's vector field it is possible to deduce similar relations for Bargmann-Wigner's field with spin 1. In the case of spin 3/2, a Lagrangian can be written only with auxiliary fields or in Rarita-Schwinger's form. Undorial equations like the Pauli-Fierz ones, are obtained from Bargmann-Wigner's equations employing a chirality operator. Projection operators for positive and negative energy are also obtained. A detailed study of the solutions of Bargmann-Wigner's equations for spin 1 and 3/2 is performed. The form of the matrix elements for the E.M.G. current of a particle with spin 3/2 is deduced. This is employed in the study of the E.M.G. interactions of this particle. Finally the general commutation rules for a Bargmann-Wigner field with arbitrary spin are given [fr

  16. Muon spin relaxation study of spin dynamics in the extended kagome systems YBaCo4O7 +δ (δ =0 ,0.1 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lee, Wonjun; Lee, K. J.; Kim, ByungJun; Suh, B. J.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.; Choi, K.-Y.

    2018-03-01

    We present muon spin relaxation (μ SR ) measurements of the extended kagome systems YBaCo4O7 +δ (δ =0 ,0.1 ), comprising two interpenetrating kagome sublattice of Co (I) 3 + (S =3 /2 ) and a triangle sublattice of Co (II) 2 + (S =2 ). The zero- and longitudinal-field μ SR spectra of the stoichiometric compound YBaCo4O7 unveil that the triangular subsystem orders at TN=101 K. In contrast, the muon spin relaxation rate pertaining to the kagome subsystem shows persistent spin dynamics down to T =20 K and then a sublinear decrease λ (T ) ˜T0.66 (5 ) on cooling towards T =4 K. In addition, the introduction of interstitial oxygen (δ =0.1 ) is found to drastically affect the magnetism. For the fast-cooling experiment (>10 K/min), YBaCo4O7.1 enters a regime characterized by persistent spin dynamics below 90 K. For the slow-cooling experiment (1 K/min), evidence is obtained for the phase separation into interstitial oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich regions with distinct correlation times. The observed temperature, cooling rate, and oxygen content dependencies of spin dynamics are discussed in terms of a broad range of spin-spin correlation times, relying on a different degree of frustration between the kagome and triangle sublattices as well as of oxygen migration.

  17. Spin wave theory of ferrimagnetic double perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackeli, G.

    2004-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of magnetic properties of metallic double perovskite ferrimagnets such as Sr 2 FeMoO 6 and Sr 2 FeReO 6 . The analysis is based on the Kondo-type Hamiltonian in which charge carriers are constrained to be antiparallel to Fe local moments with spin S. The spectrum of spin wave excitations is derived based on the model Hamiltonian within the 1/S expansion. The ground state phase diagram as a function of carrier density is also discussed

  18. Study of the operation temperature in the spin-exchange relaxation free magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Li, Rujie; Duan, Lihong; Chen, Yao; Quan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We study the influence of the cell temperature on the sensitivity of the spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF) magnetometer and analyze the possibility of operating at a low temperature. Utilizing a 25 × 25 × 25 mm 3 Cs vapor cell with a heating temperature of 85  ∘ C, which is almost half of the value of potassium, we obtain a linewidth of 1.37 Hz and achieve a magnetic field sensitivity of 55 fT/Hz 1/2 in a single channel. Theoretical analysis shows that fundamental sensitivity limits of this device with an active volume of 1 cm 3 could approach 1 fT/Hz 1/2 . Taking advantage of the higher saturated vapor pressure, SERF magnetometer based on Cs opens up the possibility for low cost and portable sensors and is particularly appropriate for lower temperature applications

  19. Study of the operation temperature in the spin-exchange relaxation free magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Li, Rujie, E-mail: lirujie@buaa.edu.cn; Duan, Lihong; Chen, Yao; Quan, Wei [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-07-15

    We study the influence of the cell temperature on the sensitivity of the spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF) magnetometer and analyze the possibility of operating at a low temperature. Utilizing a 25 × 25 × 25 mm{sup 3} Cs vapor cell with a heating temperature of 85 {sup ∘}C, which is almost half of the value of potassium, we obtain a linewidth of 1.37 Hz and achieve a magnetic field sensitivity of 55 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} in a single channel. Theoretical analysis shows that fundamental sensitivity limits of this device with an active volume of 1 cm{sup 3} could approach 1 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. Taking advantage of the higher saturated vapor pressure, SERF magnetometer based on Cs opens up the possibility for low cost and portable sensors and is particularly appropriate for lower temperature applications.

  20. Spin-out Management: Theory and Practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagersma, P.K.; Gorp, D.

    2003-01-01

    The structure of a firm, an important element of the business model, plays a key role in building an innovative and market-driven organization. Due to failures in the structure of companies, growth opportunities are sometimes not fully realized. Spin-out management is a process by which a new or

  1. Gaussian signal relaxation around spin echoes: Implications for precise reversible transverse relaxation quantification of pulmonary tissue at 1.5 and 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapp, Jascha; Domsch, Sebastian; Weingärtner, Sebastian; Schad, Lothar R

    2017-05-01

    To characterize the reversible transverse relaxation in pulmonary tissue and to study the benefit of a quadratic exponential (Gaussian) model over the commonly used linear exponential model for increased quantification precision. A point-resolved spectroscopy sequence was used for comprehensive sampling of the relaxation around spin echoes. Measurements were performed in an ex vivo tissue sample and in healthy volunteers at 1.5 Tesla (T) and 3 T. The goodness of fit using χred2 and the precision of the fitted relaxation time by means of its confidence interval were compared between the two relaxation models. The Gaussian model provides enhanced descriptions of pulmonary relaxation with lower χred2 by average factors of 4 ex vivo and 3 in volunteers. The Gaussian model indicates higher sensitivity to tissue structure alteration with increased precision of reversible transverse relaxation time measurements also by average factors of 4 ex vivo and 3 in volunteers. The mean relaxation times of the Gaussian model in volunteers are T2,G' = (1.97 ± 0.27) msec at 1.5 T and T2,G' = (0.83 ± 0.21) msec at 3 T. Pulmonary signal relaxation was found to be accurately modeled as Gaussian, providing a potential biomarker T2,G' with high sensitivity. Magn Reson Med 77:1938-1945, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Proof of the Spin Statistics Connection 2: Relativistic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamato, Enrico; De Martini, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    The traditional standard theory of quantum mechanics is unable to solve the spin-statistics problem, i.e. to justify the utterly important "Pauli Exclusion Principle" but by the adoption of the complex standard relativistic quantum field theory. In a recent paper (Santamato and De Martini in Found Phys 45(7):858-873, 2015) we presented a proof of the spin-statistics problem in the nonrelativistic approximation on the basis of the "Conformal Quantum Geometrodynamics". In the present paper, by the same theory the proof of the spin-statistics theorem is extended to the relativistic domain in the general scenario of curved spacetime. The relativistic approach allows to formulate a manifestly step-by-step Weyl gauge invariant theory and to emphasize some fundamental aspects of group theory in the demonstration. No relativistic quantum field operators are used and the particle exchange properties are drawn from the conservation of the intrinsic helicity of elementary particles. It is therefore this property, not considered in the standard quantum mechanics, which determines the correct spin-statistics connection observed in Nature (Santamato and De Martini in Found Phys 45(7):858-873, 2015). The present proof of the spin-statistics theorem is simpler than the one presented in Santamato and De Martini (Found Phys 45(7):858-873, 2015), because it is based on symmetry group considerations only, without having recourse to frames attached to the particles. Second quantization and anticommuting operators are not necessary.

  3. Spin relaxation studies of Li+ion dynamics in polymer gel electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkkötter, M; Gouverneur, M; Sebastião, P J; Vaca Chávez, F; Schönhoff, M

    2017-03-08

    Two ternary polymer gel electrolyte systems are compared, containing either polyethylene oxide (PEO) or the poly-ionic liquid poly(diallyldimethylammonium) bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide (PDADMA-TFSI). Both gel types are based on the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide (P 14 TFSI) and LiTFSI. We study the influence of the polymers on the local lithium ion dynamics at different polymer concentrations using 7 Li spin-lattice relaxation data in dependence on frequency and temperature. In all cases the relaxation rates are well described by the Cole-Davidson motional model with Arrhenius dependence of the correlation time and a temperature dependent quadrupole coupling constant. For both polymers the correlation times are found to increase with polymer concentration. The activation energy of local motions slightly increases with increasing PEO concentration, and slightly decreases with increasing PDADMA-TFSI concentration. Thus the local Li + motion is reduced by the presence of either polymer; however, the reduction is less effective in the PDADMA + samples. We thus conclude that mechanical stabilization of a liquid electrolyte by a polymer can be achieved at a lower decrease of Li + motion when a cationic polymer is used instead of PEO.

  4. Solid state proton spin-lattice relaxation in four structurally related organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, Peter A.; Burbank, Kendra S.; Lau, Matty M.W.; Ree, Jessica N.; Weber, Tracy L.

    2003-01-01

    We report and interpret the temperature dependence of the proton spin-lattice relaxation rate at 8.50 and 22.5 MHz in four polycrystalline solids composed of structurally related molecules: 2-ethylanthracene, 2-t-butylanthracene, 2-ethylanthraquinone, and 2-t-butylanthraquinone. We have been unable to grow single crystals and therefore do not know the crystal structures. Hence, we use the NMR relaxometry data to make predictions about the solid state structures. As expected, we are able to conclude that the ethyl groups do not reorient in the solid state but that the t-butyl groups do. The anthraquinones have a ''simpler'' structure than the anthracenes. The best dynamical models suggest that there is a unique crystallographic site for the t-butyl groups in 2-t-butylanthraquinone and two sites, each with half the molecules, for the ethyl groups in 2-ethylanthraquinone. There are also two sites in 2-ethylanthracene, but with unequal weights, suggesting four sites in the unit cell with lower symmetry than the two anthraquinones. Finally, the observed relaxation rate data in 2-t-butylanthracene is very complex and its interpretation demonstrates the uniqueness problem that arises in interpreting relaxometry data without the knowledge of the crystal structure

  5. The spin relaxation of nitrogen donors in 6H SiC crystals as studied by the electron spin echo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, D.; Shanina, B.; Kalabukhova, E.; Pöppl, A.; Lančok, J.; Mokhov, E.

    2016-04-01

    We present the detailed study of the spin kinetics of the nitrogen (N) donor electrons in 6H SiC wafers grown by the Lely method and by the sublimation "sandwich method" (SSM) with a donor concentration of about 1017 cm-3 at T = 10-40 K. The donor electrons of the N donors substituting quasi-cubic "k1" and "k2" sites (Nk1,k2) in both types of the samples revealed the similar temperature dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate (T1-1), which was described by the direct one-phonon and two-phonon processes induced by the acoustic phonons proportional to T and to T9, respectively. The character of the temperature dependence of the T1-1 for the donor electrons of N substituting hexagonal ("h") site (Nh) in both types of 6H SiC samples indicates that the donor electrons relax through the fast-relaxing centers by means of the cross-relaxation process. The observed enhancement of the phase memory relaxation rate (Tm-1) with the temperature increase for the Nh donors in both types of the samples, as well as for the Nk1,k2 donors in Lely grown 6H SiC, was explained by the growth of the free electron concentration with the temperature increase and their exchange scattering at the N donor centers. The observed significant shortening of the phase memory relaxation time Tm for the Nk1,k2 donors in the SSM grown sample with the temperature lowering is caused by hopping motion of the electrons between the occupied and unoccupied states of the N donors at Nh and Nk1,k2 sites. The impact of the N donor pairs, triads, distant donor pairs formed in n-type 6H SiC wafers on the spin relaxation times was discussed.

  6. Einstein-Dirac theory in spin maximum I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crumeyrolle, A.

    1975-01-01

    An unitary Einstein-Dirac theory, first in spin maximum 1, is constructed. An original feature of this article is that it is written without any tetrapod technics; basic notions and existence conditions for spinor structures on pseudo-Riemannian fibre bundles are only used. A coupling gravitation-electromagnetic field is pointed out, in the geometric setting of the tangent bundle over space-time. Generalized Maxwell equations for inductive media in presence of gravitational field are obtained. Enlarged Einstein-Schroedinger theory, gives a particular case of this E.D. theory. E. S. theory is a truncated E.D. theory in spin maximum 1. A close relation between torsion-vector and Schroedinger's potential exists and nullity of torsion-vector has a spinor meaning. Finally the Petiau-Duffin-Kemmer theory is incorporated in this geometric setting [fr

  7. Cosmological viability of theories with massive spin-2 fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koennig, Frank

    2017-03-30

    Theories of spin-2 fields take on a particular role in modern physics. They do not only describe the mediation of gravity, the only theory of fundamental interactions of which no quantum field theoretical description exists, it furthermore was thought that they necessarily predict massless gauge bosons. Just recently, a consistent theory of a massive graviton was constructed and, subsequently, generalized to a bimetric theory of two interacting spin-2 fields. This thesis studies both the viability and consequences at cosmological scales in massive gravity as well as bimetric theories. We show that all consistent models that are free of gradient and ghost instabilities behave like the cosmological standard model, LCDM. In addition, we construct a new theory of massive gravity which is stable at both classical background and quantum level, even though it suffers from the Boulware-Deser ghost.

  8. Higher-Spin Triplet Fields and String Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sorokin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We review basic properties of reducible higher-spin multiplets, called triplets, and demonstrate how they naturally appear as part of the spectrum of String Field Theory in the tensionless limit. We show how in the frame-like formulation the triplet fields are endowed with the geometrical meaning of being components of higher-spin vielbeins and connections and present actions describing their free dynamics.

  9. A gauge field theory of fermionic continuous-spin particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekaert, X., E-mail: xavier.bekaert@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS, Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson, Université François Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); B.W. Lee Center for Fields, Gravity and Strings, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Najafizadeh, M., E-mail: mnajafizadeh@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS, Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson, Université François Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kurdistan, 66177-15177 Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, M.R., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kurdistan, 66177-15177 Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-10

    In this letter, we suggest a local covariant action for a gauge field theory of fermionic Continuous-Spin Particles (CSPs). The action is invariant under gauge transformations without any constraint on both the gauge field and the gauge transformation parameter. The Fang–Fronsdal equations for a tower of massless fields with all half-integer spins arise as a particular limit of the equation of motion of fermionic CSPs.

  10. A gauge field theory of fermionic continuous-spin particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekaert, X.; Najafizadeh, M.; Setare, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we suggest a local covariant action for a gauge field theory of fermionic Continuous-Spin Particles (CSPs). The action is invariant under gauge transformations without any constraint on both the gauge field and the gauge transformation parameter. The Fang–Fronsdal equations for a tower of massless fields with all half-integer spins arise as a particular limit of the equation of motion of fermionic CSPs.

  11. Anisotropic Rotational Diffusion Studied by Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Molecular Dynamics Simulation: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuson, Michael M.

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories studying the anisotropic rotational diffusion of bromobenzene using nuclear spin relaxation and molecular dynamics simulations are described. For many undergraduates, visualizing molecular motion is challenging. Undergraduates rarely encounter laboratories that directly assess molecular motion, and so the concept remains an…

  12. Measurements of the nuclear spin-spin relaxation times for commensurate {sup 3}He-Ne films adsorbed on hexagonal boron nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, C; Sullivan, N S [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Stachowiak, P [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland)], E-mail: Sullivan@phys.ufl.edu

    2009-02-01

    Measurements of the {sup 3}He nuclear spin-spin relaxation time, T{sub 2}, have been carried out for commensurate layers of {sup 3}He-Ne mixtures adsorbed on hexagonal boron nitride for temperatures 0.2< T <10 K. A temperature independent relaxation is observed at low temperatures and is interpreted in terms of the effective exchange frequencies for {sup 3}He particle exchange on the surface. The results show a strong dependence on the fraction of neon in the adsorbed layer. This variation is discussed in terms of a multiple spin exchange model for {sup 3}He in a monolayer. The contributions to T{sub 2} from different components of the exchange, 2-spin exchange (J{sub 2}), 3-spin exchange (J{sub 3}), 4-spin exchange (J{sub 4}) and higher exchange permutations depend on the {sup 3}He coverage and thus permit the separation of the amplitudes of the different exchange rates, and in particular allow one to deduce the relative strengths of 2-atom and 3-atom exchange where other methods are sensitive only to the effective two-particle term J{sub eff} = J{sub 2} - 2J{sub 3}.

  13. Phonon-bottlenecked spin relaxation of Er3+:Y2SiO5 at sub-kelvin temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budoyo, Rangga P.; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Toida, Hiraku; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Munro, William J.; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro

    2018-04-01

    We report on electron spin relaxation measurements of Er3+ dopants in a Y2SiO5 crystal using an electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer based on a Josephson bifurcation amplifier. We observed the change in the induced flux as a function of time for two spin transitions (at different crystallographic sites) after an excitation microwave pulse or a change in the static magnetic field. Low-microwave-power measurements showed relaxation times of approximately 10 h at 20 mK, and 1/T 1 followed a T 2 dependence between 30 and 200 mK. We observed no difference in behavior between the two transitions. The microwave power and temperature dependences suggest that a phonon-bottleneck-like process limits relaxation.

  14. Spin-Forbidden Reactions: Adiabatic Transition States Using Spin-Orbit Coupled Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Carlo Alberto; Belpassi, Leonardo; Tarantelli, Francesco; Harvey, Jeremy N; Belanzoni, Paola

    2017-10-31

    A spin-forbidden chemical reaction involves a change in the total electronic spin state from reactants to products. The mechanistic study is challenging because such a reaction does not occur on a single diabatic potential energy surface (PES), but rather on two (or multiple) spin diabatic PESs. One possible approach is to calculate the so-called "minimum energy crossing point" (MECP) between the diabatic PESs, which however is not a stationary point. Inclusion of spin-orbit coupling between spin states (SOC approach) allows the reaction to occur on a single adiabatic PES, in which a transition state (TS SOC) as well as activation free energy can be calculated. This Concept article summarizes a previously published application in which, for the first time, the SOC effects, using spin-orbit ZORA Hamiltonian within density functional theory (DFT) framework, are included and account for the mechanism of a spin-forbidden reaction in gold chemistry. The merits of the MECP and TS SOC approaches and the accuracy of the results are compared, considering both our recent calculations on molecular oxygen addition to gold(I)-hydride complexes and new calculations for the prototype spin-forbidden N 2 O and N 2 Se dissociation reactions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Comparison of exact-exchange calculations for solids in current-spin-density- and spin-density-functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, S.; Pittalis, S.; Kurth, S.

    2007-01-01

    The relative merits of current-spin-density- and spin-density-functional theory are investigated for solids treated within the exact-exchange-only approximation. Spin-orbit splittings and orbital magnetic moments are determined at zero external magnetic field. We find that for magnetic (Fe, Co......, and Ni) and nonmagnetic (Si and Ge) solids, the exact-exchange current-spin-density functional approach does not significantly improve the accuracy of the corresponding spin-density functional results....

  16. Spatial and Spin Symmetry Breaking in Semidefinite-Programming-Based Hartree-Fock Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Daniel R; DePrince, A Eugene

    2018-04-16

    The Hartree-Fock problem was recently recast as a semidefinite optimization over the space of rank-constrained two-body reduced-density matrices (RDMs) [ Phys. Rev. A 2014 , 89 , 010502(R) ]. This formulation of the problem transfers the nonconvexity of the Hartree-Fock energy functional to the rank constraint on the two-body RDM. We consider an equivalent optimization over the space of positive semidefinite one-electron RDMs (1-RDMs) that retains the nonconvexity of the Hartree-Fock energy expression. The optimized 1-RDM satisfies ensemble N-representability conditions, and ensemble spin-state conditions may be imposed as well. The spin-state conditions place additional linear and nonlinear constraints on the 1-RDM. We apply this RDM-based approach to several molecular systems and explore its spatial (point group) and spin ( Ŝ 2 and Ŝ 3 ) symmetry breaking properties. When imposing Ŝ 2 and Ŝ 3 symmetry but relaxing point group symmetry, the procedure often locates spatial-symmetry-broken solutions that are difficult to identify using standard algorithms. For example, the RDM-based approach yields a smooth, spatial-symmetry-broken potential energy curve for the well-known Be-H 2 insertion pathway. We also demonstrate numerically that, upon relaxation of Ŝ 2 and Ŝ 3 symmetry constraints, the RDM-based approach is equivalent to real-valued generalized Hartree-Fock theory.

  17. Bulk magnon spin current theory for the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, S.M., E-mail: rezende@df.ufpe.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Rodríguez-Suárez, R.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla, 306 Santiago (Chile); Cunha, R.O.; López Ortiz, J.C.; Azevedo, A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) consists in the generation of a spin current parallel to a temperature gradient applied across the thickness of a bilayer made of a ferromagnetic insulator (FMI), such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG), and a metallic layer (ML) with strong spin orbit coupling, such as platinum. The LSSE is usually detected by a DC voltage generated along the ML due to the conversion of the spin current into a charge current perpendicular to the static magnetic field by means of the inverse spin Hall effect. Here we present a model for the LSSE that relies on the bulk magnon spin current created by the temperature gradient across the thickness of the FMI. We show that the spin current pumped into the metallic layer by the magnon accumulation in the FMI provides continuity of the spin current at the FMI/ML interface and is essential for the existence of the LSSE. The results of the theory are in good agreement with experimental LSSE data in YIG/Pt bilayers on the variation of the DC voltage with the sample temperature, with the FMI layer thickness and with the intensity of high magnetic fields. - Highlights: • We present a theory for the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect based on bulk magnons. • The model explains quantitatively the measured voltage in YIG/Pt created by the LSSE. • The model explains quantitatively the temperature dependence of LSSE measured in YIG/Pt. • The model agrees qualitatively with the measured dependence of LSSE with YIG thickness. • The model agrees qualitatively with the measured dependence of LSSE on magnetic field.

  18. Quasilinear theory of a spin-flip laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunasalam, V.

    1973-09-01

    A discussion of the nonlinear electrodynamic behavior of a gas of spin 1/2 particles in a uniform external magnetic field is presented. In particular, the quasilinear time evolution of a spin-flip laser system is examined in detail both from the point of view of the thermodynamics of negative temperature systems and the quantum kinetic methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It is shown that the quasilinear steady state of a spin-flip laser system is that state at which the populations of the spin-up and the spin-down states are equal to each other, and this quasilinear steady state is the state of minimum entropy production. The maximum output power of the spin-flip laser predicted by the theory presented in this paper is shown to be in reasonably good agreement with experimental results. The method used here is based on the general principles of nonrelativistic quantum theory and takes account of the Doppler broadening, collisional broadening, and Compton recoil effects. 30 refs., 1 fig

  19. Local spin dynamics at low temperature in the slowly relaxing molecular chain [Dy(hfac)3(NIT(C6H4OPh))]: A μ{sup +} spin relaxation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arosio, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.arosio@guest.unimi.it; Orsini, Francesco [Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano, and INSTM, Milano (Italy); Corti, Maurizio [Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Pavia and INSTM, Pavia (Italy); Mariani, Manuel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Bogani, Lapo [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Caneschi, Andrea [INSTM and Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Lago, Jorge [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain); Lascialfari, Alessandro [Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano, and INSTM, Milano (Italy); Centro S3, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Modena (Italy)

    2015-05-07

    The spin dynamics of the molecular magnetic chain [Dy(hfac){sub 3}(NIT(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}OPh))] were investigated by means of the Muon Spin Relaxation (μ{sup +}SR) technique. This system consists of a magnetic lattice of alternating Dy(III) ions and radical spins, and exhibits single-chain-magnet behavior. The magnetic properties of [Dy(hfac){sub 3}(NIT(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}OPh))] have been studied by measuring the magnetization vs. temperature at different applied magnetic fields (H = 5, 3500, and 16500 Oe) and by performing μ{sup +}SR experiments vs. temperature in zero field and in a longitudinal applied magnetic field H = 3500 Oe. The muon asymmetry P(t) was fitted by the sum of three components, two stretched-exponential decays with fast and intermediate relaxation times, and a third slow exponential decay. The temperature dependence of the spin dynamics has been determined by analyzing the muon longitudinal relaxation rate λ{sub interm}(T), associated with the intermediate relaxing component. The experimental λ{sub interm}(T) data were fitted with a corrected phenomenological Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound law by using a distribution of thermally activated correlation times, which average to τ = τ{sub 0} exp(Δ/k{sub B}T), corresponding to a distribution of energy barriers Δ. The correlation times can be associated with the spin freezing that occurs when the system condenses in the ground state.

  20. NMR spin relaxation in proteins: The patterns of motion that dissipate power to the bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Yury E.; Meirovitch, Eva

    2014-04-01

    We developed in recent years the two-body coupled-rotator slowly relaxing local structure (SRLS) approach for the analysis of NMR relaxation in proteins. The two bodies/rotators are the protein (diffusion tensor D1) and the spin-bearing probe, e.g., the 15N-1H bond (diffusion tensor, D2), coupled by a local potential (u). A Smoluchowski equation is solved to yield the generic time correlation functions (TCFs), which are sums of weighted exponentials (eigenmodes). By Fourier transformation one obtains the generic spectral density functions (SDFs) which underlie the experimental relaxation parameters. The typical paradigm is to characterize structural dynamics in terms of the best-fit values of D1, D2, and u. Additional approaches we pursued employ the SRLS TCFs, SDFs, or eigenmodes as descriptors. In this study we develop yet another perspective. We consider the SDF as function of the angular velocity associated with the fluctuating fields underlying NMR relaxation. A parameter called j-fraction, which represents the relative contribution of eigenmode, i, to a given value of the SDF function at a specific frequency, ω, is defined. j-fraction profiles of the dominant eigenmodes are derived for 0 ≤ ω ≤ 1012 rad/s. They reveal which patterns of motion actuate power dissipation at given ω-values, what are their rates, and what is their relative contribution. Simulations are carried out to determine the effect of timescale separation, D1/D2, axial potential strength, and local diffusion axiality. For D1/D2 ≤ 0.01 and strong local potential of 15 kBT, power is dissipated by global diffusion, renormalized (by the strong potential) local diffusion, and probe diffusion on the surface of a cone (to be called cone diffusion). For D1/D2 = 0.1, power is dissipated by mixed eigenmodes largely of a global-diffusion-type or cone-diffusion-type, and a nearly bare renormalized-local-diffusion eigenmode. For D1/D2 > 0.1, most eigenmodes are of a mixed type. The analysis is

  1. Spin wave relaxation and magnetic properties in [M/Cu] super-lattices; M=Fe, Co and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmi, A.; Qachaou, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we study the elementary excitations and magnetic properties of the [M/Cu] super-lattices with: M=Fe, Co and Ni, represented by a Heisenberg ferromagnetic system with N atomic planes. The nearest neighbour (NN), next nearest neighbour (NNN) exchange, dipolar interactions and surface anisotropy effects are taken into account and the Hamiltonian is studied in the framework of the linear spin wave theory. In the presence of the exchange alone, the excitation spectrum E(k) and the magnetization z >/S analytical expressions are obtained using the Green's function formalism. The obtained relaxation time of the magnon populations is nearly the same in the Fe and Co-based super-lattices, while these magnetic excitations would last much longer in the Ni-based super lattice. A numerical study of the surface anisotropy and long-ranged dipolar interaction combined effects are also reported. The exchange integral values deduced from a comparison with experience for the three super-lattices are coherent.

  2. Higher-spin Chern-Simons theories in odd dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engquist, Johan [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: j.engquist@phys.uu.nl; Hohm, Olaf [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: o.hohm@phys.uu.nl

    2007-12-10

    We construct consistent bosonic higher-spin gauge theories in odd dimensions D>3 based on Chern-Simons forms. The gauge groups are infinite-dimensional higher-spin extensions of the anti-de Sitter groups SO(D-1,2). We propose an invariant tensor on these algebras, which is required for the definition of the Chern-Simons action. The latter contains the purely gravitational Chern-Simons theories constructed by Chamseddine, and so the entire theory describes a consistent coupling of higher-spin fields to a particular form of Lovelock gravity. It contains topological as well as non-topological phases. Focusing on D=5 we consider as an example for the latter an AdS{sub 4}xS{sup 1} Kaluza-Klein background. By solving the higher-spin torsion constraints in the case of a spin-3 field, we verify explicitly that the equations of motion reduce in the linearization to the compensator form of the Fronsdal equations on AdS{sub 4}.

  3. Spin Liquid State in the 3D Frustrated Antiferromagnet PbCuTe_{2}O_{6}: NMR and Muon Spin Relaxation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuntia, P; Bert, F; Mendels, P; Koteswararao, B; Mahajan, A V; Baenitz, M; Chou, F C; Baines, C; Amato, A; Furukawa, Y

    2016-03-11

    PbCuTe_{2}O_{6} is a rare example of a spin liquid candidate featuring a three-dimensional magnetic lattice. Strong geometric frustration arises from the dominant antiferromagnetic interaction that generates a hyperkagome network of Cu^{2+} ions although additional interactions enhance the magnetic lattice connectivity. Through a combination of magnetization measurements and local probe investigations by NMR and muon spin relaxation down to 20 mK, we provide robust evidence for the absence of magnetic freezing in the ground state. The local spin susceptibility probed by the NMR shift hardly deviates from the macroscopic one down to 1 K pointing to a homogeneous magnetic system with a low defect concentration. The saturation of the NMR shift and the sublinear power law temperature (T) evolution of the 1/T_{1} NMR relaxation rate at low T point to a nonsinglet ground state favoring a gapless fermionic description of the magnetic excitations. Below 1 K a pronounced slowing down of the spin dynamics is witnessed, which may signal a reconstruction of spinon Fermi surface. Nonetheless, the compound remains in a fluctuating spin liquid state down to the lowest temperature of the present investigation.

  4. TU-EF-BRA-02: Longitudinal Proton Spin Relaxation and T1-Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemen, L. [Univ Cincinnati (United States)

    2015-06-15

    NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient - Anthony Wolbarst Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t). T1-MRI; The MRI Device - Lisa Lemen ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space - Nathan Yanasak Spin-Echo; S-E/Spin Warp in a 2D Slice - Ronald Price Magnetic resonance imaging not only reveals the structural, anatomic details of the body, as does CT, but also it can provide information on the physiological status and pathologies of its tissues, like nuclear medicine. It can display high-quality slice and 3D images of organs and vessels viewed from any perspective, with resolution better than 1 mm. MRI is perhaps most extraordinary and notable for the plethora of ways in which it can create unique forms of image contrast, reflective of fundamentally different biophysical phenomena. As with ultrasound, there is no risk from ionizing radiation to the patient or staff, since no X-rays or radioactive nuclei are involved. Instead, MRI harnesses magnetic fields and radio waves to probe the stable nuclei of the ordinary hydrogen atoms (isolated protons) occurring in water and lipid molecules within and around cells. MRI consists, in essence, of creating spatial maps of the electromagnetic environments around these hydrogen nuclei. Spatial variations in the proton milieus can be related to clinical differences in the biochemical and physiological properties and conditions of the associated tissues. Imaging of proton density (PD), and of the tissue proton spin relaxation times known as T1 and T2, all can reveal important clinical information, but they do so with approaches so dissimilar from one another that each is chosen for only certain clinical situations. T1 and T2 in a voxel are determined by different aspects of the rotations and other motions of the water and lipid molecules involved, as constrained by the local biophysical surroundings within and between its cells – and they, in turn, depend on the type of tissue and its state of health. Three other common

  5. TU-EF-BRA-02: Longitudinal Proton Spin Relaxation and T1-Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemen, L.

    2015-01-01

    NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient - Anthony Wolbarst Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t). T1-MRI; The MRI Device - Lisa Lemen ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space - Nathan Yanasak Spin-Echo; S-E/Spin Warp in a 2D Slice - Ronald Price Magnetic resonance imaging not only reveals the structural, anatomic details of the body, as does CT, but also it can provide information on the physiological status and pathologies of its tissues, like nuclear medicine. It can display high-quality slice and 3D images of organs and vessels viewed from any perspective, with resolution better than 1 mm. MRI is perhaps most extraordinary and notable for the plethora of ways in which it can create unique forms of image contrast, reflective of fundamentally different biophysical phenomena. As with ultrasound, there is no risk from ionizing radiation to the patient or staff, since no X-rays or radioactive nuclei are involved. Instead, MRI harnesses magnetic fields and radio waves to probe the stable nuclei of the ordinary hydrogen atoms (isolated protons) occurring in water and lipid molecules within and around cells. MRI consists, in essence, of creating spatial maps of the electromagnetic environments around these hydrogen nuclei. Spatial variations in the proton milieus can be related to clinical differences in the biochemical and physiological properties and conditions of the associated tissues. Imaging of proton density (PD), and of the tissue proton spin relaxation times known as T1 and T2, all can reveal important clinical information, but they do so with approaches so dissimilar from one another that each is chosen for only certain clinical situations. T1 and T2 in a voxel are determined by different aspects of the rotations and other motions of the water and lipid molecules involved, as constrained by the local biophysical surroundings within and between its cells – and they, in turn, depend on the type of tissue and its state of health. Three other common

  6. Energy relaxation between low lying tunnel split spin-states of the single molecule magnet Ni4

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loubens, G.; Chaves-O'Flynn, G. D.; Kent, A. D.; Ramsey, C.; Del Barco, E.; Beedle, C.; Hendrickson, D. N.

    2007-03-01

    We have developed integrated magnetic sensors to study quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) in single molecule magnet (SMMs) single crystals. These sensors incorporate a microstrip resonator (30 GHz) and a micro-Hall effect magnetometer. They have been used to investigate the relaxation rates between the 2 lowest lying tunnel split spin-states of the SMM Ni4 (S=4). EPR spectroscopy at 30 GHz and 0.4 K and concurrent magnetization measurements of several Ni4 single crystals are presented. EPR enables measurement of the energy splitting between the 2 lowest lying superposition states as a function of the longitudinal and transverse fields. The energy relaxation rate is determined in two ways. First, in cw microwave experiments the change in spin-population together with the microwave absorption directly gives the relaxation time from energy conservation in steady-state. Second, direct time-resolved measurements of the magnetization with pulsed microwave radiation have been performed. The relaxation time is found to vary by several orders of magnitude in different crystals, from a few seconds down to smaller than 100 μs. We discuss this and the form of the relaxation found for different crystals and pulse conditions.

  7. Proton Relaxation and Spin Label Studies of Papaverine Localization in Ionic Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushmanov, V. E.; Imasato, H.; Perussi, J. R.; Tabak, M.

    The localization of papaverine (PAV) in micelles of zwitterionic N-hexadecyl- N, N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (HPS), cationic cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), and anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in D 2O was studied by 1H NMR and ESR in the presence and absence of 5-doxyl- or 12-doxyl-stearic acid. PAV, surfactants, and spin probes are characterized by restricted anisotropic motion in micelles. The rotational correlation time of doxyl fragment was in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 nanoseconds. Binding of PAV to micelles decreases the mobility of both probes, suggesting the localization of PAV inside the hydrophobic part of micelles near the micelle-water interface. According to the NOE data, the methoxy groups of PAV are located in the vicinity of the nitrogen atom in CTAC and HPS micelles, the methoxy groups of the PAV heterocycle being immersed slightly deeper inside the micelle. The T1 relaxation enhancements by two different spin probes show that the H5 and methoxy substituents of the PAV heterocycle are in close proximity to the α-CH 2 of acyl chains in all types of micelles, whereas H3 and H12 are the most distant from the α-CH 2. No significant differences were found for the protonated and neutral PAV in SDS micelles at pD 4.9 and 11.2. These data show that the geometry of the PAV-micelle complex is practically independent of the PAV charge and surfactant headgroup.

  8. Photoluminescence quenching and enhanced spin relaxation in Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovhal, Manoj M.; Santhosh Kumar, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Khullar, Prerna [School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Kumar, Manjeet [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Abhyankar, A.C., E-mail: ashutoshabhyankar@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Cost-effective ultrasonically assisted precipitation method is utilized to synthesize Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) at room temperature and the effect of Iron (Fe) doping on structural, optical and spin relaxation properties also presented. As-synthesized pure and Fe doped ZnO NPs possess a perfect hexagonal growth habit of wurtzite zinc oxide, along the (101) direction of preference. With Fe doping, ‘c/a’ ratio and compressive lattice strain in ZnO NPs are found to reduce and increase, respectively. Raman studies demonstrate that the E{sub 1} longitudinal optical (LO) vibrational mode is very weak in pure which remarkably enhanced with Fe doping into ZnO NPs. The direct band gap energy (E{sub g}) of the ZnO NPs has been increased from 3.02 eV to 3.11 eV with Fe doping. A slight red-shift observed with strong green emission band, in photoluminescence spectra, is strongly quenched in 6 wt.% Fe doped ZnO NPs. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals spherical shape of ZnO NPs with 60–70 nm, which reduces substantially on Fe doping. The energy dispersive X-ray spectrum and elemental mapping confirms the homogeneous distribution of Fe in ZnO NPs. Moreover, the specific relaxation rate (R{sub 2sp} = 1/T{sub 2}) has been measured using Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method and found to be maximum in 6 wt.% Fe doped ZnO NPs. Further, the correlation of structural, optical and dynamic properties is proposed. - Highlights: • Pure ZnO and Fe doped ZnO NPs were successfully prepared by cost effective ultrasonically assisted precipitation method. • The optical band gap of ZnO has been enhanced form 3.02–3.11 eV with Fe doping. • PL quenching behaviour has been observed with Fe{sup 3+} ions substitution in ZnO lattice. • Specific relaxation rate (R{sub 2sp} = 1/T{sub 2}) has been varied with Fe doping and found to be maximum in 6 wt.% Fe doped ZnO NPs.

  9. Muon spin relaxation study of Zr(H2PO4)(PO4).2H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayden, Nigel J; Cottrell, Stephen P

    2006-07-14

    Muon spin relaxation has been used to study the muon dynamics in the layered zirconium phosphate Zr(H(2)PO(4))(PO(4)).2H(2)O as a function of temperature. Radiofrequency decoupling was used to establish the origin of the local dipolar field as coupling with (1)H spins. Muons were trapped at two sites, one identified as HMuO and the other consistent with PO-Mu on the basis of their zero-field second moments. Although a small decrease in the local nuclear dipolar field was seen with temperature, the muons remained essentially static over the temperature range 20-300 K.

  10. Electron spin-lattice relaxation of low-symmetry Ni.sup.2+./sup. centers in LiF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Azamat, Dmitry; Badalyan, A. G.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Lančok, Ján

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 25 (2014), "252902-1"-"252902-4" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA TA ČR TA01010517; GA ČR GAP108/12/1941 Grant - others:SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Ni 2+ centers * LiF single crystals * electron spin-lattice relaxation * electron spin echo technique Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  11. Suppression of vapor cell temperature error for spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jixi, E-mail: lujixi@buaa.edu.cn; Qian, Zheng; Fang, Jiancheng; Quan, Wei [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-08-15

    This paper presents a method to reduce the vapor cell temperature error of the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer. The fluctuation of cell temperature can induce variations of the optical rotation angle, resulting in a scale factor error of the SERF magnetometer. In order to suppress this error, we employ the variation of the probe beam absorption to offset the variation of the optical rotation angle. The theoretical discussion of our method indicates that the scale factor error introduced by the fluctuation of the cell temperature could be suppressed by setting the optical depth close to one. In our experiment, we adjust the probe frequency to obtain various optical depths and then measure the variation of scale factor with respect to the corresponding cell temperature changes. Our experimental results show a good agreement with our theoretical analysis. Under our experimental condition, the error has been reduced significantly compared with those when the probe wavelength is adjusted to maximize the probe signal. The cost of this method is the reduction of the scale factor of the magnetometer. However, according to our analysis, it only has minor effect on the sensitivity under proper operating parameters.

  12. Proton spin lattice relaxation studies in lithium ammonium sulfate LiNH4SO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, R.K.; Ramakrishna, J.

