WorldWideScience

Sample records for spi proof-of-principle test

  1. Retrievability proof-of-principle testing from a BWIP repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.E.; Cottam, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the proof-of-principle testing program required to demonstrate the feasibility of retrieving entombed waste containers from a potentially deep geologic repository in basalt sometime in the future. The waste emplacement concept is shown. Demonstrating that a test environment can be structured to simulate and verify retrievability requires the definition of test criteria and variables, conceptualization of remote equipment, and the identification of the test sites. The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has prepared a strategy for compliance document in accordance with the US Dept. of Energy position on retrievability that identifies the strategy required to accomplish these tests. Topics to be covered in this paper include discussions of testing feasibility, identification of the many testing variables to be evaluated, potential test and equipment configurations, and a discussion of remote equipment concepts for both simulated testing and in situ testing

  2. Report for slot cutter proof-of-principle test, Buried Waste Containment System project. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-21

    Several million cubic feet of hazardous and radioactive waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches within many US Department of Energy (US DOE) sites. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. Many of the hazardous materials in these waste sites are migrating into groundwater systems through plumes and leaching. On-site containment is one of the options being considered for prevention of waste migration. This report describes the results of a proof-of-principle test conducted to demonstrate technology for containing waste. This proof-of-principle test, conducted at the RAHCO International, Inc., facility in the summer of 1997, evaluated equipment techniques for cutting a horizontal slot beneath an existing waste site. The slot would theoretically be used by complementary equipment designed to place a cement barrier under the waste. The technology evaluated consisted of a slot cutting mechanism, muck handling system, thrust system, and instrumentation. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate the performance parameters.

  3. Report for slot cutter proof-of-principle test, Buried Waste Containment System project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Several million cubic feet of hazardous and radioactive waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches within many US Department of Energy (US DOE) sites. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. Many of the hazardous materials in these waste sites are migrating into groundwater systems through plumes and leaching. On-site containment is one of the options being considered for prevention of waste migration. This report describes the results of a proof-of-principle test conducted to demonstrate technology for containing waste. This proof-of-principle test, conducted at the RAHCO International, Inc., facility in the summer of 1997, evaluated equipment techniques for cutting a horizontal slot beneath an existing waste site. The slot would theoretically be used by complementary equipment designed to place a cement barrier under the waste. The technology evaluated consisted of a slot cutting mechanism, muck handling system, thrust system, and instrumentation. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate the performance parameters

  4. Proof-of-principle test of a Thomson scattering alpha particle diagnostic (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, D. P.; Richards, R. K.; Hunter, H. T.; Bennett, C. A.

    1990-10-01

    A CO2 laser Thomson scattering diagnostic is being developed for the measurement of high-energy alpha particles in a burning plasma. To evaluate the system, a proof-of-principle test is presently in progress. The goal of the experiment is to perform small-angle scattering measurements on a nonburning plasma in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). In the absence of fusion-product alpha particles, measurements are being made on the smaller scattered signal from the background electrons in the plasma. Preliminary results, indicating receiver calibration and stray light measurements, and calculations of expected scattered power based on measured density and temperature profiles in ATF will be presented. This research was sponsored by Office of Fusion Energy, U. S. DOE, under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400 with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.

  5. The Mirrortron experiment: A proof of principle test for a method of generating high transient potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, S.R.

    1993-09-01

    The Mirrortron is a concept in which heavy ions are accelerated by a large local transient space potential that is produced in a hot electron plasma. The purpose of this experiment is to begin a proof of principle experiment to investigate the feasibility of producing this space potential and its associated electric field. If a large magnetic field is suddenly generated in a hot electron plasma with a loss-cone distribution, then potentials on the order of the electron temperature are expected. This potential lasts a few tens of nanoseconds. The investigation begins with a theoretical analysis of this phenomenon giving the space potential as a function of the applied magnetic field. The theory is further extended to cases of relativistic electron distributions. This is then followed by design work on a mirror confinement system for hot electrons. In this experiment a 50--100 keV electron temperature plasma is created with electron cyclotron resonance heating using two frequencies of relatively low microwave power. The microwaves are coupled to resonant frequencies of the vacuum chamber. The volume averaged plasma density is measured to be in the 10 9 cm -3 range. A strap coil and a flat Blumlein transmission line pulse generator were developed to produce a 150 gauss field within 70 ns. The strap coil was placed at the midplane of the mirror field, where the field is 700 gauss. Based on theoretical estimates and computer simulations a 20 kV potential is expected. Measurement of this potential is derived from the modulation of the current of a monoenergetic electron beam after it passes through the high potential region. The variation in the beam energy allows bunching to occur in transit to the detector

  6. Cognitive Testing in People at Increased Risk of Dementia Using a Smartphone App: The iVitality Proof-of-Principle Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongstra, Susan; Wijsman, Liselotte Willemijn; Cachucho, Ricardo; Hoevenaar-Blom, Marieke Peternella; Mooijaart, Simon Pieter; Richard, Edo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smartphone-assisted technologies potentially provide the opportunity for large-scale, long-term, repeated monitoring of cognitive functioning at home. Objective: The aim of this proof-of-principle study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of performing cognitive tests in people

  7. Cognitive Testing in People at Increased Risk of Dementia Using a Smartphone App: The iVitality Proof-of-Principle Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongstra, S.; Wijsman, L.W.; Cachucho, R.; Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.; Mooijaart, S.P.; Richard, E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smartphone-assisted technologies potentially provide the opportunity for large-scale, long-term, repeated monitoring of cognitive functioning at home. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this proof-of-principle study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of performing cognitive tests in people

  8. In Situ Redox Manipulation Proof-of-Principle Test at the Fort Lewis Logistics Center: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VR Vermeul; MD Williams; JC Evans; JE Szecsody; BN Bjornstad; TL Liikala

    2000-10-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a proof-of-principle test at the Fort Lewis Logistics Center to determine the feasibility of using the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology for remediating groundwater contaminated with dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE). ISRM creates a permeable treatment zone in the subsurface to remediate redox-sensitive contaminants in groundwater. The permeable treatment zone is formed by injecting a chemical reducing agent (sodium dithionite with pH buffers) into the aquifer through a well to reduce the naturally occurring ferric iron in the sediments to ferrous iron. Once the reducing agent is injected and given sufficient time to react with aquifer sediments, residual chemicals and reaction products are withdrawn from the aquifer through the same well used for the injection. Redox-sensitive contaminants such as TCE, moving through the treatment zone under natural groundwater flow conditions, are destroyed. TCE is degraded via reductive dechlorination within the ISRM treatment zone to benign degradation products (i.e., acetylene, ethylene). Prior to the proof-of-principle field test, the ISRM technology was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments for the reductive dechlorination of dissolved TCE using sediments from the Fort Lewis site. The Logistics Center was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 because of TCE contamination in groundwater beneath the site. A Federal Facilities Agreement between the Army, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology became effective in January 1990, and a Record of Decision (ROD) was signed in September 1990. The major components of the ROD included installation of two pump-and-treat systems for the upper aquifer and further investigation of the lower aquifer and other potential sources of contamination. The pump-and-treat systems became operational in August 1995. Fort Lewis asked PNNL to provide

  9. In Situ Redox Manipulation Proof-of-Principle Test at the Fort Lewis Logistics Center: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Evans, John C.; Szecsody, James E.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Liikala, Terry L.

    2000-10-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a proof-of-principle test at the Fort Lewis Logistics Center to determine the feasibility of using the innovative remedial technology In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) to treat groundwater contaminated with dissolved TCE. ISRM creates a permeable treatment zone in the subsurface to remediate redox-sensitive contaminants in groundwater. The permeable treatment zone is created by injecting a chemical reducing agent (sodium dithionite with pH buffers) into the aquifer through a well to chemically reduce the naturally occurring ferric iron in the sediments to ferrous iron. Once the reducing agent has been given sufficient time to react with aquifer sediments, residual chemicals and reaction products are withdrawn through the same well. Redox-sensitive contaminants such as TCE, moving in a dissolved-phase plume through the treatment zone, are destroyed. TCE is degraded via reductive dechlorination within the treatment zone to benign degradation products (acetylene, ehtylene). Analyses of sediment samples collected from post-test boreholes showed a high degree of iron reduction, which confirmed the effectiveness of the treatment zone.

  10. Conceptual design and proof-of-principle testing of the real-time multispectral imaging system MANTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijvers, W. A. J.; Mumgaard, R. T.; Andrebe, Y.; Classen, I. G. J.; Duval, B. P.; Lipschultz, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Multispectral Advanced Narrowband Tokamak Imaging System (MANTIS) is proposed to resolve the steep temperature and density gradients in the scrape-off layer of tokamaks in real-time. The initial design is to deliver two-dimensional distributions of key plasma parameters of the TCV tokamak to a real-time control system in order to enable novel control strategies, while providing new insights into power exhaust physics in the full offline analysis. This paper presents the conceptual system design, the mechanical and optical design of a prototype that was built to assess the optical performance, and the results of the first proof-of-principle tests of the prototype. These demonstrate a central resolving power of 50-46 line pairs per millimeter (CTF50) in the first four channels. For the additional channels, the sharpness is a factor two worse for the odd channels (likely affected by sub-optimal alignment), while the even channels continue the trend observed for the first four channels of 3% degradation per channel. This is explained by the self-cancellation of off-axis aberrations, which is an attractive property of the chosen optical design. The results show that at least a 10-channel real-time multispectral imaging system is feasible.

  11. Proof-of-principle test of coherent-state continuous variable quantum key distribution through turbulent atmosphere (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, Ivan D.; Peuntinger, Christian; Ruppert, László; Heim, Bettina; Gunthner, Kevin; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution is a practical application of quantum information theory that is aimed at generation of secret cryptographic key between two remote trusted parties and that uses multi-photon quantum states as carriers of key bits. Remote parties share the secret key via a quantum channel, that presumably is under control of of an eavesdropper, and which properties must be taken into account in the security analysis. Well-studied fiber-optical quantum channels commonly possess stable transmittance and low noise levels, while free-space channels represent a simpler, less demanding and more flexible alternative, but suffer from atmospheric effects such as turbulence that in particular causes a non-uniform transmittance distribution referred to as fading. Nonetheless free-space channels, providing an unobstructed line-of-sight, are more apt for short, mid-range and potentially long-range (using satellites) communication and will play an important role in the future development and implementation of QKD networks. It was previously theoretically shown that coherent-state CV QKD should be in principle possible to implement over a free-space fading channel, but strong transmittance fluctuations result in the significant modulation-dependent channel excess noise. In this regime the post-selection of highly transmitting sub-channels may be needed, which can even restore the security of the protocol in the strongly turbulent channels. We now report the first proof-of-principle experimental test of coherent state CV QKD protocol using different levels Gaussian modulation over a mid-range (1.6-kilometer long) free-space atmospheric quantum channel. The transmittance of the link was characterized using intensity measurements for the reference but channel estimation using the modulated coherent states was also studied. We consider security against Gaussian collective attacks, that were shown to be optimal against CV QKD protocols . We assumed a

  12. Experimental implementation and proof of principle for a radionuclidic purity test solely based on half-life measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas; Jensen, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    have developed an GUI application for use as an easy and automated test tool in the production procedure.The test results show that this method fully complies with the requirements in the European Pharmacopoeia (Eur. Ph.) for RNP of FDG and F-18 Sodium Fluoride. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights......In this paper we present the results of an experimental implementation of the method (Jorgensen et al., 2012) for testing the radionuclidic purity (RNP) of F-18 compounds.The overall limitations of the experimental methods and their possible impacts on RNP detectability have been identified. We...

  13. Using dual tasks to test immediate transfer of training between naturalistic movements: A proof-of-principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Sydney Y.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Theories of motor learning predict that training a movement reduces the amount of attention needed for its performance (i.e. more automatic). If training one movement transfers, then the amount of attention needed for performing a second movement should also be reduced, as measured under dual task conditions. The purpose of this study was to test whether dual task paradigms are feasible for detecting transfer of training between two naturalistic movements. Immediately following motor training, subjects improved performance of a second untrained movement under both single and dual task conditions. Subjects with no training did not. Improved performance in the untrained movement was likely due to transfer, and suggests that dual tasks may be feasible for detecting transfer between naturalistic actions. PMID:22934682

  14. Tritium proof-of-principle injector experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Carlson, R.V.; Coffin, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) pellet injector was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the production and acceleration of tritium pellets for fueling future fision reactors. The injector uses the pipe-gun concept to form pellets directly in a short liquid-helium-cooled section of the barrel. Pellets are accelerated by using high-pressure hydrogen supplied from a fast solenoid valve. A versatile, tritium-compatible gas-handling system provides all of the functions needed to operate the gun, including feed gas pressure control and flow control, plus helium separation and preparation of mixtures. These systems are contained in a glovebox for secondary containment of tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). 18 refs., 3 figs

  15. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.

    1991-07-01

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic 3 He separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering 3 He levels in the feed gas to <0.005%. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized. 34 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs

  16. A Proof of principle for using adaptive testing in Routine Outcome Monitoring: the efficiency of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire -Anhedonic Depression CAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, N.; Zitman, F.G.; Cuijpers, P.; den Hollander, M.E; Calier, I.V.E

    2012-01-01

    Background: In Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) there is a high demand for short assessments. Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) is a promising method for efficient assessment. In this article, the efficiency of a CAT version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire, - Anhedonic Depression

  17. Risk based requirements for long term stewardship: A proof-of-principle analysis of an analytic method tested on selected Hanford locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, T.T.; Andrews, W.B.; Buck, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    Since 1989, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program has managed the environmental legacy of US nuclear weapons production, research and testing at 137 facilities in 31 states and one US territory. The EM program has conducted several studies on the public risks posed by contaminated sites at these facilities. In Risks and the Risk Debate [DOE, 1995a], the Department analyzed the risks at sites before, during, and after remediation work by the EM program. The results indicated that aside from a few urgent risks, most hazards present little inherent risk because physical and active site management controls limit both the releases of site contaminants, and public access to these hazards. Without these controls, these sites would pose greater risks to the public. Past risk reports, however, provided little information about post-cleanup risk, primarily because of uncertainty about future site uses and site characteristics at the end of planned cleanup activities. This is of concern because in many cases current cleanup technologies, and remedies, will last a shorter period of time than the waste itself and the resulting contamination will remain hazardous

  18. Risk based requirements for long term stewardship: A proof-of-principle analysis of an analytic method tested on selected Hanford locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, T.T.; Andrews, W.B.; Buck, J.W. [and others

    1998-03-01

    Since 1989, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program has managed the environmental legacy of US nuclear weapons production, research and testing at 137 facilities in 31 states and one US territory. The EM program has conducted several studies on the public risks posed by contaminated sites at these facilities. In Risks and the Risk Debate [DOE, 1995a], the Department analyzed the risks at sites before, during, and after remediation work by the EM program. The results indicated that aside from a few urgent risks, most hazards present little inherent risk because physical and active site management controls limit both the releases of site contaminants, and public access to these hazards. Without these controls, these sites would pose greater risks to the public. Past risk reports, however, provided little information about post-cleanup risk, primarily because of uncertainty about future site uses and site characteristics at the end of planned cleanup activities. This is of concern because in many cases current cleanup technologies, and remedies, will last a shorter period of time than the waste itself and the resulting contamination will remain hazardous.

  19. Supersonic Shear Wave Imaging to Assess Arterial Nonlinear Behavior and Anisotropy: Proof of Principle via Ex Vivo Testing of the Horse Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Shcherbakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI is a noninvasive, ultrasound-based technique to quantify the mechanical properties of bulk tissues by measuring the propagation speed of shear waves (SW induced in the tissue with an ultrasound transducer. The technique has been successfully validated in liver and breast (tumor diagnostics and is potentially useful for the assessment of the stiffness of arteries. However, SW propagation in arteries is subjected to different wave phenomena potentially affecting the measurement accuracy. Therefore, we assessed SSI in a less complex ex vivo setup, that is, a thick-walled and rectangular slab of an excised equine aorta. Dynamic uniaxial mechanical testing was performed during the SSI measurements, to dispose of a reference material assessment. An ultrasound probe was fixed in an angle position controller with respect to the tissue to investigate the effect of arterial anisotropy on SSI results. Results indicated that SSI was able to pick up stretch-induced stiffening of the aorta. SW velocities were significantly higher along the specimen's circumferential direction than in the axial direction, consistent with the circumferential orientation of collagen fibers. Hence, we established a first step in studying SW propagation in anisotropic tissues to gain more insight into the feasibility of SSI-based measurements in arteries.

  20. Risk Based Requirements for Long Term Stewardship: A Proof-of-Principle Analysis of an Analytic Method Tested on Selected Hanford Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GM Gelston; JW Buck; LR Huesties; MS Peffers; TB Miley; TT Jarvis; WB Andrews

    1998-12-03

    Since 1989, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program has managed the environmental legacy of US nuclear weapons production research and testing at 137 facilities in 31 states and one US territory. The EM program has conducted several studies on the public risks posed by contaminated sites at these facilities. In Risks and the Risk Debate DOE, 1995a, the Department analyzed the risks at sites before, during, and after remediation work by the EM program. The results indicated that aside from a few urgent risks, most hazards present little inherent risk because physical and active site management controls limit both the releases of site contaminants, and public access to these hazards. Without these controls, these sites would pose greater risks to the public. Past risk reports, however, provided little irdiormation about post- cleanup risk, primarily because of uncertainty about fiture site uses and site characteristics at the end of planned cleanup activities. This is of concern because in many cases current cleanup technologies, and remedies, will last a shorter period of time than the waste itself and the resulting contamination will remain hazardous.

  1. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Fehling, D.T.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the feasibility of forming solid tritium pellets and accelerating them to high velocities for fueling future fusion reactors. TPOP used a pneumatic pipe-gun with a 4-mm-i.d. by 1-m-long barrel. Nearly 1500 pellets were fired by the gun during the course of the experiment; about a third of these were tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. The system also contained a cryogenic 3 He separator that reduced the 3 He level to <0.005%. Pure tritium pellets were accelerated to 1400 m/s. Experiments evaluated the effect of cryostat temperature and fill pressure on pellet size, the production of pellets from mixtures of tritium and deuterium, and the effect of aging on pellet integrity. The tritium phase of these experiments was performed at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. About 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the apparatus without incident. 8 refs., 7 figs

  2. Ontsmetten met Easy Ice Clean ("Coldblast") "Proof of principle"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludeking, D.J.W.; Hamelink, R.; Gulik, van M.W.; Diepenhorst, T.

    2012-01-01

    In dit onderzoek is er gekeken naar de potentie en het proof of principle van de Cold Jet techniek van Easy Ice Clean in de tuinbouw. Met dit onderzoek is getracht te beantwoorden of de Cold Jet techniek potentie heeft als alternatieve ontsmettingstechniek voor chemische middelen. De techniek die in

  3. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector - phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) plasma fueling development program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has fabricated a pellet injection system to test the mechanical and thermal properties of extruded tritium. This repeating, single-stage, pneumatic injector, called the Tritium-Proof-of-Principle Phase II (TPOP-II) Pellet Injector, has a piston-driven mechanical extruder and is designed to extrude hydrogenic pellets sized for the ITER device. The TPOP-II program has the following development goals: evaluate the feasibility of extruding tritium and DT mixtures for use in future pellet injection systems; determine the mechanical and thermal properties of tritium and DT extrusions; integrate, test and evaluate the extruder in a repeating, single-stage light gas gun sized for the ITER application (pellet diameter ∼ 7-8 mm); evaluate options for recycling propellant and extruder exhaust gas; evaluate operability and reliability of ITER prototypical fueling systems in an environment of significant tritium inventory requiring secondary and room containment systems. In initial tests with deuterium feed at ORNL, up to thirteen pellets have been extruded at rates up to 1 Hz and accelerated to speeds of order 1.0-1.1 km/s using hydrogen propellant gas at a supply pressure of 65 bar. The pellets are typically 7.4 mm in diameter and up to 11 mm in length and are the largest cryogenic pellets produced by the fusion program to date. These pellets represent about a 11% density perturbation to ITER. Hydrogenic pellets will be used in ITER to sustain the fusion power in the plasma core and may be crucial in reducing first wall tritium inventories by a process called isotopic fueling where tritium-rich pellets fuel the burning plasma core and deuterium gas fuels the edge

  4. TOREX-4: a torsatron proof of principle experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politzer, P.A.; Lidsky, L.M.; Montgomery, D.B.

    1979-03-01

    TOREX-4 is a torsatron Proof of Principle experiment designed to simultaneously achieve ntau approx. = to 5 x 10 13 , n approx. = to 5 x 10 14 /cm 3 , and T greater than or equal to 1 keV. TOREX-4 is capable of operating without externally driven currents; sufficient neutral beam power to reach betas of 2 to 5% is provided. The unique 4(+2) constant pitch angle winding configuration allows the reliable design of large systems with far greater experimental flexibility than can be achieved in conventional stellarators of comparable size. This will allow investigation of the basic physics questions of the torsatron configuration over a wide range of plasma properties and field configurations without sacrifice of the Proof of Principle goals

  5. Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Bruno E.; Bates, John T.; Loomis, Rebecca J.; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Chris; Jardine, Joseph G.; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J.; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; MacPherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M.; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A.; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E.; Graham, Barney S.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Crowe, James E.; Johnson, Philip R.; Schief, William R.

    2014-03-01

    Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza.

  6. A new proof-of-principle contraband detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sredniawski, J.J.; Debiak, T.; Kamykowski, E.; Rathke, J. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States). Advanced Technology and Development Center; Schmor, P.; Altman, A.; Rogers, J.; Boyd, J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). TRIUMF Facility; Brondo, J. [Scientific Innovations, Inc., East Hampton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A new concept for a CDS has been developed under a Phase I ARPA funded program; it uses gamma resonance absorption (GRA) to detect certain illegal drugs that may be transported in man-portable containers. A high detection probability for heroin and cocaine is possible with a device that is also searching for explosives. Elemental detection of both N and Cl is utilized, and with tomography, a 3D density image of the elements is generated. Total density image is also developed. These two together may be used with considerable confidence in determining if heroin or cocaine is present in the interrogated containers in a small quantity (1 kg). The CDS employs a high current ({ge}10 mA) DC accelerator that produces a beam of 1.75 or 1.89 MeV protons. These protons impact a target with coatings of {sup 13}C and {sup 34}S. Depending on the coating, the resultant resonant gamma rays are preferentially absorbed in either {sup 14}N or {sup 35}Cl. The resonant gammas come off the target in a conical fan at 80.7{degree} for N and 82{degree} for Cl; a common array of segmented BGO detectors is used over an arc of 53{degree} to provide input to an imaging subsystem. The tomography makes use of rotation and vertical translation of a baggage carousel holding typically 18 average sized bags for batch processing of the contents. The single proton accelerator and target can supply multiple detection stations with the appropriate gammas, a feature that may lead to very high throughput potential approaching 2000 bags/hr. Each detection station can operate somewhat independently from the others. This paper presents the overall requirements, design, operating principles, and characteristics of the CDS proof-of-principle device developed in the Phase I program.

  7. Proof-of-principle Experiment of a Ferroelectric Tuner for the 1.3 GHz Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi,E.M.; Hahn, H.; Shchelkunov, S. V.; Hirshfield, J.; Kazakov, S.

    2009-01-01

    A novel tuner has been developed by the Omega-P company to achieve fast control of the accelerator RF cavity frequency. The tuner is based on the ferroelectric property which has a variable dielectric constant as function of applied voltage. Tests using a Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) 1.3 GHz electron gun cavity have been carried out for a proof-of-principle experiment of the ferroelectric tuner. Two different methods were used to determine the frequency change achieved with the ferroelectric tuner (FT). The first method is based on a S11 measurement at the tuner port to find the reactive impedance change when the voltage is applied. The reactive impedance change then is used to estimate the cavity frequency shift. The second method is a direct S21 measurement of the frequency shift in the cavity with the tuner connected. The estimated frequency change from the reactive impedance measurement due to 5 kV is in the range between 3.2 kHz and 14 kHz, while 9 kHz is the result from the direct measurement. The two methods are in reasonable agreement. The detail description of the experiment and the analysis are discussed in the paper.

  8. Single Sensor Gait Analysis to Detect Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Proof of Principle Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Esser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the potential utility of gait analysis using a single sensor unit (inertial measurement unit [IMU] as a simple tool to detect peripheral neuropathy in people with diabetes. Seventeen people (14 men aged 63±9 years (mean±SD with diabetic peripheral neuropathy performed a 10-m walk test instrumented with an IMU on the lower back. Compared to a reference healthy control data set (matched by gender, age, and body mass index both spatiotemporal and gait control variables were different between groups, with walking speed, step time, and SDa (gait control parameter demonstrating good discriminatory power (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve >0.8. These results provide a proof of principle of this relatively simple approach which, when applied in clinical practice, can detect a signal from those with known diabetes peripheral neuropathy. The technology has the potential to be used both routinely in the clinic and for tele-health applications. Further research should focus on investigating its efficacy as an early indicator of or effectiveness of the management of peripheral neuropathy. This could support the development of interventions to prevent complications such as foot ulceration or Charcot's foot.

  9. Single Sensor Gait Analysis to Detect Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Proof of Principle Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Patrick; Collett, Johnny; Maynard, Kevin; Steins, Dax; Hillier, Angela; Buckingham, Jodie; Tan, Garry D; King, Laurie; Dawes, Helen

    2018-02-01

    This study explored the potential utility of gait analysis using a single sensor unit (inertial measurement unit [IMU]) as a simple tool to detect peripheral neuropathy in people with diabetes. Seventeen people (14 men) aged 63±9 years (mean±SD) with diabetic peripheral neuropathy performed a 10-m walk test instrumented with an IMU on the lower back. Compared to a reference healthy control data set (matched by gender, age, and body mass index) both spatiotemporal and gait control variables were different between groups, with walking speed, step time, and SDa (gait control parameter) demonstrating good discriminatory power (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve >0.8). These results provide a proof of principle of this relatively simple approach which, when applied in clinical practice, can detect a signal from those with known diabetes peripheral neuropathy. The technology has the potential to be used both routinely in the clinic and for tele-health applications. Further research should focus on investigating its efficacy as an early indicator of or effectiveness of the management of peripheral neuropathy. This could support the development of interventions to prevent complications such as foot ulceration or Charcot's foot. Copyright © 2018 Korean Diabetes Association.

  10. A contraband detection system proof-of-principle device using electrostatic acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sredniawski, Joseph J.; Debiak, T.W.; Kamykowski, E.; Rathke, J.; Milton, B.; Rogers, J.; Schmor, P.; Stanford, G.; Brando, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new Contraband Detection System (CDS) Proof-of- Principle (POP) device is nearing completion at Northrop Grumman's Advanced Technology and Development Center. We employ gamma resonance absorption (GRA) to detect nitrogen or chlorine in explosives and certain forms of illegal drugs. Using tomography, 3-D images of the total density and selected element density are generated. These characteristics together may be utilized with considerable confidence in determining if contraband is present in baggage or cargo. The CDS employs a high current (10 mA) DC electrostatic accelerator that provides a beam of protons at either 1.75 or 1.89 MeV. These high energy particles impinge upon a target coated with 13 C or 34 S. The resultant resonant gamma rays are preferentially absorbed in either 14 N or 35 Cl. Because of the penetrating power of the gamma rays, this approach can be utilized for inspection of fully loaded aircraft containers such as the LD3. Our current program calls for testing of the POP CDS by late 1996. This paper presents the overall design and characteristics of the CDS POP. (author)

  11. Identification of Streptococcus pyogenes - Phenotypic Tests vs Molecular Assay (spy1258PCR): A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Tintu; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-07-01

    Traditionally Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) is differentiated from other beta haemolytic streptococci (BHS) by certain presumptive tests such as bacitracin sensitivity and production of Pyrollidonyl Aryl Sulfatase (PYR). The phenotypic and genotypic confirmatory tests are Lancefield grouping for cell wall carbohydrate antigen and PCR for spy1258 gene respectively. Reliance on presumptive tests alone may lead to misidentification of isolates. To compare the predictive values of routine phenotypic tests with spy1258 PCR for the identification of Streptococcus pyogenes. This comparative analytical study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, JIPMER, Puducherry, over a period of 18 months (1(st) November 2013 to 30(th) April 2015). Two hundred and six consecutive BHS isolates from various clinical samples were subjected to phenotypic tests such as bacitracin sensitivity, PYR test and Lancefield grouping. The results were compared with spy1258 PCR which was considered 95 the confirmatory test for identification. The sensitivity and specificity of phenotypic tests were as follows; Susceptibility to bacitracin - 95.42%, 70.96%, PYR test - 95.42%, 77.41%, Lancefield grouping- 97.71%, 80.64%. Clinical laboratories should not depend on bacitracin sensitivity as a single presumptive test for the routine identification of GAS but should use supplemental tests such as PYR test or latex agglutination test and for best results use spy1258 PCR.

  12. Discrimination Training Reduces High Rate Social Approach Behaviors in Angelman Syndrome: Proof of Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, M.; Allen, D.; Villa, D.; Oliver, C.

    2013-01-01

    This proof of principle study was designed to evaluate whether excessively high rates of social approach behaviors in children with Angelman syndrome (AS) can be modified using a multiple schedule design. Four children with AS were exposed to a multiple schedule arrangement, in which social reinforcement and extinction, cued using a novel…

  13. A proof of principle experiment of laser wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, K.; Enomoto, A.; Nakanishi, H.; Ogata, A.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Mima, K.; Shiraga, H.; Yamakawa, K.; Downer, M.; Horton, W.; Newberger, B.; Tajima, T.

    1992-01-01

    Ultrashort super-intense lasers allow us to test a principle of the laser wakefield particle acceleration. The peak power of 30 TW and the pulse width of 1 ps produced by the Nd:glass laser system is capable of creating a highly-ionized plasma of a moderate density gas in an ultrafast time scale and generating a large amplitude plasma wave with the accelerating gradient of 2.5 GeV/m. Particle acceleration can be demonstrated by injecting a few MeV electrons emitted from a solid target by intense laser irradiation. (Author) 2 figs., 5 refs

  14. Research on Vacuum Laser Accelerator and Proof-of Principle Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lei

    This thesis discovers a proof-of-principle theory of Vacuum Laser Acceleration (VLA) and proposes a new acceleration mechanism---Capture and Acceleration Scenario (CAS) in our far-field laser acceleration research, which is a promising new scheme in advanced acceleration field. In this thesis, I studied electrons' dynamic behaviors while interacting with intense laser beam. There are two kinds of dynamics trajectories, namely IS (Inelastic Scattering) and CAS. In CAS, electrons can be captured and moving along the laser beam for a long time and receive considerable energy exchange from the laser field, rather than quickly expelled from the intense field region of the laser as predicted by the conventional Ponderomotive Potential Model (PPM). This thesis shows the research on most parameters of both laser beam and electron beam which will affect this VLA scheme. One of the primary factors is the laser intensity. Relatively high laser intensity is critically required for VLA, and there are thresholds of intensity a0( th) for CAS occurrence; the thresholds are different under different laser beam waist widths which is also a very important parameter of laser beam. Laser intensity is still a big obstacle nowadays. In the last decade there are only a few laboratories have the laser power to ˜1019 W/cm2 and above. Our simulation shows that laser intensity threshold of CAS is around a0 = 5˜8, in correspondence to laser power around 1019˜1022 W/cm 2 depending on different wave length and waist width. The interaction is also sensitive to various electron beam parameters, such as the optimal initial electron energy falls in the range of 4--15 MeV, electron incident angle and position, and so on. At last the thesis presents out experimental work on this new VLA scheme. The collaboration is between our UCLA group and Brookhaven National Lab - Accelerator Test Facility (BNL-ATF). At BNL-ATF, they have both intense laser beam and high quality electron beam. The characters of

  15. Can repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increase muscle strength in functional neurological paresis? A proof-of-principle study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, M; Koops, E A; Vroomen, Patrick; Van der Hoeven, J H; Aleman, A; Leenders, K L; Maurits, N M; van Beilen, M

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Therapeutic options are limited in functional neurological paresis disorder. Earlier intervention studies did not control for a placebo effect, hampering assessment of effectivity. A proof-of-principle investigation was conducted into the therapeutic potential of repetitive

  16. Proof-of-principle of surface detection with air-guided quantum cascade lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Virginie; Colombelli, Raffaele; Perahia, Raviv; Painter, Oskar; Wilson, Luke R; Krysa, Andrey B

    2008-04-28

    We report a proof-of-principle of surface detection with air-guided quantum cascade lasers. Laser ridges were designed to exhibit an evanescent electromagnetic field on their top surface that can interact with material or liquids deposited on the device. We employ photoresist and common solvents to provide a demonstration of the sensor setup. We observed spectral as well as threshold currents changes as a function of the deposited material absorption curve. A simple model, supplemented by 2D numerical finite element method simulations, allows one to explain and correctly predict the experimental results.

  17. Vane fabrication for the proof-of-principle radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.W.; Potter, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The electrodes for the Proof-of-Principle (POP) Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator were machined on a numerically controlled, three-axis, vertical mill. These pole tips, or vanes, were prepared for, and used, in the successful demonstration of RFQ practicality at Los Alamos National Laboratory in February 1980. The data set that described the vanes contained about 10 million bits of tool position data. The vanes were cut from OFHC copper blanks. The tolerances achieved were approximately +- 0.005 cm. The design and manufacturing procedures are described

  18. Immune responses accelerate ageing: proof-of-principle in an insect model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rhiannon Pursall

    Full Text Available The pathology of many of the world's most important infectious diseases is caused by the immune response. Additionally age-related disease is often attributed to inflammatory responses. Consequently a reduction in infections and hence inflammation early in life has been hypothesized to explain the rise in lifespan in industrialized societies. Here we demonstrate experimentally for the first time that eliciting an immune response early in life accelerates ageing. We use the beetle Tenebrio molitor as an inflammation model. We provide a proof of principle for the effects of early infection on morbidity late in life and demonstrate a long-lasting cost of immunopathology. Along with presenting a proof-of-principle study, we discuss a mechanism for the apparently counter-adaptive persistence of immunopathology in natural populations. If immunopathology from early immune response only becomes costly later in life, natural selection on reducing self-harm would be relaxed, which could explain the presence of immune self-harm in nature.

  19. Proof-of-principle of a diagnostic for D-T fusion-product alpha particles (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, D. P.; Richards, R. K.; Bennett, C. A.; Ma, C. H.

    1992-10-01

    Results are presented for an alpha-particle diagnostic proof-of-principle test based on CO2 laser small-angle Thomson scattering. Because the test was performed on a nonburning plasma (Advanced Toroidal Facility), which had no energetic alpha particles, scattering measurements were made on the plasma electrons. The diagnostic was configured to duplicate the requirements for an alpha-particle measurement, i.e., the measurement of a small scattered signal (≲10-9 W) in the presence of a high-power source laser (≳106 W) at small scattering angles (≲1°). The goals of this test were to eliminate stray laser light which would produce a background signal at the receiver and to maintain alignment between the pulsed laser and the receiver beams, which was set at 0.86°, while performing scattering measurements on a plasma. The proof of the diagnostic method is the measurement of the electron plasma frequency resonance feature in the scattering. Research sponsored by the Office of Fusion Energy, U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400 with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.

  20. Light ion ignitors for inertial confinement fusion: progress toward proof-of-principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintenz, J.P.; Kuswa, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    From the inception of the REB effort, it was recognized that light ion beams offered substantial advantages as an ICF driver, and as the pulse power driver program progressed the possibilities of using light ion beams became increasingly evident. Because of the rapid progress made in the available power in these light ion beams, their superior target deposition characteristics, the fact that nonrelativistic ion beams can readily be bunched by a factor of 2 to 4, and the favorable scaling relations leading toward reactor levels, Sandia shifted its ICF emphasis from electrons to ions in 1979. The progress which has been made toward proof-of-principle using light ion ignitors, as well as the remaining problems, will be detailed in this paper

  1. Effects of a training in mental imagery on worry: A proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodzik, Timo; Leopold, Alexandra; Ehring, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Worry is characterized by a predominance of verbal thinking and relatively little mental imagery. This cognitive bias of verbal and abstract processing has been found to impair emotional processing of worry topics so that worrisome thoughts are maintained. On the other hand, engaging in mental imagery during the worry process fosters emotional processing of worry themes. In the present study, we examined whether training high worriers (n=71) to use more mental imagery in their everyday lives is an effective intervention to reduce pathological worry. Results indicated that our novel training in mental imagery (TMI) led to a significant reduction of worry and impairment, assessed both one and five weeks after the training. Furthermore, in highly anxious participants TMI had beneficial effects on controllability of worry, state anxiety, and positive mood. Theoretical and clinical implications of our findings and methodological limitations of this proof-of-principle study are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Human genetics of infectious diseases: between proof of principle and paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaïs, Alexandre; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2009-09-01

    The observation that only a fraction of individuals infected by infectious agents develop clinical disease raises fundamental questions about the actual pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Epidemiological and experimental evidence is accumulating to suggest that human genetics plays a major role in this process. As we discuss here, human predisposition to infectious diseases seems to cover a continuous spectrum from monogenic to polygenic inheritance. Although many studies have provided proof of principle that infectious diseases may result from various types of inborn errors of immunity, the genetic determinism of most infectious diseases in most patients remains unclear. However, in the future, studies in human genetics are likely to establish a new paradigm for infectious diseases.

  3. LED lighting and the Next Generation of Greenhouse for Tomatoes. Proof of Principle; LED belichting en Het Nieuwe Telen bij tomaat. Proof of Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueck, T.; Janse, J.; Eveleens, B. [Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands); Nieboer, S.; Valstar, W.; Grootscholten, M. [GreenQ Improvement Centre, Bleiswijk (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    In this Proof of Principle project a tomato crop was grown under artificial lighting with the aim of 30% energy saving at the same level of production. Tomatoes (cultivar Komeett) were illuminated with 110 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} HPS (High Pressure Sodium) above the crop and 85 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} LED interlighting. The LEDs hung in 2 rows, approximately 40 cm above the lower leaves and the second strand at 40 or 70 cm above that. There were two types of LEDs used: production LEDs (light efficiency 1.6 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, 87% red/13% blue) and inter-lighting LEDs (light efficiency 1.9 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, 95% red/5% blue), with the same light intensity. At the start, the crop was given as much light as it could handle, and because the crop developed so well, the stem density was increased relatively early. This resulted in high fruit load, while insufficient light was available to compensate for the low levels of sunlight in the winter. In the 192 cm row spacing system the plants were too close to each other. Additional problems occurred with trace elements, lesser bumble bee activity, and a moist greenhouse climate which weakened the crop in the winter. Thus Botrytis occurred on the leaves and stems. The crop struggled with its recovery until early spring with more sunlight. Compared to a reference crop with 79 kg m{sup -2} tomatoes, 75 kg m{sup -2} were produced under-production LEDs, and 80 kg m{sup -2} under the interlighting LEDs, mainly because latter LEDs were used longer during the summer. 30% of the energy for dehumidification and heat energy, and 27% of the electricity was saved, relative to the reference crop. Thus it appears possible to save 30% energy with a near identical production [Dutch] In dit Proof of Principle project is een belichte tomatenteelt geteeld met als doel 30% energiebesparing bij een gelijke productie. Tomaten van het ras Komeett werden belicht met 110 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} SON-T belichting boven

  4. The socket-shield technique: a proof-of-principle report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürzeler, Markus B; Zuhr, Otto; Schupbach, Peter; Rebele, Stephan F; Emmanouilidis, Notis; Fickl, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    Clinical studies have suggested that retaining roots of hopeless teeth may avoid tissue alterations after tooth extraction. Therefore, the objective of this proof-of-principle experiment was to histologically assess a partial root retention (socket-shield technique) in combination with immediate implant placement. In one beagle dog, the third and fourth mandibular pre-molar were hemisected and the buccal fragment of the distal root was retained approximately 1 mm coronal to the buccal bone plate. Following application of enamel matrix derivate, a titanium implant was placed lingual to that tooth fragment either with or without contact to the buccal tooth fragment and a healing abutment was connected. Four months after implant placement, histological evaluation, and backscatter scanning electron microscopy were performed. All four implants were osseointegrated without any histologic inflammatory reaction and the tooth fragment was devoid of any resorptional processes. On the buccal side, the tooth fragment was attached to the buccal bone plate by a physiologic periodontal ligament. On the lingual side of the fragment, newly formed cementum could be detected. In the areas where the implant was placed into the fragment, newly formed cementum was demonstrated directly on the implant surface. Retaining the buccal aspect of the root during implant placement does not appear to interfere with osseointegration and may be beneficial in preserving the buccal bone plate.

  5. Psychosocial and Psychological Vulnerability in Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria: A "Proof of Principle" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Melanie; VanderLaan, Doug P; Wood, Hayley; Wasserman, Lori; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2017-10-03

    For adolescents with gender dysphoria, it has become common to be offered hormonal treatment to either delay or suppress pubertal development and/or to masculinize or feminize the body. At the same time, it has been our clinical impression that the psychological vulnerability of at least some of these youth has been overlooked. Fifty consecutive referrals of adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of gender identity disorder (GID) constituted the sample. Information obtained at intake was coded for the presence or absence of 15 psychosocial and psychological vulnerability factors. The mean number of psychosocial/psychological vulnerability factors coded as present was 5.56 (range, 0-13). Over half of the sample had six or more of the vulnerability factors. The number of factors coded as present was significantly correlated with behavioral and emotional problems on the Youth Self-Report Form and the Child Behavior Checklist, but not with demographic variables or IQ. The findings supported the clinical impression that a large percentage of adolescents referred for gender dysphoria have a substantial co-occurring history of psychosocial and psychological vulnerability, thus supporting a "proof of principle" for the importance of a comprehensive psychologic/psychiatric assessment that goes beyond an evaluation of gender dysphoria per se.

  6. Voluntary control of corticomuscular coherence through neurofeedback: a proof-of-principle study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Carlowitz-Ghori, K; Bayraktaroglu, Z; Waterstraat, G; Curio, G; Nikulin, V V

    2015-04-02

    Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) relates to synchronization between activity in the motor cortex and the muscle activity. The strength of CMC can be affected by motor behavior. In a proof-of-principle study, we examined whether independent of motor output parameters, healthy subjects are able to voluntarily modulate CMC in a neurofeedback paradigm. Subjects received visual online feedback of their instantaneous CMC strength, which was calculated between an optimized spatial projection of multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) in an individually defined target frequency range. The neurofeedback training consisted of either increasing or decreasing CMC strength using a self-chosen mental strategy while performing a simple motor task. Evaluation of instantaneous coherence showed that CMC strength was significantly larger when subjects had to increase than when to decrease CMC; this difference between the two task conditions did not depend on motor performance. The exclusion of confounding factors such as motor performance, attention and task complexity in study design provides evidence that subjects were able to voluntarily modify CMC independent of motor output parameters. Additional analysis further strengthened the assumption that the subjects' response was specifically shaped by the neurofeedback. In perspective, we suggest that CMC-based neurofeedback could provide a therapeutic approach in clinical conditions, such as motor stroke, where CMC is altered. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of a speed meter interferometer proof-of-principle experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gräf, C; Barr, B W; Bell, A S; Campbell, F; Cumming, A V; Gordon, N A; Hammond, G D; Hennig, J; Houston, E A; Huttner, S H; Jones, R A; Leavey, S S; Macarthur, J; Marwick, M; Rigby, S; Sorazu, B; Spencer, A; Danilishin, S L; Lück, H; Schilling, R

    2014-01-01

    The second generation of large scale interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors will be limited by quantum noise over a wide frequency range in their detection band. Further sensitivity improvements for future upgrades or new detectors beyond the second generation motivate the development of measurement schemes to mitigate the impact of quantum noise in these instruments. Two strands of development are being pursued to reach this goal, focusing both on modifications of the well-established Michelson detector configuration and development of different detector topologies. In this paper, we present the design of the world's first Sagnac speed meter (SSM) interferometer, which is currently being constructed at the University of Glasgow. With this proof-of-principle experiment we aim to demonstrate the theoretically predicted lower quantum noise in a Sagnac interferometer compared to an equivalent Michelson interferometer, to qualify SSM for further research towards an implementation in a future generation large scale GW detector, such as the planned Einstein telescope observatory. (paper)

  8. Proof-of-principle of high-fidelity coupled CRUD deposition and cycle depletion simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Daniel J.; Kendrick, Brian K.; Petrov, Victor; Manera, Annalisa; Collins, Benjamin; Downar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A multiphysics framework for the high-fidelity simulation of CRUD deposition is developed to better understand the coupled physics and their respective feedback mechanisms. This framework includes the primary physics of lattice depletion, computational fluid dynamics, and CRUD chemistry. The three physics are coupled together via the operator-splitting technique, where predictor–corrector and fixed-point iteration schemes are utilized to converge the nonlinear solution. High-fidelity simulations may provide a means to predict and assess potential operating issues, including CRUD induced power shift and CRUD induced localized corrosion, known as CIPS and CILC, respectively. As a proof-of-principle, a coupled 500-day cycle depletion simulation of a pressurized water reactor fuel pin cell was performed using the coupled code suite; a burnup of 31 MWd/kgHM was reached. The simulation recreated the classic striped CRUD pattern often seen on pulled fuel rods containing CRUD. It is concluded that the striping is caused by the flow swirl induced by spacer grid mixing vanes. Two anti-correlated effects contribute to the striping: (1) the flow swirl yields significant azimuthal temperature variations, which impact the locations where CRUD deposits, and (2) the flow swirl is correlated to increased shear stress along the cladding surface and subsequent erosion of the CRUD layer. The CIPS condition of the core is concluded to be primarily controlled by lithium tetraborate precipitation, referred to as boron hideout, which occurs in regions experiencing subcooled nucleate boiling as soluble boron and lithium species reach their solubility limit within the CRUD layer. Subsequently, a localized reduction in power occurs due to the high neutron absorption cross section of boron-10

  9. Milk Sweetened with Xylitol: A Proof-of-Principle Caries Prevention Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Zegarra, Graciela; Vasquez Huerta, Elsa C; Castillo, Jorge L; Milgrom, Peter; Roberts, Marilyn C; Cabrera-Matta, Ailin R; Merino, Ana P

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of xylitol-sweetened milk as a caries-preventive strategy. In this nine-month prospective proof-of-principle trial, Peruvian schoolchildren were randomized to one of five different milk groups: (1) eight g of xylitol per 200 mL milk once per day; (2) four g of xylitol per 100 mL milk twice per day; (3) eight g of sorbitol per 200 mL milk once per day; (4) four g of sorbitol per 100 mL milk twice per day; or (5) eight g of sucrose per 200 mL milk once per day. The primary outcome was plaque mutans streptococci (MS) at nine months. A secondary outcome was caries incidence. We hypothesized that children in the xylitol groups would have a greater MS decline and lower caries incidence. One hundred fifty-three children were randomized in the intent-to-treat analyses. Children receiving xylitol had a greater decline in MS than children receiving sucrose (P=0.02) but were not different from children receiving sorbitol (P=0.07). Dental caries incidence for xylitol once per day or twice per day was 5.3±3.4 and 4.3±4.0 surfaces, respectively, compared to sorbitol once per day, sorbitol twice per day, or sucrose (4.1±2.8, 3.7±4.2, and 3.2±3.4 surfaces, respectively). There were no differences in caries incidence between xylitol and sucrose (rate ratio [RR] = 1.51; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.88, 2.59; P=0.13) or between xylitol and sorbitol (RR = 1.28; 95 percent CI = 0.90, 1.83; P=0.16). Xylitol-sweetened milk significantly reduced mutans streptococci levels compared to sucrose-sweetened milk, but differences in caries incidence were not detected.