    1979-01-01

    Lithium ammonium sulfate (LAS) undergoes a phase transition at Tsub(c1) = 459.5deg K from a paraelectric phase (phase 1) to a ferroelectric phase (phase II) and again at Tsub(c2) = 283deg K to a polar ferroelastic phase (phase III). Proton spin lattice relaxation investigations in the temperature range 480-77deg K at 10 MHz show discontinuous changes in Tsub(1) at the transition temperatures, indicating first order phase transitions. The absence of the slow motion region (ωsub(not)tausub(not)>>1) shows that the ammonium ions are reorienting fast enough to keep the resonance absorption line narrow down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The possibility of a second minimum and a low activation energy, Esub(a) = 2.659 kcal/mole, in phase III suggest the possibility of tunnelling of the protons at low temperatures. The nature of the transitions have been discussed in the light of the available literature. The unusually high activation energy, Esub(a) = 17.845 kcal/mole, in the paraelectric phase has been attributed to the possible diffusion of protons. (auth.)

  13. Theory of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups and quantum-rotor induced polarisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Håkansson, Pär; Mamone, Salvatore; Meier, Benno; Stevanato, Gabriele; Hill-Cousins, Joseph T.; Roy, Soumya Singha; Brown, Richard C. D.; Pileio, Giuseppe; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-01-01

    Long-lived nuclear spin states have a relaxation time much longer than the longitudinal relaxation time T 1 . Long-lived states extend significantly the time scales that may be probed with magnetic resonance, with possible applications to transport and binding studies, and to hyperpolarised imaging. Rapidly rotating methyl groups in solution may support a long-lived state, consisting of a population imbalance between states of different spin exchange symmetries. Here, we expand the formalism for describing the behaviour of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups, with special attention to the hyperpolarisation effects observed in 13 CH 3 groups upon rapidly converting a material with low-barrier methyl rotation from the cryogenic solid state to a room-temperature solution [M. Icker and S. Berger, J. Magn. Reson. 219, 1 (2012)]. We analyse the relaxation properties of methyl long-lived states using semi-classical relaxation theory. Numerical simulations are supplemented with a spherical-tensor analysis, which captures the essential properties of methyl long-lived states

  14. Semiclassical spinning strings and confining gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigazzi, F.; Cotrone, A.L.; Martucci, L.

    2004-03-01

    We study multi-charged rotating string states on Type II B regular backgrounds dual to confining SU(N) gauge theories with (softly broken) N=1 supersymmetry, in the infra red regime. After exhibiting the classical energy/charge relations for the folded and circular two-charge strings, we compute in the latter case the one loop sigma-model quantum correction. The classical relation has an expansion in positive powers of the analogous of the BMN effective coupling, while the quantum corrections are non perturbative in nature and are not subleading in the limit of infinite charge. We comment about the dual field theory multi-charged hadrons and the implications of our computation for the AdS/N=4 duality. (author)

  15. Field theory of the spinning electron: I - Internal motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salesi, Giovanni; Recami, Erasmo; Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP

    1994-05-01

    One of the most satisfactory picture of spinning particles is the Barut-Zanghi (BZ) classical theory for the relativistic electron, that relates the electron spin with the so-called Zitterbewegung (zbw). The BZ theory has been recently studied in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian symplectic formulations, both in flat and in curved space-time. The BZ motion equations constituted the starting point for two recent works about spin and electron structure, co-authored by us, which adopted the Clifford algebra formalism. In this letter, by employing on the contrary the ordinary tensorial language, we first write down a meaningful (real) equation of motion, describing particle classical paths, quite different from the corresponding (complex) equation of the standard Dirac theory. As a consequence, we succeed in regarding the electron as an extended-type object with a classically intelligible structure (thus overcoming some long-standing, well-known problems). Second, we make explicit the kinematical properties of the 4-velocity field v μ , which also result to be quite different from the ordinary ones, valid for scalar particles. At last, we analyze the inner zbw motions, both time-like and light-like, as functions of the initial conditions (in particular, for the case of classical uniform motions, the z component of spin s is shown to be quantized). In so doing, we make explicit the strict correlation existing between electron polarization and zbw kinematics. (author). 9 refs

  16. Field theory of the spinning electron: I - Internal motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesi, Giovanni [Universita Statale di Catania (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Recami, Erasmo [Universita Statale di Bergamo, Dalmine, BG (Italy). Facolta di Ingegneria]|[Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada

    1994-05-01

    One of the most satisfactory picture of spinning particles is the Barut-Zanghi (BZ) classical theory for the relativistic electron, that relates the electron spin with the so-called Zitterbewegung (zbw). The BZ theory has been recently studied in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian symplectic formulations, both in flat and in curved space-time. The BZ motion equations constituted the starting point for two recent works about spin and electron structure, co-authored by us, which adopted the Clifford algebra formalism. In this letter, by employing on the contrary the ordinary tensorial language, we first write down a meaningful (real) equation of motion, describing particle classical paths, quite different from the corresponding (complex) equation of the standard Dirac theory. As a consequence, we succeed in regarding the electron as an extended-type object with a classically intelligible structure (thus overcoming some long-standing, well-known problems). Second, we make explicit the kinematical properties of the 4-velocity field v{sup {mu}}, which also result to be quite different from the ordinary ones, valid for scalar particles. At last, we analyze the inner zbw motions, both time-like and light-like, as functions of the initial conditions (in particular, for the case of classical uniform motions, the z component of spin s is shown to be quantized). In so doing, we make explicit the strict correlation existing between electron polarization and zbw kinematics. (author). 9 refs.

  17. Integrable spin chain in superconformal Chern-Simons theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2008-01-01

    N = 6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory was proposed as gauge theory dual to Type IIA string theory on AdS 4 x CP 3 . We study integrability of the theory from conformal dimension spectrum of single trace operators at planar limit. At strong 't Hooft coupling, the spectrum is obtained from excitation energy of free superstring on OSp(6|4; R)/SO(3, 1) x SU(3) x U(1) supercoset. We recall that the worldsheet theory is integrable classically by utilizing well-known results concerning sigma model on symmetric space. With R-symmetry group SU(4), we also solve relevant Yang-Baxter equation for a spin chain system associated with the single trace operators. From the solution, we construct alternating spin chain Hamiltonian involving three-site interactions between 4 and 4-bar . At weak 't Hooft coupling, we study gauge theory perturbatively, and calculate action of dilatation operator to single trace operators up to two loops. To ensure consistency, we computed all relevant Feynman diagrams contributing to the dilatation opeator. We find that resulting spin chain Hamiltonian matches with the Hamiltonian derived from Yang-Baxter equation. We further study new issues arising from the shortest gauge invariant operators TrY I Y † J = (15, 1). We observe that 'wrapping interactions' are present, compute the true spectrum and find that the spectrum agrees with prediction from supersymmetry. We also find that scaling dimension computed naively from alternating spin chain Hamiltonian coincides with the true spectrum. We solve Bethe ansatz equations for small number of excitations, and find indications of correlation between excitations of 4's and 4-bar 's and of nonexistence of mesonic (44-bar ) bound-state.

  18. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance (μSR2014) organized by the Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute in collaboration with the University of Zurich and the University of Fribourg, was held in Grindelwald, Switzerland from 1st to 6th June 2014. The conference provided a forum for researchers from around the world with interests in the applications of μSR to study a wide range of topics including condensed matter physics, materials and molecular sciences, chemistry and biology. Polarized muons provide a unique and versatile probe of matter, enabling studies at the atomic level of electronic structure and dynamics in a wide range of systems. The conference was the thirteenth in a series, which began in Rorschach in 1978 and it took place for the third time in Switzerland. The previous conferences were held in Cancun, Mexico (2011), Tsukuba, Japan (2008), Oxford, UK (2005), Williamsburg, USA (2002), Les Diablerets, Switzerland (1999), Nikko, Japan (1996), Maui, USA (1993), Oxford, UK (1990), Uppsala, Sweden (1986), Shimoda, Japan (1983), Vancouver, Canada (1980), and Rorschach, Switzerland (1978). These conference proceedings contain 67 refereed publications from presentations covering magnetism, superconductivity, chemistry, semiconductors, biophysics and techniques. The conference logo, displayed in the front pages of these proceedings, represents both the location of μSR2014 in the Alps and the muon-spin rotation technique. The silhouette represents the famous local mountains Eiger, Mönch and Jungfrau as drawn by the Swiss painter Ferdinand Hodler and the apple with arrow is at the same time a citation of the Wilhelm Tell legend and a remembrance of the key role played by the muon spin and the asymmetric muon decay (which for the highest positron energy has an apple like shape). More than 160 participants (including 32 registered as students and 13 as accompanying persons) from 19 countries

  19. Direct and two-phonon Orbach-Aminov type spin-lattice relaxation in molecular magnet V15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantul, Alex; Tsukerblat, Boris

    2011-10-01

    In this article we propose a model of spin-phonon relaxation in K6[VIV 15As6O42(H2O)]-8H2O, the so called V15 cluster exhibiting the unique layered magnetic structure. The work is motivated by the recent observation of the Rabi oscillation [1] in this system and aimed to elucidate the role of spin-phonon interaction as a source of decoherence. The spin-phonon coupling is assumed to appear as a result of the modulation of the isotropic and antisymmetric (Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya) exchange interactions in the central triangular layer of vanadium ions by the acoustic lattice vibrations. The relaxation rates are estimated within the Debye model for the lattice vibrations. Within the pseudo-angular momentum representation the selection rules for the direct (one-phonon) transitions between Zeeman levels are derived and a special role of the antisymmetric exchange is underlined. The probabilities of the two-phonon Orbach-Aminov type processes are evaluated as well, while the Raman type relaxation is shown to have a negligible importance at low temperatures at which the Rabi oscillations have been detected.

  20. Heteronuclear relaxation in time-dependent spin systems: 15N-T1ρ dispersion during adiabatic fast passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrat, Robert; Tollinger, Martin

    1999-01-01

    A novel NMR experiment comprising adiabatic fast passage techniques for the measurement of heteronuclear self-relaxation rates in fully 15N-enriched proteins is described. Heteronuclear self-relaxation is monitored by performing adiabatic fast passage (AFP) experiments at variable adiabaticity (e.g., variation of RF spin-lock field intensity). The experiment encompasses gradient- selection and sensitivity-enhancement. It is shown that transverse relaxation rates derived with this method are in good agreement with the ones measured by the classical Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequences. An application of this method to the study of the carboxyl-terminal LIM domain of quail cysteine and glycine-rich protein qCRP2(LIM2) is presented

  1. Cross-Correlated Relaxation of Dipolar Coupling and Chemical-Shift Anisotropy in Magic-Angle Spinning R1ρ NMR Measurements: Application to Protein Backbone Dynamics Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurauskas, Vilius; Weber, Emmanuelle; Hessel, Audrey; Ayala, Isabel; Marion, Dominique; Schanda, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transverse relaxation rate measurements in MAS solid-state NMR provide information about molecular motions occurring on nanoseconds-to-milliseconds (ns-ms) time scales. The measurement of heteronuclear (13C, 15N) relaxation rate constants in the presence of a spin-lock radio-frequency field (R1ρ relaxation) provides access to such motions, and an increasing number of studies involving R1ρ relaxation in proteins has been reported. However, two factors that influence the observed relaxation rate constants have so far been neglected, namely (i) the role of CSA/dipolar cross-correlated relaxation (CCR), and (ii) the impact of fast proton spin flips (i.e. proton spin diffusion and relaxation). We show that CSA/D CCR in R1ρ experiments is measurable, and that this cross-correlated relaxation rate constant depends on ns-ms motions, and can thus itself provide insight into dynamics. We find that proton spin-diffusion attenuates this cross-correlated relaxation, due to its decoupling effect on the doublet components. For measurements of dynamics, the use of R1ρ rate constants has practical advantages over the use of CCR rates, and the present manuscript reveals factors that have so far been disregarded and which are important for accurate measurements and interpretation. PMID:27500976

  2. A new problem in the correlation of nuclear-spin relaxation and ionic conductivity in superionic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumisago, M.; Angell, C. A.; Martin, S. W.

    1992-11-01

    Following the recent resolution of the longstanding problem of reconciling constant frequency nuclear-spin lattice relaxation (SLR) activation energies and d.c. conductivity activity energies in ion conducting glasses, we point out a new problem which seems not to have been discussed previously. We report conductivity data measured at a series of fixed frequencies and variable temperatures on a lithium chloroborate glass and compare them with SLR data on identically prepared samples, also using different fixed frequencies. While phenomenological similarities due to comparable departures from exponential relaxation are found in each case, pronounced differences in the most probable relaxation times themselves are observed. The conductivity relaxation at 500 K occurs on a time scale shorter by some 2 orders of magnitude than the 7Li SLR correlation, and has a significantly lower activation energy. We show from a literature review that this distinction is a common but unreported finding for highly decoupled (fast-ion conducting) systems, and that an inverse relationship is found in supercoupled salt/polymer ``solid'' electrolytes. In fast-ion conducting glasses, the slower SLR process would imply special features in the fast-ion motion which permit spin correlations to survive many more successive ion displacements than previously expected. It is conjectured that the SLR in superionic glasses depends on the existence of a class of low-lying traps infrequently visited by migrating ions.

  3. Non-equilibrium reacting gas flows kinetic theory of transport and relaxation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Nagnibeda, Ekaterina; Nagnibeda, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    This volume develops the kinetic theory of transport phenomena and relaxation processes in the flows of reacting gas mixtures. The theory is applied to the modeling of non-equilibrium flows behind strong shock waves, in the boundary layer, and in nozzles.

  4. Comparison of the Magnetic Anisotropy and Spin Relaxation Phenomenon of Dinuclear Terbium(III) Phthalocyaninato Single-Molecule Magnets Using the Geometric Spin Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takaumi; Damjanović, Marko; Katoh, Keiichi; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Yasuda, Nobuhiro; Lan, Yanhua; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Breedlove, Brian K; Enders, Markus; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2018-02-28

    Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of a dinuclear Tb III single-molecule magnet (SMM) with two [TbPc 2 ] 0 units connected via a fused-phthalocyaninato ligand. The stable and robust complex [(obPc)Tb(Fused-Pc)Tb(obPc)] (1) was characterized by using synchrotron radiation measurements and other spectroscopic techniques (ESI-MS, FT-IR, UV). The magnetic couplings between the Tb III ions and the two π radicals present in 1 were explored by means of density functional theory (DFT). Direct and alternating current magnetic susceptibility measurements were conducted on magnetically diluted and nondiluted samples of 1, indicating this compound to be an SMM with improved properties compared to those of the well-known [TbPc 2 ] -/0/+ and the axially symmetric dinuclear Tb III phthalocyaninato triple-decker complex (Tb 2 (obPc) 3 ). Assuming that the probability of quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM) occurring in one TbPc 2 unit is P QTM , the probability of QTM simultaneously occurring in 1 is P QTM 2 , meaning that QTM is effectively suppressed. Furthermore, nondiluted samples of 1 underwent slow magnetic relaxation times (τ ≈ 1000 s at 0.1 K), and the blocking temperature (T B ) was determined to be ca. 16 K with an energy barrier for spin reversal (U eff ) of 588 cm -1 (847 K) due to D 4d geometry and weak inter- and intramolecular magnetic interactions as an exchange bias (H bias ), reducing QTM. Four hyperfine steps were observed by micro-SQUID measurement. Furthermore, solution NMR measurements (one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and dynamic) were done on 1, which led to the determination of the high rotation barrier (83 ± 10 kJ/mol) of the obPc ligand. A comparison with previously reported Tb III triple-decker compounds shows that ambient temperature NMR measurements can indicate improvements in the design of coordination environments for SMMs. A large U eff causes strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in 1, leading to a χ ax value (1.39

  5. Algebraic construction of interacting higher spin field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fougere, F.

    1991-10-01

    We develop a general framework which we believe may provide some insights into the structure of interacting 'high spin' field theories. A finite or infinite set of classical spin fields is described by means of a field defined on an enlarged spacetime manifold. The free action and its gauge symmetries are gathered into a nilpotent differential operator on this manifold. In particular, the choice of Grassmann-valued extra coordinates leads to theories involving only a finite set of fields, the possible contents (spin multiplicities, degree of reducibility, etc.) of which are classified according to the representations of a unitary algebra. The interacting theory is characterized by a functional of the field on the enlarged manifold. We show that there is among these functionals a natural graded Lie algebra structure allowing one to rewrite the gauge invariance condition of the action in a concise form which is a nonlinear generalization of the nilpotency condition of the free theory. We obtain the general solution of this 'classical master equation' , which can be built recurrently starting form the cubic vertex, and we study its symmetries. Our formalism lends itself to a systematic introduction of additional conditions, such as locality, polynomiality, etc. We write down the general form of the solutions exhibiting a scale invariance. The case of a spin 1 field yields, as a unique solution, Yang-Mills theory. In view of quantization, we show that the solution of the classical master equation straightforwardly provides a solution of the (quantum) Batalin-Vilkoviski master equation. One may then obtain a gauge fixed action in the usual way

  6. Reconstruction of mono-vacancies in carbon nanotubes: Atomic relaxation vs. spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berber, S.; Oshiyama, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the reconstruction of mono-vacancies in carbon nanotubes using density functional theory (DFT) geometry optimization and electronic structure calculations, employing a numerical basis set. We considered mono-vacancies in achiral nanotubes with diameter range ∼4-9A. Contrary to previous tight-binding calculations, our results indicate that mono-vacancies could have several metastable geometries, confirming the previous plane-wave DFT results. Formation energy of mono-vacancies is 4.5-5.5eV, increasing with increasing tube diameter. Net magnetic moment decreases from ideal mono-vacancy value after reconstruction, reflecting the reduction of the number of dangling bonds. In spite of the existence of a dangling bond, ground state of mono-vacancies in semiconducting tubes have no spin polarization. Metallic carbon nanotubes show net magnetic moment for most stable structure of mono-vacancy, except for very small diameter tubes

  7. Stochastic relaxational dynamics applied to finance: towards non-equilibrium option pricing theory

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Matthias

    1999-01-01

    Non-equilibrium phenomena occur not only in physical world, but also in finance. In this work, stochastic relaxational dynamics (together with path integrals) is applied to option pricing theory. A recently proposed model (by Ilinski et al.) considers fluctuations around this equilibrium state by introducing a relaxational dynamics with random noise for intermediate deviations called ``virtual'' arbitrage returns. In this work, the model is incorporated within a martingale pricing method for ...

  8. Static magnetic ordering of CeCu2.1Si2 found by muon spin relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Y. J.; Kossler, W. J.; Yu, X. H.; Schone, H. E.; Kempton, J. R.; Stronach, C. E.; Barth, S.; Gygax, F. N.; Hitti, B.; Schenck, A.

    1988-01-01

    Zero- and longitudinal-field muon spin relaxation measurements on a polycrystal sample of a heavy fermion superconductor CeCu2.1 Si2 (T(c) = 0.7 K) have revealed an onset of static magnetic ordering below T approximately 0.8 K. The line shapes of the observed spectra in zero field indicate a wide distribution of static random local fields at muon sites, suggesting that the ordering is either spin glass or incommensurate spin-density-wave state. The observed width of the random local field at T = 0.05 K corresponds to a small averaged static moment of the order of 0.1 micro-B per formula unit.

  9. Electron spin-relaxation via vibronic level of nickel (I) and nickel (III) cyanide complexes in NaCl single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugman, N V; de Araújo, M B; Pinhal, N M; Magon, C J; da Costa Filho, A J

    2004-05-01

    Electron spin-lattice relaxation rates for the low spin [Ni(CN)(4)](1-) and [Ni(CN)(4)](3-) complexes in NaCl host lattice were measured by the inversion recovery technique in the temperature range 7-50K. The data for both paramagnetic species fit very well to a relaxation process involving localized anharmonic vibration modes, also responsible for the g-tensor temperature dependence.

  10. NMR spin relaxation in proteins: The patterns of motion that dissipate power to the bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Yury E., E-mail: eva.meirovitch@biu.ac.il, E-mail: yuryeshapiro@gmail.com; Meirovitch, Eva, E-mail: eva.meirovitch@biu.ac.il, E-mail: yuryeshapiro@gmail.com [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900-02 (Israel)

    2014-04-21

    We developed in recent years the two-body coupled-rotator slowly relaxing local structure (SRLS) approach for the analysis of NMR relaxation in proteins. The two bodies/rotators are the protein (diffusion tensor D{sub 1}) and the spin-bearing probe, e.g., the {sup 15}N−{sup 1}H bond (diffusion tensor, D{sub 2}), coupled by a local potential (u). A Smoluchowski equation is solved to yield the generic time correlation functions (TCFs), which are sums of weighted exponentials (eigenmodes). By Fourier transformation one obtains the generic spectral density functions (SDFs) which underlie the experimental relaxation parameters. The typical paradigm is to characterize structural dynamics in terms of the best-fit values of D{sub 1}, D{sub 2}, and u. Additional approaches we pursued employ the SRLS TCFs, SDFs, or eigenmodes as descriptors. In this study we develop yet another perspective. We consider the SDF as function of the angular velocity associated with the fluctuating fields underlying NMR relaxation. A parameter called j-fraction, which represents the relative contribution of eigenmode, i, to a given value of the SDF function at a specific frequency, ω, is defined. j-fraction profiles of the dominant eigenmodes are derived for 0 ≤ ω ≤ 10{sup 12} rad/s. They reveal which patterns of motion actuate power dissipation at given ω-values, what are their rates, and what is their relative contribution. Simulations are carried out to determine the effect of timescale separation, D{sub 1}/D{sub 2}, axial potential strength, and local diffusion axiality. For D{sub 1}/D{sub 2} ≤ 0.01 and strong local potential of 15 k{sub B}T, power is dissipated by global diffusion, renormalized (by the strong potential) local diffusion, and probe diffusion on the surface of a cone (to be called cone diffusion). For D{sub 1}/D{sub 2} = 0.1, power is dissipated by mixed eigenmodes largely of a global-diffusion-type or cone-diffusion-type, and a nearly bare renormalized

  11. Mean distribution approach to spin and gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Akerlund, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    We formulate self-consistency equations for the distribution of links in spin models and of plaquettes in gauge theories. This improves upon known mean-field, mean-link, and mean-plaquette approximations in such that we self-consistently determine all moments of the considered variable instead of just the first. We give examples in both Abelian and non-Abelian cases.

  12. Population annealing: Theory and application in spin glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenlong; Machta, Jonathan; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2015-01-01

    Population annealing is an efficient sequential Monte Carlo algorithm for simulating equilibrium states of systems with rough free energy landscapes. The theory of population annealing is presented, and systematic and statistical errors are discussed. The behavior of the algorithm is studied in the context of large-scale simulations of the three-dimensional Ising spin glass and the performance of the algorithm is compared to parallel tempering. It is found that the two algorithms are similar ...

  13. Spherically Symmetric Solutions of the Einstein-Bach Equations and a Consistent Spin-2 Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janda, A.

    2006-01-01

    We briefly present a relationship between General Relativity coupled to certain spin-0 and spin-2 field theories and higher derivatives metric theories of gravity. In a special case, described by the Einstein-Bach equations, the spin-0 field drops out from the theory and we obtain a consistent spin-two field theory interacting gravitationally, which overcomes a well known inconsistency of the theory for a linear spin-two field coupled to the Einstein's gravity. Then we discuss basic properties of static spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Bach equations. (author)

  14. Relaxation of vacuum energy in q-theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkhamer, F. R.; Savelainen, M.; Volovik, G. E.

    2017-08-01

    The q-theory formalism aims to describe the thermodynamics and dynamics of the deep quantum vacuum. The thermodynamics leads to an exact cancellation of the quantum-field zero-point-energies in equilibrium, which partly solves the main cosmological constant problem. But, with reversible dynamics, the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe asymptotically approaches the Minkowski vacuum only if the Big Bang already started out in an initial equilibrium state. Here, we extend q-theory by introducing dissipation from irreversible processes. Neglecting the possible instability of a de-Sitter vacuum, we obtain different scenarios with either a de-Sitter asymptote or collapse to a final singularity. The Minkowski asymptote still requires fine-tuning of the initial conditions. This suggests that, within the q-theory approach, the decay of the de-Sitter vacuum is a necessary condition for the dynamical solution of the cosmological constant problem.

  15. Remarks on a gauge theory for continuous spin particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivelles, Victor O. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    We discuss in a systematic way the gauge theory for a continuous spin particle proposed by Schuster and Toro. We show that it is naturally formulated in a cotangent bundle over Minkowski spacetime where the gauge field depends on the spacetime coordinate x{sup μ} and on a covector η{sub μ}. We discuss how fields can be expanded in η{sub μ} in different ways and how these expansions are related to each other. The field equation has a derivative of a Dirac delta function with support on the η-hyperboloid η{sup 2} + 1 = 0 and we show how it restricts the dynamics of the gauge field to the η-hyperboloid and its first neighbourhood. We then show that on-shell the field carries one single irreducible unitary representation of the Poincare group for a continuous spin particle. We also show how the field can be used to build a set of covariant equations found by Wigner describing the wave function of one-particle states for a continuous spin particle. Finally we show that it is not possible to couple minimally a continuous spin particle to a background abelian gauge field, and we make some comments about the coupling to gravity. (orig.)

  16. Vibrational relaxation in liquids: Comparisons between gas phase and liquid phase theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.J.

    1990-12-01

    The vibrational relaxation of iodine in liquid xenon was studied to understand what processes are important in determining the density dependence of the vibrational relaxation. This examination will be accomplished by taking simple models and comparing the results to both experimental outcomes and the predictions of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibration relaxation of iodine is extremely sensitive to the iodine potential. The anharmonicity of iodine causes vibrational relaxation to be much faster at the top of the iodine well compared to the vibrational relaxation at the bottom. A number of models are used in order to test the ability of the Isolated Binary Collision theory's ability to predict the density dependence of the vibrational relaxation of iodine in liquid xenon. The models tested vary from the simplest incorporating only the fact that the solvent occupies volume to models that incorporate the short range structure of the liquid in the radial distribution function. None of the models tested do a good job of predicting the actual relaxation rate for a given density. This may be due to a possible error in the choice of potentials to model the system

  17. The spin relaxation of nitrogen donors in 6H SiC crystals as studied by the electron spin echo method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Savchenko, Dariia; Shanina, B.; Kalabukhova, E.; Pöppl, A.; Lančok, Ján; Mokhov, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 13 (2016), 1-7, č. článku 135706. ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-06697P; GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Grant - others:SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electron spin resonance * SiC * nitrogen donors * relaxation times Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.068, year: 2016

  18. Warped conformal field theory as lower spin gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego M. Hofman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional Warped Conformal Field Theories (WCFTs may represent the simplest examples of field theories without Lorentz invariance that can be described holographically. As such they constitute a natural window into holography in non-AdS space–times, including the near horizon geometry of generic extremal black holes. It is shown in this paper that WCFTs posses a type of boost symmetry. Using this insight, we discuss how to couple these theories to background geometry. This geometry is not Riemannian. We call it Warped Geometry and it turns out to be a variant of a Newton–Cartan structure with additional scaling symmetries. With this formalism the equivalent of Weyl invariance in these theories is presented and we write two explicit examples of WCFTs. These are free fermionic theories. Lastly we present a systematic description of the holographic duals of WCFTs. It is argued that the minimal setup is not Einstein gravity but an SL(2,R×U(1 Chern–Simons Theory, which we call Lower Spin Gravity. This point of view makes manifest the definition of boundary for these non-AdS geometries. This case represents the first step towards understanding a fully invariant formalism for WN field theories and their holographic duals.

  19. The relaxed three-algebras: their matrix representation and implications for multi M2-brane theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali-Akbari, M.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.; Simon, J.

    2008-01-01

    We argue that one can relax the requirements of the non-associative three-algebras recently used in constructing D = 3, N = 8 superconformal field theories, and introduce the notion of 'relaxed three-algebras'. We present a specific realization of the relaxed three-algebras in terms of classical Lie algebras with a matrix representation, endowed with a non-associative four-bracket structure which is prescribed to replace the three-brackets of the three-algebras. We show that both the so(4)-based solutions as well as the cases with non-positive definite metric find a uniform description in our setting. We discuss the implications of our four-bracket representation for the D = 3, N = 8 and multi M2-brane theory and show that our setup can shed light on the problem of negative kinetic energy degrees of freedom of the Lorentzian case.

  20. Spin-polaron theory of high-Tc superconductivity: I, spin polarons and high-Tc pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.F.

    1993-06-01

    The concept of a spin polaron is introduced and contrasted with the more familiar ionic polaron picture. A brief review of aspects of ionic bipolaronic superconductivity is given with particular emphasis on the real-space pairing and true Bose condensation characteristics. The formation energy of spin polarons is then calculated in analogy with ionic polarons. The spin-flip energy of a Cu spin in an antiferromagnetically aligned CuO 2 plane is discussed. It is shown that the introduction of holes into the CuO 2 planes will always lead to the destruction of long-range AF ordering due to the formation of spin polarons. The pairing of two spin polarons can be expected because of the reestablishment of local (short-range) AF ordering; the magnitude of the pairing energy is estimated using a simplified model. The paper closes with a brief discussion of the formal theory of spin polarons

  1. Molecular excitation dynamics and relaxation quantum theory and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Valkunas, Leonas; Mancal, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Meeting the need for a work that brings together quantum theory and spectroscopy to convey excitation processes to advanced students and specialists wishing to conduct research and understand the entire field rather than just single aspects.Written by an experienced author and recognized authority in the field, this text covers numerous applications and offers examples taken from different disciplines. As a result, spectroscopists, molecular physicists, physical chemists, and biophysicists will all find this a must-have for their research. Also suitable as supplementary reading in graduate

  2. Electron spin echo study of the E'-center phase relaxation in γ-irradiated quartz glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudkin, V.I.; Petrun'kin, V.Yu.; Rubinov, S.V.; Uspenskij, L.I.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental studies of phase relaxation of E'-centres in γ-irradiated quartz glass are conducted by the method of electron spin echo (ESE) for different concentrations of paramagnetic centres. Contribution of mechanisms of spectral and prompt diffusion to kinetics of amplitude drop of echo signal is proved to reduce with growth of delay time between exciting microwave pulse that results in increase of phase memory time at large delays. The mentioned property can be used in electric controlled delay lines on the base of ESE

  3. Design and commissioning of a high magnetic field muon spin relaxation spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, J S; McKenzie, I; Baker, P J; Blundell, S J; Cottrell, S P; Giblin, S R; Good, J; Hillier, A D; Holsman, B H; King, P J C; Lancaster, T; Mitchell, R; Nightingale, J B; Owczarkowski, M; Poli, S; Pratt, F L; Rhodes, N J; Scheuermann, R; Salman, Z

    2011-07-01

    The high magnetic field (HiFi) muon instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source is a state-of-the-art spectrometer designed to provide applied magnetic fields up to 5 T for muon studies of condensed matter and molecular systems. The spectrometer is optimised for time-differential muon spin relaxation studies at a pulsed muon source. We describe the challenges involved in its design and construction, detailing, in particular, the magnet and detector performance. Commissioning experiments have been conducted and the results are presented to demonstrate the scientific capabilities of the new instrument.

  4. Rotational dynamics in supercooled water from nuclear spin relaxation and molecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Johan; Mattea, Carlos; Sunde, Erik P; Halle, Bertil

    2012-05-28

    Structural dynamics in liquid water slow down dramatically in the supercooled regime. To shed further light on the origin of this super-Arrhenius temperature dependence, we report high-precision (17)O and (2)H NMR relaxation data for H(2)O and D(2)O, respectively, down to 37 K below the equilibrium freezing point. With the aid of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we provide a detailed analysis of the rotational motions probed by the NMR experiments. The NMR-derived rotational correlation time τ(R) is the integral of a time correlation function (TCF) that, after a subpicosecond librational decay, can be described as a sum of two exponentials. Using a coarse-graining algorithm to map the MD trajectory on a continuous-time random walk (CTRW) in angular space, we show that the slowest TCF component can be attributed to large-angle molecular jumps. The mean jump angle is ∼48° at all temperatures and the waiting time distribution is non-exponential, implying dynamical heterogeneity. We have previously used an analogous CTRW model to analyze quasielastic neutron scattering data from supercooled water. Although the translational and rotational waiting times are of similar magnitude, most translational jumps are not synchronized with a rotational jump of the same molecule. The rotational waiting time has a stronger temperature dependence than the translation one, consistent with the strong increase of the experimentally derived product τ(R) D(T) at low temperatures. The present CTRW jump model is related to, but differs in essential ways from the extended jump model proposed by Laage and co-workers. Our analysis traces the super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of τ(R) to the rotational waiting time. We present arguments against interpreting this temperature dependence in terms of mode-coupling theory or in terms of mixture models of water structure.

  5. Linear spin-wave theory of incommensurably modulated magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziman, Timothy; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1986-01-01

    Calculations of linearized theories of spin dynamics encounter difficulties when applied to incommensurable magnetic phases: lack of translational invariance leads to an infinite coupled system of equations. The authors resolve this for the case of a `single-Q' structure by mapping onto the problem...... of diagonalizing a quasiperiodic Hamiltonian of tight-binding type in one dimension. This allows for calculation of the correlation functions relevant to neutron scattering or magnetic resonance experiments. With the application to the case of a longitudinally modulated magnet a number of new predictions are made...

  6. Molecular motions in thermotropic liquid crystals studied by NMR spin-lattice relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamar, R.C.; Gonzalez, C.E.; Mensio, O.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation experiments with field cycling techniques proved to be a valuable tool for studying molecular motions in liquid crystals, allowing a very broad Larmor frequency variation, sufficient to separate the cooperative motions from the liquid like molecular diffusion. In new experiments combining NMR field cycling with the Jeener-Broekaert order-transfer pulse sequence, it is possible to measure the dipolar order relaxation time (T 1D ), in addition to the conventional Zeeman relaxation time (T 1Z ) in a frequency range of several decades. When applying this technique to nematic thermotropic liquid crystals, T 1D showed to depend almost exclusively on the order fluctuation of the director mechanism in the whole frequency range. This unique characteristic of T 1D makes dipolar order relaxation experiments specially useful for studying the frequency and temperature dependence of the spectral properties of the collective motions. (author)

  7. EPR studies of the Mo-enzyme aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas: an application of the Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory to a system containing weakly-coupled paramagnetic redox centers with different relaxation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Pablo J; Barrera, Guillermo I; Rizzi, Alberto C; Moura, José J G; Passeggi, Mario C G; Brondino, Carlos D

    2009-10-01

    Electron transfer proteins and redox enzymes containing paramagnetic redox centers with different relaxation rates are widespread in nature. Despite both the long distances and chemical paths connecting these centers, they can present weak magnetic couplings produced by spin-spin interactions such as dipolar and isotropic exchange. We present here a theoretical model based on the Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory to analyze the dependence with temperature of EPR spectra of interacting pairs of spin 1/2 centers having different relaxation rates, as is the case of the molybdenum-containing enzyme aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas. We analyze the changes of the EPR spectra of the slow relaxing center (Mo(V)) induced by the faster relaxing center (FeS center). At high temperatures, when the relaxation time T(1) of the fast relaxing center is very short, the magnetic coupling between centers is averaged to zero. Conversely, at low temperatures when T(1) is longer, no modulation of the coupling between metal centers can be detected.

  8. Near-threshold photoionization of the Xe 3d spin-orbit doublet: Relativistic, relaxation, and intershell interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radojevic, V.; Davidovic, D.M.; Amusia, M.Ya.

    2003-01-01

    Results of calculations of the near-threshold photoionization of the xenon 3d spin-orbit doublet are reported. Our theoretical analysis is undertaken in order to interpret and enlighten the very detailed measurements of this process [A. Kivimaeki et al., Phys. Rev. A 63, 012716 (2001)], which revealed a previously unobserved interesting feature--an additional broad maximum--in the partial xenon 3d 5/2 cross section. This double maximum was not produced by earlier calculations, except in the recent study by Amusia et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093002 (2002)], which, in contrast to the present one, is not ab initio and relativistic in character. The partial photoionization cross sections of 3d 5/2 and 3d 3/2 subshells, photoelectron anisotropy parameters, and spin-polarization parameters that were so far not studied either experimentally or theoretically are calculated. Many-electron correlations, relativistic effects, and relaxation effects of the ionic core in the ionization process are taken into account by using the relativistic random-phase approximation, modified to include the relaxation of the considered subshell

  9. Idiosyncratic reality claims, relaxation dispositions, and ABC relaxation theory: happiness, literal christianity, miraculous powers, metaphysics, and the paranormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan C; Karmin, Aaron D

    2002-12-01

    This study examined idiosyncratic reality claims, that is, irrational or paranormal beliefs often claimed to enhance relaxation and happiness and reduce stress. The Smith Idiosyncratic Reality Claims Inventory and the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory (which measures relaxation and stress dispositions, or enduring states of mind frequently associated with relaxation or stress) were given to 310 junior college student volunteers. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation identified five idiosyncratic reality claim factors: belief in Literal Christianity; Magic; Space Aliens: After Death experiences; and Miraculous Powers of Meditation, Prayer, and Belief. No factor correlated with increased relaxation dispositions Peace, Energy, or Joy, or reduced dispositional somatic stress, worry, or negative emotion on the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory. It was concluded that idiosyncratic reality claims may not be associated with reported relaxation, happiness, or stress. In contrast, previous research strongly supported self-affirming beliefs with few paranormal assumptions display such an association.

  10. Temperature dependence of electron spin-lattice relaxation of radiation-produced silver atoms in polycrystalline aqueous and glassy organic matrices. Importance of relaxation by tunneling modes in disordered matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.; Kevan, L.

    1978-01-01

    The electron spin-lattice relaxation of trapped silver atoms in polycrystalline ice matrices and in methanol, ethanol, propylene carbonate, and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran organic glasses has been directly studied as a function of temperature by the saturation-recovery method. Below 40 K the dominant electron spin-lattice relaxation mechanism involves modulation of the electron nuclear dipolar interaction with nuclei in the radical's environment by tunneling of those nuclei between two nearly equal energy configurations. This relaxation mechanism occurs with high efficiency, has a characteristic linear temperature dependence, and is typically found in highly disordered matrices. The efficiency of this relaxation mechanism seems to decrease with decreasing polarity of the matrix. Deuteration experiments show that the tunneling nuclei are protons and in methanol it is shown that the methyl protons have more tunneling modes available than the hydroxyl protons. In polycrystalline ice matrices silver atoms can be stabilized with two different orientations of surrounding water molecules; the efficiency of the tunneling relaxation reflects this difference. From these and previous results on tunneling relaxation of trapped electrons in glassy matrices it appears that tunneling relaxation may be used to distinguish models with different geometrical configurations and to determine the relative rigidity of such configurations around trapped radicals in disordered solids. (author)

  11. Spin dynamics of Mn12-acetate in the thermally activated tunneling regime: ac susceptibility and magnetization relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, Teemu; Schoeller, Herbert

    2000-12-01

    In this work, we study the spin dynamics of Mn12-acetate molecules in the regime of thermally assisted tunneling. In particular, we describe the system in the presence of a strong transverse magnetic field. Similar to recent experiments, the relaxation time/rate is found to display a series of resonances; their Lorentzian shape is found to stem from the tunneling. The dynamic susceptibility χ(ω) is calculated starting from the microscopic Hamiltonian and the resonant structure manifests itself also in χ(ω). Similar to recent results reported on another molecular magnet, Fe8, we find oscillations of the relaxation rate as a function of the transverse magnetic field when the field is directed along a hard axis of the molecules. This phenomenon is attributed to the interference of the geometrical or Berry phase. We propose susceptibility experiments to be carried out for strong transverse magnetic fields to study these oscillations and for a better resolution of the sharp satellite peaks in the relaxation rates.

  12. Electron spin relaxation can enhance the performance of a cryptochrome-based magnetic compass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattnig, Daniel R; Sowa, Jakub K; Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2016-01-01

    The radical pair model of the avian magnetoreceptor relies on long-lived electron spin coherence. Dephasing, resulting from interactions of the spins with their fluctuating environment, is generally assumed to degrade the sensitivity of this compass to the direction of the Earth's magnetic field...... to an Earth-strength magnetic field. Supported by calculations using toy radical pair models, we argue that these enhancements could be consistent with the molecular dynamics and magnetic interactions in avian cryptochromes....

  13. Irreversibility and higher-spin conformal field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, D

    2000-01-01

    I discuss the idea that quantum irreversibility is a general principle of nature and a related "conformal hypothesis", stating that all fundamental quantum field theories should be renormalization-group (RG) interpolations between ultraviolet and infrared conformal fixed points. In particular, the Newton constant should be viewed as a low-energy effect of the RG scale. This approach leads naturally to consider higher-spin conformal field theories, which are here classified, as candidate high-energy theories. Bosonic conformal tensors have a positive-definite action, equal to the square of a field strength, and a higher-derivative gauge invariance. The central charges c and a are well defined and positive. I calculate their values and study the operator-product structure. Fermionic theories have no gauge invariance and can be coupled to Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields in a renormalizable way. At the quantum level, they contribute to the one-loop beta function with the same sign as ordinary matter, admit a...

  14. Lattice Distortion Mediated Paramagnetic Relaxation in High-Spin High-Symmetry Molecular Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Anupam

    1998-08-01

    Field-dependent maxima in the relaxation rate of the magnetic molecules Mn12-Ac and Fe8-tacn have commonly been ascribed to some resonant tunneling phenomena. We argue instead that the relaxation is purely due to phonons. The rate maxima arise because of a Jahn-Teller-like distortion caused by the coupling of phonons to degenerate Zeeman levels of the molecule at the top of the barrier. The binding energy of the distorted intermediate states lowers the barrier height and increases the relaxation rate. A nonperturbative calculation of this effect is carried out for a model system. An approximate result for the field variation near a maximum is found to agree reasonably with experiment.

  15. Cadmium-113 NMR spin-lattice relaxation and exchange kinetics in concanavalin A: A double saturation transfer experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Paul D.; Yang, Ping P.; Palmert, Allen R.

    The field dependence of the 113Cd relaxation rate in cadmium-substituted Concanavalin A was investigated at three magnetic field strengths, 2.3, 4.7, and 9.4 T. Because of the anomalously large relaxation rate observed for the resonance corresponding to free cadmium in the system and our prior knowledge that cadmium is undergoing chemical exchange in this system, a detailed analysis was undertaken of the relaxation data obtained at 9.4 T to investigate the relative importance of chemical exchange dynamics upon the observed relaxation time constants. The differential equations for the resulting restricted three-site exchange network can be solved in closed form by employing a double saturation transfer experiment in conjunction with a saturation-recovery T1 experiment. The analysis of these data demonstrate that chemical exchange processes contribute 14, 75, and 20% to the observed relaxation time constants for the 113Cd resonances for the S1 site, free cadmium and the S2 site respectively. If the possibility of exchange contributions to the NOE were ignored, then the observed field dependence of T1 could not be discussed in terms of conventional single correlation time theories of relaxation. In this case the data could be discussed in terms of correlation times involving overall motion of the protein coupled with correlation times describing "internal motions." These internal motions may be the result of the formation of "abortive" complexes with exogenous ligands for those metalloproteins where the metal can be readily removed from the protein. However, for Con A, it is shown that the weak field dependence observed for the heteronuclear NOE is not due to internal motions, but rather to exchange processes.

  16. Theory of electrically controlled resonant tunneling spin devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. -Y.; Cartoixa, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    We report device concepts that exploit spin-orbit coupling for creating spin polarized current sources using nonmagnetic semiconductor resonant tunneling heterostructures, without external magnetic fields. The resonant interband tunneling psin filter exploits large valence band spin-orbit interaction to provide strong spin selectivity.

  17. Why QCD lattice theory is important to spin physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebbi, C.

    1982-01-01

    The lattice formulation of a quantum field theory allows calculations in the regime of strong coupling, by expansion techniques, and for intermediate coupling, by Monte Carlo simulations. These computations are especially valuable in the case of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), where several of the most important problems are not amenable to a perturbative analysis. Monte carlo simulations, in particular, have recently emerged as a very powerful tool and have been used to evaluate a variety of important physical quantities, such as the string tension, the deconfinement temperature, the scale of the interquark potential, glueball masses and masses in the quark model spectrum. If we consider those problems of strong interactions where spin plays an important role, it is unlikely, for the moment at least, that the lattice formulation may be of relevance where the phenomena being investigated involve propagations over extended domains of space-time; thus, for instance, it is impossible to perform a meaningful simulation of a scattering experiment on the lattice. But we are at the stage where Monte Carlo calculations begin to provide relevant information on spectroscopic properties related to spin. These are briefly discussed

  18. Perturbative treatment of spin-orbit-coupling within spin-free exact two-component theory using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lan; Wang, Fan; Stanton, John F.; Gauss, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    A scheme is reported for the perturbative calculation of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) within the spin-free exact two-component theory in its one-electron variant (SFX2C-1e) in combination with the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles method. Benchmark calculations of the spin-orbit splittings in 2Π and 2P radicals show that the accurate inclusion of scalar-relativistic effects using the SFX2C-1e scheme extends the applicability of the perturbative treatment of SOC to molecules that contain heavy elements. The contributions from relaxation of the coupled-cluster amplitudes are shown to be relatively small; significant contributions from correlating the inner-core orbitals are observed in calculations involving third-row and heavier elements. The calculation of term energies for the low-lying electronic states of the PtH radical, which serves to exemplify heavy transition-metal containing systems, further demonstrates the quality that can be achieved with the pragmatic approach presented here.

  19. Perturbative treatment of spin-orbit-coupling within spin-free exact two-component theory using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lan; Wang, Fan; Stanton, John F; Gauss, Jürgen

    2018-01-28

    A scheme is reported for the perturbative calculation of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) within the spin-free exact two-component theory in its one-electron variant (SFX2C-1e) in combination with the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles method. Benchmark calculations of the spin-orbit splittings in 2 Π and 2 P radicals show that the accurate inclusion of scalar-relativistic effects using the SFX2C-1e scheme extends the applicability of the perturbative treatment of SOC to molecules that contain heavy elements. The contributions from relaxation of the coupled-cluster amplitudes are shown to be relatively small; significant contributions from correlating the inner-core orbitals are observed in calculations involving third-row and heavier elements. The calculation of term energies for the low-lying electronic states of the PtH radical, which serves to exemplify heavy transition-metal containing systems, further demonstrates the quality that can be achieved with the pragmatic approach presented here.

  20. Inclusion of orbital relaxation and correlation through the unitary group adapted open shell coupled cluster theory using non-relativistic and scalar relativistic Hamiltonians to study the core ionization potential of molecules containing light to medium-heavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sangita; Shee, Avijit; Mukherjee, Debashis

    2018-02-01

    The orbital relaxation attendant on ionization is particularly important for the core electron ionization potential (core IP) of molecules. The Unitary Group Adapted State Universal Coupled Cluster (UGA-SUMRCC) theory, recently formulated and implemented by Sen et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074104 (2012)], is very effective in capturing orbital relaxation accompanying ionization or excitation of both the core and the valence electrons [S. Sen et al., Mol. Phys. 111, 2625 (2013); A. Shee et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 9, 2573 (2013)] while preserving the spin-symmetry of the target states and using the neutral closed-shell spatial orbitals of the ground state. Our Ansatz invokes a normal-ordered exponential representation of spin-free cluster-operators. The orbital relaxation induced by a specific set of cluster operators in our Ansatz is good enough to eliminate the need for different sets of orbitals for the ground and the core-ionized states. We call the single configuration state function (CSF) limit of this theory the Unitary Group Adapted Open-Shell Coupled Cluster (UGA-OSCC) theory. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively explore the efficacy of our Ansatz to describe orbital relaxation, using both theoretical analysis and numerical performance. Whenever warranted, we also make appropriate comparisons with other coupled-cluster theories. A physically motivated truncation of the chains of spin-free T-operators is also made possible by the normal-ordering, and the operational resemblance to single reference coupled-cluster theory allows easy implementation. Our test case is the prediction of the 1s core IP of molecules containing a single light- to medium-heavy nucleus and thus, in addition to demonstrating the orbital relaxation, we have addressed the scalar relativistic effects on the accuracy of the IPs by using a hierarchy of spin-free Hamiltonians in conjunction with our theory. Additionally, the contribution of the spin-free component of the two

  1. Global optimization of truss topology with discrete bar areas—Part I: Theory of relaxed problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    . The main issue of the paper and of the approach lies in the fact that the relaxed nonlinear optimization problem can be formulated as a quadratic program (QP). Here the paper generalizes and extends the available theory from the literature. Although the Hessian of this QP is indefinite, it is possible...... to circumvent the non-convexity and to calculate global optimizers. Moreover, the QPs to be treated in the branch-and-bound search tree differ from each other just in the objective function. In Part I we give an introduction to the problem and collect all theory and related proofs for the treatment...

  2. Prescription Drug Use among College Students: A Test of Criminal Spin Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Criminal spin theory developed by Ronel intends to provide a more comprehensive explanation of criminal behavior. It includes wide-ranging factors that impact human behavior at an individual, group, and cultural level. According to criminal spin theory, an event or a set of events can impact human emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. With the…

  3. Surface dependent structural phase transition in SrTiO 3 observed with spin relaxation of 8Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadella, M.; Salman, Z.; Chow, K. H.; Egilmez, M.; Fan, I.; Hossain, M. D.; Kiefl, R. F.; Kreitzman, S. R.; Levy, C. D. P.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Mansour, A. I.; Morris, G. D.; Parolin, T. J.; Pearson, M.; Saadaoui, H.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate the 105 K structural phase transition in SrTiO 3 using depth controlled measurements of the spin relaxation of 8Li. The measurements were performed in zero external magnetic field and rely on the local electric field gradient (EFG) at the crystalline implantation site of the 8Li ( I=2) to hold the nuclear polarization. The tetragonal distortion accompanying the phase transition modifies the EFG in some 8Li implantation sites, resulting in an observable loss of 8Li polarization. This loss of polarization begins at a temperature T*=150 K, indicating there is some loss of cubic symmetry well above the bulk transition. We find that the value of T* is unaffected by the range of implantation depths available (10-150 nm); however, the temperature dependence of the polarization depends on the surface preparation of the SrTiO 3 sample.

  4. Surface dependent structural phase transition in SrTiO{sub 3} observed with spin relaxation of {sup 8}Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smadella, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Salman, Z. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); ISIS Facility, Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Chow, K.H.; Egilmez, M.; Fan, I. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Hossain, M.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kiefl, R.F., E-mail: kiefl@triumf.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (Canada); Kreitzman, S.R.; Levy, C.D.P. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); MacFarlane, W.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Mansour, A.I. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Morris, G.D. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Parolin, T.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Pearson, M. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Saadaoui, H.; Song, Q.; Wang, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    We investigate the 105 K structural phase transition in SrTiO{sub 3} using depth controlled measurements of the spin relaxation of {sup 8}Li. The measurements were performed in zero external magnetic field and rely on the local electric field gradient (EFG) at the crystalline implantation site of the {sup 8}Li (I=2) to hold the nuclear polarization. The tetragonal distortion accompanying the phase transition modifies the EFG in some {sup 8}Li implantation sites, resulting in an observable loss of {sup 8}Li polarization. This loss of polarization begins at a temperature T{sup *}=150K, indicating there is some loss of cubic symmetry well above the bulk transition. We find that the value of T{sup *} is unaffected by the range of implantation depths available (10-150 nm); however, the temperature dependence of the polarization depends on the surface preparation of the SrTiO{sub 3} sample.

  5. Pairwise NMR experiments for the determination of protein backbone dihedral angle Φ based on cross-correlated spin relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideo; Shimada, Ichio

    2007-01-01

    Novel cross-correlated spin relaxation (CCR) experiments are described, which measure pairwise CCR rates for obtaining peptide dihedral angles Φ. The experiments utilize intra-HNCA type coherence transfer to refocus 2-bond J NCα coupling evolution and generate the N (i)-C α (i) or C'(i-1)-C α (i) multiple quantum coherences which are required for measuring the desired CCR rates. The contribution from other coherences is also discussed and an appropriate setting of the evolution delays is presented. These CCR experiments were applied to 15 N- and 13 C-labeled human ubiquitin. The relevant CCR rates showed a high degree of correlation with the Φ angles observed in the X-ray structure. By utilizing these CCR experiments in combination with those previously established for obtaining dihedral angle Ψ, we can determine high resolution structures of peptides that bind weakly to large target molecules

  6. Pseudogap Behavior of the Nuclear Spin-Lattice Relaxation Rate in FeSe Probed by 77Se-NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Anlu; Arai, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Shunsaku; Yamanaka, Takayoshi; Ishida, Kenji; Böhmer, Anna E.; Meingast, Christoph; Wolf, Thomas; Hirata, Michihiro; Sasaki, Takahiko

    2018-01-01

    We conducted 77Se-nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the iron-based superconductor FeSe in magnetic fields of 0.6 to 19 T to investigate the superconducting and normal-state properties. The nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate divided by the temperature (T1T)-1 increases below the structural transition temperature Ts but starts to be suppressed below T*, well above the superconducting transition temperature Tc(H), resulting in a broad maximum of (T1T)-1 at Tp(H). This is similar to the pseudogap behavior in optimally doped cuprate superconductors. Because T* and Tp(H) decrease in the same manner as Tc(H) with increasing H, the pseudogap behavior in FeSe is ascribed to superconducting fluctuations, which presumably originate from the theoretically predicted preformed pair above Tc(H).

  7. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers. Proton spin-lattice relaxation times of skeletal muscles on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I. (Shimoshizu National Hospital, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Neurology); Fukuda, N.; Ikehira, H.; Tateno, Y. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Div. of Clinical Research); Aoki, Y. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.).

  8. Characterization of Chemical Exchange Using Relaxation Dispersion of Hyperpolarized Nuclear Spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengxiao; Kim, Yaewon; Hilty, Christian

    2017-09-05

    Chemical exchange phenomena are ubiquitous in macromolecules, which undergo conformational change or ligand complexation. NMR relaxation dispersion (RD) spectroscopy based on a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence is widely applied to identify the exchange and measure the lifetime of intermediate states on the millisecond time scale. Advances in hyperpolarization methods improve the applicability of NMR spectroscopy when rapid acquisitions or low concentrations are required, through an increase in signal strength by several orders of magnitude. Here, we demonstrate the measurement of chemical exchange from a single aliquot of a ligand hyperpolarized by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). Transverse relaxation rates are measured simultaneously at different pulsing delays by dual-channel 19 F NMR spectroscopy. This two-point measurement is shown to allow the determination of the exchange term in the relaxation rate expression. For the ligand 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene-1-carboximidamide binding to the protein trypsin, the exchange term is found to be equal within error limits in neutral and acidic environments from D-DNP NMR spectroscopy, corresponding to a pre-equilibrium of trypsin deprotonation. This finding illustrates the capability for determination of binding mechanisms using D-DNP RD. Taking advantage of hyperpolarization, the ligand concentration in the exchange measurements can reach on the order of tens of μM and protein concentration can be below 1 μM, i.e., conditions typically accessible in drug discovery.

  9. Studies of a Large Odd-Numbered Odd-Electron Metal Ring: Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Muon Spin Relaxation Spectroscopy of Cr8 Mn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael L; Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J; Barker, Claire; Blundell, Stephen J; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J L; Möller, Johannes S; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-01-26

    The spin dynamics of Cr8 Mn, a nine-membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8 Mn is a rare example of a large odd-membered AF ring, and has an odd-number of 3d-electrons present. Odd-membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated-spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8 Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground-spin-state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8 Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin-pair correlations and scalar-spin chirality, shows a non-collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non-planar states of opposite chiralities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Mean fields and self consistent normal ordering of lattice spin and gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehl, W.

    1986-01-01

    Classical Heisenberg spin models on lattices possess mean field theories that are well defined real field theories on finite lattices. These mean field theories can be self consistently normal ordered. This leads to a considerable improvement over standard mean field theory. This concept is carried over to lattice gauge theories. We construct first an appropriate real mean field theory. The equations determining the Gaussian kernel necessary for self-consistent normal ordering of this mean field theory are derived. (orig.)

  11. Electron Spin Relaxation Can Enhance the Performance of a Cryptochrome-Based Magnetic Compass Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    2016 PUBLISHED 9 June 2016 Original content from this workmay be used under the terms of the Creative CommonsAttribution 3.0 licence . Any further...24], is normally expected to attenuate the sensitivity of the compass by destroying the spin coherence that is essential for its operation [35]. It...μT) and the symmetry axis of the hyperfine tensor. qF ( )S was determined using the equation ofmotion for the radical pair density operator , r̂ ( )t

  12. Theory of out-of-equilibrium ultrafast relaxation dynamics in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Pablo; Carva, Karel; Flammer, Martina; Oppeneer, Peter M.

    2017-11-01

    Ultrafast laser excitation of a metal causes correlated, highly nonequilibrium dynamics of electronic and ionic degrees of freedom, which are, however, only poorly captured by the widely used two-temperature model. Here we develop an out-of-equilibrium theory that captures the full dynamic evolution of the electronic and phononic populations and provides a microscopic description of the transfer of energy delivered optically into electrons to the lattice. All essential nonequilibrium energy processes, such as electron-phonon and phonon-phonon interactions are taken into account. Moreover, as all required quantities are obtained from first-principles calculations, the model gives a realistic and material-dependent description of the relaxation dynamics without the need for fitted parameters. We apply the model to FePt and show that the detailed relaxation is out-of-equilibrium for ps.

  13. Spin-lattice relaxation attenuation coefficients for on-line nuclear orientation experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Vénos, D; Severijns, N

    2003-01-01

    In on-line nuclear orientation experiments the relaxation process is of great importance. During implantation of the radioactive beam, the nuclear sublevel populations attain a secular equilibrium. For this case secular orientation parameters are introduced: B sublambda(sec)=rho sublambda B sublambda(th). Previously attenuation coefficients rho sublambda have already been tabulated, but only for lambda=2,4. In the last few years the number of nuclear orientation experiments in which beta or alpha particles are studied has increased. For these experiments the terms with lambda=1,3,6, and 8 are also necessary. Therefore, we have calculated the values of rho sublambda in full scope.

  14. Effect Of Relaxation Education, Based on Theory of planned behavior On students’ painful dismenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Jalambadani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common problems in females. “Theory of Planned Behavior” is one of the important theories that explains the main process of adopting health behaviors. The present study assessed applying “ the Theory of Planned Behavior in relaxation training regarding the  severity and duration of painful dysmenorrhea in Mashhad girl students. Materials and Methods: In this Semi-experimental study, 160  first year intermediate students of Mashhad city who suffered from dysmenorrhea were assessed.They had been randomly selected from 5 girl high- schools in the 6th educational district. They were divided into equal groups  “case” and “control”. Intervention was made in four sessions. The requisite  data was gathered by means of  a researcher designed questionnaire before  and 3 months after the education of the students. Finally, the obtained data was fed into SPSS software (v:16 using statistical  tests including   Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, Independent T-test, Paired T and X2. Results: After educational intervention, mean level of knowledge, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and willed performance of relaxation techniques significantly increased  in the case group (P<0.05. These changes were not significant in the control group. Besides, no statistically significant difference in subjective norms was observed between the two groups after intervention. Meditation education group was increased significantly (P<0.05. Conclusion: Education of relaxation base on the Theory of Planned Behavior is effective in reduced pain intensity and its duration.

  15. Magnetic field penetration depth of La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO4 measured by muon spin relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossler, W. J.; Kempton, J. R.; Yu, X. H.; Schone, H. E.; Uemura, Y. J.

    1987-01-01

    Muon-spin-relaxation measurements have been performed on a high-Tc superconductor La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO4. In an external transverse magnetic field of 500 G, a magnetic field penetration depth of 2000 A at T = 10 K has been determined from the muon-spin-relaxation rate which increased with decreasing temperature below Tc. From this depth and the Pauli susceptibility, the superconducting carrier density is estimated at 3 x 10 to the 21st per cu cm. The zero-field relaxation rates above and below Tc were equal, which suggests that the superconducting state in this sample is not associated with detectable static magnetic ordering.

  16. Theory of spin Hall effect: extension of the Drude model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M

    2007-11-16

    An extension of the Drude model is proposed that accounts for the spin and spin-orbit interaction of charge carriers. Spin currents appear due to the combined action of the external electric field, crystal field, and scattering of charge carriers. The expression for the spin Hall conductivity is derived for metals and semiconductors that is independent of the scattering mechanism. In cubic metals, the spin Hall conductivity sigma s and charge conductivity sigma c are related through sigma s=[2pi variant /(3mc2)]sigma2c with m being the bare electron mass. The theoretically computed value is in agreement with experiment.

  17. Analytical theory and possible detection of the ac quantum spin Hall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, W Y; Ren, Y J; Lin, Z X; Shen, R; Sheng, L; Sheng, D N; Xing, D Y

    2017-07-11

    We develop an analytical theory of the low-frequency ac quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect based upon the scattering matrix formalism. It is shown that the ac QSH effect can be interpreted as a bulk quantum pumping effect. When the electron spin is conserved, the integer-quantized ac spin Hall conductivity can be linked to the winding numbers of the reflection matrices in the electrodes, which also equal to the bulk spin Chern numbers of the QSH material. Furthermore, a possible experimental scheme by using ferromagnetic metals as electrodes is proposed to detect the topological ac spin current by electrical means.

  18. Active site dynamics in NADH oxidase from Thermus thermophilus studied by NMR spin relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miletti, Teresa; Farber, Patrick J.; Mittermaier, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    We have characterized the backbone dynamics of NADH oxidase from Thermus thermophilus (NOX) using a recently-developed suite of NMR experiments designed to isolate exchange broadening, together with 15 N R 1 , R 1ρ , and { 1 H}- 15 N steady-state NOE relaxation measurements performed at 11.7 and 18.8 T. NOX is a 54 kDa homodimeric enzyme that belongs to a family of structurally homologous flavin reductases and nitroreductases with many potential biotechnology applications. Prior studies have suggested that flexibility is involved in the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. The active site residue W47 was previously identified as being particularly important, as its level of solvent exposure correlates with enzyme activity, and it was observed to undergo “gating” motions in computer simulations. The NMR data are consistent with these findings. Signals from W47 are dynamically broadened beyond detection and several other residues in the active site have significant R ex contributions to transverse relaxation rates. In addition, the backbone of S193, whose side chain hydroxyl proton hydrogen bonds directly with the FMN cofactor, exhibits extensive mobility on the ns–ps timescale. We hypothesize that these motions may facilitate structural rearrangements of the active site that allow NOX to accept both FMN and FAD as cofactors.

  19. Towards metric-like higher spin gauge theories in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoleoni, A.; Fredenhagen, S.; Pfenninger, S.; Theisen, S.

    2013-05-01

    We consider the coupling of a symmetric spin-3 gauge field φμνρ to three-dimensional gravity in a second-order metric-like formulation. The action that corresponds to an SL(3, {R})\\times SL(3, {R}) Chern-Simons theory in the frame-like formulation is identified to quadratic order in the spin-3 field. We apply our result to compute corrections to the area law for higher spin black holes using Wald’s entropy formula. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

  20. Manipulating charge transfer excited state relaxation and spin crossover in iron coordination complexes with ligand substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenkai; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Alonso-Mori, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    iron complexes with four cyanide (CN-;) ligands and one 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) ligand. This enables MLCT excited state and metal-centered excited state energies to be manipulated with partial independence and provides a path to suppressing spin crossover. We have combined X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL......) Kβ hard X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy with femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy to characterize the electronic excited state dynamics initiated by MLCT excitation of [Fe(CN)4(bpy)]2-. The two experimental techniques are highly complementary; the time-resolved UV...

  1. Communication: Towards first principles theory of relaxation in supercooled liquids formulated in terms of cooperative motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Karl F

    2014-10-14

    A general theory of the long time, low temperature dynamics of glass-forming fluids remains elusive despite the almost 20 years since the famous pronouncement by the Nobel Laureate P. W. Anderson, "The deepest and most interesting unsolved problem in solid state theory is probably the theory of the nature of glass and the glass transition" [Science 267, 1615 (1995)]. While recent work indicates that Adam-Gibbs theory (AGT) provides a framework for computing the structural relaxation time of supercooled fluids and for analyzing the properties of the cooperatively rearranging dynamical strings observed in low temperature molecular dynamics simulations, the heuristic nature of AGT has impeded general acceptance due to the lack of a first principles derivation [G. Adam and J. H. Gibbs, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 139 (1965)]. This deficiency is rectified here by a statistical mechanical derivation of AGT that uses transition state theory and the assumption that the transition state is composed of elementary excitations of a string-like form. The strings are assumed to form in equilibrium with the mobile particles in the fluid. Hence, transition state theory requires the strings to be in mutual equilibrium and thus to have the size distribution of a self-assembling system, in accord with the simulations and analyses of Douglas and co-workers. The average relaxation rate is computed as a grand canonical ensemble average over all string sizes, and use of the previously determined relation between configurational entropy and the average cluster size in several model equilibrium self-associating systems produces the AGT expression in a manner enabling further extensions and more fundamental tests of the assumptions.

  2. Communication: Towards first principles theory of relaxation in supercooled liquids formulated in terms of cooperative motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, Karl F.

    2014-01-01

    A general theory of the long time, low temperature dynamics of glass-forming fluids remains elusive despite the almost 20 years since the famous pronouncement by the Nobel Laureate P. W. Anderson, “The deepest and most interesting unsolved problem in solid state theory is probably the theory of the nature of glass and the glass transition” [Science 267, 1615 (1995)]. While recent work indicates that Adam-Gibbs theory (AGT) provides a framework for computing the structural relaxation time of supercooled fluids and for analyzing the properties of the cooperatively rearranging dynamical strings observed in low temperature molecular dynamics simulations, the heuristic nature of AGT has impeded general acceptance due to the lack of a first principles derivation [G. Adam and J. H. Gibbs, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 139 (1965)]. This deficiency is rectified here by a statistical mechanical derivation of AGT that uses transition state theory and the assumption that the transition state is composed of elementary excitations of a string-like form. The strings are assumed to form in equilibrium with the mobile particles in the fluid. Hence, transition state theory requires the strings to be in mutual equilibrium and thus to have the size distribution of a self-assembling system, in accord with the simulations and analyses of Douglas and co-workers. The average relaxation rate is computed as a grand canonical ensemble average over all string sizes, and use of the previously determined relation between configurational entropy and the average cluster size in several model equilibrium self-associating systems produces the AGT expression in a manner enabling further extensions and more fundamental tests of the assumptions

  3. Higher spin currents in the orthogonal coset theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Changhyun [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In the coset model (D{sub N}{sup (1)} + D{sub N}{sup (1)}, D{sub N}{sup (1)}) at levels (k{sub 1}, k{sub 2}), the higher spin 4 current that contains the quartic WZW currents contracted with a completely symmetric SO(2N) invariant d tensor of rank 4 is obtained. The three-point functions with two scalars are obtained for any finite N and k{sub 2} with k{sub 1} = 1. They are determined also in the large N 't Hooft limit. When one of the levels is the dual Coxeter number of SO(2N), k{sub 1} = 2N - 2, the higher spin (7)/(2) current, which contains the septic adjoint fermions contracted with the above d tensor and the triple product of structure constants, is obtained from the operator product expansion (OPE) between the spin (3)/(2) current living in the N = 1 superconformal algebra and the above higher spin 4 current. The OPEs between the higher spin (7)/(2), 4 currents are described. For k{sub 1} = k{sub 2} = 2N - 2 where both levels are equal to the dual Coxeter number of SO(2N), the higher spin 3 current of U(1) charge (4)/(3), which contains the six products of spin (1)/(2) (two) adjoint fermions contracted with the product of the d tensor and two structure constants, is obtained. The corresponding N = 2 higher spin multiplet is determined by calculating the remaining higher spin (7)/(2), (7)/(2), 4 currents with the help of two spin (3)/(2) currents in the N = 2 superconformal algebra. The other N = 2 higher spin multiplet, whose U(1) charge is opposite to the one of the above N = 2 higher spin multiplet, is obtained. The OPE between these two N = 2 higher spin multiplets is also discussed. (orig.)

  4. Theory of activated glassy relaxation, mobility gradients, surface diffusion, and vitrification in free standing thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed a quantitative, force level, statistical mechanical theory for how confinement in free standing thin films introduces a spatial mobility gradient of the alpha relaxation time as a function of temperature, film thickness, and location in the film. The crucial idea is that relaxation speeds up due to the reduction of both near-surface barriers associated with the loss of neighbors in the local cage and the spatial cutoff and dynamical softening near the vapor interface of the spatially longer range collective elasticity cost for large amplitude hopping. These two effects are fundamentally coupled. Quantitative predictions are made for how an apparent glass temperature depends on the film thickness and experimental probe technique, the emergence of a two-step decay and mobile layers in time domain measurements, signatures of confinement in frequency-domain dielectric loss experiments, the dependence of film-averaged relaxation times and dynamic fragility on temperature and film thickness, surface diffusion, and the relationship between kinetic experiments and pseudo-thermodynamic measurements such as ellipsometry

  5. Theory of activated glassy relaxation, mobility gradients, surface diffusion, and vitrification in free standing thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirigian, Stephen, E-mail: kschweiz@illinois.edu, E-mail: smirigian@gmail.com; Schweizer, Kenneth S., E-mail: kschweiz@illinois.edu, E-mail: smirigian@gmail.com [Departments of Materials Science and Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    We have constructed a quantitative, force level, statistical mechanical theory for how confinement in free standing thin films introduces a spatial mobility gradient of the alpha relaxation time as a function of temperature, film thickness, and location in the film. The crucial idea is that relaxation speeds up due to the reduction of both near-surface barriers associated with the loss of neighbors in the local cage and the spatial cutoff and dynamical softening near the vapor interface of the spatially longer range collective elasticity cost for large amplitude hopping. These two effects are fundamentally coupled. Quantitative predictions are made for how an apparent glass temperature depends on the film thickness and experimental probe technique, the emergence of a two-step decay and mobile layers in time domain measurements, signatures of confinement in frequency-domain dielectric loss experiments, the dependence of film-averaged relaxation times and dynamic fragility on temperature and film thickness, surface diffusion, and the relationship between kinetic experiments and pseudo-thermodynamic measurements such as ellipsometry.

  6. Spin Chain in Magnetic Field: Limitations of the Large-N Mean-Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfeld, K. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Laboratory and Stanford University, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, PL-02093 Warszawa, Poland; Chen, Cheng-Chien [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; van Veenendaal, M. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, De Kalb, Illinois 60115, USA; Devereaux, T. P. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Laboratory and Stanford University, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA

    2015-02-01

    Motivated by the recent success in describing the spin and orbital spectrum of a spin-orbital chain using a large-N mean-field approximation, we apply the same formalism to the case of a spin chain in the external magnetic field. It occurs that in this case, which corresponds to N = 2 in the approximation, the large-N mean-field theory cannot qualitatively reproduce the spin excitation spectra at high magnetic fields, which polarize more than 50% of the spins in the magnetic ground state. This, rather counterintuitively, shows that the physics of a spin chain can under some circumstances be regarded as more complex than the physics of a spin-orbital chain.

  7. Slow spin relaxation induced by magnetic field in [NdCo(bpdo)(H2O)4(CN)6]⋅3H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrábel, P; Orendáč, M; Orendáčová, A; Čižmár, E; Tarasenko, R; Zvyagin, S; Wosnitza, J; Prokleška, J; Sechovský, V; Pavlík, V; Gao, S

    2013-05-08

    We report on a comprehensive investigation of the magnetic properties of [NdCo(bpdo)(H2O)4(CN)6]⋅3H2O (bpdo=4, 4'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide) by use of electron paramagnetic resonance, magnetization, specific heat and susceptibility measurements. The studied material was identified as a magnet with an effective spin S = 1/2 and a weak exchange interaction J/kB = 25 mK. The ac susceptibility studies conducted at audio frequencies and at temperatures from 1.8 to 9 K revealed that the application of a static magnetic field induces a slow spin relaxation. It is suggested that the relaxation in the magnetic field appears due to an Orbach-like process between the two lowest doublet energy states of the magnetic Nd(3+) ion. The appearance of the slow relaxation in a magnetic field cannot be associated with a resonant phonon trapping. The obtained results suggest that the relaxation is influenced by nuclear spin driven quantum tunnelling which is suppressed by external magnetic field.

  8. Calculations with the quasirelativistic local-spin-density-functional theory for high-Z atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y.; Whitehead, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The generalized-exchange local-spin-density-functional theory (LSD-GX) with relativistic corrections of the mass velocity and Darwin terms has been used to calculate statistical total energies for the neutral atoms, the positive ions, and the negative ions for high-Z elements. The effect of the correlation and relaxation correction on the statistical total energy is discussed. Comparing the calculated results for the ionization potentials and electron affinities for the atoms (atomic number Z from 37 to 56 and 72 to 80) with experiment, shows that for the atoms rubidium to barium both the LSD-GX and the quasirelativistic LSD-GX, with self-interaction correction, Gopinathan, Whitehead, and Bogdanovic's Fermi-hole parameters [Phys. Rev. A 14, 1 (1976)], and Vosko, Wilk, and Nusair's correlation correction [Can. J. Phys. 58, 1200 (1980)], are very good methods for calculating ionization potentials and electron affinities. For the atoms hafnium to mercury the relativistic effect has to be considered

  9. Nuclear spin relaxation of 8Li in a thin film of La 0.67Ca 0.33MnO 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. I.; Arseneau, D.; Chow, K. H.; Daviel, S.; Engelbertz, A.; Hossain, MD.; Keeler, T.; Kiefl, R. F.; Kreitzman, S.; Levy, C. D. P.; Morales, P.; Morris, G. D.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Parolin, T. J.; Poutissou, R.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Wang, D.; Wei, J. Y. T.

    2006-03-01

    We report β-NMR measurements of the nuclear spin relaxation rate (1/T1) in a thin film of La 0.67Ca 0.33MnO 3 (LCMO) using a low-energy beam of spin-polarized 8Li. In a small magnetic field of 150 G, there is a broad peak in 1/T1 near the Curie temperature (Tc=259 K) and a dramatic decrease in 1/T1 at lower temperatures. This is attributed to a critical slowing down of the spin fluctuations near Tc and freezing of the magnetic excitations at low temperatures, respectively. In addition, there is a small amplitude, slow relaxing component at high temperatures, which we attribute to 8Li in the SrTiO 3 substrate. There is an indication that the spin relaxation rate in the substrate is also peaked at Tc due to close proximity to the magnetic film. These results establish that low-energy β-NMR can be used as a probe of magnetic fluctuations in magnetic thin films over a wide range of temperatures.

  10. Determination of proton transverse relaxation times in homonuclear-coupled Spin Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochin, Miriam

    A new method is described for obtaining proton transverse relaxation times in homonuclear-coupled systems. The oscillatory effect of the coupling on the T2 decay was removed by using the attached heteronucleus as a filter. A BIRD pulse (J. R. Garbow, D. P. Weitekamp, and A. Pines, Chem. Phys. Lett.93, 504, 1982) was applied in the center of the T2 decay period, causing protons directly and remotely connected to the heteronucleus to be decoupled from each other. Protons directly bound to the heteronucleus were inverted, leaving remote protons unaffected. Thus the method works well in natural-abundance 13C and 15N systems or for 15N-enriched biological materials, where no NN connectivities exist. The importance of obtaining proton T2 values pertains to their usefulness and sensitivity in quantitating structure and mobility in molecules. Sequences for obtaining proton T2 values were described and demonstrated on formate, alcohol, and gramicidin S. The accuracy of the measured T2 as a function of X-nucleus offset and heteronuclear coupling constant was assessed.

  11. Mean-field theory of spin-glasses with finite coordination number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, I.; Sompolinsky, H.

    1987-01-01

    The mean-field theory of dilute spin-glasses is studied in the limit where the average coordination number is finite. The zero-temperature phase diagram is calculated and the relationship between the spin-glass phase and the percolation transition is discussed. The present formalism is applicable also to graph optimization problems.

  12. Odd number of coupled antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains: Spin wave theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyoussef, A.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of the chain and perpendicular anisotropies on the energy gap for odd number of coupled quantum spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains is investigated using a spin wave theory. The energy gap opens above a critical anisotropic value. The known results of the isotropic case have been obtained. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs

  13. Effect of spatial spin modulation on relaxation and NMR frequencies of sup 5 sup 7 Fe nuclei in ferroelectric antiferromagnetic BiFeO sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Zalessky, A V; Zvezdin, A K; Gippius, A A; Morozova, E N; Khozeev, D F; Bush, A S; Pokatilov, V S

    2002-01-01

    The NMR spectra on the iron nuclei in the BiFeO sub 3 antiferromagnetic sample enriched by the sup 5 sup 7 Fe (95.43%) with the spatially-modulated magnetic structure are studied. It is established that the cycloid-type spin modulation in the BiFeO sub 3 produces spatial modulation of the nuclear spin-spin relaxation velocity and leads to the spectral nonuniform widening of the NMR local line. It is determined also that the local magnetic moments of the iron ions on various cycloid sections differently depend on temperature which testifies to different character of the spin waves excitation. The analogy of the experimental results with the NMR regularities in the Bloch wall is discussed

  14. Higher spin gauge theory on fuzzy \\boldsymbol {S^4_N}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Marcus; Steinacker, Harold C.

    2018-02-01

    We examine in detail the higher spin fields which arise on the basic fuzzy sphere S^4N in the semi-classical limit. The space of functions can be identified with functions on classical S 4 taking values in a higher spin algebra associated to \

  15. In situ magnetic compensation for potassium spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer considering probe beam pumping effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wang, Tao, E-mail: wangtaowt@aspe.buaa.edu.cn; Quan, Wei; Yuan, Heng; Li, Yang [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Hong; Zou, Sheng [School of Instrument Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-06-15

    A novel method to compensate the residual magnetic field for an atomic magnetometer consisting of two perpendicular beams of polarizations was demonstrated in this paper. The method can realize magnetic compensation in the case where the pumping rate of the probe beam cannot be ignored. In the experiment, the probe beam is always linearly polarized, whereas, the probe beam contains a residual circular component due to the imperfection of the polarizer, which leads to the pumping effect of the probe beam. A simulation of the probe beam's optical rotation and pumping rate was demonstrated. At the optimized points, the wavelength of the probe beam was optimized to achieve the largest optical rotation. Although, there is a small circular component in the linearly polarized probe beam, the pumping rate of the probe beam was non-negligible at the optimized wavelength which if ignored would lead to inaccuracies in the magnetic field compensation. Therefore, the dynamic equation of spin evolution was solved by considering the pumping effect of the probe beam. Based on the quasi-static solution, a novel magnetic compensation method was proposed, which contains two main steps: (1) the non-pumping compensation and (2) the sequence compensation with a very specific sequence. After these two main steps, a three-axis in situ magnetic compensation was achieved. The compensation method was suitable to design closed-loop spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer. By a combination of the magnetic compensation and the optimization, the magnetic field sensitivity was approximately 4 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}, which was mainly dominated by the noise of the magnetic shield.

  16. Quasiclassical theory of spin-valve magnetoresistance: role of spin-flip scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksalary, O.M.; Barnas, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Boltzmann kinetic equation is used to analyse the in-plane electronic transport in magnetic multilayers. Both diffuse and electron-momentum-conserving spin-flip scattering processes are included. Numerical results show that the momentum-conserving scattering processes reduce the spin-valve magnetoresistance. (author)

  17. Nuclear reactivity indices in the context of spin polarized density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Carlos; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Fuentealba, Patricio

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the nuclear reactivity indices of density functional theory have been generalized to the spin polarized case and their relationship to electron spin polarized indices has been established. In particular, the spin polarized version of the nuclear Fukui function has been proposed and a finite difference approximation has been used to evaluate it. Applications to a series of triatomic molecules demonstrate the ability of the new functions to predict the geometrical changes due to a change in the spin multiplicity. The main equations in the different ensembles have also been presented

  18. Anomalous 125Te Nuclear Spin Relaxation Coincident with Charge Kondo Behavior in Superconducting Pb1-xTlxTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuda, Hidekazu; Matsumura, Takashi; Maki, Shota; Yashima, Mitsuharu; Kitaoka, Yoshio; Miyake, Kazumasa; Murakami, Hironaru; Giraldo-Gallo, Paula; Geball, Theodore H.; Fisher, Ian R.