  10. Cancer driver-passenger distinction via sporadic human and dog cancer comparison: a proof of principle study with colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jie; Li, Yaping; Lyon, Kenneth; Camps, Jordi; Dalton, Stephen; Ried, Thomas; Zhao, Shaying

    2013-01-01

    Herein we report a proof of principle study illustrating a novel dog-human comparison strategy that addresses a central aim of cancer research, namely cancer driver–passenger distinction. We previously demonstrated that sporadic canine colorectal cancers (CRCs) share similar molecular pathogenesis mechanisms as their human counterparts. In this study, we compared the genome-wide copy number abnormalities between 29 human- and 10 canine sporadic CRCs. This led to the identification of 73 drive...

  11. Development of a Single-Pass Amplifier for an Optical Stochastic Cooling Proof-of-Principle Experiment at Fermilab's IOTA Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andorf, M. B. [NICADD, DeKalb; Lebedev, V. A. [Fermilab; Piot, P. [NIU, DeKalb

    2015-06-01

    Optical stochastic cooling (OSC) is a method of beam cooling which is expected to provide cooling rates orders of magnitude larger than ordinary stochastic cooling. Light from an undulator (the pickup) is amplified and fed back onto the particle beam via another undulator (the kicker). Fermilab is currently exploring a possible proof-of-principle experiment of the OSC at the integrable-optics test accelerator (IOTA) ring. To implement effective OSC a good correction of phase distortions in the entire band of the optical amplifier is required. In this contribution we present progress in experimental characterization of phase distortions associated to a Titanium Sapphire crystal laser-gain medium (a possible candidate gain medium for the OSC experiment to be performed at IOTA). We also discuss a possible option for a mid-IR amplifier

  12. Simulation of Electron Beam Dynamics in the 22 MeV Accelerator for a Coherent Electron Cooling Proof of Principle Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Justin [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Coherent electron cooling (CeC) offers a potential new method of cooling hadron beams in colliders such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) or the future electron ion collider eRHIC. A 22 MeV linear accelerator is currently being built as part of a proof of principle experiment for CeC at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In this thesis we present a simulation of electron beam dynamics including space charge in the 22 MeV CeC proof of principle experiment using the program ASTRA (A Space charge TRacking Algorithm).

  13. Evaluation of the Use of Home Blood Pressure Measurement Using Mobile Phone-Assisted Technology: The iVitality Proof-of-Principle Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, Liselotte W.; Richard, Edo; Cachucho, Ricardo; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Jongstra, Susan; Mooijaart, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone-assisted technologies provide the opportunity to optimize the feasibility of long-term blood pressure (BP) monitoring at home, with the potential of large-scale data collection. In this proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the feasibility of home BP monitoring using mobile

  14. Evaluation of the Use of Home Blood Pressure Measurement Using Mobile Phone-Assisted Technology: The iVitality Proof-of-Principle Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, L.W.; Richard, E.; Cachucho, R.; Craen, A.J. de; Jongstra, S.; Mooijaart, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mobile phone-assisted technologies provide the opportunity to optimize the feasibility of long-term blood pressure (BP) monitoring at home, with the potential of large-scale data collection. OBJECTIVE: In this proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the feasibility of home BP monitoring

  15. Proton radiography in three dimensions: A proof of principle of a new technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raytchev, Milen; Seco, Joao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate a range of phantom configurations to establish enabling three-dimensional proton radiographic techniques.Methods: A large parameter space of stacked phantom geometries composed of tissue inhomogeneity materials such as lung, bone, and cartilage inserted within water background were simulated using a purposefully modified version of TOPAS, an application running on top of the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code. The phantoms were grouped in two classes, one with the inhomogeneity inserted only half-way in the lateral direction and another with complete inhomogeneity insertion. The former class was used to calculate the track count and the energy fluence of the protons as they exit the phantoms either having traversed the inhomogeneity or not. The latter class was used to calculate one yield value accounting for loss of protons due to physical processes only and another yield value accounting for deliberately discarded protons due to large scattering angles. A graphical fingerprinting method was developed to determine the inhomogeneity thickness and location within the phantom based on track count and energy fluence information. Two additional yield values extended this method to the general case which also determines the inhomogeneity material and the phantom thickness.Results: The graphical fingerprinting method was manually validated for two, and automatically tested for all, tissue materials using an exhaustive set of inhomogeneity geometries for 16 cm thick phantoms. Unique recognition of test phantom configurations was achieved in the large majority of cases. The method in the general case was further tested using an exhaustive set of inhomogeneity and phantom tissues and geometries where the phantom thicknesses ranged between 8 and 24 cm. Unique recognition of the test phantom configurations was achieved only for part of the phantom parameter space. The correlations between the remaining false positive recognitions

  16. Phase change material for thermotherapy of Buruli ulcer: a prospective observational single centre proof-of-principle trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Junghanss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is an infection of the subcutaneous tissue leading to chronic necrotizing skin ulcers. The causative pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, grows best at 30 degrees C-33 degrees C and not above 37 degrees C. We explored the safety, tolerability and efficacy of phase change material (PCM, a novel heat application system for thermotherapy of BU. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective observational single centre proof-of-principle trial in Ayos/Cameroon, six laboratory reconfirmed patients with ulcerative Buruli lesions received 28-31 (ulcers 2 cm days of thermotherapy with the PCM sodium acetate trihydrate as heat application system. This PCM is widely used in commercial pocket heat pads, it is easy to apply, rechargeable in hot water, non-toxic and non-hazardous to the environment. All patients enrolled in the trial completed treatment. Being completely mobile during the well-tolerated heat application, acceptability of the PCM bandages was very high. In patients with smaller ulcers, wounds healed completely without further intervention. Patients with large defects had skin grafting after successful heat treatment. Heat treatment was not associated with marked increases in local inflammation or the development of ectopic lymphoid tissue. One and a half years after completion of treatment, all patients are relapse-free. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our reusable PCM-based heat application device appears perfectly suited to treat BU in endemic countries with limited resources and infrastructure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN88392614.

  17. Rapid and accurate detection of urinary pathogens by mobile IMS-based electronic nose: a proof-of-principle study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Roine

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common disease with significant morbidity and economic burden, accounting for a significant part of the workload in clinical microbiology laboratories. Current clinical chemisty point-of-care diagnostics rely on imperfect dipstick analysis which only provides indirect and insensitive evidence of urinary bacterial pathogens. An electronic nose (eNose is a handheld device mimicking mammalian olfaction that potentially offers affordable and rapid analysis of samples without preparation at athmospheric pressure. In this study we demonstrate the applicability of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS -based eNose to discriminate the most common UTI pathogens from gaseous headspace of culture plates rapidly and without sample preparation. We gathered a total of 101 culture samples containing four most common UTI bacteries: E. coli, S. saprophyticus, E. faecalis, Klebsiella spp and sterile culture plates. The samples were analyzed using ChemPro 100i device, consisting of IMS cell and six semiconductor sensors. Data analysis was conducted by linear discriminant analysis (LDA and logistic regression (LR. The results were validated by leave-one-out and 5-fold cross validation analysis. In discrimination of sterile and bacterial samples sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 97% were achieved. The bacterial species were identified with sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 96% using eNose as compared to urine bacterial cultures.These findings strongly demonstrate the ability of our eNose to discriminate bacterial cultures and provides a proof of principle to use this method in urinanalysis of UTI.

  18. Immediate loading of trabecular metal-enhanced titanium dental implants: interim results from an international proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, Marcus; van der Schoor, W Peter; van der Schoor, Alexandra R M

    2015-01-01

    A 3-year proof-of-principle study was initiated to evaluate the clinical efficacy of immediately loading titanium dental implants with surfaces enhanced with porous tantalum trabecular metal (PTTM). First-year interim results are presented. Healthy, partially edentulous patients (n = 30) were enrolled and treated per protocol (minimum insertion torque: ≥35 Ncm) with 37 implants placed in one or two premolar or molar locations in either jaw (study group). Implants were immediately provisionalized out of occlusion with single acrylic crowns. After 7 to 14 days of soft tissue healing, implants were definitively restored in occlusion with ceramometal crowns. Because most study group implants (54.1%, n = 20) had less than 1 year of clinical follow-up, this interim analysis was limited to the first 22 consecutively placed implants in 17 subjects (10 women and 7 men) who completed 1 year of clinical follow-up to date (focus group). To date, one implant failed to integrate in the study group (survival = 97.3%, n = 36/37). Focus group implants achieved 100% (n = 22/22) survival with 0.43 ± 0.41 mm of mean marginal bone loss. There were no serious complications. Early clinical findings indicated that immediate loading of PTTM implants was safe and effective under the controlled study conditions. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Proof-of-principle experimental realization of a qubit-like qudit-based quantum key distribution scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chau, H. F.; Chen, Wei; Wang, Chao; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2018-04-01

    In comparison to qubit-based protocols, qudit-based quantum key distribution ones generally allow two cooperative parties to share unconditionally secure keys under a higher channel noise. However, it is very hard to prepare and measure the required quantum states in qudit-based protocols in general. One exception is the recently proposed highly error tolerant qudit-based protocol known as the Chau15 (Chau 2015 Phys. Rev. A 92 062324). Remarkably, the state preparation and measurement in this protocol can be done relatively easily since the required states are phase encoded almost like the diagonal basis states of a qubit. Here we report the first proof-of-principle demonstration of the Chau15 protocol. One highlight of our experiment is that its post-processing is based on practical one-way manner, while the original proposal in Chau (2015 Phys. Rev. A 92 062324) relies on complicated two-way post-processing, which is a great challenge in experiment. In addition, by manipulating time-bin qudit and measurement with a variable delay interferometer, our realization is extensible to qudit with high-dimensionality and confirms the experimental feasibility of the Chau15 protocol.

  20. Proof-of-principle for SERS imaging of Aspergillus nidulans hyphae using in vivo synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusinkiewicz, Martin A; Farazkhorasani, Fatemeh; Dynes, James J; Wang, Jian; Gough, Kathleen M; Kaminskyj, Susan G W

    2012-11-07

    High spatial resolution methods to assess the physiology of growing cells should permit analysis of fungal biochemical composition. Whole colony methods cannot capture the details of physiology and organism-environment interaction, in part because the structure, function and composition of fungal hyphae vary within individual cells depending on their distance from the growing apex. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) can provide chemical information on materials that are in close contact with appropriate metal substrates, such as nanopatterned gold surfaces and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Since nanoparticles can be generated by living cells, we have created conditions for AuNP formation within and on the surface of Aspergillus nidulans hyphae in order to explore their potential for SERS analysis. AuNP distribution and composition have been assessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. AuNPs were often associated with hyphal walls, both in the peripheral cytoplasm and on the outer wall surface. Interpretation of SERS spectra is challenging, and will require validation for the diversity of organic molecules present. Here, we show proof-of-principle that it is possible to generate SERS spectra from nanoparticles grown in situ by living hyphae.

  1. Diagnosis of Parkinsonian disorders using a channelized Hotelling observer model: Proof of principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, H.; Bal, G.; Acton, P. D.

    2007-01-01

    Imaging dopamine transporters using PET and SPECT probes is a powerful technique for the early diagnosis of Parkinsonian disorders. In order to perform automated accurate diagnosis of these diseases, a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) based model was developed and evaluated using the SPECT tracer [Tc-99m]TRODAT-1. Computer simulations were performed using a digitized striatal phantom to characterize early stages of the disease (20 lesion-present cases with varying lesion size and contrast). Projection data, modeling the effects of attenuation and geometric response function, were obtained for each case. Statistical noise levels corresponding to those observed clinically were added to the projection data to obtain 100 noise realizations for each case. All the projection data were reconstructed, and a subset of the transaxial slices containing the striatum was summed and used for further analysis. CHO models, using the Laguerre-Gaussian functions as channels, were designed for two cases: (1) By training the model using individual lesion-present samples and (2) by training the model using pooled lesion-present samples. A decision threshold obtained for each CHO model was used to classify the study population (n=40). It was observed that individual lesion trained CHO models gave high diagnostic accuracy for lesions that were larger than those used to train the model and vice-versa. On the other hand, the pooled CHO model was found to give a high diagnostic accuracy for all the lesion cases (average diagnostic accuracy=0.95±0.07; p<0.0001 Fisher's exact test). Based on our results, we conclude that a CHO model has the potential to provide early and accurate diagnosis of Parkinsonian disorders, thereby improving patient management

  2. Practical SPI Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta, José Francisco; García, Javier; Amescua, Antonio

    This paper presents a practical procedure named P4SPI for planning, monitoring and closing an SPI. Planning activities are performed using PMBOK's process areas as a reference; monitoring activities using Six Sigma tools and techniques and closing activities using gathering qualitative and quantitative information about the SPI Implementation. These activities are supported by office templates.

  3. Proof-of-Principle of Onchocerciasis Elimination with Ivermectin Treatment in Endemic Foci in Africa: Final Results of a Study in Mali and Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, Mamadou O.; Sarr, Moussa D.; Badji, Alioune; Bissan, Yiriba; Diawara, Lamine; Doumbia, Konimba; Goita, Soula F.; Konate, Lassana; Mounkoro, Kalifa; Seck, Amadou F.; Toe, Laurent; Toure, Seyni; Remme, Jan H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mass treatment with ivermectin controls onchocerciasis as a public health problem, but it was not known if it could also interrupt transmission and eliminate the parasite in endemic foci in Africa where vectors are highly efficient. A longitudinal study was undertaken in three hyperendemic foci in Mali and Senegal with 15 to 17 years of annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment in order to assess residual levels of infection and transmission, and test whether treatment could be safely stopped. This article reports the results of the final evaluations up to 5 years after the last treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings Skin snip surveys were undertaken in 131 villages where 29,753 people were examined and 492,600 blackflies were analyzed for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus larva using a specific DNA probe. There was a declining trend in infection and transmission levels after the last treatment. In two sites the prevalence of microfilaria and vector infectivity rate were zero 3 to 4 years after the last treatment. In the third site, where infection levels were comparatively high before stopping treatment, there was also a consistent decline in infection and transmission to very low levels 3 to 5 years after stopping treatment. All infection and transmission indicators were below postulated thresholds for elimination. Conclusion/Significance The study has established the proof of principle that onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment is feasible in at least some endemic foci in Africa. The study results have been instrumental for the current evolution from onchocerciasis control to elimination in Africa. PMID:23029586

  4. Test-retest reliability and agreement of the SPI-Questionnaire to detect symptoms of digital ischemia in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Daan; Zacharian, Tigran; Maas, Mario; Kuijer, P Paul F M

    2017-06-01

    The Shoulder posterior circumflex humeral artery Pathology and digital Ischemia - questionnaire (SPI-Q) has been developed to enable periodic surveillance of elite volleyball players, who are at risk for digital ischemia. Prior to implementation, assessing reliability is mandatory. Therefore, the test-retest reliability and agreement of the SPI-Q were evaluated among the population at risk. A questionnaire survey was performed with a 2-week interval among 65 elite male volleyball players assessing symptoms of cold, pale and blue digits in the dominant hand during or after practice or competition using a 4-point Likert scale (never, sometimes, often and always). Kappa (κ) and percentage of agreement (POA) were calculated for individual symptoms, and to distinguish symptomatic and asymptomatic players. For the individual symptoms, κ ranged from "poor" (0.25) to "good" (0.63), and POA ranged from "moderate" (78%) to "good" (97%). To classify symptomatic players, the SPI-Q showed "good" reliability (κ = 0.83; 95%CI 0.69-0.97) and "good" agreement (POA = 92%). The current study has proven the SPI-Q to be reliable for detecting elite male indoor volleyball players with symptoms of digital ischemia.

  5. Cancer driver-passenger distinction via sporadic human and dog cancer comparison: a proof of principle study with colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Li, Yaping; Lyon, Kenneth; Camps, Jordi; Dalton, Stephen; Ried, Thomas; Zhao, Shaying

    2014-01-01

    Herein we report a proof of principle study illustrating a novel dog-human comparison strategy that addresses a central aim of cancer research, namely cancer driver–passenger distinction. We previously demonstrated that sporadic canine colorectal cancers (CRCs) share similar molecular pathogenesis mechanisms as their human counterparts. In this study, we compared the genome-wide copy number abnormalities between 29 human- and 10 canine sporadic CRCs. This led to the identification of 73 driver candidate genes (DCGs), altered in both species and with 27 from the whole genome and 46 from dog-human genomic rearrangement breakpoint (GRB) regions, as well as 38 passenger candidate genes (PCGs), altered in humans only and located in GRB regions. We noted that DCGs significantly differ from PCGs in every analysis conducted to assess their cancer relevance and biological functions. Importantly, while PCGs are not enriched in any specific functions, DCGs possess significantly enhanced functionality closely associated with cell proliferation and death regulation, as well as with epithelial cell apicobasal polarity establishment/maintenance. These observations support the notion that, in sporadic CRCs of both species, cell polarity genes not only contribute in preventing cancer cell invasion and spreading, but also likely serve as tumor suppressors by modulating cell growth. This pilot study validates our novel strategy and has uncovered four new potential cell polarity and colorectal tumor suppressor genes (RASA3, NUPL1, DENND5A, and AVL9). Expansion of this study would make more driver-passenger distinctions for cancers with large genomic amplifications or deletions, and address key questions regarding the relationship between cancer pathogenesis and epithelial cell polarity control in mammals. PMID:23416983

  6. Large Neutral Amino Acid Supplementation Exerts Its Effect through Three Synergistic Mechanisms: Proof of Principle in Phenylketonuria Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danique van Vliet

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU was the first disorder in which severe neurocognitive dysfunction could be prevented by dietary treatment. However, despite this effect, neuropsychological outcome in PKU still remains suboptimal and the phenylalanine-restricted diet is very demanding. To improve neuropsychological outcome and relieve the dietary restrictions for PKU patients, supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAA is suggested as alternative treatment strategy that might correct all brain biochemical disturbances caused by high blood phenylalanine, and thereby improve neurocognitive functioning.As a proof-of-principle, this study aimed to investigate all hypothesized biochemical treatment objectives of LNAA supplementation (normalizing brain phenylalanine, non-phenylalanine LNAA, and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in PKU mice.C57Bl/6 Pah-enu2 (PKU mice and wild-type mice received a LNAA supplemented diet, an isonitrogenic/isocaloric high-protein control diet, or normal chow. After six weeks of dietary treatment, blood and brain amino acid and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations were assessed.In PKU mice, the investigated LNAA supplementation regimen significantly reduced blood and brain phenylalanine concentrations by 33% and 26%, respectively, compared to normal chow (p<0.01, while alleviating brain deficiencies of some but not all supplemented LNAA. Moreover, LNAA supplementation in PKU mice significantly increased brain serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations from 35% to 71% and from 57% to 86% of wild-type concentrations (p<0.01, respectively, but not brain dopamine concentrations (p = 0.307.This study shows that LNAA supplementation without dietary phenylalanine restriction in PKU mice improves brain biochemistry through all three hypothesized biochemical mechanisms. Thereby, these data provide proof-of-concept for LNAA supplementation as a valuable alternative dietary treatment strategy in PKU. Based on these

  7. Abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Proof of principle in an experimental model of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Schwint, Amanda E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, B1650KNA San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Curotto, Paula [Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Research and Production Reactors, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Colombo, Lucas L. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thorp, Silvia I.; Farias, Ruben O. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Instrumentation and Control, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garabalino, Marcela A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, B1650KNA San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, Sara J. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Instrumentation and Control, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carando, Daniel G. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, the abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Twenty-six BDIX rats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1 x 10{sup 6} DHD/K12/TRb syngeneic colon cancer cells in the right hind flank. Three weeks post-inoculation, the right leg of 12 rats bearing the tumor nodule was treated with BPA-BNCT (BPA-Boronophenylalanine) at the RA-3 nuclear reactor located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at an absorbed dose of 7.5 Gy to skin as the dose-limiting tissue. The remaining group of 14 tumor-bearing rats were left untreated and used as control. Two weeks post-BNCT, 1 x 10{sup 6} DHD/K12/TRb cells were injected subcutaneously in the contralateral left hind flank of each of the 26 BDIX rats. Tumor volume in both legs was measured weekly for 7 weeks to determine response to BNCT in the right leg and to assess a potential influence of BNCT in the right leg on tumor development in the left leg. Within the BNCT group, a statistically significant reduction was observed in contralateral left tumor volume in animals whose right leg tumor responded to BNCT (post-treatment/pre-treatment tumor volume <1) versus animals who failed to respond (post/pre ≥1), i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 271 ± 128 mm{sup 3}. In addition, a statistically significant reduction in contralateral left leg tumor volume was observed in BNCT-responsive animals (post/pre <1) vs untreated animals, i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 254 ± 251 mm{sup 3}. The present study performed in a simple animal model provides proof of principle that the positive response of a tumor to BNCT is capable of inducing an abscopal effect. (orig.)

  8. Abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Proof of principle in an experimental model of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Schwint, Amanda E.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Curotto, Paula; Colombo, Lucas L.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Farias, Ruben O.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Carando, Daniel G.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, the abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Twenty-six BDIX rats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1 x 10 6 DHD/K12/TRb syngeneic colon cancer cells in the right hind flank. Three weeks post-inoculation, the right leg of 12 rats bearing the tumor nodule was treated with BPA-BNCT (BPA-Boronophenylalanine) at the RA-3 nuclear reactor located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at an absorbed dose of 7.5 Gy to skin as the dose-limiting tissue. The remaining group of 14 tumor-bearing rats were left untreated and used as control. Two weeks post-BNCT, 1 x 10 6 DHD/K12/TRb cells were injected subcutaneously in the contralateral left hind flank of each of the 26 BDIX rats. Tumor volume in both legs was measured weekly for 7 weeks to determine response to BNCT in the right leg and to assess a potential influence of BNCT in the right leg on tumor development in the left leg. Within the BNCT group, a statistically significant reduction was observed in contralateral left tumor volume in animals whose right leg tumor responded to BNCT (post-treatment/pre-treatment tumor volume <1) versus animals who failed to respond (post/pre ≥1), i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 271 ± 128 mm 3 . In addition, a statistically significant reduction in contralateral left leg tumor volume was observed in BNCT-responsive animals (post/pre <1) vs untreated animals, i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 254 ± 251 mm 3 . The present study performed in a simple animal model provides proof of principle that the positive response of a tumor to BNCT is capable of inducing an abscopal effect. (orig.)

  9. Classifying breast cancer surgery: a novel, complexity-based system for oncological, oncoplastic and reconstructive procedures, and proof of principle by analysis of 1225 operations in 1166 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jürgen; Wallwiener, Diethelm

    2009-04-08

    One of the basic prerequisites for generating evidence-based data is the availability of classification systems. Attempts to date to classify breast cancer operations have focussed on specific problems, e.g. the avoidance of secondary corrective surgery for surgical defects, rather than taking a generic approach. Starting from an existing, simpler empirical scheme based on the complexity of breast surgical procedures, which was used in-house primarily in operative report-writing, a novel classification of ablative and breast-conserving procedures initially needed to be developed and elaborated systematically. To obtain proof of principle, a prospectively planned analysis of patient records for all major breast cancer-related operations performed at our breast centre in 2005 and 2006 was conducted using the new classification. Data were analysed using basic descriptive statistics such as frequency tables. A novel two-type, six-tier classification system comprising 12 main categories, 13 subcategories and 39 sub-subcategories of oncological, oncoplastic and reconstructive breast cancer-related surgery was successfully developed. Our system permitted unequivocal classification, without exception, of all 1225 procedures performed in 1166 breast cancer patients in 2005 and 2006. Breast cancer-related surgical procedures can be generically classified according to their surgical complexity. Analysis of all major procedures performed at our breast centre during the study period provides proof of principle for this novel classification system. We envisage various applications for this classification, including uses in randomised clinical trials, guideline development, specialist surgical training, continuing professional development as well as quality of care and public health research.

  10. Classifying breast cancer surgery: a novel, complexity-based system for oncological, oncoplastic and reconstructive procedures, and proof of principle by analysis of 1225 operations in 1166 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallwiener Diethelm

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the basic prerequisites for generating evidence-based data is the availability of classification systems. Attempts to date to classify breast cancer operations have focussed on specific problems, e.g. the avoidance of secondary corrective surgery for surgical defects, rather than taking a generic approach. Methods Starting from an existing, simpler empirical scheme based on the complexity of breast surgical procedures, which was used in-house primarily in operative report-writing, a novel classification of ablative and breast-conserving procedures initially needed to be developed and elaborated systematically. To obtain proof of principle, a prospectively planned analysis of patient records for all major breast cancer-related operations performed at our breast centre in 2005 and 2006 was conducted using the new classification. Data were analysed using basic descriptive statistics such as frequency tables. Results A novel two-type, six-tier classification system comprising 12 main categories, 13 subcategories and 39 sub-subcategories of oncological, oncoplastic and reconstructive breast cancer-related surgery was successfully developed. Our system permitted unequivocal classification, without exception, of all 1225 procedures performed in 1166 breast cancer patients in 2005 and 2006. Conclusion Breast cancer-related surgical procedures can be generically classified according to their surgical complexity. Analysis of all major procedures performed at our breast centre during the study period provides proof of principle for this novel classification system. We envisage various applications for this classification, including uses in randomised clinical trials, guideline development, specialist surgical training, continuing professional development as well as quality of care and public health research.

  11. Setup and proof of principle of SAPIS (Stored Atoms Polarized Ion Source), a novel source of polarized H-/D- ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmerich, R.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was the setup and the proof-of-principle of a new type of negative polarized hydrogen or deuterium ion source, which is based on the charge-exchange reaction vectorH 0 +Cs 0 →vectorH - +Cs + , as for instance the Colliding-Beams-Source (CBS) at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY in Juelich. In contrast to the CBS, the use of a storage cell for the charge-exchange region promises an increase in H - current by at least an order of magnitude without considerable polarization losses. For these purposes, a new laboratory was equipped and both a polarized hydrogen/deuterium atomic beam source and an intense neutral cesium-beam source have been build-on. A Lambshift polarimeter, which allows the measurement of the nuclear polarization of the atomic as well as ionic beams, was completed with the construction of a new spin-filter. After commissioning and optimizing each of these sources, a storage cell was developed and installed in the charge-exchange region with a magnetic field. Additionally, components for the extraction, detection and analysis of the negative ion beam were installed. Following the decisive proof of principle, investigation of the properties of the storage cell, especially as to H recombination and depolarisation, was begun. Furthermore, a number of software programs was developed for the control and monitoring of different components of the sources as well as a universal measuring software for the complete installation, including the measurement and calculation of the beam polarization. At the same time, the remote control system of the Cologne source of polarized ions LASCO at the FN tandem accelerator was completely modernized. (orig.)

  12. TU-CD-BRA-08: Single-Energy Computed Tomography-Based Pulmonary Perfusion Imaging: Proof-Of-Principle in a Canine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T; Boone, J [University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States); Kent, M; Wisner, E [University of California Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA (United States); Fujita, Y [Tokai University, Isehara (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Pulmonary perfusion imaging has provided significant insights into pulmonary diseases, and can be useful in radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to prospectively establish proof-of-principle in a canine model for single-energy CT-based perfusion imaging, which has the potential for widespread clinical implementation. Methods: Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on: (1) acquisition of inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast medium, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) of the two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the pre-contrast image from post-contrast image, yielding a map of Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement. These subtraction image data sets hypothetically represent perfused blood volume, a surrogate for perfusion. In an IACUC-approved clinical trial, we acquired pre- and post-contrast CT scans in the prone posture for six anesthetized, mechanically-ventilated dogs. The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The registration accuracy was quantified using the target registration errors (TREs) for 50 pulmonary landmarks in each dog. The gradient of HU enhancement between gravity-dependent (ventral) and non-dependent (dorsal) regions was evaluated to quantify the known effect of gravity, i.e., greater perfusion in ventral regions. Results: The lung volume difference between the two scans was 4.3±3.5% on average (range 0.3%–10.1%). DIR demonstrated an average TRE of 0.7±1.0 mm. HU enhancement in lung parenchyma was 34±10 HU on average and varied considerably between individual dogs, indicating the need for improvement of the contrast injection protocol. HU enhancement in ventral (gravity-dependent) regions was found to be greater than in dorsal regions. A population average ventral-to-dorsal gradient of HU enhancement was strong (R{sup 2}=0.94) and statistically significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: This canine study demonstrated relatively accurate DIR and a strong ventral

  13. Impairment-targeted exercises for older adults with knee pain: protocol for a proof-of-principle study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise therapy for knee pain and osteoarthritis remains a key element of conservative treatment, recommended in clinical guidelines. Yet systematic reviews point to only modest benefits from exercise interventions. One reason for this might be that clinical trials tend to use a one-size-fits-all approach to exercise, effectively disregarding the details of their participants' clinical presentations. This uncontrolled before-after study (TargET-Knee-Pain aims to test the principle that exercises targeted at the specific physical impairments of older adults with knee pain may be able to significantly improve those impairments. It is a first step towards testing the effectiveness of this more individually-tailored approach. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 60 participants from an existing observational cohort of community-dwelling older adults with knee pain. Participants will all have at least one of the three physical impairments of weak quadriceps, a reduced range of knee flexion and poor standing balance. Each participant will be asked to undertake a programme of exercises, targeted at their particular combination and degree of impairment(s, over the course of twelve weeks. The exercises will be taught and progressed by an experienced physiotherapist, with reference to a "menu" of agreed exercises for each of the impairments, over the course of six fortnightly home visits, alternating with six fortnightly telephone calls. Primary outcome measures will be isometric quadriceps strength, knee flexion range of motion, timed single-leg standing balance and the "Four Balance Test Scale" at 12 weeks. Key secondary outcome measures will be self-reported levels of pain, stiffness and difficulties with day-to-day functional tasks (WOMAC. Outcome measures will be taken at three time-points (baseline, six weeks and twelve weeks by a study nurse blinded to the exercise status of the participants. Discussion This study (Targ

  14. Molecular imaging of the human pulmonary vascular endothelium in pulmonary hypertension: a phase II safety and proof of principle trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harel, Francois [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Langleben, David; Abikhzer, Gad [McGill University, Lady Davis Institute and Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Provencher, Steve; Guimond, Jean [Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Fournier, Alain; Letourneau, Myriam [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Finnerty, Vincent; Nguyen, Quang T.; Levac, Xavier [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Mansour, Asmaa; Guertin, Marie-Claude [Montreal Health Innovation Coordination Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Dupuis, Jocelyn [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2017-07-15

    The adrenomedullin receptor is densely expressed in the pulmonary vascular endothelium. PulmoBind, an adrenomedullin receptor ligand, was developed for molecular diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease. We evaluated the safety of PulmoBind SPECT imaging and its capacity to detect pulmonary vascular disease associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH) in a human phase II study. Thirty patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, n = 23) or chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH, n = 7) in WHO functional class II (n = 26) or III (n = 4) were compared to 15 healthy controls. Lung SPECT was performed after injection of 15 mCi {sup 99m}Tc-PulmoBind in supine position. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of lung uptake were performed. Reproducibility of repeated testing was evaluated in controls after 1 month. PulmoBind injection was well tolerated without any serious adverse event. Imaging was markedly abnormal in PH with ∝50% of subjects showing moderate to severe heterogeneity of moderate to severe extent. The abnormalities were unevenly distributed between the right and left lungs as well as within each lung. Segmental defects compatible with pulmonary embolism were present in 7/7 subjects with CTEPH and in 2/23 subjects with PAH. There were no segmental defects in controls. The PulmoBind activity distribution index, a parameter indicative of heterogeneity, was elevated in PH (65% ± 28%) vs. controls (41% ± 13%, p = 0.0003). In the only subject with vasodilator-responsive idiopathic PAH, PulmoBind lung SPECT was completely normal. Repeated testing 1 month later in healthy controls was well tolerated and showed no significant variability of PulmoBind distribution. In this phase II study, molecular SPECT imaging of the pulmonary vascular endothelium using {sup 99m}Tc-PulmoBind was safe. PulmoBind showed potential to detect both pulmonary embolism and abnormalities indicative of pulmonary vascular disease in PAH. Phase III studies with this novel tracer and

  15. The use of mobile phones for demographic surveillance of mobile pastoralists and their animals in Chad: proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Richard, Vreni; Crump, Lisa; Moto Daugla, Doumagoum; Hattendorf, Jan; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Demographic information is foundational for the planning and management of social programmes, in particular health services. The existing INDEPTH network surveillance sites are limited to coverage of sedentary populations. Including mobile populations in this approach would be expensive, time consuming and possibly low in accuracy. Very little is known about the demography of mobile pastoralists and their animals, so innovative approaches are urgently needed. To test and evaluate a mobile demographic surveillance system for mobile pastoralist households, including livestock herds, using mobile phones. Mobile pastoralist camps were monitored (10 for 12 months and 10 for 18 months) using biweekly mobile phone calls with camp leaders and their wives to conduct interviews about the households and livestock. The collected information was validated through personal visits, GPS data and a livestock demographic model. The study showed the feasibility of mobile phone surveillance for mobile pastoralist camps, providing usable, valid information on human and livestock population structures, pregnancy outcomes and herd dynamics, as well as migration patterns. The approach was low-cost and applicable with the existing local resources. Demographic surveillance in mobile populations is feasible using mobile phones. Expansion of the small-scale system into a full mobile demographic surveillance system is warranted and would likely lead to improved planning and provision of human and animal health care.

  16. A Proof-Of-Principle Study of Epigenetic Therapy Added to Neoadjuvant Doxorubicin Cyclophosphamide for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fierro, Aurora; de la Cruz-Hernández, Erick; Revilla-Vázquez, Alma; Chávez-Blanco, Alma; Trejo-Becerril, Catalina; Pérez-Cárdenas, Enrique; Taja-Chayeb, Lucia; Bargallo, Enrique; Villarreal, Patricia; Ramírez, Teresa; Vela, Teresa; Candelaria, Myrna; Camargo, Maria F.; Robles, Elizabeth; Dueñas-González, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    Background Aberrant DNA methylation and histone deacetylation participate in cancer development and progression; hence, their reversal by inhibitors of DNA methylation and histone deacetylases (HDACs) is at present undergoing clinical testing in cancer therapy. As epigenetic alterations are common to breast cancer, in this proof-of-concept study demethylating hydralazine, plus the HDAC inhibitor magnesium valproate, were added to neoadjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in locally advanced breast cancer to assess their safety and biological efficacy. Methodology This was a single-arm interventional trial on breast cancer patients (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00395655). After signing informed consent, patients were typed for acetylator phenotype and then treated with hydralazine at 182 mg for rapid-, or 83 mg for slow-acetylators, and magnesium valproate at 30 mg/kg, starting from day –7 until chemotherapy ended, the latter consisting of four cycles of doxorubicin 60 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 every 21 days. Core-needle biopsies were taken from primary breast tumors at diagnosis and at day 8 of treatment with hydralazine and valproate. Main Findings 16 patients were included and received treatment as planned. All were evaluated for clinical response and toxicity and 15 for pathological response. Treatment was well-tolerated. The most common toxicity was drowsiness grades 1–2. Five (31%) patients had clinical CR and eight (50%) PR for an ORR of 81%. No patient progressed. One of 15 operated patients (6.6%) had pathological CR and 70% had residual disease <3 cm. There was a statistically significant decrease in global 5mC content and HDAC activity. Hydralazine and magnesium valproate up- and down-regulated at least 3-fold, 1,091 and 89 genes, respectively. Conclusions Hydralazine and magnesium valproate produce DNA demethylation, HDAC inhibition, and gene reactivation in primary tumors. Doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide treatment is safe, well

  17. The development of standard samples with a defined number of antigen-specific T cells to harmonize T cell assays: a proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satwinder Kaur; Tummers, Bart; Schumacher, Ton N; Gomez, Raquel; Franken, Kees L M C; Verdegaal, Els M; Laske, Karoline; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Ottensmeier, Christian; Welters, Marij J P; Britten, Cedrik M; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2013-03-01

    The validation of assays that quantify antigen-specific T cell responses is critically dependent on cell samples that contain clearly defined measurable numbers of antigen-specific T cells. An important requirement is that such cell samples are handled and analyzed in a comparable fashion to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We performed a proof-of-principle study to show that retrovirally TCR-transduced T cells spiked at defined numbers in autologous PBMC can be used as standard samples for HLA/peptide multimer staining. NY-ESO-1157-165-specific, TCR-transduced CD8+ T cell batches were successfully generated from PBMC of several HLA-A*0201 healthy donors, purified by magnetic cell sorting on the basis of HLA tetramer (TM) staining and expanded with specific antigen in vitro. When subsequently spiked into autologous PBMC, the detection of these CD3+CD8+TM+ T cells was highly accurate with a mean accuracy of 91.6 %. The standard cells can be preserved for a substantial period of time in liquid nitrogen. Furthermore, TM staining of fresh and cryopreserved standard samples diluted at decreasing concentrations into autologous cryopreserved unspiked PBMC revealed that the spiked CD3+CD8+TM+ T cells could be accurately detected at all dilutions in a linear fashion with a goodness-of-fit of over 0.99 at a frequency of at least 0.02 % among the CD3+CD8+ T cell population. Notably, the CD3+CD8+TM+ cells of the standard samples were located exactly within the gates used to analyze patient samples and displayed a similar scatter pattern. The performance of the cryopreserved standard samples in the hands of 5 external investigators was good with an inter-laboratory variation of 32.9 % and the doubtless identification of one outlier.

  18. Cancer driver-passenger distinction via sporadic human and dog cancer comparison: a proof-of-principle study with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J; Li, Y; Lyon, K; Camps, J; Dalton, S; Ried, T; Zhao, S

    2014-02-13

    Herein we report a proof-of-principle study illustrating a novel dog-human comparison strategy that addresses a central aim of cancer research, namely cancer driver-passenger distinction. We previously demonstrated that sporadic canine colorectal cancers (CRCs) share similar molecular pathogenesis mechanisms as their human counterparts. In this study, we compared the genome-wide copy number abnormalities between 29 human and 10 canine sporadic CRCs. This led to the identification of 73 driver candidate genes (DCGs), altered in both species, and with 27 from the whole genome and 46 from dog-human genomic rearrangement breakpoint (GRB) regions, as well as 38 passenger candidate genes (PCGs), altered in humans only and located in GRB regions. We noted that DCGs significantly differ from PCGs in every analysis conducted to assess their cancer relevance and biological functions. Importantly, although PCGs are not enriched in any specific functions, DCGs possess significantly enhanced functionality closely associated with cell proliferation and death regulation, as well as with epithelial cell apicobasal polarity establishment/maintenance. These observations support the notion that, in sporadic CRCs of both species, cell polarity genes not only contribute in preventing cancer cell invasion and spreading, but also likely serve as tumor suppressors by modulating cell growth. This pilot study validates our novel strategy and has uncovered four new potential cell polarity and colorectal tumor suppressor genes (RASA3, NUPL1, DENND5A and AVL9). Expansion of this study would make more driver-passenger distinctions for cancers with large genomic amplifications or deletions, and address key questions regarding the relationship between cancer pathogenesis and epithelial cell polarity control in mammals.

  19. Black blood T1rho MR imaging may diagnose early stage liver fibrosis: a proof-of-principle study with rat biliary duct ligation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Chi-Man; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Weitian; Chu, Eagle Siu Hong; San Lau, Clara Bik; Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J

    2016-08-01

    To explore black blood T1rho (T1ρ) liver imaging and investigate the earliest stage when biliary duct ligation (BDL) induced liver fibrosis can be diagnosed. MR was performed at 3 Tesla. A T1ρ prepared 2D fast spin echo (FSE) sequence with acquisition of four spin lock times (TSLs: 1, 10, 30, and 50 msec) and spin-lock frequency of 500 Hz was applied. Inherent black blood effect of FSE and double inversion recovery (DIR) achieved blood signal suppression, and 3 axial sections per liver were obtained. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were scanned at baseline (n=32), and on day-3 (n=13), day-5 (n=11), day-7 (n=10), day-10 (n=4) respectively after BDL. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and picrosirius red staining liver histology was obtained at these time points. The physiological liver parenchyma T1ρ was 38.38±1.53 msec (range, 36.05-41.53 msec). Liver T1ρ value elevated progressively after BDL. On day-10 after BDL all experimental animals can be separated from normal liver based on T1ρ measurement with lowest value being 42.82 msec. Day-7 and day-10 liver resembled METAVIR stage-F1/F2 fibrosis, and fibrous area counted for 0.22%±0.13% and 0.38%±0.44% of liver parenchyma area, respectively. This study provides the first proof-of-principle that T1ρ might diagnose early stage liver fibrosis.

  20. Changes in blood flow and cellular metabolism at a myofascial trigger point with trigger point release (ischemic compression): a proof-of-principle pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraska, Albert F; Hickner, Robert C; Kohrt, Wendy M; Brewer, Alan

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate proof-of-principle measurement for physiologic change within an active myofascial trigger point (MTrP) undergoing trigger point release (ischemic compression). Interstitial fluid was sampled continuously at a trigger point before and after intervention. A biomedical research clinic at a university hospital. Subjects (N=2) from a pain clinic who had chronic headache pain. A single microdialysis catheter was inserted into an active MTrP of the upper trapezius to allow for continuous sampling of interstitial fluid before and after application of trigger point therapy by a massage therapist. Procedural success, pain tolerance, feasibility of intervention during sample collection, and determination of physiologically relevant values for local blood flow as well as glucose and lactate concentrations. Both patients tolerated the microdialysis probe insertion into the MTrP and treatment intervention without complication. Glucose and lactate concentrations were measured in the physiologic range. After intervention, a sustained increase in lactate was noted for both subjects. Identifying physiologic constituents of MTrPs after intervention is an important step toward understanding pathophysiology and resolution of myofascial pain. The present study forwards that aim by showing that proof-of-concept for collection of interstitial fluid from an MTrP before and after intervention can be accomplished using microdialysis, thus providing methodological insight toward treatment mechanism and pain resolution. Of the biomarkers measured in this study, lactate may be the most relevant for detection and treatment of abnormalities in the MTrP. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhalation chemotherapy for macroscopic primary or metastatic lung tumors: proof of principle using dogs with spontaneously occurring tumors as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, A E; Kurzman, I D; Forrest, L J; Bohling, C A; Stonerook, M; Placke, M E; Imondi, A R; Vail, D M

    1999-09-01

    This study represents part of an effort to determine the safety and efficacy of inhaled antineoplastic drugs, using pet dogs with spontaneously arising primary and metastatic lung cancers (including sarcoma, carcinoma, and malignant melanoma) as a model. Dogs received new formulations of either paclitaxel (PTX) or doxorubicin (DOX) by the inhalation route every 2 weeks using a specially designed aerosol device. Response was assessed radiographically using the indices of tumor nodule number and volume measurement of discrete pulmonary nodules. Dogs experiencing progressive disease after two consecutive treatments were crossed over to receive the alternate compound. In 24 dogs, 6 (25%) responses were noted including 5 partial responses (PR) and 1 complete response. These include 4 (22.2%) of 18 responses to DOX and 2 (13.3%) of 15 responses to PTX. Responses were noted with osteosarcoma (including three dogs with metastatic osteosarcoma that had failed prior systemic chemotherapy), liposarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. One dog with mammary carcinoma experienced a 47% reduction in volume after PTX inhalation, just shy of PR criteria. One dog with liposarcoma is experiencing a long-term (>12 months) stabilization of disease on PTX. To date, no systemic toxicities have been observed with either PTX or DOX inhalations. Local (pulmonary) toxicity was not observed with PTX; however, changes consistent with pneumonitis/fibrosis were observed in some dogs receiving DOX. Only one of these dogs showed clinical signs, which were responsive to steroid and antitussive therapy. These data represent "proof of principle" for the avoidance of systemic toxicity while delivering efficacious local drug levels by the inhalation route.

  2. Proof of principle of a brain-computer interface approach to support poststroke arm rehabilitation in hospitalized patients: design, acceptability, and usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morone, Giovanni; Pisotta, Iolanda; Pichiorri, Floriana; Kleih, Sonja; Paolucci, Stefano; Molinari, Marco; Cincotti, Febo; Kübler, Andrea; Mattia, Donatella

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of brain-computer interface (BCI)-assisted motor imagery training to support hand/arm motor rehabilitation after stroke during hospitalization. Proof-of-principle study. Neurorehabilitation hospital. Convenience sample of patients (N=8) with new-onset arm plegia or paresis caused by unilateral stroke. The BCI-based intervention was administered as an "add-on" to usual care and lasted 4 weeks. Under the supervision of a therapist, patients were asked to practice motor imagery of their affected hand and received as a discrete feedback the movements of a "virtual" hand superimposed on their own. Such a BCI-based device was installed in a rehabilitation hospital ward. Following a user-centered design, we assessed system usability in terms of motivation, satisfaction (by means of visual analog scales), and workload (National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index). The usability of the BCI-based system was also evaluated by 15 therapists who participated in a focus group. All patients successfully accomplished the BCI training. Significant positive correlations were found between satisfaction and motivation (P=.001, r=.393). BCI performance correlated with interest (P=.027, r=.257) and motivation (P=.012, r=.289). During the focus group, professionals positively acknowledged the opportunity offered by BCI-assisted training to measure patients' adherence to rehabilitation. An ecological BCI-based device to assist motor imagery practice was found to be feasible as an add-on intervention and tolerable by patients who were exposed to the system in the rehabilitation environment. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparison of some anthropometric parameters between an Italian and a UK population: 'proof of principle' of a European project using MammoGrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.; Thompson, D.; Del Frate, C.; Cordell, M.; Highnam, R.; Tromans, C.; Warsi, I.; Ding, J.; Sala, E.; Estrella, F.; Solomonides, A.E.; Odeh, M.; McClatchey, R.; Bazzocchi, M.; Amendolia, S.R.; Brady, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate the use of grid technology to produce a database of mammograms and supporting patient data, specifically using breast density as a biomarker of risk for breast cancer, for epidemiological purposes. Method: The cohort comprised 1737 women from the UK and Italy, aged 28-87 years, mean 54.7 years, who underwent mammography after giving consent to the use of their data in the project. Information regarding height, weight, and exposure data (mAs and kV) was recorded. The computer program Generate-SMF was applied to all films in the database to measure breast volume, dense breast volume, and thereby percentage density. Visual readings of density using a six-category classification system were also available for 596 women. Results: The UK and Italian participants were similar in height, but the UK women were significantly heavier with a slightly higher body mass index (BMI), despite being younger. Both absolute and percentage breast density were significantly higher in the Udine cohort. Images from the medio-lateral projection (MLO) give a significantly lower percentage density than cranio-caudal (CC) images (p < 0.0001). Total breast volume is negatively associated with percentage density, as are BMI and age (p < 0.0001 for all), although 80% of the variability in percentage density remains unexplained. Conclusion: The study offers proof of principle that confederated databases generated using Grid technology provide a useful and adaptable environment for large quantities of image, numerical, and qualitative data suitable for epidemiological research using the example of mammographic density as a biomarker of risk for breast cancer

  4. Computer-generated direct perception displays for supporting PWR feedwater system start-up and fault management: a proof-of-principle in design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reising, D.V.C.; Jones, B.G.; Shaheen, S.; Moray, N.; Sanderson, P.M.; Rasmussen, J.

    1998-01-01

    difficult problems which have not yet been investigated in extending the proposed approach to fault management. In the present research Rasmussen et al's framework was used for designing computer-generated graphical displays that support pressurized water reactor (PWR) start-up. Specifically, a suite of displays was developed to support a PWR's feedwater (FW) system start-up as a proof-of-principle. The suite of displays demonstrate the theoretical design approach and are not meant to represent a fully implementable interface for FW system control. (author)

  5. A proof-of-principle simulation for closed-loop control based on preexisting experimental thalamic DBS-enhanced instrumental learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Fu; Yang, Shih-Hung; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Chen, Po-Chuan; Lo, Yu-Chun; Pan, Han-Chi; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Lun-De; Lin, Hui-Ching; Chen, Hsu-Yan; Huang, Wei-Chen; Huang, Wun-Jhu; Chen, You-Yin

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied as an effective therapy for treating Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. Several open-loop DBS control strategies have been developed for clinical experiments, but they are limited by short battery life and inefficient therapy. Therefore, many closed-loop DBS control systems have been designed to tackle these problems by automatically adjusting the stimulation parameters via feedback from neural signals, which has been reported to reduce the power consumption. However, when the association between the biomarkers of the model and stimulation is unclear, it is difficult to develop an optimal control scheme for other DBS applications, i.e., DBS-enhanced instrumental learning. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of closed-loop DBS control for cognition function, such as instrumental skill learning, and have been implemented in simulation environments. In this paper, we proposed a proof-of-principle design for a closed-loop DBS system, cognitive-enhancing DBS (ceDBS), which enhanced skill learning based on in vivo experimental data. The ceDBS acquired local field potential (LFP) signal from the thalamic central lateral (CL) nuclei of animals through a neural signal processing system. A strong coupling of the theta oscillation (4-7 Hz) and the learning period was found in the water reward-related lever-pressing learning task. Therefore, the theta-band power ratio, which was the averaged theta band to averaged total band (1-55 Hz) power ratio, could be used as a physiological marker for enhancement of instrumental skill learning. The on-line extraction of the theta-band power ratio was implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). An autoregressive with exogenous inputs (ARX)-based predictor was designed to construct a CL-thalamic DBS model and forecast the future physiological marker according to the past physiological marker and applied DBS. The prediction could further assist the design of

  6. Infrared laser induced population transfer and parity selection in {sup 14}NH{sub 3}: A proof of principle experiment towards detecting parity violation in chiral molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietiker, P.; Miloglyadov, E.; Quack, M., E-mail: Martin@Quack.ch; Schneider, A.; Seyfang, G. [Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-28

    We have set up an experiment for the efficient population transfer by a sequential two photon—absorption and stimulated emission—process in a molecular beam to prepare quantum states of well defined parity and their subsequent sensitive detection. This provides a proof of principle for an experiment which would allow for parity selection and measurement of the time evolution of parity in chiral molecules, resulting in a measurement of the parity violating energy difference Δ{sub pv}E between enantiomers of chiral molecules. Here, we present first results on a simple achiral molecule demonstrating efficient population transfer (about 80% on the average for each step) and unperturbed persistence of a selected excited parity level over flight times of about 1.3 ms in the beam. In agreement with model calculations with and without including nuclear hyperfine structure, efficient population transfer can be achieved by a rather simple implementation of the rapid adiabatic passage method of Reuss and coworkers and considering also the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique of Bergmann and coworkers as an alternative. The preparation step uses two powerful single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillators of high frequency stability and accuracy. The detection uses a sensitive resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization method after free flight lengths of up to 0.8 m in the molecular beam. Using this technique, we were able to also resolve the nuclear hyperfine structure in the rovibrational levels of the ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 3} fundamentals as well as the 2ν{sub 4} overtone of {sup 14}NH{sub 3}, for which no previous data with hyperfine resolution were available. We present our new results on the quadrupole coupling constants for the ν{sub 1}, ν{sub 3}, and 2ν{sub 4} levels in the context of previously known data for ν{sub 2} and its overtone, as well as ν{sub 4}, and the ground state. Thus, now, {sup 14}N quadrupole coupling constants for all

  7. Impairment-targeted exercises for older adults with knee pain: a proof-of-principle study (TargET-Knee-Pain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Laurence R J; Blagojevic-Bucknall, Milica; Stynes, Siobhán; D'Cruz, Deborah; Mullis, Ricky; Whittle, Rebecca; Peat, George; Foster, Nadine E

    2016-01-29

    Therapeutic exercise is an effective intervention for knee pain and osteoarthritis (OA) and should be individualised. In a preliminary, proof-of-principle study we sought to develop a home exercise programme targeted at specific physical impairments of weak quadriceps, reduced knee flexion range of motion (ROM) and poor balance, and evaluate whether receipt of this was associated with improvements in those impairments and in patient-reported outcomes among older adults with knee pain. This community-based study used a single group, before-after study design with 12-week follow-up. Participants were 58 adults aged over 56 years with knee pain and evidence of quadriceps weakness, loss of flexion ROM, or poor balance, recruited from an existing population-based, observational cohort. Participants received a 12-week home exercise programme, tailored to their physical impairments. The programme was led, monitored and progressed by a physiotherapist over six home visits, alternating with six telephone calls. Primary outcome measures were maximal isometric quadriceps strength, knee flexion ROM and timed single-leg standing balance, measured at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks by a research nurse blinded to the nature and content of participants' exercise programmes. Secondary outcome measures included the WOMAC. At 12 weeks, participants receiving strengthening exercises demonstrated a statistically significant change in quadriceps isometric strength compared to participants not receiving strengthening exercises: 3.9 KgF (95 % CI 0.1, 7.8). Changes in knee flexion ROM (2.1° (-2.3, 6.5)) and single-leg balance time (-2.4 s (-4.5, 6.7)) after stretching and balance retraining exercises respectively, were not found to be statistically significant. There were significant improvements in mean WOMAC Pain and Physical Function scores: -2.2 (-3.1, -1.2) and -5.1 (-7.8, -2.5). A 12-week impairment-targeted, home-based exercise programme for symptomatic knee OA appeared to be associated

  8. Design, construction, establishment of proof of principle, and testing of a spectrometer to permit spectroelectrochemical investigations of actinides in a confined system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, P.K.; Li, J.

    1999-02-01

    This study examines the design, construction, and performance of a spectrometer that was designed and built for UV-visible absorption spectroscopic studies in molten salt media. Contrary to previous designs in the literature, the authors found that furnace and chemical components can be located away from the instrument and electronics. In studying the performance of the spectrometer, they used a potassium chloride eutectic mixture as the molten salt medium. They found that UV-visible absorption spectroscopic studies can be conveniently created in a molten alkali halide media with inexpensive equipment coupled with good sensitivity and precision. Further research will focus on designing a suitable fiber optic probe that will allow the authors to monitor the molten salt process on-line

  9. Design, construction, establishment of proof of principle, and testing of a spectrometer to permit spectroelectrochemical investigations of actinides in a confined system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, P.K.; Li, J. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    1999-02-01

    This study examines the design, construction, and performance of a spectrometer that was designed and built for UV-visible absorption spectroscopic studies in molten salt media. Contrary to previous designs in the literature, the authors found that furnace and chemical components can be located away from the instrument and electronics. In studying the performance of the spectrometer, they used a potassium chloride eutectic mixture as the molten salt medium. They found that UV-visible absorption spectroscopic studies can be conveniently created in a molten alkali halide media with inexpensive equipment coupled with good sensitivity and precision. Further research will focus on designing a suitable fiber optic probe that will allow the authors to monitor the molten salt process on-line.

  10. Controlling macromolecular topology with genetically encoded SpyTag-SpyCatcher chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Fei; Tirrell, David A; Arnold, Frances H

    2013-09-18

    Control of molecular topology constitutes a fundamental challenge in macromolecular chemistry. Here we describe the synthesis and characterization of artificial elastin-like proteins (ELPs) with unconventional nonlinear topologies including circular, tadpole, star, and H-shaped proteins using genetically encoded SpyTag-SpyCatcher chemistry. SpyTag is a short polypeptide that binds its protein partner SpyCatcher and forms isopeptide bonds under physiological conditions. Sequences encoding SpyTag and SpyCatcher can be strategically placed into ELP genes to direct post-translational topological modification in situ. Placement of SpyTag at the N-terminus and SpyCatcher at the C-terminus directs formation of circular ELPs. Induction of expression at 16 °C with 10 μM IPTG yields 80% monomeric cyclic protein. When SpyTag is placed in the middle of the chain, it exhibits an even stronger tendency toward cyclization, yielding up to 94% monomeric tadpole proteins. Telechelic ELPs containing either SpyTag or SpyCatcher can be expressed, purified, and then coupled spontaneously upon mixing in vitro. Block proteins, 3-arm or 4-arm star proteins, and H-shaped proteins have been prepared, with the folded CnaB2 domain that results from the SpyTag-SpyCatcher reaction as the molecular core or branch junction. The modular character of the SpyTag-SpyCatcher strategy should make it useful for preparing nonlinear macromolecules of diverse sequence and structure.

  11. Penerapan Metoda Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI pada Rancang Bangun Data Logger berbasis SD card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATNA SUSANA

    2018-03-01

    sensor data. Research results show, that the SPI method applied in this study has the properties will do repeated testing on MISO pin to the command sent by the microcontroller through the MOSI pin. The read / write data on the SD Card data logger has a 100% success, because the SD Card has been initialized in SPI mode through the reset and init SD Card command.  This communication can be established using crystal 4 Mhz - 20 Mhz. At SPI configuration testing, only the Independent Slave Configuration can be used in SPI communication with 2 SD card as a slave. Keywords: Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI, Data Logger, SD card, FAT16

  12. Android/GUI Controlled Bluetooth Spy Robot (SPY-BOT)

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmal K Thomas; Radhika S; ShyamMohanan.C; Sreelakshmi Rajan; Deepak S Koovackal; Suvarna A

    2017-01-01

    The robotic vehicle can be controlled by a PC or an android device. The GUI interface used to control the robot is developed in MATLAB, and the android app is developed using MIT appinventor 2. The robotic vehicle is equipped with an IP web camera for GUI interface and another wireless camera having night vision capability for remote monitoring/spying purposes. This system can be used in sensitive areas where humans cannot enter directly. The commands provided by android application/GUI inter...

  13. Free space quantum key distribution over 500 meters using electrically driven quantum dot single-photon sources—a proof of principle experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Markus; Heindel, Tobias; Unsleber, Sebastian; Braun, Tristan; Fischer, Julian; Frick, Stefan; Nauerth, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Vest, Gwenaelle; Reitzenstein, Stephan; Kamp, Martin; Forchel, Alfred; Höfling, Sven; Weinfurter, Harald

    2014-04-01

    Highly efficient single-photon sources (SPS) can increase the secure key rate of quantum key distribution (QKD) systems compared to conventional attenuated laser systems. Here we report on a free space QKD test using an electrically driven quantum dot single-photon source (QD SPS) that does not require a separate laser setup for optical pumping and thus allows for a simple and compact SPS QKD system. We describe its implementation in our 500 m free space QKD system in downtown Munich. Emulating a BB84 protocol operating at a repetition rate of 125 MHz, we could achieve sifted key rates of 5-17 kHz with error ratios of 6-9% and {{\\text{g}}^{(2)}}(0)-values of 0.39-0.76.

  14. Collaboration between a human group and artificial intelligence can improve prediction of multiple sclerosis course: a proof-of-principle study [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tacchella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis has an extremely variable natural course. In most patients, disease starts with a relapsing-remitting (RR phase, which proceeds to a secondary progressive (SP form. The duration of the RR phase is hard to predict, and to date predictions on the rate of disease progression remain suboptimal. This limits the opportunity to tailor therapy on an individual patient's prognosis, in spite of the choice of several therapeutic options. Approaches to improve clinical decisions, such as collective intelligence of human groups and machine learning algorithms are widely investigated. Methods: Medical students and a machine learning algorithm predicted the course of disease on the basis of randomly chosen clinical records of patients that attended at the Multiple Sclerosis service of Sant'Andrea hospital in Rome. Results: A significant improvement of predictive ability was obtained when predictions were combined with a weight that depends on the consistence of human (or algorithm forecasts on a given clinical record. Conclusions: In this work we present proof-of-principle that human-machine hybrid predictions yield better prognoses than machine learning algorithms or groups of humans alone. To strengthen this preliminary result, we propose a crowdsourcing initiative to collect prognoses by physicians on an expanded set of patients.

  15. A sipometer for measuring motivation to consume and reward value of foods and beverages in humans: Description and proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Shechter, A; St-Onge, M-P; Sclafani, A; Kissileff, H R

    2017-03-15

    New methods, derived from animal work, for measuring food reward value (i.e. reinforcing value of food), and motivation (i.e. strength of desire) to consume, in humans are described and validated. A sipping device (sipometer) was developed that permits access to a liquid food or beverage on two reward schedules: continuous reinforcement (CR) and progressively increasing time spent exerting pressure on a straw (PR-schedule). In addition, a pictorial scale showing a cup, from which the 'amount wanted' could be marked was used to pre-test potential consumption. Intake, time spent sipping, breakpoint, and pressure exerted were the main dependent variables measured. Three pilot experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, participants (n=8) consumed yogurt shakes after a 1-h or 21-h food deprivation period on both schedules. In Experiment 2, participants (n=8) sham-consumed (i.e. spit out) sweet and non-sweet beverages, utilizing both schedules. In Experiment 3, sham-consuming sweet and non-sweet beverages on both schedules and working for shake on the PR schedule were repeated, after three nights of either habitual sleep or short sleep duration (n=7) in a crossover design. In Experiment 1, participants sipped longer after 21-h vs. 1-h of food deprivation (13±3.0 vs. 8.0±2.1s; p=0.04), on the PR schedule. In Experiment 2, sham-intake (p=0.01) and sipping time (p=0.04) were greater for sweet than non-sweet beverages on the PR schedule and a similar, though not conventionally significant, effect was observed for exerted pressure (p=0.09). In both Experiment 2 and Experiment 3 after habitual sleep, on the PR schedule, cumulative pressure difference between sweet and non-sweet beverage increased with difference in amount wanted in the taste test. In contrast, after short sleep participants were less willing to work for sweet taste as their wanting increased, suggesting that sleep deprivation raises desire, but lowers behavioral output. Taken together these results

  16. Proof-of-principle demonstration of a virtual flow meter-based transducer for gaseous helium monitoring in particle accelerator cryogenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaia, P.; Blanco, E.; Girone, M.; Inglese, V.; Pezzetti, M.; Piccinelli, F.; Serio, L.

    2015-07-01

    A transducer based on a virtual flow meter is proposed for monitoring helium distribution and consumption in cryogenic systems for particle accelerators. The virtual flow meter allows technical and economical constraints, preventing installation of physical instruments in all the needed measurement points, to be overcome. Virtual flow meter performance for the alternative models of Samson [http://www.samson.de (2015)] and Sereg-Schlumberger [http://www.slb.com/ (2015)] is compared with the standard IEC 60534-2-1 [Industrial-process control valves—Part 2-1: Flow capacity—sizing equations for fluid flow under installed conditions (2011), https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/2461], for a large temperature range, for both gaseous and liquid helium phases, and for different pressure drops. Then, the calibration function of the transducer is derived. Finally, the experimental validation for the helium gaseous state on the test station for superconducting magnets in the laboratory SM18 [Pirotte et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 1573, 187 (2014)] at CERN is reported.

  17. SU-E-T-33: A Feasibility-Seeking Algorithm Applied to Planning of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy: A Proof of Principle Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfold, S; Casiraghi, M; Dou, T; Schulte, R; Censor, Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the applicability of feasibility-seeking cyclic orthogonal projections to the field of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) inverse planning. Feasibility of constraints only, as opposed to optimization of a merit function, is less demanding algorithmically and holds a promise of parallel computations capability with non-cyclic orthogonal projections algorithms such as string-averaging or block-iterative strategies. Methods: A virtual 2D geometry was designed containing a C-shaped planning target volume (PTV) surrounding an organ at risk (OAR). The geometry was pixelized into 1 mm pixels. Four beams containing a subset of proton pencil beams were simulated in Geant4 to provide the system matrix A whose elements a-ij correspond to the dose delivered to pixel i by a unit intensity pencil beam j. A cyclic orthogonal projections algorithm was applied with the goal of finding a pencil beam intensity distribution that would meet the following dose requirements: D-OAR < 54 Gy and 57 Gy < D-PTV < 64.2 Gy. The cyclic algorithm was based on the concept of orthogonal projections onto half-spaces according to the Agmon-Motzkin-Schoenberg algorithm, also known as ‘ART for inequalities’. Results: The cyclic orthogonal projections algorithm resulted in less than 5% of the PTV pixels and less than 1% of OAR pixels violating their dose constraints, respectively. Because of the abutting OAR-PTV geometry and the realistic modelling of the pencil beam penumbra, complete satisfaction of the dose objectives was not achieved, although this would be a clinically acceptable plan for a meningioma abutting the brainstem, for example. Conclusion: The cyclic orthogonal projections algorithm was demonstrated to be an effective tool for inverse IMPT planning in the 2D test geometry described. We plan to further develop this linear algorithm to be capable of incorporating dose-volume constraints into the feasibility-seeking algorithm

  18. Use of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution to Form Hydroxyapatite for Uranium Stabilization of Old Rifle Sediments: Laboratory Proof of Principle Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szescody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moore, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vermeul, Vincent R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Luellen, Jon [AECOM, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Old Rifle Site is a former vanadium and uranium ore-processing facility located adjacent to the Colorado River and approximately 0.3 miles east of the city of Rifle, CO. The former processing facilities have been removed and the site uranium mill tailings are interned at a disposal cell north of the city of Rifle. However, some low level remnant uranium contamination still exists at the Old Rifle site. In 2002, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) concurred with United States Department of Energy (US DOE) on a groundwater compliance strategy of natural flushing with institutional controls to decrease contaminant concentrations in the aquifer. In addition to active monitoring of contaminant concentrations, the site is also used for DOE Legacy Management (LM) and other DOE-funded small-scale field tests of remediation technologies. The purpose of this laboratory scale study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) permeable reactive barrier and source area treatment in Old Rifle sediments. Phosphate treatment impact was evaluated by comparing uranium leaching and surface phase changes in untreated to PO4-treated sediments. The impact of the amount of phosphate precipitation in the sediment on uranium mobility was evaluated with three different phosphate loadings. A range of flow velocity and uranium concentration conditions (i.e., uranium flux through the phosphate-treated sediment) was also evaluated to quantify the uranium uptake mass and rate by the phosphate precipitate.

  19. SU-E-T-33: A Feasibility-Seeking Algorithm Applied to Planning of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy: A Proof of Principle Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penfold, S [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Casiraghi, M [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Aargau (Switzerland); Dou, T [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schulte, R [Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Censor, Y [University of Haifa, Haifa (Israel)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the applicability of feasibility-seeking cyclic orthogonal projections to the field of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) inverse planning. Feasibility of constraints only, as opposed to optimization of a merit function, is less demanding algorithmically and holds a promise of parallel computations capability with non-cyclic orthogonal projections algorithms such as string-averaging or block-iterative strategies. Methods: A virtual 2D geometry was designed containing a C-shaped planning target volume (PTV) surrounding an organ at risk (OAR). The geometry was pixelized into 1 mm pixels. Four beams containing a subset of proton pencil beams were simulated in Geant4 to provide the system matrix A whose elements a-ij correspond to the dose delivered to pixel i by a unit intensity pencil beam j. A cyclic orthogonal projections algorithm was applied with the goal of finding a pencil beam intensity distribution that would meet the following dose requirements: D-OAR < 54 Gy and 57 Gy < D-PTV < 64.2 Gy. The cyclic algorithm was based on the concept of orthogonal projections onto half-spaces according to the Agmon-Motzkin-Schoenberg algorithm, also known as ‘ART for inequalities’. Results: The cyclic orthogonal projections algorithm resulted in less than 5% of the PTV pixels and less than 1% of OAR pixels violating their dose constraints, respectively. Because of the abutting OAR-PTV geometry and the realistic modelling of the pencil beam penumbra, complete satisfaction of the dose objectives was not achieved, although this would be a clinically acceptable plan for a meningioma abutting the brainstem, for example. Conclusion: The cyclic orthogonal projections algorithm was demonstrated to be an effective tool for inverse IMPT planning in the 2D test geometry described. We plan to further develop this linear algorithm to be capable of incorporating dose-volume constraints into the feasibility-seeking algorithm.

  20. Acceptance and usability of a home-based monitoring tool of health indicators in children of people with dementia: a Proof of Principle (POP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boessen AB

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available April BCG Boessen,1 Joan Vermeulen,2 Luc P de Witte3 1Research Centre for Technology in Care, Faculty of Health, Zuyd University of Applied Sciences, Heerlen, the Netherlands; 2Lunet zorg, Eindhoven, the Netherlands; 3The Innovation Centre, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Background: Large-scale cohort studies are needed to confirm the relation between dementia and its possible risk factors. The inclusion of people with dementia in research is a challenge, however, children of people with dementia are at risk and are highly motivated to participate in dementia research. For technologies to support home-based data collection during large-scale studies, participants should be able and willing to use technology for a longer period of time. Objective: This study investigated acceptance and usability of iVitality, a research platform for home-based monitoring of dementia health indicators, in 151 children of people with dementia and investigated which frequency of measurements is acceptable for them. Methods: Participants were randomized to fortnightly or monthly measurements. At baseline and after 3 months, participants completed an online questionnaire regarding the acceptance (Technology Acceptance Model; 38 items and usability (Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire; 24 items of iVitality. Items were rated from 1 (I totally disagree to 7 (I totally agree. Participants were also invited to take part in an online focus group (OFG after 3 months of follow-up. Descriptive statistics and both two-sample/independent and paired t-tests were used to analyze the online questionnaires and a directed content analysis was used to analyze the OFGs. Results: Children of people with dementia accept iVitality after long-term use and evaluate iVitality as a user-friendly, useful, and trusted technology, despite some suggestions for improvement. Overall, mean scores on acceptance and usability were higher than 5 (I somewhat agree, although the

  1. BrachyView: Proof-of-principle of a novel in-body gamma camera for low dose-rate prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petasecca, M.; Loo, K. J.; Safavi-Naeini, M.; Han, Z.; Metcalfe, P. E.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Qi, Y.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Meikle, S.; Pospisil, S.; Jakubek, J.; Bucci, J. A.; Zaider, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The conformity of the achieved dose distribution to the treatment plan strongly correlates with the accuracy of seed implantation in a prostate brachytherapy treatment procedure. Incorrect seed placement leads to both short and long term complications, including urethral and rectal toxicity. The authors present BrachyView, a novel concept of a fast intraoperative treatment planning system, to provide real-time seed placement information based on in-body gamma camera data. BrachyView combines the high spatial resolution of a pixellated silicon detector (Medipix2) with the volumetric information acquired by a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). The two systems will be embedded in the same probe so as to provide anatomically correct seed positions for intraoperative planning and postimplant dosimetry. Dosimetric calculations are based on the TG-43 method using the real position of the seeds. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of BrachyView using the Medipix2 pixel detector and a pinhole collimator to reconstruct the real-time 3D position of low dose-rate brachytherapy seeds in a phantom. Methods: BrachyView incorporates three Medipix2 detectors coupled to a multipinhole collimator. Three-dimensionally triangulated seed positions from multiple planar images are used to determine the seed placement in a PMMA prostate phantom in real time. MATLAB codes were used to test the reconstruction method and to optimize the device geometry. Results: The results presented in this paper show a 3D position reconstruction accuracy of the seed in the range of 0.5–3 mm for a 10–60 mm seed-to-detector distance interval (Z direction), respectively. The BrachyView system also demonstrates a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm in the XY plane for sources at 10 mm distance from Medipix2 detector plane, comparable to the theoretical value calculated for an equivalent gamma camera arrangement. The authors successfully demonstrated the capability of BrachyView for

  2. BrachyView: proof-of-principle of a novel in-body gamma camera for low dose-rate prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petasecca, M; Loo, K J; Safavi-Naeini, M; Han, Z; Metcalfe, P E; Meikle, S; Pospisil, S; Jakubek, J; Bucci, J A; Zaider, M; Lerch, M L F; Qi, Y; Rosenfeld, A B

    2013-04-01

    The conformity of the achieved dose distribution to the treatment plan strongly correlates with the accuracy of seed implantation in a prostate brachytherapy treatment procedure. Incorrect seed placement leads to both short and long term complications, including urethral and rectal toxicity. The authors present BrachyView, a novel concept of a fast intraoperative treatment planning system, to provide real-time seed placement information based on in-body gamma camera data. BrachyView combines the high spatial resolution of a pixellated silicon detector (Medipix2) with the volumetric information acquired by a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). The two systems will be embedded in the same probe so as to provide anatomically correct seed positions for intraoperative planning and postimplant dosimetry. Dosimetric calculations are based on the TG-43 method using the real position of the seeds. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of BrachyView using the Medipix2 pixel detector and a pinhole collimator to reconstruct the real-time 3D position of low dose-rate brachytherapy seeds in a phantom. BrachyView incorporates three Medipix2 detectors coupled to a multipinhole collimator. Three-dimensionally triangulated seed positions from multiple planar images are used to determine the seed placement in a PMMA prostate phantom in real time. MATLAB codes were used to test the reconstruction method and to optimize the device geometry. The results presented in this paper show a 3D position reconstruction accuracy of the seed in the range of 0.5-3 mm for a 10-60 mm seed-to-detector distance interval (Z direction), respectively. The BrachyView system also demonstrates a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm in the XY plane for sources at 10 mm distance from Medipix2 detector plane, comparable to the theoretical value calculated for an equivalent gamma camera arrangement. The authors successfully demonstrated the capability of BrachyView for real-time imaging (using a 3 s

  3. Metrological traceability in mass spectrometry-based targeted protein quantitation: a proof-of-principle study for serum apolipoproteins A-I and B100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Nico P M; Romijn, Fred P H T M; van den Broek, Irene; Drijfhout, Jan W; Haex, Martin; van der Laarse, Arnoud; van der Burgt, Yuri E M; Cobbaert, Christa M

    2014-09-23

    In this study, we have followed up on previous liquid chromatography (LC) multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry (MS) approaches for measurement of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apo B100 in serum aiming for implementation of a multiplexed assay in a clinical chemistry laboratory with full metrological traceability. Signature peptides were selected and detected by dynamic MRM, and stable isotope labeled (SIL)-peptides were used as internal standards. Five apo A-I and four apo B100 peptides were measured in serum digests with linearity (R(2)>0.992) in the physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Linearity with regard to protein concentration was ascertained at five concentration levels (R(2)>0.926 and R(2)>0.965, for the apo A-I and apo B100 peptides, respectively). Three native value-assigned sera were used as external calibrators for further method verification. Imprecision values on sample preparation and LC-MS/MS acquisition were below the established minimal specifications for apo A-I and apo B100 (5.0% and 5.3%, respectively). Correlation of LC-MS/MS results with immunoturbidimetric assay results, for normo- and hypertriglyceridemic samples, showed R(2)>0.944 for apo A-I and R(2)>0.964 for apo B100. This LC-MS/MS method has potential for clinical application in normo- and dyslipidemic patients. Measurement of apo A-I and apo B100 may offer an alternative to high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c) methods for cardiovascular disease risk assessment in dyslipidemic patients [1]. An LC-MS/MS method for apo A-I and apo B100 has the advantage of antibody independent and specific detection of protein signature peptides. The introduction of an LC-MS/MS method for apo A-I and apo B100 can serve as an example for many existing and newly developed (multiplex) biomarker methods in quantitative clinical chemistry proteomics (qCCP). Such LC-MS/MS methods should meet basic clinical chemistry principles with regard to test evaluation

  4. InSpiRe - Intelligent Spine Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Kasper Hafstrøm; Helms, Niels Henrik; Kjær, Per

    Rapport on InSpiRe-projektet: InSpiRe er et nationalt netværk, der skal fremme mulighederne for intelligent genoptræning i forhold til ryglidelser. I netværket mødes forskere, virksomheder, kiropraktorer og fysioterapeuter for at udvikle nye genoptrænings og/eller behandlingsteknologier.......Rapport on InSpiRe-projektet: InSpiRe er et nationalt netværk, der skal fremme mulighederne for intelligent genoptræning i forhold til ryglidelser. I netværket mødes forskere, virksomheder, kiropraktorer og fysioterapeuter for at udvikle nye genoptrænings og/eller behandlingsteknologier....

  5. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies Against SpiC Protein Secreted by T3SS-2 of Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shizhong; Qian, Shanshan; Pan, Zhiming; Sun, Lin; Chen, Xiang; Jiao, Xinan

    2015-12-01

    SpiC protein, a member of Salmonella spp. type III secretion system (T3SS)-2, is necessary for the survival of Salmonella within macrophages, and it plays a vital role in Salmonella pathogenesis. To develop and test monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against SpiC protein, two recombinant proteins, rHis-SpiC and rGST-SpiC, were expressed in vitro in the prokaryotic expression vectors pET-30(a) and pGEX-6p-1, respectively, and rHis-SpiC protein used to immunize mice. Hybridomas were generated from the splenocytes of these mice and the monoclonal antibodies produced by these cells were assessed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with rGST-SpiC as the coating antigen. An immunoblotting analysis indicated that all seven of the MAbs developed in this study could specifically recognize the SpiC protein. These MAbs will be very useful in the study of SpiC function and for use in the immunodiagnosis of Salmonella infection.

  6. Involvement of SPI-2-encoded SpiC in flagellum synthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugita Asami

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SpiC encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 on the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium chromosome is required for survival within macrophages and systemic infection in mice. Additionally, SpiC contributes to Salmonella-induced activation of the signal transduction pathways in macrophages by affecting the expression of FliC, a component of flagella filaments. Here, we show the contribution of SpiC in flagellum synthesis. Results Quantitative RT-PCR shows that the expression levels of the class 3 fliD and motA genes that encode for the flagella cap and motor torque proteins, respectively, were lower for a spiC mutant strain than for the wild-type Salmonella. Further, this mutant had lower expression levels of the class 2 genes including the fliA gene encoding the flagellar-specific alternative sigma factor. We also found differences in flagella assembly between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Many flagella filaments were observed on the bacterial surface of the wild-type strain, whereas the spiC mutant had only few flagella. The absence of spiC led to reduced expression of the FlhD protein, which functions as the master regulator in flagella gene expression, although no significant difference at the transcription level of the flhDC operon was observed between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Conclusion The data show that SpiC is involved in flagella assembly by affecting the post-transcription expression of flhDC.

  7. How Do Artifact Models Help Direct SPI Projects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Richardson, Ita

    2015-01-01

    To overcome shortcomings associated with software process improvement (SPI), we previously recommended that process engineers focus on the artifacts to be developed in SPI projects. These artifacts should define desired outcomes, rather than specific methods. During this prior research, we...

  8. Comparison of SPI and SPEI indices for Drought Characterization under Climate Change Scenario in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V.; Jain, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Many drought indices are available for quantifying and characterizing the drought events. Selection of a particular drought index could influence the outcome of the study. In this study, we compared two drought indices namely, Standardized precipitation index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) under climate change condition. Data from 7 RCM models namely, CCCma-CanESM2, CERFACS-CNRM-CM5, GFDL-ESM2M, MOHC-HadGEM2, MIROC-MIROC5, MPI-ESM-LR and MPI-ESM-MR for RCP 4.5 scenario have been used to calculate 12 month SPI and SPEI values. L-moments which provides robust distribution parameter estimation, have been used to identify best fit distribution for projected data at each grid point for each month. Mann-Kendall and Sen's slope test have been used to detect trends in drought severity, duration, peak, and interval between drought events. Results of this study reveal that SPI shows decreasing trends in drought severity, duration and peak with negative Sen's slope, however, the SPEI shows increasing trends of severity, duration and peak with a positive Sen's slope for almost all over India. The analysis reveals that projected percentage of drought affected area based on SPI in the first half of the 21st century is higher compared to those obtained using SPEI, however for the second half of the 21st century, the projected drought affected computed using SPEI is higher compared to the corresponding area obtained using SPI. Decrease in droughts severity, duration and peaks in SPI analysis could be attributed to projected increase in monsoon rainfall in Indian Subcontinent during second half of 21st century however, SPI was found incapable to account the increase in temperature thus neglecting the drying due to increased evapotranspiration whereas SPEI shows significant drying in Indian subcontinent on account of increasing trend in temperature observed in projected future RCM scenarios.

  9. The role of coupled positive feedback in the expression of the SPI1 type three secretion system in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Saini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a common food-borne pathogen that induces inflammatory diarrhea and invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type three secretion system (T3SS encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1. The genes encoding the SPI1 T3SS are tightly regulated by a network of interacting transcriptional regulators involving three coupled positive feedback loops. While the core architecture of the SPI1 gene circuit has been determined, the relative roles of these interacting regulators and associated feedback loops are still unknown. To determine the function of this circuit, we measured gene expression dynamics at both population and single-cell resolution in a number of SPI1 regulatory mutants. Using these data, we constructed a mathematical model of the SPI1 gene circuit. Analysis of the model predicted that the circuit serves two functions. The first is to place a threshold on SPI1 activation, ensuring that the genes encoding the T3SS are expressed only in response to the appropriate combination of environmental and cellular cues. The second is to amplify SPI1 gene expression. To experimentally test these predictions, we rewired the SPI1 genetic circuit by changing its regulatory architecture. This enabled us to directly test our predictions regarding the function of the circuit by varying the strength and dynamics of the activating signal. Collectively, our experimental and computational results enable us to deconstruct this complex circuit and determine the role of its individual components in regulating SPI1 gene expression dynamics.

  10. Correction: The role of coupled positive feedback in the expression of the SPI1 type three secretion system in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Saini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a common food-borne pathogen that induces inflammatory diarrhea and invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type three secretion system (T3SS encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1. The genes encoding the SPI1 T3SS are tightly regulated by a network of interacting transcriptional regulators involving three coupled positive feedback loops. While the core architecture of the SPI1 gene circuit has been determined, the relative roles of these interacting regulators and associated feedback loops are still unknown. To determine the function of this circuit, we measured gene expression dynamics at both population and single-cell resolution in a number of SPI1 regulatory mutants. Using these data, we constructed a mathematical model of the SPI1 gene circuit. Analysis of the model predicted that the circuit serves two functions. The first is to place a threshold on SPI1 activation, ensuring that the genes encoding the T3SS are expressed only in response to the appropriate combination of environmental and cellular cues. The second is to amplify SPI1 gene expression. To experimentally test these predictions, we rewired the SPI1 genetic circuit by changing its regulatory architecture. This enabled us to directly test our predictions regarding the function of the circuit by varying the strength and dynamics of the activating signal. Collectively, our experimental and computational results enable us to deconstruct this complex circuit and determine the role of its individual components in regulating SPI1 gene expression dynamics.

  11. SPI-1-encoded type III secretion system of Salmonella enterica is required for the suppression of porcine alveolar macrophage cytokine expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Barbora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genes localized at Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1 are involved in Salmonella enterica invasion of host non-professional phagocytes. Interestingly, in macrophages, SPI-1-encoded proteins, in addition to invasion, induce cell death via activation of caspase-1 which also cleaves proIL-1β and proIL-18, precursors of 2 proinflammatory cytokines. In this study we were therefore interested in whether SPI-1-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS may influence proinflammatory response of macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we infected primary porcine alveolar macrophages with wild-type S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis and their isogenic SPI-1 deletion mutants. ΔSPI1 mutants of both serovars invaded approx. 5 times less efficiently than the wild-type strains and despite this, macrophages responded to the infection with ΔSPI1 mutants by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, TNFα, IL-23α and GM-CSF. Identical macrophage responses to that induced by the ΔSPI1 mutants were also observed to the infection with sipB but not the sipA mutant. The hilA mutant exhibited an intermediate phenotype between the ΔSPI1 mutant and the wild-type S. Enteritidis. Our results showed that the SPI-1-encoded T3SS is required not only for cell invasion but in macrophages also for the suppression of early proinflammatory cytokine expression.

  12. InSpiRe - Intelligent Spine Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Kasper Hafstrøm; Helms, Niels Henrik; Kjær, Per

    InSpiRe er et projekt, der har haft omdrejningspunkt i etableringen af et nyt netværk indenfor intelligent genoptræning med særligt fokus på rygsmerter. Projektet er gennemført i perioden 1/3 2011 2011-1/3 2012, med støtte fra Syddansk Vækstforum, og er blevet drevet af projektparterne Knowledge...

  13. SPi User Manual V0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimpl, M.; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab; Newcomer, M.; Dressnandt, N.; /Pennsylvania U.; Villani, G.; Weber, M.; Holt, R.; /Rutherford

    2011-05-01

    This document describes the Serial Powering Interface (SPi) ASIC. SPi is a general purpose ASIC prototype designed for use in serial powering of silicon detector instrumentation. This description is written as a user manual to aid application, not as a design description. SPi is a generic custom ASIC, manufactured in 0.25 {mu}m CMOS by TSMC, to interface between a constant current source and silicon detector read-out chips. There is no SEU (single event upset) protection, but most (not all) components are radiation tolerant design. An operating voltage of 1.2 to 2.5 volts and other design features make the IC suitable for a variety of serial powering architectures and ROICs. It should be noted that the device is likely to be a prototype for demonstration rather than a product for inclusion in a detector. The next design(s), SPin, are likely to be designed for a specific application (eg SLHC). The component includes: (1) Seven bi-directional LVDS-like buffers for high data rate links to/from the read-out chips. These are AC coupled (series capacitor) off-chip for DC level conversion; (2) A programmable internal programmable shunt regulator to provide a defined voltage to readout chips when linked in a serial powering chain; (3) A programmable internal shunt regulator control circuit for external transistor control; (4) Shunt current measurement (for internal shunt regulator); (5) A programmable internal shunt regulator current alarm; and (6) Two programmable linear regulators.

  14. Positron astronomy with SPI/INTEGRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenspointner, G.; Diehl, R.; Strong, A.; Weidenspointner, G.; Skinner, G.K.; Skinner, G.K.; Jean, P.; Knoedlseder, J.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Cordier, B.; Schanne, S.; Winkler, C.

    2008-01-01

    We provide an overview of positron astronomy results that have been obtained using the INTEGRAL spectrometer SPI, and discuss their implications for the still mysterious origin of positrons in our Galaxy. It has long been known that the 511 keV positron annihilation emission is strongest from the central region of our Galaxy. Recently, it has been discovered with the SPI spectrometer that the weaker 511 keV line emission from the inner Galactic disk appears to be asymmetric, with the emission to the west of the Galactic center being about twice as strong than that to the east. This distribution of positron annihilation resembles that of low mass X-ray binaries as observed with the INTEGRAL imager IBIS at hard X-ray energies, suggesting that these systems could provide a significant portion of the positrons in our Galaxy. In addition, the spectrometer SPI has permitted unprecedented spectroscopy of annihilation radiation from the bulge and disk regions of the Galaxy, which commences to yield important insights into the conditions of the medium in which the positrons annihilate. (authors)

  15. Learning and Organizational Change in SPI Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Marikka

    Explaining how organizations chance has been a central and enduring quest of management scholars and many other disciplines. In order to be successful change requires not only a new process or technology but also the engagement and participation of the people involved. In this vein the change process results in new behavior and is routinized in practical daily business life of the company. Change management provides a framework for managing the human side of these changes. In this article we present a literature review on the change management in the context of Software Process Improvement. The traditional view of learning, as a “lessons learned” or post-mortem reporting activity is often apparent in SPI literature. However, learning can also be viewed as a continuous change process where specific learning cycle starts with creative conflict and ends up in formal norms and systems. Since this perspective has almost no visibility in SPI literature of past it could show a new direction to the future development of change management in SPI.

  16. The Impact of Female Attractiveness in Spy

    OpenAIRE

    Pangjaya, Veronika Juliani; Handojo, Priska Febrinia

    2017-01-01

    This thesis discusses the impact of female attractiveness on the female character which is related to the way Spy sees attractive women and what the impacts to them are. There are criteria for female attractiveness that are displayed by the film such as physical attributes and traits. In order to show the criteria of attractive women and the responses that they get, I use stereotyping theory. Women who are physically attractive get better treatment, but in order to get that, they have to dres...

  17. The Spy VI child : A newly discovered Neandertal infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Rougier, Helene; Maureille, Bruno; Higham, Thomas; van der Plicht, Johannes; De Clerck, Nora; Semal, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Spy cave (Jemeppe-sur-Sambre Belgium) is reputed for the two adult Neandertal individuals discovered in situ in 1886 Recent reassessment of the Spy collections has allowed direct radiocarbon dating of these individuals The sorting of all of the faunal collections has also led to the discovery of the

  18. Setup and proof of principle of SAPIS (Stored Atoms Polarized Ion Source), a novel source of polarized H{sup -}/D{sup -} ions; Aufbau und Funktionsnachweis von SAPIS (Stored Atoms Polarized Ion Source), einer neuartigen Quelle polarisierter H{sup -}/D{sup -}-Ionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmerich, R.

    2007-02-14

    The objective of this work was the setup and the proof-of-principle of a new type of negative polarized hydrogen or deuterium ion source, which is based on the charge-exchange reaction (vector)H{sup 0}+Cs{sup 0}{yields}(vector)H{sup -}+Cs{sup +}, as for instance the Colliding-Beams-Source (CBS) at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY in Juelich. In contrast to the CBS, the use of a storage cell for the charge-exchange region promises an increase in H{sup -} current by at least an order of magnitude without considerable polarization losses. For these purposes, a new laboratory was equipped and both a polarized hydrogen/deuterium atomic beam source and an intense neutral cesium-beam source have been build-on. A Lambshift polarimeter, which allows the measurement of the nuclear polarization of the atomic as well as ionic beams, was completed with the construction of a new spin-filter. After commissioning and optimizing each of these sources, a storage cell was developed and installed in the charge-exchange region with a magnetic field. Additionally, components for the extraction, detection and analysis of the negative ion beam were installed. Following the decisive proof of principle, investigation of the properties of the storage cell, especially as to H recombination and depolarisation, was begun. Furthermore, a number of software programs was developed for the control and monitoring of different components of the sources as well as a universal measuring software for the complete installation, including the measurement and calculation of the beam polarization. At the same time, the remote control system of the Cologne source of polarized ions LASCO at the FN tandem accelerator was completely modernized. (orig.)

  19. Improved Mobility Control for Carbon Dioxide (CO{sub 2}) Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Silica-Polymer-Initiator (SPI) Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, Kenneth

    2014-01-31

    SPI gels are multi-component silicate based gels for improving (areal and vertical) conformance in oilfield enhanced recovery operations, including water-floods and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods, as well as other applications. SPI mixtures are like-water when pumped, but form light up to very thick, paste-like gels in contact with CO{sub 2}. When formed they are 3 to 10 times stronger than any gelled polyacrylamide gel now available, however, they are not as strong as cement or epoxy, allowing them to be washed / jetted out of the wellbore without drilling. This DOE funded project allowed 8 SPI field treatments to be performed in 6 wells (5 injection wells and 1 production well) in 2 different fields with different operators, in 2 different basins (Gulf Coast and Permian) and in 2 different rock types (sandstone and dolomite). Field A was in a central Mississippi sandstone that injected CO{sub 2} as an immiscible process. Field B was in the west Texas San Andres dolomite formation with a mature water-alternating-gas miscible CO{sub 2} flood. Field A treatments are now over 1 year old while Field B treatments have only 4 months data available under variable WAG conditions. Both fields had other operational events and well work occurring before/ during / after the treatments making definitive evaluation difficult. Laboratory static beaker and dynamic sand pack tests were performed with Ottawa sand and both fields’ core material, brines and crude oils to improve SPI chemistry, optimize SPI formulations, ensure SPI mix compatibility with field rocks and fluids, optimize SPI treatment field treatment volumes and methods, and ensure that strong gels set in the reservoir. Field quality control procedures were designed and utilized. Pre-treatment well (surface) injectivities ranged from 0.39 to 7.9 MMCF/psi. The SPI treatment volumes ranged from 20.7 cubic meters (m{sup 3}, 5460 gallons/ 130 bbls) to 691 m{sup 3} (182,658 gallons/ 4349 bbls). Various size and types

  20. A Spiking Neural Network Model of the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus on the SpiNNaker Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabdatta Sen-Bhattacharya

    2017-08-01

    -node architecture consisting of three “nodes,” where each node is the “basic building block” LGN model. This 420 neuron model is tested with synthetic periodic stimulus at 10 Hz to all the nodes. The model output is the average of the outputs from all nodes, and conforms to the above-mentioned predictions of each node. Power consumption for model simulation on SpiNNaker is ≪1 W.

  1. A framework for plasticity implementation on the SpiNNaker neural architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluppi, Francesco; Lagorce, Xavier; Stromatias, Evangelos; Pfeiffer, Michael; Plana, Luis A; Furber, Steve B; Benosman, Ryad B

    2014-01-01

    Many of the precise biological mechanisms of synaptic plasticity remain elusive, but simulations of neural networks have greatly enhanced our understanding of how specific global functions arise from the massively parallel computation of neurons and local Hebbian or spike-timing dependent plasticity rules. For simulating large portions of neural tissue, this has created an increasingly strong need for large scale simulations of plastic neural networks on special purpose hardware platforms, because synaptic transmissions and updates are badly matched to computing style supported by current architectures. Because of the great diversity of biological plasticity phenomena and the corresponding diversity of models, there is a great need for testing various hypotheses about plasticity before committing to one hardware implementation. Here we present a novel framework for investigating different plasticity approaches on the SpiNNaker distributed digital neural simulation platform. The key innovation of the proposed architecture is to exploit the reconfigurability of the ARM processors inside SpiNNaker, dedicating a subset of them exclusively to process synaptic plasticity updates, while the rest perform the usual neural and synaptic simulations. We demonstrate the flexibility of the proposed approach by showing the implementation of a variety of spike- and rate-based learning rules, including standard Spike-Timing dependent plasticity (STDP), voltage-dependent STDP, and the rate-based BCM rule. We analyze their performance and validate them by running classical learning experiments in real time on a 4-chip SpiNNaker board. The result is an efficient, modular, flexible and scalable framework, which provides a valuable tool for the fast and easy exploration of learning models of very different kinds on the parallel and reconfigurable SpiNNaker system.

  2. iSpy: A powerful and lightweight event display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alverson, G. [Northeastern U.; Eulisse, G. [Fermilab; McCauley, T. [Fermilab; Taylor, L. [Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    iSpy is a general-purpose event data and detector visualization program that was developed as an event display for the CMS experiment at the LHC and has seen use by the general public and teachers and students in the context of education and outreach. Central to the iSpy design philosophy is ease of installation, use, and extensibility. The application itself uses the open-access packages Qt4 and Open Inventor and is distributed either as a fully-bound executable or a standard installer package: one can simply download and double-click to begin. Mac OSX, Linux, and Windows are supported. iSpy renders the standard 2D, 3D, and tabular views, and the architecture allows for a generic approach to production of new views and projections. iSpy reads and displays data in the ig format: event information is written in compressed JSON format files designed for distribution over a network. This format is easily extensible and makes the iSpy client indifferent to the original input data source. The ig format is the one used for release of approved CMS data to the public.

  3. Application of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Karavitis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The main premise of the current effort is that the use of a drought index, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, may lead to a more appropriate understanding of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent in semi-arid areas like Greece. The importance of the Index may be marked in its simplicity and its ability to identify the beginning and end of a drought event. Thus, it may point towards drought contingency planning and through it to drought alert mechanisms. In this context, Greece, as it very often faces the hazardous impacts of droughts, presents an almost ideal case for the SPI application. The present approach examines the SPI drought index application for all of Greece and it is evaluated accordingly by historical precipitation data. Different time series of data from 46 precipitation stations, covering the period 1947–2004, and for time scales of 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, were used. The computation of the index was achieved by the appropriate usage of a pertinent software tool. Then, spatial representation of the SPI values was carried out with geo-statistical methods using the SURFER 9 software package. The results underline the potential that the SPI usage exhibits in a drought alert and forecasting effort as part of a drought contingency planning posture.