    2018-02-01

    We report the results of a 125Te NMR study of single crystalline Pb1-xTlxTe (x = 0, 0.35, 1.0%) as a window on the novel electronic states associated with the thallium impurities in PbTe. The Knight shift is enhanced as x increases, corresponding to an increase in the average density of states (DOS) coupled to a strong spatial variation in the local DOS surrounding each Tl dopant. Remarkably, for the superconducting composition (x = 1.0%), the 125Te nuclear spin relaxation rate (1/T1T) for Te ions that are close to the Tl dopants is unexpectedly enhanced in the normal state below a characteristic temperature of ˜10 K, below which the resistivity experiences an upturn. Such a simultaneous upturn in both the resistivity and (1/T1T) was not suppressed in the high magnetic field. We suggest that these observations are consistently accounted for by dynamical charge fluctuations in the absence of paramagnetism, which is anticipated by the charge Kondo scenario associated with the Tl dopants. In contrast, such anomalies were not detected in the non-superconducting samples (x = 0 and 0.35%), suggesting a connection between dynamical valence fluctuations and the occurrence of superconductivity in Pb1-xTlxTe.

  19. Accuracy enhancement of magnetic field distribution measurements within a large cell spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarov, Alexander; Ben-Amar Baranga, Andrei; Levron, David; Shuker, Reuben

    2018-04-01

    The factorial design technique is implemented to achieve greater accuracy in the determination of magnetic field distribution within a single cell of spin-exchange relaxation-free atomic magnetometer. Three-dimensional magnetic field distribution within a single vapor cell can be found by consecutively pumping, layer by layer, all the cell volumes perpendicular to the probe laser beam, detected by a photodiode array. Thus each element of the array collects information about the magnetic field in the small volume (voxel) which forms when the corresponding part of the probe beam and optically pumped layer cross. One of the most effective ways to enhance measurement accuracy is repeated pumping of the layers and averaging the measured results. However, the measurement time is multiplied several times due to the repeated scanning of the cell volume. The suggested technique enables increased measurement accuracy of each voxel while preserving the number of measurements. Magnetic field distribution is determined by the illumination of the cell layers one by one or simultaneously, according to a special algorithm, with subsequent multifactorial analysis of the obtained results.

  20. Screening of point charge impurities in highly anisotropic metals: application to mu+-spin relaxation in underdoped cuprate superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhter, Arkady; Shu, Lei; Aji, Vivek; MacLaughlin, D E; Varma, C M

    2008-11-28

    We calculate the screening charge density distribution due to a point charge, such as that of a positive muon (mu+), placed between the planes of a highly anisotropic layered metal. In underdoped hole cuprates the screening charge converts the charge density in the metallic-plane unit cells in the vicinity of the mu+ to nearly its value in the insulating state. The current-loop-ordered state observed by polarized neutron diffraction then vanishes in such cells, and also in nearby cells over a distance of order the intrinsic correlation length of the loop-ordered state. This strongly suppresses the magnetic field at the mu+ site. We estimate this suppressed field in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x and La2-xSrxCuO4, and find consistency with the observed approximately 0.2 G field in the former case and the observed upper bound of approximately 0.2 G in the latter case. This resolves the controversy between the neutron diffraction and mu-spin relaxation experiments.

  1. Charge and spin dynamics driven by ultrashort extreme broadband pulses: A theory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalenko, Andrey S., E-mail: andrey.moskalenko@uni-konstanz.de [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Germany); Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Zhu, Zhen-Gang, E-mail: zgzhu@ucas.ac.cn [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Germany); School of Electronic, Electrical and Communication Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Berakdar, Jamal, E-mail: jamal.berakdar@physik.uni-halle.de [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Germany)

    2017-02-17

    This article gives an overview on recent theoretical progress in controlling the charge and spin dynamics in low-dimensional electronic systems by means of ultrashort and ultrabroadband electromagnetic pulses. A particular focus is put on sub-cycle and single-cycle pulses and their utilization for coherent control. The discussion is mostly limited to cases where the pulse duration is shorter than the characteristic time scales associated with the involved spectral features of the excitations. The relevant current theoretical knowledge is presented in a coherent, pedagogic manner. We work out that the pulse action amounts in essence to a quantum map between the quantum states of the system at an appropriately chosen time moment during the pulse. The influence of a particular pulse shape on the post-pulse dynamics is reduced to several integral parameters entering the expression for the quantum map. The validity range of this reduction scheme for different strengths of the driving fields is established and discussed for particular nanostructures. Acting with a periodic pulse sequence, it is shown how the system can be steered to and largely maintained in predefined states. The conditions for this nonequilibrium sustainability are worked out by means of geometric phases, which are identified as the appropriate quantities to indicate quasistationarity of periodically driven quantum systems. Demonstrations are presented for the control of the charge, spin, and valley degrees of freedom in nanostructures on picosecond and subpicosecond time scales. The theory is illustrated with several applications to one-dimensional semiconductor quantum wires and superlattices, double quantum dots, semiconductor and graphene quantum rings. In the case of a periodic pulsed driving the influence of the relaxation and decoherence processes is included by utilizing the density matrix approach. The integrated and time-dependent spectra of the light emitted from the driven system deliver

  2. Theory of single-spin inelastic tunneling spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rossier, J

    2009-06-26

    I show that recent experiments of inelastic scanning tunneling spectroscopy of single and a few magnetic atoms are modeled with a phenomenological spin-assisted tunneling Hamiltonian so that the inelastic dI/dV line shape is related to the spin spectral weight of the magnetic atom. This accounts for the spin selection rules and dI/dV spectra observed experimentally for single Fe and Mn atoms deposited on Cu2N. In the case of chains of Mn atoms it is found necessary to include both first and second-neighbor exchange interactions as well as single-ion anisotropy.

  3. SU(2) x U(1) unified theory for charge, orbit and spin currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Peiqing; Li Youquan; Zhang Fuchun

    2006-01-01

    Spin and charge currents in systems with Rashba or Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings are formulated in a unified version of four-dimensional SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory, with U(1) being the Maxwell field and SU(2) being the Yang-Mills field. While the bare spin current is non-conserved, it is compensated by a contribution from the SU(2) gauge field, which gives rise to a spin torque in the spin transport, consistent with the semi-classical theory of Culcer et al. Orbit current is shown to be non-conserved in the presence of electromagnetic fields. Similar to the Maxwell field inducing forces on charge and charge current, we derive forces acting on spin and spin current induced by the Yang-Mills fields such as the Rashba and Dresselhaus fields and the sheer strain field. The spin density and spin current may be considered as a source generating Yang-Mills field in certain condensed matter systems

  4. Microscopic theory of cooperative spin crossover: Interaction of molecular modes with phonons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palii, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.palii@uv.es, E-mail: klokishner@yahoo.com; Ostrovsky, Serghei; Reu, Oleg; Klokishner, Sophia, E-mail: andrew.palii@uv.es, E-mail: klokishner@yahoo.com [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Academy Str. 5, MD-2028 Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of); Tsukerblat, Boris [Department of Chemistry, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia [Departement für Chemie und Biochemie, Universität Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-08-28

    In this article, we present a new microscopic theoretical approach to the description of spin crossover in molecular crystals. The spin crossover crystals under consideration are composed of molecular fragments formed by the spin-crossover metal ion and its nearest ligand surrounding and exhibiting well defined localized (molecular) vibrations. As distinguished from the previous models of this phenomenon, the developed approach takes into account the interaction of spin-crossover ions not only with the phonons but also a strong coupling of the electronic shells with molecular modes. This leads to an effective coupling of the local modes with phonons which is shown to be responsible for the cooperative spin transition accompanied by the structural reorganization. The transition is characterized by the two order parameters representing the mean values of the products of electronic diagonal matrices and the coordinates of the local modes for the high- and low-spin states of the spin crossover complex. Finally, we demonstrate that the approach provides a reasonable explanation of the observed spin transition in the [Fe(ptz){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2} crystal. The theory well reproduces the observed abrupt low-spin → high-spin transition and the temperature dependence of the high-spin fraction in a wide temperature range as well as the pronounced hysteresis loop. At the same time within the limiting approximations adopted in the developed model, the evaluated high-spin fraction vs. T shows that the cooperative spin-lattice transition proves to be incomplete in the sense that the high-spin fraction does not reach its maximum value at high temperature.

  5. Theory of the Spin Galvanic Effect at Oxide Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Götz; Caprara, Sergio; Grilli, Marco; Raimondi, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    The spin galvanic effect (SGE) describes the conversion of a nonequilibrium spin polarization into a transverse charge current. Recent experiments have demonstrated a large conversion efficiency for the two-dimensional electron gas formed at the interface between two insulating oxides, LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 . Here, we analyze the SGE for oxide interfaces within a three-band model for the Ti t2 g orbitals which displays an interesting variety of effective spin-orbit couplings in the individual bands that contribute differently to the spin-charge conversion. Our analytical approach is supplemented by a numerical treatment where we also investigate the influence of disorder and temperature, which turns out to be crucial to providing an appropriate description of the experimental data.

  6. Spin Propensities of Octahedral Complexes From Density Functional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sara R.; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental balance between high- and low-spin states of transition metal systems depends on both the metal ion and the ligands surrounding it, as often visualized by the spectrochemical series. Most density functionals do not reproduce this balance, and real spin state propensities depend...... on orbital pairing and vibrational entropies absent in the spectrochemical series. Thus, we systematically computed the tendency toward high or low spin of "text-book" octahedral metal complexes versus ligand and metal type, using eight density functionals. Dispersion effects were generally ... assessment of spin state propensities versus ligand and metal type and reveal, e.g., that CN- is consistently weaker than CO for M(II) but stronger than CO for M(III) and SCN- and NCS- change order in M(II) versus M(III) complexes. Contrary to expectation based on the spectrochemical series, Cl- and Br...

  7. Gauge field theory approach to spin transport in a 2D electron gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Berche

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the Pauli Hamiltonian including the spin-orbit interaction within an U(1×SU(2 gauge theory interpretation, where the gauge symmetry appears to be broken. This interpretation offers new insight into the problem of spin currents in the condensed matter environment, and can be extended to Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. We present a few outcomes of the present formulation: i it automatically leads to zero spin conductivity, in contrast to predictions of Gauge symmetric treatments, ii a topological quantization condition leading to voltage quantization follows, and iii spin interferometers can be conceived in which, starting from an arbitrary incoming unpolarized spinor, it is always possible to construct a perfect spin filtering condition.

  8. Electron spin-lattice relaxation of the S0 state of the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II and of dinuclear manganese model complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, L V; Lubitz, W; Messinger, J

    2005-07-05

    The temperature dependence of the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T1 was measured for the S0 state of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in photosystem II and for two dinuclear manganese model complexes by pulse EPR using the inversion-recovery method. For [Mn(III)Mn(IV)(mu-O)2 bipy4]ClO4, the Raman relaxation process dominates at temperatures below 50 K. In contrast, Orbach type relaxation was found for [Mn(II)Mn(III)(mu-OH)(mu-piv)2(Me3 tacn)2](ClO4)2 between 4.3 and 9 K. For the latter complex, an energy separation of 24.7-28.0 cm(-1) between the ground and the first excited electronic state was determined. In the S0 state of photosystem II, the T1 relaxation times were measured in the range of 4.3-6.5 K. A comparison with the relaxation data (rate and pre-exponential factor) of the two model complexes and of the S2 state of photosystem II indicates that the Orbach relaxation process is dominant for the S0 state and that its first excited state lies 21.7 +/- 0.4 cm(-1) above its ground state. The results are discussed with respect to the structure of the OEC in photosystem II.

  9. Near-Surface Structural Phase Transition of SrTiO3 Studied with Zero-Field β-Detected Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Z.; Kiefl, R. F.; Chow, K. H.; Hossain, M. D.; Keeler, T. A.; Kreitzman, S. R.; Levy, C. D. P.; Miller, R. I.; Parolin, T. J.; Pearson, M. R.; Saadaoui, H.; Schultz, J. D.; Smadella, M.; Wang, D.; Macfarlane, W. A.

    2006-04-01

    We demonstrate that zero-field β-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance and spin relaxation of low energy Li8 can be used as a sensitive local probe of structural phase transitions near a surface. We find that the transition near the surface of a SrTiO3 single crystal occurs at Tc˜150K, i.e., ˜45K higher than Tcbulk, and that the tetragonal domains formed below Tc are randomly oriented.

  10. Tunneling spin injection into single layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Pi, K; McCreary, K M; Li, Yan; Wong, Jared J I; Swartz, A G; Kawakami, R K

    2010-10-15

    We achieve tunneling spin injection from Co into single layer graphene (SLG) using TiO₂ seeded MgO barriers. A nonlocal magnetoresistance (ΔR(NL)) of 130  Ω is observed at room temperature, which is the largest value observed in any material. Investigating ΔR(NL) vs SLG conductivity from the transparent to the tunneling contact regimes demonstrates the contrasting behaviors predicted by the drift-diffusion theory of spin transport. Furthermore, tunnel barriers reduce the contact-induced spin relaxation and are therefore important for future investigations of spin relaxation in graphene.

  11. Theory of current-induced spin polarization in an electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Cosimo; Maleki Sheikhabadi, Amin; Shen, Ka; Tokatly, Ilya V.; Vignale, Giovanni; Raimondi, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    We derive the Bloch equations for the spin dynamics of a two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. For the latter we consider both the intrinsic mechanisms of structure inversion asymmetry (Rashba) and bulk inversion asymmetry (Dresselhaus), and the extrinsic ones arising from the scattering from impurities. The derivation is based on the SU(2) gauge-field formulation of the Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. Our main result is the identification of a spin-generation torque arising from Elliot-Yafet scattering, which opposes a similar term arising from Dyakonov-Perel relaxation. Such a torque, which to the best of our knowledge has gone unnoticed so far, is of basic nature, i.e., should be effective whenever Elliott-Yafet processes are present in a system with intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, irrespective of further specific details. The spin-generation torque contributes to the current-induced spin polarization (CISP), also known as inverse spin-galvanic or Edelstein effect. As a result, the behavior of the CISP turns out to be more complex than one would surmise from consideration of the internal Rashba-Dresselhaus fields alone. In particular, the symmetry of the current-induced spin polarization does not necessarily coincide with that of the internal Rashba-Dresselhaus field, and an out-of-plane component of the CISP is generally predicted, as observed in recent experiments. We also discuss the extension to the three-dimensional electron gas, which may be relevant for the interpretation of experiments in thin films.

  12. Spinning gravitating objects in the effective field theory in the post-Newtonian scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, Michele; Steinhoff, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a formulation for spinning gravitating objects in the effective field theory in the post-Newtonian scheme in the context of the binary inspiral problem. We aim at an effective action, where all field modes below the orbital scale are integrated out. We spell out the relevant degrees of freedom, in particular the rotational ones, and the associated symmetries. Building on these symmetries, we introduce the minimal coupling part of the point particle action in terms of gauge rotational variables, and construct the spin-induced nonminimal couplings, where we obtain the leading order couplings to all orders in spin. We specify the gauge for the rotational variables, where the unphysical degrees of freedom are eliminated already from the Feynman rules, and all the orbital field modes are integrated out. The equations of motion of the spin can be directly obtained via a proper variation of the action, and Hamiltonians may be straightforwardly derived. We implement this effective field theory for spin to derive all spin dependent potentials up to next-to-leading order to quadratic level in spin, namely up to the third post-Newtonian order for rapidly rotating compact objects. In particular, the proper next-to-leading order spin-squared potential and Hamiltonian for generic compact objects are also derived. For the implementations we use the nonrelativistic gravitational field decomposition, which is found here to eliminate higher-loop Feynman diagrams also in spin dependent sectors, and facilitates derivations. This formulation for spin is thus ideal for treatment of higher order spin dependent sectors.

  13. 2d Affine XY-Spin Model/4d Gauge Theory Duality and Deconfinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anber, Mohamed M.; Poppitz, Erich; /Toronto U.; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /San Francisco State U.

    2012-08-16

    We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2) and SU(2) = Z{sub 2} gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle R{sup 1,2} x S{sup 1}, and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on R{sup 2} x T{sup 2}. Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of 'affine' XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of spin systems to study the thermal deconfinement and discrete chiral transitions in four-dimensional SU(N{sub c}) gauge theories with n{sub f} {ge} 1 adjoint Weyl fermions.

  14. The spin-charge-family-theory unifies spin and charges and offers the mechanism for generating families and scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankoc-Borstnik, N.S.

    2011-01-01

    The theory unifying the spin, charges and families predicts the number of families and their properties, explains the origin of the scalar and vector gauge fields and their properties, manifesting at low energies effectively the Higgs, Yukawa coupling and known gauge fields, respectively. The theory predicts that the fourth family could possibly be observed at the LHC, while the stable fifth family baryons might constitute the dark matter. It also predicts that searching for scalar fields will show up the differences between the Higgs and the scalar fields

  15. Deriving Field Theories for Particles of Arbitrary Spin With and Without Supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Sudarshan

    We review the derivation of light-cone interaction vertices for fermionic and bosonic fields of arbitrary spin. The resulting amplitudes and their factorization properties are discussed. We then show how this symmetry-based approach works for theories with extended supersymmetry like 𝒩 = 4 Yang-Mills theory and 𝒩 = 8 supergravity.

  16. On the higher spin spectrum of Chern-Simons theory coupled to fermions in the large flavour limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charan, V. Guru; Prakash, Shiroman

    2018-02-01

    In this note, we compute the higher spin spectrum of U( M) k Chern-Simons theory coupled to N flavours of fundamental fermions, in the limit N ≫ M with the 't Hooft coupling {λ}_M=N/k_m held fixed, to order M/N. This theory possesses a slightly broken higher spin symmetry, and may be of interest from the perspective of higher-spin and non-supersymmetric holography. We find that anomalous dimensions of the higher spin currents achieve a finite value at strong coupling λ M → ∞, which grows with spin as log s for large s, as expected for gauge theories.

  17. Spin flipping in ring-coupled-cluster-doubles theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klopper, Wim; M. Teale, Andrew; Coriani, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    We report a critical analysis and comparison of a variety of random-phase-approximation (RPA) based approaches to determine the electronic ground-state energy. Interrelations between RPA variants are examined by numerical examples with particular attention paid to the role of spin-flipped...

  18. New predictions for generalized spin polarizabilities from heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung-Wen Kao; Barbara Pasquini; Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2004-01-01

    We extract the next-to-next-to-leading order results for spin-flip generalized polarizabilities (GPs) of the nucleon from the spin-dependent amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering (VCS) at Ο(p 4 ) in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. At this order, no unknown low energy constants enter the theory, allowing us to make absolute predictions for all spin-flip GPs. Furthermore, by using constraint equations between the GPs due to nucleon crossing combined with charge conjugation symmetry of the VCS amplitudes, we get a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order prediction for one of the GPs. We provide estimates for forthcoming double polarization experiments which allow to access these spin-flip GPs of the nucleon

  19. Off-centre dynamic Jahn-Teller effect studied by electron spin relaxation of Cu2+ ions in SrF2 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Temperature cw-EPR and pulsed EPR electron spin echo experiments were performed for a low concentration of Cu 2+ ions in cubic SrF 2 crystals. The well resolved EPR spectrum at low temperatures (below 30 K) with parameters g parallel = 2.493, g perpendicular = 2.083, A parallel = 121, A perpendicular = 8.7, A parallel ( 19 F) = 135, A parallel ( 19 F) = 33.0 (A-values in 10 -4 cm -1 ) is transformed continuously into a single broad line above 225 K on heating, due to the g-factor shift and EPR line broadening. These data along with the angular variation EPR data are described in terms of a pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect of (T 2g +A 2u )x(a 1g +e g +t 1u ) type producing six off-centre positions of the Cu 2+ ion in the fluorine cube. Above 30 K a two-step averaging g -factor process occurs and is governed by vibronic dynamics between potential wells of the off-centre positions. This dynamics governs the electron spin relaxation in the whole temperature range. The electron spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T 1 grows rapidly by six orders of magnitude in the temperature range 30-100 K and is determined by the Orbach-type process with excitations to two excited vibronic levels of energy 83 and 174 cm -1 . For higher temperatures the relaxation is dominated by overbarrier jumps leading to the isotropic EPR spectrum above 225 K. The phase memory time T M has the rigid lattice value 3.5 μs determined by nuclear spectral diffusion and its temperature variation is governed by the vibronic dynamics indicating that the excitations between vibronic levels produce a dephasing of the electron spin precessional motion. (author)

  20. Equivalence of ADM Hamiltonian and Effective Field Theory approaches at next-to-next-to-leading order spin1-spin2 coupling of binary inspirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, Michele; Steinhoff, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The next-to-next-to-leading order spin1-spin2 potential for an inspiralling binary, that is essential for accuracy to fourth post-Newtonian order, if both components in the binary are spinning rapidly, has been recently derived independently via the ADM Hamiltonian and the Effective Field Theory approaches, using different gauges and variables. Here we show the complete physical equivalence of the two results, thereby we first prove the equivalence of the ADM Hamiltonian and the Effective Field Theory approaches at next-to-next-to-leading order with the inclusion of spins. The main difficulty in the spinning sectors, which also prescribes the manner in which the comparison of the two results is tackled here, is the existence of redundant unphysical spin degrees of freedom, associated with the spin gauge choice of a point within the extended spinning object for its representative worldline. After gauge fixing and eliminating the unphysical degrees of freedom of the spin and its conjugate at the level of the action, we arrive at curved spacetime generalizations of the Newton-Wigner variables in closed form, which can also be used to obtain further Hamiltonians, based on an Effective Field Theory formulation and computation. Finally, we make use of our validated result to provide gauge invariant relations among the binding energy, angular momentum, and orbital frequency of an inspiralling binary with generic compact spinning components to fourth post-Newtonian order, including all known sectors up to date

  1. On Killing tensors and cubic vertices in higher-spin gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekaert, X.; Boulanger, N.; Leclercq, S.; Cnockaert, S.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of determining all consistent non-Abelian local interactions is reviewed in flat space-time. The antifield-BRST formulation of the free theory is an efficient tool to address this problem. Firstly, it allows to compute all on-shell local Killing tensor fields, which are important because of their deep relationship with higher-spin algebras. Secondly, under the sole assumptions of locality and Poincare invariance, all non-trivial consistent deformations of a sum of spin-three quadratic actions deforming the Abelian gauge algebra were determined. They are compared with lower-spin cases. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. A covariant formulation of the relativistic Hamiltonian theory on the light cone (fields with spin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakishiev, N.M.; Mir-Kasimov, R.M.; Nagiyev, Sh.M.

    1978-01-01

    A Hamiltonian formulation of quantum field theory on the light cone, developed earlier, is extended to the case of particles with spin. The singularities accompanying each field theory in light-front variables are removed by the introduction of an infinite number of counterterms of a new type, which can be included into the interaction Hamiltonian. A three-dimensional diagram technique is formulated, which is applied to calculate the fermion self-energy in the lowest order of perturbation theory

  3. Nuclear Spin Relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Nuclei occur in many different species, called nuclides, which are defined by the numbers of protons and neutrons they contain. The chemical nature of an atom is defined by the number of protons in its nucleus. For example, all atoms of carbon have six protons in the nucleus, and all atoms of hydrogen have a single proton ...

  4. Three-dimensional spin-3 theories based on general kinematical algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Grumiller, Daniel; Prohazka, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Rosseel, Jan [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna,Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2017-01-25

    We initiate the study of non- and ultra-relativistic higher spin theories. For sake of simplicity we focus on the spin-3 case in three dimensions. We classify all kinematical algebras that can be obtained by all possible Inönü-Wigner contraction procedures of the kinematical algebra of spin-3 theory in three dimensional (anti-) de Sitter space-time. We demonstrate how to construct associated actions of Chern-Simons type, directly in the ultra-relativistic case and by suitable algebraic extensions in the non-relativistic case. We show how to give these kinematical algebras an infinite-dimensional lift by imposing suitable boundary conditions in a theory we call “Carroll Gravity”, whose asymptotic symmetry algebra turns out to be an infinite-dimensional extension of the Carroll algebra.

  5. 2D fractional supersymmetry for rational conformal field theory: application for third-integer spin states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, A.; Simon, P.

    1996-01-01

    A 2D fractional supersymmetry theory is algebraically constructed. The Lagrangian is derived using an adapted superspace including, in addition to a scalar field, two fields with spins 1/3,2/3. This theory turns out to be a rational conformal field theory. The symmetry of this model goes beyond the super-Virasoro algebra and connects these third-integer spin states. Besides the stress-momentum tensor, we obtain a supercurrent of spin 4/3. Cubic relations are involved in order to close the algebra; the basic algebra is no longer a Lie or a super-Lie algebra. The central charge of this model is found to be 5/3. Finally, we analyze the form that a local invariant action should take. (orig.)

  6. An open-shell restricted Hartree-Fock perturbation theory based on symmetric spin orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    1993-01-01

    A new open-shell perturbation theory is formulated in terms of symmetric spin orbitals. Only one set of spatial orbitals is required, thereby reducing the number of independent coefficients in the perturbed wavefunctions. For second order, the computational cost is shown to be similar to a closed-shell calculation. This formalism is therefore more efficient than the recently developed RMP, ROMP or RMP-MBPT theories. The perturbation theory described herein was designed to have a close correspondence with our recently proposed coupled-cluster theory based on symmetric spin orbitals. The first-order wavefunction contains contributions from only doubly excited determinants. Equilibrium structures and vibrational frequencies determined from second-order perturbation theory are presented for OH, NH, CH, 02, NH2 and CH2.

  7. Yangian and SUSY symmetry of high spin parton splitting amplitudes in generalised Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Roland; Savvidy, George

    2017-07-01

    We have calculated the high spin parton splitting amplitudes postulating the Yangian symmetry of the scattering amplitudes for tensor gluons. The resulting splitting amplitudes coincide with the earlier calculations, which were based on the BCFW recursion relations. The resulting formula unifies all known splitting probabilities found earlier in gauge field theories. It describes splitting probabilities for integer and half-integer spin particles. We also checked that the splitting probabilities fulfil the generalised Kounnas-Ross 𝒩 = 1 supersymmetry relations hinting to the fact that the underlying theory can be formulated in an explicit supersymmetric manner.

  8. Beyond Gaussian approximation in the spin-fluctuation theory of metallic ferromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reser, B I; Grebennikov, V I [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Melnikov, N B, E-mail: reser@imp.uran.r [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15

    A characteristic feature of the Gaussian spin-fluctuation theory is the jump transition into the paramagnetic state. We eliminate the jump and obtain a continuous second-order phase transition by taking into account the high-order terms of the free energy of electrons in the fluctuating exchange field. The third-order term of the free energy yields a renormalization of the mean field, and fourth-order term, responsible for the interaction of the fluctuations, gives a renormalization of the spin susceptibility. The extended theory is applied to the calculation of magnetic properties of Fe-Ni Invar.

  9. Local realism versus quantum theory: Violation of the generalized spin-s Bell inequalities for a set of three distinct axes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardehali, M.

    1990-01-01

    Some simple inequalities which demonstrate the incompatibility of local realism with quantum theory are derived. They establish, for the first time, necessary conditions for violation of the generalized spin-s Bell inequalities for a set of three distinct noncoplanar axes. For s=1/2, however, these inequalities are equivalent to Wigner's results, thus giving necessary and sufficient conditions

  10. Rabi resonance in spin systems: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Kelvin J; Tahayori, Bahman; Mareels, Iven M Y; Farrell, Peter M; Johnston, Leigh A

    2014-05-01

    The response of a magnetic resonance spin system is predicted and experimentally verified for the particular case of a continuous wave amplitude modulated radiofrequency excitation. The experimental results demonstrate phenomena not previously observed in magnetic resonance systems, including a secondary resonance condition when the amplitude of the excitation equals the modulation frequency. This secondary resonance produces a relatively large steady state magnetisation with Fourier components at harmonics of the modulation frequency. Experiments are in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction derived from the Bloch equations, which provides a sound theoretical framework for future developments in NMR spectroscopy and imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Spinning Dust Radiation: A Review of the Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Ali-Haïmoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current status of theoretical modeling of electric dipole radiation from spinning dust grains. The fundamentally simple problem of dust grain rotation appeals to a rich set of concepts of classical and quantum physics, owing to the diversity of processes involved. Rotational excitation and damping rates through various mechanisms are discussed, as well as methods of computing the grain angular momentum distribution function. Assumptions on grain properties are reviewed. The robustness of theoretical predictions now seems mostly limited by the uncertainties regarding the grains themselves, namely, their abundance, dipole moments, and size and shape distribution.

  12. A carbon-13 NMR spin-lattice relaxation study of the molecular conformation of the nootropic drug 2-oxopyrrolidin-1-ylacetamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, M.; Grassi, A.; Guidoni, L.; Nicolini, M.; Pappalardo, G. C.; Viti, V.

    The spin-lattice relaxation times ( T1) of carbon-13 resonances of the drug 2-oxopyrrolidin- 1-ylacetamide ( 2OPYAC) were determined in CDCl 3 + DMSO and H 2O solutions to investigate the internal conformational flexibility. The measured T1s for the hydrogen-bearing carbon atoms of the 2-pyrrolidone ring fragment were diagnostic of a rigid conformation with respect to the acetamide linked moiety. The model of anisotropic reorientation of a rigid body was used to analyse the measured relaxation data in terms of a single conformation. Owing to the small number of T1 data available the fitting procedure for each of the possible conformations failed. The structure corresponding to the rigid conformation was therefore considered to be the one that is strongly stabilized by internal hydrogen bonding as predicted on the basis of theoretical MO ab initio quantum chemical calculations.

  13. Near-surface structural phase transition of SrTiO3 studied with zero-field beta-detected nuclear spin relaxation and resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Z; Kiefl, R F; Chow, K H; Hossain, M D; Keeler, T A; Kreitzman, S R; Levy, C D P; Miller, R I; Parolin, T J; Pearson, M R; Saadaoui, H; Schultz, J D; Smadella, M; Wang, D; MacFarlane, W A

    2006-04-14

    We demonstrate that zero-field beta-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance and spin relaxation of low energy (8)Li can be used as a sensitive local probe of structural phase transitions near a surface. We find that the transition near the surface of a SrTiO(3) single crystal occurs at T(c) approximately 150K, i.e., approximately 45K higher than T(c)bulk, and that the tetragonal domains formed below T(c) are randomly oriented.

  14. $^{11}$B and $^{27}$Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation and Knight shift study of Mg$_{1-x}$Al$_x$B$_2$. Evidence for anisotropic Fermi surface

    OpenAIRE

    Papavassiliou, G.; Pissas, M.; Karayanni, M.; Fardis, M.; Koutandos, S.; Prassides, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a detailed study of $^{11}$B and $^{27}$Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation rates ($1/T_1$), as well as of $^{27}$Al Knight shift (K) of Mg$_{1-x}$Al$_x$B$_2$, $0\\leq x\\leq 1$. The obtained ($1/T_1T$) and K vs. x plots are in excellent agreement with ab initio calculations. This asserts experimentally the prediction that the Fermi surface is highly anisotropic, consisting mainly of hole-type 2-D cylindrical sheets from bonding $2p_{x,y}$ boron orbitals. It is also shown that the density ...

  15. Quasistatic internal magnetic field detected in the pseudogap phase of Bi2 +xSr2 -xCaCu2O8 +δ by muon spin relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, A.; Dunsiger, S. R.; Akintola, K.; Fang, A. C. Y.; Elhosary, A.; Ishikado, M.; Eisaki, H.; Sonier, J. E.

    2018-02-01

    We report muon spin relaxation (μ SR ) measurements of optimally doped and overdoped Bi2 +xSr2 -xCaCu2O8 +δ single crystals that reveal the presence of a weak temperature-dependent quasistatic internal magnetic field of electronic origin in the superconducting and pseudogap (PG) phases. In both samples the internal magnetic field persists up to 160 K, but muon diffusion prevents following the evolution of the field to higher temperatures. We consider the evidence from our measurements in support of PG order parameter candidates, namely, electronic loop currents and magnetoelectric quadrupoles.

  16. Muon-spin relaxation study of the double perovskite insulators Sr2 BOsO6 (B  =  Fe, Y, ln).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R C; Xiao, F; Thomas, I O; Clark, S J; Lancaster, T; Cornish, G A; Blundell, S J; Hayes, W; Paul, A K; Felser, C; Jansen, M

    2016-02-24

    We present the results of zero-field muon-spin relaxation measurements made on the double perovskite insulators Sr2 BOsO6 (B = Fe,Y, In). Spontaneous muon-spin precession indicative of quasistatic long range magnetic ordering is observed in Sr2FeOsO6 within the AF1 antiferromagnetic phase for temperatures below [Formula: see text] K. Upon cooling below T2≈67 K the oscillations cease to be resolvable owing to the coexistence of the AF1 and AF2 phases, which leads to a broader range of internal magnetic fields. Using density functional calculations we identify a candidate muon stopping site within the unit cell, which dipole field simulations show to be consistent with the proposed magnetic structure. The possibility of incommensurate magnetic ordering is discussed for temperatures below TN = 53 K and 25 K for Sr2YOsO6 and Sr2InOsO6, respectively.

  17. A new parallel algorithm for simulation of spin glasses on scales of space-time periods of external fields with consideration of relaxation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorkyan, A.S.; Abajyan, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the statistical properties of an ensemble of disordered 1D spatial spin chains (SSCs) of finite length, placed in an external field, with consideration of relaxation effects. The short-range interaction complex-classical Hamiltonian was first used for solving this problem. A system of recurrent equations is obtained on the nodes of the spin-chain lattice. An efficient mathematical algorithm is developed on the basis of these equations with consideration of the advanced Sylvester conditions which allow step by step construct a huge number of stable spin chains in parallel. The distribution functions of different parameters of spin-glass system are constructed from the first principles of the complex classical mechanics by analyzing the calculation results of the 1D SSCs ensemble. It is shown that the behavior of the parameter distributions is quite different depending on the external fields. The energy ensembles and constants of spin-spin interactions are changed smoothly depending on the external field in the limit of statistical equilibrium, while some of them such as the mean value of polarizations of ensemble and parameters of its orderings are frustrated. We have also studied some critical properties of the ensemble of such catastrophes in the Clausius-Mossotti equation depending on the value of the external field. We have shown that the generalized complex-classical approach excludes these catastrophes allowing one to organize continuous parallel computing on the whole region of values of the external field including critical points. A new representation of the partition function based on these investigations is suggested. As opposed to usual definition, this function is a complex one and its derivatives are everywhere defined, including critical points

  18. Spin-adapted open-shell random phase approximation and time-dependent density functional theory. I. Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2010-08-14

    The spin-adaptation of single-reference quantum chemical methods for excited states of open-shell systems has been nontrivial. The primary reason is that the configuration space, generated by a truncated rank of excitations from only one component of a reference multiplet, is spin-incomplete. Those "missing" configurations are of higher ranks and can, in principle, be recaptured by a particular class of excitation operators. However, the resulting formalisms are then quite involved and there are situations [e.g., time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) under the adiabatic approximation] that prevent one from doing so. To solve this issue, we propose here a tensor-coupling scheme that invokes all the components of a reference multiplet (i.e., a tensor reference) rather than increases the excitation ranks. A minimal spin-adapted n-tuply excited configuration space can readily be constructed by tensor products between the n-tuple tensor excitation operators and the chosen tensor reference. Further combined with the tensor equation-of-motion formalism, very compact expressions for excitation energies can be obtained. As a first application of this general idea, a spin-adapted open-shell random phase approximation is first developed. The so-called "translation rule" is then adopted to formulate a spin-adapted, restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham (ROKS)-based TD-DFT (ROKS-TD-DFT). Here, a particular symmetry structure has to be imposed on the exchange-correlation kernel. While the standard ROKS-TD-DFT can access only excited states due to singlet-coupled single excitations, i.e., only some of the singly excited states of the same spin (S(i)) as the reference, the new scheme can capture all the excited states of spin S(i)-1, S(i), or S(i)+1 due to both singlet- and triplet-coupled single excitations. The actual implementation and computation are very much like the (spin-contaminated) unrestricted Kohn-Sham-based TD-DFT. It is also shown that spin-contaminated spin

  19. Relaxation-compensated difference spin diffusion NMR for detecting 13C–13C long-range correlations in proteins and polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tuo; Williams, Jonathan K.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Hong, Mei

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of long-range distances remains a challenge in solid-state NMR structure determination of biological macromolecules. In 2D and 3D correlation spectra of uniformly 13 C-labeled biomolecules, inter-residue, inter-segmental, and intermolecular 13 C– 13 C cross peaks that provide important long-range distance constraints for three-dimensional structures often overlap with short-range cross peaks that only reflect the covalent structure of the molecule. It is therefore desirable to develop new approaches to obtain spectra containing only long-range cross peaks. Here we show that a relaxation-compensated modification of the commonly used 2D 1 H-driven spin diffusion (PDSD) experiment allows the clean detection of such long-range cross peaks. By adding a z-filter to keep the total z-period of the experiment constant, we compensate for 13 C T 1 relaxation. As a result, the difference spectrum between a long- and a scaled short-mixing time spectrum show only long-range correlation signals. We show that one- and two-bond cross peaks equalize within a few tens of milliseconds. Within ∼200 ms, the intensity equilibrates within an amino acid residue and a monosaccharide to a value that reflects the number of spins in the local network. With T 1 relaxation compensation, at longer mixing times, inter-residue and inter-segmental cross peaks increase in intensity whereas intra-segmental cross-peak intensities remain unchanged relative to each other and can all be subtracted out. Without relaxation compensation, the difference 2D spectra exhibit both negative and positive intensities due to heterogeneous T 1 relaxation in most biomolecules, which can cause peak cancellation. We demonstrate this relaxation-compensated difference PDSD approach on amino acids, monosaccharides, a crystalline model peptide, a membrane-bound peptide and a plant cell wall sample. The resulting difference spectra yield clean multi-bond, inter-residue and intermolecular correlation peaks

  20. Microscopic theory of fully spin-polarized /sup 3/He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glyde, H.R.; Hernadi, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The ground state energy (E), Landau parameters (F) and single particle energy spectrum (epsilon(kappa) and m/sup */) in fully spin polarized liquid /sup 3/He (/sup 3/He) are calculated directly from the bare interatomic potential within the Galitskii-Feynmann T-matrix and Hartree-Fock (GFHF) approximations. The E agrees well with variational calculations, the F with model calculations and the epsilon(kappa) and m/sup */ with results expected from nuclear matter. This suggests the effective interaction in /sup 3/He is dominated by hard core repulsion and Fermi statistics and that these components of the full interaction can be well described from first principles by a GF T-matrix. 36 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  1. Theory of spin dynamics in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavagna, M.; Stemmann, G.; Pepin, C.

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the spectrum of magnetic excitations as observed by neutron diffraction and NMR experiments in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x , in the frame of the single-band t-t'-J model in which the next-nearest neighbor hopping term has been introduced in order to fit the shape of the Fermi surface revealed in photoemission. Within the slave-boson approach, we have as well examined the d-wave superconducting state, and the singlet-RVB phase appropriate to describe the normal state of heavily doped systems. Our calculations show a smooth evolution of the spectrum from one phase to the other, with the existence of a spin-gap in the frequency dependence of χ''(Q,ω). The value of the threshold of excitations E G is found to increase with doping, while the characteristic temperature scale T m at which the spin-gap opens, exhibits a regular decrease, reaching T c only in the overdoped regime. This very typical combined variation of E G and T m with doping results of strong-correlation has its effect in the presence of a realistic band structure. We point out the presence of a resonance in the ω-dependence of χ''(Q,ω) in good agreement with the neutron diffraction results obtained at x=0.92 and x=1.0. This resonance is interpreted as a dynamical Kohn anomaly of the second kind in the Cooper channel. Finally, we examine the q-dependence of the dynamical susceptibility allowing to study the magnetic correlation length ξ as a function of doping, frequency and temperature. (orig.)