  4. HUBBLE SPIES MOST DISTANT SUPERNOVA EVER SEEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers pinpointed a blaze of light from the farthest supernova ever seen, a dying star that exploded 10 billion years ago. The detection and analysis of this supernova, called 1997ff, is greatly bolstering the case for the existence of a mysterious form of dark energy pervading the cosmos, making galaxies hurl ever faster away from each other. The supernova also offers the first glimpse of the universe slowing down soon after the Big Bang, before it began speeding up. This panel of images, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, shows the supernova's cosmic neighborhood; its home galaxy; and the dying star itself. Astronomers found this supernova in 1997 during a second look at the northern Hubble Deep Field [top panel], a tiny region of sky first explored by the Hubble telescope in 1995. The image shows the myriad of galaxies Hubble spied when it peered across more than 10 billion years of time and space. The white box marks the area where the supernova dwells. The photo at bottom left is a close-up view of that region. The white arrow points to the exploding star's home galaxy, a faint elliptical. Its redness is due to the billions of old stars residing there. The picture at bottom right shows the supernova itself, distinguished by the white dot in the center. Although this stellar explosion is among the brightest beacons in the universe, it could not be seen directly in the Hubble images. The stellar blast is so distant from Earth that its light is buried in the glow of its host galaxy. To find the supernova, astronomers compared two pictures of the 'deep field' taken two years apart. One image was of the original Hubble Deep Field; the other, the follow-up deep-field picture taken in 1997. Using special computer software, astronomers then measured the light from the galaxies in both images. Noting any changes in light output between the two pictures, the computer identified a blob of light in the 1997 picture

  5. The NDUFB6 subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I is required for electron transfer activity: A proof of principle study on stable and controlled RNA interference in human cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loublier, Sandrine; Bayot, Aurelien; Rak, Malgorzata; El-Khoury, Riyad; Benit, Paule; Rustin, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → NDUFB6 is required for activity of mitochondrial complex I in human cell lines. → Lentivirus based RNA interference results in frequent off target insertions. → Flp-In recombinase mediated miRNA insertion allows gene-specific extinction. -- Abstract: Molecular bases of inherited deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I are still unknown in a high proportion of patients. Among 45 subunits making up this large complex, more than half has unknown function(s). Understanding the function of these subunits would contribute to our knowledge on mitochondrial physiology but might also reveal that some of these subunits are not required for the catalytic activity of the complex. A direct consequence of this finding would be the reduction of the number of candidate genes to be sequenced in patients with decreased complex I activity. In this study, we tested two different methods to stably extinct complex I subunits in cultured cells. We first found that lentivirus-mediated shRNA expression frequently resulted in the unpredicted extinction of additional gene(s) beside targeted ones. This can be ascribed to uncontrolled genetic material insertions in the genome of the host cell. This approach thus appeared inappropriate to study unknown functions of a gene. Next, we found it possible to specifically extinct a CI subunit gene by direct insertion of a miR targeting CI subunits in a Flp site (HEK293 Flp-In cells). By using this strategy we unambiguously demonstrated that the NDUFB6 subunit is required for complex I activity, and defined conditions suitable to undertake a systematic and stable extinction of the different supernumerary subunits in human cells.

  6. The NDUFB6 subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I is required for electron transfer activity: A proof of principle study on stable and controlled RNA interference in human cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loublier, Sandrine; Bayot, Aurelien; Rak, Malgorzata; El-Khoury, Riyad; Benit, Paule [Inserm U676, Hopital Robert Debre, F-75019 Paris (France); Universite Paris 7, Faculte de medecine Denis Diderot, IFR02 Paris (France); Rustin, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.rustin@inserm.fr [Inserm U676, Hopital Robert Debre, F-75019 Paris (France); Universite Paris 7, Faculte de medecine Denis Diderot, IFR02 Paris (France)

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} NDUFB6 is required for activity of mitochondrial complex I in human cell lines. {yields} Lentivirus based RNA interference results in frequent off target insertions. {yields} Flp-In recombinase mediated miRNA insertion allows gene-specific extinction. -- Abstract: Molecular bases of inherited deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I are still unknown in a high proportion of patients. Among 45 subunits making up this large complex, more than half has unknown function(s). Understanding the function of these subunits would contribute to our knowledge on mitochondrial physiology but might also reveal that some of these subunits are not required for the catalytic activity of the complex. A direct consequence of this finding would be the reduction of the number of candidate genes to be sequenced in patients with decreased complex I activity. In this study, we tested two different methods to stably extinct complex I subunits in cultured cells. We first found that lentivirus-mediated shRNA expression frequently resulted in the unpredicted extinction of additional gene(s) beside targeted ones. This can be ascribed to uncontrolled genetic material insertions in the genome of the host cell. This approach thus appeared inappropriate to study unknown functions of a gene. Next, we found it possible to specifically extinct a CI subunit gene by direct insertion of a miR targeting CI subunits in a Flp site (HEK293 Flp-In cells). By using this strategy we unambiguously demonstrated that the NDUFB6 subunit is required for complex I activity, and defined conditions suitable to undertake a systematic and stable extinction of the different supernumerary subunits in human cells.

  7. SPI Analysis of the Supernova Remnant DEM L71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Kari A.; Dwarkadas, Vikram; Burrows, David N.; Aisyah Mansoor, Siti; Crum, Ryan M.

    2017-08-01

    Supernova remnants are complex, three-dimensional objects; properly accounting for this complexity when modeling the resulting X-ray emission presents quite a challenge and makes it difficult to accurately characterize the properties of the full SNR volume. The SPIES (Smoothed Particle Inference Exploration of Supernova Remnants) project aims to address this challenge by applying a fundamentally different approach to analyzing X-ray observations of SNRs. Smoothed Particle Inference (SPI) is a Bayesian modeling process that fits a population of gas blobs ("smoothed particles") such that their superposed emission reproduces the observed spatial and spectral distribution of photons. We present here the results of an SPI analysis of the Type Ia supernova remnant DEM L71. Among other results, we find that despite its regular appearance, the temperature and other parameter maps exhibit irregular substructure.

  8. Drought analysis of Antalya province by standardized precipitation index (SPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi DİNÇ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought is occurring as a result of global warming in our country and as well as over the world and defined as the precipitation deficit in a certain time period which is lower than that of the normal. It affects negatively all of the living being. Many drought indices have been developed to define the severity and characteristics of drought over time and space. In this study, drought characteristics have been evaluated by using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI in meteorological stations located in Alanya, Antalya, Demre, Elmalı, Finike, Gazipaşa, Korkuteli and Manavgat having long term data (1974-2014. According to 3-, 6-, 12- and 24- months time scales, the trend in SPI values are not decreasing and the SPI values were found to be between 0.99 (normal and ~-0.99 (drought close to normal. It is concluded that drought can occur in summer as well as in winter.

  9. SPI Conformance Gel Applications in Geothermal Zonal Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Lyle [Clean Tech Innovations, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Zonal isolation in geothermal injection and producing wells is important while drilling the wells when highly fractured geothermal zones are encountered and there is a need to keep the fluids from interfering with the drilling operation. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) objectives are to advance technologies to make it more cost effective to develop, produce, and monitor geothermal reservoirs and produce geothermal energy. Thus, zonal isolation is critical to well cost, reservoir evaluation and operations. Traditional cementing off of the lost circulation or thief zones during drilling is often done to stem the drilling mud losses. This is an expensive and generally unsuccessful technique losing the potential of the remaining fracture system. Selective placement of strong SPI gels into only the offending fractures can maintain and even improve operational efficiency and resource life. The SPI gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a promising solution to thief zones and conformance problems with water and CO2 floods and potentially geothermal operations. This gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an initiator (either internal such as an additive or external such as CO2) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current mechanical methods of using packers, plugs, liners and cementing technologies that often severely damage the highly fractured area that is isolated. In the SPI gels, the initiator sets up the fluid into a water-like (not a precipitate) gel and when the isolated zone needs to be reopened, the SPI gel may be removed with an alkaline solution without formation damage occurring. In addition, the SPI gel in commercial quantities is expected to be less expensive than competing mechanical systems and has unique deep placement possibilities. This project seeks to improve upon the SPI gel integrity by modifying the various components to impart temperature stability for use in

  10. US-EU SPYING ALLEGATIONS 2013- A CASE FOR CONSTRUCTIVISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Hincu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show how the revelations about the United States of America (US spying on the European Union (2013 represented an occasion for the latter to reiterate its normative power and the particular importance of the transatlantic partnership. Through observation of “acts of social facts essentialization” by the US and EU and by using a constructivist conceptualization of “agent identity” and “international socialization”, the article concludes that the constructivist framework of analysis explains the unfolding of the spying issue. This deductive approach uses the method of discourse and official documents analysis.

  11. Battle Management Language: Proof of Principle and Future Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, N. M.de; Krom, P.P.J. de; Schade, U.; Pullen, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The NATO Modeling and Simulation Group Technical Activity 048 (MSG-048) was chartered in 2006 to investigate the potential of a Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) for Multinational and NATO interoperation of command and control systems with Modeling and Simulation. At its May, 2007

  12. Proof-of-Principle Polymer Engine-Generator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pelrine, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    Polymer engine-generators have outstanding potential advantages for DoD power generation needs including lightweight, simplicity, low cost, great design flexibility, and little or no noise signature...

  13. Gewasbelichting met hoogfrequent pulserende LED's : proof of principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de J.A.F.; Dueck, T.A.; Steenhuizen, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Assimilatiebelichting neemt een steeds belangrijkere plaats in in de Nederlandse glastuinbouw. Uit het oogpunt van zowel energieverbruik, energiekosten als reductie van de lichthinder is het gewenst assimilatiebelichting verder te verbeteren en beter af te stemmen op de plant, de energievoorziening

  14. A new proof-of-principle contraband detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sredniawski, J.J.; Debiak, T.; Kamykowski, E.

    1995-12-01

    An accelerator-based technique is being developed to detect contraband materials in large containers. The source, which uses a low-energy proton beam to generate high-energy gamma rays, uses the gamma resonance absorption technique to detect nitrogen-14 and chlorine-35 in containers. Both these materials are commonly found in contraband drugs as well as in explosives. Through the use of segmented BGO detectors to detect the resonant gamma rays a quantity as low as ∼ 1 kg can be located with a considerable degree of confidence. Several stations at a port of entry can be operated with one accelerator, as described

  15. Magnetic particle imaging: from proof of principle to preclinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, T.; Gdaniec, N.; Möddel, M.

    2017-07-01

    Tomographic imaging has become a mandatory tool for the diagnosis of a majority of diseases in clinical routine. Since each method has its pros and cons, a variety of them is regularly used in clinics to satisfy all application needs. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a relatively new tomographic imaging technique that images magnetic nanoparticles with a high spatiotemporal resolution in a quantitative way, and in turn is highly suited for vascular and targeted imaging. MPI was introduced in 2005 and now enters the preclinical research phase, where medical researchers get access to this new technology and exploit its potential under physiological conditions. Within this paper, we review the development of MPI since its introduction in 2005. Besides an in-depth description of the basic principles, we provide detailed discussions on imaging sequences, reconstruction algorithms, scanner instrumentation and potential medical applications.

  16. INTEGRAL/SPI γ-ray line spectroscopy. Response and background characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland; Siegert, Thomas; Greiner, Jochen; Krause, Martin; Kretschmer, Karsten; Lang, Michael; Pleintinger, Moritz; Strong, Andrew W.; Weinberger, Christoph; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2018-03-01

    Context. The space based γ-ray observatory INTEGRAL of the European Space Agency (ESA) includes the spectrometer instrument "SPI". This is a coded mask telescope featuring a 19-element Germanium detector array for high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy, encapsulated in a scintillation detector assembly that provides a veto for background from charged particles. In space, cosmic rays irradiate spacecraft and instruments, which, in spite of the vetoing detectors, results in a large instrumental background from activation of those materials, and leads to deterioration of the charge collection properties of the Ge detectors. Aim. We aim to determine the measurement characteristics of our detectors and their evolution with time, that is, their spectral response and instrumental background. These incur systematic variations in the SPI signal from celestial photons, hence their determination from a broad empirical database enables a reduction of underlying systematics in data analysis. For this, we explore compromises balancing temporal and spectral resolution within statistical limitations. Our goal is to enable modelling of background applicable to spectroscopic studies of the sky, accounting separately for changes of the spectral response and of instrumental background. Methods: We use 13.5 years of INTEGRAL/SPI data, which consist of spectra for each detector and for each pointing of the satellite. Spectral fits to each such spectrum, with independent but coherent treatment of continuum and line backgrounds, provides us with details about separated background components. From the strongest background lines, we first determine how the spectral response changes with time. Applying symmetry and long-term stability tests, we eliminate degeneracies and reduce statistical fluctuations of background parameters, with the aim of providing a self-consistent description of the spectral response for each individual detector. Accounting for this, we then determine how the

  17. The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the process of making "The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink," a six-minute animation starring five art students who form a detective club. This animation is available online for art teachers to use in their own classrooms. After showing this video in class, art teachers could have students try…

  18. Spies like us? Respondent perceptions of research sponsors in 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those who would use anthropologists as spies are seen to act contrary to the cannons of scientific and or academic research. As more and more anthropologists find employment in government and the corporate world, the lines between academia and legitimate applied research become blurred. The purpose of this paper ...

  19. SPI Trend Analysis of New Zealand Applying the ITA Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caloiero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A natural temporary imbalance of water availability, consisting of persistent lower-than-average or higher-than-average precipitation, can cause extreme dry and wet conditions that adversely impact agricultural yields, water resources, infrastructure, and human systems. In this study, dry and wet periods in New Zealand were expressed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. First, both the short term (3 and 6 months and the long term (12 and 24 months SPI were estimated, and then, possible trends in the SPI values were detected by means of a new graphical technique, the Innovative Trend Analysis (ITA, which allows the trend identification of the low, medium, and high values of a series. Results show that, in every area currently subject to drought, an increase in this phenomenon can be expected. Specifically, the results of this paper highlight that agricultural regions on the eastern side of the South Island, as well as the north-eastern regions of the North Island, are the most consistently vulnerable areas. In fact, in these regions, the trend analysis mainly showed a general reduction in all the values of the SPI: that is, a tendency toward heavier droughts and weaker wet periods.

  20. Assessment of meteorological drought using SPI in West Azarbaijan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is the assessment of the characteristics such as intensity, frequency and duration of meteorological drought using SPI with 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months time scales in West Azarbaijan Province, Iran. The indices have been computed in various time scales for 38 gauging stations with 32 years record ...

  1. Induced self-assembly and Förster resonance energy transfer studies of alkynylplatinum(II) terpyridine complex through interaction with water-soluble poly(phenylene ethynylene sulfonate) and the proof-of-principle demonstration of this two-component ensemble for selective label-free detection of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Clive Yik-Sham; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2011-11-23

    The interaction of conjugated polyelectrolyte, PPE-SO(3)(-), with platinum(II) complexes, [Pt(tpy)(C≡CC(6)H(4)-CH(2)NMe(3)-4)](OTf)(2) (1) and [Pt(tpy)(C≡C-CH(2)NMe(3))](OTf)(2) (2), has been studied by UV-vis, and steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. A unique FRET from PPE-SO(3)(-) to the aggregated complex 1 on the polymer chain with Pt···Pt interaction has been demonstrated, resulting in the growth of triplet metal-metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MMLCT) emission in the near-infrared (NIR) region. This two-component ensemble has been employed in a "proof-of-principle" concept for the sensitive and selective label-free detection of human serum albumin (HSA) by the emission spectral changes in the visible and in the NIR region. The spectral changes have been ascribed to the disassembly of the polymer-metal complex aggregates upon the binding of PPE-SO(3)(-) to HSA, which is rich in arginine residues and hydrophobic patches, leading to the decrease in FRET from PPE-SO(3)(-) to the aggregated platinum(II) complex. The ensemble is found to have high selectivity toward HSA over a number of polyelectrolytes, proteins and small amino acids. This has been suggested to be a result of the extra stabilization gained from the Pt···Pt and π-π interactions in addition to the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions found in the polymer-metal complex aggregates.

  2. Structural basis of divergent cyclin-dependent kinase activation by Spy1/RINGO proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Denise A.; Fifield, Bre-Anne; Marceau, Aimee H.; Tripathi, Sarvind; Porter, Lisa A.; Rubin, Seth M. (UCSC); (Windsor)

    2017-06-30

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are principal drivers of cell division and are an important therapeutic target to inhibit aberrant proliferation. Cdk enzymatic activity is tightly controlled through cyclin interactions, posttranslational modifications, and binding of inhibitors such as the p27 tumor suppressor protein. Spy1/RINGO (Spy1) proteins bind and activate Cdk but are resistant to canonical regulatory mechanisms that establish cell-cycle checkpoints. Cancer cells exploit Spy1 to stimulate proliferation through inappropriate activation of Cdks, yet the mechanism is unknown. We have determined crystal structures of the Cdk2-Spy1 and p27-Cdk2-Spy1 complexes that reveal how Spy1 activates Cdk. We find that Spy1 confers structural changes to Cdk2 that obviate the requirement of Cdk activation loop phosphorylation. Spy1 lacks the cyclin-binding site that mediates p27 and substrate affinity, explaining why Cdk-Spy1 is poorly inhibited by p27 and lacks specificity for substrates with cyclin-docking sites. We identify mutations in Spy1 that ablate its ability to activate Cdk2 and to proliferate cells. Our structural description of Spy1 provides important mechanistic insights that may be utilized for targeting upregulated Spy1 in cancer.

  3. Neuromodulated Synaptic Plasticity on the SpiNNaker Neuromorphic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Mikaitis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available SpiNNaker is a digital neuromorphic architecture, designed specifically for the low power simulation of large-scale spiking neural networks at speeds close to biological real-time. Unlike other neuromorphic systems, SpiNNaker allows users to develop their own neuron and synapse models as well as specify arbitrary connectivity. As a result SpiNNaker has proved to be a powerful tool for studying different neuron models as well as synaptic plasticity—believed to be one of the main mechanisms behind learning and memory in the brain. A number of Spike-Timing-Dependent-Plasticity(STDP rules have already been implemented on SpiNNaker and have been shown to be capable of solving various learning tasks in real-time. However, while STDP is an important biological theory of learning, it is a form of Hebbian or unsupervised learning and therefore does not explain behaviors that depend on feedback from the environment. Instead, learning rules based on neuromodulated STDP (three-factor learning rules have been shown to be capable of solving reinforcement learning tasks in a biologically plausible manner. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time how a model of three-factor STDP, with the third-factor representing spikes from dopaminergic neurons, can be implemented on the SpiNNaker neuromorphic system. Using this learning rule we first show how reward and punishment signals can be delivered to a single synapse before going on to demonstrate it in a larger network which solves the credit assignment problem in a Pavlovian conditioning experiment. Because of its extra complexity, we find that our three-factor learning rule requires approximately 2× as much processing time as the existing SpiNNaker STDP learning rules. However, we show that it is still possible to run our Pavlovian conditioning model with up to 1 × 104 neurons in real-time, opening up new research opportunities for modeling behavioral learning on SpiNNaker.

  4. LMFBR large valve development. Task II. IHTS isolation valve internals water test. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, L.; Perschler, J.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to perform proof-of-principle (POP) testing in water of a reduced bore rotating offset ball valve as required by AEC Contract No. AT(04-3)-1035. The water POP test article is shown on AMCO Drawing 16-E-4020, Sheets 1 through 4, dated 3-18-74. This report presents the water flow test results and the leakage results for one of the three seal designs.

  5. INTEGRAL: In flight behavior of ISGRI and SPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, F.; Roques, J.-P.; Sauvageon, A.; Terrier, R.; Laurent, P.; Limousin, O.; Lugiez, F.; Claret, A.

    2005-01-01

    The payload of INTEGRAL, the space gamma-ray observatory launched in October 2002, features two gamma-ray telescopes that take advantage of the semiconductor technologies. The spectrometer SPI, is equipped with 19 high-purity germanium detectors cooled at 85 K. We will report on the SPI in-flight background, performance, the detector evolution and the annealings performed every 6 months. The INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (ISGRI) is the low-energy camera of the IBIS telescope. It is the first large camera equipped with CdTe detectors. We will present some system aspects, in particular the noisy pixel handling and will report on its in-flight background, performance and their evolution

  6. Cryogenic test of double quarter wave crab cavity for the LHC High luminosity upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Alberty, L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Belomestnykh, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Calaga, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Cullen, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Capatina, O. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hammons, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Li, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Marques, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Skaritka, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Verdu-Andres, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Q. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    A Proof-of-Principle (PoP) Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity (DQWCC) was designed and fabricated for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. A vertical cryogenic test has been done at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL). The cavity achieved 4.5 MV deflecting voltage with a quality factor above 3×109. We report the test results of this design.

  7. Seeing is believing -- SpyJack system investigates field problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Meara, D.

    1998-01-01

    The SpyJack Remote Monitoring System, a stand-alone, single-site remote well monitoring system that works off its own embedded controller is described. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) unit, developed by CORE Technologies Inc., has an integrated voice/alarm system, monitoring sensors installed at remote well sites continuously 24 hours a day with a digital camera, with 300 degrees of visual confirmation capability. It can also be used as a surveillance tool against terrorism as has been shown in the case of some recent debilitating attacks on remote wells in Alberta. SpyJack monitors flow rates and pressures, pumpjack stroke rates, sucker rod temperature, load cell and engine shut-off relay, as well as ambient temperature, tank levels, and motion detection. At the office, SpyJack Well Management Interface uses nine drop-down screens to take users through the remote monitoring and control of each site. The screens include production sensors, line sensors, dyno chart, environmental/safety sensors and sensor information and set up. Currently under development is the unsolicited dial-out capability. When implemented the system will send out information at pre-determined times, such as every four hours, or at specific times during the day. Compressing images to enable speedier downloading is also being planned

  8. Accuracy and reliability of SPI ProX global positioning system devices for measuring movement demands of team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köklü, Y; Arslan, Y; Alemdaroğlu, U; Duffield, R

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of SPI ProX global positioning system (GPS) devices for measuring movement at various speeds and movement patterns as evident in team sport demands. Eleven amateur soccer players performed a 40 m straight sprint test (with 10-20-30 m split times), a zigzag test, 30 m walking, jogging and moderate intensity runs. Results indicated that the SPI ProX GPS measurements showed acceptable accuracy for all movement patterns for distance (coefficient of variation [CV]=0.14% to 3.73%; 95% ratio limits of agreement [95% ratio LOA]=0.97 x / ÷ 1.09 to 1.00 x / ÷ 1.05) and speed (CV=4.22% to 9.52%; 95%LOA=-0.17 ± 1.70 km h-1 to 2.30 ± 1.17 km h-1) compared with the measured distance and speed determined from timing gates, respectively. Furthermore, acceptable reliability of SPI ProX GPS measures for distance (CV=0.34% to 3.81%; 95%LOA=-0.09 ± 0.23 m to -0.34 ± 2.31 m) and speed (CV=3.19% to 6.95%; 95%LOA=-0.05 ± 3.90 km h-1 to 0.42 ± 3.68 km h-1) were also evident. Whilst SPI ProX GPS devices were within acceptable ranges of reliability, they remained significantly different to criterion measures of team sport movement demands.

  9. [Nurses and spies during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halioua, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    During the First World War, some nurses distinguished themselves by playing a significant role in spy networks, using their activity as a cover. They took an active part in the setting up of escape routes for allied prisoners of war and the gathering of intelligence on the positions of German troops, in particular in Belgium and northern France. Among them Edith Cavell, Gabrielle Petit, Louise de Bettignies, Marie-Léonie Vanhoutte, Marthe Cocknaert and Emilienne-Rose Ducimetière are considered as heroines.

  10. Understanding surveillance technologies spy devices, their origins & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2001-01-01

    From electronic wire taps to baby monitors and long-distance video and listening devices, startling changes occur everyday in how we gather, interpret, and transmit information. An extraordinary range of powerful new technologies has come into existence to meet the requirements of this expanding field.Your search for a comprehensive resource for surveillance devices is over. Understanding Surveillance Technologies: Spy Devices, Their Origins and Applications serves as a provocative, broad-based, and visually appealing reference that introduces and describes the technologies rapidly moving into

  11. Interferon induces up-regulation of Spi-1/PU.1 in human leukemia K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, P; Delgado, M D; Richard, C; Moreau-Gachelin, F; León, J

    1997-11-26

    The human K562 cell line is derived from a chronic myelogenous leukemia in blastic crisis. Treatment of K562 cells with interferons alpha, beta or gamma resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation. Spi-1/PU.1 is a transcription factor of the Ets family which is required for normal hematopoyesis. We have found that spi-1 mRNA and protein as well as Spi-1-DNA binding activity increase after exposure of K562 cells to interferons. The increase in spi-1 expression ranged from 4- to 8-fold with the different interferons. K562 cells can be differentiated in vitro towards erythroid cells or monocyte-macrophage cells. Interestingly, the regulation of spi-1 by interferon-alpha depended on the differentiated phenotype of K562 cells: interferon-alpha failed to induce spi-1 in erythroid differentiated cells, whereas it induced spi-1 in monocyte-macrophage differentiated cells. The results suggest a role for Spi-1 in the cytostatic response to interferons.

  12. The measurement of various molecules of pyrolysis gas of coal by using VUV-SPI-TOFMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Norihiro; Nishifuji, Masayuki; Hayash, Shun-ichi

    2013-04-01

    We developed and tested a system that combines a vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-SPI-TOFMS) with a Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer and used it for the simultaneous detection of the various compounds generated during the pyrolysis of coal. We characterized the performance of the system, including its limits of detection and time resolution. We also determined the various compounds that could be detected using the system. The instrument exhibited a laboratory-determined detection limit that was in the parts per billion volume (ppbv) range and a detection time of 10 s for most of the aromatic compounds generated during the pyrolysis process. In addition, using this system, it was possible to determine the correlation between the pyrolysis temperature and the various compounds generated from different types of coals during the pyrolysis process.

  13. Droughts in a warming climate: A global assessment of Standardized precipitation index (SPI) and Reconnaissance drought index (RDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Zarch, Mohammad Amin; Sivakumar, Bellie; Sharma, Ashish

    2015-07-01

    Both drought and aridity indicate imbalance in water availability. While drought is a natural temporal hazard, aridity is a constant climatic feature. This paper investigates the changes in drought characteristics across different aridity zones with and without consideration of potential evapotranspiration (PET), as a means to better assess drought in a warming climate. Two drought indexes are employed: (1) Standardized precipitation index (SPI), which is solely based on precipitation; and (2) Reconnaissance drought index (RDI), which, in addition to precipitation, takes PET into account. The two indexes are first employed to observed precipitation and PET data for the period 1960-2009 from the CRU (Climate Research Unit, University of East Anglia) TS 3.1 database. The results indicate that although all the aridity zones experience both downward and upward drought trends, no significant trend is found over large parts of the zones. However, the agreement between SPI and RDI reduces from the hyper-arid zone on one extreme toward the humid zone on the other. In the three more humid zones (i.e. semi-arid, sub-humid, and humid), the indexes exhibit different trends, with RDI showing more decreasing trends (i.e. becoming drier). While SPI generally shows more drought prone areas than RDI for the pre-1998 period, the opposite is observed for the post-1998 period. Given the known changes to PET in observed records, and also expected increases as global warming intensifies, these results suggest that RDI will be consistently different to the SPI as global warming intensifies. This hypothesis is further tested for historic and future climate projections from the CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia) Mk3.6 global climate model (GCM), with use of the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and RCP8.5 (Representative Concentration Pathways). In this case, PET is calculated using FAO56-PM model for assessment of

  14. Identification of cognate host targets and specific ubiquitylation sites on the Salmonella SPI-1 effector SopB/SigD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogers, Lindsay D; Kristensen, Anders R; Boyle, Erin C

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a bacterial pathogen responsible for enteritis and typhoid fever. Virulence is linked to two Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI-1 and SPI-2) on the bacterial chromosome, each of which encodes a type III secretion system. While both the SPI-1 and SPI-2 systems secrete......B alone can alter Cdc42 activity. This approach is also widely applicable to identify binding partners to other bacterial effectors....

  15. Engine Operating Conditions and Fuel Properties on Pre-Spark Heat Release and SPI Promotion in SI Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Jatana, Gurneesh S [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This work explores the dependence of fuel ignition delay on stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Findings are based on bulk gas thermodynamic state, where the effects of kinetically controlled bulk gas pre-spark heat release (PSHR) are correlated to SPI tendency and magnitude. Specifically, residual gas and low temperature PSHR chemistry effects and observations are explored, which are found to be indicative of bulk gas conditions required for strong SPI events. Analyzed events range from non-knocking SPI to knocking SPI and even detonation SPI events in excess of 325 bar peak cylinder pressure. The work illustrates that singular SPI event count and magnitude are found to be proportional to PSHR of the bulk gas mixture and residual gas fraction. Cycle-to-cycle variability in trapped residual mass and temperature are found to impose variability in singular SPI event count and magnitude. However, clusters and short lived bursts of multiple SPI events are found to better correlate with fuel-wall interaction. The results highlight the interplay of bulk gas thermodynamics and SPI ignition source, on SPI event magnitude and cluster tendency. Moreover, the results highlight fundamental fuel reactivity and associated hypersensitivity to operating conditions at SPI prone operating conditions.

  16. SSCMDA: spy and super cluster strategy for MiRNA-disease association prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Xie, Di; Liu, Hongsheng; Wang, Fan; Yan, Gui-Ying; Chen, Xing

    2018-01-01

    In the biological field, the identification of the associations between microRNAs (miRNAs) and diseases has been paid increasing attention as an extremely meaningful study for the clinical medicine. However, it is expensive and time-consuming to confirm miRNA-disease associations by experimental methods. Therefore, in recent years, several effective computational models for predicting the potential miRNA-disease associations have been developed. In this paper, we proposed the Spy and Super Cluster strategy for MiRNA-Disease Association prediction (SSCMDA) based on known miRNA-disease associations, integrated disease similarity and integrated miRNA similarity. For problems of mixed unknown miRNA-disease pairs containing both potential associations and real negative associations, which will lead to inaccurate prediction, spy strategy is adopted by SSCMDA to identify reliable negative samples from the unknown miRNA-disease pairs. Moreover, the super-cluster strategy could gather as many positive samples as possible to improve the accuracy of the prediction by overcoming the shortage of lacking sufficient positive training samples. As a result, the AUCs of global leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV), local LOOCV and 5-fold cross validation were 0.9007, 0.8747 and 0.8806+/-0.0025, respectively. According to the AUC results, SSCMDA has shown a significant improvement compared with some previous models. We further carried out case studies based on various version of HMDD database to test the prediction performance robustness of SSCMDA. We also implemented case study to examine whether SSCMDA was effective for new diseases without any known associated miRNAs. As a result, a large proportion of the predicted miRNAs have been verified by experimental reports. PMID:29416734

  17. Assessment of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) in Tegal City, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudya, Y.; Onishi, T.

    2018-03-01

    One of the adverse impacts of climate change is drought, which occurs more frequently in Tegal city, Indonesia. The application of drought index analysis is useful for drought assessment to consider adaptation and mitigation method in order to deal with climate change. By figuring out the level and duration of the drought. In order to analyze drought in the specific area, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is an index to quantify the rainfall deficit for multiple timescales. In 2015, Indonesia experienced severe drought, which has not been analyzed, yet. Thus, it is important to assess a quantitative evaluation of the drought condition. The study shows that from all deficit periods, the most severe drought in duration and peak took place in 2015, with each drought index as follows: 1 month deficit or SPI-1 (-3.11) in 1985 (-2.51) in 2015, 3 month deficit or SPI-3 (-2.291) in 1995 (-1.82) in 2015, 6 month deficit or SPI-6 (-2.40) in 1997 and (-1.84) in 2015, 9 month deficit or SPI-9 (-1.12) in 2015, 12 month deficit or SPI-12 (-1.19) in 2015. The result underlines the potential that SPI exhibits in drought identification and the use of the rainfall strongly linked to drought relief policy and measure implementation in Tegal city.

  18. Identification of Trend in Spatial and Temporal Dry and Wet Periods in Northwest of Iran Based on SPI and RAI Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Montaseri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Droughts are natural extreme phenomena, which frequently occur around the world. This phenomenon can occur in any region, but its effects will be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions. Several studies have highlighted the increasing of droughts trend around the world. The majority of studies in assessing the trend of time series are based on basic Mann-Kendall or Spearman's methods and no serious attention has been paid to the impact of autocorrelation coefficient on time series. However, limited numbers of studies have included the lag-1 autocorrelation coefficient and its impacts on the time series trend. The aim of this study was to investigate the trend of dry and wet periods in northwest of Iran using Mann-Kendall trend test with removing all significant autocorrelations coefficients based on SPI and RAI drought indices. Materials and Methods: Study area has a region of 334,000 square kilometers, with wet, arid and semiarid climate, located in the northwest of Iran. The rainfall data were collected from 39 synoptic stations with average rainfall of 146 mm as the minimum of Gom station, and the highest annual rainfall of 1687 mm, in the Bandaranzali station. In this study, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI were used for trend analysis of dry and wet periods. SPI was developed by McKee et al. in 1993 to determine and monitor droughts. This index is able to determine the wet and dry situations for a specific time scale for each location using rainfall data. RAI index was developed by Van Rooy in 1965 to calculate the deviation of rainfall from the normal amount of rainfall and it evaluates monthly or annual rainfall on a linear scale resulting from a data series. Then, correlation coefficients of time series of these drought indices with different lags were determined for check the dependence or independence of the SPI and RAI values. Finally, based on dependence or independence of the time

  19. Radiation Hardened CAN-to-I2C/SPI ASIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort seeks to develop a rad-hard CAN-to-I2C/SPI (Controller-Area Network to Inter-Integrated Circuit and Serial Peripheral Interface) ASIC for efficient and...

  20. A Half-Day Workshop on ``Smarter Investment by Aligning SPI Initiatives, Capabilities and Stakeholder Values''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selioukova, Yana; Frühwirth, Christian

    Software companies who want to improve software process capabilities (SPCs)a systematic method to make informed investment decisions on software process improvement (SPI) initiatives. Such decisions should aim at creating maximum stakeholder values. To address this problem, we present a method with tool support that may help companies align stakeholder values with SPCs and SPI initiatives. The proposed method has been developed based on the well-established “Quality Function Deployment” (QFD) approach. The experience with the proposed method suggests that it particularly helps to reduce the risk of misalignment by identifying those SPI initiatives that are most beneficial to stakeholders. The tool support provided with the proposed method also generated positive experiences in increasing the usability of the method and helped companies in the elicitation and prioritization of stakeholder values. Therefore, we propose a workshop for the method work out named “Smarter Investment by Aligning SPI Initiatives, Capabilities and Stakeholder Values” in hypothetical case company.

  1. A novel approach for modelling the cluster detector and the SPI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-30

    background (PB) ratios of the cluster and spectrometer for integral satellite (SPI) for the first time considering up to four-fold events. Instead of using an empirical method or simulation, we present a novel approach for calculating ...

  2. Mysteries and Conspiracies: Detective Stories, Spy Novels And The Making Of Modern Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José

    2016-01-01

    Book review of: Mysteries and Conspiracies: Detective Stories, Spy Novels and the Making of Modern Societies. By Luc Boltanski (trans. C Porter). Cambridge: Polity Press, 2014. xviii+340 pp. £18.99/€23.80. ISBN: 9780745664057.......Book review of: Mysteries and Conspiracies: Detective Stories, Spy Novels and the Making of Modern Societies. By Luc Boltanski (trans. C Porter). Cambridge: Polity Press, 2014. xviii+340 pp. £18.99/€23.80. ISBN: 9780745664057....

  3. Epigenetic silencing of Bim transcription by Spi-1/PU.1 promotes apoptosis resistance in leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridinger-Saison, M; Evanno, E; Gallais, I; Rimmelé, P; Selimoglu-Buet, D; Sapharikas, E; Moreau-Gachelin, F; Guillouf, C

    2013-01-01

    Deregulation of transcriptional networks contributes to haematopoietic malignancies. The transcription factor Spi-1/PU.1 is a master regulator of haematopoiesis and its alteration leads to leukaemia. Spi-1 overexpression inhibits differentiation and promotes resistance to apoptosis in erythroleukaemia. Here, we show that Spi-1 inhibits mitochondrial apoptosis in vitro and in vivo through the transcriptional repression of Bim, a proapoptotic factor. BIM interacts with MCL-1 that behaves as a major player in the survival of the preleukaemic cells. The repression of BIM expression reduces the amount of BIM-MCL-1 complexes, thus increasing the fraction of potentially active antiapoptotic MCL-1. We then demonstrate that Spi-1 represses Bim transcription by binding to the Bim promoter and by promoting the trimethylation of histone 3 on lysine 27 (H3K27me3, a repressive histone mark) on the Bim promoter. The PRC2 repressive complex of Polycomb is directly responsible for the deposit of H3K27me3 mark at the Bim promoter. SUZ12 and the histone methyltransferase EZH2, two PRC2 subunits bind to the Bim promoter at the same location than H3K27me3, distinct of the Spi-1 DNA binding site. As Spi-1 interacts with SUZ12 and EZH2, these results indicate that Spi-1 modulates the activity of PRC2 without directly recruiting the complex to the site of its activity on the chromatin. Our results identify a new mechanism whereby Spi-1 represses transcription and provide mechanistic insights on the antiapoptotic function of a transcription factor mediated by the epigenetic control of gene expression. PMID:23852375

  4. klanke, voëlgeluide en musiek in die digkuns van Lina Spies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    27 Jan 2006 ... En in “Oor Mozart en Manuskripte” (Spies 1982: 30) skryf sy: “sonder woorde en musiek is hemel hel”. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om na te gaan hoe Lina Spies se sensitiwiteit vir klank (veral voëlgeluide) en haar belangstelling in en liefde vir musiek tot uiting kom in haar gedigte. Wat was die impuls vir ...

  5. Salmonella Typhimurium induces SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulated and strain dependent downregulation of MHC II expression on porcine alveolar macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Parys Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from persistently infected slaughter pigs in Europe. Circumvention of the host’s immune system by Salmonella might contribute to persistent infection of pigs. In the present study, we found that Salmonella Typhimurium strain 112910a specifically downregulated MHC II, but not MHC I, expression on porcine alveolar macrophages in a Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI-1 and SPI-2 dependent way. Salmonella induced downregulation of MHC II expression and intracellular proliferation of Salmonella in macrophages were significantly impaired after opsonization with Salmonella specific antibodies prior to inoculation. Furthermore, the capacity to downregulate MHC II expression on macrophages differed significantly among Salmonella strains, independently of strain specific differences in invasion capacity, Salmonella induced cytotoxicity and altered macrophage activation status. The fact that strain specific differences in MHC II downregulation did not correlate with the extent of in vitro SPI-1 or SPI-2 gene expression indicates that other factors are involved in MHC II downregulation as well. Since Salmonella strain dependent interference with the pig’s immune response through downregulation of MHC II expression might indicate that certain Salmonella strains are more likely to escape serological detection, our findings are of major interest for Salmonella monitoring programs primarily based on serology.

  6. Testing aspects of advanced coherent electron cooling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.; Jing, Y.; Pinayev, I.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Ratner, D.

    2015-05-03

    An advanced version of the Coherent-electron Cooling (CeC) based on the micro-bunching instability was proposed. This approach promises significant increase in the bandwidth of the CeC system and, therefore, significant shortening of cooling time in high-energy hadron colliders. In this paper we present our plans of simulating and testing the key aspects of this proposed technique using the set-up of the coherent-electron-cooling proof-of-principle experiment at BNL.

  7. Development testing of a nuclear waste cask remote handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gneiting, B.C.; Swannack, D.L.; Berger, J.D.; Allen, G.C. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactive waste shipping and receiving facilities presently planned for commercial and defense nuclear waste will handle waste packages at frequencies far in excess of those in common practice today. High radiation exposures and large personnel staffs would be necessary if current handling methods were used. To reduce personnel exposures and man-power requirements, alternate handling methods are being developed and demonstrated. Proof-of-principle testing of remote handling techniques using robotics demonstrated nearly all critical operations for cask receipt, preparation and unloading. 1 figure

  8. Spy and Counterspy as a “Cultural Hero” in the Soviet Cinema of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Sukovataya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aim to analyze the evolution of the Soviet spy cinema of the Cold War in the context of the cultural history and the social changes in the USA and the Soviet Union, and the relations with the political opponents. The public reception of the Soviet spy and spying was evolved in the Soviet Union and it was reflected in the cinema plots and characters transformations.

  9. Engineering testing and technology projects FY 1996 Site Support Program Plan, WBS 6.3.3 and 6.3.8. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.C.

    1995-10-01

    The engineering laboratory services for development, assembly, testing, and evaluation to support the resolution of WHC, Hanford, and DOE complex wide engineering issues for 1996 are presented. Primary customers are: TWRS, spent nuclear fuels, transition projects, liquid effluent program, and other Hanford contractors and programs. Products and services provided include: fabrication and assembly facilities for prototype and test equipment, development testing, proof of principle testing, instrumentation testing, nondestructive examination application development and testing, prototype equipment design and assembly, chemical engineering unit operations testing, engineering test system disposal, and safety issue resolution

  10. The papain inhibitor (SPI) of Streptomyces mobaraensis inhibits bacterial cysteine proteases and is an antagonist of bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zindel, Stephan; Kaman, Wendy E; Fröls, Sabrina; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Peters, Anna; Hays, John P; Fuchsbauer, Hans-Lothar

    2013-07-01

    A novel papain inhibitory protein (SPI) from Streptomyces mobaraensis was studied to measure its inhibitory effect on bacterial cysteine protease activity (Staphylococcus aureus SspB) and culture supernatants (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus anthracis). Further, growth of Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae was completely inhibited by 10 μM SPI. At this concentration of SPI, no cytotoxicity was observed. We conclude that SPI inhibits bacterial virulence factors and has the potential to become a novel therapeutic treatment against a range of unrelated pathogenic bacteria.

  11. SpyB, a Small Heme-Binding Protein, Affects the Composition of the Cell Wall in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Rebecca J; Chen, Jing; Kant, Sashi; Rechkina, Elena; Rush, Jeffrey S; Forsberg, Lennart S; Jaehrig, Bernhard; Azadi, Parastoo; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Zhu, Haining; Korotkov, Konstantin V; Pancholi, Vijay; Korotkova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus or GAS) is a hemolytic human pathogen associated with a wide variety of infections ranging from minor skin and throat infections to life-threatening invasive diseases. The cell wall of GAS consists of peptidoglycan sacculus decorated with a carbohydrate comprising a polyrhamnose backbone with immunodominant N-acetylglucosamine side-chains. All GAS genomes contain the spyBA operon, which encodes a 35-amino-acid membrane protein SpyB, and a membrane-bound C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferase SpyA. In this study, we addressed the function of SpyB in GAS. Phenotypic analysis of a spyB deletion mutant revealed increased bacterial aggregation, and reduced sensitivity to β-lactams of the cephalosporin class and peptidoglycan hydrolase PlyC. Glycosyl composition analysis of cell wall isolated from the spyB mutant suggested an altered carbohydrate structure compared with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we found that SpyB associates with heme and protoporphyrin IX. Heme binding induces SpyB dimerization, which involves disulfide bond formation between the subunits. Thus, our data suggest the possibility that SpyB activity is regulated by heme.

  12. WordSpy: identifying transcription factor binding motifs by building a dictionary and learning a grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guandong; Yu, Taotao; Zhang, Weixiong

    2005-07-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding sites or motifs (TFBMs) are functional cis-regulatory DNA sequences that play an essential role in gene transcriptional regulation. Although many experimental and computational methods have been developed, finding TFBMs remains a challenging problem. We propose and develop a novel dictionary based motif finding algorithm, which we call WordSpy. One significant feature of WordSpy is the combination of a word counting method and a statistical model which consists of a dictionary of motifs and a grammar specifying their usage. The algorithm is suitable for genome-wide motif finding; it is capable of discovering hundreds of motifs from a large set of promoters in a single run. We further enhance WordSpy by applying gene expression information to separate true TFBMs from spurious ones, and by incorporating negative sequences to identify discriminative motifs. In addition, we also use randomly selected promoters from the genome to evaluate the significance of the discovered motifs. The output from WordSpy consists of an ordered list of putative motifs and a set of regulatory sequences with motif binding sites highlighted. The web server of WordSpy is available at http://cic.cs.wustl.edu/wordspy.

  13. Reliability and validity of the Korean standard pattern identification for stroke (K-SPI-Stroke questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Byoung-Kab

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was conducted to examine the reliability and validity of the ‘Korean Standard Pattern Identification for Stroke (K-SPI-Stroke’, which was developed and evaluated within the context of traditional Korean medicine (TKM. Methods Between September 2006 and December 2010, 2,905 patients from 11 Korean medical hospitals were asked to complete the K-SPI-Stroke questionnaire as a part of project ' Fundamental study for the standardization and objectification of pattern identification in traditional Korean medicine for stroke (SOPI-Stroke. Each patient was independently diagnosed by two TKM physicians from the same site according to one of four patterns, as suggested by the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine: 1 a Qi deficiency pattern, 2 a Dampness-phlegm pattern, 3 a Yin deficiency pattern, or 4 a Fire-heat pattern. We estimated the internal consistency using Cronbach’s α coefficient, the discriminant validity using the means score of patterns, and the predictive validity using the classification accuracy of the K-SPI-Stroke questionnaire. Results The K-SPI-Stroke questionnaire had satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.700 and validity, with significant differences in the mean of scores among the four patterns. The overall classification accuracy of this questionnaire was 65.2 %. Conclusion These results suggest that the K-SPI-Stroke questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for estimating the severity of the four patterns.

  14. Composition, acquisition, and distribution of the Vi exopolysaccharide-encoding Salmonella enterica pathogenicity island SPI-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Derek; Wain, John; Baker, Stephen; Line, Alexandra; Chohan, Sonia; Fookes, Maria; Barron, Andrew; Gaora, Peadar O; Chabalgoity, José A; Thanky, Niren; Scholes, Christoph; Thomson, Nicholas; Quail, Michael; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon

    2003-09-01

    Vi capsular polysaccharide production is encoded by the viaB locus, which has a limited distribution in Salmonella enterica serovars. In S. enterica serovar Typhi, viaB is encoded on a 134-kb pathogenicity island known as SPI-7 that is located between partially duplicated tRNA(pheU) sites. Functional and bioinformatic analysis suggests that SPI-7 has a mosaic structure and may have evolved as a consequence of several independent insertion events. Analysis of viaB-associated DNA in Vi-positive S. enterica serovar Paratyphi C and S. enterica serovar Dublin isolates revealed the presence of similar SPI-7 islands. In S. enterica serovars Paratyphi C and Dublin, the SopE bacteriophage and a 15-kb fragment adjacent to the intact tRNA(pheU) site were absent. In S. enterica serovar Paratyphi C only, a region encoding a type IV pilus involved in the adherence of S. enterica serovar Typhi to host cells was missing. The remainder of the SPI-7 islands investigated exhibited over 99% DNA sequence identity in the three serovars. Of 30 other Salmonella serovars examined, 24 contained no insertions at the equivalent tRNA(pheU) site, 2 had a 3.7-kb insertion, and 4 showed sequence variation at the tRNA(pheU)-phoN junction, which was not analyzed further. Sequence analysis of the SPI-7 region from S. enterica serovar Typhi strain CT18 revealed significant synteny with clusters of genes from a variety of saprophytic bacteria and phytobacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. This analysis suggested that SPI-7 may be a mobile element, such as a conjugative transposon or an integrated plasmid remnant.

  15. Composition, Acquisition, and Distribution of the Vi Exopolysaccharide-Encoding Salmonella enterica Pathogenicity Island SPI-7

    OpenAIRE

    Pickard, Derek; Wain, John; Baker, Stephen; Line, Alexandra; Chohan, Sonia; Fookes, Maria; Barron, Andrew; Ó Gaora, Peadar; Chabalgoity, José A.; Thanky, Niren; Scholes, Christoph; Thomson, Nicholas; Quail, Michael; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    Vi capsular polysaccharide production is encoded by the viaB locus, which has a limited distribution in Salmonella enterica serovars. In S. enterica serovar Typhi, viaB is encoded on a 134-kb pathogenicity island known as SPI-7 that is located between partially duplicated tRNApheU sites. Functional and bioinformatic analysis suggests that SPI-7 has a mosaic structure and may have evolved as a consequence of several independent insertion events. Analysis of viaB-associated DNA in Vi-positive S...

  16. Assessment Tools as Drivers for SPI: Short-term Benefits and Long-term Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mûller, Sune Dueholm; Nørbjerg, Jacob; Cho, Hiu Ngan

    2007-01-01

    Full scale software process maturity assessments are costly, can have large organizational impact, and are carried out at long (12-24 months) intervals. Consequently, there is a need for techniques and tools to monitor and help manage an SPI project through inexpensive, ongoing progress assessment....... In this paper we present findings from two cases of using such a tool We have found that the tool does provide useful snapshots of the status of an SPI projects, but that long-term use of the tool introduces costs and challenges related to modifying and tailoring the tool to both the organizational context...

  17. Assessment Tools as Drivers for SPI: Short-term Benefits and Long-term Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mûller, Sune Dueholm; Nørbjerg, Jacob; Cho, Hiu Ngan

    2007-01-01

    Full scale software process maturity assessments are costly, can have large organizational impact, and are carried out at long (12-24 months) intervals. Consequently, there is a need for techniques and tools to monitor and help manage an SPI project through inexpensive, ongoing progress assessments....... In this paper we present findings from two cases of using such a tool. We have found that the tool does provide useful snapshots of the status of SPI projects, but that long-term use of the tool introduces costs and challenges related to modifying and tailoring the tool to both the organizational context...

  18. HUBBLE SPIES BROWN DWARFS IN NEARBY STELLAR NURSERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    objects. The brown dwarfs are the faintest objects in the image. Surveying the cluster's central region, the Hubble telescope spied brown dwarfs with masses equaling 10 to 80 Jupiters. Researchers think there may be less massive brown dwarfs that are beyond the limits of Hubble's vision. The near-infrared image was taken Jan. 17, 1998. Two near-infrared filters were used to obtain information on the colors of the stars at two wavelengths (1.1 and 1.6 microns). The Trapezium picture is 1 light-year across. This composite image was made from a 'mosaic' of nine separate, but adjoining images. In this false-color image, blue corresponds to warmer, more massive stars, and red to cooler, less massive stars and brown dwarfs, and stars that are heavily obscured by dust. The visible-light data were taken in 1994 and 1995. Credits for near-infrared image: NASA; K.L. Luhman (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass.); and G. Schneider, E. Young, G. Rieke, A. Cotera, H. Chen, M. Rieke, R. Thompson (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz.) Credits for visible-light picture: NASA, C.R. O'Dell and S.K. Wong (Rice University)

  19. The IL-8 protease SpyCEP/ScpC of group A Streptococcus promotes resistance to neutrophil killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkernagel, Annelies S; Timmer, Anjuli M; Pence, Morgan A; Locke, Jeffrey B; Buchanan, John T; Turner, Claire E; Mishalian, Inbal; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Hanski, Emanuel; Nizet, Victor

    2008-08-14

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) promotes neutrophil-mediated host defense through its chemoattractant and immunostimulatory activities. The Group A Streptococcus (GAS) protease SpyCEP (also called ScpC) cleaves IL-8, and SpyCEP expression is strongly upregulated in vivo in the M1T1 GAS strains associated with life-threatening systemic disease including necrotizing fasciitis. Coupling allelic replacement with heterologous gene expression, we show that SpyCEP is necessary and sufficient for IL-8 degradation. SpyCEP decreased IL-8-dependent neutrophil endothelial transmigration and bacterial killing, the latter by reducing neutrophil extracellular trap formation. The knockout mutant lacking SpyCEP was attenuated for virulence in murine infection models, and SpyCEP expression conferred protection to coinfecting bacteria. We also show that the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus iniae possesses a functional homolog of SpyCEP (CepI) that cleaves IL-8, promotes neutrophil resistance, and contributes to virulence. By inactivating the multifunctional host defense peptide IL-8, the SpyCEP protease impairs neutrophil clearance mechanisms, contributing to the pathogenesis of invasive streptococcal infection.

  20. The CXC Chemokine-degrading Protease SpyCep of Streptococcus pyogenes Promotes Its Uptake into Endothelial Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simran Jeet; Nerlich, Andreas; Bergmann, Simone; Rohde, Manfred; Fulde, Marcus; Zähner, Dorothea; Hanski, Emanuel; Zinkernagel, Annelies; Nizet, Victor; Chhatwal, Gursharan S.; Talay, Susanne R.

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes expresses the LPXTG motif-containing cell envelope serine protease SpyCep (also called ScpC, PrtS) that degrades and inactivates the major chemoattractant interleukin 8 (IL-8), thereby impairing host neutrophil recruitment. In this study, we identified a novel function of SpyCep: the ability to mediate uptake into primary human endothelial cells. SpyCep triggered its uptake into endothelial cells but not into human epithelial cells originating from pharynx or lung, indicating an endothelial cell-specific uptake mechanism. SpyCep mediated cellular invasion by an endosomal/lysosomal pathway distinct from the caveolae-mediated invasion pathway of S. pyogenes. Recombinant expression and purification of proteolytically active SpyCep and a series of subfragments allowed functional dissection of the domains responsible for endothelial cell invasion and IL-8 degradation. The N-terminal PR domain was sufficient to mediate endothelial cell invasion, whereas for IL-8-degrading activity, the protease domain and the flanking A domain were required. A polyclonal rabbit serum raised against the recombinant protease efficiently blocked the invasion-mediating activity of SpyCep but not its proteolytic function, further indicating that SpyCep-mediated internalization is independent from its enzymatic activity. SpyCep may thus specifically mediate its own uptake as secreted protein into human endothelial cells. PMID:20562101

  1. The CXC chemokine-degrading protease SpyCep of Streptococcus pyogenes promotes its uptake into endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simran Jeet; Nerlich, Andreas; Bergmann, Simone; Rohde, Manfred; Fulde, Marcus; Zähner, Dorothea; Hanski, Emanuel; Zinkernagel, Annelies; Nizet, Victor; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Talay, Susanne R

    2010-09-03

    Streptococcus pyogenes expresses the LPXTG motif-containing cell envelope serine protease SpyCep (also called ScpC, PrtS) that degrades and inactivates the major chemoattractant interleukin 8 (IL-8), thereby impairing host neutrophil recruitment. In this study, we identified a novel function of SpyCep: the ability to mediate uptake into primary human endothelial cells. SpyCep triggered its uptake into endothelial cells but not into human epithelial cells originating from pharynx or lung, indicating an endothelial cell-specific uptake mechanism. SpyCep mediated cellular invasion by an endosomal/lysosomal pathway distinct from the caveolae-mediated invasion pathway of S. pyogenes. Recombinant expression and purification of proteolytically active SpyCep and a series of subfragments allowed functional dissection of the domains responsible for endothelial cell invasion and IL-8 degradation. The N-terminal PR domain was sufficient to mediate endothelial cell invasion, whereas for IL-8-degrading activity, the protease domain and the flanking A domain were required. A polyclonal rabbit serum raised against the recombinant protease efficiently blocked the invasion-mediating activity of SpyCep but not its proteolytic function, further indicating that SpyCep-mediated internalization is independent from its enzymatic activity. SpyCep may thus specifically mediate its own uptake as secreted protein into human endothelial cells.

  2. The IL-8 Protease SpyCEP/ScpC of Group A Streptococcus Promotes Resistance to Neutrophil Killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkernagel, Annelies S.; Timmer, Anjuli M.; Pence, Morgan A.; Locke, Jeffrey B.; Buchanan, John T.; Turner, Claire E.; Mishalian, Inbal; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Hanski, Emanuel; Nizet, Victor

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Interleukin-8 (IL-8) promotes neutrophil-mediated host defense through its chemoattractant and immunostimulatory activities. The Group A Streptococcus (GAS) protease SpyCEP (also called ScpC) cleaves IL-8, and SpyCEP expression is strongly upregulated in vivo in the M1T1 GAS strains associated with life-threatening systemic disease including necrotizing fasciitis. Coupling allelic replacement with heterologous gene expression, we show that SpyCEP is necessary and sufficient for IL-8 degradation. SpyCEP decreased IL-8-dependent neutrophil endothelial transmigration and bacterial killing, the latter by reducing neutrophil extracellular trap formation. The knockout mutant lacking SpyCEP was attenuated for virulence in murine infection models, and SpyCEP expression conferred protection to coinfecting bacteria. We also show that the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus iniae possesses a functional homolog of SpyCEP (Cepl) that cleaves IL-8, promotes neutrophil resistance, and contributes to virulence. By inactivating the multifunctional host defense peptide IL-8, the SpyCEP protease impairs neutrophil clearance mechanisms, contributing to the pathogenesis of invasive streptococcal infection. PMID:18692776

  3. The digital ASIC for the digital front end electronics of the SPI astrophysics gamma-ray experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, E.; Mur, M.; Schanne, S.

    1998-01-01

    The SPI spectrometer is one of the gamma-ray astronomy instruments that will be installed on the ESA INTEGRAL satellite, intended to be launched in 2001 by the European Space Agency. The Digital Front-End Electronics sub-system (DFEE) is in charge of the real time data processing of the various measurements produced by the Germanium (Ge) detectors and the Bismuth Germanate (BGO) anti-coincidence shield. The central processing unit of the DFEE is implemented in a digital ASIC circuit, which provides the real time association of the various time signals, acquires the associated energy measurements, and classifies the various types of physics events. The paper gives the system constraints of the DFEE, the architecture of the ASIC circuit, the technology requirements, and the strategy for test and integration. Emphasis is given to the high level language development and simulation, the automatic circuit synthesis approach, and the performance estimation

  4. Crosstalk between virulence loci: regulation of Salmonella enterica pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) by products of the std fimbrial operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Garrido, Javier; Casadesús, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells is a critical step in Salmonella infection and requires the expression of genes located in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). A key factor for SPI-1 expression is DNA adenine (Dam) methylation, which activates synthesis of the SPI-1 transcriptional activator HilD. Dam-dependent regulation of hilD is postranscriptional (and therefore indirect), indicating the involvement of unknown cell functions under Dam methylation control. A genetic screen has identified the std fimbrial operon as the missing link between Dam methylation and SPI-1. We show that all genes in the std operon are part of a single transcriptional unit, and describe three previously uncharacterized ORFs (renamed stdD, stdE, and stdF). We present evidence that two such loci (stdE and stdF) are involved in Dam-dependent control of Salmonella SPI-1: in a Dam(-) background, deletion of stdE or stdF suppresses SPI-1 repression; in a Dam(+) background, constitutive expression of StdE and/or StdF represses SPI-1. Repression of SPI-1 by products of std operon explains the invasion defect of Salmonella Dam(-) mutants, which constitutively express the std operon. Dam-dependent repression of std in the ileum may be required to permit invasion, as indicated by two observations: constitutive expression of StdE and StdF reduces invasion of epithelial cells in vitro (1,000 fold) and attenuates Salmonella virulence in the mouse model (>60 fold). In turn, crosstalk between std and SPI-1 may play a role in intestinal infections by preventing expression of SPI-1 in the caecum, an intestinal compartment in which the std operon is known to be expressed.

  5. The zebrafish spi1 promoter drives myeloid-specific expression in stable transgenic fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, AC; McPhee, DO; Condron, MM; Varma, S; Cody, SH; Onnebo, SMN; Paw, BH; Zon, LI; Lieschke, GJ

    2003-01-01

    The spi1 (pu.1) gene has recently been identified as a useful marker of early myeloid cells in zebrafish. To enhance the versatility of this organism as a model for studying myeloid development, the promoter of this gene has been isolated and characterized. Transient transgenesis revealed that a 5.3

  6. A novel approach for modelling the cluster detector and the SPI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    detectors and for performing experimental studies with the SPI spectrometer for high-energy γ -rays. Keywords. ... corresponds to the complete absorption of incident γ energy and gets contributions from. Pramana – J. Phys. ..... For a γ-ray of energy Eγ , let us first define the ratio of the single-detector hit events to the total full ...

  7. Assessment Tools as Drivers for SPI: Short-term Benefits and Long-term Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mûller, Sune Dueholm; Nørbjerg, Jacob; Cho, Hiu Ngan

    2007-01-01

    Full scale software process maturity assessments are costly, can have large organizational impact, and are carried out at long (12-24 months) intervals. Consequently, there is a need for techniques and tools to monitor and help manage an SPI project through inexpensive, ongoing progress assessmen...

  8. Google and the "Twisted Cyber Spy" Affair: US-Chinese Communication in an Age of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Stephen John

    2011-01-01

    The "twisted cyber spy" affair began in 2010, when Google was attacked by Chinese cyber-warriors charged with stealing Google's intellectual property, planting viruses in its computers, and hacking the accounts of Chinese human rights activists. In the ensuing international embroglio, the US mainstream press, corporate leaders, and White…

  9. The evaluation of scientific monograph and publisher's role: the spanish project Scholarly Publishers Indicators (SPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Capaccioni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the issue about the quality assessment of scientific monograph and the role of publishers in the field of Humanities and Social Sciences, focusing on the Spanish project Scholarly Publishers Indicators (SPI. This project was born to identify and explore specific quality indicators for scientific books, starting from the opinion of SSH Spanish experts.

  10. CWI cryptanalyst discovers new cryptographic attack variant in Flame spy malware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. Stevens (Marc); R.J.F. Cramer (Ronald)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractCryptanalyst Marc Stevens from the Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) in Amsterdam, known for breaking the https security in 2008 using a cryptanalytic attack on MD5, analyzed the recent Flame virus this week. He discovered that for this spy malware an as yet unknown cryptographic

  11. Integration of a complex regulatory cascade involving the SirA/BarA and Csr global regulatory systems that controls expression of the Salmonella SPI-1 and SPI-2 virulence regulons through HilD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Luary C; Yakhnin, Helen; Camacho, Martha I; Georgellis, Dimitris; Babitzke, Paul; Puente, José L; Bustamante, Víctor H

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) play key roles in the pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica. Previously, we showed that when Salmonella grows in Luria-Bertani medium, HilD, encoded in SPI-1, first induces the expression of hilA, located in SPI-1, and subsequently of the ssrAB operon, located in SPI-2. These genes code for HilA and the SsrA/B two-component system, the positive regulators of the SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulons respectively. In this study, we demonstrate that CsrA, a global regulatory RNA binding protein, post-transcriptionally regulates hilD expression by directly binding near the Shine-Dalgarno and translation initiation codon sequences of the hilD mRNA, preventing its translation and leading to its accelerated turnover. Negative regulation is counteracted by the global SirA/BarA two-component system, which directly activates the expression of CsrB and CsrC, two non-coding regulatory RNAs that sequester CsrA, thereby preventing it from binding to its target mRNAs. Our results illustrate the integration of global and specific regulators into a multifactorial regulatory cascade controlling the expression of virulence genes acquired by horizontal transfer events. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler supplementary testing - AEAT doc 2926-2-002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REICH, F.R.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of cold testing, completed by AEAT, as part of the proof-of-principle testing for a proposed nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampling system. This sampling system will provide waste samples from the PHMC feed tank to support the privatization contract with BNFL. Proof-of-principle tests were completed with 2 wt% and 10 wt% sand/water and 25 wt% kaolin clay/water simulants with a test setup that spanned the 24 ft to 57 ft height required in the feed tank. The tests demonstrated that the system could pump and sample waste materials with low and with high solids content. In addition, the tests demonstrated a need for some design upgrades to the sampling system, as there was material loss when the sample bottle was removed from the sampling needle. These were complementary tests, completed as part of an EM-50 Tank Focus Area (TFA) to develop a sampling system for validating LAW and HLW waste batches for the Privatization Contract

  13. Nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler supplementary testing - AEAT doc 2926-2-002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REICH, F.R.

    1999-03-11

    This report summarizes the results of cold testing, completed by AEAT, as part of the proof-of-principle testing for a proposed nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampling system. This sampling system will provide waste samples from the PHMC feed tank to support the privatization contract with BNFL. Proof-of-principle tests were completed with 2 wt% and 10 wt% sand/water and 25 wt% kaolin clay/water simulants with a test setup that spanned the 24 ft to 57 ft height required in the feed tank. The tests demonstrated that the system could pump and sample waste materials with low and with high solids content. In addition, the tests demonstrated a need for some design upgrades to the sampling system, as there was material loss when the sample bottle was removed from the sampling needle. These were complementary tests, completed as part of an EM-50 Tank Focus Area (TFA) to develop a sampling system for validating LAW and HLW waste batches for the Privatization Contract.

  14. Topology Engineering of Proteins in Vivo Using Genetically Encoded, Mechanically Interlocking SpyX Modules for Enhanced Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Wu, Wen-Hao; Liu, Ya-Jie; Wu, Xia-Ling; Cao, Yang; Song, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Wen-Bin

    2017-05-24

    Recombinant proteins are traditionally limited to linear configuration. Herein, we report in vivo protein topology engineering using highly efficient, mechanically interlocking SpyX modules named AXB and BXA. SpyX modules are protein domains composed of p53dim (X), SpyTag (A), and SpyCatcher (B). The p53dim guides the intertwining of the two nascent protein chains followed by autocatalytic isopeptide bond formation between SpyTag and SpyCatcher to fulfill the interlocking, leading to a variety of backbone topologies. Direct expression of AXB or BXA produces protein catenanes with distinct ring sizes. Recombinant proteins containing SpyX modules are obtained either as mechanically interlocked obligate dimers if the protein of interest is fused to the N- or C-terminus of SpyX modules, or as star proteins if the protein is fused to both N- and C-termini. As examples, cellular syntheses of dimers of (GB1) 2 (where GB1 stands for immunoglobulin-binding domain B1 of streptococcal protein G) and of four-arm elastin-like star proteins were demonstrated. Comparison of the catenation efficiencies in different constructs reveals that BXA is generally much more effective than AXB, which is rationalized by the arrangement of three domains in space. Mechanical interlocking induces considerable stability enhancement. Both AXB and BXA have a melting point ∼20 °C higher than the linear controls and the BXA catenane has a melting point ~2 °C higher than the cyclic control BX'A. Notably, four-arm elastin-like star proteins demonstrate remarkable tolerance against trypsin digestion. The SpyX modules provide a convenient and versatile approach to construct unconventional protein topologies via the "assembly-reaction" synergy, which opens a new horizon in protein science for stability enhancement and function reinforcement via topology engineering.

  15. Pore Water Extraction Test Near 241-SX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Parker, Danny L.; Tabor, Cynthia L.; Holm, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    A proof-of-principle test is underway near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. The test will evaluate a potential remediation technology that will use tank farm-deployable equipment to remove contaminated pore water from vadose zone soils. The test system was designed and built to address the constraints of working within a tank farm. Due to radioactive soil contamination and limitations in drilling near tanks, small-diameter direct push drilling techniques applicable to tank farms are being utilized for well placement. To address space and weight limitations in working around tanks and obstacles within tank farms, the above ground portions of the test system have been constructed to allow deployment flexibility. The test system utilizes low vacuum over a sealed well screen to establish flow into an extraction well. Extracted pore water is collected in a well sump,and then pumped to the surface using a small-diameter bladder pump.If pore water extraction using this system can be successfully demonstrated, it may be possible to target local contamination in the vadose zone around underground storage tanks. It is anticipated that the results of this proof-of-principle test will support future decision making regarding interim and final actions for soil contamination within the tank farms

  16. Design of the SPI interface of 10-gigabit ethernet with FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Liu, Zhao; Su, Li; Jin, Depeng; Zeng, Lieguang

    2005-02-01

    Due to its low cost and packet data efficiency, Ethernet has been one of the most influential technologies for Local Area Networks (LAN). Moreover, the 10-Gigabit Ethernet has begun to move Ethernet from the LAN out to encompass the metro area network. The technology features, protocol architecture and the frame format are introduced. In order to realize the logical boundary between the physical layer and the link layer, the protocol of SPI (System Packet Interface) level4 is adopted. A method of realizing the SPI interface of 10-Gigabit Ethernet is put forward and the function block diagram is presented. In order to reduce the power waste of the chip, the parallel algorithm is chosen in the design.

  17. Spatial and temporal analysis of drought in greece using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livada, I.; Assimakopoulos, V. D.

    2007-07-01

    In the present study the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to detect drought events in spatial and temporal basis. Using monthly precipitation data from 23 stations well spread over Greece and for a period of 51 years, a classification of drought is performed, based on its intensity and duration. Results indicate that, mild and moderate droughts reduce from north to south and from west to east on the 3- and 6-months time scale, while for the class of severe drought, the frequencies in the southern part of Greece are higher than in the other parts of the country. Furthermore the frequency of occurrence of severe and extreme drought conditions is very low over the whole Greek territory on the 12-month running time scale. Finally SPI was compared to the “de Martonne aridity index (I)” and a satisfactory correlation between them was found.

  18. Environmental sensing by mature B cells is controlled by the transcription factors PU.1 and SpiB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Simon N; Tellier, Julie; Liao, Yang; Trezise, Stephanie; Light, Amanda; O'Donnell, Kristy; Garrett-Sinha, Lee Ann; Shi, Wei; Tarlinton, David M; Nutt, Stephen L

    2017-11-10

    Humoral immunity requires B cells to respond to multiple stimuli, including antigen, membrane and soluble ligands, and microbial products. Ets family transcription factors regulate many aspects of haematopoiesis, although their functions in humoral immunity are difficult to decipher as a result of redundancy between the family members. Here we show that mice lacking both PU.1 and SpiB in mature B cells do not generate germinal centers and high-affinity antibody after protein immunization. PU.1 and SpiB double-deficient B cells have a survival defect after engagement of CD40 or Toll-like receptors (TLR), despite paradoxically enhanced plasma cell differentiation. PU.1 and SpiB regulate the expression of many components of the B cell receptor signaling pathway and the receptors for CD40L, BAFF and TLR ligands. Thus, PU.1 and SpiB enable B cells to appropriately respond to environmental cues.

  19. In the Service of Empire: Imperialism and the British Spy Thriller, 1901-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    hero, celebrated in novels, paintings, and music . Kipling was in Simla with Roberts when the Penjdeh Incident occurred—a moment when war with Russia...mention the difficulties of gathering intelligence before an insurrec- tion broke out, meant that the army was a vital instrument in maintaining...Though others had muscled in on the genre , le Queux ulti- mately trumped them all with Spies of the Kaiser. Published in 1909, and preceded by an

  20. The Spy in the Sandbox: Practical Cache Attacks in JavaScript and their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-16

    The Spy in the Sandbox: Practical Cache Attacks in JavaScript and their Implications Yossef Oren Vasileios P. Kemerlis Simha Sethumadhavan Angelos D...security General Terms Languages, Measurement, Security Keywords side-channel attacks; cache-timing attacks; JavaScript -based cache attacks; covert...more detail in Section 3, executes a JavaScript - based cache attack, which lets the attacker track accesses to the victim’s last-level cache over

  1. Development of SPIES (Space Intelligent Eyeing System) for smart vehicle tracing and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Suzanah; Ariffin Osoman, Muhammad; Guan Liyong, Chua; Zulfadhli Mohd Noor, Mohd; Mohamed, Ikhwan

    2016-06-01

    SPIES or Space-based Intelligent Eyeing System is an intelligent technology which can be utilized for various applications such as gathering spatial information of features on Earth, tracking system for the movement of an object, tracing system to trace the history information, monitoring driving behavior, security and alarm system as an observer in real time and many more. SPIES as will be developed and supplied modularly will encourage the usage based on needs and affordability of users. SPIES are a complete system with camera, GSM, GPS/GNSS and G-Sensor modules with intelligent function and capabilities. Mainly the camera is used to capture pictures and video and sometimes with audio of an event. Its usage is not limited to normal use for nostalgic purpose but can be used as a reference for security and material of evidence when an undesirable event such as crime occurs. When integrated with space based technology of the Global Navigational Satellite System (GNSS), photos and videos can be recorded together with positioning information. A product of the integration of these technologies when integrated with Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) and Geographic Information System (GIS) will produce innovation in the form of information gathering methods in still picture or video with positioning information that can be conveyed in real time via the web to display location on the map hence creating an intelligent eyeing system based on space technology. The importance of providing global positioning information is a challenge but overcome by SPIES even in areas without GNSS signal reception for the purpose of continuous tracking and tracing capability

  2. Gas cooled fast reactor control rod drive mechanism deceleration unit. Test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, T.H.

    1981-10-01

    This report presents the results of the airtesting portion of the proof-of-principle testing of a Control Rod Scram Deceleration Device developed for use in the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). The device utilizes a grooved flywheel to decelerate the translating assembly (T/A). Two cam followers on the translating assembly travel in the flywheel grooves and transfer the energy of the T/A to the flywheel. The grooves in the flywheel are straight for most of the flywheel length. Near the bottom of the T/A stroke the grooves are spiraled in a decreasing slope helix so that the cam followers accelerate the flywheel as they transfer the energy of the falling T/A. To expedite proof-of-principle testing, some of the materials used in the fabrication of certain test article components were not prototypic. With these exceptions the concept appears to be acceptable. The initial test of 300 scrams was completed with only one failure and the failure was that of a non-prototypic cam follower outer sleeve material

  3. Proof-of-principle experiment of a shock-induced combustion ramjet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraar, R.G.; Mayer, A.E.H.J.; Verreault, J.; Stowe, R.A.; Farinaccio, R.; Harris, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    By injecting and mixing the fuel upstream of the combustor and initiating the combustion of the fuel-air mixture by a shock wave in the combustor, shock-induced combustion ramjets offer the potential to drastically reduce the length and mass of scramjet propulsion systems. Based on extensive

  4. Proof-of-principle experiment of a shock-induced combustion ramjet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraar, R.G.; Mayer, A.E.H.J.; Verreault, J.; Stowe, R.A.; Farinaccio, R.; Harris, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    By injecting and mixing the fuel upstream of the combustor and initiating the combustion of the fuel-air mixture by a shock wave in the combustor, shock-induced combustion ramjets offer the potential to drastically reduce the length and mass of scramjet propulsion systems. Based on extensive

  5. The fluorine-iminium ion gauche effect: proof of principle and application to asymmetric organocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparr, Christof; Schweizer, W Bernd; Senn, Hans Martin; Gilmour, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The gauche effect that is induced upon reversible formation of an iminium ion (see structure: green F, blue N) provides a powerful method for the preorganization of transient intermediates that are central to secondary amine catalyzed processes. This phenomenon has been exploited in the design of a novel organocatalyst and is showcased in the stereoselective epoxidation of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes.

  6. A proof-of-principle for frequency-domain vibration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobley, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The economic and regulatory pressures on operating utilities to improve efficiency, availability, and reliability and to extend the effective operating life of existing electric power generating plants have created a real need for instrumentation, systems, and programs that can monitor, analyze, and provide the means to correct incipient machine and process problems. Predictive maintenance programs, properly utilized, can be one key to achieving these goals. Recent developments in microprocessor technology have provided the ability to routinely monitor the actual mechanical condition of all rotating and reciprocating machinery and process variables (i.e., pressure, temperature, flow, etc.) of other process equipment within an operating electric power generating plant. This direct correlation between frequency-domain vibration and actual mechanical condition of machinery and trending process variables of nonrotating equipment can provide the key to improving availability, reliability, and thermal efficiency and can provide the baseline information necessary for developing a realistic plan for extending the useful life of power plants. The premise of utilizing microprocessor-based predictive maintenance to improve power plant operation has been proven by a number of utilities

  7. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume VIII. Device utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, D.T.

    1982-02-26

    This report describes the activities conducted during the Preliminary Design Period for the Device Utilities Systems. All GAI preliminary specifications, drawings, and reports (listed in Section 4.0) have been transmitted to ORNL for review and approval. Device Utility Systems Descriptions are also presented in Section 4.0. The GAI Device Enclosure Gamma Radiation Analysis is presented in Appendix B. Pending design criteria revisions are described in Section 6.0. A type B Change Notice Request (CNR) has been transmitted to GAI. The Type B CNR authorizes cost and schedule assessment for each revision identified. Formal Proposed Design Changes (PDC's) will be provided to ORNL when this data is available.

  8. Placebo in sports nutrition: a proof-of-principle study involving caffeine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, B; de Oliveira, L F; da Silva, R P; de Salles Painelli, V; Gonçalves, L S; Yamaguchi, G; Mutti, T; Maciel, E; Roschel, H; Artioli, G G; Gualano, B

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the effects of supplement identification on exercise performance with caffeine supplementation. Forty-two trained cyclists (age 37 ± 8 years, body mass [BM] 74.3 ± 8.4 kg, height 1.76 ± 0.06 m, maximum oxygen uptake 50.0 ± 6.8 mL/kg/min) performed a ~30 min cycling time-trial 1 h following either 6 mg/kgBM caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA) supplementation and one control (CON) session without supplementation. Participants identified which supplement they believed they had ingested ("caffeine", "placebo", "don't know") pre- and post-exercise. Subsequently, participants were allocated to subgroups for analysis according to their identifications. Overall and subgroup analyses were performed using mixed-model and magnitude-based inference analyses. Caffeine improved performance vs PLA and CON (P ≤ 0.001). Correct pre- and post-exercise identification of caffeine in CAF improved exercise performance (+4.8 and +6.5%) vs CON, with slightly greater relative increases than the overall effect of caffeine (+4.1%). Performance was not different between PLA and CON within subgroups (all P > 0.05), although there was a tendency toward improved performance when participants believed they had ingested caffeine post-exercise (P = 0.06; 87% likely beneficial). Participants who correctly identified placebo in PLA showed possible harmful effects on performance compared to CON. Supplement identification appeared to influence exercise outcome and may be a source of bias in sports nutrition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Report on the Concept Review Committee recommendations for proof-of-principle alternate concept programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The report is organized as follows: Section II contains a discussion of the meeting procedures used on October 16--18, 1978, and the rules employed for technical consultants and advisors to the CRC. Section III contains a discussion of the CRC recommendations and some of the factors taken into consideration by the Committee. Section IV briefly discusses where do we go from here in DOE's alternate concepts program

  10. Conductive plastic film electrodes for Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment : A proof of principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.; Haan, S.W.H. de; Boxtel, L.B.J. van; Hatt, V.; Wouters, P.C.; Coronel, P.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment of food needs to be performed prior to packaging, either hygienic or aseptic packaging is necessary. New techniques for PEF treatment after packaging can be considered when plastic conductive (film) electrodes can be integrated within the package, so

  11. Proof-of-Principle Experiment of a Shock-Induced Combustion Ramjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    vitesse elevee : Conception du moteur - integration et gestion thermique ) 14. ABSTRACT By injecting and mixing the fuel upstream of the combustor...was performed to verify the structural behavior of the injector during a typical experiment. Using the FLUENT predicted heat transfer coefficient on

  12. Epigenotyping in peripheral blood cell DNA and breast cancer risk: a proof of principle study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Widschwendter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epigenetic changes are emerging as one of the most important events in carcinogenesis. Two alterations in the pattern of DNA methylation in breast cancer (BC have been previously reported; active estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha is associated with decreased methylation of ER-alpha target (ERT genes, and polycomb group target (PCGT genes are more likely than other genes to have promoter DNA hypermethylation in cancer. However, whether DNA methylation in normal unrelated cells is associated with BC risk and whether these imprints can be related to factors which can be modified by the environment, is unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using quantitative methylation analysis in a case-control study (n = 1,083 we found that DNA methylation of peripheral blood cell DNA provides good prediction of BC risk. We also report that invasive ductal and invasive lobular BC is characterized by two different sets of genes, the latter particular by genes involved in the differentiation of the mesenchyme (PITX2, TITF1, GDNF and MYOD1. Finally we demonstrate that only ERT genes predict ER positive BC; lack of peripheral blood cell DNA methylation of ZNF217 predicted BC independent of age and family history (odds ratio 1.49; 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.97; P = 0.006 and was associated with ER-alpha bioactivity in the corresponding serum. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This first large-scale epigenotyping study demonstrates that DNA methylation may serve as a link between the environment and the genome. Factors that can be modulated by the environment (like estrogens leave an imprint in the DNA of cells that are unrelated to the target organ and indicate the predisposition to develop a cancer. Further research will need to demonstrate whether DNA methylation profiles will be able to serve as a new tool to predict the risk of developing chronic diseases with sufficient accuracy to guide preventive measures.

  13. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume IX. Support structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlee, J.L.

    1982-02-26

    The EBT-P support structure provides structural support for the 36 mirror coil magnets, magnet protection system, the toroidal vessel, and much of the device ancillary equipment. The structure is comprised of a primary support and a superstructure. The primary support is a reinforced concrete ring located directly inboard of the torus and is supported by nine columns. The toroidal vessel and the mirror coil magnets are cantilevered from the ring with the centerline of the torus located eight feet above the floor. The superstructure is an aluminum truss structure that rests on the concrete ring. The superstructure provides support for the device ancillary equipment. Engineering drawings of the support structure are given.

  14. A Proof-of-Principle Echo-enabled Harmonic Generation Free Electron Laser Experiment at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernet, Pierre-Louis [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-06-24

    With the advent of X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs), new methods have been developed to extend capabilities at short wavelengths beyond Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE). In particular, seeding of a FEL allows for temporal control of the radiation pulse and increases the peak brightness by orders of magnitude. Most recently, Gennady Stupakov and colleagues at SLAC proposed a new technique: Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG). Here a laser microbunches the beam in an undulator and the beam is sheared in a chicane. This process is repeated with a second laser, undulator and chicane. The interplay between these allows a seeding of the X-ray laser up to the 100th harmonic of the first laser. After introducing the physics of FELs and the EEHG seeding technique, we describe contributions to the experimental effort. We will present detailed studies of the experiment including the choice of parameters and their optimization, the emittance effect, spontaneous emission in the undulators, the second laser phase effect, and measurements of the jitter between RF stations. Finally, the status and preliminary results of the Echo-7 experiment will be outlined.

  15. Mathematical and empirical proof of principle for an on-body personal lift augmentation device (PLAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli-Eramaki, Mohammad; Stevenson, Joan M; Reid, Susan A; Bryant, Timothy J

    2007-01-01

    In our laboratory, we have developed a prototype of a personal lift augmentation device (PLAD) that can be worn by workers during manual handling tasks involving lifting or lowering or static holding in symmetric and asymmetric postures. Our concept was to develop a human-speed on-body assistive device that would reduce the required lumbar moment by 20-30% without negative consequences on other joints or lifting kinematics. This paper provides mathematical proof using simplified free body diagrams and two-dimensional moment balance equations. Empirical proof is also provided based on lifting trials with nine male subjects who executed sagittal plane lifts using three lifting styles (stoop, squat, free) and three different loads (5, 15, and 25kg) under two conditions (PLAD, No-PLAD). Nine Fastrak sensors and six in-line strap force sensors were used to estimate the reduction of compressive and shear forces on L4/L5 as well as estimate the forces transferred to the shoulders and knees. Depending on lifting technique, the PLAD applied an added 23-36Nm of torque to assist the back muscles during lifting tasks. The peak pelvic girdle contact forces were estimated and their magnitudes ranged from 221.3+/-11.2N for stoop lifting, 324.3+/-17.2N for freestyle lifts to 468.47+/-23.2N for squat lifting. The PLAD was able to reduce the compression and shear forces about 23-29% and 7.9-8.5%, respectively.

  16. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume II. Toroidal vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Toroidal Vessel provides the vacuum enclosure for containing the high temperature steady state plasma. In addition, the Toroidal Vessel must provide several viewing ports for plasma diagnostics, vacuum pumping ports for both high vacuum and roughing vacuum, feed-through ports for ECRH waveguides, limiter feed throughs for cooling and supporting the limiters, and ports for ion gages. The vessel must operate in an intense environment comprised of x-rays, microwaves, magnetic fields and plasma heat loads as well as the atmosphere pressure and gravity loads and the internal thermal stress loads due to heating and cooling of the torus. A key issue addressed was the choice of vacuum vessel seal and wall materials. In addition, during the course of the study, ORNL requested that horsecollar diagnostic ports be incorporated in the design. A comprehensive trade study was performed considering the vessel material issues in concert with the impact of the horsecollar port design. A change in baseline from an aluminum vessel with elastomer seals and circular diagnostic ports to austenitic stainless steel vessel with metal seals and horsecollar ports was agreed upon by both MDAC and ORNL towards the end of Title I

  17. Shutting down sensorimotor interferences after stroke: A proof-of-principle SMR neurofeedback study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Louise Reichert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neurofeedback training aims at learning self-regulation of brain activity underlying cognitive, emotional or physiological functions. Despite of promising investigations on neurofeedback as a tool for cognitive rehabilitation in neurological diseases, such as after stroke, there is still a lack of research on feasibility and efficiency of neurofeedback in this field. Methods: The present study aimed at investigating behavioral and electrophysiological effects of 10 sessions of sensorimotor rhythm (SMR neurofeedback in a 74-year-old stroke patient (UG20. Based on previous results in healthy young participants, we hypothesized that SMR neurofeedback leads to a decrease in sensorimotor interferences and improved stimulus processing, reflected by changes in event-related potentials and electrophysiological coherence. To assess whether UG20 benefited from the training as much as healthy persons of a similar age, a healthy control group of N = 10 elderly persons was trained as well. Before and after neurofeedback training, participants took part in a multichannel EEG measurement conducted during a nonverbal and a verbal learning task. Results: Both UG20 and the healthy controls were able to regulate their SMR activity during neurofeedback training. Moreover, in a nonverbal learning task, changes in event-related potentials and coherence were observed after training: UG20 showed a better performance in the nonverbal learning task and a higher P3 amplitude after training than before, and coherence between central and parietal electrodes decreased after training. The control group also showed a behavioral improvement in the nonverbal learning task and tendencies for higher P3 amplitudes and decreased central-parietal coherence after training. Single-case analyses indicated that the changes observed in UG20 were not smaller than the changes in healthy controls. Conclusions: Neurofeedback can be successfully applied in a stroke patient and in healthy elderly persons. We suggest that SMR neurofeedback leads to a shutting-down of sensorimotor interferences which benefits semantic encoding and retrieval.

  18. Cellular telephones measure activity and lifespace in community-dwelling adults: proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Ana Katrin; Witbrodt, Bradley C; Hoarty, Carrie A; Carlson, Richard H; Goulding, Evan H; Potter, Jane F; Bonasera, Stephen J

    2011-02-01

    To describe a system that uses off-the-shelf sensor and telecommunication technologies to continuously measure individual lifespace and activity levels in a novel way. Proof of concept involving three field trials of 30, 30, and 21 days. Omaha, Nebraska, metropolitan and surrounding rural region. Three participants (48-year-old man, 33-year-old woman, and 27-year-old male), none with any functional limitations. Cellular telephones were used to detect in-home position and in-community location and to measure physical activity. Within the home, cellular telephones and Bluetooth transmitters (beacons) were used to locate participants at room-level resolution. Outside the home, the same cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) technology were used to locate participants at a community-level resolution. Physical activity was simultaneously measured using the cellular telephone accelerometer. This approach had face validity to measure activity and lifespace. More importantly, this system could measure the spatial and temporal organization of these metrics. For example, an individual's lifespace was automatically calculated across multiple time intervals. Behavioral time budgets showing how people allocate time to specific regions within the home were also automatically generated. Mobile monitoring shows much promise as an easily deployed system to quantify activity and lifespace, important indicators of function, in community-dwelling adults. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume VIII. Device utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the activities conducted during the Preliminary Design Period for the Device Utilities Systems. All GAI preliminary specifications, drawings, and reports (listed in Section 4.0) have been transmitted to ORNL for review and approval. Device Utility Systems Descriptions are also presented in Section 4.0. The GAI Device Enclosure Gamma Radiation Analysis is presented in Appendix B. Pending design criteria revisions are described in Section 6.0. A type B Change Notice Request (CNR) has been transmitted to GAI. The Type B CNR authorizes cost and schedule assessment for each revision identified. Formal Proposed Design Changes (PDC's) will be provided to ORNL when this data is available

  20. Proof of Principle for Active Detection of Fissionable Material Using Intense, Pulsed-Bremsstrahlung-Induced Photofission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-07

    reasonable approximation, is presently being investigated using neutron detection data taken from a Van de Graaff accelerator. The large event-number...bremsstrahlung from the Naval Research Laboratory Mercury pulsed-power generator (200-kA peak current, 50-ns pulse width) induces photofission in...single pulse is generally termed intense, pulsed, active detection (IPAD).15 The high-power electrical pulse is used to create a short (~ 100 ns

  1. Human genetics of infectious diseases: between proof of principle and paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaïs, Alexandre; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2009-01-01

    The observation that only a fraction of individuals infected by infectious agents develop clinical disease raises fundamental questions about the actual pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Epidemiological and experimental evidence is accumulating to suggest that human genetics plays a major role in this process. As we discuss here, human predisposition to infectious diseases seems to cover a continuous spectrum from monogenic to polygenic inheritance. Although many studies have provided proo...

  2. A proof-of-principle experiment of a novel harmonics separation optics for synchrotron facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Mikulík, P.; Hrdý, Jaromír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 6 (2012), s. 1012-1014 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : harmonics separation * diffractive-refractive optics * nclined geometry Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.186, year: 2012

  3. Nonpharmacologic Approach to Minimizing Shivering During Surface Cooling: A Proof of Principle Study1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirav G.; Cowan, Mark J.; Pickering, Edward; Sareh, Houtan; Afshar, Majid; Fox, Dawn; Marron, Jennifer; Davis, Jennifer; Herold, Keith; Shanholtz, Carl B.; Hasday, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study had two objectives: (1) to quantify the metabolic response to physical cooling in febrile patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS); and (2) to provide proof for the hypothesis that the efficiency of external cooling and the subsequent shivering response are influenced by site and temperature of surface cooling pads. Methods To quantify shivering thermogenesis during surface cooling for fever, we monitored oxygen consumption (VO2) in six febrile patients with SIRS during conventional cooling with cooling blankets and ice packs. To begin to determine how location and temperature of surface cooling influences shivering, we compared 5 cooling protocols for inducing mild hypothermia in six healthy volunteers. Results In the SIRS patients, core temperature decreased 0.67°C per hour, all patients shivered, VO2 increased 57.6% and blood pressure increased 15% during cooling. In healthy subjects, cooling with the 10°C vest was most comfortable and removed heat most efficiently without shivering or VO2 increase. Cooling with combined vest and thigh pads stimulated the most shivering and highest VO2, and increased core temperature. Reducing vest temperature from 10°C to 5°C failed to increase heat removal secondary to cutaneous vasoconstriction. Capsaicin, an agonist for TRPV1 warm-sensing channels, partially reversed this effect in 5 subjects. Conclusions Our results identify the hazards of surface cooling in febrile critically ill patients and support the concept that optimization of cooling pad temperature and position may improve cooling efficiency and reduce shivering. PMID:22762936

  4. Nonpharmacologic approach to minimizing shivering during surface cooling: a proof of principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirav G; Cowan, Mark J; Pickering, Edward; Sareh, Houtan; Afshar, Majid; Fox, Dawn; Marron, Jennifer; Davis, Jennifer; Herold, Keith; Shanholtz, Carl B; Hasday, Jeffrey D

    2012-12-01

    This study had 2 objectives: (1) to quantify the metabolic response to physical cooling in febrile patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and (2) to provide proof for the hypothesis that the efficiency of external cooling and the subsequent shivering response are influenced by site and temperature of surface cooling pads. To quantify shivering thermogenesis during surface cooling for fever, we monitored oxygen consumption (VO(2)) in 6 febrile patients with SIRS during conventional cooling with cooling blankets and ice packs. To begin to determine how location and temperature of surface cooling influence shivering, we compared 5 cooling protocols for inducing mild hypothermia in 6 healthy volunteers. In the patients with SIRS, core temperature decreased 0.67 °C per hour, all patients shivered, VO(2) increased 57.6%, and blood pressure increased 15% during cooling. In healthy subjects, cooling with the 10 °C vest was most comfortable and removed heat most efficiently without shivering or VO(2) increase. Cooling with combined vest and thigh pads stimulated the most shivering and highest VO(2) and increased core temperature. Reducing vest temperature from 10 °C to 5 °C failed to increase heat removal secondary to cutaneous vasoconstriction. Capsaicin, an agonist for the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) warm-sensing channels, partially reversed this effect in 5 subjects. Our results identify the hazards of surface cooling in febrile critically ill patients and support the concept that optimization of cooling pad temperature and position may improve cooling efficiency and reduce shivering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Minimal metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient anaerobic xylose fermentation: a proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Marko; Winkler, Aaron A; van Dijken, Johannes P; Pronk, Jack T

    2004-03-01

    When xylose metabolism in yeasts proceeds exclusively via NADPH-specific xylose reductase and NAD-specific xylitol dehydrogenase, anaerobic conversion of the pentose to ethanol is intrinsically impossible. When xylose reductase has a dual specificity for both NADPH and NADH, anaerobic alcoholic fermentation is feasible but requires the formation of large amounts of polyols (e.g., xylitol) to maintain a closed redox balance. As a result, the ethanol yield on xylose will be sub-optimal. This paper demonstrates that anaerobic conversion of xylose to ethanol, without substantial by-product formation, is possible in Saccharomyces cerevisiae when a heterologous xylose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.5) is functionally expressed. Transformants expressing the XylA gene from the anaerobic fungus Piromyces sp. E2 (ATCC 76762) grew in synthetic medium in shake-flask cultures on xylose with a specific growth rate of 0.005 h(-1). After prolonged cultivation on xylose, a mutant strain was obtained that grew aerobically and anaerobically on xylose, at specific growth rates of 0.18 and 0.03 h(-1), respectively. The anaerobic ethanol yield was 0.42 g ethanol x g xylose(-1) and also by-product formation was comparable to that of glucose-grown anaerobic cultures. These results illustrate that only minimal genetic engineering is required to recruit a functional xylose metabolic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Activities and/or regulatory properties of native S. cerevisiae gene products can subsequently be optimised via evolutionary engineering. These results provide a gateway towards commercially viable ethanol production from xylose with S. cerevisiae.

  6. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle. Phase II - title 1 report. Volume I. Device summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, D.W.

    1982-02-01

    This document presents a summary of the EBT-P Preliminary Design (Title I) effort. The work was performed, under the direction of ORNL, for the Department of Energy by MDAC-St. Louis. Major subcontractors assisting MDAC included General Dynamics for the magnet system, Gilbert Associates for the device utilities and facility architecture and engineering, and Lockheed - Oak Ridge for engineering support services. The Title I period of performance was from 1 October 1980 to 1 March 1982.