  2. A comment on continuous spin representations of the Poincare group and perturbative string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Quevedo, F. [Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); DAMTP/CMS, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Theisen, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm (Germany)

    2014-11-04

    We make a simple observation that the massless continuous spin representations of the Poincare group are not present in perturbative string theory constructions. This represents one of the very few model-independent low-energy consequences of these models. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. A comment on continuous spin representations of the Poincaré group and perturbative string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, A.; Quevedo, F.; Theisen, S.

    2014-11-01

    We make a simple observation that the massless continuous spin representations of the Poincar\\'e group are not present in perturbative string theory constructions. This represents one of the very few model-independent low-energy consequences of these models.

  4. On the infinite-dimensional spin-2 symmetries in Kaluza-Klein theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohm, O.; Hamburg Univ.

    2005-11-01

    We consider the couplings of an infinite number of spin-2 fields to gravity appearing in Kaluza-Klein theories. They are constructed as the broken phase of a massless theory possessing an infinite-dimensional spin-2 symmetry. Focusing on a circle compactification of four-dimensional gravity we show that the resulting gravity/spin-2 system in D=3 has in its unbroken phase an interpretation as a Chern-Simons theory of the Kac-Moody algebra iso(1,2) associated to the Poincare group and also fits into the geometrical framework of algebra-valued differential geometry developed by Wald. Assigning all degrees of freedom to scalar fields, the matter couplings in the unbroken phase are determined, and it is shown that their global symmetry algebra contains the Virasoro algebra together with an enhancement of the Ehlers group SL(2,R) to its affine extension. The broken phase is then constructed by gauging a subgroup of the global symmetries. It is shown that metric, spin-2 fields and Kaluza-Klein vectors combine into a Chern-Simons theory for an extended algebra, in which the affine Poincare subalgebra acquires a central extension. (orig.)

  5. Giant deviation of a relaxation time from generalized Newtonian theory in discontinuous shear thickening suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Rijan; Brown, Eric

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the transient relaxation of a discontinuous shear thickening (DST) suspension of cornstarch in water. We performed two types of relaxation experiments starting from a steady shear in a parallel-plate rheometer, followed either by stopping the top plate rotation and measuring the transient torque relaxation or by removing the torque on the plate and measuring the transient rotation of the tool. We found that at low effective weight fraction ϕeffmodel. The regime where the relaxation was inconsistent with the generalized Newtonian model was the same where we found positive normal stress during relaxation, and in some cases we found an oscillatory response, suggestive of a solidlike structure consisting of a system-spanning contact network of particles. This regime also corresponds to the same packing fraction range where we consistently found discontinuous shear thickening in rate-controlled, steady-state measurements. The relaxation time in this range scales with the inverse of the critical shear rate at the onset of shear thickening, which may correspond to a contact relaxation time for nearby particles in the structure to flow away from each other. In this range, the relaxation time was the same in both stress- and rate-controlled relaxation experiments, indicating the relaxation time is more intrinsic than an effective viscosity in this range and is needed in addition to the steady-state viscosity function to describe transient flows. The discrepancy between the measured relaxation times and the generalized Newtonian prediction was found to be as large as four orders of magnitude, and extrapolations diverge in the limit as ϕeff→ϕc as the generalized Newtonian prediction approaches 0. This quantitative discrepancy indicates the relaxation is not controlled by the dissipative terms in the constitutive relation. At the highest weight fractions, the relaxation time scales were measured to be on the order of ˜1 s. The fact that this time scale is

  6. Conformal higher-spin symmetries in twistor string theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Uvarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that similarly to massless superparticle, classical global symmetry of the Berkovits twistor string action is infinite-dimensional. We identify its superalgebra, whose finite-dimensional subalgebra contains psl(4|4,R superalgebra. In quantum theory this infinite-dimensional symmetry breaks down to SL(4|4,R one.

  7. Conformal higher-spin symmetries in twistor string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uvarov, D.V., E-mail: d_uvarov@hotmail.com

    2014-12-15

    It is shown that similarly to massless superparticle, classical global symmetry of the Berkovits twistor string action is infinite-dimensional. We identify its superalgebra, whose finite-dimensional subalgebra contains psl(4|4,R) superalgebra. In quantum theory this infinite-dimensional symmetry breaks down to SL(4|4,R) one.

  8. Polymer dynamics near the surface and in the bulk of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) probed by zero-field muon-spin-relaxation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Iain; Salman, Zaher; Giblin, Sean R; Han, Yun Yu; Leach, Gary W; Morenzoni, Elvezio; Prokscha, Thomas; Suter, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The results of many experiments on polymers such as polystyrene indicate that the polymer chains near a free surface exhibit enhanced dynamics when compared with the bulk. We have investigated whether this is the case for poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) by using zero-field muon-spin-relaxation spectroscopy to characterize a local probe, the F-Mu(+)-F state, which forms when spin-polarized positive muons are implanted in PTFE. Low-energy muons (implantation energies from 2.0 to 23.0 keV) were used to study the F-Mu(+)-F state between ∼ 23 and 191 nm from the free surface of PTFE. Measurements were also made with surface muons (4.1 MeV) where the mean implantation depth is on the order of ∼ 0.6 mm. The relaxation rate of the F-Mu(+)-F state up to ∼ 150 K was found to be significantly higher for muons implanted at 2.0 keV than for higher implantation energies, which suggests that the polymer chains in a region on the order of a few tens of nanometers from the free surface are more mobile than those in the bulk.

  9. Spin Singlet Quantum Hall Effect and nonabelian Landau-Ginzburg theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balatsky, A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we present a theory of Singlet Quantum Hall Effect (SQHE). We show that the Halperin-Haldane SQHE wave function can be written in the form of a product of a wave function for charged semions in a magnetic field and a wave function for the Chiral Spin Liquid of neutral spin-1/2 semions. We introduce field-theoretic model in which the electron operators are factorized in terms of charged spinless semions (holons) and neutral spin-1/2 semions (spinons). Broken time reversal symmetry and short ranged spin correlations lead to Su(2) κ=1 Chern-Simons term in Landau-Ginzburg action for SQHE phase. We construct appropriate coherent states for SQHE phase and show the existence of SU(2) valued gauge potential. This potential appears as a result of ''spin rigidity'' of the ground state against any displacements of nodes of wave function from positions of the particles and reflects the nontrivial monodromy in the presence of these displacenmants. We argue that topological structure of Su(2) κ=1 Chern-Simons theory unambiguously dictates semion statistics of spinons. 19 refs

  10. Spin-adapted open-shell time-dependent density functional theory. II. Theory and pilot application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian; Zhang, Yong; Suo, Bingbing

    2011-04-07

    The excited states of open-shell systems calculated by unrestricted Kohn-Sham-based time-dependent density functional theory (U-TD-DFT) are often heavily spin-contaminated and hence meaningless. This is solved ultimately by the recently proposed spin-adapted time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) (S-TD-DFT) [J. Chem. Phys. 133, 064106 (2010)]. Unlike the standard restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham-based TD-DFT (R-TD-DFT) which can only access the singlet-coupled single excitations, the S-TD-DFT can capture both the singlet- and triplet-coupled single excitations with the same computational effort as the U-TD-DFT. The performances of the three approaches (U-TD-DFT, R-TD-DFT, and S-TD-DFT) are compared for both the spin-conserving and spin-flip excitations of prototypical open-shell systems, the nitrogen (N(2)(+)) and naphthalene (C(10)H(8)(+)) cations. The results show that the S-TD-DFT gives rise to balanced descriptions of excited states of open-shell systems.

  11. Efficient calculation of nuclear spin-rotation constants from auxiliary density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Gutierrez, Bernardo, E-mail: bzuniga.51@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias Computacionales, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd. Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Camacho-Gonzalez, Monica [Universidad Tecnológica de Tecámac, División A2, Procesos Industriales, Carretera Federal México Pachuca Km 37.5, Col. Sierra Hermosa, C.P. 55740 Tecámac, Estado de México (Mexico); Bendana-Castillo, Alfonso [Universidad Tecnológica de Tecámac, División A3, Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicaciones, Carretera Federal México Pachuca Km 37.5, Col. Sierra Hermosa, C.P. 55740 Tecámac, Estado de México (Mexico); Simon-Bastida, Patricia [Universidad Tecnlógica de Tulancingo, División Electromecánica, Camino a Ahuehuetitla No. 301, Col. Las Presas, C.P. 43642 Tulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Calaminici, Patrizia; Köster, Andreas M. [Departamento de Química, CINVESTAV, Avenida Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, A.P. 14-740, México D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2015-09-14

    The computation of the spin-rotation tensor within the framework of auxiliary density functional theory (ADFT) in combination with the gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) scheme, to treat the gauge origin problem, is presented. For the spin-rotation tensor, the calculation of the magnetic shielding tensor represents the most demanding computational task. Employing the ADFT-GIAO methodology, the central processing unit time for the magnetic shielding tensor calculation can be dramatically reduced. In this work, the quality of spin-rotation constants obtained with the ADFT-GIAO methodology is compared with available experimental data as well as with other theoretical results at the Hartree-Fock and coupled-cluster level of theory. It is found that the agreement between the ADFT-GIAO results and the experiment is good and very similar to the ones obtained by the coupled-cluster single-doubles-perturbative triples-GIAO methodology. With the improved computational performance achieved, the computation of the spin-rotation tensors of large systems or along Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectories becomes feasible in reasonable times. Three models of carbon fullerenes containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions are used for benchmarking the performance. Furthermore, a theoretical study of temperature effects on the structure and spin-rotation tensor of the H{sup 12}C–{sup 12}CH–DF complex is presented. Here, the temperature dependency of the spin-rotation tensor of the fluorine nucleus can be used to identify experimentally the so far unknown bent isomer of this complex. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that temperature effects on the spin-rotation tensor are investigated.

  12. Some studies of the relativistic theories for spin-3/2 particles and its interactions with an uniforme magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.A.B. de.

    1984-01-01

    We present our investigations on the problems of non-causality of propagation, at the c-number level, of four spin 3/2 theories in the Schroedinger form employing the minimum number of eight components, in interaction with a constant magnetic field. Analyzing first the basic formulations of free particle spin 3/2 relativistic wave equations, we deduze, extending to spin 3/2 Dirac's ''spin 1/2 factorization'' of the mas condition, a new eight-component relativistic wave equation in the Schroedinger form for this spin and prove its relativistic invariance. We demostrate explicitly that the entire content of the Rarita-Schwinger (RS) theory for spin 3/2 can be written in the form of two Dirac-Like wave equations. We demonstrate that our wave equation for spin 3/2 cab indeed be deduzed from a modified RS theory wherein both Hamiltonians above referred to are taken hermitian. We also establish, in a transparent maner, the equivalences existing between the formalisms of RS, Belinfante and Hurley-Sudarshan for spin 3/2. We investigate the c-number problem of the stationary state eigevalues of the spin 3/2 Hamiltonians in a constant external magnetic field, in the four theories in the Schoedinger form with eight components, those of Moldauer and Case (deduzed from TS theory), of Weaver, Hammer and Good. (autor) [pt

  13. Theory of spin-selective Andreev reflection in the vortex core of a topological superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lun-Hui; Li, Chuang; Xu, Dong-Hui; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2016-12-01

    Majorana zero modes (MZMs) have been predicted to exist in a topological insulator (TI)/superconductor (SC) heterostructure. A recent spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope (STM) experiment [Sun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 257003 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.257003] has observed a spin-polarization dependence of the zero bias differential tunneling conductance at the center of a vortex core. Here, we consider a helical electron system described by a Rashba spin-orbit coupling Hamiltonian on a spherical surface with an s -wave superconducting pairing due to proximity effect. We examine the in-gap excitations of a pair of vortices with one at the north pole and the other at the south pole. While the MZM is not a spin eigenstate, the spin wave function of the MZM at the center of the vortex core, r =0 , is parallel to the magnetic field, and the local Andreev reflection of the MZM is spin selective, namely, occurs only when the STM tip has the spin polarization parallel to the magnetic field, similar to the case in a one-dimensional nanowire [He et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 037001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.037001]. The total local differential tunneling conductance consists of the normal term proportional to the local density of states and an additional term arising from the Andreev reflection. We also discuss the finite size effect, for which the MZM at the north pole is hybridized with the MZM at the south pole. We apply our theory to examine the recently reported spin-polarized STM experiments and show good agreement with the experiments.

  14. M-theory on eight-manifolds revisited: N = 1 supersymmetry and generalized Spin(7) structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsimpis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    The requirement of N = 1 supersymmetry for M-theory backgrounds of the form of a warped product M x w X, where X is an eight-manifold and M is three-dimensional Minkowski or AdS space, implies the existence of a nowhere-vanishing Majorana spinor ξ on X. ξ lifts to a nowhere-vanishing spinor on the auxiliary nine-manifold Y: = X x S 1 , where S 1 is a circle of constant radius, implying the reduction of the structure group of Y to Spin(7). In general, however, there is no reduction of the structure group of X itself. This situation can be described in the language of generalized Spin(7) structures, defined in terms of certain spinors of Spin(TY+T*Y). We express the condition for N = 1 supersymmetry in terms of differential equations for these spinors. In an equivalent formulation, working locally in the vicinity of any point in X in terms of a 'preferred' Spin(7) structure, we show that the requirement of N = 1 supersymmetry amounts to solving for the intrinsic torsion and all irreducible flux components, except for the one lying in the 27 of Spin(7), in terms of the warp factor and a one-form L on X (not necessarily nowhere-vanishing) constructed as a ξ bilinear; in addition, L is constrained to satisfy a pair of differential equations. The formalism based on the group Spin(7) is the most suitable language in which to describe supersymmetric compactifications on eight-manifolds of Spin(7) structure, and/or small-flux perturbations around supersymmetric compactifications on manifolds of Spin(7) holonomy

  15. Spin-Multiplet Components and Energy Splittings by Multistate Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grofe, Adam; Chen, Xin; Liu, Wenjian; Gao, Jiali

    2017-10-05

    Kohn-Sham density functional theory has been tremendously successful in chemistry and physics. Yet, it is unable to describe the energy degeneracy of spin-multiplet components with any approximate functional. This work features two contributions. (1) We present a multistate density functional theory (MSDFT) to represent spin-multiplet components and to determine multiplet energies. MSDFT is a hybrid approach, taking advantage of both wave function theory and density functional theory. Thus, the wave functions, electron densities and energy density-functionals for ground and excited states and for different components are treated on the same footing. The method is illustrated on valence excitations of atoms and molecules. (2) Importantly, a key result is that for cases in which the high-spin components can be determined separately by Kohn-Sham density functional theory, the transition density functional in MSDFT (which describes electronic coupling) can be defined rigorously. The numerical results may be explored to design and optimize transition density functionals for configuration coupling in multiconfigurational DFT.

  16. Electronic phase diagrams and competing ground states of complex iron pnictides and chalcogenides. A Moessbauer spectroscopy and muon spin rotation/relaxation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamusella, Sirko

    2017-03-01

    In this thesis the superconducting and magnetic phases of LiOH(Fe,Co)(Se,S), CuFeAs/CuFeSb, and LaFeP{sub 1-x}As{sub x}O - belonging to the 11, 111 and 1111 structural classes of iron-based arsenides and chalcogenides - are investigated by means of {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and muon spin rotation/relaxation (μSR). Of major importance in this study is the application of high magnetic fields in Moessbauer spectroscopy to distinguish and characterize ferro- (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) order. A user-friendly Moessbauer data analysis program was developed to provide suitable model functions not only for high field spectra, but relaxation spectra or parameter distributions in general. In LaFeP{sub 1-x}As{sub x}O the reconstruction of the Fermi surface is described by the vanishing of the Γ hole pocket with decreasing x. The continuous change of the orbital character and the covalency of the d-electrons is shown by Moessbauer spectroscopy. A novel antiferromagnetic phase with small magnetic moments of ∼ 0.1 μ{sub B} state is characterized. The superconducting order parameter is proven to continuously change from a nodal to a fully gapped s-wave like Fermi surface in the superconducting regime as a function of x, partially investigated on (O,F) substituted samples. LiOHFeSe is one of the novel intercalated FeSe compounds, showing strongly increased T{sub C} = 43 K mainly due to increased interlayer spacing and resulting two-dimensionality of the Fermi surface. The primary interest of the samples of this thesis is the simultaneously observed ferromagnetism and superconductivity. The local probe techniques prove that superconducting sample volume gets replaced by ferromagnetic volume. Ferromagnetism arises from magnetic order with T{sub C} = 10 K of secondary iron in the interlayer. The tendency of this system to show (Li,Fe) disorder is preserved upon (Se,S) substitution. However, superconductivity gets suppressed. The results of Moessbauer spectroscopy

  17. Three-dimensional anomalous twisted gauge theories with global symmetry: Implications for quantum spin liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Peng

    2018-03-01

    Topological spin liquids can be described by topological gauge theories with global symmetry. Due to the presence of both nontrivial bulk deconfined gauge fluxes and global symmetry, topological spin liquids are examples of the so-called "symmetry enriched topological phases" (SETs). In this paper, we find that, in some twisted versions of topological gauge theories (with discrete Abelian gauge group Gg), implementing a global symmetry (denoted by Gs) is anomalous although symmetry charge carried by topological pointlike excitations is normally fractionalized and classified by the second cohomology group. To demonstrate the anomaly, we fully gauge the global symmetry, rendering a new gauge theory that is not gauge invariant. Therefore, the SET order of the ground state is anomalous, which cannot exist in the three-dimensional system alone. Such an anomalous state construction generalizes the "2D surface topological order" to three dimensions. A concrete example with Gg=Z2×Z4 and Gs=Z2 is calculated.

  18. Theory of mode coupling in spin torque oscillators coupled to a thermal bath of magnons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Shulei; Li, Dong; Heinonen, Olle

    Recently, numerous experimental investigations have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator (STO) exhibits complex behavior stemming from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator. Examples are the observed mode-hopping and mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In this work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in the presence of the current-driven spin transfer torques. We will first show, in general, that how a linear mode coupling would arise through the coupling of the system to a thermal bath of magnons, which implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. We then apply our theory to two experimentally interesting systems: 1) a STO patterned into nano-pillar with circular or elliptical cross-sections and 2) a nano-contact STO. For both cases, we found that in order to get mode coupling, it would be necessary to have either a finite in-plane component of the external field or an Oersted field. We will also discuss the temperature dependence of the linear mode coupling. Y. Zhou acknowledges the support by the Seed Funding Program for Basic Research from the University of Hong Kong, and University Grants Committee of Hong Kong (Contract No. AoE/P-04/08).

  19. Mass and spin of double dual solutions in Poincare gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, E.W.; Wallner, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Mass and spin are derived for a class of exact solutions of the Poincare gauge (PG) theory of gravity, provided the curvature fulfills a modified double-duality ansatz. It is executed a (3+1)-decomposition and clarified and semplified the structure of the energy-momentum and spin complexes. In case the quadratic PG Lagrangian contains the curvature-square pieces in the Yang-Mills fashion, the (3+1)-decomposition provides rather detailed information on admissible solutions. The PG energy-momentum complex turns out to be intimately related to the von Freud complex of general relativity

  20. Hardness and softness reactivity kernels within the spin-polarized density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro, Eduardo; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Generalized hardness and softness reactivity kernels are defined within a spin-polarized density-functional theory (SP-DFT) conceptual framework. These quantities constitute the basis for the global, local (i.e., r-position dependent), and nonlocal (i.e., r and r ' -position dependents) indices devoted to the treatment of both charge-transfer and spin-polarization processes in such a reactivity framework. The exact relationships between these descriptors within a SP-DFT framework are derived and the implications for chemical reactivity in such context are outlined

  1. Theory of vibrational relaxation in mixtures of ortho- and para-hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moise, A.; Pritchard, H.O.

    1981-01-01

    A numerical study of the vibrational relaxation at 500 K of a mixture of ortho-H 2 and para-H 2 is described. The required state-to-state rate constants were calculated and missing pieces of data were estimated by interpolation. It is concluded that only one relaxation time will be observed in any mixture of orth-H 2 and para-H 2 and that (except at very high dilutions in a third inert gas) the relaxation rate constant will be close to the mean of the individual rate constants for relaxation, weighted according to the respective mole fractions of ortho-H 2 and para-H 2 present in the mixture. The relaxation process can be modelled as an electrical RC network, whose time constants can be written down as sums of the appropriate microscopic rate constants. By using this model the conditions required for a mixture of two gases to exhibit two distinct vibrational relaxation times can be explored

  2. M-theory on Spin(7) manifolds, fluxes and 3D, N=1 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Melanie; Constantin, Dragos; Gates, S. James; Linch, William D.; Merrell, Willie; Phillips, J.

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the most general causal N=1 three-dimensional, gauge invariant action coupled to matter in superspace and derive its component form using ectoplasmic integration theory. One example of such an action can be obtained by compactifying M-theory on a Spin(7) holonomy manifold taking non-vanishing fluxes into account. We show that the resulting three-dimensional theory is in agreement with the more general construction. The scalar potential resulting from Kaluza-Klein compactification stabilizes all the moduli fields describing deformations of the metric except for the radial modulus. This potential can be written in terms of the superpotential previously discussed in the literature

  3. Quantum field theory of material properties. Its application to models of Rashba spin splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, Giulio Albert Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we argue that microscopic field theories - which as such are already scientifically established - have emerged as a new paradigm in materials physics. We hence seek to elaborate on such field theories which underlie modern ab initio calculations, and we apply them to the bismuth tellurohalides (BiTeX with X=I,Br,Cl) as a prototypical class of spin-based materials. For this purpose, we begin by constructing tight-binding models which approximately describe the spin-split conduction bands of BiTeI. Following this, we derive the theory of temperature Green functions systematically from their fundamental equations of motion. This in turn enables us to develop a combined functional renormalization and mean-field approach which is suitable for application to multiband models. For the Rashba model including an attractive, local interaction, this approach yields an unconventional superconducting phase with a singlet gap function and a mixed singlet-triplet order parameter. We further investigate the unusual electromagnetic response of BiTeI, which is caused by the Rashba spin splitting and which includes, in particular, an orbital paramagnetism. Finally, we conclude by summarizing the Functional Approach to electrodynamics of media as a microscopic field theory of electromagnetic material properties which sits in accordance with ab initio physics.

  4. F center-molecular ion couples in alkali halides: Magneto-optics study (part two). Spin lattice relaxation time and electron spin memory; Studi di magnetoottica sulla coppia centro F-ione molecolare negli alogenuri alcalini: Parte 2. Misura del tempo di rilassamento spin-reticolo e della memoria di spin dell`elettrone nel ciclo ottico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, G.; Botti, S.; Grassano, U.M.; Luty, F.

    1991-10-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation time in the ground state, T/sub 1/, and the spin-mixing parameter during the optical cycle, epsilon, were measured in FH(OH) and FH(CN) centers in various alkali halides (KCl, KBr, KI, CsCl, and CsBr). For a close comparison, all experiments were performed before and after the optical association of the F center and molecular ion. T/sub 1/ becomes shorter before and still more after aggregation with respect to the values measured in the pure crystal, especially at very low magnetic fields. Epsilon decreases a little in crystals doped with OH-, while it increases a lot in crystals doped with CN-. Part of these results can be interpreted within the actual knowledge of the F-center physics. Part have been used to shed some light on the various unknown aspects of the energy transfer between the excited F-center and the molecular ion.

  5. Next-to-next-to-leading order gravitational spin-squared potential via the effective field theory for spinning objects in the post-Newtonian scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, Michele; Steinhoff, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The next-to-next-to-leading order spin-squared interaction potential for generic compact binaries is derived for the first time via the effective field theory for gravitating spinning objects in the post-Newtonian scheme. The spin-squared sector is an intricate one, as it requires the consideration of the point particle action beyond minimal coupling, and mainly involves the spin-squared worldline couplings, which are quite complex, compared to the worldline couplings from the minimal coupling part of the action. This sector also involves the linear in spin couplings, as we go up in the nonlinearity of the interaction, and in the loop order. Hence, there is an excessive increase in the number of Feynman diagrams, of which more are higher loop ones. We provide all the Feynman diagrams and their values. The beneficial ''nonrelativistic gravitational'' fields are employed in the computation. This spin-squared correction, which enters at the fourth post-Newtonian order for rapidly rotating compact objects, completes the conservative sector up to the fourth post-Newtonian accuracy. The robustness of the effective field theory for gravitating spinning objects is shown here once again, as demonstrated in a recent series of papers by the authors, which obtained all spin dependent sectors, required up to the fourth post-Newtonian accuracy. The effective field theory of spinning objects allows to directly obtain the equations of motion, and the Hamiltonians, and these will be derived for the potential obtained here in a forthcoming paper

  6. Physics Colloquium: Theory of the spin wave Seebeck effect in magnetic insulators

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2011-01-01

    Geneva University Physics Department 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Lundi 28 février 2011 17h00 - École de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg Theory of the spin wave Seebeck effect in magnetic insulators Prof. Gerrit Bauer Delft University of Technology The subfield of spin caloritronics addresses the coupling of heat, charge and spin currents in nanostructures. In the center of interest is here the spin Seebeck effect, which was discovered in an iron-nickel alloy. Uchida et al. recently observed the effect also in an electrically insulating Yttrium Iron Garnett (YIG) thin magnetic film. To our knowledge this is the first observation of a Seebeck effect generated by an insulator, implying that the physics is fundamentally different from the conventional Seebeck effect in metals. We explain the experiments by the pumping of a spin current into the detecting contacts by the thermally excited magnetization dynamics. In this talk I will give a brief overview over the state o...

  7. Investigation on spin-flip reaction of Re + CH3CN by relativistic density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yi; Ji, Wen-Xin; Wei-Xu; Chen, Xian-Yang; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2014-07-07

    To explore the integrated reaction mechanisms for Re atom with acetonitrile theoretically, density functional theory with zero-order regular approximation (ZORA) relativistic corrections has been employed at the BP86/TZ2P level. There have been three adiabatic potential energy surfaces in the study along sextet, quartet and doublet spin states. However, the detailed minimum energy reaction pathway altogether contains six stationary states () to (), five transition states (), and two intersystem crossings with spin inversion (marked by ⇒): (6)Re + CH3CN → η(1)-ReNCCH3 () → ⇒ η(2)-Re(NC)CH3 () → → η(3)-HRe(NCCH2) () → → CH3-ReNC () → → CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]Re(H)NC () ⇒ → CH[triple bond, length as m-dash]Re(H)2NC (). Thereinto, the lowest energy crossing points (LECP) have been determined by the DFT fractional-occupation-number (FON) approach. The first spin inversion has transferred the potential energy surfaces from high-spin sextet to the quartet intermediate () with the subsequent C-C bond breakage. The second one from the quartet to the low-spin doublet state accompanies the C-H activation, decreasing the transition barrier by 157 kJ mol(-1). The overall reaction could be exothermic by about 210 kJ mol(-1). Harmonic vibration frequencies and NBO, WBO analysis are also applied to verified the experimental observed information.

  8. Interaction study of polyisobutylene with paraffins by NMR using the evaluation of spin-lattice relaxation times for hydrogen nuclei; Estudo da interacao do poliisobutileno com parafinas por RMN no estado solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Rosana G.G. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas - CENPES]. E-mail: garrido@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Tavares, Maria I.B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: mibt@ima.ufrj.br

    2001-07-01

    The evaluation of spin-lattice relaxation times of {sup 1}H for polyisobutylene/paraffin systems, were obtained using the classic inversion recovery technique, and also through Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (CP/MAS) techniques varying the contact time and also by the delayed contact time pulse sequence. NMR results showed that the polyisobutylene/paraffin systems in which high molecular weight paraffins were used, is heterogeneous. However, for paraffins with low molecular weight, the system presents good homogeneity. (author)

  9. Short-range order above the Curie temperature in the dynamic spin-fluctuation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, N.B.; Reser, B.I.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the dynamic spin-fluctuation theory, we study the spin-density correlations in the ferromagnetic metals. We obtain computational formulae for the correlation function and correlation radius in different approximations of the theory. Using these formulae, we calculate the magnetic short-range order above the Curie temperature in bcc Fe. Results of the calculation confirm our theoretical prediction that the inverse correlation radius increases linearly with temperature for T sufficiently large. The calculated short-range order is small but sufficient to correctly describe neutron scattering experiments. A considerable amount of the short-range order is shown to persist up to temperatures much higher than the Curie temperature. - Highlights: • We study the spin correlations in ferromagnetic metals above the Curie temperature. • We derive computational formulae for the spin correlator and correlation radius. • The correlation radius decreases inversely with temperature over a wide interval. • The calculated short-range order in Fe is small, in agreement with experiment. • A considerable amount of short-range order in Fe persists up to high temperatures.

  10. Itinerant ferromagnetism in actinide 5 f -electron systems: Phenomenological analysis with spin fluctuation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateiwa, Naoyuki; Pospíšil, Jiří; Haga, Yoshinori; Sakai, Hironori; Matsuda, Tatsuma D.; Yamamoto, Etsuji

    2017-07-01

    We have carried out an analysis of magnetic data in 69 uranium, 7 neptunium, and 4 plutonium ferromagnets with the spin fluctuation theory developed by Takahashi [Y. Takahashi, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 55, 3553 (1986), 10.1143/JPSJ.55.3553]. The basic and spin fluctuation parameters of the actinide ferromagnets are determined and the applicability of the spin fluctuation theory to actinide 5 f system has been discussed. Itinerant ferromagnets of the 3 d transition metals and their intermetallics follow a generalized Rhodes-Wohlfarth relation between peff/ps and TC/T0 , viz., peff/ps∝(TC/T0) -3 /2 . Here, ps, peff, TC, and T0 are the spontaneous and effective magnetic moments, the Curie temperature, and the width of spin fluctuation spectrum in energy space, respectively. The same relation is satisfied for TC/T0uranium and neptunium ferromagnets below (TC/T0)kink=0.32 ±0.02 , where a kink structure appears in relation between the two quantities. ps increases more weakly above (TC/T0)kink. A possible interpretation with the TC/T0 dependence of ps is given.

  11. Phase Transitions in Frustrated XY Models Studied Using Hard-Spin Mean-Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Azad E.; McKay, Susan R.

    1996-03-01

    The number and types of phase transitions occurring in the two- dimensional fully frustrated XY model have remained controversial in spite of over a decade of attention. In this study, we report the results of a hard-spin mean-field approach (R.R. Netz and A.N. Berker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66), 377 (1991). applied to this system. We compute the effective field on a center site or plaquette using neighboring spins of unit magnitude rather than the average magnetization, as is done in conventional mean-field theory. The directions of the neighboring spins are chosen probabilistically to yield each site magnetization self-consistently. Our calculated inverse critical temperature is 1.444, significantly improved from the conventional mean-field result of 0.707. By locating the self-consistent solutions for the site magnetizations directly, this study avoid scaling, which is complicated in this case due to the possibility of two very closely spaced transitions (P. Ollson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75), 2758 (1995).. These results are compared with simulations and the Monte Carlo implementation of hard-spin mean-field theory on this system Thesis, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, U. of Maine (1995).

  12. Partially massless higher-spin theory II: one-loop effective actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brust, Christopher [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Hinterbichler, Kurt [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University,10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH, 44106 (United States)

    2017-01-30

    We continue our study of a generalization of the D-dimensional linearized Vasiliev higher-spin equations to include a tower of partially massless (PM) fields. We compute one-loop effective actions by evaluating zeta functions for both the “minimal” and “non-minimal” parity-even versions of the theory. Specifically, we compute the log-divergent part of the effective action in odd-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D=7 through 19 (dual to the a-type conformal anomaly of the dual boundary theory), and the finite part of the effective action in even-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D=4 through 8 (dual to the free energy on a sphere of the dual boundary theory). We pay special attention to the case D=4, where module mixings occur in the dual field theory and subtlety arises in the one-loop computation. The results provide evidence that the theory is UV complete and one-loop exact, and we conjecture and provide evidence for a map between the inverse Newton’s constant of the partially massless higher-spin theory and the number of colors in the dual CFT.

  13. Partially massless higher-spin theory II: one-loop effective actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, Christopher; Hinterbichler, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    We continue our study of a generalization of the D-dimensional linearized Vasiliev higher-spin equations to include a tower of partially massless (PM) fields. We compute one-loop effective actions by evaluating zeta functions for both the "minimal" and "non-minimal" parity-even versions of the theory. Specifically, we compute the log-divergent part of the effective action in odd-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D = 7 through 19 (dual to the a-type conformal anomaly of the dual boundary theory), and the finite part of the effective action in even-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D = 4 through 8 (dual to the free energy on a sphere of the dual boundary theory). We pay special attention to the case D = 4, where module mixings occur in the dual field theory and subtlety arises in the one-loop computation. The results provide evidence that the theory is UV complete and one-loop exact, and we conjecture and provide evidence for a map between the inverse Newton's constant of the partially massless higher-spin theory and the number of colors in the dual CFT.

  14. Partially massless higher-spin theory II: one-loop effective actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brust, Christopher; Hinterbichler, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    We continue our study of a generalization of the D-dimensional linearized Vasiliev higher-spin equations to include a tower of partially massless (PM) fields. We compute one-loop effective actions by evaluating zeta functions for both the “minimal” and “non-minimal” parity-even versions of the theory. Specifically, we compute the log-divergent part of the effective action in odd-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D=7 through 19 (dual to the a-type conformal anomaly of the dual boundary theory), and the finite part of the effective action in even-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D=4 through 8 (dual to the free energy on a sphere of the dual boundary theory). We pay special attention to the case D=4, where module mixings occur in the dual field theory and subtlety arises in the one-loop computation. The results provide evidence that the theory is UV complete and one-loop exact, and we conjecture and provide evidence for a map between the inverse Newton’s constant of the partially massless higher-spin theory and the number of colors in the dual CFT.

  15. Spin and conductance-peak-spacing distributions in large quantum dots: a density-functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Baranger, Harold U; Yang, Weitao

    2003-01-17

    We use spin-density-functional theory to study the spacing between conductance peaks and the ground-state spin of 2D model quantum dots with up to 200 electrons. Distributions for different ranges of electron number are obtained in both symmetric and asymmetric potentials. The even/odd effect is pronounced for small symmetric dots but vanishes for large asymmetric ones, suggesting substantially stronger interaction effects than expected. The fraction of high-spin ground states is remarkably large.

  16. Next-to-next-to-leading order gravitational spin-orbit coupling via the effective field theory for spinning objects in the post-Newtonian scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, Michele; Steinhoff, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We implement the effective field theory for gravitating spinning objects in the post-Newtonian scheme at the next-to-next-to-leading order level to derive the gravitational spin-orbit interaction potential at the third and a half post-Newtonian order for rapidly rotating compact objects. From the next-to-next-to-leading order interaction potential, which we obtain here in a Lagrangian form for the first time, we derive straightforwardly the corresponding Hamiltonian. The spin-orbit sector constitutes the most elaborate spin dependent sector at each order, and accordingly we encounter a proliferation of the relevant Feynman diagrams, and a significant increase of the computational complexity. We present in detail the evaluation of the interaction potential, going over all contributing Feynman diagrams. The computation is carried out in terms of the ''nonrelativistic gravitational'' fields, which are advantageous also in spin dependent sectors, together with the various gauge choices included in the effective field theory for gravitating spinning objects, which also optimize the calculation. In addition, we automatize the effective field theory computations, and carry out the automated computations in parallel. Such automated effective field theory computations would be most useful to obtain higher order post-Newtonian corrections. We compare our Hamiltonian to the ADM Hamiltonian, and arrive at a complete agreement between the ADM and effective field theory results. Finally, we provide Hamiltonians in the center of mass frame, and complete gauge invariant relations among the binding energy, angular momentum, and orbital frequency of an inspiralling binary with generic compact spinning components to third and a half post-Newtonian order. The derivation presented here is essential to obtain further higher order post-Newtonian corrections, and to reach the accuracy level required for the successful detection of gravitational radiation

  17. Theory for Spin Selective Andreev Re ection in Vortex Core of Topological Superconductor: Majorana Zero Modes on Spherical Surface and Application to Spin Polarized Scanning Tunneling Microscope Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Chun; Hu, Lun-Hui; Li, Chuang; Xu, Dong-Hui; Zhou, Yi

    Majorana zero modes (MZMs) have been predicted to exist in the topological insulator (TI)/superconductor (SC) heterostructure. Recent spin polarized scanning tunneling microscope(STM) experiment has observed spin-polarization dependence of the zero bias differential tunneling conductance at the center of vortex core. Here we consider a helical electron system described by a Rashba spin orbit coupling Hamiltonian on a spherical surface with a s-wave superconducting pairing due to proximity effect. We examine in-gap excitations of a pair of vortices with one at the north pole and the other at the south pole. While the MZM is not a spin eigenstate, the spin wavefunction of the MZM at the center of the vortex core, r = 0, is parallel to the magnetic field, and the local Andreev reflection of the MZM is spin selective, namely occurs only when the STM tip has the spin polarization parallel to the magnetic field, similar to the case in 1-dimensional nanowire. The total local differential tunneling conductance consists of the normal term proportional to the local density of states and an additional term arising from the Andreev reflection. We apply our theory to examine the recently reported spin-polarized STM experiments and show good agreement with the experiments

  18. Rapidly calculated density functional theory (DFT) relaxed Iso-potential Phi Si Maps: Beta-cellobiose

    Science.gov (United States)

    New cellobiose Phi-H/Si-H maps are rapidly generated using a mixed basis set DFT method, found to achieve a high level of confidence while reducing computer resources dramatically. Relaxed iso-potential maps are made for different conformational states of cellobiose, showing how glycosidic bond dihe...

  19. NMR spin-lattice relaxation study of 7Li and 93Nb nuclei in Ti- or Fe-doped LiNbO3:Mg single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ho Yeom

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to understand the effects of paramagnetic impurities, we investigated the temperature dependent of the spin-lattice relaxation times of pure LiNbO3, LiNbO3:Mg, LiNbO3:Mg/Ti, LiNbO3:Mg/Fe, and LiNbO3:Mg/Fe (thermally treated at 500°C single crystals. The results for the LiNbO3:Mg single crystals doped with Fe3+ or Ti3+ are discussed with respect to the site distribution and atomic mobility of Li and Nb. In addition, the effects of a thermal treatment on LiNbO3:Mg/Fe single crystals were examined based on the T1 analysis of 7Li and 93Nb. It was found that the presence of impurities in the crystals induced systematic changes of activation energies concerning atomic mobility.

  20. Determination of correlation times from selective and non-selective spin-lattice relaxation rates and their use in drug-drug and drug-albumin interaction studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinoco Luzineide Wanderley

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the changes in sample concentration on the NMR chemical shifts and on the selective and non-selective spin-lattice relaxation rates (R1S and R1NS of the three isomers of nitrobenzaldeyde guanyl hydrazone (NBGH pure and with bovine serum albumin (BSA were measured in solution. The results wereused to determine the correlation times (tauc, showing that the degree of intermolecular drug-drug association varies with the nitro group position on the ring and that this degree of association interferes with the interaction of these drugs with BSA. The results suggest that the degree of drug-drug and drug-BSA association are related to the in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of these compounds.

  1. Unconventional Superconductivity in La(7)Ir(3) Revealed by Muon Spin Relaxation: Introducing a New Family of Noncentrosymmetric Superconductor That Breaks Time-Reversal Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J A T; Singh, D; Thamizhavel, A; Hillier, A D; Lees, M R; Balakrishnan, G; Paul, D McK; Singh, R P

    2015-12-31

    The superconductivity of the noncentrosymmetric compound La(7)Ir(3) is investigated using muon spin rotation and relaxation. Zero-field measurements reveal the presence of spontaneous static or quasistatic magnetic fields below the superconducting transition temperature T(c)=2.25  K-a clear indication that the superconducting state breaks time-reversal symmetry. Furthermore, transverse-field rotation measurements suggest that the superconducting gap is isotropic and that the pairing symmetry of the superconducting electrons is predominantly s wave with an enhanced binding strength. The results indicate that the superconductivity in La(7)Ir(3) may be unconventional and paves the way for further studies of this family of materials.