  7. 'Dialyzable' Carbosilane Dendrimers as Soluble Supports in Organic Synthesis: Proof of principle, application and diafiltration performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wander, M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the development of polystyrene as (insoluble) support for the synthesis of peptides by Merrifield in the 1960s, the application of supported synthesis in both industrial and academic research has increased. The introduction of dendrimers as supports solved many of the problems arising from the

  8. Proton-counting radiography for proton therapy: a proof of principle using CMOS APS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poludniowski, G.; Allinson, N. M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Esposito, M.; Green, S.; Manolopoulos, S.; Nieto-Camero, J.; Parker, D. J.; Price, T.; Evans, P. M.

    2014-06-01

    Despite the early recognition of the potential of proton imaging to assist proton therapy (Cormack 1963 J. Appl. Phys. 34 2722), the modality is still removed from clinical practice, with various approaches in development. For proton-counting radiography applications such as computed tomography (CT), the water-equivalent-path-length that each proton has travelled through an imaged object must be inferred. Typically, scintillator-based technology has been used in various energy/range telescope designs. Here we propose a very different alternative of using radiation-hard CMOS active pixel sensor technology. The ability of such a sensor to resolve the passage of individual protons in a therapy beam has not been previously shown. Here, such capability is demonstrated using a 36 MeV cyclotron beam (University of Birmingham Cyclotron, Birmingham, UK) and a 200 MeV clinical radiotherapy beam (iThemba LABS, Cape Town, SA). The feasibility of tracking individual protons through multiple CMOS layers is also demonstrated using a two-layer stack of sensors. The chief advantages of this solution are the spatial discrimination of events intrinsic to pixelated sensors, combined with the potential provision of information on both the range and residual energy of a proton. The challenges in developing a practical system are discussed.

  9. Proton-counting radiography for proton therapy: a proof of principle using CMOS APS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poludniowski, G; Esposito, M; Evans, P M; Allinson, N M; Anaxagoras, T; Green, S; Parker, D J; Price, T; Manolopoulos, S; Nieto-Camero, J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the early recognition of the potential of proton imaging to assist proton therapy (Cormack 1963 J. Appl. Phys. 34 2722), the modality is still removed from clinical practice, with various approaches in development. For proton-counting radiography applications such as computed tomography (CT), the water-equivalent-path-length that each proton has travelled through an imaged object must be inferred. Typically, scintillator-based technology has been used in various energy/range telescope designs. Here we propose a very different alternative of using radiation-hard CMOS active pixel sensor technology. The ability of such a sensor to resolve the passage of individual protons in a therapy beam has not been previously shown. Here, such capability is demonstrated using a 36 MeV cyclotron beam (University of Birmingham Cyclotron, Birmingham, UK) and a 200 MeV clinical radiotherapy beam (iThemba LABS, Cape Town, SA). The feasibility of tracking individual protons through multiple CMOS layers is also demonstrated using a two-layer stack of sensors. The chief advantages of this solution are the spatial discrimination of events intrinsic to pixelated sensors, combined with the potential provision of information on both the range and residual energy of a proton. The challenges in developing a practical system are discussed. (paper)

  10. Proton-counting radiography for proton therapy: a proof of principle using CMOS APS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poludniowski, G; Allinson, N M; Anaxagoras, T; Esposito, M; Green, S; Manolopoulos, S; Nieto-Camero, J; Parker, D J; Price, T; Evans, P M

    2014-06-07

    Despite the early recognition of the potential of proton imaging to assist proton therapy (Cormack 1963 J. Appl. Phys. 34 2722), the modality is still removed from clinical practice, with various approaches in development. For proton-counting radiography applications such as computed tomography (CT), the water-equivalent-path-length that each proton has travelled through an imaged object must be inferred. Typically, scintillator-based technology has been used in various energy/range telescope designs. Here we propose a very different alternative of using radiation-hard CMOS active pixel sensor technology. The ability of such a sensor to resolve the passage of individual protons in a therapy beam has not been previously shown. Here, such capability is demonstrated using a 36 MeV cyclotron beam (University of Birmingham Cyclotron, Birmingham, UK) and a 200 MeV clinical radiotherapy beam (iThemba LABS, Cape Town, SA). The feasibility of tracking individual protons through multiple CMOS layers is also demonstrated using a two-layer stack of sensors. The chief advantages of this solution are the spatial discrimination of events intrinsic to pixelated sensors, combined with the potential provision of information on both the range and residual energy of a proton. The challenges in developing a practical system are discussed.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the active second stage of labour: Proof of principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guettler, F.V.; Heinrich, A.; Rump, J.; Bucourt, M. de; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U.K.; Schnackenburg, B.; Bamberg, C.

    2012-01-01

    To prove that magnetic resonance imaging of foetal anatomy during the active second stage of vaginal delivery is feasible. Initially, five pregnant volunteers around the 30th week of gestation were examined in an open MRI. Based on the findings, one vaginal delivery was acquired under real-time imaging. To monitor the birth status during image acquisition, an MR-compatible wireless cardiotocography (CTG) system was built. Single-shot sequence parameters were optimised to compensate motion artefacts during labour. Safety requirements to monitor the birth process under real-time MR imaging were met. High-resolution MR images were acquired immediately before and after delivery. In one patient, TSE single-shot cinematic sequences of the active second stage of labour were obtained. All sequences were adapted to tolerate movement of the mother and infant, as well as residual noise from the CTG. Furthermore, the MR imaging during labour showed only minor image artefacts. CTG-monitored acquisition of MRI series during the active second stage of delivery is feasible. Image quality should allow various further studies to improve models for birth simulation as well as potential investigation of obstructed labour and obstetric complications. (orig.)

  12. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2011-09-01

    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  13. Power potential and the energy in the Spiš region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Michal

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is a short review of the energy power information about three districts: Spišská Nová Ves, Gelnica and Levoèa. These districts are parts of the county of Košice and Prešov. The contribution contains a summary of basic illustration information about the sources of energy and about a consumption of electric and heat energy in the area. In the area of the region, there is no standard thermal power station and no nuclear power station. From own sources of the region, there is especially a water energy. The majority of heat and electric energy, which is necessary in the region, comes from outside sources. The sources of power are situated in Spišská Nová Ves and Gelnica districts. The Levoèa district has no own source of energy.In the Spišská Nová Ves district, there is one industrial establishment, which produces the heat and electric energy for the own use and also for the export. With the exception of this one establishment, in Spišská district, there are 3 little hydro - electric power plants with the total installed power capacity 138 kW. And there is also one energy unit for the output of electricity and heat with the installed power capacity 400 kW. In the area of Gelnica, there is one hydro – electric power plant, in the water reservoir named Ružín. It has installed the power capacity 2x30 MW. There are also 7 little hydro - electric power plants with the total installed power capacity 528 kW and one energy unit for the output of electricity and heat with installed power capacity 1100 kW.The future development of own energy sources in the region is oriented to the exploitation of natural energy sources, especially to the water energy and energy from biological gas. There is project of using the biological gas for the power purpose from one dump in the Spišská Nová Ves district. It will be realised in the time period of 10 years. In all listed above districts measurements are realized, which will show if

  14. Microencapsulation of model oil in wall matrices consisting of SPI and maltodextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Rosenberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation can provide means to entrap, protect and deliver nutritional lipids and related compounds that are susceptible to deterioration. The encapsulation of high lipid loads represents a challenge. The research has investigated the encapsulation by spray drying of a model oil, at a core load of 25–60%, in wall systems consisting of 2.5–10% SPI and 17.5–10% maltodextrin. In general, core-in-wall-emulsions exhibited unimodal PSD and a mean particle diameter < 0.5 µm. Dry microcapsules ranged in diameter from about 5 to less than 50 µm and exhibited only a limited extent of surface indentation. Core domains, in the form of protein-coated droplets, were embedded throughout the wall matrices and no visible cracks connecting these domains with the environment could be detected. Core retention ranged from 72.2 to 95.9% and was significantly affected (p < 0.05 by a combined influence of wall composition and initial core load. Microencapsulation efficiency, MEE, ranged from 25.4 to 91.6% and from 12.4 to 91.4% after 5 and 30 min of extraction, respectively (p < 0.05. MEE was significantly influenced by wall composition, extraction time, initial core load and DE value of the maltodextrins. Results indicated that wall solutions containing as low as 2.5% SPI and 17.5% maltodextrin were very effective as microencapsulating agents for high oil load. Results highlighted the functionality of SPI as microencapsulating agent in food applications and indicated the importance of carefully designing the composition of core-in-wall-emulsions.

  15. MEJORA DE PROCESOS DE SOFTWARE ÁGIL CON AGILE - SPI PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR PARDO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivar la aplicación de proyectos de mejora de procesos en las empresas de desarrollo de software iberoamericanas, en su gran mayoría Micro, Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas Desarrolladoras de Software (MiPyMEs_DS es una necesidad imperante para la búsqueda de una industria de software que sea competitiva no solo en contextos regionales sino también internacionales. Los modelos internacionalmente reconocidos, representan alto riesgo en su aplicación para una MiPyMES_DS, esto debido quizá a su gran inversión en dinero, tiempo, recursos, difícil gestión, además de la complejidad de las recomendaciones y un retorno de la inversión a largo plazo. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar a Agile SPI - Process como un proceso de mejora de procesos basado principalmente en metodologías y principios ágiles, requerimientos livianos y adaptaciones de modelos internacionales. De la misma manera en el artículo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la implementación de Agile SPI - Process en varias MiPyMEs_DS de Iberoamérica y el sur occidente de Colombia.

  16. “Habits of employees”: smoking, spies, and shopfloor culture at Hammermill Paper Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    As cigarette smoking expanded dramatically during the early twentieth century, it brought more and more workers into conflict with the policies and demands of the manufacturers who employed them. As this paper shows, addiction to nicotine ignited daily struggles over workers’ shopfloor rights and the ability of employers to set rules, establish discipline, and monitor behavior. A specific set of records from the archives of the Hammermill Paper Company, a paper manufacturer once based in Erie, Pennsylvania, provide a unique opportunity to explore the impact of cigarette consumption on labor relations during the era of mass production, as two nosy factory spies probed and documented worker actions and attitudes in the summer of 1915. As a result of their intelligence gathering, the spies discovered a factory-wide work culture rooted in the addictive pleasure of cigarette smoke. This discovery worried them. Worker-smokers needed to dampen their hunger for nicotine with frequent, and often clandestine, breaks from work, typically in defiance of “no-smoking” rules, employer designations for the uses of factory space, and bosses’ demands for continuous production. Highlighting the intersections of the histories of labor, smoking, and addiction, this paper argues that cigarettes were a key battleground in workers’ and managers’ intensifying struggles over who really controlled the industrial shopfloor during the early 1900s.

  17. Soy Protein Isolate (SPI) feeding does not result in reproductive toxicity in the pre-pubertal rats testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In rodents, diets supplemented with pure soy isoflavones have estrogenic actions in the developing male reproductive tract. Few studies have examined the potential estrogenicity of soy protein isolate (SPI), the major soy component in soy-based infant formula, as opposed to pure isoflavones. In the ...

  18. Engineering a thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuit on SpiNNaker: a preliminary study towards modelling sleep and wakefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary study of a thalamo-cortico-thalamic (TCT implementation on SpiNNaker (Spiking Neural Network architecture, a brain inspired hardware platform designed to incorporate the inherent biological properties of parallelism, fault tolerance and energy efficiency. These attributes make SpiNNaker an ideal platform for simulating biologically plausible computational models. Our focus in this work is to design a TCT framework that can be simulated on SpiNNaker to mimic dynamical behaviour similar to Electroencephalogram (EEG time and power-spectra signatures in sleep-wake transition. The scale of the model is minimised for simplicity in this proof-of-concept study; thus the total number of spiking neurons is approximately 1000 and represents a `mini-column' of the thalamocortical tissue. All data on model structure, synaptic layout and parameters is inspired from previous studies and abstracted at a level that is appropriate to the aims of the current study as well as computationally suitable for model simulation on a small 4-chip SpiNNaker system. The initial results from selective deletion of synaptic connectivity parameters in the model show similarity with EEG time series characteristics of sleep and wakefulness. These observations provide a positive perspective and a basis for future implementation of a very large scale biologically plausible model of thalamo-cortico-thalamic interactivity---the essential brain circuit that regulates the biological sleep-wake cycle and associated EEG rhythms.

  19. Dam methylation regulates the expression of SPI-5-encoded sopB gene in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomodonato, Mónica N; Llana, Mariángeles Noto; Castañeda, María del Rosario Aya; Buzzola, Fernanda; García, Mauro D; Calderón, Marina Gallo; Sarnacki, Sebastián H; Cerquetti, María C

    2014-08-01

    DNA adenine methylation is an essential factor in Salmonella virulence. Here, we investigate the involvement of DNA adenine methylase (Dam) in the expression and translocation of a SPI-5-encoded effector of S. Typhimurium. SopB expression and secretion were determined using SopB-FLAG-tagged wild type and dam strains of S. Typhimurium. Western blot and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that the dam mutant expresses lower levels of SopB protein and sopB mRNA than the wild type strain under SPI-1 and SPI-2 inducing conditions in vitro. SopB secretion was also considerably impaired in the absence of dam. In agreement with in vitro experiments, SopB synthesis in dam mutants recovered from infected epithelial cells and from murine mesenteric lymph nodes was reduced by 40% respect to the wild type strain (p dam mutant. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in S. Typhimurium, Dam methylation modulates the expression and translocation of SPI-5-encoded SopB effector. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Discourse of simulacra in Kovacević's drama Balkan Spy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Snežana J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a reading of the famous Dušan Kovačević's drama Balkan Spy, contextualized by postulates of simulacra. The starting point for finding symbols that corresponded to the system of the non-referent world (and each such system creates its own reality, and proceeds from its own frame in which it must be interpreted is a book of Jean Baudrillard 'Simulacrum and Simulation'. Through chapters that accentuate simulacrum-like phenomena for proving the actual through imaginary and cloned, as well as defining the world of literary text as a kind of Disneyland, it becomes evident soundness of this idea that confirms the quality of this drama.

  1. Forecasting SPEI and SPI Drought Indices Using the Integrated Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maca, Petr; Pech, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The presented paper compares forecast of drought indices based on two different models of artificial neural networks. The first model is based on feedforward multilayer perceptron, sANN, and the second one is the integrated neural network model, hANN. The analyzed drought indices are the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI) and were derived for the period of 1948–2002 on two US catchments. The meteorological and hydrological data were obtained from MOPEX experiment. The training of both neural network models was made by the adaptive version of differential evolution, JADE. The comparison of models was based on six model performance measures. The results of drought indices forecast, explained by the values of four model performance indices, show that the integrated neural network model was superior to the feedforward multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer of neurons. PMID:26880875

  2. Forecasting SPEI and SPI Drought Indices Using the Integrated Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Maca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper compares forecast of drought indices based on two different models of artificial neural networks. The first model is based on feedforward multilayer perceptron, sANN, and the second one is the integrated neural network model, hANN. The analyzed drought indices are the standardized precipitation index (SPI and the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI and were derived for the period of 1948–2002 on two US catchments. The meteorological and hydrological data were obtained from MOPEX experiment. The training of both neural network models was made by the adaptive version of differential evolution, JADE. The comparison of models was based on six model performance measures. The results of drought indices forecast, explained by the values of four model performance indices, show that the integrated neural network model was superior to the feedforward multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer of neurons.

  3. The Tutelkan SPI Framework for Small Settings: A Methodology Transfer Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Gonzalo; Astudillo, Hernán; Visconti, Marcello; López, Claudia

    Software organizations aim to improve their processes to increase their productivity, competitiveness and performance. Although numerous standards and models have been proposed, their adoption among small organizations is hard due to some size mismatches and to lack of experienced process engineers, which forces them to hire (expensive) external consultants. This article describes the Tutelkan SPI Framework, which proposes a three-fold approach to this problem: (1) providing a library of reusable process assets, (2) offering composition tools to describe small organizations processes using these assets, and (3) systematically training small organization focused consultants for these library and toolset. The framework has been successfully piloted with several Chilean small companies, and the library and tools are open and freely available.

  4. INTEGRAL IBIS, SPI, and JEM-X observations of LVT151012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savchenko, V.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.

    2017-01-01

    During the first observing run of LIGO, two gravitational wave events and one lower-significance trigger (LVT151012) were reported by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration. At the time of LVT151012, the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) was pointing at a region of the sky coincident...... with the high localization probability area of the event and thus permitted us to search for its electromagnetic counterpart (both prompt and afterglow emission). The imaging instruments on-board INTEGRAL (IBIS/ISGRI, IBIS/PICsIT, SPI, and the two JEM-X modules)have been exploited to attempt the detection...... of view in order to provide an efficient monitoring of the entire LVT151012 localization region at energies above 75 keV. We did not find any significant transient source that was spatially and/or temporally coincident withLVT151012, obtaining tight upper limits on the associated hard X-ray and...

  5. Protocol for CONSORT-SPI: an extension for social and psychological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul; Grant, Sean; Hopewell, Sally; Macdonald, Geraldine; Moher, David; Michie, Susan; Mayo-Wilson, Evan

    2013-09-02

    Determining the effectiveness of social and psychological interventions is important for improving individual and population health. Such interventions are complex and, where possible, are best evaluated by randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The use of research findings in policy and practice decision making is hindered by poor reporting of RCTs. Poor reporting limits the ability to replicate interventions, synthesise evidence in systematic reviews, and utilise findings for evidence-based policy and practice. The lack of guidance for reporting the specific methodological features of complex intervention RCTs contributes to poor reporting. We aim to develop an extension of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Statement for Social and Psychological Interventions (CONSORT-SPI). This research project will be conducted in five phases. The first phase was the project launch, which consisted of the establishment of a Project Executive and International Advisory Group, and recruitment of journal editors and the CONSORT Group. The second phase involves a Delphi process that will generate a list of possible items to include in the CONSORT Extension. Next, there will be a formal consensus meeting to select the reporting items to add to, or modify for, the CONSORT-SPI Extension. Fourth, guideline documents will be written, including an explanation and elaboration (E&E) document that will provide detailed advice for each item and examples of good reporting. The final phase will comprise guideline dissemination, with simultaneous publication and endorsement of the guideline in multiple journals, endorsement by funding agencies, presentations at conferences and other meetings, and a dedicated website that will facilitate feedback about the guideline. As demonstrated by previous CONSORT guidelines, the development of an evidence-based reporting guideline for social and psychological intervention RCTs should improve the accuracy, comprehensiveness, and transparency of

  6. Gravity Spy - Integrating LIGO detector characterization, citizen science, and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevin, Michael; Gravity Spy

    2016-06-01

    On September 14th 2015, the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO) made the first direct observation of gravitational waves and opened a new field of observational astronomy. However, being the most complicated and sensitve experiment ever undertaken in gravitational physics, aLIGO is susceptible to various sources of environmental and instrumental noise that hinder the search for more gravitational waves.Of particular concern are transient, non-Gaussian noise features known as glitches. Glitches can mimic true astrophysical gravitational waves, occur at a high enough frequency to be coherent between the two detectors, and generally worsen aLIGO's detection capabilities. The proper classification and charaterization of glitches is paramount in optimizing aLIGO's ability to detect gravitational waves. However, teaching computers to identify and morphologically classify these artifacts is exceedingly difficult.Human intuition has proven to be a useful tool in classifcation probelms such as this. Gravity Spy is an innovative, interdisciplinary project hosted by Zooniverse that combines aLIGO detector characterization, citizen science, machine learning, and social science. In this project, citizen scientists and computers will work together in a sybiotic relationship that leverages human pattern recognition and the ability of machine learning to process large amounts of data systematically: volunteers classify triggers from the aLIGO data steam that are constantly updated as aLIGO takes in new data, and these classifications are used to train machine learning algorithms which proceed to classify the bulk of aLIGO data and feed questionable glithces back to the users.In this talk, I will discuss the workflow and initial results of the Gravity Spy project with regard to aLIGO's future observing runs and highlight the potential of such citizen science projects in promoting nascent fields such as gravitational wave astrophysics.

  7. Drought analysis using SPI index and its effects on groundwater resources in East of Kermanshah, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, A.; Mirbagheri, B.; Kheiri, A.

    2010-09-01

    Drought is universally acknowledged as a phenomenon associated with scarcity of water. Drought varies with regard to the time of occurrence, duration, intensity, and extent of the area affected from year to year. Ground water, which is found in aquifers below the surface of the Earth, is one of the Nation's most important natural resources. Droughts, seasonal variations in rainfall, and pumping affect the height of the underground water levels. The overall objective of this study is to apply a quantitative index namely SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) to measure the drought conditions in the east region of Kermanshah, Iran during the last 30 years. To do this, different indices were considered to determine the drought conditions such as the longest period of drought, the number of months faced to drought and total drought magnitudes(DM). To evaluate the likely effects of drought on groundwater resources, first the relationship between them was shown graphically and then the correlation was calculated. The results of the research indicated that, among all mentioned indices, total drought magnitudes is a better index showing the drought condition in the region. The results on drought effects on groundwater resources using the correlation coefficient also showed that the droughts will have significant effect on ground water discharge. An analysis of the distribution of droughts showed that for droughts with short periods, the deficit in the groundwater discharge is smaller than in the recharge. While for droughts with long periods, the deficit in the groundwater discharge is larger than in the recharge. Key words: Drought Magnitude, SPI, Groundwater, Kermanshah

  8. Occurrence Probabilities of Wet and Dry Periods in Southern Italy through the SPI Evaluated on Synthetic Monthly Precipitation Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caloiero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article investigates dry and wet periods in a large area of the Mediterranean basin. First, a stochastic model was applied to a homogeneous database of monthly precipitation values of 46 rain gauges in five regions of southern Italy. In particular, after estimating the model parameters, a set of 104 years of monthly precipitation for each rain gauge was generated by means of a Monte Carlo technique. Then, dry and wet periods were analyzed through the application of the standardized precipitation index (SPI over 3-month and 6-month timespan (short-term and 12-month and 24-month period (long-term. As a result of the SPI application on the generated monthly precipitation series, higher occurrence probabilities of dry conditions than wet conditions have been detected, especially when long-term precipitation scales are considered.

  9. Malware Memory Analysis for Non specialists: Investigating Publicly Available Memory Images for Prolaco and SpyEye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    in this work against both the Prolaco worm and SpyEye Trojan horse: • Classes \\Local Settings\\Software\\Microsoft\\Windows\\Shell\\MuiCache • Control...List of symbols/abbreviations/acronyms/initialisms ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange AV Anti-Virus or Antivirus CFNOC...possible to select indexing terms which are Unclassified, the classification of each should be indicated as with the title.) Antivirus ; Anti-virus

  10. Measuring absolute spin polarization in dissolution-DNP by Spin PolarimetrY Magnetic Resonance (SPY-MR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Chappuis, Quentin; Bornet, Aurélien; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami

    2015-11-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization at 1.2 K and 6.7 T allows one to achieve spin temperatures on the order of a few millikelvin, so that the high-temperature approximation (ΔEPolarimetrY Magnetic Resonance (SPY-MR), is illustrated for various pairs of (13)C spins (I, S) in acetate and pyruvate. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Design, prototyping and testing of a compact superconducting double quarter wave crab cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Binping; Belomestnykh, Sergey; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Calaga, Rama; Cullen, Chris; Capatina, Ofelia; Hammons, Lee; Li, Zenghai; Marques, Carlos; Skaritka, John; Verdú-Andres, Silvia; Wu, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    A novel design of superconducting Crab Cavity was proposed and designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The new cavity shape is a Double Quarter Wave or DQWCC. After fabrication and surface treatments, the niobium proof-of-principle cavity was cryogenically tested in a vertical cryostat. The cavity is extremely compact yet has a low frequency of 400 MHz, an essential property for service for the Large Hadron Collider luminosity upgrade. The electromagnetic properties of the cavity are also well matched for this demanding task. The demonstrated deflecting voltage of 4.6 MV is well above the requirement for a crab cavity in the future High Luminosity LHC of 3.34 MV. In this paper we present the design, prototyping and test results of the DQWCC.

  12. Design, prototyping, and testing of a compact superconducting double quarter wave crab cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binping Xiao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a novel design for a compact superconducting crab cavity with a double quarter wave (DQWCC shape. After fabrication and surface treatments, this niobium proof-of-principle cavity was tested cryogenically in a vertical cryostat. The cavity is extremely compact yet has a low frequency of 400 MHz, an essential property for service in the Large Hadron Collider luminosity upgrade. The cavity’s electromagnetic properties are well suited for this demanding task. The demonstrated deflecting voltage of 4.6 MV is well above the required 3.34 MV for a crab cavity in the future High Luminosity LHC. In this paper, we present the design, prototyping, and results from testing the DQWCC.

  13. Development of a synchrotron radiation beam monitor for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, Andrea [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear integrable optics applied to beam dynamics may mitigate multi-particle instabilities, but proof of principle experiments have never been carried out. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron and proton storage ring currently being built at Fermilab, which addresses tests of nonlinear lattice elements in a real machine in addition to experiments on optical stochastic cooling and on the single-electron wave function. These experiments require an outstanding control over the lattice parameters, achievable with fast and precise beam monitoring systems. This work describes the steps for designing and building a beam monitor for IOTA based on synchrotron radiation, able to measure intensity, position and transverse cross-section beam.

  14. Half Life: The Divided Life of Bruno Pontecorvo, Physicist or Spy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, Frank

    2016-01-01

    It was at the height of the Cold War, in the summer of 1950, when Bruno Pontecorvo mysteriously vanished behind the Iron Curtain. Who was he, and what caused him to disappear? Was he simply a physicist, or also a spy and communist radical? A protege of Enrico Fermi, Pontecorvo was one of the most promising nuclear physicists in the world. He spent years hunting for the Higgs boson of his day - the neutrino - a nearly massless particle thought to be essential to the process of particle decay. His work on the Manhattan Project helped to usher in the nuclear age, and confirmed his reputation as a brilliant physicist. Why, then, would he disappear as he stood on the cusp of true greatness, perhaps even the Nobel Prize? In this book, physicist and historian Frank Close offers a heretofore untold history of Pontecorvo's life, based on unprecedented access to Pontecorvo's friends and family and the Russian scientists with whom he would later work. Close takes a microscope to Pontecorvo's life, combining a thorough biography of one of the most important scientists of the twentieth century with the drama of Cold War espionage. With all the elements of a Cold War thriller - classified atomic research, an infamous double agent, a possible kidnapping by Soviet operatives - this book is a history of nuclear physics at perhaps its most powerful: when it created the bomb

  15. Subcloning Plus Insertion (SPI) - A Novel Recombineering Method for the Rapid Construction of Gene Targeting Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Thimma R.; Kelsall, Emma J.; Fevat, Léna M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Gene targeting refers to the precise modification of a genetic locus using homologous recombination. The generation of novel cell lines and transgenic mouse models using this method necessitates the construction of a ‘targeting’ vector, which contains homologous DNA sequences to the target gene, and has for many years been a limiting step in the process. Vector construction can be performed in vivo in Escherichia coli cells using homologous recombination mediated by phage recombinases using a technique termed recombineering. Recombineering is the preferred technique to subclone the long homology sequences (>4kb) and various targeting elements including selection markers that are required to mediate efficient allelic exchange between a targeting vector and its cognate genomic locus. Typical recombineering protocols follow an iterative scheme of step-wise integration of the targeting elements and require intermediate purification and transformation steps. Here, we present a novel recombineering methodology of vector assembly using a multiplex approach. Plasmid gap repair is performed by the simultaneous capture of genomic sequence from mouse Bacterial Artificial Chromosome libraries and the insertion of dual bacterial and mammalian selection markers. This subcloning plus insertion method is highly efficient and yields a majority of correct recombinants. We present data for the construction of different types of conditional gene knockout, or knock-in, vectors and BAC reporter vectors that have been constructed using this method. SPI vector construction greatly extends the repertoire of the recombineering toolbox and provides a simple, rapid and cost-effective method of constructing these highly complex vectors. PMID:25590226

  16. jSPyDB, an open source database-independent tool for data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Cavallari, Francesca; Di Guida, Salvatore; Innocente, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the number of commercial tools available for accessing Databases, built on Java or .Net, is increasing. However, many of these applications have several drawbacks: usually they are not open-source, they provide interfaces only with a specific kind of database, they are platform-dependent and very CPU and memory consuming. jSPyDB is a free web-based tool written using Python and Javascript. It relies on jQuery and python libraries, and is intended to provide a simple handler to different database technologies inside a local web browser. Such a tool, exploiting fast access libraries such as SQLAlchemy, is easy to install, and to configure. The design of this tool envisages three layers. The front-end client side in the local web browser communicates with a backend server. Only the server is able to connect to the different databases for the purposes of performing data definition and manipulation. The server makes the data available to the client, so that the user can display and handle them safely. Moreover, thanks to jQuery libraries, this tool supports export of data in different formats, such as XML and JSON. Finally, by using a set of pre-defined functions, users are allowed to create their customized views for a better data visualization. In this way, we optimize the performance of database servers by avoiding short connections and concurrent sessions. In addition, security is enforced since we do not provide users the possibility to directly execute any SQL statement.

  17. jSPyDB, an open source database-independent tool for data management

    CERN Document Server

    Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the number of commercial tools available for accessing Databases, built on Java or .Net, is increasing. However, many of these applications have several drawbacks: usually they are not open-source, they provide interfaces only with a specific kind of database, they are platform-dependent and very CPU and memory consuming. jSPyDB is a free web based tool written using Python and Javascript. It relies on jQuery and python libraries, and is intended to provide a simple handler to different Database technologies inside a local web browser. Such a tool, exploiting fast access libraries such as SQLAlchemy, is easy to install, and to configure. The design of this tool envisages three layers. The front-end client side in the local web browser communicates with a backend server. Only the server is able to connect to the different databases for the purposes of performing data definition and manipulation. The server makes the data available to the client, so that the user can display and handle them safely. ...

  18. Using Stochastic Spiking Neural Networks on SpiNNaker to Solve Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Fonseca Guerra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Constraint satisfaction problems (CSP are at the core of numerous scientific and technological applications. However, CSPs belong to the NP-complete complexity class, for which the existence (or not of efficient algorithms remains a major unsolved question in computational complexity theory. In the face of this fundamental difficulty heuristics and approximation methods are used to approach instances of NP (e.g., decision and hard optimization problems. The human brain efficiently handles CSPs both in perception and behavior using spiking neural networks (SNNs, and recent studies have demonstrated that the noise embedded within an SNN can be used as a computational resource to solve CSPs. Here, we provide a software framework for the implementation of such noisy neural solvers on the SpiNNaker massively parallel neuromorphic hardware, further demonstrating their potential to implement a stochastic search that solves instances of P and NP problems expressed as CSPs. This facilitates the exploration of new optimization strategies and the understanding of the computational abilities of SNNs. We demonstrate the basic principles of the framework by solving difficult instances of the Sudoku puzzle and of the map color problem, and explore its application to spin glasses. The solver works as a stochastic dynamical system, which is attracted by the configuration that solves the CSP. The noise allows an optimal exploration of the space of configurations, looking for the satisfiability of all the constraints; if applied discontinuously, it can also force the system to leap to a new random configuration effectively causing a restart.

  19. Using Stochastic Spiking Neural Networks on SpiNNaker to Solve Constraint Satisfaction Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca Guerra, Gabriel A; Furber, Steve B

    2017-01-01

    Constraint satisfaction problems (CSP) are at the core of numerous scientific and technological applications. However, CSPs belong to the NP-complete complexity class, for which the existence (or not) of efficient algorithms remains a major unsolved question in computational complexity theory. In the face of this fundamental difficulty heuristics and approximation methods are used to approach instances of NP (e.g., decision and hard optimization problems). The human brain efficiently handles CSPs both in perception and behavior using spiking neural networks (SNNs), and recent studies have demonstrated that the noise embedded within an SNN can be used as a computational resource to solve CSPs. Here, we provide a software framework for the implementation of such noisy neural solvers on the SpiNNaker massively parallel neuromorphic hardware, further demonstrating their potential to implement a stochastic search that solves instances of P and NP problems expressed as CSPs. This facilitates the exploration of new optimization strategies and the understanding of the computational abilities of SNNs. We demonstrate the basic principles of the framework by solving difficult instances of the Sudoku puzzle and of the map color problem, and explore its application to spin glasses. The solver works as a stochastic dynamical system, which is attracted by the configuration that solves the CSP. The noise allows an optimal exploration of the space of configurations, looking for the satisfiability of all the constraints; if applied discontinuously, it can also force the system to leap to a new random configuration effectively causing a restart.

  20. Timing Analysis of V404 Cyg during Its Brightest Outburst with INTEGRAL/SPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodi, J.; Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P.

    2017-10-01

    The outburst of V404 Cyg during the summer of 2015 reached unparalleled intensities at X-ray and soft gamma-ray energies with fluxes > 50 Crab in the 20-50 keV energy band. To date, studies in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray energy domain have focused primarily on the energy spectra. In this work, a timing analysis has been performed with INTEGRAL/SPI data in the 20-300 keV energy range for INTEGRAL revolution 1557, which corresponds to the brightest flare of V404 Cyg (on 2015 June 26). The power spectra are fit with broken power-law and multi-Lorentzian models and compared with previously reported results of V404 Cyg flaring activity from 1989 and 2015. Also, we took advantage of the good signal-to-noise ratio obtained above 70 keV to quantify the timing/fast-variability properties of the source as a function of energy. We then point out similarities of V404 Cyg with the black hole transient V4641 Sgr. Like V4641 Sgr, we found that the power spectra of V404 Cyg during high flux periods did not possess the expected flat-top feature typically seen in a hard spectral state. Interpretations are proposed in the framework of the fluctuating-propagation model to explain the observed properties.

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae Attenuated Strain SPY1 with an Artificial Mineral Shell Induces Humoral and Th17 Cellular Immunity and Protects Mice against Pneumococcal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyuan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen leading to substantial morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. Vaccination is an effective strategy to prevent S. pneumoniae infection. SPY1 is a pneumococcal vaccine candidate strain obtained in our previous study. To improve its stability and immunogencity, in this study, we constructed the SPY1ΔlytA strain that lacks autolysin activity and was coated with an artificial exterior surface calcium phosphate shell by in situ mineralization. The resulting strain SPY1ΔlytACaPi displayed enhanced thermal stability enabling storage at 37°C for 1 week. Furthermore, mucosal and subcutaneous immunization with the SPY1ΔlytACaPi strain induced better protective effects than SPY1ΔlytA in anti-colonization after challenging with 19F and anti-invasion by D39 in mice. Subcutaneous immunization with SPY1ΔlytACaPi elicited higher IgG level while mucosal immunization primarily elicited an immune response which is supposed to be related to Th17 cells. Taken together, the mineralized strain may be a promising candidate for an attenuated S. pneumoniae vaccine.

  2. Comparison of electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical calculations with rf test results in rf-dipole deflecting/crabbing cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, HyeKyoung [JLAB, ODU; De Silva, Subashini U. [ODU; Delayen, Jean R. [ODU, JLAB

    2013-12-01

    The current requirements of higher gradients and strict dimensional constraints in the emerging applications have required the designing of compact deflecting and crabbing rf structures. The superconducting rf-dipole cavity is one of the first novel compact designs with attractive properties such as higher gradients, higher shunt impedance and widely separated higher order modes. The recent tests performed on proof-of-principle designs of the rf-dipole geometry at 4.2 K and 2.0 K in the vertical test area at Jefferson Lab have proven the designs to achieve higher gradients with higher intrinsic quality factors and easily processed multipacting conditions. The cavity characteristics, such as pressure sensitivity and Lorentz force detuning, were studied using ANSYS before the fabrication. These characteristics were measured during the cavity test. The comparison between the simulation and the measurement provides insight how the simulation can be used for design and fabrication of future cavities.

  3. Quantifying ice loss in the eastern Himalayas since 1974 using declassified spy satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Maurer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Himalayan glaciers are important natural resources and climate indicators for densely populated regions in Asia. Remote sensing methods are vital for evaluating glacier response to changing climate over the vast and rugged Himalayan region, yet many platforms capable of glacier mass balance quantification are somewhat temporally limited due to typical glacier response times. We here rely on declassified spy satellite imagery and ASTER data to quantify surface lowering, ice volume change, and geodetic mass balance during 1974–2006 for glaciers in the eastern Himalayas, centered on the Bhutan–China border. The wide range of glacier types allows for the first mass balance comparison between clean, debris, and lake-terminating (calving glaciers in the region. Measured glaciers show significant ice loss, with an estimated mean annual geodetic mass balance of −0.13 ± 0.06 m w.e. yr−1 (meters of water equivalent per year for 10 clean-ice glaciers, −0.19 ± 0.11 m w.e. yr−1 for 5 debris-covered glaciers, −0.28 ± 0.10 m w.e. yr−1 for 6 calving glaciers, and −0.17 ± 0.05 m w.e. yr−1 for all glaciers combined. Contrasting hypsometries along with melt pond, ice cliff, and englacial conduit mechanisms result in statistically similar mass balance values for both clean-ice and debris-covered glacier groups. Calving glaciers comprise 18 % (66 km2 of the glacierized area yet have contributed 30 % (−0.7 km3 to the total ice volume loss, highlighting the growing relevance of proglacial lake formation and associated calving for the future ice mass budget of the Himalayas as the number and size of glacial lakes increase.

  4. The heavy metals content in wild growing mushrooms from burdened Spiš area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the rate of entry of heavy metals into the edible parts of wild mushrooms, from central Spiš area. The area is characterized by extremely high content of heavy metals particularly mercury in abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. The toxicity of heavy metals is well known and described. Known is also the ability of fungi to accumulate contaminants from substrates in which mushrooms grow. We have collected commonly consumed species of mushrooms (Russula vesca., Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Lecinum piceinum, Boletus reticulatus. Sampling was conducted for two years 2012 and 2013. The samples taken mushrooms and substrates on which to grow, we determined heavy metal content (Cd, Pb, Cu, including total mercury content modified by atomic absorption spectrometry (AMA - 254. In the substrate, we determined the humus content and pH value. The heavy metal content in soils were evaluated according to Law no. 220/2004 Z.z The exceedance limit values of Cd, Pb, Cu and Hg was recorded. Most significantly the respective limit was recorded in soil samples in the case of mercury. The determined concentration Hg was 39.01 mg.kg-1. From the results, we evaluated the degree of ability to bioaccumulate heavy metals different kinds of fungi. We also evaluated the health safety of the consumption of these fungi on the comparison with the limit values provided in the food code of SR. We recorded a high rate of accumulation of mercury in the species Boletus reticulatus and Macrolepiota procera. For these types we recorded the most significant than allowed concentrations of mercury in mushrooms. The highest recorded concentration reached 17.64 mg.kg-1 Hg in fresh matter. The limit value was exceeded also in the case of copper. We do not recommend to increased consumption of wild mushrooms in the reference area.

  5. Seasonal streamflow forecasting: experiences with precipitation bias correction and SPI conditioning to improve performance for hydrological events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M. H.; Crochemore, L.; Pappenberger, F.; Perrin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Many fields such as drought risk assessment or reservoir management can benefit from seasonal streamflow forecasts. This study presents the results of two analyses aiming to: 1) assess the skill of seasonal precipitation forecasts in France and provide insights into the way bias correcting precipitation forecasts can improve the skill of streamflow forecasts at extended lead times, and 2) evaluate how the conditioning of historical data based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) from bias-corrected GCM precipitation forecasts can be useful to select traces within the historical data and further improve the forecast of droughts. We evaluated several bias correction approaches and conditioned precipitation scenarios in sixteen catchments in France, with the help of ECMWF System 4 seasonal precipitation forecasts and the GR6J hydrological model. The results show that, in most catchments, raw seasonal precipitation and streamflow forecasts are often sharper than the conventional ESP method. However, they are not significantly better in terms of reliability. Forecast skill is generally improved when applying bias correction. The simple linear scaling of monthly values contributed mainly to increase forecast sharpness and accuracy, while the empirical distribution mapping of daily values was successful in improving forecast reliability. Our results also show that conditioning past observations based on the three-month Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI3) can improve the sharpness of ensemble forecasts based on historical data, while maintaining good reliability. An evaluation of forecast ensembles for low-flow forecasting showed that the SPI3-conditioned ensembles provided reliable forecasts of low-flow duration and deficit volume based on the 80th exceedance percentile. Drought risk forecasting is illustrated for the 2003 drought event.

  6. Spi2 gene polymorphism is not associated with recurrent airway obstruction and inflammatory airway disease in thoroughbred horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to detect the presence of polymorphisms at exons 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the Spi2 gene, and evaluate a possible association between them and recurrent airway obstruction (RAO or inflammatory airway disease (IAD in thoroughbred horses, through single-strand conformational-polymorphism (SSCP screening. Although polymorphism was not detected in exons 1, 2 and 3, three alleles and six genotypes were identified in exon 4. The frequencies of allele A (0.6388 and genotype AA (0.3888 were higher in horses affected by RAO, although no association was found between polymorphism and horses with either RAO or IAD.

  7. Training working memory to improve attentional control in anxiety: A proof-of-principle study using behavioral and electrophysiological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Berna A; Koster, Ernst H W; Pourtois, Gilles; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2016-12-01

    Trait anxiety is associated with impairments in attentional control and processing efficiency (see Berggren & Derakshan, 2013, for a review). Working memory training using the adaptive dual n-back task has shown to improve attentional control in subclinical depression with transfer effects at the behavioral and neural level on a working memory task (Owens, Koster, & Derakshan, 2013). Here, we examined the beneficial effects of working memory training on attentional control in pre-selected high trait anxious individuals who underwent a three week daily training intervention using the adaptive dual n-back task. Pre and post outcome measures of attentional control were assessed using a Flanker task that included a stress induction and an emotional a Antisaccade task (with angry and neutral faces as target). Resting state EEG (theta/beta ratio) was recorded to as a neural marker of trait attentional control. Our results showed that adaptive working memory training improved attentional control with transfer effects on the Flanker task and resting state EEG, but effects of training on the Antisaccade task were less conclusive. Finally, training related gains were associated with lower levels of trait anxiety at post (vs pre) intervention. Our results demonstrate that adaptive working memory training in anxiety can have beneficial effects on attentional control and cognitive performance that may protect against emotional vulnerability in individuals at risk of developing clinical anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Focused Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (FLIPUS) System for Cell Stimulation: Physical and Biological Proof of Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puts, Regina; Ruschke, Karen; Ambrosi, Thomas H; Kadow-Romacker, Anke; Knaus, Petra; Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold; Raum, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a promising technique for bone tissue evaluation. Highly focused transducers used for QUS also have the capability to be applied for tissue-regenerative purposes and can provide spatially limited deposition of acoustic energy. We describe a focused low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (FLIPUS) system, which has been developed for the stimulation of cell monolayers in the defocused far field of the transducer through the bottom of the well plate. Tissue culture well plates, carrying the cells, were incubated in a special chamber, immersed in a temperature-controlled water tank. A stimulation frequency of 3.6 MHz provided an optimal sound transmission through the polystyrene well plate. The ultrasound was pulsed for 20 min daily at 100-Hz repetition frequency with 27.8% duty cycle. The calibrated output intensity corresponded to I(SATA) = 44.5 ± 7.1 mW/cm2, which is comparable to the most frequently reported nominal output levels in LIPUS studies. No temperature change by the ultrasound exposure was observed in the well plate. The system was used to stimulate rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs). The applied intensity had no apoptotic effect and enhanced the expression of osteogenic markers, i.e., osteopontin (OPN), collagen 1 (Col-1), the osteoblast-specific transcription factor-Runx-2 and E11 protein, an early osteocyte marker, in stimulated cells on day 5. The proposed FLIPUS setup opens new perspectives for the evaluation of the mechanistic effects of LIPUS.

  9. Large Neutral Amino Acid Supplementation Exerts Its Effect through Three Synergistic Mechanisms : Proof of Principle in Phenylketonuria Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Danique; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M.; Mazzola, Priscila N.; van Faassen, Martijn H. J. R.; de Blaauw, Pim; Kema, Ido P.; Heiner-Fokkema, M. Rebecca; van Anholt, Rogier D.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; van Spronsen, Francjan J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Phenylketonuria (PKU) was the first disorder in which severe neurocognitive dysfunction could be prevented by dietary treatment. However, despite this effect, neuropsychological outcome in PKU still remains suboptimal and the phenylalanine-restricted diet is very demanding. To improve

  10. Implosion scaling and hydro dynamically equivalent target design - Strategy for proof of principle of high gain inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, M.; Nishihara, K.; Azechi, H.; Nakatsuka, M.; Kanabe, T.; Miyanaga, N.

    2003-01-01

    Scaling laws for hydro dynamically similar implosions are derived by applying Lie group analysis to the set of partial differential equations for the hydrodynamic system. Physically this implies that any fluid system belonging to a common similarity group evolves quite in the same manner including hydrodynamic instabilities. The scalings strongly depend on the description of the energy transport, i.e., whether the fluid system is heat conductive or adiabatic. Under a fully specified group transformation including prescriptions on the laser wavelength and the ionization state, the hydrodynamic similarity can still be preserved even when the system is cooperated with such other energy sources as classical laser absorption, hot electrons, local alpha heating, and bremsstrahlung loss. The results are expected to give the basis of target design and diagnostics for scaled high gain experiments in future. (author)

  11. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle. Phase II. Title 1 report. Volume III. Magnet system. Preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, S.

    1982-01-01

    During Title I, General Dynamics' principal role as a subcontractor to the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC) is to assist in the further development of a low-cost superconducting magnet mirror coil system for the EBT-P program consistent with long life and dependable operation. The activity can best be defined as an extension of ORNL's previous development program with further joint ORNL/MDAC/GDC refining of the mirror coil components. MDAC/GDC participation for the entire program can be subdivided into four distinct elements as follows: (1) design, development, and fabrication of two dewar subassemblies to enclose the ORNL developed and fabricated cold mass assemblies; (2) design, development, and fabrication of a production prototype magnet system including conductor (procurement), cold mass components, dewar and x-ray shield. This prototype would form the basis for the production of 36 magnets for the torus and three spares. (3) design, development, and fabrication of an electrical/electronic system including quench protection, instrumentation and control, and power supply to power and protect the mirror coil system during its operation in the torus; (4) fabrication of the 39 production magnets

  12. Serial powering Proof of principle demonstration of a scheme for the operation of a large pixel detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ta, D B; Hugging, F; Fischer, P; Grosse-Knetter, J; Runólfsson, O; Wermes, N

    2006-01-01

    Large detectors in high-energy physics experiments are mostly built from many identical individual building blocks, called modules, which possess individual parts of the services. The modules are usually also powered by parallel power lines such that they can be individually operated. The main disadvantage of such a parallel powering scheme is the vast amount of necessary power cables which constitutes also a large amount of material in the path of the particles to be detected. For the LHC experiments already now this is a major problem for the optimal performance of the detectors and it has become evident, that for an upgrade programme alternative powering schemes must be investigated. We prove and demonstrate here for the example of the large scale pixel detector of ATLAS that Serial Powering of pixel modules is a viable alternative. A powering scheme using dedicated voltage regulators and modified flex hybrid circuits has been devised and implemented for ATLAS pixel modules. The modules have been intensive...