  2. Algebras for causal external electromagnetic interaction in higher-spin theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, W.

    1976-01-01

    Using the theory of Young symmetrizers it is shown how to obtain algebras which are sufficient for causal propagation of higher-spin particles interacting with an external minimal electromagnetic field. The commutation relations of the algebra are derived already expressed in irreducible Young symmetrizer form. An example is given which is not equivalent to any known causal theory and it is shown that the algebra is infinite. Thus, the requirement of causal electromagnetic interaction is not sufficient to generate a finite algebra and non-trivial sub-algebras may exist which are causal. (author)

  3. Nuclear magnetic relaxation in aqueous praseodymium and europium solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J.L.; Diaz, D.

    1991-01-01

    A general theory for the relaxation of the nuclear spin in paramagnetic complexes where the electronic spin is within a slow-movement regime was presented by Benetis et al. and applied to d-group elements (Ni 2+ , Co 2+ ). This paper show the possibility to apply such formalism to f-group elements and it was developed for S=3(Eu 3+ ). A group of magnitudes characterizing the microstructure and dynamics of these solutions is reported with the approximations used. The dispersion of the nuclear magnetic relaxation (NMRD) for the proton of the variable field was also assessed which had a similar behaviour to what was experimentally reported

  4. Fermionic Spinon Theory of Square Lattice Spin Liquids near the Néel State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Thomson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum fluctuations of the Néel state of the square lattice antiferromagnet are usually described by a CP^{1} theory of bosonic spinons coupled to a U(1 gauge field, and with a global SU(2 spin rotation symmetry. Such a theory also has a confining phase with valence bond solid (VBS order, and upon including spin-singlet charge-2 Higgs fields, deconfined phases with Z_{2} topological order possibly intertwined with discrete broken global symmetries. We present dual theories of the same phases starting from a mean-field theory of fermionic spinons moving in π flux in each square lattice plaquette. Fluctuations about this π-flux state are described by (2+1-dimensional quantum chromodynamics (QCD_{3} with a SU(2 gauge group and N_{f}=2 flavors of massless Dirac fermions. It has recently been argued by Wang et al. [Deconfined Quantum Critical Points: Symmetries and Dualities, Phys. Rev. X 7, 031051 (2017.PRXHAE2160-330810.1103/PhysRevX.7.031051] that this QCD_{3} theory describes the Néel-VBS quantum phase transition. We introduce adjoint Higgs fields in QCD_{3} and obtain fermionic dual descriptions of the phases with Z_{2} topological order obtained earlier using the bosonic CP^{1} theory. We also present a fermionic spinon derivation of the monopole Berry phases in the U(1 gauge theory of the VBS state. The global phase diagram of these phases contains multicritical points, and our results imply new boson-fermion dualities between critical gauge theories of these points.

  5. Analytic first derivatives for a spin-adapted open-shell coupled cluster theory: evaluation of first-order electrical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dipayan; Gauss, Jürgen

    2014-09-14

    An analytic scheme is presented for the evaluation of first derivatives of the energy for a unitary group based spin-adapted coupled cluster (CC) theory, namely, the combinatoric open-shell CC (COSCC) approach within the singles and doubles approximation. The widely used Lagrange multiplier approach is employed for the derivation of an analytical expression for the first derivative of the energy, which in combination with the well-established density-matrix formulation, is used for the computation of first-order electrical properties. Derivations of the spin-adapted lambda equations for determining the Lagrange multipliers and the expressions for the spin-free effective density matrices for the COSCC approach are presented. Orbital-relaxation effects due to the electric-field perturbation are treated via the Z-vector technique. We present calculations of the dipole moments for a number of doublet radicals in their ground states using restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock (ROHF) and quasi-restricted HF (QRHF) orbitals in order to demonstrate the applicability of our analytic scheme for computing energy derivatives. We also report calculations of the chlorine electric-field gradients and nuclear quadrupole-coupling constants for the CCl, CH2Cl, ClO2, and SiCl radicals.

  6. Ligand manipulation of charge transfer excited state relaxation and spin crossover in [Fe(2,2′-bipyridine2(CN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper S. Kjær

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have used femtosecond resolution UV-visible and Kβ x-ray emission spectroscopy to characterize the electronic excited state dynamics of [Fe(bpy2(CN2], where bpy=2,2′-bipyridine, initiated by metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT excitation. The excited-state absorption in the transient UV-visible spectra, associated with the 2,2′-bipyridine radical anion, provides a robust marker for the MLCT excited state, while the transient Kβ x-ray emission spectra provide a clear measure of intermediate and high spin metal-centered excited states. From these measurements, we conclude that the MLCT state of [Fe(bpy2(CN2] undergoes ultrafast spin crossover to a metal-centered quintet excited state through a short lived metal-centered triplet transient species. These measurements of [Fe(bpy2(CN2] complement prior measurement performed on [Fe(bpy3]2+ and [Fe(bpy(CN4]2− in dimethylsulfoxide solution and help complete the chemical series [Fe(bpyN(CN6–2N]2N-4, where N = 1–3. The measurements confirm that simple ligand modifications can significantly change the relaxation pathways and excited state lifetimes and support the further investigation of light harvesting and photocatalytic applications of 3d transition metal complexes.

  7. Restricted active space spin-flip configuration interaction: theory and examples for multiple spin flips with odd numbers of electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Paul M; Bell, Franziska; Goldey, Matthew; Bell, Alexis T; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2012-10-28

    The restricted active space spin flip (RAS-SF) method is extended to allow ground and excited states of molecular radicals to be described at low cost (for small numbers of spin flips). RAS-SF allows for any number of spin flips and a flexible active space while maintaining pure spin eigenfunctions for all states by maintaining a spin complete set of determinants and using spin-restricted orbitals. The implementation supports both even and odd numbers of electrons, while use of resolution of the identity integrals and a shared memory parallel implementation allow for fast computation. Examples of multiple-bond dissociation, excited states in triradicals, spin conversions in organic multi-radicals, and mixed-valence metal coordination complexes demonstrate the broad usefulness of RAS-SF.

  8. Membrane docking geometry of GRP1 PH domain bound to a target lipid bilayer: an EPR site-directed spin-labeling and relaxation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available The second messenger lipid PIP(3 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate is generated by the lipid kinase PI3K (phosphoinositide-3-kinase in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, where it regulates a broad array of cell processes by recruiting multiple signaling proteins containing PIP(3-specific pleckstrin homology (PH domains to the membrane surface. Despite the broad importance of PIP(3-specific PH domains, the membrane docking geometry of a PH domain bound to its target PIP(3 lipid on a bilayer surface has not yet been experimentally determined. The present study employs EPR site-directed spin labeling and relaxation methods to elucidate the membrane docking geometry of GRP1 PH domain bound to bilayer-embedded PIP(3. The model target bilayer contains the neutral background lipid PC and both essential targeting lipids: (i PIP(3 target lipid that provides specificity and affinity, and (ii PS facilitator lipid that enhances the PIP(3 on-rate via an electrostatic search mechanism. The EPR approach measures membrane depth parameters for 18 function-retaining spin labels coupled to the PH domain, and for calibration spin labels coupled to phospholipids. The resulting depth parameters, together with the known high resolution structure of the co-complex between GRP1 PH domain and the PIP(3 headgroup, provide sufficient constraints to define an optimized, self-consistent membrane docking geometry. In this optimized geometry the PH domain engulfs the PIP(3 headgroup with minimal bilayer penetration, yielding the shallowest membrane position yet described for a lipid binding domain. This binding interaction displaces the PIP(3 headgroup from its lowest energy position and orientation in the bilayer, but the headgroup remains within its energetically accessible depth and angular ranges. Finally, the optimized docking geometry explains previous biophysical findings including mutations observed to disrupt membrane binding, and the rapid lateral

  9. Free field theories of spin-mass trajectories and quantum electrodynamics in the null plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, G.R.; Fenster, S.

    1976-06-01

    The ten generators of the Poincare algebra for quantum electrodynamics and other gauge theories are given in the null plane. The explicit correspondence of their field-theoretic form to the Bacry-Chang group-theoretic form in the free case is pointed out. It is then noticed that the forms are independent of the spin and allow inclusion of charge quantum numbers at will, which indicates that they represent an advantageous free-particle starting point for a hadron theory with positive spin-mass trajectories (SMT) and with interaction. The internal oscillator content is extracted for both gauge theories and dual resonance models. Interactions are cubic and quartic in the fields. In the dual model they encompass the SMT, whereas no straightforward extension to SMT is possible for the manifestly covariant theories. The requirements of a field-theoretic SMT interaction are spelled out in an algebraic form which guarantees Poincare invariance; however no such interaction is yet known. The approach indicates how a realistic spectrum might be achieved without composite hadrons and incorporating full Poincare invariance

  10. Topics in phase-shift analysis and higher spin field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisen, J.C.J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The first part of this thesis considers several aspects of the existence of phase-shift ambiguities. The subject is introduced with a few remarks on scattering theory and previous work in this area is discussed. The mathematical restrictions of presenting such problems clearly are considered and the construction of different unitary amplitudes which correspond to the same differential cross section is described. So far, examples of phase-shift ambiguities have only been found for rather special cases but the author shows that these results can be considerably generalized for spinless elastic scattering, leading to properties of phase-shift ambiguities being revealed that were previously absent. These properties are discussed in detail. Phase-shift ambiguities for the spin-0-spin-1/2 elastic scattering are then considered and again generalized. The second part of this thesis is concerned with the investigation of a free field theory for both massive and massless particles with higher spin (1, 2 and 3). A root method has been used which is described and shown to lead to the free field equations and the subsidiary conditions. A field equation and Lagrangian are constructed for massive particles and the former is then used to derive a massless field equation and Lagrangian. The relation between massive and massless field equations is investigated in more detail and particularly the expressions for the amplitude describing exchange of a particle between two external sources are compared. (Auth./C.F.)

  11. Synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of cyanide-bridged W(V)Mn(III) anionic coordination polymers containing divalent cationic moieties: slow magnetic relaxations and spin crossover phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Hee; Lim, Kwang Soo; Ryu, Dae Won; Lee, Woo Ram; Yoon, Sung Won; Suh, Byoung Jin; Hong, Chang Seop

    2014-10-06

    Two trimetallic coordination complexes were prepared by self-assembly of [W(CN)8](3-) and the Mn(III) Schiff base followed by the addition of a Zn(II) or Fe(II) cationic unit. The octacyanotungstate connects neighboring Mn(III) centers to form a one-dimensional chain. The anionic chain requires cationic units of Zn(II) or Fe(II) to maintain charge balance in the structure. The Zn-containing complex shows ferrimagnetic behavior originating from the antiparallel alignment of W(V) and Mn(III) spins within the chain, which leads to slow magnetic relaxation at low temperatures. For the Fe(II)-containing compound, Fe(II) moieties are integrated into the ferrimagnetic chains, altering their spin states depending on the temperature. It appears that the coexistence of high- and low-spin states in the low temperature regime is responsible for the slower and faster relaxations of the magnetization.

  12. Spin-flip configuration interaction singles with exact spin-projection: Theory and applications to strongly correlated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi

    2015-10-14

    Spin-flip approaches capture static correlation with the same computational scaling as the ordinary single reference methods. Here, we extend spin-flip configuration interaction singles (SFCIS) by projecting out intrinsic spin-contamination to make it spin-complete, rather than by explicitly complementing it with spin-coupled configurations. We give a general formalism of spin-projection for SFCIS, applicable to any spin states. The proposed method is viewed as a natural unification of SFCIS and spin-projected CIS to achieve a better qualitative accuracy at a low computational cost. While our wave function ansatz is more compact than previously proposed spin-complete SF approaches, it successfully offers more general static correlation beyond biradicals without sacrificing good quantum numbers. It is also shown that our method is invariant with respect to open-shell orbital rotations, due to the uniqueness of spin-projection. We will report benchmark calculations to demonstrate its qualitative performance on strongly correlated systems, including conical intersections that appear both in ground-excited and excited-excited degeneracies.

  13. Quantum spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Christoph

    2012-05-15

    In this work, we study and quantitatively predict the quantum spin Hall effect, the spin-orbit interaction induced intrinsic spin-Hall effect, spin-orbit induced magnetizations, and spin-polarized electric currents in nanostructured two-dimensional electron or hole gases with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We propose concrete device geometries for the generation, detection, and manipulation of spin polarization and spin-polarized currents. To this end a novel multi-band quantum transport theory, that we termed the multi-scattering Buettiker probe model, is developed. The method treats quantum interference and coherence in open quantum devices on the same footing as incoherent scattering and incorporates inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a gauge-invariant and nonperturbative manner. The spin-orbit interaction parameters that control effects such as band energy spin splittings, g-factors, and spin relaxations are calculated microscopically in terms of an atomistic relativistic tight-binding model. We calculate the transverse electron focusing in external magnetic and electric fields. We have performed detailed studies of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various material systems and geometries. We find a geometry dependent threshold value for the spin-orbit interaction for the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect that cannot be met by n-type GaAs structures. We propose geometries that spin polarize electric current in zero magnetic field and analyze the out-of-plane spin polarization by all electrical means. We predict unexpectedly large spin-orbit induced spin-polarization effects in zero magnetic fields that are caused by resonant enhancements of the spin-orbit interaction in specially band engineered and geometrically designed p-type nanostructures. We propose a concrete realization of a spin transistor in HgTe quantum wells, that employs the helical edge channel in the quantum spin Hall effect.

  14. Quantum spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study and quantitatively predict the quantum spin Hall effect, the spin-orbit interaction induced intrinsic spin-Hall effect, spin-orbit induced magnetizations, and spin-polarized electric currents in nanostructured two-dimensional electron or hole gases with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We propose concrete device geometries for the generation, detection, and manipulation of spin polarization and spin-polarized currents. To this end a novel multi-band quantum transport theory, that we termed the multi-scattering Buettiker probe model, is developed. The method treats quantum interference and coherence in open quantum devices on the same footing as incoherent scattering and incorporates inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a gauge-invariant and nonperturbative manner. The spin-orbit interaction parameters that control effects such as band energy spin splittings, g-factors, and spin relaxations are calculated microscopically in terms of an atomistic relativistic tight-binding model. We calculate the transverse electron focusing in external magnetic and electric fields. We have performed detailed studies of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various material systems and geometries. We find a geometry dependent threshold value for the spin-orbit interaction for the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect that cannot be met by n-type GaAs structures. We propose geometries that spin polarize electric current in zero magnetic field and analyze the out-of-plane spin polarization by all electrical means. We predict unexpectedly large spin-orbit induced spin-polarization effects in zero magnetic fields that are caused by resonant enhancements of the spin-orbit interaction in specially band engineered and geometrically designed p-type nanostructures. We propose a concrete realization of a spin transistor in HgTe quantum wells, that employs the helical edge channel in the quantum spin Hall effect.

  15. Dynamical systems with classical spin in the Einstein-Maxwell-Cartan theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorin, R.M. de.

    1984-01-01

    By using variational precedures, spinning charged particles and fluids, with magnetic dipole moment, are analysed. Electromagnetic and gravitational interactions are also dynamically considered. A relativistic formalism which describes the space-time as a Riemann-Cartan manifold caraccterized by curvature and torsion tensors was adopted. The specific features of the Einstein-Maxell-Cartan theory have been analised in detail for the considered models. Also the holonomy of the local Lorentz Frames and constraints has been studied, and as a consequence it has been possible to generate new equations of motion for particles with spin. It has also been possible to derive the complete differential system which includes the fluid, the electromagnetic, the curvature and the torsion fields. (author) [pt

  16. Spin structures on algebraic curves and their applications in string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, F.

    1990-01-01

    The free fields on a Riemann surface carrying spin structures live on an unramified r-covering of the surface itself. When the surface is represented as an algebraic curve related to the vanishing of the Weierstrass polynomial, its r-coverings are algebraic curves as well. We construct explicitly the Weierstrass polynomial associated to the r-coverings of an algebraic curve. Using standard techniques of algebraic geometry it is then possible to solve the inverse Jacobi problem for the odd spin structures. As an application we derive the partition functions of bosonic string theories in many examples, including two general curves of genus three and four. The partition functions are explicitly expressed in terms of branch points apart from a factor which is essentially a theta constant. 53 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  17. The physical boundary Hilbert space and volume operator in the Lorentzian new spin-foam theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding You; Rovelli, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    A covariant spin-foam formulation of quantum gravity has been recently developed, characterized by a kinematics which appears to match well the one of canonical loop quantum gravity. In this paper we reconsider the implementation of the constraints that defines the model. We define in a simple way the boundary Hilbert space of the theory, introducing a slight modification of the embedding of the SU(2) representations into the SL(2,C) ones. We then show directly that all constraints vanish on this space in a weak sense. The vanishing is exact (and not just in the large quantum number limit). We also generalize the definition of the volume operator in the spin-foam model to the Lorentzian signature and show that it matches the one of loop quantum gravity, as in the Euclidean case.

  18. An effective correlated mean-field theory applied in the spin-1/2 Ising ferromagnetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto Viana, J.; Salmon, Octávio R. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas – UFAM, Manaus 69077-000, AM (Brazil); Ricardo de Sousa, J. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas – UFAM, Manaus 69077-000, AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Neto, Minos A.; Padilha, Igor T. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas – UFAM, Manaus 69077-000, AM (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    We developed a new treatment for mean-field theory applied in spins systems, denominated effective correlated mean-field (ECMF). We apply this theory to study the spin-1/2 Ising ferromagnetic model with nearest-neighbor interactions on a square lattice. We use clusters of finite sizes and study the criticality of the ferromagnetic system, where we obtain a convergence of critical temperature for the value k{sub B}T{sub c}/J≃2.27905±0.00141. Also the behavior of magnetic and thermodynamic properties, using the condition of minimum energy of the physical system is obtained. - Highlights: • We developed spin models to study real magnetic systems. • We study the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of the ferromagnetism. • We enhanced a mean-field theory applied in spins models.

  19. Optimizations of spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer based on potassium and rubidium hybrid optical pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wang, Tao, E-mail: wangtao@buaa.edu.cn; Li, Yang [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Hong; Zou, Sheng [School of Instrument Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-12-15

    The hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometers have not realized its theoretical sensitivity, the optimization is critical for optimal performance. The optimizations proposed in this paper are suitable for hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometer, which contains two alkali species. To optimize the parameters, the dynamic equations of spin evolution with two alkali species were solved, whose steady-state solution is used to optimize the parameters. The demand of the power of the pump beam is large for hybrid optical pumping. Moreover, the sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping magnetometer increases with the increase of the power density of the pump beam. The density ratio between the two alkali species is especially important for hybrid optical pumping magnetometer. A simple expression for optimizing the density ratio is proposed in this paper, which can help to determine the mole faction of the alkali atoms in fabricating the hybrid cell before the cell is sealed. The spin-exchange rate between the two alkali species is proportional to the saturated density of the alkali vapor, which is highly dependent on the temperature of the cell. Consequently, the sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping magnetometer is dependent on the temperature of the cell. We proposed the thermal optimization of the hybrid cell for a hybrid optical pumping magnetometer, which can improve the sensitivity especially when the power of the pump beam is low. With these optimizations, a sensitivity of approximately 5 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} is achieved with gradiometer arrangement.

  20. Optimizations of spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer based on potassium and rubidium hybrid optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wang, Tao; Li, Yang; Zhang, Hong; Zou, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometers have not realized its theoretical sensitivity, the optimization is critical for optimal performance. The optimizations proposed in this paper are suitable for hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometer, which contains two alkali species. To optimize the parameters, the dynamic equations of spin evolution with two alkali species were solved, whose steady-state solution is used to optimize the parameters. The demand of the power of the pump beam is large for hybrid optical pumping. Moreover, the sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping magnetometer increases with the increase of the power density of the pump beam. The density ratio between the two alkali species is especially important for hybrid optical pumping magnetometer. A simple expression for optimizing the density ratio is proposed in this paper, which can help to determine the mole faction of the alkali atoms in fabricating the hybrid cell before the cell is sealed. The spin-exchange rate between the two alkali species is proportional to the saturated density of the alkali vapor, which is highly dependent on the temperature of the cell. Consequently, the sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping magnetometer is dependent on the temperature of the cell. We proposed the thermal optimization of the hybrid cell for a hybrid optical pumping magnetometer, which can improve the sensitivity especially when the power of the pump beam is low. With these optimizations, a sensitivity of approximately 5 fT/Hz 1/2 is achieved with gradiometer arrangement

  1. Spin contamination analogy, Kramers pairs symmetry and spin density representations at the 2-component unrestricted Hartree-Fock level of theory

    KAUST Repository

    Bučinský, Lukáš

    2015-05-11

    "Kramers pairs symmetry breaking" is evaluated at the 2-component (2c) Kramers unrestricted and/or general complex Hartree-Fock (GCHF) level of theory, and its analogy with "spin contamination" at the 1-component (1c) unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) level of theory is emphasized. The GCHF "Kramers pairs symmetry breaking" evaluation is using the square of overlaps between the set of occupied spinorbitals with the projected set of Kramers pairs. In the same fashion, overlaps between α and β orbitals are used in the evaluation of "spin contamination" at the UHF level of theory. In this manner, UHF Š2 expectation value is made formally extended to the GCHF case. The directly evaluated GCHF expectation value of the Š2 operator is considered for completeness. It is found that the 2c GCHF Kramers pairs symmetry breaking has a very similar extent in comparison to the 1c UHF spin contamination. Thus higher excited states contributions to the 1c and 2c unrestricted wave functions of open shell systems have almost the same extent and physical consequences. Moreover, it is formally shown that a single determinant wave function in the restricted open shell Kramers case has the expectation value of K2 operator equal to the negative number of open shell electrons, while the eigenvalue of K2 for the series of simple systems (H, He, He*-triplet, Li and Li*-quartet) are found to be equal to minus the square of the number of open shell electrons. The concept of unpaired electron density is extended to the GCHF regime and compared to UHF and restricted open shell Hartree-Fock spin density. The "collinear" and "noncollinear" analogs of spin density at the GCHF level of theory are considered as well. Spin contamination and/or Kramers pairs symmetry breaking, spin populations and spin densities are considered for H2O+, Cl, HCl+, phenoxyl radical (C6H5O) as well as for Cu, Cu2+, Fe and the [OsCl5(1H-pyrazole)]- anion. The 1c and 2c unpaired electron density representation is found

  2. Systematic variation of magnetic-field penetration depth in high-Tc superconductors studied by muon-spin relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Y. J.; Emery, V. J.; Moodenbaugh, A. R.; Suenaga, M.; Johnston, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    The muon relaxation rate (sigma) was measured in the high critical temperature superconductors YBa2Cu3O(x) for x = 6.66, 6.95, 7.0, and La1.85 SrO.15 CuO4 in transverse external magnetic fields 1 is approximately 4 kG. A simple relation is found which connects the transition temperature T(c), the magnetic field penetration depth lambda(L), the carrier concentration n(s) and the effective mass m* as T(c) varies as sigma which varies as 1/lambda(L) squared which varies as n(s)/m*. The linear dependence T(c) varies as n(s)/m* suggests a high energy scale for the coupling between superconducting carriers.

  3. Systematic variation of magnetic-field penetration depth in high-T(c) superconductors studied by muon spin relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Y. J.; Emery, V. J.; Moodenbaugh, A. R.; Suenaga, M.; Johnston, D. C.; Jacobson, A. J.; Lewandowski, J. T.; Brewer, J. H.; Kiefl, R. F.; Kreitzman, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The muon relaxation rate (sigma) was measured in the high critical temperature superconductors YBa2Cu3O(x) for x = 6.66, 6.95, 7.0, and La1.85 Sr0.15 CuO4 in transverse external magnetic fields 1 is approximately 4kG. A simple relation is found which connects the transition temperature T(c), the magnetic field penetration depth lambda(L), the carrier concentration n(s) and the effective mass m* as T(c) varies as sigma which varies as 1/lambda(L) squared which varies as n(s)/m*. The linear dependence T(c) varies as n(s)/m* suggests a high energy scale for the coupling between superconducting carriers.

  4. Theory of the Mercury's spin-orbit motion and analysis of its main librations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaux, N.; Bois, E.

    2004-01-01

    The 3:2 spin-orbit resonance between the rotational and orbital motions of Mercury (the periods are Pφ = 56.646 and P&lambda = 87.969 days respectively) results from a functional dependance of the tidal friction adding to a non-zero eccentricity and a permanent asymmetry in the equatorial plane of the planet. The upcoming space missions, MESSENGER and BepiColombo with onboard instrumentation capable of measuring the rotational parameters stimulate the objective to reach an accurate theory of the rotational motion of Mercury. For obtaining the real motion of Mercury, we have used our BJV model of solar system integration including the coupled spin-orbit motion of the Moon. This model, expanded in a relativistic framework, had been previously built in accordance with the requirements of the Lunar Laser Ranging observational accuracy. We have extended the BJV model by generalizing the spin-orbit couplings to the terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars). The updated model is called SONYR (acronym of Spin-Orbit N-BodY Relativistic model). As a consequence, the SONYR model gives an accurate simultaneous integration of the spin-orbit motion of Mercury. It permits one to analyze the different families of rotational librations and identify their causes such as planetary interactions or the parameters involved in the dynamical figure of the planet. The spin-orbit motion of Mercury is characterized by two proper frequencies (namely Φ = 15.847 yrs and Ψ= 1066 yrs) and its 3:2 resonance presents a second synchronism which can be understood as a spin-orbit secular resonance (Π = 278 898 yrs). A new determination of the mean obliquity is proposed in the paper. By using the SONYR model, we find a mean obliquity of 1.6 arcmin. This value is consistent with the Cassini state of Mercury. Besides, we identify in the Hermean librations the impact of the uncertainty of the greatest principal moment of inertia (C/M R2) on the obliquity and on the libration in longitude

  5. Generalized theory of diffusion based on kinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, T.

    2016-10-01

    We propose to use spin hydrodynamics, a two-fluid model of spin propagation, as a generalization of the diffusion equation. We show that in the dense limit spin hydrodynamics reduces to Fick's law and the diffusion equation. In the opposite limit spin hydrodynamics is equivalent to a collisionless Boltzmann treatment of spin propagation. Spin hydrodynamics avoids unphysical effects that arise when the diffusion equation is used to describe to a strongly interacting gas with a dilute corona. We apply spin hydrodynamics to the problem of spin diffusion in a trapped atomic gas. We find that the observed spin relaxation rate in the high-temperature limit [Sommer et al., Nature (London) 472, 201 (2011), 10.1038/nature09989] is consistent with the diffusion constant predicted by kinetic theory.

  6. Conformal perturbation theory and higher spin entanglement entropy on the torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Shouvik [Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560012 (India); David, Justin R. [Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560012 (India); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Kumar, S. Prem [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-09

    We study the free fermion theory in 1+1 dimensions deformed by chemical potentials for holomorphic, conserved currents at finite temperature and on a spatial circle. For a spin-three chemical potential μ, the deformation is related at high temperatures to a higher spin black hole in hs[0] theory on AdS{sub 3} spacetime. We calculate the order μ{sup 2} corrections to the single interval Rényi and entanglement entropies on the torus using the bosonized formulation. A consistent result, satisfying all checks, emerges upon carefully accounting for both perturbative and winding mode contributions in the bosonized language. The order μ{sup 2} corrections involve integrals that are finite but potentially sensitive to contact term singularities. We propose and apply a prescription for defining such integrals which matches the Hamiltonian picture and passes several non-trivial checks for both thermal corrections and the Rényi entropies at this order. The thermal corrections are given by a weight six quasi-modular form, whilst the Rényi entropies are controlled by quasi-elliptic functions of the interval length with modular weight six. We also point out the well known connection between the perturbative expansion of the partition function in powers of the spin-three chemical potential and the Gross-Taylor genus expansion of large-N Yang-Mills theory on the torus. We note the absence of winding mode contributions in this connection, which suggests qualitatively different entanglement entropies for the two systems.

  7. Analytical methods applied to the study of lattice gauge and spin theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreo, Adriana.

    1985-01-01

    A study of interactions between quarks and gluons is presented. Certain difficulties of the quantum chromodynamics to explain the behaviour of quarks has given origin to the technique of lattice gauge theories. First the phase diagrams of the discrete space-time theories are studied. The analysis of the phase diagrams is made by numerical and analytical methods. The following items were investigated and studied: a) A variational technique was proposed to obtain very accurated values for the ground and first excited state energy of the analyzed theory; b) A mean-field-like approximation for lattice spin models in the link formulation which is a generalization of the mean-plaquette technique was developed; c) A new method to study lattice gauge theories at finite temperature was proposed. For the first time, a non-abelian model was studied with analytical methods; d) An abelian lattice gauge theory with fermionic matter at the strong coupling limit was analyzed. Interesting results applicable to non-abelian gauge theories were obtained. (M.E.L.) [es

  8. Excited State Studies of Polyacenes Using the All-Order Constricted Variational Density Functional Theory with Orbital Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Florian; Krykunov, Mykhaylo

    2015-10-22

    For the polyacenes series from naphthalene to hexacene, we present the vertical singlet excitation energies 1 (1)La and 1 (1)Lb, as well as the first triplet excitation energies obtained by the all-order constricted variational density functional theory with orbital relaxation (R-CV(∞)-DFT). R-CV(∞)-DFT is a further development of variational density functional theory (CV(∞)-DFT), which has already been successfully applied for the calculation of the vertical singlet excitation energies (1)La and (1)Lb for polyacenes,15 and we show that one obtains consistent excitation energies using the local density approximation as a functional for singlet as well as for triplet excitations when going beyond the linear response theory. Furthermore, we apply self-consistent field density functional theory (ΔSCF-DFT) and compare the obtained excitation energies for the first triplet excitations T1, where, due to the character of the transition, ΔSCF-DFT and R-CV(∞)-DFT become numerically equivalent, and for the singlet excitations 1 (1)La and 1 (1)Lb, where the two methods differ.

  9. Relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation tensor with kinetically balanced rotational London orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian

    2014-10-28

    Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same "direct relativistic mapping" between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].

  10. Theory of Electric-Field Effects on Electron-Spin-Resonance Hyperfine Couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karna, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    A quantum mechanical theory of the effects of a uniform electric field on electron-spin-resonance hyperfine couplings is presented. The electric-field effects are described in terms of perturbation coefficients which can be used to probe the local symmetry as well as the strength of the electric field at paramagnetic sites in a solid. Results are presented for the first-order perturbation coefficients describing the Bloembergen effect (linear electric-field effect on hyperfine coupling tensor) for the O atom and the OH radical. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. On the discrepancy between theory and experiment for the F-F spin-spin coupling constant of difluoethyne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Rasmus; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2012-01-01

    The vicinal indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constant (SSCC) between the two ¿uorine atoms in di¿uoroethyne has been reinvestigated. This coupling has previously proved dif¿cult to calculate accurately. In this study we have therefore systematically investigated the dependence of this coupling...

  12. Green’s functions for spin boson systems: Beyond conventional perturbation theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Junjie [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xu, Hui [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Chang-Qin [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2016-12-20

    Unraveling general properties of Green’s functions of quantum dissipative systems is of both experimental relevance and theoretical interest. Here, we study the spin-boson model as a prototype. By utilizing the Majorana-fermion representation together with the polaron transformation, we establish a theoretical approach to analyze Green’s functions of the spin-boson model. In contrast to conventional perturbation theories either in the tunneling energy or in the system-bath coupling strength, the proposed scheme gives reliable results over wide regimes of the coupling strength, bias, as well as temperature. To demonstrate the utility of the approach, we consider the susceptibility as well as the symmetrized spin correlation function (SSCF) which can be expressed in terms of Green’s functions. Thorough investigations are made on systems embedded in Ohmic or sub-Ohmic bosonic baths. We found the so-obtained SSCF is the same as that of the non-interacting blip approximation (NIBA) in unbiased systems while it is applicable for a wider range of temperature in the biased systems compared with the NIBA. We also show that a previous perturbation result is recovered as a weak coupling limit of the so-obtained SSCF. Furthermore, by studying the quantum criticality of the susceptibility, we confirm the validity of the quantum-to-classical mapping in the whole sub-Ohmic regime.

  13. Dimensional reduction as a method to obtain dual theories for massive spin two in arbitrary dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoudeir, A.; Montemayor, R.; Urrutia, Luis F.

    2008-09-01

    Using the parent Lagrangian method together with a dimensional reduction from D to (D-1) dimensions, we construct dual theories for massive spin two fields in arbitrary dimensions in terms of a mixed symmetry tensor TA[A1A2…AD-2]. Our starting point is the well-studied massless parent action in dimension D. The resulting massive Stueckelberg-like parent actions in (D-1) dimensions inherit all the gauge symmetries of the original massless action and can be gauge fixed in two alternative ways, yielding the possibility of having a parent action with either a symmetric or a nonsymmetric Fierz-Pauli field eAB. Even though the dual sector in terms of the standard spin two field includes only the symmetrical part e{AB} in both cases, these two possibilities yield different results in terms of the alternative dual field TA[A1A2…AD-2]. In particular, the nonsymmetric case reproduces the Freund-Curtright action as the dual to the massive spin two field action in four dimensions.

  14. Effect of thermal annealing on electron spin relaxation of beryllium-doped In{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}As{sub 0.45}P{sub 0.55} bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao; Harasawa, Ryo; Yasue, Yuya; Aritake, Takanori; Jiang, Canyu; Tackeuchi, Atsushi, E-mail: atacke@waseda.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Ji, Lian; Lu, Shulong [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dushu Lake Higher Education Town, Ruoshui Road 398, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou (China)

    2016-08-15

    The effect of thermal annealing on the electron spin relaxation of beryllium-doped In{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}As{sub 0.45}P{sub 0.55} bulk was investigated by time-resolved spin-dependent pump and probe reflection measurement with a high time resolution of 200 fs. Three similar InGaAsP samples were examined one of which was annealed at 800 °C for 1 s, one was annealed at 700 °C for 1 s and the other was not annealed after crystal growth by molecular beam epitaxy. Although the carrier lifetimes of the 700 °C-annealed sample and the unannealed sample were similar, that of the 800 °C-annealed sample was extended to 11.6 (10.4) ns at 10 (300) K, which was more than two (four) times those of the other samples. However, interestingly the spin relaxation time of the 800 °C-annealed sample was found to be similar to those of the other two samples. Particularly at room temperature, the spin relaxation times are 143 ps, 147 ps, and 111 ps for the 800 °C-annealed sample, 700 °C-annealed sample, and the unannealed sample, respectively.

  15. Effect of thermal annealing on electron spin relaxation of beryllium-doped In0.8Ga0.2As0.45P0.55 bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal annealing on the electron spin relaxation of beryllium-doped In0.8Ga0.2As0.45P0.55 bulk was investigated by time-resolved spin-dependent pump and probe reflection measurement with a high time resolution of 200 fs. Three similar InGaAsP samples were examined one of which was annealed at 800 °C for 1 s, one was annealed at 700 °C for 1 s and the other was not annealed after crystal growth by molecular beam epitaxy. Although the carrier lifetimes of the 700 °C-annealed sample and the unannealed sample were similar, that of the 800 °C-annealed sample was extended to 11.6 (10.4 ns at 10 (300 K, which was more than two (four times those of the other samples. However, interestingly the spin relaxation time of the 800 °C-annealed sample was found to be similar to those of the other two samples. Particularly at room temperature, the spin relaxation times are 143 ps, 147 ps, and 111 ps for the 800 °C-annealed sample, 700 °C-annealed sample, and the unannealed sample, respectively.

  16. Nuclear spin relaxation of {sup 8}Li in a thin film of La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.I. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Arseneau, D. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Chow, K.H. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2J1 (Canada); Daviel, S. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Engelbertz, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hossain, MD. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Keeler, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kiefl, R.F. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)]|[Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z1 (Canada)]|[Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 1Z8 (Canada)]. E-mail: kiefl@triumf.ca; Kreitzman, S. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Levy, C.D.P. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Morales, P. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., M5S 1A7 (Canada); Morris, G.D. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); MacFarlane, W.A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada): Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Parolin, T.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Poutissou, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Saadaoui, H.; Wang, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Salman, Z. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Wei, J.Y.T. [Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ont., M5G 1Z8 (Canada)]|[Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., M5S 1A7 (Canada)

    2006-03-31

    We report {beta}-NMR measurements of the nuclear spin relaxation rate (1/T{sub 1}) in a thin film of La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LCMO) using a low-energy beam of spin-polarized {sup 8}Li. In a small magnetic field of 150G, there is a broad peak in 1/T{sub 1} near the Curie temperature (T{sub c}=259K) and a dramatic decrease in 1/T{sub 1} at lower temperatures. This is attributed to a critical slowing down of the spin fluctuations near T{sub c} and freezing of the magnetic excitations at low temperatures, respectively. In addition, there is a small amplitude, slow relaxing component at high temperatures, which we attribute to {sup 8}Li in the SrTiO{sub 3} substrate. There is an indication that the spin relaxation rate in the substrate is also peaked at T{sub c} due to close proximity to the magnetic film. These results establish that low-energy {beta}-NMR can be used as a probe of magnetic fluctuations in magnetic thin films over a wide range of temperatures.

  17. Molecular interactions in the ionic liquid emim acetate and water binary mixtures probed via NMR spin relaxation and exchange spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jesse J; Bowser, Sage R; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2014-05-07

    Interactions of ionic liquids (ILs) with water are of great interest for many potential IL applications. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (emim) acetate, in particular, has shown interesting interactions with water including hydrogen bonding and even chemical exchange. Previous studies have shown the unusual behavior of emim acetate when in the presence of 0.43 mole fraction of water, and a combination of NMR techniques is used herein to investigate the emim acetate-water system and the unusual behavior at 0.43 mole fraction of water. NMR relaxometry techniques are used to describe the effects of water on the molecular motion and interactions of emim acetate with water. A discontinuity is seen in nuclear relaxation behavior at the concentration of 0.43 mole fraction of water, and this is attributed to the formation of a hydrogen bonded network. EXSY measurements are used to determine the exchange rates between the H2 emim proton and water, which show a complex dependence on the concentration of the mixture. The findings support and expand our previous results, which suggested the presence of an extended hydrogen bonding network in the emim acetate-water system at concentrations close to 0.50 mole fraction of H2O.

  18. Giant spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2011-10-14

    Fully relativistic first-principles calculations based on density functional theory are performed to study the spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in monolayer systems of the transition-metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2. All these systems are identified as direct-band-gap semiconductors. Giant spin splittings of 148–456 meV result from missing inversion symmetry. Full out-of-plane spin polarization is due to the two-dimensional nature of the electron motion and the potential gradient asymmetry. By suppression of the Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation, spin lifetimes are expected to be very long. Because of the giant spin splittings, the studied materials have great potential in spintronics applications.

  19. Solid state NMR, basic theory and recent progress for quadrupole nuclei with half-integer spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieter, F.

    1998-01-01

    This review describes the basic theory and some recently developed techniques for the study of quadrupole nuclei with half integer spins in powder materials. The latter is connected to the introduction of the double rotation (DOR) by A. Samoson et al. (1) and to the introduction of the multiple quantum magic-angle spinning (MQ MAS) technique by L. Frydman et. al. (2). For integer spins, especially the solid-state deuterium magnetic resonance, we refer to the review of G.L. Hoatson and R.L. Vold: '' 2 H-NMR Spectroscopy of Solids and Liquid Crystals'' (3). For single crystals we refer to O. Kanert and M. Mehring: ''Static quadrupole effects in disordered cubic solids''(4) and we would like also to mention the ''classic'' review of M.H. Cohen and F. Reif: ''Quadrupole effects in NMR studies of solids'' (5). Some more recent reviews in the field under study are D. Freude and J. Haase ''Quadrupole effects in solid-state NMR'' (6). Ch. Jager: ''Satellite Transition Spectroscopy of Quadrupolar Nuclei'' (7) and B.F. Chmelka and J.W. Zwanziger: ''Solid State NMR Line Narrowing Methods for Quadrupolar Nuclei - Double Rotation and Dynamic-Angle Spinning'' (8). A survey of nuclear quadrupole frequency data published before the end of 1982 is given by H. Chihara and N. Nakamura in Landolt-Bornstein, Vol. 20 (9). Values of the chemical shift of quadrupole nuclei in solids can be found in books such as ''Multinuclear NMR'' edited by J. Mason (10). In section 9 of ref (6) some electric field gradient and chemical shift data published from 1983 to 1992 for the most studied quadrupole nuclei sup 27 Al, sup 23 Na, and sup 17 O are given

  20. Non-geometric vacua of the Spin(32)/ ℤ 2 heterotic string and little string theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Anamaría; Mayrhofer, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    We study a class of 6d N = (1, 0) non-geometric vacua of the Spin(32)/ ℤ 2 heterotic string which can be understood as fibrations of genus-two curves over a complex one-dimensional base. The 6d N = (1, 0) theories living on the defects that arise when the genus-two fiber degenerates at a point of the base are analyzed by dualizing to F-theory on elliptic K3-fibered non-compact Calabi-Yau threefolds. We consider all possible degenerations of genus-two curves and systematically attempt to resolve the singularities of the dual threefolds. As in the analogous non-geometric vacua of the E 8 × E 8 heterotic string, we find that many of the resulting dual threefolds contain singularities which do not admit a crepant resolution. When the singularities can be resolved crepantly, we determine the emerging effective theories which turn out to be little string theories at a generic point on their tensor branch. We also observe a form of duality in which theories living on distinct defects are the same.

  1. Pressure dependence of critical temperature of bulk FeSe from spin fluctuation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Peter; Kreisel, Andreas; Wang, Yan; Tomic, Milan; Jeschke, Harald; Jacko, Anthony; Valenti, Roser; Maier, Thomas; Scalapino, Douglas

    2013-03-01

    The critical temperature of the 8K superconductor FeSe is extremely sensitive to pressure, rising to a maximum of 40K at about 10GPa. We test the ability of the current generation of fluctuation exchange pairing theories to account for this effect, by downfolding the density functional theory electronic structure for each pressure to a tight binding model. The Fermi surface found in such a procedure is then used with fixed Hubbard parameters to determine the pairing strength using the random phase approximation for the spin singlet pairing vertex. We find that the evolution of the Fermi surface captured by such an approach is alone not sufficient to explain the observed pressure dependence, and discuss alternative approaches. PJH, YW, AK were supported by DOE DE-FG02-05ER46236, the financial support of MT, HJ, and RV from the DFG Schwerpunktprogramm 1458 is kindly acknowledged.

  2. F-Theory, spinning black holes and multi-string branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighat, Babak [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Mathematics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Murthy, Sameer [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Vafa, Cumrun [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vandoren, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University,3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-01-04

    We study 5d supersymmetric black holes which descend from strings of generic N=(1,0) supergravity in 6d. These strings have an F-theory realization in 6d as D3 branes wrapping smooth genus g curves in the base of elliptic 3-folds. They enjoy (0,4) worldsheet supersymmetry with an extra SU(2){sub L} current algebra at level g realized on the left-movers. When the smooth curves degenerate they lead to multi-string branches and we find that the microscopic worldsheet theory flows in the IR to disconnected 2d CFTs having different central charges. The single string sector is the one with maximal central charge, which when wrapped on a circle, leads to a 5d spinning BPS black hole whose horizon volume agrees with the leading entropy prediction from the Cardy formula. However, we find new phenomena where this branch meets other branches of the CFT. These include multi-string configurations which have no bound states in 6 dimensions but are bound through KK momenta when wrapping a circle, as well as loci where the curves degenerate to spheres. These loci lead to black hole configurations which can have total angular momentum relative to a Taub-Nut center satisfying J{sup 2}>M{sup 3} and whose number of states, though exponentially large, grows much slower than those of the large spinning black hole.

  3. NMR relaxation rate and the libron energy of solid hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, K.; Woollam, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    By taking the rotational relaxation of orthohydrogen (o-H2) in solid hydrogen into account, the authors have theoretically investigated the longitudinal NMR spin lattice relaxation rate of o-H2. The rate is characterized by an anomalous maximum, as a function of temperature, at temperatures close to the mean libron energy of o-H2. Application of the theory for o-H2 concentrations between 42% and 75% reveals a nearly concentration-independent mean libron energy equivalent to about 1 K. This qualitatively and quantitatively contradicts the conclusions of other theories, but agrees with recent experiments.

  4. Quantum field theory treatment of magnetic effects on the spin and orbital angular momentum of a free electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurian, P.; Verzegnassi, C.

    2016-01-01

    We consider in a quantum field theory framework the effects of a classical magnetic field on the spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a free electron. We derive formulae for the changes in the spin and OAM due to the introduction of a general classical background field. We consider then a constant magnetic field, in which case the relevant expressions of the effects become much simpler and conversions between spin and OAM become readily apparent. An estimate of the expectation values for a realistic electron state is also given. Our findings may be of interest to researchers in spintronics and the field of quantum biology, where electron spin has been implicated on macroscopic time and energy scales. - Highlights: • We present the first field theory treatment of magnetic changes in electron spin. • Changes in spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) are correlated and calculated. • Expectation values of spin–OAM changes for a realistic electron state are computed. • Earth's magnetic field produces non-negligible changes in spin of a few percent. • Results apply to spin–OAM conversion in electron vortex beams and quantum biology.

  5. Theory of high-resolution tunneling spin transport on a magnetic skyrmion

    OpenAIRE

    Palotás, Krisztián; Rózsa, Levente; Szunyogh, László

    2018-01-01

    Tunneling spin transport characteristics of a magnetic skyrmion are described theoretically in magnetic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The spin-polarized charge current in STM (SP-STM) and tunneling spin transport vector quantities, the longitudinal spin current and the spin transfer torque are calculated in high spatial resolution within the same theoretical framework. A connection between the conventional charge current SP-STM image contrasts and the magnitudes of the spin transport v...

  6. Critical quench dynamics of random quantum spin chains: ultra-slow relaxation from initial order and delayed ordering from initial disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roósz, Gergö; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Iglói, Ferenc

    2017-02-01

    By means of free fermionic techniques combined with multiple precision arithmetic we study the time evolution of the average magnetization, \\overline{m}(t), of the random transverse-field Ising chain after global quenches. We observe different relaxation behaviors for quenches starting from different initial states to the critical point. Starting from a fully ordered initial state, the relaxation is logarithmically slow described by \\overline{m}(t)∼ {{ln}}at, and in a finite sample of length L the average magnetization saturates at a size-dependent plateau {\\overline{m}}p(L)∼ {L}-b; here the two exponents satisfy the relation b/a=\\psi =1/2. Starting from a fully disordered initial state, the magnetization stays at zero for a period of time until t={t}{{d}} with {ln}{t}{{d}}∼ {L}\\psi and then starts to increase until it saturates to an asymptotic value {\\overline{m}}p(L)∼ {L}-b^{\\prime }, with b\\prime ≈ 1.5. For both quenching protocols, finite-size scaling is satisfied in terms of the scaled variable {ln}t/{L}\\psi . Furthermore, the distribution of long-time limiting values of the magnetization shows that the typical and the average values scale differently and the average is governed by rare events. The non-equilibrium dynamical behavior of the magnetization is explained through semi-classical theory.

  7. Distribution of glass transition temperatures Tg in polystyrene thin films as revealed by low-energy muon spin relaxation: A comparison with neutron reflectivity results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Toshiji; Ogawa, Hiroki; Kishimoto, Mizuki; Inoue, Rintaro; Suter, Andreas; Prokscha, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    In a previous paper [Phys. Rev. E 83, 021801 (2011)] we performed neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements on a five-layer polystyrene (PS) thin film consisting of alternatively stacked deuterated polystyrene (dPS) and hydrogenated polystyrene (hPS) layers (dPS/hPS/dPS/hPS/dPS, ∼100 nm thick) on a Si substrate to reveal the distribution of Tg along the depth direction. Information on the Tg distribution is very useful to understand the interesting but unusual properties of polymer thin films. However, one problem that we have to clarify is if there are effects of deuterium labeling on Tg or not. To tackle the problem we performed low-energy muon spin relaxation (μSR) measurements on the above-mentioned deuterium-labeled five-layer PS thin film as well as dPS and hPS single-layer thin films ∼100 nm thick as a function of muon implantation energy. It was found that the deuterium labeling had no significant effects on the Tg distribution, guaranteeing that we can safely discuss the unusual thin film properties based on the Tg distribution revealed by NR on the deuterium-labeled thin films. In addition, the μSR result suggested that the higher Tg near the Si substrate is due to the strong orientation of phenyl rings.

  8. Electrical Spin Generation and Transport in Spin-Orbit Coupled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qian

    2005-03-01

    We consider spin generation and transport in bands with built-in spin-orbit coupling. A number of fundamental issues will be discussed: (1) the existence of spin-dipole and torque-dipole of wave packets which model the carriers; (2) source terms in the continuity equation (spin generation and relaxation); (3) the composition of the spin current (Berry phase and more); (4) spin Hall conductivity and its reciprocal; (5) the spin current responsible for spin accumulation. *References: *1 D. Culcer, J. Sinova, N. A. Sinitsyn, T. Jungwirth, A. H.MacDonald, Q. Niu, `Semiclassical theory of spin transport in spin-orbit coupled systems', Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 046602 (2004). *2 P. Zhang and Q. Niu, `Charge-Hall effect driven by spin force: reciprocal of the spin-Hall effect' Cond-mat/0406436. *3 D. Culcer, Y. G. Yao, A. H. MacDonald, and Q. Niu, `Electric generation of spin in crystals with reduced symmetry', Cond-mat/0408020.

  9. Fractional Spin Fluctuations as a Precursor of Quantum Spin Liquids: Majorana Dynamical Mean-Field Study for the Kitaev Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Junki; Nasu, Joji; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-10-07

    Experimental identification of quantum spin liquids remains a challenge, as the pristine nature is to be seen in asymptotically low temperatures. We here theoretically show that the precursor of quantum spin liquids appears in the spin dynamics in the paramagnetic state over a wide temperature range. Using the cluster dynamical mean-field theory and the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method, which are newly developed in the Majorana fermion representation, we calculate the dynamical spin structure factor, relaxation rate in nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic susceptibility for the honeycomb Kitaev model whose ground state is a canonical example of the quantum spin liquid. We find that dynamical spin correlations show peculiar temperature and frequency dependence even below the temperature where static correlations saturate. The results provide the experimentally accessible symptoms of the fluctuating fractionalized spins evincing the quantum spin liquids.

  10. Microscopic theory of multiple-phonon-mediated dephasing and relaxation of quantum dots near a photonic band gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Chiranjeeb; John, Sajeev

    2010-02-01

    We derive a quantum theory of the role of acoustic and optical phonons in modifying the optical absorption line shape, polarization dynamics, and population dynamics of a two-level atom (quantum dot) in the “colored” electromagnetic vacuum of a photonic band-gap (PBG) material. This is based on a microscopic Hamiltonian describing both radiative and vibrational processes quantum mechanically. We elucidate the extent to which phonon-assisted decay limits the lifetime of a single photon-atom bound state and derive the modified spontaneous emission dynamics due to coupling to various phonon baths. We demonstrate that coherent interaction with undamped phonons can lead to an enhanced lifetime of a photon-atom bound state in a PBG. This results in reduction of the steady-state atomic polarization but an increase in the fractionalized upper state population in the photon-atom bound state. We demonstrate, on the other hand, that the lifetime of the photon-atom bound state in a PBG is limited by the lifetime of phonons due to lattice anharmonicities (breakup of phonons into lower energy phonons) and purely nonradiative decay. We also derive the modified polarization decay and dephasing rates in the presence of such damping. This leads to a microscopic, quantum theory of the optical absorption line shapes. Our model and formalism provide a starting point for describing dephasing and relaxation in the presence of external coherent fields and multiple quantum dot interactions in electromagnetic reservoirs with radiative memory effects.

  11. Fourth-order wave equation in Bhabha-Madhavarao spin-3 2 theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Yu. A.; Markova, M. A.; Bondarenko, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    Within the framework of the Bhabha-Madhavarao formalism, a consistent approach to the derivation of a system of the fourth-order wave equations for the description of a spin-3 2 particle is suggested. For this purpose an additional algebraic object, the so-called q-commutator (q is a primitive fourth root of unity) and a new set of matrices ημ, instead of the original matrices βμ of the Bhabha-Madhavarao algebra, are introduced. It is shown that in terms of the ημ matrices we have succeeded in reducing a procedure of the construction of fourth root of the fourth-order wave operator to a few simple algebraic transformations and to some operation of the passage to the limit z → q, where z is some (complex) deformation parameter entering into the definition of the η-matrices. In addition, a set of the matrices 𝒫1/2 and 𝒫3/2(±)(q) possessing the properties of projectors is introduced. These operators project the matrices ημ onto the spins 1/2- and 3/2-sectors in the theory under consideration. A corresponding generalization of the obtained results to the case of the interaction with an external electromagnetic field introduced through the minimal coupling scheme is carried out. The application to the problem of construction of the path integral representation in para-superspace for the propagator of a massive spin-3 2 particle in a background gauge field within the Bhabha-Madhavarao approach is discussed.

  12. A quantum simulation approach for a three-dimensional Ising spin model—Comparison to mean field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosen Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We use a recently developed quantum simulation approach to study the properties of a three-dimensional Ising model consisting of S = 1/2 quantum spins localized at the sites of a simple cubic lattice. We assume nearest-neighbor interaction between spins with an exchange interaction that can be either ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic. It is found that the computational method quickly converges towards the expected equilibrium spin configurations. The resulting spontaneous magnetization curves corresponding to the two types of magnetic interactions under consideration were found to be almost identical to the ones obtained via quantum mean field theory at all temperatures. The derived total energies, total free energies, magnetic entropies and specific heats per mole of spins show no sizeable differences from known theoretical values. Furthermore, the results of the simulations for two different 3D Ising systems containing 4×4×4 and 20×20×20 spins localized at the sites of a simple cubic lattice were found to be almost identical to each other. This finding suggests that the self-consistent algorithm approach of the current simulation method allows one to obtain the physical bulk properties of a large magnetic system by relying on simulations of a much smaller spin system sample. Therefore, the method presently considered appears to be not only very accurate as gauged by comparison to mean field theory, but also able to greatly increase the speed of simulations.

  13. Generalized nuclear Fukui functions in the framework of spin-polarized density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro, E.; Proft, F. de; Geerlings, P.

    2005-01-01

    An extension of Cohen's nuclear Fukui function is presented in the spin-polarized framework of density-functional theory (SP-DFT). The resulting new nuclear Fukui function indices Φ Nα and Φ Sα are intended to be the natural descriptors for the responses of the nuclei to changes involving charge transfer at constant multiplicity and also the spin polarization at constant number of electrons. These generalized quantities allow us to gain new insights within a perturbative scheme based on DFT. Calculations of the electronic and nuclear SP-DFT quantities are presented within a Kohn-Sham framework of chemical reactivity for a sample of molecules, including H 2 O, H 2 CO, and some simple nitrenes (NX) and phosphinidenes (PX), with X=H, Li, F, Cl, OH, SH, NH 2 , and PH 2 . Results have been interpreted in terms of chemical bonding in the context of Berlin's theorem, which provides a separation of the molecular space into binding and antibinding regions

  14. Spin-wave excitations and electron-magnon scattering from many-body perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Christoph; Müller, Mathias C. T. D.; Blügel, Stefan

    We study the spin excitations and the electron-magnon scattering in bulk Fe, Co, and Ni within the framework of many-body perturbation theory as implemented in the full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave method. Starting from the GW approximation we obtain a Bethe-Salpeter equation for the magnetic susceptibility treating single-particle Stoner excitations and magnons on the same footing. Due to approximations used in the numerical scheme, the acoustic magnon dispersion exhibits a small but finite gap at Γ. We analyze this violation of the Goldstone theorem and present an approach that implements the magnetic susceptibility using a renormalized Green function instead of the non-interacting one, leading to a substantial improvement of the Goldstone-mode condition. Finally, we employ the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation to construct a self-energy that describes the scattering of electrons and magnons. The resulting renormalized band structures exhibit strong lifetime effects close to the Fermi energy. We also see kinks in the electronic bands, which we attribute to electron scattering with spatially extended spin waves.

  15. Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and Conductivity Studies of the Non-Arrhenius Conductivity Behavior in Lithium Fast Ion Conducting Sulfide Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Benjamin Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As time progresses, the world is using up more of the planet's natural resources. Without technological advances, the day will eventually arrive when these natural resources will no longer be sufficient to supply all of the energy needs. As a result, society is seeing a push for the development of alternative fuel sources such as wind power, solar power, fuel cells, and etc. These pursuits are even occurring in the state of Iowa with increasing social pressure to incorporate larger percentages of ethanol in gasoline. Consumers are increasingly demanding that energy sources be more powerful, more durable, and, ultimately, more cost efficient. Fast Ionic Conducting (FIC) glasses are a material that offers great potential for the development of new batteries and/or fuel cells to help inspire the energy density of battery power supplies. This dissertation probes the mechanisms by which ions conduct in these glasses. A variety of different experimental techniques give a better understanding of the interesting materials science taking place within these systems. This dissertation discusses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques performed on FIC glasses over the past few years. These NMR results have been complimented with other measurement techniques, primarily impedance spectroscopy, to develop models that describe the mechanisms by which ionic conduction takes place and the dependence of the ion dynamics on the local structure of the glass. The aim of these measurements was to probe the cause of a non-Arrhenius behavior of the conductivity which has been seen at high temperatures in the silver thio-borosilicate glasses. One aspect that will be addressed is if this behavior is unique to silver containing fast ion conducting glasses. more specifically, this study will determine if a non-Arrhenius correlation time, τ, can be observed in the Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation (NSLR) measurements. If so, then can this behavior be modeled with a new single

  16. Self-consistent mean field theory studies of the thermodynamics and quantum spin dynamics of magnetic Skyrmions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, R

    2017-05-04

    A self-consistent mean field theory is introduced and used to investigate the thermodynamics and spin dynamics of an S  =  1 quantum spin system with a magnetic Skyrmion. The temperature dependence of the Skyrmion profile as well as the phase diagram are calculated. In addition, the spin dynamics of a magnetic Skyrmion is described by solving the time dependent Schrödinger equation with additional damping term. The Skyrmion annihilation process driven by an electric field is used to compare the trajectories of the quantum mechanical simulation with a semi-classical description for the spin expectation values using a differential equation similar to the classical Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation.

  17. Integrable spin chain of superconformal U(M) x U(N)-bar Chern-Simons theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gang, Dongmin; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2008-01-01

    N = 6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory with gauge group U(M) x U(N)-bar is dual to N M2-branes and (M-N) fractional M2-branes, equivalently, discrete 3-form holonomy at C 4 /Z k orbifold singularity. We show that, much like its regular counterpart of M = N, the theory at planar limit have integrability structure in the conformal dimension spectrum of single trace operators. We first revisit the Yang-Baxter equation for a spin chain system associated with the single trace operators. We show that the integrability by itself does not preclude parity symmetry breaking. We construct two-parameter family of parity non-invariant, alternating spin chain Hamiltonian involving three-site interactions between 4 and 4-bar of SU(4) R . At weak 't Hooft coupling, we study the Chern-Simons theory perturbatively and calculate anomalous dimension of single trace operators up to two loops. The computation is essentially parallel to the regular case M = N. We find that resulting spin chain Hamiltonian matches with the Hamiltonian derived from Yang-Baxter equation, but to the one preserving parity symmetry. We give several intuitive explanations why the parity symmetry breaking is not detected in the Chern-Simons spin chain Hamiltonian at perturbative level. We suggest that open spin chain, associated with open string excitations on giant gravitons or dibaryons, can detect discrete flat holonomy and hence parity symmetry breaking through boundary field.

  18. Giant-spin nonlinear response theory of magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia: A field dependence study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrião, M. S.; Aquino, V. R. R.; Landi, G. T.; Verde, E. L.; Sousa, M. H.; Bakuzis, A. F.

    2017-05-01

    Understanding high-field amplitude electromagnetic heat loss phenomena is of great importance, in particular, in the biomedical field, because the heat-delivery treatment plans might rely on analytical models that are only valid at low field amplitudes. Here, we develop a nonlinear response model valid for single-domain nanoparticles of larger particle sizes and higher field amplitudes in comparison to the linear response theory. A nonlinear magnetization expression and a generalized heat loss power equation are obtained and compared with the exact solution of the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation assuming the giant-spin hypothesis. The model is valid within the hyperthermia therapeutic window and predicts a shift of optimum particle size and distinct heat loss field amplitude exponents, which is often obtained experimentally using a phenomenological allometric function. Experimental hyperthermia data with distinct ferrite-based nanoparticles and third harmonic magnetization data support the nonlinear model, which also has implications for magnetic particle imaging and magnetic thermometry.

  19. Theory of radiative muon capture with applications to nuclear spin and isospin doublets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W.P.; Primakoff, H.

    1978-01-01

    A theory of radiative muon capture, with applications to nuclear spin and isospin doublets, is formulated on the basis of the conservation of the hadronic electromagnetic current, the conservation of the hadronic weak polar currents, the partial conservation of the hadronic weak axial-vector current, the SU(2) x SU(2) current algebra for the various hadronic current, and a simplifying dynamical approximation for the hadron-radiating part of the transition amplitude: the ''linearity hypothesis''. The resultant total transition amplitude, which also includes the muon-radiating part, is worked out explicitly and applied to treat the processes μ - p → ν/sub μ/nγ and μ - 3 He → ν/sub μ/ 3 Hγ

  20. Phase diagrams in mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system with two alternative layers within the effective-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviren, Bayram; Polat, Yasin; Keskin, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The phase diagrams in the mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system with two alternative layers on a honeycomb lattice are investigated and discussed by the use of the effective-field theory with correlations. The interaction of the nearest-neighbour spins of each layer is taken to be positive (ferromagnetic interaction) and the interaction of the adjacent spins of the nearest-neighbour layers is considered to be either positive or negative (ferromagnetic or anti-ferromagnetic interaction). The temperature dependence of the layer magnetizations of the system is examined to characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the phase transitions and obtain the phase transition temperatures. The system exhibits both second- and first-order phase transitions besides triple point (TP), critical end point (E), multicritical point (A), isolated critical point (C) and reentrant behaviour depending on the interaction parameters. We have also studied the temperature dependence of the total magnetization to find the compensation points, as well as to determine the type of behaviour, and N-type behaviour in Néel classification nomenclature existing in the system. The phase diagrams are constructed in eight different planes and it is found that the system also presents the compensation phenomena depending on the sign of the bilinear exchange interactions. (general)

  1. Muon spin relaxation study on itinerant ferromagnet CeCrGe₃ and the effect of Ti substitution on magnetism of CeCrGe₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debarchan; Bhattacharyya, A; Anand, V K; Hillier, A D; Taylor, J W; Gruner, T; Geibel, C; Adroja, D T; Hossain, Z

    2015-01-14

    A Muon spin relaxation (µSR) study has been performed on the Kondo lattice heavy fermion itinerant ferromagnet CeCrGe3. Recent investigations of bulk properties have revealed a long-range ordering of Cr moments at Tc = 70 K in this compound. Our µSR investigation between 1.2 K and 125 K confirm the bulk magnetic order which is marked by a loss in initial asymmetry below 70 K accompanied with a sharp increase in the muon depolarization rate. Field dependent µSR spectra show that the internal field at the muon site is higher than 0.25 T apparently due to the ferromagnetic nature of ordering. The effect of Ti substitution on the magnetism in CeCrGe3 is presented. A systematic study has been made on polycrystalline CeCr(1-x)Ti(x)Ge3 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) using magnetic susceptibility χ(T), isothermal magnetization M(H), specific heat C(T) and electrical resistivity ρ(T) measurements which clearly reveal that the substitution of Ti for Cr in CeCrGe3 strongly influences the exchange interaction and ferromagnetic ordering of Cr moments. The Cr moment ordering temperature is suppressed gradually with increasing Ti concentration up to x = 0.50 showing Tc = 7 K beyond which Ce moment ordering starts to dominate and a crossover between Cr and Ce moment ordering is observed with a Ce moment ordering Tc = 14 K for x = 1.0. The Kondo lattice behavior is evident from temperature dependence of ρ(T) in all CeCr(1-x)Ti(x)Ge3 samples.

  2. Spin-adapted open-shell time-dependent density functional theory. III. An even better and simpler formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2011-11-21

    The recently proposed spin-adapted time-dependent density functional theory (S-TD-DFT) [Z. Li and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 064106 (2010)] resolves the spin-contamination problem in describing singly excited states of high spin open-shell systems. It is an extension of the standard restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham-based TD-DFT which can only access those excited states due to singlet-coupled single excitations. It is also far superior over the unrestricted Kohn-Sham-based TD-DFT (U-TD-DFT) which suffers from severe spin contamination for those excited states due to triplet-coupled single excitations. Nonetheless, the accuracy of S-TD-DFT for high spin open-shell systems is still inferior to TD-DFT for well-behaved closed-shell systems. The reason can be traced back to the violation of the spin degeneracy conditions (SDC) by approximate exchange-correlation (XC) functionals. Noticing that spin-adapted random phase approximation (S-RPA) can indeed maintain the SDC by virtue of the Wigner-Eckart theorem, a hybrid ansatz combining the good of S-TD-DFT and S-RPA can immediately be envisaged. The resulting formalism, dubbed as X-TD-DFT, is free of spin contamination and can also be viewed as a S-RPA correction to the XC kernel of U-TD-DFT. Compared with S-TD-DFT, X-TD-DFT leads to much improved results for the low-lying excited states of, e.g., N(2)(+), yet with much reduced computational cost. Therefore, X-TD-DFT can be recommended for routine calculations of excited states of high spin open-shell systems.

  3. Modified spin-wave theory with ordering vector optimization: frustrated bosons on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauke, Philipp [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Meditarranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Roscilde, Tommaso [Laboratoire de Physique, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 Allee d' Italie, F-69007 Lyon (France); Murg, Valentin; Ignacio Cirac, J; Schmied, Roman, E-mail: Philipp.Hauke@icfo.e [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    We investigate a system of frustrated hardcore bosons, modeled by an XY antiferromagnet on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice, using Takahashi's modified spin-wave (MSW) theory. In particular, we implement ordering vector optimization on the ordered reference state of MSW theory, which leads to significant improvement of the theory and accounts for quantum corrections to the classically ordered state. The MSW results at zero temperature compare favorably to exact diagonalization (ED) and projected entangled-pair state (PEPS) calculations. The resulting zero-temperature phase diagram includes a one-dimensional (1D) quasi-ordered phase, a 2D Neel ordered phase and a 2D spiraling ordered phase. Strong indications coming from the ED and PEPS calculations, as well as from the breakdown of MSW theory, suggest that the various ordered or quasi-ordered phases are separated by spin-liquid phases with short-range correlations, in analogy to what has been predicted for the Heisenberg model on the same lattice. Within MSW theory, we also explore the finite-temperature phase diagram. In agreement with the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory, we find that zero-temperature long-range-ordered phases turn into quasi-ordered phases (up to a BKT transition temperature), while zero-temperature quasi-ordered phases become short-range correlated at finite temperature. These results show that, despite its simplicity, MSW theory is very well suited to describing ordered and quasi-ordered phases of frustrated XY spins (or, equivalently, of frustrated lattice bosons) both at zero and finite temperatures. While MSW theory, just as other theoretical methods, cannot describe spin-liquid phases, its breakdown provides a fast and reliable method for singling out Hamiltonians that may feature these intriguing quantum phases. We thus suggest a tool for guiding our search for interesting systems whose properties are necessarily studied with a physical quantum simulator

  4. Modified spin-wave theory with ordering vector optimization: frustrated bosons on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Philipp; Roscilde, Tommaso; Murg, Valentin; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Schmied, Roman

    2010-05-01

    We investigate a system of frustrated hardcore bosons, modeled by an XY antiferromagnet on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice, using Takahashi's modified spin-wave (MSW) theory. In particular, we implement ordering vector optimization on the ordered reference state of MSW theory, which leads to significant improvement of the theory and accounts for quantum corrections to the classically ordered state. The MSW results at zero temperature compare favorably to exact diagonalization (ED) and projected entangled-pair state (PEPS) calculations. The resulting zero-temperature phase diagram includes a one-dimensional (1D) quasi-ordered phase, a 2D Néel ordered phase and a 2D spiraling ordered phase. Strong indications coming from the ED and PEPS calculations, as well as from the breakdown of MSW theory, suggest that the various ordered or quasi-ordered phases are separated by spin-liquid phases with short-range correlations, in analogy to what has been predicted for the Heisenberg model on the same lattice. Within MSW theory, we also explore the finite-temperature phase diagram. In agreement with the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory, we find that zero-temperature long-range-ordered phases turn into quasi-ordered phases (up to a BKT transition temperature), while zero-temperature quasi-ordered phases become short-range correlated at finite temperature. These results show that, despite its simplicity, MSW theory is very well suited to describing ordered and quasi-ordered phases of frustrated XY spins (or, equivalently, of frustrated lattice bosons) both at zero and finite temperatures. While MSW theory, just as other theoretical methods, cannot describe spin-liquid phases, its breakdown provides a fast and reliable method for singling out Hamiltonians that may feature these intriguing quantum phases. We thus suggest a tool for guiding our search for interesting systems whose properties are necessarily studied with a physical quantum simulator instead

  5. Proton NMR relaxation of hydrated insulin powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, R.; Donoso, J.P.; Mascarenhas, S.; Panepucci, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    Water proton nuclear magnetic relaxation measurements were obtained for hydrated insulin powder as a function of the water content. For samples containing enough water to complete the hydration shell, the data for the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times are consistent with a model in which water molecules exist in two phases, one exhibiting restricted motion and identified with water of hydration and another identified as free water with motions similar to ordinary water. For samples containing only water of hydration, a model for the spin-spin relaxation time is discussed, in which the water molecules relaxation is described in terms for four relaxation times. Estimates are obtained for these relaxation times, in good agreement with the experimental data. (Author) [pt

  6. Magnetic properties of a mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system within the effective-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviren, Bayram; Kantar, Ersin; Keskin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising model with a crystal field in a longitudinal magnetic field on a honeycomb (δ = 3) and a square lattice (δ = 4) are studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The ground-state phase diagram of the model is obtained in a longitudinal magnetic field (h) for a single-ion potential or a crystal-field interaction (Δ) plane. We also investigate the thermal variations of the sublattice magnetization, and present the phase diagrams in the (Δ/|J|, k B T/|J|) plane. The susceptibility, internal energy, and specific heat of the system are numerically examined, and some interesting phenomena in these quantities are found due to the applied longitudinal magnetic field. Moreover, the system undergoes first- and second-order phase transitions; hence, the system has a tricritical point. The system also exhibits reentrant behaviors.

  7. Magnetic properties of a mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system within the effective-field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deviren, Bayram [Nevsehir University, Nevsehir (Turkmenistan); Kantar, Ersin; Keskin, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkmenistan)

    2010-06-15

    The magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising model with a crystal field in a longitudinal magnetic field on a honeycomb ({delta} = 3) and a square lattice ({delta} = 4) are studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The ground-state phase diagram of the model is obtained in a longitudinal magnetic field (h) for a single-ion potential or a crystal-field interaction ({Delta}) plane. We also investigate the thermal variations of the sublattice magnetization, and present the phase diagrams in the ({Delta}/|J|, k{sub B}T/|J|) plane. The susceptibility, internal energy, and specific heat of the system are numerically examined, and some interesting phenomena in these quantities are found due to the applied longitudinal magnetic field. Moreover, the system undergoes first- and second-order phase transitions; hence, the system has a tricritical point. The system also exhibits reentrant behaviors.

  8. Microscopic Theory of Magnetic Detwinning in Iron-Based Superconductors with Large-Spin Rare Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwald, Jannis; Mazin, I. I.; Gegenwart, Philipp

    2018-01-01

    Detwinning of magnetic (nematic) domains in Fe-based superconductors has so far only been obtained through mechanical straining, which considerably perturbs the ground state of these materials. The recently discovered nonmechanical detwinning in EuFe2 As2 by ultralow magnetic fields offers an entirely different, nonperturbing way to achieve the same goal. However, this way seemed risky due to the lack of a microscopic understanding of the magnetically driven detwinning. Specifically, the following issues remained unexplained: (i) ultralow value of the first detwinning field of approximately 0.1 T, two orders of magnitude below that of BaFe2 As2 , and (ii) reversal of the preferential domain orientation at approximately 1 T and restoration of the low-field orientation above 10-15 T. In this paper, we present, using published as well as newly measured data, a full theory that quantitatively explains all the observations. The key ingredient of this theory is a biquadratic coupling between Fe and Eu spins, analogous to the Fe-Fe biquadratic coupling that drives the nematic transition in this family of materials.

  9. Microscopic Theory of Magnetic Detwinning in Iron-Based Superconductors with Large-Spin Rare Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannis Maiwald

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Detwinning of magnetic (nematic domains in Fe-based superconductors has so far only been obtained through mechanical straining, which considerably perturbs the ground state of these materials. The recently discovered nonmechanical detwinning in EuFe_{2}As_{2} by ultralow magnetic fields offers an entirely different, nonperturbing way to achieve the same goal. However, this way seemed risky due to the lack of a microscopic understanding of the magnetically driven detwinning. Specifically, the following issues remained unexplained: (i ultralow value of the first detwinning field of approximately 0.1 T, two orders of magnitude below that of BaFe_{2}As_{2}, and (ii reversal of the preferential domain orientation at approximately 1 T and restoration of the low-field orientation above 10–15 T. In this paper, we present, using published as well as newly measured data, a full theory that quantitatively explains all the observations. The key ingredient of this theory is a biquadratic coupling between Fe and Eu spins, analogous to the Fe-Fe biquadratic coupling that drives the nematic transition in this family of materials.

  10. Superionic phase transitions and nuclear spin phonon relaxation by Raman processes in Me3H(SeO4)2 (Me = Na, K, and Rb) single crystals by 1H and Me NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ae Ran

    2007-01-01

    Me 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 (Me = Na, K, and Rb) single crystals were grown by the slow evaporation method, and the relaxation times of the 1 H and Me nuclei in these crystals were investigated using FT NMR spectrometry. The 1 H T 1 NMR results for K 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 single crystals were very different from those for Na 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 crystals. Short 1 H relaxation times were found for K 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 at high temperatures, but not for Na 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 , which are attributed to the destruction and reconstruction of hydrogen bonds; thus K 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 have superionic phases, whereas Na 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 does not. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate for the 23 Na nucleus in Na 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 crystals was in accord with a Raman process for nuclear spin-lattice relaxation (T 1 -1 ∝T 2 . In contrast, the spin-lattice relaxation rates for the 39 K and 87 Rb nuclei in K 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 single crystals exhibited a very strong temperature dependence, T 1 -1 ∝T 7 . The motions giving rise to this strong temperature dependence may be related to the high electrical conductivities of these crystals at high temperatures

  11. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1969-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications focuses on the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as chemical shifts, lattices, and couplings. The book first offers information on the theory of NMR, including nuclear spin and magnetic moment, spin lattice relaxation, line widths, saturation, quantum mechanical description of NMR, and ringing. The text then ponders on instrumentation and techniques and chemical shifts. Discussions focus on the origin of chemical shifts, reference compounds, empirical correlations of chemical shifts, modulation and phase detection,

  12. Theory of Faraday rotation beatings in quantum wells with great value of spin splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Gridnev, V N

    2001-01-01

    The conductivity electrons spin dynamics in the semiconducting heterostructures when the spin splitting value exceeds the energy levels widening due to collisions is theoretically studied. It is shown that the spin density component normal to the quantum well planes may oscillate with time even by absence of the external magnetic field. These oscillations might be excited and registered through the method of the nonlinear two-pulse spectroscopy. In contrast to the small spin splitting the external cross-sectional magnetic field strongly effects the spin dynamics in this mode

  13. Modeling the Photoelectron Spectra of MoNbO2(-) Accounting for Spin Contamination in Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lee M; Hratchian, Hrant P

    2015-08-13

    Spin contamination in density functional studies has been identified as a cause of discrepancies between theoretical and experimental spectra of metal oxide clusters such as MoNbO2. We perform calculations to simulate the photoelectron spectra of the MoNbO2 anion using broken-symmetry density functional theory incorporating recently developed approximate projection methods. These calculations are able to account for the presence of contaminating spin states at single-reference computational cost. Results using these new tools demonstrate the significant effect of spin-contamination on geometries and force constants and show that the related errors in simulated spectra may be largely overcome by using an approximate projection model.

  14. Noncommutative Wilson lines in higher-spin theory and correlation functions of conserved currents for free conformal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonezzi, Roberto; Boulanger, Nicolas; De Filippi, David; Sundell, Per

    2017-11-01

    We first prove that, in Vasiliev’s theory, the zero-form charges studied in Sezgin E and Sundell P 2011 (arXiv:1103.2360 [hep-th]) and Colombo N and Sundell P 20 (arXiv:1208.3880 [hep-th]) are twisted open Wilson lines in the noncommutative Z space. This is shown by mapping Vasiliev’s higher-spin model on noncommutative Yang–Mills theory. We then prove that, prior to Bose-symmetrising, the cyclically-symmetric higher-spin invariants given by the leading order of these n-point zero-form charges are equal to corresponding cyclically-invariant building blocks of n-point correlation functions of bilinear operators in free conformal field theories (CFT) in three dimensions. On the higher spin gravity side, our computation reproduces the results of Didenko V and Skvortsov E 2013 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP04(2013)158 using an alternative method amenable to the computation of subleading corrections obtained by perturbation theory in normal order. On the free CFT side, our proof involves the explicit computation of the separate cyclic building blocks of the correlation functions of n conserved currents in arbitrary dimension d>2 using polarization vectors, which is an original result. It is shown to agree, for d=3 , with the results obtained in Gelfond O A and Vasiliev M A 2013 Nucl. Phys. B 876 871–917 in various dimensions and where polarization spinors were used.

  15. Quantum theory of phonon-mediated decoherence and relaxation of two-level systems in a structured electromagnetic reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Chiranjeeb

    the atomic excited state. We also derive the modified polarization decay and dephasing rates in the presence of such damping. This leads to a microscopic, quantum theory of the optical absorption lineshapes. Our model and formalism provide a starting point for describing dephasing and relaxation in the presence of external coherent fields and multiple quantum dot interactions in electromagnetic reservoirs with radiative memory effects.

  16. Theory for spin and orbital orderings in high temperature phase in $YVO_3$

    OpenAIRE

    De Silva, Theja N.; Joshi, Anuvrat; Ma, Michael; Zhang, Fu Chun

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the recent neutron diffraction experiment on $YVO_3$, we consider a microscopic model where each $V^{3+}$ ion is occupied by two 3d electrons of parallel spins with two fold degenerate orbital configurations. The mean field classical solutions of the spin-orbital superexchange model predicts an antiferro-orbital ordering at a higher temperature followed by a C-type antiferromagnetic spin ordering at a lower temperature. Our results are qualitatively consistent with the observed o...

  17. Bias dependence of tunnel magnetoresistance in spin filtering tunnel junctions: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüders, U.; Bibes, M.; Fusil, S.; Bouzehouane, K.; Jacquet, E.; Sommers, C. B.; Contour, J.-P.; Bobo, J.-F.; Barthélémy, A.; Fert, A.; Levy, P. M.

    2007-10-01

    A spin filter is a type of magnetic tunnel junction in which only one of the electrodes is magnetic and the insulating barrier is ferro- or ferrimagnetic. We report on spin-dependent transport measurements and their theoretical analysis in epitaxial spin filters integrating a tunnel barrier of the high-Curie-temperature ferrimagnetic spinel NiFe2O4 , with half-metallic La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 and Au electrodes. A positive tunnel magnetoresonance of up to ˜50% is obtained at low temperature, which we find decreases with bias voltage. In view of these experimental results, we propose a theoretical treatment of the transport properties of spin filters with epitaxial magnetic barriers, based on an elliptical variation of the decay rates within the spin-dependent gaps in analogy with what was calculated for nonmagnetic barrier materials such as MgO or SrTiO3 . Whereas the spin filtering efficiency for zero bias is of one sign, we show that this can easily change with bias; the degree of change hinges on the energy variation of the majority and minority spin decay rates of the transmission across the barrier. We point out some shortcomings of approaches based on models in which the transmission is related to spin-dependent barrier heights, and some implications for future experimental and theoretical research on spin filters.