  13. A method for evaluating cognitively informed micro-targeted campaign strategies: An agent-based model proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jens Koed; Pilditch, Toby D

    2018-01-01

    In political campaigns, perceived candidate credibility influences the persuasiveness of messages. In campaigns aiming to influence people's beliefs, micro-targeted campaigns (MTCs) that target specific voters using their psychological profile have become increasingly prevalent. It remains open how effective MTCs are, notably in comparison to population-targeted campaign strategies. Using an agent-based model, the paper applies recent insights from cognitive models of persuasion, extending them to the societal level in a novel framework for exploring political campaigning. The paper provides an initial treatment of the complex dynamics of population level political campaigning in a psychologically informed manner. Model simulations show that MTCs can take advantage of the psychology of the electorate by targeting voters favourable disposed towards the candidate. Relative to broad campaigning, MTCs allow for efficient and adaptive management of complex campaigns. Findings show that disliked MTC candidates can beat liked population-targeting candidates, pointing to societal questions concerning campaign regulations.

  14. Characterizing near-surface elemental layering on Mars using gamma-ray spectroscopy: A proof-of-principle experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplowski, Patrick N.; Wilson, Jack T.; Beck, Andrew W.; Burks, Morgan; Goldsten, John O.; Lawrence, David J.

    2018-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy investigations characterize the chemical composition of planetary surfaces by measuring element-characteristic gamma rays with energies of ∼100 keV to ∼9 MeV. Over this energy range, the mean free path of a gamma ray varies from about 1 to 25 cm, therefore gamma-ray measurements sample subsurface composition. Many elements emit gamma rays at multiple, often widely spaced energies, so gamma-ray measurements can in principle also be used to identify depth-dependent variations in subsurface composition. We report results from laboratory measurements and radiation transport modeling designed to demonstrate this capability. The laboratory measurements verified the presence of depth-dependent gamma-ray signatures, and were then used to benchmark radiation transport simulations that were used to model realistic Mars-like scenarios. The models indicate that compositionally distinct subsurface deposits, buried to depths of ∼80 cm (125 g/cm2), can be identified using gamma-ray measurements. Going beyond identification to characterization (burial depth, relative composition of the layers) of the deposits requires knowledge of the vertical and horizontal variability in the water content of the near-surface surface materials, the local Galactic Cosmic Ray environment (magnitude and energy distribution), the depth-dependent neutron flux, gamma-ray production cross sections, and knowledge of the composition and column density of the atmosphere. The results of our experiments and models provided a basis for examining the utility of using orbiter- and lander-based gamma-ray measurements to identify subsurface deposits on Mars.

  15. Targeted Doxorubicin Delivery to Brain Tumors via Minicells: Proof of Principle Using Dogs with Spontaneously Occurring Tumors as a Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDiarmid, Jennifer A; Langova, Veronika; Bailey, Dale; Pattison, Scott T; Pattison, Stacey L; Christensen, Neil; Armstrong, Luke R; Brahmbhatt, Vatsala N; Smolarczyk, Katarzyna; Harrison, Matthew T; Costa, Marylia; Mugridge, Nancy B; Sedliarou, Ilya; Grimes, Nicholas A; Kiss, Debra L; Stillman, Bruce; Hann, Christine L; Gallia, Gary L; Graham, Robert M; Brahmbhatt, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy can be very effective for the treatment of cancer but toxicity on normal tissues often limits patient tolerance and often causes long-term adverse effects. The objective of this study was to assist in the preclinical development of using modified, non-living bacterially-derived minicells to deliver the potent chemotherapeutic doxorubicin via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting. Specifically, this study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EGFR targeted, doxorubicin loaded minicells (designated EGFRminicellsDox) to deliver doxorubicin to spontaneous brain tumors in 17 companion dogs; a comparative oncology model of human brain cancers. EGFRminicellsDox were administered weekly via intravenous injection to 17 dogs with late-stage brain cancers. Biodistribution was assessed using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Anti-tumor response was determined using MRI, and blood samples were subject to toxicology (hematology, biochemistry) and inflammatory marker analysis. Targeted, doxorubicin-loaded minicells rapidly localized to the core of brain tumors. Complete resolution or marked tumor regression (>90% reduction in tumor volume) were observed in 23.53% of the cohort, with lasting anti-tumor responses characterized by remission in three dogs for more than two years. The median overall survival was 264 days (range 49 to 973). No adverse clinical, hematological or biochemical effects were observed with repeated administration of EGFRminicellsDox (30 to 98 doses administered in 10 of the 17 dogs). Targeted minicells loaded with doxorubicin were safely administered to dogs with late stage brain cancer and clinical activity was observed. These findings demonstrate the strong potential for clinical applications of targeted, doxorubicin-loaded minicells for the effective treatment of patients with brain cancer. On this basis, we have designed a Phase 1 clinical study of EGFR-targeted, doxorubicin-loaded minicells for effective treatment of human patients with recurrent glioblastoma.

  16. Targeted Doxorubicin Delivery to Brain Tumors via Minicells: Proof of Principle Using Dogs with Spontaneously Occurring Tumors as a Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A MacDiarmid

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic chemotherapy can be very effective for the treatment of cancer but toxicity on normal tissues often limits patient tolerance and often causes long-term adverse effects. The objective of this study was to assist in the preclinical development of using modified, non-living bacterially-derived minicells to deliver the potent chemotherapeutic doxorubicin via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR targeting. Specifically, this study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EGFR targeted, doxorubicin loaded minicells (designated EGFRminicellsDox to deliver doxorubicin to spontaneous brain tumors in 17 companion dogs; a comparative oncology model of human brain cancers.EGFRminicellsDox were administered weekly via intravenous injection to 17 dogs with late-stage brain cancers. Biodistribution was assessed using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Anti-tumor response was determined using MRI, and blood samples were subject to toxicology (hematology, biochemistry and inflammatory marker analysis. Targeted, doxorubicin-loaded minicells rapidly localized to the core of brain tumors. Complete resolution or marked tumor regression (>90% reduction in tumor volume were observed in 23.53% of the cohort, with lasting anti-tumor responses characterized by remission in three dogs for more than two years. The median overall survival was 264 days (range 49 to 973. No adverse clinical, hematological or biochemical effects were observed with repeated administration of EGFRminicellsDox (30 to 98 doses administered in 10 of the 17 dogs.Targeted minicells loaded with doxorubicin were safely administered to dogs with late stage brain cancer and clinical activity was observed. These findings demonstrate the strong potential for clinical applications of targeted, doxorubicin-loaded minicells for the effective treatment of patients with brain cancer. On this basis, we have designed a Phase 1 clinical study of EGFR-targeted, doxorubicin-loaded minicells for effective treatment of human patients with recurrent glioblastoma.

  17. Effects of adipose stem cell sheets on colon anastomotic leakage in an experimental model: Proof of principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukho, Panithi; Boersema, Geesien S A; Cohen, Abigael; Kops, Nicole; Lange, Johan F; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Hesselink, Jan Willem; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Yvonne M; Verseijden, Femke

    2017-01-01

    The most dreaded complication of colorectal surgery is anastomotic leakage. Adipose tissue-derived stem cell sheets (ASC sheets) prepared from temperature-responsive culture surfaces can be easily transplanted onto tissues. These sheets are proposed to improve cell transplant efficiency and enhance

  18. Therapeutic vaccination against malignant gliomas based on allorecognition and syngeneic tumour antigens: proof of principle in two strains of rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stathopoulos, A.; Samuelson, C.; Milbouw, G.; Hermanne, J.P.; Schijns, V.E.J.C.; Chen, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether allogeneic glioma cells can be utilized to evoke prophylactic or therapeutic immune-mediated elimination of syngeneic glioma in two rat strains. Fisher 344 and Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were injected with two syngeneic glioma cell lines, 9L and C6,

  19. A Default Option to Enhance Nutrition within Financial Constraints: A Randomized, Controlled Proof-of-Principle Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffino, Jaime A; Hormes, Julia M

    2018-03-31

    This study aimed to examine the feasibility and initial efficacy of a novel default option intervention targeting nutritional quality of online grocery purchases within the financial constraints of food insecurity. Female undergraduates (n = 59) without eating disorder symptoms or dietary restrictions selected foods online with a budget corresponding to maximum Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits. Before completing the task again, participants were randomly assigned to receive a $10 incentive for selecting nutritious groceries (n = 17), education about nutrition (n = 24), or a default online shopping cart containing a nutritionally balanced selection of groceries (n = 18) to which they could make changes. Nutritional quality was quantified by using the Thrifty Food Plan Calculator. Compared with the education condition, participants in the default condition selected significantly more whole grains and fruits and foods lower in cholesterol, saturated fats, sodium, and overall calories. There were no statistically significant differences in nutritional outcomes between the incentive condition and the other two groups. Findings provide initial support for the efficacy of a default option in facilitating healthier food choice behaviors within financial constraints. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  20. A randomised controlled trial of intravenous zoledronic acid in malignant pleural disease: a proof of principle pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia O Clive

    Full Text Available Animal studies have shown Zoledronic Acid (ZA may diminish pleural fluid accumulation and tumour bulk in malignant pleural disease (MPD. We performed a pilot study to evaluate its effects in humans.We undertook a single centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in adults with MPD. Patients were randomised (1:1 to receive 2 doses of intravenous ZA or placebo, 3 weeks apart and were followed-up for 6 weeks. The co-primary outcomes were change in Visual Analogue Scale (VAS score measured breathlessness during trial follow-up and change in the initial area under the curve (iAUC on thoracic Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI from randomisation to week 5. Multiple secondary endpoints were also evaluated.Between January 2010 and May 2013, 30 patients were enrolled, 24 randomised and 4 withdrew after randomisation (1 withdrew consent; 3 had a clinical decline. At baseline, the ZA group were more breathless, had more advanced disease on radiology and worse quality of life than the placebo group. There was no significant difference between the groups with regards change in breathlessness (Adjusted mean difference (AMD 4.16 (95%CI -4.7 to 13.0 or change in DCE-MRI iAUC (AMD -15.4 (95%CI -58.1 to 27.3. Two of nine (22% in the ZA arm had a >10% improvement by modified RECIST (vs 0/11 who received placebo. There was no significant difference in quality of life measured by the QLQ-C30 score (global QOL: AMD -4.1 (-13.0 to 4.9, side effects or serious adverse event rates.This is the first human study to evaluate ZA in MPD. The study is limited by small numbers and imbalanced baseline characteristics. Although no convincing treatment effect was identified, potential benefits for specific subgroups of patients cannot be excluded. This study provides important information regarding the feasibility of future trials to evaluate the effects of ZA further.UK Clinical Research Network ID 8877 ISRCTN17030426 www.isrctn.com.

  1. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle. Phase II. Title 1 report. Volume III. Magnet system. Preliminary design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, S.

    1982-02-26

    During Title I, General Dynamics' principal role as a subcontractor to the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC) is to assist in the further development of a low-cost superconducting magnet mirror coil system for the EBT-P program consistent with long life and dependable operation. The activity can best be defined as an extension of ORNL's previous development program with further joint ORNL/MDAC/GDC refining of the mirror coil components. MDAC/GDC participation for the entire program can be subdivided into four distinct elements as follows: (1) design, development, and fabrication of two dewar subassemblies to enclose the ORNL developed and fabricated cold mass assemblies; (2) design, development, and fabrication of a production prototype magnet system including conductor (procurement), cold mass components, dewar and x-ray shield. This prototype would form the basis for the production of 36 magnets for the torus and three spares. (3) design, development, and fabrication of an electrical/electronic system including quench protection, instrumentation and control, and power supply to power and protect the mirror coil system during its operation in the torus; (4) fabrication of the 39 production magnets.

  2. Laser spectroscopy of short-lived radionuclides in an ion trap: MIRACLS’ proof-of-principle experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Franziska Maria

    2017-01-01

    Since 1978 Collinear Laser Spectroscopy is done at COLLAPS [1], which is located at ISOLDE,CERN’sfacilityforsynthesizingradioactiveions,toexplorethenuclearshell structure of the most exotic atomic nuclides far away from stability. At COLLAPS a laser beam is overlapped with a radioactive ion beam. If the wavelength of the laser corresponds to the energy difference of the electronic transitions, the laser excites the ions. The excited ions decay back to the ionic ground state and emit fluorescence photons that can be detected with photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). By measuring the hyperfine structure of the involved ionic states one obtains information about the nuclear spin, the nuclear magnetic dipole moment and the nuclear electric quadrupole moment. This hyperfine splitting is caused by the interaction of the bound electrons withtheatomicnucleus. Theelectronsinduceanelectromagneticfieldattheplaceof the nucleus that interacts with the electromagnetic nuclear moments and the nuclear spin. By calculating th...

  3. Simultaneous detection of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I and myoglobin by modified sandwich lateral flow immunoassay: proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jimin; Zou, Nengli; Zhu, Danian; Wang, Jin; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Mao, Hongju

    2011-12-01

    Although numerous lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) have been developed and widely used, inadequate analytical sensitivity and the lack of multiple protein detection applications have limited their clinical utility. We developed a new LFIA device for the simultaneous detection of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and myoglobin (Myo). We used a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) doubly labeled complex, in which biotinylated single-stranded DNA was used as a linkage to integrate 2 AuNPs and streptavidin-labeled AuNP, as an amplifier to magnify extremely low signals. The detection limit of 1 ng/L achieved for hs-cTnI was 1000 times lower than that obtained in a conventional LFIA. The detection limit for simultaneously measured Myo was 1 μg/L. The linear measurement ranges for hs-cTnI and Myo were 1-10 000 ng/L and 1-10 000 μg/L, respectively. We observed concordant results between the LFIA and clinical assays in sera from 12 patients with acute myocardial infarction (hs-cTnI r = 0.96; Myo r = 0.98). Assay imprecision was LFIA method could be used as a point-of-care device in multiple protein quantification and semiquantitative analysis.

  4. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume IV. Microwave system. Preliminary design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.N.

    1982-02-26

    The EBT-P Microwave System provides microwaves for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) to both stabilize and heat the EBT-P plasma. A 28 gigahertz (GHz) system is required to form the hot electron annulus plasma that provides MHD stabilization to the core plasma. A 60 GHz system is required to heat the core plasma and will provide some second harmonic heating of the hot electron annulus. The principal microwave system elements and their design characteristics are summarized. The microwave system includes 200 kilowatt (kW) gyrotrons at 60 GHz for core heating and 200 kW gyrotrons at 28 GHz for annulus heating. The basic operating complement will be six (6) 60 GHz tubes and two (2) 28 GHz tubes. PACE (Plant and Capital Equipment) procurement will include four (4) 60 GHz gyrotrons with two (2) GHz tubes procured under operations and the two (2) 28 GHz tubes will be provided, with mounts, from the EBT-S program. Each tube is rigidly mounted on an oil filled tank assembly which provides electrical isolation and cooling. All tubes and mounts will be located in the lower level of the torus enclosure. An extensive demineralized water flow system is required to provide gyrotron cooling.

  5. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Analysis For Disease Detection: Proof Of Principle For Field Studies Detecting Paratuberculosis And Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Henri; Köhler, Heike; Nicola, Commander; Reinhold, Petra; Turner, Claire; Chambers, Mark

    2009-05-01

    A proof of concept investigation was performed to demonstrate that two independent infectious diseases of cattle result in different patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the headspace of serum samples detectable using an electronic nose (e-nose). A total of 117 sera from cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (paraTB, n = 43) or Brucella sp. (n = 26) and sera from corresponding control animals (n = 48) were randomly and analysed blind to infection status using a ST214 e-nose (Scensive Ltd, Leeds, UK). Samples were collected under non-standardised conditions on different farms from the UK (brucellosis) and Germany (paraTB). The e-nose could differentiate the sera from brucellosis infected, paraTB infected and healthy animals at the population level, but the technology used was not suitable for determination of the disease status of individual animals. Nevertheless, the data indicate that there are differences in the sensor responses depending on the disease status, and therefore, it shows the potential of VOC analysis from serum headspace samples for disease detection.

  6. Tissue Discrimination by Uncorrected Autofluorescence Spectra: A Proof-of-Principle Study for Tissue-Specific Laser Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Tangermann-Gerk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser surgery provides a number of advantages over conventional surgery. However, it implies large risks for sensitive tissue structures due to its characteristic non-tissue-specific ablation. The present study investigates the discrimination of nine different ex vivo tissue types by using uncorrected (raw autofluorescence spectra for the development of a remote feedback control system for tissue-selective laser surgery. Autofluorescence spectra (excitation wavelength 377 ± 50 nm were measured from nine different ex vivo tissue types, obtained from 15 domestic pig cadavers. For data analysis, a wavelength range between 450 nm and 650 nm was investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA were used to discriminate the tissue types. ROC analysis showed that PCA, followed by QDA, could differentiate all investigated tissue types with AUC results between 1.00 and 0.97. Sensitivity reached values between 93% and 100% and specificity values between 94% and 100%. This ex vivo study shows a high differentiation potential for physiological tissue types when performing autofluorescence spectroscopy followed by PCA and QDA. The uncorrected autofluorescence spectra are suitable for reliable tissue discrimination and have a high potential to meet the challenges necessary for an optical feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery.

  7. Transcriptional regulation of the proto-oncogene Zfp521 by SPI1 (PU.1) and HOXC13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming; Al-Dallal, Salma; Al-Haj, Latifa; Panjwani, Shiraj; McCartney, Akina S; Edwards, Sarah M; Manjunath, Pooja; Walker, Catherine; Awgulewitsch, Alexander; Hentges, Kathryn E

    2016-10-01

    The mouse zinc-finger gene Zfp521 (also known as ecotropic viral insertion site 3; Evi3; and ZNF521 in humans) has been identified as a B-cell proto-oncogene, causing leukemia in mice following retroviral insertions in its promoter region that drive Zfp521 over-expression. Furthermore, ZNF521 is expressed in human hematopoietic cells, and translocations between ZNF521 and PAX5 are associated with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the regulatory factors that control Zfp521 expression directly have not been characterized. Here we demonstrate that the transcription factors SPI1 (PU.1) and HOXC13 synergistically regulate Zfp521 expression, and identify the regions of the Zfp521 promoter required for this transcriptional activity. We also show that SPI1 and HOXC13 activate Zfp521 in a dose-dependent manner. Our data support a role for this regulatory mechanism in vivo, as transgenic mice over-expressing Hoxc13 in the fetal liver show a strong correlation between Hoxc13 expression levels and Zfp521 expression. Overall these experiments provide insights into the regulation of Zfp521 expression in a nononcogenic context. The identification of transcription factors capable of activating Zfp521 provides a foundation for further investigation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in ZFP521-driven cell differentiation processes and diseases linked to Zfp521 mis-expression. © 2016 The Authors. Genesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Transcriptional regulation of the proto‐oncogene Zfp521 by SPI1 (PU.1) and HOXC13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming; Al‐Dallal, Salma; Al‐Haj, Latifa; Panjwani, Shiraj; McCartney, Akina S.; Edwards, Sarah M.; Manjunath, Pooja; Walker, Catherine; Awgulewitsch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The mouse zinc‐finger gene Zfp521 (also known as ecotropic viral insertion site 3; Evi3; and ZNF521 in humans) has been identified as a B‐cell proto‐oncogene, causing leukemia in mice following retroviral insertions in its promoter region that drive Zfp521 over‐expression. Furthermore, ZNF521 is expressed in human hematopoietic cells, and translocations between ZNF521 and PAX5 are associated with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the regulatory factors that control Zfp521 expression directly have not been characterized. Here we demonstrate that the transcription factors SPI1 (PU.1) and HOXC13 synergistically regulate Zfp521 expression, and identify the regions of the Zfp521 promoter required for this transcriptional activity. We also show that SPI1 and HOXC13 activate Zfp521 in a dose‐dependent manner. Our data support a role for this regulatory mechanism in vivo, as transgenic mice over‐expressing Hoxc13 in the fetal liver show a strong correlation between Hoxc13 expression levels and Zfp521 expression. Overall these experiments provide insights into the regulation of Zfp521 expression in a nononcogenic context. The identification of transcription factors capable of activating Zfp521 provides a foundation for further investigation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in ZFP521‐driven cell differentiation processes and diseases linked to Zfp521 mis‐expression. PMID:27506447

  9. Minimal SPI1-T3SS effector requirement for Salmonella enterocyte invasion and intracellular proliferation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaiyi; Riba, Ambre; Nietschke, Monika; Torow, Natalia; Repnik, Urska; Pütz, Andreas; Fulde, Marcus; Dupont, Aline; Hensel, Michael; Hornef, Mathias

    2018-03-01

    Effector molecules translocated by the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)1-encoded type 3 secretion system (T3SS) critically contribute to the pathogenesis of human Salmonella infection. They facilitate internalization by non-phagocytic enterocytes rendering the intestinal epithelium an entry site for infection. Their function in vivo has remained ill-defined due to the lack of a suitable animal model that allows visualization of intraepithelial Salmonella. Here, we took advantage of our novel neonatal mouse model and analyzed various bacterial mutants and reporter strains as well as gene deficient mice. Our results demonstrate the critical but redundant role of SopE2 and SipA for enterocyte invasion, prerequisite for transcriptional stimulation and mucosal translocation in vivo. In contrast, the generation of a replicative intraepithelial endosomal compartment required the cooperative action of SipA and SopE2 or SipA and SopB but was independent of SopA or host MyD88 signaling. Intraepithelial growth had no critical influence on systemic spread. Our results define the role of SPI1-T3SS effector molecules during enterocyte invasion and intraepithelial proliferation in vivo providing novel insight in the early course of Salmonella infection.

  10. Breaking The Millisecond Barrier On SpiNNaker: Implementing Asynchronous Event-Based Plastic Models With Microsecond Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eLagorce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spike-based neuromorphic sensors such as retinas and cochleas, change the way in which the world is sampled. Instead of producing data sampled at a constant rate, these sensors output spikes that are asynchronous and event driven. The event-based nature of neuromorphic sensors implies a complete paradigm shift in current perception algorithms towards those that emphasize the importance of precise timing. The spikes produced by these sensors usually have a time resolution in the order of microseconds. This high temporal resolution is a crucial factor in learning tasks. It is also widely used in the field of biological neural networks. Sound localization for instance relies on detecting time lags between the two ears which, in the barn owl, reaches a temporal resolution of 5 microseconds. Current available neuromorphic computation platforms such as SpiNNaker often limit their users to a time resolution in the order of milliseconds that is not compatible with the asynchronous outputs of neuromorphic sensors. To overcome these limitations and allow for the exploration of new types of neuromorphic computing architectures, we introduce a novel software framework on the SpiNNaker platform. This framework allows for simulations of spiking networks and plasticity mechanisms using a completely asynchronous and event-based scheme running with a microsecond time resolution. Results on two example networks using this new implementation are presented.

  11. The man, who wasn't a spy. The life of the communist and scientist Klaus Fuchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, R.

    2005-01-01

    In 1949 the Sovjet Union ignited her first atomic bomb, many years earlyer than expected by western secret services. A decisive role played the German physicist Klaus Fuchs. From 1943 to 1946 he cooperated in the US atomic bomb program, called Manhatten Project. All knowledge he yield, all information he got, he passed on secret ways to the Sovjet Union. In 1950 he was exposed and condemned because of spying. This book is worldwide the first comprehensive biography of a man, who had been regarded as the ''most dangerous spy of the 20th century'' in the western world, and his work had been kept a secret in the East lasting for decades. The author evaluated an extensive source material from the USA, Great Britain and the Sovjet Union, released to pubication not till after 1990. Furtheron he could rely on the memory of many actors in the surrounding of Klaus Fuchs, who also found the way to the publicity after the end of the East-West-Conflict. (GL)

  12. Results from Polish Spondyloarthritis Initiative registry (PolSPI) - methodology and data from - the first year of observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guła, Zofia; Barczyńska, Tacjana; Brzosko, Marek; Gąsowski, Jerzy; Jeka, Sławomir; Jodłowska-Cicio, Katarzyna; Kwaśny-Krochin, Beata; Leszczyński, Piotr; Lubiński, Łukasz; Łosińska, Katarzyna; Pawlak-Buś, Katarzyna; Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Samborski, Włodzimierz; Schlabs, Małgorzata; Siedlar, Maciej; Sikorska, Dorota; Świerkot, Jerzy; Węgierska, Małgorzata; Wiland, Piotr; Korkosz, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Report on one-year results from the Polish Spondyloarthritis Initiative registry (PolSPI), containing the cross-sectional analysis of clinical and imaging data as well as database methodology. The PolSPI registry includes patients with axial (axSpA) and peripheral (perSpA) spondyloarthritis according to ASAS classification criteria, and/or patients with ankylosing spondylitis according to modified New York criteria, psoriatic arthritis according to CASPAR criteria, arthropathy in inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, juvenile spondyloarthritis or undifferentiated spondyloarthritis. Epidemiologic data and history of signs, symptoms and treatment of spondyloarthritis are collected and assessment of disease activity is performed. Radiographic images of sacroiliac joint, cervical and lumbar spine, and results of bone densitometry are collected. Every 6 months blood samples for inflammatory markers, and for long-term storage are taken. During a one-year period from September 2015 to August 2016, 63 patients were registered on an electronic database; 44 (69.8%) of patients were classified as axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and 19 (30.2%) as peripheral spondyloarthritis (perSpA) according to ASAS criteria. Statistically significant differences between axSpA and perSpA were discovered in the percentage of HLA-B27 antigen occurrence (92.6% and 50%, respectively), BASDAI (2.8% and 4.1%, respectively), DAS 28 (2.66% and 4.03%, respectively), percentage of peripheral arthritis (20% and 88.8%, respectively), enthesitis (26.7% and 70.6%, respectively), dactylitis (6.7% and 88.9%, respectively), as well as extra-articular symptoms: acute anterior uveitis (26.7% and 5.6%, respectively) and psoriasis (6.9% and 55.6%, respectively). Patients with axSpA had significantly higher mean grade of sacroiliac involvement according to New York criteria, higher mSASSS score, and lower T-score in femoral neck in bone densitometry. At the early stage of the disease patients with ax

  13. Program management plan for development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation efforts associated with Oak Ridge Reservation's Land Disposal Restrictions Federal Facility Compliance Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.

    1994-04-01

    This program management plan covers the development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation efforts necessary to identify treatment methods for all the waste listed in Appendix B of the ORR's LDR/FFCA as well as any new wastes which meet Appendix B criteria. To successfully identify a treatment method, at least a proof-of-principle level of understanding must be obtained: that is, the candidate processes must be demonstrated as effective in treating the wastes to the LDR; however, an optimized process is not required. Where applicable and deemed necessary and where the budgets will support them, pilot-scale demonstrations will be pursued. The overall strategy being adopted in this program will be composed of the following activities: Scoping of the study; characterization; development and screening of alternatives; treatability investigations; and detailed analysis of alternatives

  14. The growth hormone dependent serine protease inhibitor, Spi 2.1 inhibits the des (1-3) insulin-like growth factor-I generating protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maake, C; Yamamoto, H; Murphy, L J

    1997-12-01

    The conversion of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to the biologically more active des (1-3) IGF-I variant is catalyzed by a ubiquitous protease. This proteolytic activity is inhibited by human alpha1-antitrypsin and soy-bean trypsin inhibitor and is up-regulated in serum and tissue extracts of hypophysectomized rats. These observations lead us to investigate whether the growth hormone regulated, serine protease inhibitor, Spi 2.1 was able to inhibit the des (1-3) IGF-I generating protease. Dihydrofolate reductase deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO(dhfr-ve)) cells were transfected with a rat Spi 2.1 expression vector containing the dhfr and neomycin resistance gene. Stable transfectants were selected using G418 and amplified using methotrexate. Conditioned medium from Spi 2.1 transfected CHO cells potently inhibited proteolytic activity directed against a synthetic hexa-peptide with a sequence identical to the N-terminal of IGF-I. In contrast conditioned medium from wild-type CHO cells had little effect. Based upon these observations we suggest that our previous finding of enhanced des (1-3) IGF-I generating protease activity in growth hormone deficient rats may be, at least partly explained by reduced levels of Spi 2.1. Furthermore, we propose that the regulation of the generation of des (1-3) IGF-I may be an additional potential site of growth hormone regulation of IGF-I action.

  15. Review: Thomas Bierschenk and Eva Spies (eds, 50 Jahre Unabhängigkeit in Afrika: Kontinuitäten, Brüche, Perspektiven (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Castryck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume: Thomas Bierschenk and Eva Spies (eds, 50 Jahre Unabhängigkeit in Afrika: Kontinuitäten, Brüche, Perspektiven, Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, 2012, ISBN 9783896458292, 572 pages

  16. Practical Applications of the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) as a Tool for Very Early Warning of Droughts and Floods in the Balkans Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Southern Europe is repeatedly identified in IPCC Reports as being particularly vulnerable to water resource impacts with risks being assessed as medium to high with current (low) levels of adaptation. Drought frequency will likely increase by the end of the 21st century under IPCC RCP8.5 (medium confidence) . The Balkans region has encountered some of its most significant ever floods and droughts since 2000, highly symptomatic of intense climate change. Foremost of these are the regional catastrophic floods in Albania (2009-10) (2010-11), Bosnia, Herzegovina and Serbia (2014), and the widespread droughts of 2007-08 and 2013-14. There is an urgent need to improve the awareness and implementation of drought and flood risk management tools in the national Ministries and National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMSs) of s.e. Europe generally. This paper describes the development and application of a practical user-friendly tool to calculate SPI across a range of timescales as recommended by the WMO , using a conventional 'Year Book' format to enter monthly precipitation values, coupled with some automated and relatively simple VBA code. Since the tool is spreadsheet based, it is user-friendly and graphically intuitive. The conditional formatting capability introduces a visualisation element to the SPI which is extremely helpful to NHMSs and other non-expert decision makers in understanding SPI significance. Recent practical application of the tool in relation to significant recent floods and droughts in Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia has demonstrated its value as a Very Early Warning tool. However, there are some implicit dangers in simply tracking the SPI 1, 2, n value per se without taking account of the actual accumulated deficits that may generate agricultural and ultimately hydrological droughts. It is conventionally assumed that the sum of the SPI for all months within a drought event can be termed the drought's "magnitude". In fact this is not the case. In regions

  17. OPATs: Omnibus P-value association tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Wei; Yang, Hsin-Chou

    2017-07-10

    Combining statistical significances (P-values) from a set of single-locus association tests in genome-wide association studies is a proof-of-principle method for identifying disease-associated genomic segments, functional genes and biological pathways. We review P-value combinations for genome-wide association studies and introduce an integrated analysis tool, Omnibus P-value Association Tests (OPATs), which provides popular analysis methods of P-value combinations. The software OPATs programmed in R and R graphical user interface features a user-friendly interface. In addition to analysis modules for data quality control and single-locus association tests, OPATs provides three types of set-based association test: window-, gene- and biopathway-based association tests. P-value combinations with or without threshold and rank truncation are provided. The significance of a set-based association test is evaluated by using resampling procedures. Performance of the set-based association tests in OPATs has been evaluated by simulation studies and real data analyses. These set-based association tests help boost the statistical power, alleviate the multiple-testing problem, reduce the impact of genetic heterogeneity, increase the replication efficiency of association tests and facilitate the interpretation of association signals by streamlining the testing procedures and integrating the genetic effects of multiple variants in genomic regions of biological relevance. In summary, P-value combinations facilitate the identification of marker sets associated with disease susceptibility and uncover missing heritability in association studies, thereby establishing a foundation for the genetic dissection of complex diseases and traits. OPATs provides an easy-to-use and statistically powerful analysis tool for P-value combinations. OPATs, examples, and user guide can be downloaded from http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/association/OPATs.htm. © The Author 2017

  18. Expression of OsSPY and 14-3-3 genes involved in plant height variations of ion-beam-induced KDML 105 rice mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phanchaisri, Boonrak [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Samsang, Nuananong [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, Liang Deng; Singkarat, Somsorn [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, Somboon, E-mail: soanu.1@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2012-06-01

    The culm length of two semidwarf rice mutants (PKOS1, HyKOS1) obtained from low-energy N-ion beam bombardments of dehusked Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) seeds showed 25.7% and 21.5% height reductions and one spindly rice mutant (TKOS4) showed 21.4% increase in comparison with that of the KDML 105 control. A cDNA-RAPD analysis identified differential gene expression in internode tissues of the rice mutants. Two genes identified from the cDNA-RAPD were OsSPY and 14-3-3, possibly associated with stem height variations of the semidwarf and spindly mutants, respectively. The OsSPY gene encoded the SPY protein which is considered to be a negative regulator of gibberellin (GA). On the other hand, the 14-3-3 encoded a signaling protein which can bind and prevent the RSG (repression of shoot growth) protein function as a transcriptional repressor of the kaurene oxidase (KO) gene in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Expression analysis of OsSPY, 14-3-3, RSG, KO, and SLR1 was confirmed in rice internode tissues during the reproductive stage of the plants by semi-quantitative RT-PCR technique. The expression analysis showed a clear increase of the levels of OsSPY transcripts in PKOS1 and HyKOS1 tissue samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and TKOS4 samples at the age of 50-60 days which were at the ages of internode elongation. The 14-3-3 expression had the highest increase in the TKOS4 samples compared to those in KDML 105, PKOS1 and HyKOS1 samples. The expression analysis of RSG and KO showed an increase in TKOS4 samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and that of the two semidwarf mutants. These results indicate that changes of OsSPY and 14-3-3 expression could affect internode elongation and cause the phenotypic changes of semidwarf and spindly rice mutants, respectively.

  19. Pre Cold War British Spy Fiction, the “albatross of self” and lines of flight in Gravity’s Rainbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Wishart Smith

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In his introduction to 'Slow Learner' Thomas Pynchon suggests that an influence in his short story ‘Under the Rose’ was the spy fiction he had read as a child.  What he takes from the form, he says, is an enjoyment of  “lurking, spying, false identities, psychological games.” I hope to show that this youthful reading has interesting things to tell us about Pynchon’s writing beyond ‘Under the Rose’ and in more complex ways than his quote suggests. To do this I want to focus on that perennial issue of spy fiction - the maintenance and manipulation of identity. Negotiating ideas of subjectivity is a core concern in Pynchon’s work and to consider it I want to use the four spy novelists he mentions in the 'Slow Learner' introduction - John Buchan, E. Phillips Oppenheim, Helen MacInnes and Geoffrey Household. This is a more disparate quartet of authors than Pynchon’s grouping suggests and I want to employ them to consider a variety of strategies used to ‘build character’ and the way Pynchon’s work approaches these strategies.  This allows a reflection on questions of disguise, doubles, animals and the nomad within the context of a variety of postcolonial theories and aspects of Deleuze and Guattari’s “nomadology”. 'V 'would appear an obvious place to see connections to spy fiction, but, though I touch on some aspects of this novel, my focus will be very much on 'Gravity’s Rainbow' because it has a much more concerted focus on the subject of Empire. Some intriguing echoes are to be found in the work of Pynchon in these authors and I hope to show how Pynchon’s attempts to formulate US “superimperialism” (Aijaz Ahmad are reflected in the imperial concerns of what I would term the pre-Cold War British Spy fiction that engaged Pynchon in his youth.

  20. Pentalum SpiDAR Deployment at SWiFT FY17.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westergaard, Carsten [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pol, Suhas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pereira, Tassia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Castillo, Ricardo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Texas Tech University ( TTU ) research group is actively studying the wake development of wind turbines, as part of developing innovative wake control strategies to improve the performance of wind farms. Recently, the team received a set of five new gro und lidars to perform field measurements at the Sandia National Laboratories SWiFT site. This document describes tests details including configurations, timeframe, hardware, and the required collaboration from the Sandia team. This test plan will facili tate the coordination between both TTU and the Sandia team in terms of site accessibility, staff training, and data sharing to meet the specific objectives of the tests.

  1. Ethnic and Regional Identity in Polish Part of Spiš Region (On the Example of Jurgów Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagín Vojtech

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In my study I am focusing on the issue of national and regional identity of Spiš region inhabitants. The researched Jurgów village belongs to territory situated on the frontier between two states and at the same time between two regions. In the study I analyze the question of stereotypes present in the locality concerning gorals from the neighbouring Podhale region and Slovak part of Spiš region. In addition to that I deal with analysis of importance and understanding of space and border for the identity of local population. On the basis of the empirical data analysis results I observe that the identity of the researched village population is shaped by the fact that it belongs to the frontier territory where crossborder cultural and social interaction occurs.

  2. Determination of the Integral/SPI instrumental response and his application to the observation of gamma ray lines in the Vela region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attie, D.

    2005-01-01

    The INTEGRAL/SPI spectrometer was designed to observe the sky in the energy band of 20 keV to 8 MeV. The specificity of instrument SPI rests on the excellent spectral resolution (2.3 keV with 1 MeV) of its detecting plan, composed of 19 cooled germanium crystals; covering an effective area of 508 cm 2 . The use of a coded mask, located at 1.7 m above the detection plan ensures to it a resolving power of 2.5 degrees. The aim of this thesis, begun before the INTEGRAL launch, is made up of two parts. The first part relates to the analysis of the spectrometer calibration data. The objective was to measure and check the performances of the telescope, in particular to validate simulations of the INTEGRAL/SPI instrument response. This objective was successfully achieved. This analysis also highlights the presence of a significant instrumental background noise. Whereas, the second part concentrates on the data analysis of the Vela region observations. I have approached two astrophysical topics dealing with: - the search for radioactive decays lines of titanium-44, which is produced by explosive nucleosynthesis, in the supernova remnant of Vela Junior and, - the search of cyclotron resonance scattering features expected towards 25 keV and 52 keV in the accreting pulsar spectrum of the x-ray binary star Vela X-1. Putting forward the hypothesis that the result obtained previously by COMPTEL is correct and considering the no-detection of the titanium-44 lines by SPI, we give a lower limit at 4500 km s -1 for the ejecta velocity from Vela Junior. The analysis on the research of the cyclotron lines have shown that the results are very sensitive to the instrumental background. Thorough studies will be necessary to guarantee an unambiguous detection of these lines. (author)

  3. Usefulness of cholangioscopic-guided mapping biopsy using SpyGlass DS for preoperative evaluation of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takahisa; Ito, Kei; Koshita, Shinsuke; Kanno, Yoshihide; Masu, Kaori; Kusunose, Hiroaki; Sakai, Toshitaka; Murabayashi, Toji; Hasegawa, Sho; Noda, Yutaka

    2018-02-01

     Evaluation of longitudinal tumor extent is indispensable for curative surgical treatment of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of cholangioscopic-guided mapping biopsy using a newly developed peroral digital cholangioscope, SpyGlass DS (SpyDS), for preoperative evaluation of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.  Thirteen patients (mean age, 75 years; male 10, female 3) with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma who underwent cholangioscopic-guided mapping biopsy using SpyDS for preoperative evaluation were included in this study. Successful cholangioscopic-guided mapping biopsy was defined as the acquisition of specimens sufficient for histopathological diagnosis.  The mean number of biopsies was 5 per patient. The overall success rate for cholangioscopic-guided mapping biopsy was 88 % (59/67). The success rate for cholangioscopic-guided mapping biopsy from the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts was 89 %, that from the B4 confluence was 93 %, that from the confluence of the right anterior and right posterior segmental ducts was 86 %, that from the intrapancreatic common bile duct was 67 %, and that from the main lesion was 100 %. The overall diagnostic accuracy of longitudinal tumor extent at the hepatic side, the duodenal side and overall by cholangioscopic findings and mapping biopsy, was 88 % (7/8), 88 % (7/8) and 88 % (7/8), respectively. Assessment according to location of the main lesion revealed that diagnostic accuracy in the patients with distal bile duct carcinoma was 100 % (5/5) and that in patients with perihilar bile duct carcinoma was 66 % (2/3). Complications after the procedure did not occur in any patients.  Cholangioscopic-guided mapping biopsy using SpyDS is thought to be feasible for preoperative evaluation of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

  4. Subcloning plus insertion (SPI)--a novel recombineering method for the rapid construction of gene targeting vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Thimma R; Kelsall, Emma J; Fevat, Léna M S; Munson, Sarah E; Cowley, Shaun M

    2015-01-08

    Gene targeting refers to the precise modification of a genetic locus using homologous recombination. The generation of novel cell lines and transgenic mouse models using this method necessitates the construction of a 'targeting' vector, which contains homologous DNA sequences to the target gene, and has for many years been a limiting step in the process. Vector construction can be performed in vivo in Escherichia coli cells using homologous recombination mediated by phage recombinases using a technique termed recombineering. Recombineering is the preferred technique to subclone the long homology sequences (>4 kb) and various targeting elements including selection markers that are required to mediate efficient allelic exchange between a targeting vector and its cognate genomic locus. Typical recombineering protocols follow an iterative scheme of step-wise integration of the targeting elements and require intermediate purification and transformation steps. Here, we present a novel recombineering methodology of vector assembly using a multiplex approach. Plasmid gap repair is performed by the simultaneous capture of genomic sequence from mouse Bacterial Artificial Chromosome libraries and the insertion of dual bacterial and mammalian selection markers. This subcloning plus insertion method is highly efficient and yields a majority of correct recombinants. We present data for the construction of different types of conditional gene knockout, or knock-in, vectors and BAC reporter vectors that have been constructed using this method. SPI vector construction greatly extends the repertoire of the recombineering toolbox and provides a simple, rapid and cost-effective method of constructing these highly complex vectors.

  5. Hanford low-level waste process chemistry testing data package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.D.; Tracey, E.M.; Darab, J.G.; Smith, P.A.

    1996-03-01

    Recently, the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) among the State of Washington Department of Ecology, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the cleanup of the Hanford Site was renegotiated. The revised agreement specifies vitrification as the encapsulation technology for low level waste (LLW). A demonstration, testing, and evaluation program underway at Westinghouse Hanford Company to identify the best overall melter-system technology available for vitrification of Hanford Site LLW to meet the TPA milestones. Phase I is a {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} test to demonstrate that a melter system can process a simulated highly alkaline, high nitrate/nitrite content aqueous LLW feed into a glass product of consistent quality. Seven melter vendors were selected for the Phase I evaluation: joule-heated melters from GTS Duratek, Incorporated (GDI); Envitco, Incorporated (EVI); Penberthy Electomelt, Incorporated (PEI); and Vectra Technologies, Incorporated (VTI); a gas-fired cyclone burner from Babcock & Wilcox (BCW); a plasma torch-fired, cupola furnace from Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC); and an electric arc furnace with top-entering vertical carbon electrodes from the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM).

  6. Cytocompatibility testing of cell culture modules fabricated from specific candidate biomaterials using injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebl, Bernhard; Lützow, Karola; Lange, Maik; Jung, Friedrich; Seifert, Barbara; Klein, Frank; Weigel, Thomas; Kratz, Karl; Lendlein, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Most polymers used in clinical applications today are materials that have been developed originally for application areas other than biomedicine. Testing the cell- and tissue-compatibility of novel materials in vitro and in vivo is of key importance for the approval of medical devices and is regulated according to the Council Directive 93/42/EEC of the European communities concerning medical devices. In the standardized testing methods the testing sample is placed in commercially available cell culture plates, which are often made from polystyrene. Thus not only the testing sample itself influences cell behavior but also the culture vessel material. In order to exclude this influence, a new system for cell testing will be presented allowing a more precise and systematic investigation by preparing tailored inserts which are made of the testing material. Inserts prepared from polystyrene, polycarbonate and poly(ether imide) were tested for their cytotoxity and cell adherence. Furthermore a proof of principle concerning the preparation of inserts with a membrane-like surface structure and its surface modification was established. Physicochemical investigations revealed a similar morphology and showed to be very similar to the findings to analogous preparations and modifications of flat-sheet membranes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical Method to Improve CO{sub 2} Flooding Sweep Efficiency for Oil Recovery Using SPI-CO{sub 2} Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Lyle D.

    2009-04-14

    The problem in CO{sub 2} flooding lies with its higher mobility causing low conformance or sweep efficiency. This is an issue in oilfield applications where an injected fluid or gas used to mobilize and produce the oil in a marginal field has substantially higher mobility (function of viscosity and density and relative permeability) relative to the crude oil promoting fingering and early breakthrough. Conformance is particularly critical in CO{sub 2} oilfield floods where the end result is less oil recovered and substantially higher costs related to the CO{sub 2}. The SPI-CO{sub 2} (here after called “SPI”) gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a technically effective solution to the conformance problem with CO{sub 2} floods. This SPI gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an external initiator (CO{sub 2}) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current technologies where the gels set up as a function of time, regardless of where it is placed in the reservoir. In those current systems, the internal initiator is included in the injected fluid for water shut off applications. In this new research effort, the CO{sub 2} is an external initiator contacted after SPI gel solution placement. This concept ensures in the proper water wet reservoir environment that the SPI gel sets up in the precise high permeability path followed by the CO{sub 2}, therefore improving sweep efficiency to a greater degree than conventional systems. In addition, the final SPI product in commercial quantities is expected to be low cost over the competing systems. This Phase I research effort provided “proof of concept” that SPI gels possess strength and may be formed in a sand pack reducing the permeability to brine and CO{sub 2} flow. This SPI technology is a natural extension of prior R & D and the Phase I effort that together show a high potential for success in a Phase II follow-on project. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a major by-product of

  8. Power-Hardware-In-the-Loop (PHIL) Test of VSC-based HVDC connection for Offshore Wind Power Plants (WPPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) test for an offshore wind power plant (WPP) interconnected to the onshore grid by a VSC-based HVDC connection. The intention of the PHIL test is to verify the control coordination between the plant side converter of the HVDC connection...... and the wind turbines within the WPP in order to ensure smooth operation of the WPP under both normal operating condition and operating conditions with grid faults. The PHIL test platform is comprised of a real time digital simulator (RTDS), a Spitzenberger Spies three phase 7.5 kW amplifier, a Danfoss VSC...... based converter and a chopper. The WPP is simulated in the RTDS which consists of a number of full scale converter wind turbines (FSCWTs). The simulated WPP interacts with the plant side converter through the Spitzenberger Spies amplifier. The interfacing between the RTDS and the Spitzenberger Spies...

  9. The Salmonella SPI2 effector SseI mediates long-term systemic infection by modulating host cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M McLaughlin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Host-adapted strains of Salmonella enterica cause systemic infections and have the ability to persist systemically for long periods of time despite the presence of a robust immune response. Chronically infected hosts are asymptomatic and transmit disease to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria, thereby serving as a critical reservoir for disease. We show that the bacterial effector protein SseI (also called SrfH, which is translocated into host cells by the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2 type III secretion system (T3SS, is required for Salmonella typhimurium to maintain a long-term chronic systemic infection in mice. SseI inhibits normal cell migration of primary macrophages and dendritic cells (DC in vitro, and such inhibition requires the host factor IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1, an important regulator of cell migration. SseI binds directly to IQGAP1 and co-localizes with this factor at the cell periphery. The C-terminal domain of SseI is similar to PMT/ToxA, a bacterial toxin that contains a cysteine residue (C1165 that is critical for activity. Mutation of the corresponding residue in SseI (C178A eliminates SseI function in vitro and in vivo, but not binding to IQGAP1. In addition, infection with wild-type (WT S. typhimurium suppressed DC migration to the spleen in vivo in an SseI-dependent manner. Correspondingly, examination of spleens from mice infected with WT S. typhimurium revealed fewer DC and CD4(+ T lymphocytes compared to mice infected with Delta sseI S. typhimurium. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SseI inhibits normal host cell migration, which ultimately counteracts the ability of the host to clear systemic bacteria.