  18. Real-space mean-field theory of a spin-1 Bose gas in synthetic dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hilary M.; Wilson, Justin H.; Pixley, J. H.; Spielman, I. B.; Natu, Stefan S.

    2016-12-01

    The internal degrees of freedom provided by ultracold atoms provide a route for realizing higher dimensional physics in systems with limited spatial dimensions. Nonspatial degrees of freedom in these systems are dubbed "synthetic dimensions." This connection is useful from an experimental standpoint but complicated by the fact that interactions alter the condensate ground state. Here we use the Gross-Pitaevskii equation to study the ground-state properties of a spin-1 Bose gas under the combined influence of an optical lattice, spatially varying spin-orbit coupling, and interactions at the mean-field level. The associated phases depend on the sign of the spin-dependent interaction parameter and the strength of the spin-orbit field. We find "charge"- and spin-density-wave phases which are directly related to helical spin order in real space and affect the behavior of edge currents in the synthetic dimension. We determine the resulting phase diagram as a function of the spin-orbit coupling and spin-dependent interaction strength, considering both attractive (ferromagnetic) and repulsive (polar) spin-dependent interactions, and we provide a direct comparison of our results with the noninteracting case. Our findings are applicable to current and future experiments, specifically with 87Rb, 7Li, 41K, and 23Na.

  19. Simple expressions of the nuclear relaxation rate enhancement due to quadrupole nuclei in slowly tumbling molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Pascal H., E-mail: pascal-h.fries@cea.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SCIB, RICC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SCIB, RICC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Belorizky, Elie [Université Grenoble Alpes, LIPHY, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, Leti-Clinatec, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-28

    For slowly tumbling entities or quasi-rigid lattices, we derive very simple analytical expressions of the quadrupole relaxation enhancement (QRE) of the longitudinal relaxation rate R{sub 1} of nuclear spins I due to their intramolecular magnetic dipolar coupling with quadrupole nuclei of arbitrary spins S ≥ 1. These expressions are obtained by using the adiabatic approximation for evaluating the time evolution operator of the quantum states of the quadrupole nuclei S. They are valid when the gyromagnetic ratio of the spin S is much smaller than that of the spin I. The theory predicts quadrupole resonant peaks in the dispersion curve of R{sub 1} vs magnetic field. The number, positions, relative intensities, Lorentzian shapes, and widths of these peaks are explained in terms of the following properties: the magnitude of the quadrupole Hamiltonian and the asymmetry parameter of the electric field gradient (EFG) acting on the spin S, the S-I inter-spin orientation with respect to the EFG principal axes, the rotational correlation time of the entity carrying the S–I pair, and/or the proper relaxation time of the spin S. The theory is first applied to protein amide protons undergoing dipolar coupling with fast-relaxing quadrupole {sup 14}N nuclei and mediating the QRE to the observed bulk water protons. The theoretical QRE agrees well with its experimental counterpart for various systems such as bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and cartilages. The anomalous behaviour of the relaxation rate of protons in synthetic aluminium silicate imogolite nano-tubes due to the QRE of {sup 27}Al (S = 5/2) nuclei is also explained.

  20. An application of vector coherent state theory to the SO95) proton-neutron quasi-spin algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berej, W.

    2002-01-01

    Vector coherent state theory (VCS), developed for computing Lie group and Lie algebra representations and coupling coefficients, has been used for many groups of interest an actual physics applications. It is shown that VCS construction of a rotor type can be performed for the SO(5) ∼ Sp(4) quasi-spin group where the relevant physical subgroup SU(2) x U(1) is generalized by the isospin operators and the number of particle operators [ru

  1. Generalized approach to non-exponential relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Non-exponential relaxation is a universal feature of systems as diverse as glasses, spin glasses, earthquakes, financial markets and the universe. Complex relaxation results from hierarchically constrained dynamics with the strength of the constraints being directly related to the form of the relaxation, which ...

  2. Competition between domain walls and the reverse magnetization in the magnetic relaxation of a Pt/Co/Ir/Co/Pt spin switcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgunov, R. B.; L'vova, G. L.; Hamadeh, A.; Mangin, S.

    2018-01-01

    A multilayer Pt/Co/Ir/Co/Pt/GaAs heterostructures demonstrates a long term (to several hours) magnetic relaxation between two stable states of the magnetization of the system. The magnetization reversal of the heterostructure layers occurs both due to the formation of nuclei of the reverse magnetization domains and as a result of their further growth by means of motion of domain walls. The competition between two these processes provides a nonexponential character of the magnetic relaxation. At 300 K, the contributions of these processes to the relaxation are commensurable, while, at temperatures lower than 200 K, the contribution of the nucleation is suppressed and the magnetic relaxation occurs as a result of motion of the domain walls.

  3. Transport theory for femtosecond laser-induced spin-transfer torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baláž, Pavel; Žonda, Martin; Carva, Karel; Maldonado, Pablo; Oppeneer, Peter M.

    2018-03-01

    Ultrafast demagnetization of magnetic layers pumped by a femtosecond laser pulse is accompanied by a nonthermal spin-polarized current of hot electrons. These spin currents are studied here theoretically in a spin valve with noncollinear magnetizations. To this end, we introduce an extended model of superdiffusive spin transport that enables the treatment of noncollinear magnetic configurations, and apply it to the perpendicular spin valve geometry. We show how spin-transfer torques arise due to this mechanism and calculate their action on the magnetization present, as well as how the latter depends on the thicknesses of the layers and other transport parameters. We demonstrate that there exists a certain optimum thickness of the out-of-plane magnetized spin-current polarizer such that the torque acting on the second magnetic layer is maximal. Moreover, we study the magnetization dynamics excited by the superdiffusive spin-transfer torque due to the flow of hot electrons employing the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Thereby we show that a femtosecond laser pulse applied to one magnetic layer can excite small-angle precessions of the magnetization in the second magnetic layer. We compare our calculations with recent experimental results.

  4. Transport theory for femtosecond laser-induced spin-transfer torques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baláž, Pavel; Žonda, Martin; Carva, Karel; Maldonado, Pablo; Oppeneer, Peter M

    2018-03-21

    Ultrafast demagnetization of magnetic layers pumped by a femtosecond laser pulse is accompanied by a nonthermal spin-polarized current of hot electrons. These spin currents are studied here theoretically in a spin valve with noncollinear magnetizations. To this end, we introduce an extended model of superdiffusive spin transport that enables the treatment of noncollinear magnetic configurations, and apply it to the perpendicular spin valve geometry. We show how spin-transfer torques arise due to this mechanism and calculate their action on the magnetization present, as well as how the latter depends on the thicknesses of the layers and other transport parameters. We demonstrate that there exists a certain optimum thickness of the out-of-plane magnetized spin-current polarizer such that the torque acting on the second magnetic layer is maximal. Moreover, we study the magnetization dynamics excited by the superdiffusive spin-transfer torque due to the flow of hot electrons employing the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. Thereby we show that a femtosecond laser pulse applied to one magnetic layer can excite small-angle precessions of the magnetization in the second magnetic layer. We compare our calculations with recent experimental results.

  5. Theory of inelastic electron tunneling from a localized spin in the impulsive approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Mats

    2009-07-31

    A simple expression for the conductance steps in inelastic electron tunneling from spin excitations in a single magnetic atom adsorbed on a nonmagnetic metal surface is derived. The inelastic coupling between the tunneling electron and the spin is via the exchange coupling and is treated in an impulsive approximation using the Tersoff-Hamann approximation for the tunneling between the tip and the sample.

  6. Kaluza-Klein reduction and consistency of the massive spin-3/2 theory with external interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindani, S.D.; Sivakumar, M.

    1991-01-01

    A gauge-invariant Rarita-Schwinger theory of a massive spin-3/2 particle interacting with external electromagnetic, gravitational and dilaton fields is obtained by Kaluza-Klein reduction of a massless Rarita-Schwinger theory with gravitational interaction. Fermionic gauge invariance serves to determine the background equations of motion. The couplings with external fields obtained by the Kaluza-Klein reduction are shown to lead to the absence of the classical Velo-Zwanziger problem and on quantizing using Dirac's procedure, the field anticommutators are found to be positive definite. (orig.)

  7. Theory of magnetic-field-induced polarization flop in spin-spiral multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Masahito

    2015-12-01

    The magnetic-field-induced 90∘ flop of ferroelectric polarization P in a spin-spiral multiferroic material TbMnO3 is theoretically studied based on a microscopic spin model. I find that the direction of the P flop or the choice of +Pa or -Pa after the flop is governed by magnetic torques produced by the applied magnetic field H acting on the Mn spins and thus is selected in a deterministic way, in contradistinction to the naively anticipated probabilistic flop. This mechanism resolves a puzzle of the previously reported memory effect in the P direction depending on the history of the magnetic-field sweep, and enables controlled switching of multiferroic domains by externally applied magnetic fields. My Monte-Carlo analysis also uncovers that the magnetic structure in the P ∥a phase under H ∥b is not a previously anticipated simple a b -plane spin cycloid but a conical spin structure.

  8. Estimation of parameters involved in high angle-of-attack aerodynamic theory using spin flight test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L. W., Jr.; Pamadi, B. N.

    1983-01-01

    The difficulty in applying parameter estimation techniques to spinning airplanes is due in part to the unwieldy number of possible combinations of terms in the equations of motion, when the model structure is unknown. The combination of high angle of attack and high rotation rate results in aerodynamic functions which are quite complex. For wing dominated configurations it is advantageous to use aerodynamic theory to generate the model structure. In this way, the number of unknown parameters is reduced and the model accuracy may be increased. Under conditions for which the theory is inadequate, however, model accuracy may be reduced. Strip theory, for example, is incapable of predicting autorotative rolling moments indicated by wind tunnel tests at angles of attack exceeding 40 degrees. An improved aerodynamic theory would be necessary to successfully apply the technique advanced for such regions.

  9. Spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton

    2007-01-01

    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  10. Modified Statistical Dynamical Diffraction Theory: A Novel Metrological Analysis Method for Partially Relaxed and Defective Carbon-doped Silicon and Silicon Germanium Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreeman, Paul K.

    The statistical dynamical diffraction theory, which has been initially developed by late Kato remained in obscurity for many years due to intense and difficult mathematical treatment that proved to be quite challenging to implement and apply. With assistance of many authors in past (including Bushuev, Pavlov, Pungeov, and among the others), it became possible to implement this unique x-ray diffraction theory that combines the kinematical (ideally imperfect) and dynamical (the characteristically perfect diffraction) into a single system of equations controlled by two factors determined by long range order and correlation function within the structure. The first stage is completed by the publication (Shreeman and Matyi, J. Appl. Cryst., 43, 550 (2010)) demonstrating the functionality of this theory with new modifications hence called modified statistical dynamical diffraction theory (mSDDT). The foundation of the theory is also incorporated into this dissertation, and the next stage of testing the model against several ion-implanted SiGe materials has been published: (Shreeman and Matyi, physica status solidi (a)208(11), 2533-2538, 2011). The dissertation with all the previous results summarized, dives into comprehensive analysis of HRXRD analyses complete with several different types of reflections (symmetrical, asymmetrical and skewed geometry). The dynamical results (with almost no defects) are compared with well-known commercial software. The defective materials, to which commercially available modeling software falls short, is then characterized and discussed in depth. The results will exemplify the power of the novel approach in the modified statistical dynamical diffraction theory: Ability to detect and measure defective structures qualitatively and quantitatively. The analysis will be compared alongside with TEM data analysis for verification and confirmation. The application of this theory will accelerate the ability to quickly characterize the relaxed

  11. Coherent and correlated spin transport in nanoscale superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morten, Jan Petter

    2008-03-15

    Motivated by the desire for better understanding of nano electronic systems, we theoretically study the conductance and noise characteristics of current flow between superconductors, ferromagnets, and normal-metals. Such nano structures can reveal information about superconductor proximity effects, spin-relaxation processes, and spintronic effects with potential applications for different areas of mesoscopic physics. We employ the quasiclassical theory of superconductivity in the Keldysh formalism, and calculate the nonequilibrium transport of spin and charge using various approaches like the circuit theory of quantum transport and full counting statistics. For two of the studied structures, we have been able to compare our theory to experimental data and obtain good agreement. Transport and relaxation of spin polarized current in superconductors is governed by energy-dependent transport coefficients and spin-flip rates which are determined by quantum interference effects. We calculate the resulting temperature-dependent spin flow in ferromagnet-superconductor devices. Experimental data for spin accumulation and spin relaxation in a superconducting nano wire is in agreement with the theory, and allows for a spin-flip spectroscopy that determines the dominant mechanism for spin-flip relaxation in the studied samples. A ferromagnet precessing under resonance conditions can give rise to pure spin current injection into superconductors. We find that the absorbed spin current is measurable as a temperature dependent Gilbert damping, which we calculate and compare to experimental data. Crossed Andreev reflection denotes superconducting pairing of electrons flowing from different normal-metal or ferromagnet terminals into a superconductor. We calculate the nonlocal currents resulting from this process in competition with direct electron transport between the normal-metal terminals. We take dephasing into account, and study the nonlocal current when the types of contact in

  12. On the truncation of the number of excited states in density functional theory sum-over-states calculations of indirect spin spin coupling constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarycz, M Natalia C; Provasi, Patricio F; Sauer, Stephan P A

    2015-12-28

    It is investigated, whether the number of excited (pseudo)states can be truncated in the sum-over-states expression for indirect spin-spin coupling constants (SSCCs), which is used in the Contributions from Localized Orbitals within the Polarization Propagator Approach and Inner Projections of the Polarization Propagator (IPPP-CLOPPA) approach to analyzing SSCCs in terms of localized orbitals. As a test set we have studied the nine simple compounds, CH4, NH3, H2O, SiH4, PH3, SH2, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6. The excited (pseudo)states were obtained from time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and the specialized core-property basis set, aug-cc-pVTZ-J. We investigated both how the calculated coupling constants depend on the number of (pseudo)states included in the summation and whether the summation can be truncated in a systematic way at a smaller number of states and extrapolated to the total number of (pseudo)states for the given one-electron basis set. We find that this is possible and that for some of the couplings it is sufficient to include only about 30% of the excited (pseudo)states.

  13. On the truncation of the number of excited states in density functional theory sum-over-states calculations of indirect spin spin coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarycz, M. Natalia C.; Provasi, Patricio F.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is investigated, whether the number of excited (pseudo)states can be truncated in the sum-over-states expression for indirect spin-spin coupling constants (SSCCs), which is used in the Contributions from Localized Orbitals within the Polarization Propagator Approach and Inner Projections of the Polarization Propagator (IPPP-CLOPPA) approach to analyzing SSCCs in terms of localized orbitals. As a test set we have studied the nine simple compounds, CH 4 , NH 3 , H 2 O, SiH 4 , PH 3 , SH 2 , C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , and C 2 H 6 . The excited (pseudo)states were obtained from time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and the specialized core-property basis set, aug-cc-pVTZ-J. We investigated both how the calculated coupling constants depend on the number of (pseudo)states included in the summation and whether the summation can be truncated in a systematic way at a smaller number of states and extrapolated to the total number of (pseudo)states for the given one-electron basis set. We find that this is possible and that for some of the couplings it is sufficient to include only about 30% of the excited (pseudo)states

  14. On the truncation of the number of excited states in density functional theory sum-over-states calculations of indirect spin spin coupling constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarycz, M. Natalia C., E-mail: mnzarycz@gmail.com; Provasi, Patricio F., E-mail: patricio@unne.edu.ar [Department of Physics, University of Northeastern - CONICET, Av. Libertad 5500, Corrientes W3404AAS (Argentina); Sauer, Stephan P. A., E-mail: sauer@kiku.dk [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2015-12-28

    It is investigated, whether the number of excited (pseudo)states can be truncated in the sum-over-states expression for indirect spin-spin coupling constants (SSCCs), which is used in the Contributions from Localized Orbitals within the Polarization Propagator Approach and Inner Projections of the Polarization Propagator (IPPP-CLOPPA) approach to analyzing SSCCs in terms of localized orbitals. As a test set we have studied the nine simple compounds, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, SiH{sub 4}, PH{sub 3}, SH{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The excited (pseudo)states were obtained from time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and the specialized core-property basis set, aug-cc-pVTZ-J. We investigated both how the calculated coupling constants depend on the number of (pseudo)states included in the summation and whether the summation can be truncated in a systematic way at a smaller number of states and extrapolated to the total number of (pseudo)states for the given one-electron basis set. We find that this is possible and that for some of the couplings it is sufficient to include only about 30% of the excited (pseudo)states.

  15. Theory of generation of angular momentum of phonons by heat current and its conversion to spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Masato; Murakami, Shuichi

    Spin-rotation coupling in crystals will enable us to convert between spin current and mechanical rotations, as has been studied in surface acoustic waves, in liquid metals, and in carbon nanotubes. In this presentation we focus on angular momentum of phonons. In nonmagnetic crystals without inversion symmetry, we theoretically demonstrate that phonon modes generally have angular momenta depending on their wave vectors. In equilibrium the sum of the angular momenta is zero. On the other hand, if a heat current flows in the crystal, nonequilibrium phonon distribution leads to nonzero total angular momentum of phonons. It can be observed as a rotation of crystal itself, and as a spin current induced by these phonons via the spin-rotation coupling.

  16. Atomic structure governed diversity of exchange-driven spin helices in Fe nanoislands: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jeison A.; Sandratskii, Leonid M.; Phark, Soo-hyon; Sander, Dirk; Parkin, Stuart

    2017-10-01

    We combine spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM) and first-principles calculations to demonstrate the control of the wavelength of helical spin textures in Fe nanoislands by varying their atomic structure. We make use of the complexity of submonolayer growth of Fe on Cu(111) to prepare nanoislands characterized by different thickness and in-plane atomic structure. SP-STM results reveal that the magnetic states of different nanoislands are spin helices. The wavelength of the spin helices varies strongly. Calculations performed for Fe films with different thickness and in-plane atomic structure explain the strong variation of the wavelength by a subtle balance in the competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. We identify the crucial role of the effectively enhanced weak antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between distant atoms.

  17. Theory for a dissipative droplet soliton excited by a spin torque nanocontact

    OpenAIRE

    Hoefer, M. A.; Silva, T. J.; Keller, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    A novel type of solitary wave is predicted to form in spin torque oscillators when the free layer has a sufficiently large perpendicular anisotropy. In this structure, which is a dissipative version of the conservative droplet soliton originally studied in 1977 by Ivanov and Kosevich, spin torque counteracts the damping that would otherwise destroy the mode. Asymptotic methods are used to derive conditions on perpendicular anisotropy strength and applied current under which a dissipative drop...

  18. Theory of spin inelastic tunneling spectroscopy for superconductor-superconductor and superconductor-metal junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, P.; Fransson, J.

    2015-05-01

    We address the tunneling conductance and spin inelastic tunneling spectroscopy of localized paramagnetic moments in a superconducting environment, pertaining to recent measurements on Fe-octaethylporphyrin-chloride using superconducting scanning tunneling microscopy. We demonstrate that the Cooper pair correlations in the tip and substrate generate a finite uniaxial anisotropy field acting on the local spin moment, and we argue that this field may be a source for the observed changes in the conductance spectrum for decreasing distance between the scanning tunneling tip and the local magnetic moment. We make a side-by-side comparison between the superconductor-superconductor junction and normal-metal-superconductor junction, and find qualitative agreement between the two setups while quantitative differences become explicit. When simulating the effects of electron pumping, we obtain additional peaks in the conductance spectrum that can be attributed to excitations between higher-energy spin states. The transverse anisotropy field couples basis states of the local spin which opens for transitions between spin states that are otherwise forbidden by conservation of angular momentum. Finally, we explore the influences of temperature, which tend to enable in-gap transitions, and an external magnetic field, which enables deeper studies of the spin excitation spectrum. We especially notice the appearance of a low and high excitation peak on each side of the main coherence peak as an imprint of transitions between the Zeeman split ground states.

  19. Attenuated coupled cluster: a heuristic polynomial similarity transformation incorporating spin symmetry projection into traditional coupled cluster theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, John A.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2017-11-01

    In electronic structure theory, restricted single-reference coupled cluster (CC) captures weak correlation but fails catastrophically under strong correlation. Spin-projected unrestricted Hartree-Fock (SUHF), on the other hand, misses weak correlation but captures a large portion of strong correlation. The theoretical description of many important processes, e.g. molecular dissociation, requires a method capable of accurately capturing both weak- and strong correlation simultaneously, and would likely benefit from a combined CC-SUHF approach. Based on what we have recently learned about SUHF written as particle-hole excitations out of a symmetry-adapted reference determinant, we here propose a heuristic coupled cluster doubles model to attenuate the dominant spin collective channel of the quadratic terms in the coupled cluster equations. Proof of principle results presented here are encouraging and point to several paths forward for improving the method further.

  20. Multiscale approach to mechanical behavior of polymeric nanocomposites: an application of T1.rho.(13C) relaxation experiments at variable spin-locking fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotek, Jiří; Brus, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 9 (2014), s. 662-666 ISSN 0032-2725 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-29009S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyamide 6 * nanocomposite * T1ρ(13C) relaxation Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.633, year: 2014

  1. Stretched exponential relaxation in molecular and electronic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Stretched exponential relaxation, exp[-(t/τ) β ], fits many relaxation processes in disordered and quenched electronic and molecular systems, but it is widely believed that this function has no microscopic basis, especially in the case of molecular relaxation. For electronic relaxation the appearance of the stretched exponential is often described in the context of dispersive transport, where β is treated as an adjustable parameter, but in almost all cases it is generally assumed that no microscopic meaning can be assigned to 0 g , a glass transition temperature. We show that for molecular relaxation β(T g ) can be understood, providing that one separates extrinsic and intrinsic effects, and that the intrinsic effects are dominated by two magic numbers, β SR =3/5 for short-range forces, and β K =3/7 for long-range Coulomb forces, as originally observed by Kohlrausch for the decay of residual charge on a Leyden jar. Our mathematical model treats relaxation kinetics using the Lifshitz-Kac-Luttinger diffusion to traps depletion model in a configuration space of effective dimensionality, the latter being determined using axiomatic set theory and Phillips-Thorpe constraint theory. The experiments discussed include ns neutron scattering experiments, particularly those based on neutron spin echoes which measure S(Q, t) directly, and the traditional linear response measurements which span the range from μs to s, as collected and analysed phenomenologically by Angell, Ngai, Boehmer and others. The electronic materials discussed include a-Si:H, granular C 60 , semiconductor nanocrystallites, charge density waves in TaS 3 , spin glasses, and vortex glasses in high-temperature semiconductors. The molecular materials discussed include polymers, network glasses, electrolytes and alcohols, Van der Waals supercooled liquids and glasses, orientational glasses, water, fused salts, and heme proteins. In the intrinsic cases the theory of β(T g ) is often accurate to 2%, which

  2. Gauge fields with respect to d = (3+1) in the Kaluza-Klein theories and in the spin-charge-family theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukman, Dragan; Mankoc Borstnik, Norma Susana [University of Ljubljana, Department of Physics, FMF, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-04-15

    It is shown that in the spin-charge-family theory (Mankoc Borstnik in arXiv:1607.01618v2, 2016, Phys Rev D 91:065004. arxiv:1409.7791, 2015, J Mod Phys 6:2244. doi:10.4236/jmp.2015.615230. arXiv: 1409.4981, 2015, J Mod Phys 4:823. doi:10.4236/jmp.2013.46113. arxiv:1312.1542, 2013, arxiv:1409.4981, 2014) as well as in all the Kaluza-Klein like theories (Blagojevic in Gravitation and gauge symmetries, IoP Publishing, Bristol, 2002, An introduction to Kaluza-Klein theories, World Scientific, Singapore, 1983), vielbeins and spin connections manifest in d = (3+1) space equivalent vector gauge fields, when space with d ≥ 5 has a large enough symmetry. The authors demonstrate this equivalence in spaces with the symmetry of the metric tensor in the space out of d = (3+1)-g{sup στ} = η{sup στ} f{sup 2} - for any scalar function f of the coordinates x{sup σ}, where x{sup σ} denotes the coordinates of space out of d = (3+1). Also the connection between vielbeins and scalar gauge fields in d = (3+1) (offering the explanation for the Higgs scalar) is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Studies of diluted antiferromagnets MnxMg1-xTiO3 with x=0.55 and 0.70 by muon spin relaxation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukaya, A.; Ito, A.; Torikai, E.; Nishiyama, K.; Nagamine, K.

    1997-01-01

    Longitudinal fields μSR measurements have been performed in order to probe the spin dynamics in the diluted antiferromagnets Mn x Mg 1-x TiO 3 with x=0.70 and 0.55. In the x=0.70 sample which forms the antiferromagnetic long-range order, the static and fluctuating fields coexist at the muon stopping site below T N . On the other hand, in the x=0.55 sample which shows the spin-glass behavior, the local fields fluctuate rather fast even below T SG . We infer that this drastic change occurs when Mn x Mg 1-x TiO 3 transforms from an antiferromagnetic system to a spin-glass system by dilution

  4. Two-Component Noncollinear Time-Dependent Spin Density Functional Theory for Excited State Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Franco; Sun, Shichao; Goings, Joshua J; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J; Li, Xiaosong

    2017-06-13

    We present a linear response formalism for the description of the electronic excitations of a noncollinear reference defined via Kohn-Sham spin density functional methods. A set of auxiliary variables, defined using the density and noncollinear magnetization density vector, allows the generalization of spin density functional kernels commonly used in collinear DFT to noncollinear cases, including local density, GGA, meta-GGA and hybrid functionals. Working equations and derivations of functional second derivatives with respect to the noncollinear density, required in the linear response noncollinear TDDFT formalism, are presented in this work. This formalism takes all components of the spin magnetization into account independent of the type of reference state (open or closed shell). As a result, the method introduced here is able to afford a nonzero local xc torque on the spin magnetization while still satisfying the zero-torque theorem globally. The formalism is applied to a few test cases using the variational exact-two-component reference including spin-orbit coupling to illustrate the capabilities of the method.

  5. Theory for a dissipative droplet soliton excited by a spin torque nanocontact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, M. A.; Silva, T. J.; Keller, Mark W.

    2010-08-01

    A distinct type of solitary wave is predicted to form in spin torque oscillators when the free layer has a sufficiently large perpendicular anisotropy. In this structure, which is a dissipative version of the conservative droplet soliton originally studied in 1977 by Ivanov and Kosevich, spin torque counteracts the damping that would otherwise destroy the mode. Asymptotic methods are used to derive conditions on perpendicular anisotropy strength and applied current under which a dissipative droplet can be nucleated and sustained. Numerical methods are used to confirm the stability of the droplet against various perturbations that are likely in experiments, including tilting of the applied field, nonzero spin torque asymmetry, and nontrivial Oersted fields. Under certain conditions, the droplet experiences a drift instability in which it propagates away from the nanocontact and is then destroyed by damping.

  6. Exceptional F(4) higher-spin theory in AdS{sub 6} at one-loop and other tests of duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günaydin, Murat [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos Physics Department, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Skvortsov, Evgeny [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Theresienstr. 37, D-80333 Munich (Germany); Lebedev Institute of Physics, Leninsky ave. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tran, Tung [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2016-11-28

    We study the higher-spin gauge theory in six-dimensional anti-de Sitter space AdS{sub 6} that is based on the exceptional Lie superalgebra F(4). The relevant higher-spin algebra was constructed in http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.2185. We determine the spectrum of the theory and show that it contains the physical fields of the Romans F(4) gauged supergravity. The full spectrum consists of an infinite tower of unitary supermultiplets of F(4) which extend the Romans multiplet to higher spins plus a single short supermultiplet. Motivated by applications to this novel supersymmetric higher-spin theory as well as to other theories, we extend the known one-loop tests of AdS/CFT duality in various directions. The spectral zeta-function is derived for the most general case of fermionic and mixed-symmetry fields, which allows one to test the Type-A and B theories and supersymmetric extensions thereof in any dimension. We also study higher-spin doubletons and partially-massless fields. While most of the tests are successfully passed, the Type-B theory in all even dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetimes presents an interesting puzzle: the free energy as computed from the bulk is not equal to that of the free fermion on the CFT side, though there is some systematics to the discrepancy.

  7. Dynamic Phase Transitions In The Spin-2 Ising System Under An Oscillating Magnetic Field Within The Effective-Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertas, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic phase transitions are studied in the spin-2 Ising model under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates and the phases in the system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. The nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transition is characterized by investigating the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameter and the dynamic phase transition temperatures are obtained. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in (T/zJ, h/zJ) plane.

  8. Spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.H.; Hertz, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Spin glasses, simply defined by the authors as a collection of spins (i.e., magnetic moments) whose low-temperature state is a frozen disordered one, represent one of the fascinating new fields of study in condensed matter physics, and this book is the first to offer a comprehensive account of the subject. Included are discussions of the most important developments in theory, experimental work, and computer modeling of spin glasses, all of which have taken place essentially within the last two decades. The first part of the book gives a general introduction to the basic concepts and a discussion of mean field theory, while the second half concentrates on experimental results, scaling theory, and computer simulation of the structure of spin glasses

  9. Optical excitation and electron relaxation dynamics at semiconductor surfaces: a combined approach of density functional and density matrix theory applied to the silicon (001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecking, N.

    2007-11-05

    In this work a new theoretical formalism is introduced in order to simulate the phononinduced relaxation of a non-equilibrium distribution to equilibrium at a semiconductor surface numerically. The non-equilibrium distribution is effected by an optical excitation. The approach in this thesis is to link two conventional, but approved methods to a new, more global description: while semiconductor surfaces can be investigated accurately by density-functional theory, the dynamical processes in semiconductor heterostructures are successfully described by density matrix theory. In this work, the parameters for density-matrix theory are determined from the results of density-functional calculations. This work is organized in two parts. In Part I, the general fundamentals of the theory are elaborated, covering the fundamentals of canonical quantizations as well as the theory of density-functional and density-matrix theory in 2{sup nd} order Born approximation. While the formalism of density functional theory for structure investigation has been established for a long time and many different codes exist, the requirements for density matrix formalism concerning the geometry and the number of implemented bands exceed the usual possibilities of the existing code in this field. A special attention is therefore attributed to the development of extensions to existing formulations of this theory, where geometrical and fundamental symmetries of the structure and the equations are used. In Part II, the newly developed formalism is applied to a silicon (001)surface in a 2 x 1 reconstruction. As first step, density-functional calculations using the LDA functional are completed, from which the Kohn-Sham-wave functions and eigenvalues are used to calculate interaction matrix elements for the electron-phonon-coupling an the optical excitation. These matrix elements are determined for the optical transitions from valence to conduction bands and for electron-phonon processes inside the

  10. Relativistic Adiabatic Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Using Hybrid Functionals and Noncollinear Spin Magnetization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bast, Radovan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Saue, Trond

    2009-01-01

    into reduction of algebra from quaternion to complex or real. For hybrid GGAs with noncollinear spin magnetization we derive a new computationally advantageous equation for the full second variational derivatives of such exchange-correlation functionals. We apply our implementation to calculations on the ns2...

  11. Copper adatoms on graphene: Theory of orbital and spin-orbital effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Tobias; Irmer, Susanne; Gmitra, Martin; Kochan, Denis; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    We present a combined DFT and model Hamiltonian analysis of spin-orbit coupling in graphene induced by copper adatoms in the bridge and top positions, representing isolated atoms in the dilute limit. The orbital physics in both systems is found to be surprisingly similar, given the fundamental difference in the local symmetry. In both systems the Cu p and d contributions at the Fermi level are very similar. Based on the knowledge of orbital effects we identify that the main cause of the locally induced spin-orbit couplings are Cu p and d orbitals. By employing the DFT+U formalism as an analysis tool we find that both the p and d orbital contributions are equally important to spin-orbit coupling, although p contributions to the density of states are much higher. We fit the DFT data with phenomenological tight-binding models developed separately for the top and bridge positions. Our model Hamiltonians describe the low-energy electronic band structure in the whole Brillouin zone and allow us to extract the size of the spin-orbit interaction induced by the local Cu adatom to be in the tens of meV. By application of the phenomenological models to Green's function techniques, we find that copper atoms act as resonant impurities in graphene with large lifetimes of 50 and 100 fs for top and bridge, respectively.

  12. Behavior of cesium and thallium cations inside a calixarene cavity as probed by nuclear spin relaxation. Evidence of cation-pi interactions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuc, Diana; Bouguet-Bonnet, Sabine; Morel-Desrosiers, Nicole; Morel, Jean-Pierre; Mutzenhardt, Pierre; Canet, Daniel

    2009-08-06

    We have studied the complexes formed between the p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene and cesium or thallium metal cation, first by carbon-13 longitudinal relaxation of the calixarene molecule at two values of the magnetic field B(0). From the longitudinal relaxation times of an aromatic carbon directly bonded to a proton, thus subjected essentially to the dipolar interaction with that proton, we could obtain the correlation time describing the reorientation of the CH bond. The rest of this study has demonstrated that it is also the correlation time describing the tumbling of the whole calixarene assembly. From three non-proton-bearing carbons of the aromatic cycles (thus subjected to the chemical shift anisotropy and dipolar mechanisms), we have been able to determine the variation of the chemical shift anisotropy when going from the free to the complex form of the calixarene. These variations not only provide the location of the cation inside the calixarene cavity but also constitute a direct experimental proof of the cation-pi interactions. These results are complemented by cesium and thallium relaxation measurements performed again at two values of the magnetic field B(0). An estimation of the mean distance between the cation and the calixarene protons could be obtained. These measurements have also revealed an important chemical shift anisotropy of thallium upon complexation.

  13. Spin correlations in the 2D Heisenberg antiferromagnet Sr2CuO2Cl2: Neutron scattering, Monte Carlo simulation, and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greven, M.; Birgeneau, R.J.; Endoh, Y.; Kastner, M.A.; Keimer, B.; Matsuda, M.; Shirane, G.; Thurston, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    We report a neutron scattering study of the spin correlations in the model 2D, S=1/2, square-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnetic Sr 2 CuO 2 Cl 2 . The spin correlation lengths obtained agree quantitatively with values deduced from Monte Carlo simulations over a wide range of temperature. The combined data, which cover the length scale from 1 to 200 lattice constants, are predicted accurately with no adjustable parameters by renormalized classical theory for the quantum nonlinear sigma model

  14. Heat and spin interconversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Yuichi; Matsuo, Mamoru; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Saitoh, Eeiji

    2017-01-01

    Spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects, which are mutual conversion phenomena of heat and spin, are discussed on the basis of the microscopic theory. First, the spin Seebeck effect, which is the spin-current generation due to heat current, is discussed. The recent progress in research on the spin Seebeck effect are introduced. We explain the origin of the observed sign changes of the spin Seebeck effect in compensated ferromagnets. Next, the spin Peltier effect, which is the heat-current generation due to spin current, is discussed. Finally, we show that the spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects are summarized by Onsager's reciprocal relation and derive Kelvin's relation for the spin and heat transports. (author)

  15. Magnetism of the chromium thio-spinels Fe1-xCuxCr2S4 studied using muon spin rotation and relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvius, G M; Krimmel, A; Wäppling, R; Hartmann, O; Litterst, F J; Wagner, F E; Tsurkan, V; Loidl, A

    2013-05-08

    Powder samples of Fe1-xCuxCr2S4 with x = 0,0.2,0.5,0.8 were studied, between 5 and 300 K. The results reveal that for x < 1, the magnetic order in the series is more varied than the simple collinear ferrimagnetic structure traditionally assumed to exist everywhere from the Curie point to T → 0. In FeCr2S4 several ordered magnetic phases are present, with the ground state likely to have an incommensurate cone-like helical structure. Fe0.8Cu0.2Cr2S4 is the compound for which simple collinear ferrimagnetism is best developed. In Fe0.5Cu0.5Cr2S4 the ferrimagnetic spin structure is not stable, causing spin reorientation around 90 K. In Fe0.2Cu0.8Cr2S4 the ferrimagnetic structure is at low temperatures considerably distorted locally, but with rising temperature this disorder shows a rapid reduction, coupled to increased spin fluctuation rates. In summary, the present data show that the changes induced by the replacement of Fe by Cu have more profound influences on the magnetic properties of the Fe1-xCuxCr2S4 compounds than merely a shift of Curie temperature, saturation magnetization and internal field magnitude.

  16. Spin-Circuit Representation of Spin Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kuntal

    2017-07-01

    Circuit theory has been tremendously successful in translating physical equations into circuit elements in an organized form for further analysis and proposing creative designs for applications. With the advent of new materials and phenomena in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics, it is imperative to construct the spin-circuit representations for different materials and phenomena. Spin pumping is a phenomenon by which a pure spin current can be injected into the adjacent layers. If the adjacent layer is a material with a high spin-orbit coupling, a considerable amount of charge voltage can be generated via the inverse spin Hall effect allowing spin detection. Here we develop the spin-circuit representation of spin pumping. We then combine it with the spin-circuit representation for the materials having spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces the standard results as in the literature. We further show how complex multilayers can be analyzed by simply writing a netlist.

  17. The Early History of Stellar Spin: the Theory of Accretion onto Young Stellar Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudritz Ralph E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of the magnetospheres of forming stars with their surrounding protostellar disks results in magnetospheric accretion flow onto the star. How is the associated angular momentum of accreting material channelled? The resolution of this issue is crucial for understanding the origin of the spins of pre main sequence stars. A significant fraction of these rotate very slowly, which indicates that an efficient angular momentum transport mechanism is at work to counteract the strong accretion spin up torques. We review the observational, theoretical, and computational advances in the field and argue that an accretion powered stellar winds together with highly time variable mass ejections from the disk/magnetosphere interface is a likely solution.

  18. Transport Properties of Spin-Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Using Generalized Scattering Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joudeh, B. R.; Sandouqa, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    Our results for the scattering and thermophysical properties of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen (H{\\downarrow }) have been presented in the temperature range 0.01-10 K using the Galitskii-Migdal-Feynman formalism. These results include the quantum second virial coefficient, the average total and viscosity cross sections, the viscosity, the diffusion coefficient, and the thermal conductivity. The calculations have been undertaken using three triplet-state potentials: Morse-type, Silvera and Born-Oppenheimer potentials. The Morse potential is less attractive and very simple, but less accurate to describe spin-polarized atomic hydrogen. That explains the differences between it and the other two potentials, which are clearly better. From the results of the average total cross sections, it is concluded the H{\\downarrow } remains a gas even at low temperature. The viscosity, the thermal conductivity, and the diffusion coefficients of H{\\downarrow } increase in all cases with increasing temperature.

  19. Equation-of-state spinning fluids in the Einstein-Cartan theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, John R.; Smalley, Larry L.

    1987-01-01

    The relativistic fluid equations may be completed in two physically distinct methods. One method assumes the mass, rho, (or particle number) is conserved, while the other method assumes an equation of state of the form P = P(rho). A variational principle for the mass conservation method both with and without an intrinsic spin for the fluid was constructed earlier (Ray and Smalley, 1982 and 1983). A variational principle for the fluid described by an equation of state both with and without spin is formulated. In all cases the variational principle is set in the Einstein-Cartan metric-torsion U4 geometry. The results for general relativity follow as a special case.

  20. Application of the Ursell-Mayer method in the theory of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, S.; Radelja, T.

    1981-01-01

    Employing the Ursell-Mayer method and Ljolje semi-free gas model analytic relations describing ground state properties (energy, pressure, compressibility, sound velocity, radial distribution function and one-particle density matrix) of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen were derived. The expressions are valid up to density 2 10 26 atoms/m 3 . It was found out that at density of 2 10 26 atoms/m 3 the condensation of particle in momentum space is 88% (at absolute zero). (orig.)