  10. UCD-SPI: Un-Collimated Detector Single-Photon Imaging System for Small Animal and Plant Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Katherine Leigh

    Medical imaging systems using single gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes implement collimators in order to form images. However, a tradeoff in sensitivity is inherent in the use of collimators, and modern preclinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems detect a very small fraction of emitted gamma-rays (imaging, while still producing images of sufficient spatial resolution for certain applications in "thin" objects such as mice, small plants, and well plates used for in vitro experiments. This flexible geometry un-collimated detector single-photon imaging (UCD-SPI) system consists of two large (5 cm x 10 cm), thin (3 mm and 5 mm), closely spaced, pixelated scintillation detectors of either NaI(Tl), CsI(Na), or BGO. The detectors are read out by two adjacent Hamamatsu H8500 multichannel photomultiplier tubes. The detector heads enable the interchange of scintillation detectors of different materials and thicknesses to optimize performance for a wide range of gamma-ray energies and imaging subjects. The detectors are horizontally oriented for animal imaging, and for plant imaging the system is rotated on its side to orient the detectors vertically. While this un-collimated detector system is unable to approach the sub-mm spatial resolution obtained by the most advanced preclinical pinhole SPECT systems, the high sensitivity could enable significant and new use in molecular imaging applications which do not require good spatial resolution- for example, screening applications for drug development (small animals), for material transport and sequestration studies for phytoremediation (plants), or for counting radiolabeled cells in vitro (well plates).

  11. Analysis of Gridded SPI in Hawai`i from 1920 to 2012 and Management Responses to Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, A. G.; Lucas, M.; Giardina, C. P.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Trauernicht, C.; Miura, T.

    2017-12-01

    Drought is a prominent feature of Hawai`i's climate with severe impacts in multiple sectors. Over the last century, Hawai`i has experienced downward trends in rainfall and stream baseflow, upward trends in the number of consecutive dry days and wildfire incidents, and regional projections show that unusually severe dry seasons will become increasingly common on the leeward side of all Hawaiian Islands. Many recent studies have examined different aspects of drought in Hawai`i, however, there has not been a complete synthesis of historical drought since 1991. To assess historical drought regimes in Hawai`i, a gridded Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) product was developed and analyzed for the period 1920 to 2012 at 250 m resolution. Results show that the last decade has been the driest on record, with statewide drought conditions present 90% of the time between December 2006 and December 2012. Strong spatial variations were found between islands, with higher peak intensities found on Maui and Hawai`i Island, and shorter duration droughts on Kaua`i. The most severe droughts are typically associated with El Niño events, and in recent decades, the leeward coast of Hawai`i Island has been the most drought-prone area in the state. This study also assessed historical drought specifically for federal and state conservation lands, and examined management actions during recent events. Severe droughts have shaped management plans, affecting responses including ungulate control, fuel reductions, native plant restoration, and protection of endangered species. This spatially explicit retrospective analysis provides the historical context needed to understand future projections, and contributes to more effective policy and management of natural, cultural, hydrological and agricultural resources.

  12. Field Test Design Simulations of Pore-Water Extraction for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A proof of principle test of pore water extraction is being performed by Washington River Protection Solutions for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection. This test is being conducted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) Milestone M 045-20, and is described in RPP-PLAN-53808, 200 West Area Tank Farms Interim Measures Investigation Work Plan. To support design of this test, numerical simulations were conducted to help define equipment and operational parameters. The modeling effort builds from information collected in laboratory studies and from field characterization information collected at the test site near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. Numerical simulations were used to evaluate pore-water extraction performance as a function of the test site properties and for the type of extraction well configuration that can be constructed using the direct-push installation technique. Output of simulations included rates of water and soil-gas production as a function of operational conditions for use in supporting field equipment design. The simulations also investigated the impact of subsurface heterogeneities in sediment properties and moisture distribution on pore-water extraction performance. Phenomena near the extraction well were also investigated because of their importance for pore-water extraction performance.

  13. Study of the electron-positron annihilation in the galactic center region with the Integral/SPI spectrometer; Etude de l'annihilation electron-positon dans la region du centre galactique avec le spectrometre INTEGRAL/SPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizun, P

    2007-04-15

    A spectral feature was detected in 1970 in the gamma-ray emission from the central regions of the Milky Way, during balloon flight observations. Located near 511 keV, this feature was soon attributed to the gamma-ray line tracing the annihilation of electrons with their anti-particles, positrons. However, none of the multiple astrophysical scenarios contemplated to explain the production of positrons in the Galactic bulge has been able to reproduce the high injection rate deduced from the flux of the 511 keV line, close to 10{sup 43} positrons per second. Launched in 2002, the European gamma-ray satellite INTEGRAL was provided with a spectrometer, SPI, whose unprecedented imaging and spectral capabilities in this energy range enable us to further study the source of the 511 keV line detected in the Galactic centre region. Indeed, a better determination of the spatial extent of the source, the intrinsic width of the line and the fraction of positrons annihilating in-flight, directly or via the formation of ortho-Positronium atoms would improve our knowledge of both the annihilation medium and the initial source of positrons, and could allow us to discriminate between the various explanatory scenarios. The first part of this thesis deals with a key ingredient in the extraction of the annihilation spectrum: the optimization of the instrumental background model. New data screening and tracer selection procedures are presented. Classical multi-linear models are compared to neural and Bayesian networks. Finally, three years of observation are used to constrain the width of the source and derive its spectrum. The second part of the thesis focuses on one of the possible scenarios explaining the high positron injection rate deduced from the flux of the 511 keV line: the annihilation of light dark matter particles into electron-positron pairs. The various radiation mechanisms involved are modeled and confronted to observations in order to set an upper limit on the injection

  14. Characterization of Ceramic Material Produced From a Cold Crucible Induction Melter Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marra, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-30

    This report summarizes the results from characterization of samples from a melt processed surrogate ceramic waste form. Completed in October of 2014, the first scaled proof of principle cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test was conducted to process a Fe-hollandite-rich titanate ceramic for treatment of high level nuclear waste. X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for Cs), and product consistency tests were used to characterize the CCIM material produced. Core samples at various radial locations from the center of the CCIM were taken. These samples were also sectioned and analyzed vertically. Together, the various samples were intended to provide an indication of the homogeneity throughout the CCIM with respect to phase assemblage, chemical composition, and chemical durability. Characterization analyses confirmed that a crystalline ceramic with desirable phase assemblage was produced from a melt using a CCIM. Hollandite and zirconolite were identified in addition to possible highly-substituted pyrochlore and perovskite. Minor phases rich in Fe, Al, or Cs were also identified. Remarkably only minor differences were observed vertically or radially in the CCIM material with respect to chemical composition, phase assemblage, and durability. This recent CCIM test and the resulting characterization in conjunction with demonstrated compositional improvements support continuation of CCIM testing with an improved feed composition and improved melter system.

  15. Determination of the Integral/SPI instrumental response and his application to the observation of gamma ray lines in the Vela region; Determination de la reponse instrumentale du spectrometre INTEGRAL/SPI et application a l'observation des raies gamma de la region des Voiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attie, D

    2005-01-15

    The INTEGRAL/SPI spectrometer was designed to observe the sky in the energy band of 20 keV to 8 MeV. The specificity of instrument SPI rests on the excellent spectral resolution (2.3 keV with 1 MeV) of its detecting plan, composed of 19 cooled germanium crystals; covering an effective area of 508 cm{sup 2}. The use of a coded mask, located at 1.7 m above the detection plan ensures to it a resolving power of 2.5 degrees. The aim of this thesis, begun before the INTEGRAL launch, is made up of two parts. The first part relates to the analysis of the spectrometer calibration data. The objective was to measure and check the performances of the telescope, in particular to validate simulations of the INTEGRAL/SPI instrument response. This objective was successfully achieved. This analysis also highlights the presence of a significant instrumental background noise. Whereas, the second part concentrates on the data analysis of the Vela region observations. I have approached two astrophysical topics dealing with: - the search for radioactive decays lines of titanium-44, which is produced by explosive nucleosynthesis, in the supernova remnant of Vela Junior and, - the search of cyclotron resonance scattering features expected towards 25 keV and 52 keV in the accreting pulsar spectrum of the x-ray binary star Vela X-1. Putting forward the hypothesis that the result obtained previously by COMPTEL is correct and considering the no-detection of the titanium-44 lines by SPI, we give a lower limit at 4500 km s{sup -1} for the ejecta velocity from Vela Junior. The analysis on the research of the cyclotron lines have shown that the results are very sensitive to the instrumental background. Thorough studies will be necessary to guarantee an unambiguous detection of these lines. (author)

  16. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  17. Spying on volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    Active volcanoes can be incredibly dangerous, especially to those who live nearby, but how do you get close enough to observe one in action? Matthew Watson explains how artificial drones are providing volcanologists with insights that could one day save human lives

  18. Spitzer Spies Spectacular Sombrero

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2 NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes on one of the most famous objects in the sky, Messier 104, also called the Sombrero galaxy. In this striking infrared picture, Spitzer sees an exciting new view of a galaxy that in visible light has been likened to a 'sombrero,' but here looks more like a 'bulls-eye.' Recent observations using Spitzer's infrared array camera uncovered the bright, smooth ring of dust circling the galaxy, seen in red. In visible light, because this galaxy is seen nearly edge-on, only the near rim of dust can be clearly seen in silhouette. Spitzer's full view shows the disk is warped, which is often the result of a gravitational encounter with another galaxy, and clumpy areas spotted in the far edges of the ring indicate young star-forming regions. Spitzer's infrared view of the starlight from this galaxy, seen in blue, can pierce through obscuring murky dust that dominates in visible light. As a result, the full extent of the bulge of stars and an otherwise hidden disk of stars within the dust ring are easily seen. The Sombrero galaxy is located some 28 million light years away. Viewed from Earth, it is just six degrees south of its equatorial plane. Spitzer detected infrared emission not only from the ring, but from the center of the galaxy too, where there is a huge black hole, believed to be a billion times more massive than our Sun. This picture is composed of four images taken at 3.6 (blue), 4.5 (green), 5.8 (orange), and 8.0 (red) microns. The contribution from starlight (measured at 3.6 microns) has been subtracted from the 5.8 and 8-micron images to enhance the visibility of the dust features. In figure 1, the new picture of Messier 104 combines a recent infrared observation from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope with a well-known visible light image from the Hubble Space Telescope. In the Hubble Space Telescope's visible light image (lower left panel), only the near rim of dust can be clearly seen in silhouette. Recent observations using Spitzer's infrared array camera (lower right panel) uncovered the bright, smooth ring of dust circling the galaxy, seen in red. Spitzer's infrared view of the starlight, pierced through the obscuring dust, is easily seen, along with the bulge of stars and an otherwise hidden disk of stars within the dust ring. Spitzer's full view shows the disk is warped, which is often the result of a gravitational encounter with another galaxy, and clumpy areas spotted in the far edges of the ring indicate young star-forming regions. In figure 2, the infrared space telescope adds new detail to the galaxy's hallmark characteristics, such as the bright, bulbous core encircled by its thick dust lanes. Since infrared light can trace the dust, the dark, murky ring glows brilliantly in infrared. The clumpy dust ring also becomes transparent to starlight in infrared, allowing a clear view of the inner disk of stars within the dust ring. Viewed from Earth, the Sombrero galaxy is seen nearly edge-on, just six degrees away from its equatorial plane. This spiral galaxy is located 28 million light years away and is 50,000 light-years across. The Sombrero is one of the most massive objects at the southern edge of the Virgo cluster of galaxies, and is equal in size to 800 billion Suns. It hosts a rich system of nearly 2,000 globular clusters, 10 times as many as orbit our Milky Way galaxy. It is also interesting that the Sombrero galaxy may harbor a super-massive black hole, accounting for the electromagnetic glow emitted from its center. The Hubble images were taken by the Hubble Heritage Team in May-June 2003 with the space telescope's advanced camera for surveys. Spitzer's images were taken in June 2004 and January 2005 as part of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey, using the telescope's infrared array camera. The survey is one of the six Spitzer Legacy Science projects, designed to reveal how stars are formed in different types of galaxies, and to provide an atlas of galaxy images and spectra for future archival investigations. The Sombrero is one of 75 galaxies being observed by the survey team. In this image, blue-cyan corresponds to the Hubble visible-light view, while the Spitzer 3.6-4.5 micron light is green and 8.0 micron light is red. Starlight in this Spitzer image (measured at 3.6 microns) has been subtracted from the 8-micron image to enhance the visibility of the dust features. In figure 3, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has trained its sharp eye on one of the universe's most stately and photogenic galaxies, Messier 104. The galaxy's hallmark is a brilliant white, bulbous core encircled by the thick dust lanes comprising the spiral structure of the galaxy. As seen from Earth, the galaxy is tilted nearly edge-on. We view it from just six degrees north of its equatorial plane. This brilliant galaxy was named the Sombrero because in visible light it resembles a broad rimmed and high-topped Mexican hat. M104 is just beyond the limit of the naked eye, but is easily seen through small telescopes. It lies at the southern edge of the rich Virgo cluster of galaxies. It is one of the most massive objects in that group, equivalent to 800 billion suns. The galaxy is 50,000 light-years across and is located 28 million light-years from Earth. Hubble easily resolves M104's rich system of 2,000 globular clusters-believed to be 10 times as many as orbit our Milky Way galaxy. The ages of the clusters are similar to those of the clusters in the Milky Way, ranging from 10-13 billion years. A smaller disk is embedded in the bright core of M104, and is tilted relative to the large disk. X-ray emission hints that there is material falling into the compact core, where a black hole as massive as 1 billion suns resides. The Hubble Heritage Team took these observations in May-June 2003 with the space telescope's advanced camera for surveys. Images were taken in three filters (red, green, and blue) to yield a natural-color image. The team took six pictures of the galaxy and then stitched them together to create the final composite image. This magnificent galaxy has a diameter that is nearly one-fifth the diameter of the full Moon. The movie shifts from the well-known visible-light picture of Messier 104 taken by the Hubble Space Telescope to infrared views from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Messier (click on the browse image above for download option).

  19. Manufacturing and testing of a copper/CFC divertor mock-up for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossa, M.; Ciric, D.; Deksnis, E.; Falter, H.; Guerreschi, U.; Peacock, A.; Pick, M.; Rossi, M.; Shen, Y.; Zacchia, F.

    1995-01-01

    An actively cooled divertor is a possible option for future developments at The Joint European Torus (JET). A proof of principle actively cooled tile has been produced in order to qualify the relevant manufacturing technologies and the non destructive control processes. In this frame Ansaldo Ricerche (ARI) has been involved in the construction of a mock-up comprising 6 OFHC copper tubes for water cooling that are brazed to a plate made out of carbon fibre composite (CFC). The final objective was the high heat flux testing of the mock-up at JET in order to evaluate the general behaviour of the component under relevant operating conditions. The key point of the work was the realisation of a sound joint by adapting the expertise gained in ARI in previous R and D activities on brazing heterogeneous materials. Reliable methods for ultrasonic examinations of the pieces were also set up. For successful application to the JET pumped divertor a water-cooled CFC target plate must show surface temperatures of 2 . Furthermore, global hydraulic considerations specific to JET limit the system pressure to 0.7 MPa. In such a design, critical heat flux is not the key limit, rather the reliability of the CFC-copper joint in terms of extent of wetting. First tests in the neutral beam test bed at JET show an adequate response for fluxes up to 15 MW/m 2 . (orig.)

  20. Giovanni Paolo Marana’s Turkish Spy and the Police of Louis XIV: the Fear of Being Secretly Observed by Trained Agents in Early Modern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Porada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Paolo Marana’s epistolary novel, entitled l’Espion du Grand-Seigneur and published for the first time in the 1680s, was a pioneering work of a genre that was to flourish much later, namely spy story. The story features an Arab who comes to Paris in 1637 and spends the next 45 years collecting information about French government’s activity without being ever identified by French counter-intelligence. The main character was an undercover agent of a Muslim empire, who watched Christians with contempt - and yet the book that pretended to be just a bunch of his letters, accidentally found and translated from Arabic by Marana, was a bestseller in late seventeenth- and then eighteenth-century Western Europe. The paper presents the fates of the work and discusses the reasons of its huge success. Apart from the fact that the novel was written in a brilliant style, and published at the time when the ongoing Habsburg-Turkish war had triggered intensive interest in the Muslim East, one of these reasons was the fact that it was published in the time when in France a modern police force was created. Its tasks included collecting information about political opinions, religious practices and intimate lives of the Sun King’s subjects. The new feeling of being observed by the government’s men and informers certainly prepared the ground for the success of the first spy story of the West.

  1. Book review: The Sympathizer. A Vietnamese spy novel and the attempt to de-americanize our view on the war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz, Britta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 1975, the Vietnam War has just ended, but the cold war and the clash of ideologies are still going on. This would of course be the perfect background for some run-of-the-mill thriller written by a white American for a Western audience. And without knowing anything further, we might first think that The Sympathizer, which was recently translated into German and marketed as a “thriller” and “spy novel”, would be just one of those. However, things and people are all too often not what they seem to be – an adage which has never been more true than in this story. Far more than simply a thriller, it is also a political novel, a satirical story, refugee literature and a critique of modern mass media, all interspersed with discursive passages and spiced with literary references and aphorisms. Furthermore, the author is not a white American. The Sympathizer is the debut novel of Vietnamese-American Viet Thanh Nguyen, which won him the Pulitzer Prize in 2016 along with a great many other awards. Nguyen was born in Vietnam and grew up in the USA from where he experienced both cultures and had insight to both perspectives on the Vietnam War. He is a Professor of English and American Studies and Ethnicity primarily focused on “Americanization”, how the American perspective continues to dominate film, literature and pop culture. His book is a critique of this prevailing view and includes the issues of acculturation and identity crisis of immigrants, along with the importance of loyalty and relationships (or the lack of those. The narrator and protagonist of the story is a man who has no name and is only referred to as “the captain” throughout the book. We encounter him fleeing Saigon, accompanying a general of the South Vietnamese army, we know already that he has a secret. In the very first lines he reveals that he is a sleeper agent and actually working for the Viet Cong and spying on the South Vietnamese military and the CIA. The captain

  2. Design, construction, and testing of an anthropomorphic robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.W.; Yount, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A robotic mannequin is being developed for the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground as an aid to evaluation of protective clothing for use in hostile chemical environments. This paper described the conceptual design of the mannequin, the remaining phases of work to be completed, and the results of a proof-of-principle demonstration of control and articulation

  3. A quantitative test of population genetics using spatiogenetic patterns in bacterial colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Kirill S; Xavier, João B; Nelson, David R; Foster, Kevin R

    2011-10-01

    It is widely accepted that population-genetics theory is the cornerstone of evolutionary analyses. Empirical tests of the theory, however, are challenging because of the complex relationships between space, dispersal, and evolution. Critically, we lack quantitative validation of the spatial models of population genetics. Here we combine analytics, on- and off-lattice simulations, and experiments with bacteria to perform quantitative tests of the theory. We study two bacterial species, the gut microbe Escherichia coli and the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and show that spatiogenetic patterns in colony biofilms of both species are accurately described by an extension of the one-dimensional stepping-stone model. We use one empirical measure, genetic diversity at the colony periphery, to parameterize our models and show that we can then accurately predict another key variable: the degree of short-range cell migration along an edge. Moreover, the model allows us to estimate other key parameters, including effective population size (density) at the expansion frontier. While our experimental system is a simplification of natural microbial community, we argue that it constitutes proof of principle that the spatial models of population genetics can quantitatively capture organismal evolution.

  4. Laser weld reconstitution of conventional Charpy and Miniaturized Notch Test (MNT) specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manahan, M.P.; Williams, J.; Martukanitz, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    As nuclear power plants approach end-of-license (EOL) and consideration is given to license renewal, there is an ever increasing need to expand the amount of data obtainable from the original surveillance specimens. A laser welding technique to reconstitute broken Charpy specimens is being developed to produce both conventional and miniaturized Charpy specimens. This paper reports on early laser welding development efforts and summarizes previous proof-of-principle experiments on a 1/16 scale miniaturized Charpy test. In order to benchmark the laser welding procedure, the laser-reconstituted specimen data have been compared with the original specimen data. In addition, the microstructure after welding has been examined to ensure that the material in the vicinity of the notch is essentially unchanged after the welding process. Data which characterize the thermal transient during welding are obtained by attaching thermocouples to the specimens. Other important considerations include perturbation of the stress field near the notch, dynamic stress waves, and contact of the weld region with the tup. Precise control of welding parameters has been demonstrated, heat-affected zones as small as 0.25 mm can be achieved, and sufficient penetration depth can be obtained to enable welding thick sections (1T or greater) to yield conventional Charpy specimens or fracture toughness specimens and thin sections (∼5 mm) to yield Miniaturized Notch Test (MNT) specimens

  5. Test plan for buried waste containment system materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, J.; Shaw, P.

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of the FY 1997 barrier material work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory are to (1) select a waste barrier material and verify that it is compatible with the Buried Waste Containment System Process, and (2) determine if, and how, the Buried Waste Containment System emplacement process affects the material properties and performance (on proof of principle scale). This test plan describes a set of measurements and procedures used to validate a waste barrier material for the Buried Waste Containment System. A latex modified proprietary cement manufactured by CTS Cement Manufacturing Company will be tested. Emplacement properties required for the Buried Waste Containment System process are: slump between 8 and 10 in., set time between 15 and 30 minutes, compressive strength at set of 20 psi minimum, and set temperature less than 100 degrees C. Durability properties include resistance to degradation from carbonate, sulfate, and waste-site soil leachates. A set of baseline barrier material properties will be determined to provide a data base for comparison with the barrier materials when tested in the field. The measurements include permeability, petrographic analysis to determine separation and/or segregation of mix components, and a set of mechanical properties. The measurements will be repeated on specimens from the field test material. The data will be used to determine if the Buried Waste Containment System equipment changes the material. The emplacement properties will be determined using standard laboratory procedures and instruments. Durability of the barrier material will be evaluated by determining the effect of carbonate, sulfate, and waste-site soil leachates on the compressive strength of the barrier material. The baseline properties will be determined using standard ASTM procedures. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. Bell Test over Extremely High-Loss Channels: Towards Distributing Entangled Photon Pairs between Earth and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Li, Yu-Huai; Zou, Wen-Jie; Li, Zheng-Ping; Shen, Qi; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Ren, Ji-Gang; Yin, Juan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-04-01

    Quantum entanglement was termed "spooky action at a distance" in the well-known paper by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Entanglement is expected to be distributed over longer and longer distances in both practical applications and fundamental research into the principles of nature. Here, we present a proposal for distributing entangled photon pairs between Earth and the Moon using a Lagrangian point at a distance of 1.28 light seconds. One of the most fascinating features in this long-distance distribution of entanglement is as follows. One can perform the Bell test with human supplying the random measurement settings and recording the results while still maintaining spacelike intervals. To realize a proof-of-principle experiment, we develop an entangled photon source with 1 GHz generation rate, about 2 orders of magnitude higher than previous results. Violation of Bell's inequality was observed under a total simulated loss of 103 dB with measurement settings chosen by two experimenters. This demonstrates the feasibility of such long-distance Bell test over extremely high-loss channels, paving the way for one of the ultimate tests of the foundations of quantum mechanics.

  7. Bubble retention in synthetic sludge: Testing of alternative gas retention apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassat, S.D.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1995-07-01

    Several of the underground storage tanks currently used to store waste at Hanford have been placed on the Flammable Gas Watch List, because the waste is either known or suspected to generate, store, and episodically release flammable gases. The objective of this experimental study is to develop a method to measure gas bubble retention in simulated tank waste and in diluted simulant. The method and apparatus should (1) allow for reasonably rapid experiments, (2) minimize sample disturbance, and (3) provide realistic bubble nucleation and growth. The scope of this experimental study is to build an apparatus for measuring gas retention in simulated waste and to design the apparatus to be compatible with future testing on actual waste. The approach employed for creating bubbles in sludge involves dissolving a soluble gas into the supernatant liquid at an elevated pressure, recirculating the liquid containing the dissolved gas through the sludge, then reducing the pressure to allow bubbles to nucleate and grow. Results have been obtained for ammonia as the soluble gas and SY1-SIM-91A, a chemically representative simulated tank waste. In addition, proof-of-principle experiments were conducted with both ammonia and CO 2 as soluble gases and sludge composed of 90-micron glass beads. Results are described

  8. Multimode C-arm fluoroscopy, tomosynthesis, and cone-beam CT for image-guided interventions: from proof of principle to patient protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewerdsen, J. H.; Daly, M. J.; Bachar, G.; Moseley, D. J.; Bootsma, G.; Brock, K. K.; Ansell, S.; Wilson, G. A.; Chhabra, S.; Jaffray, D. A.; Irish, J. C.

    2007-03-01

    High-performance intraoperative imaging is essential to an ever-expanding scope of therapeutic procedures ranging from tumor surgery to interventional radiology. The need for precise visualization of bony and soft-tissue structures with minimal obstruction to the therapy setup presents challenges and opportunities in the development of novel imaging technologies specifically for image-guided procedures. Over the past ~5 years, a mobile C-arm has been modified in collaboration with Siemens Medical Solutions for 3D imaging. Based upon a Siemens PowerMobil, the device includes: a flat-panel detector (Varian PaxScan 4030CB); a motorized orbit; a system for geometric calibration; integration with real-time tracking and navigation (NDI Polaris); and a computer control system for multi-mode fluoroscopy, tomosynthesis, and cone-beam CT. Investigation of 3D imaging performance (noise-equivalent quanta), image quality (human observer studies), and image artifacts (scatter, truncation, and cone-beam artifacts) has driven the development of imaging techniques appropriate to a host of image-guided interventions. Multi-mode functionality presents a valuable spectrum of acquisition techniques: i.) fluoroscopy for real-time 2D guidance; ii.) limited-angle tomosynthesis for fast 3D imaging (e.g., ~10 sec acquisition of coronal slices containing the surgical target); and iii.) fully 3D cone-beam CT (e.g., ~30-60 sec acquisition providing bony and soft-tissue visualization across the field of view). Phantom and cadaver studies clearly indicate the potential for improved surgical performance - up to a factor of 2 increase in challenging surgical target excisions. The C-arm system is currently being deployed in patient protocols ranging from brachytherapy to chest, breast, spine, and head and neck surgery.

  9. Increasing treatment accuracy for cervical cancer patients using correlations between bladder-filling change and cervix-uterus displacements: Proof of principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Rozilawati; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Bondar, Maria; Dhawtal, V.; Quint, Sandra; De Pree, Ilse; Mens, Jan Willem; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate application of pre-treatment established correlations between bladder-filling changes and cervix-uterus displacements in adaptive therapy. Materials and methods: Thirteen cervical cancer patients participated in this prospective study. Pre-treatment, and after delivery of 40 Gy, a full bladder CT-scan was acquired, followed by voiding the bladder and acquisition of 4 other 3D scans in a 1 h period with a naturally filling bladder (variable bladder filling CT-scans, VBF-scans). For the pre-treatment VBF-scans, linear correlations between bladder volume change and displacements of the tip of the uterus (ToU) and the center of mass (CoM) of markers implanted in the fornices of the vagina relative to the full bladder planning scan were established. Prediction accuracy of these correlation models was assessed by comparison with actual displacements in CT-scans, both pre-treatment and after 40 Gy. Inter-fraction ToU and marker-CoM displacements were derived from the established correlations and twice-weekly performed in-room bladder volume measurements, using a 3D ultrasound scanner. Results: Target displacement in VBF-scans ranged from up to 65 mm in a single direction to almost 0 mm, depending on the patient. For pre-treatment VBF-scans, the linear correlation models predicted the mean 3D position change for the ToU of 26.1 mm ± 10.8 with a residual of only 2.2 mm ± 1.7. For the marker-CoM, the 8.4 mm ± 5.3 mean positioning error was predicted with a residual of 0.9 mm ± 0.7. After 40 Gy, the mean ToU displacement was 26.8 mm ± 15.8, while prediction based on the pre-treatment correlation models yielded a mean residual error of 9.0 mm ± 3.7. Target positioning errors in the fractioned treatments were very large, especially for the ToU (-18.5 mm ± 11.2 for systematic errors in SI-direction). Conclusions: Pre-treatment acquired VBF-scans may be used to substantially enhance treatment precision of cervical cancer patients. Application in adaptive therapy is promising and warrants further investigation. For highly conformal (IMRT) treatments, the use of a full bladder drinking protocol results in unacceptably large systematic set-up errors.

  10. How to measure responses of the knee to lateral perturbations during gait? A proof-of-principle for quantification of knee instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Noort, Josien C; Sloot, Lizeth H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Harlaar, Jaap

    2017-08-16

    Knee instability is a major problem in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury or knee osteoarthritis. A valid and clinically meaningful measure for functional knee instability is lacking. The concept of the gait sensitivity norm, the normalized perturbation response of a walking system to external perturbations, could be a sensible way to quantify knee instability. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of this concept for measurement of knee responses, using controlled external perturbations during walking in healthy subjects. Nine young healthy participants walked on a treadmill, while three dimensional kinematics were measured. Sudden lateral translations of the treadmill were applied at five different intensities during stance. Right knee kinematic responses and spatio-temporal parameters were tracked for the perturbed stride and following four cycles, to calculate perturbation response and gait sensitivity norm values (i.e. response/perturbation) in various ways. The perturbation response values in terms of knee flexion and abduction increased with perturbation intensity and decreased with an increased number of steps after perturbation. For flexion and ab/adduction during midswing, the gait sensitivity norm values were shown to be constant over perturbation intensities, demonstrating the potential of the gait sensitivity norm as a robust measure of knee responses to perturbations. These results show the feasibility of using the gait sensitivity norm concept for certain gait indicators based on kinematics of the knee, as a measure of responses during perturbed gait. The current findings in healthy subjects could serve as reference-data to quantify pathological knee instability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards simultaneous individual and tissue identification: A proof-of-principle study on parallel sequencing of STRs, amelogenin, and mRNAs with the Ion Torrent PGM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zubakov (Dmitry); I. Kokmeijer; A. Ralf (Arwin); N. Rajagopalan; L. Calandro; S. Wootton; R. Langit; C. Chang; R. Lagace; M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAbstract DNA-based individual identification and RNA-based tissue identification represent two commonly-used tools in forensic investigation, aiming to identify crime scene sample donors and helping to provide links between DNA-identified sample donors and criminal acts. Currently

  12. Proof of Principle of the Comfort Class concept in pigs Experimenting in the midst of a stakeholder process on pig welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, de K.H.; Vermeer, H.M.; Houwers, H.W.J.; Bos, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Animal welfare in livestock systems is strongly dependent on husbandry conditions. ‘Comfort Class’ is defined as a specific minimal level of husbandry conditions of animals, at which the ability of animals to meet their needs is not compromised by husbandry conditions. It is assumed that if this

  13. Right ventricular pacing improves haemodynamics in right ventricular failure from pressure overload: an open observational proof-of-principle study in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardziyenka, Maxim; Surie, Sulaiman; de Groot, Joris R.; de Bruin-Bon, H. A. C. M. Rianne; Knops, Reinoud E.; Remmelink, Maurice; Yong, Ze-Yie; Baan, Jan; Bouma, Berto J.; Bresser, Paul; Tan, Hanno L.

    2011-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and other types of pulmonary arterial hypertension is associated with right-to-left ventricle (LV) delay in peak myocardial shortening and, consequently, the onset of diastolic relaxation. We aimed

  14. Right ventricular pacing improves haemodynamics in right ventricular failure from pressure overload: an open observational proof-of-principle study in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardziyenka, Maxim; Surie, Sulaiman; de Groot, Joris R; de Bruin-Bon, H A C M Rianne; Knops, Reinoud E; Remmelink, Maurice; Yong, Ze-Yie; Baan, Jan; Bouma, Berto J; Bresser, Paul; Tan, Hanno L

    2011-12-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and other types of pulmonary arterial hypertension is associated with right-to-left ventricle (LV) delay in peak myocardial shortening and, consequently, the onset of diastolic relaxation. We aimed to establish whether RV pacing may resynchronize the onsets of RV and LV diastolic relaxation, and improve haemodynamics. Fourteen CTEPH patients (mean age 63.7 ± 12.0 years, 10 women) with large (≥60 ms) RV-to-LV delay in the onset of diastolic relaxation (DIVD, diastolic interventricular delay) were studied. Temporary RV pacing was performed by atrioventricular (A-V) sequential pacing with incremental shortening of A-V delay to advance RV activation. Effects were assessed using tissue Doppler echocardiography and LV pressure-conductance catheter measurements in a subset of patients. Compared with right atrial pacing, RV pacing at optimal A-V delay (average 140 ± 22 ms, range 120-180 ms) resulted in significant DIVD reduction (59 ± 19 to 3 ± 22 ms, P < 0.001), and increase in LV stroke volume as measured by LV outflow tract velocity-time integral (14.9 ± 2.8 to 16.9 ± 3.0 cm, P < 0.001), along with enhanced global RV contractility and LV diastolic filling. Right-to-left ventricle resynchronization of the onset of diastolic relaxation results in stroke volume increase in CTEPH patients. Whether RV pacing may be a novel therapeutic target in RV failure following chronic pressure overload remains to be investigated.

  15. Do adults with Down syndrome do the same amount of physical activity as adults without disability? A proof of principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nora; Plant, Samantha; Warren, Catherine; Wollersheim, Dennis; Peiris, Casey

    2017-09-27

    This study compared levels of physical activity completed by adults with and without Down syndrome. Fifteen adults with and 15 adults without Down syndrome matched for age and gender, took part. The intensity and duration of physical activity were measured using RT3 accelerometers worn for seven days. Only, 12 participants with Down syndrome had complete physical activity data, and these participants and their matched controls (total: six females, 18 males; aged 25.8 ± 9.7) were included in the analyses. There were significantly lower levels of moderate and vigorous physical activity per day for people with Down syndrome (median = 27 min) compared to those without (median = 101 min) (p Down syndrome. Adults with Down syndrome appear to participate in lower levels of physical activity than adults without Down syndrome. Further research should validate these estimates. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Synchronized personalized music audio-playlists to improve adherence to physical activity among patients participating in a structured exercise program: a proof-of-principle feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, David A; O'Sullivan, Mary; Oh, Paul I; Redelmeier, Donald A; Marzolini, Susan; Liu, Richard; Forhan, Mary; Silver, Michael; Goodman, Jack M; Bartel, Lee R

    2015-01-01

    Preference-based tempo-pace synchronized music has been shown to reduce perceived physical activity exertion and improve exercise performance. The extent to which such strategies can improve adherence to physical activity remains unknown. The objective of the study is to explore the feasibility and efficacy of tempo-pace synchronized preference-based music audio-playlists on adherence to physical activity among cardiovascular disease patients participating in a cardiac rehabilitation. Thirty-four cardiac rehabilitation patients were randomly allocated to one of two strategies: (1) no music usual-care control and (2) tempo-pace synchronized audio-devices with personalized music playlists + usual-care. All songs uploaded onto audio-playlist devices took into account patient personal music genre and artist preferences. However, actual song selection was restricted to music whose tempos approximated patients' prescribed exercise walking/running pace (steps per minute) to achieve tempo-pace synchrony. Patients allocated to audio-music playlists underwent further randomization in which half of the patients received songs that were sonically enhanced with rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) to accentuate tempo-pace synchrony, whereas the other half did not. RAS was achieved through blinded rhythmic sonic-enhancements undertaken manually to songs within individuals' music playlists. The primary outcome consisted of the weekly volume of physical activity undertaken over 3 months as determined by tri-axial accelerometers. Statistical methods employed an intention to treat and repeated-measures design. Patients randomized to personalized audio-playlists with tempo-pace synchrony achieved higher weekly volumes of physical activity than did their non-music usual-care comparators (475.6 min vs. 370.2 min, P  music usual-care controls, respectively, P  music with RAS utilized their audio-playlist devices more frequently than did non-RAS music counterparts ( P  music usual standard of care. Larger clinical trials are required to validate these findings. ClinicalTrials.gov ID (NCT01752595).

  17. WE-G-BRF-01: Adaptation to Intrafraction Tumor Deformation During Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: First Proof-Of-Principle Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Y; OBrien, R; Shieh, C; Booth, J; Keall, P [Radiation Physics Laboratory, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Intrafraction tumor deformation limits targeting accuracy in radiotherapy and cannot be adapted to by current motion management techniques. This study simulated intrafractional treatment adaptation to tumor deformations using a dynamic Multi-Leaf Collimator (DMLC) tracking system during Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment for the first time. Methods: The DMLC tracking system was developed to adapt to the intrafraction tumor deformation by warping the planned beam aperture guided by the calculated deformation vector field (DVF) obtained from deformable image registration (DIR) at the time of treatment delivery. Seven single phantom deformation images up to 10.4 mm deformation and eight tumor system phantom deformation images up to 21.5 mm deformation were acquired and used in tracking simulation. The intrafraction adaptation was simulated at the DMLC tracking software platform, which was able to communicate with the image registration software, reshape the instantaneous IMRT field aperture and log the delivered MLC fields.The deformation adaptation accuracy was evaluated by a geometric target coverage metric defined as the sum of the area incorrectly outside and inside the reference aperture. The incremental deformations were arbitrarily determined to take place equally over the delivery interval. The geometric target coverage of delivery with deformation adaptation was compared against the delivery without adaptation. Results: Intrafraction deformation adaptation during dynamic IMRT plan delivery was simulated for single and system deformable phantoms. For the two particular delivery situations, over the treatment course, deformation adaptation improved the target coverage by 89% for single target deformation and 79% for tumor system deformation compared with no-tracking delivery. Conclusion: This work demonstrated the principle of real-time tumor deformation tracking using a DMLC. This is the first step towards the development of an image-guided radiotherapy system to treat deforming tumors in real-time. The authors acknowledge funding support from the Australian NHMRC Australia Fellowship, Cure Cancer Australia Foundation, NHMRC Project Grant APP1042375 and US NIH/NCI R01CA93626.

  18. Application of the Novel Ventilation Mode FLow-Controlled EXpiration (FLEX): A Crossover Proof-of-Principle Study in Lung-Healthy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Steffen; Springer, Sebastian; Spaeth, Johannes; Borgmann, Silke; Goebel, Ulrich; Schumann, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Traditionally, mechanical ventilation is achieved via active lung inflation during inspiration and passive lung emptying during expiration. By contrast, the novel FLEX (FLow-controlled EXpiration) ventilator mode actively decreases the rate of lung emptying. We investigated whether FLEX can be used during intraoperative mechanical ventilation of lung-healthy patients. In 30 adult patients scheduled for neurosurgical procedures, we studied respiratory system mechanics, regional ventilation, oxygenation, and hemodynamics during ventilation with and without FLEX at positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 and 7 cm H2O. The FLEX system was integrated into the expiratory limb and modified the expiratory flow profile by continuously changing expiratory resistance according to a computer-controlled algorithm. Mean airway pressure increased with PEEP by 1.9 cm H2O and with FLEX by 1 cm H2O (all P ventilated during general anesthesia. FLEX improves the homogeneous distribution of ventilation in the lungs.

  19. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 5 Report: Generation IV Reactor Virtual Mockup Proof-of-Principle Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 5 report is part of a 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Created a virtual mockup of PBMR reactor cavity and discussed applications of virtual mockup technology to improve Gen IV design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning.

  20. Assessment of impacted and partially impacted lower third molars with panoramic radiography compared to MRI-a proof of principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirnbauer, Barbara; Jakse, Norbert; Rugani, Petra; Schwaiger, Michael; Magyar, Marton

    2018-02-13

    Third molars often require surgical removal. Since three-dimensional radiological assessment is often indicated in difficult cases to avoid surgical complications, the radiation burden has to be considered. Here, MRI may offer a dose-free alternative to conventional X-ray techniques. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the assessment quality of MRI compared to panoramic radiography in impacted and partially impacted lower third molars. Panoramic radiographs and MRI scans of 28 Caucasian patients were assessed twice by four investigators. Wisdom teeth were classified according to Juodzbalys and Daugela 2013. When radiological lower third molar assessments with panoramic radiography and MRI were compared, staging concurred in 73% in the first round of assessments and 77% in the second. The presented study demonstrates that MRI not only provides much the same information that panoramic radiography usually does, but also has the advantages of a dose-free three-dimensional view. This may facilitate and shorten third molar surgery. Image interpretation, however, can differ depending on training and experience.

  1. Selective conversion of plasma glucose into CO2 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the measurement of C-13 abundance by isotope ratio mass spectrometry : proof of principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rembacz, Krzysztof P.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Stellaard, Frans

    2007-01-01

    To study carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption, time-dependent C-13 enrichment in plasma glucose is measured after oral administration of naturally occurring C-13-enriched carbohydrates. The isotope enrichment of the administered carbohydrate is low (APE <0.1%) and plasma C-13 glucose

  2. Proof of principle for successful characterization of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from skin by use of raman spectroscopy and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.M. Willemse-Erix; J-W. Jachtenberg (Jan-Willem); H. Barutçi; G.J. Puppels (Gerwin); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); A. Voss (Andreas); K. Maquelin (Kees)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCoagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are among the most frequently isolated bacterial species in clinical microbiology, and most CNS-related infections are hospital acquired. Distinguishing between these frequently multiple-antibiotic-resistant isolates is important for both treatment

  3. Efficacy of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to overcome the effect of ovarian ageing (DITTO): A proof of principle double blinded randomized placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkwichean, Amarin; Maalouf, Walid; Baumgarten, Miriam; Polanski, Lukasz; Raine-Fenning, Nick; Campbell, Bruce; Jayaprakasan, Kannamannadiar

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of DHEA supplementation on In-Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) outcome as assessed by ovarian response, oocyte developmental competence and live birth rates in women predicted to have poor ovarian reserve (OR). The feasibility of conducting a large trial is also assessed by evaluating the recruitment rates and compliance of the recruited participants with DHEA/placebo intake and follow-up rates. A single centre, double blinded, placebo controlled, randomized trial was performed over two years with 60 women undergoing in-vitro fertilisation (IVF). Subjects were randomized, based on a computer-generated pseudo-random code to receive either DHEA or placebo with both capsules having similar colour, size and appearance. 60 women with poor OR based on antral follicle count or anti-Mullerian hormone thresholds undergoing IVF were recruited. They were randomised to receive DHEA 75mg/day or placebo for at-least 12 weeks before starting ovarian stimulation. They had long protocol using hMG 300 IU/day. Data analysed by "intention to treat". Ovarian response, live birth rates and molecular markers of oocyte quality were compared between the study and control groups. The recruitment rate was 39% (60/154). A total of 52 participants (27 versus 25 in the study and placebo groups) were included in the final analysis after excluding eight. While the mean (standard deviation) DHEA levels were similar at recruitment (9.4 (5) versus 7.5 (2.4) ng/ml; P=0.1), the DHEA levels at pre-stimulation were higher in the study group than in the controls (16.3 (5.8) versus 11.1 (4.5) ng/ml; Pnumber (median, range) of oocytes retrieved (4, 0-18 versus 4, 0-15 respectively; P=0.54) and live birth rates (7/27, 26% versus 8/25, 32% respectively; RR (95% CI): 0.74 (0.22-2.48) and mRNA expression of developmental biomarkers in granulosa and cumulus cells were similar between the groups. Pre-treatment DHEA supplementation, albeit statistical power in this study is low, did not improve the response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation or oocyte quality or live birth rates during IVF treatment with long protocol in women predicted to have poor OR. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Severity of Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Type I Collagen Pattern in Human Skin as Determined by Nonlinear Microscopy: Proof of Principle of a Diagnostic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroni, Marcus Vinícius; Steiner, Carlos E.; Pelegati, Vitor B.; de Thomaz, Andre A.; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The confirmatory diagnosis of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) requires invasive, commonly bone biopsy, time consuming and destructive methods. This paper proposes an alternative method using a combination of two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopies from easily obtained human skin biopsies. We show that this method can distinguish subtypes of human OI. Methodology/Principal Findings Different aspects of collagen microstructure of skin fresh biopsies and standard H&E-stained sections of normal and OI patients (mild and severe forms) were distinguished by TPEF and SHG images. Moreover, important differences between subtypes of OI were identified using different methods of quantification such as collagen density, ratio between collagen and elastic tissue, and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) image-pattern analysis. Collagen density was lower in OI dermis, while the SHG/autofluorescence index of the dermis was significantly higher in OI as compared to that of the normal skin. We also showed that the energy value of GLCM texture analysis is useful to discriminate mild from severe OI and from normal skin. Conclusions/Significance This work demonstrated that nonlinear microscopy techniques in combination with image-analysis approaches represent a powerful tool to investigate the collagen organization in skin dermis in patients with OI and has the potential to distinguish the different types of OI. The procedure outlined in this paper requires a skin biopsy, which is almost painless as compared to the bone biopsy commonly used in conventional methods. The data presented here complement existing clinical diagnostic techniques and can be used as a diagnostic procedure to confirm the disease, evaluate its severity and treatment efficacy. PMID:23869235

  5. Energiezuinige teeltsturing bij paprika : proof of principle : testen van dynamische optimalisatie als methode om doelgerichte sturing van de teelt te combineren met energiebesparing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, F.; Zwart, de H.F.; Henten, van E.J.; Gelder, de A.; Hemming, J.; Bontsema, J.; Lagas, P.; Mark, van der C.

    2009-01-01

    De noodzaak om efficiënt met energie om te gaan en de uitstoot van CO2 te beperken, wordt niet alleen door de maatschappij aan de sector opgelegd, maar komt ook voort uit economische noodzaak. In verschillende proeven is aangetoond dat winst valt te behalen door af te wijken van de gangbare

  6. Targeting FR-expressing cells in ovarian cancer with Fab-functionalized nanoparticles: a full study to provide the proof of principle from in vitro to in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarta, Alessandra; Bernareggi, Davide; Benigni, Fabio; Luison, Elena; Nano, Giuseppe; Nitti, Simone; Cesta, Maria Candida; Di Ciccio, Luciano; Canevari, Silvana; Pellegrino, Teresa; Figini, Mariangela

    2015-02-14

    Efficient targeting in tumor therapies is still an open issue: systemic biodistribution and poor specific accumulation of drugs weaken efficacy of treatments. Engineered nanoparticles are expected to bring benefits by allowing specific delivery of drug to the tumor or acting themselves as localized therapeutic agents. In this study we have targeted epithelial ovarian cancer with inorganic nanoparticles conjugated to a human antibody fragment against the folate receptor over-expressed on cancer cells. The conjugation approach is generally applicable. Indeed several types of nanoparticles (either magnetic or fluorescent) were engineered with the fragment, and their biological activity was preserved as demonstrated by biochemical methods in vitro. In vivo studies with mice bearing orthotopic and subcutaneous tumors were performed. Elemental and histological analyses showed that the conjugated magnetic nanoparticles accumulated specifically and were retained at tumor sites longer than the non-conjugated nanoparticles.

  7. Integration of different data gap filling techniques to facilitate assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls: A proof of principle case study (ASCCT meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data gap filling techniques are commonly used to predict hazard in the absence of empirical data. The most established techniques are read-across, trend analysis and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) are less frequently used d...

  8. Relação Entre o Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI e os Relatórios de Ocorrência de Incêndios (ROI no Parque Nacional do Itatiaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Oliveira Júnior

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Dados de focos de calor via satélites ambientais, de Sistemas Frontais (SF e Zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul (ZCAS, juntamente com o Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI e os Relatórios de Ocorrência de Incêndios (ROI no Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (PNI foram avaliados. O SPI foi calculado com dados pluviométricos de três estações no PNI. Os dados dos SF e ZCAS foram obtidos via Climanálise. A regressão múltipla foi aplicada a ROI, SPI, SF e ZCAS de forma independente. A maior categoria do ROI ocorreu na classe C (81%, sendo os maiores percentuais no inverno (57,2% e primavera (35,1%. Os meses críticos de focos de calor foram julho (17%, setembro (23,2% e agosto (31,9%. Independente da estação, o SF (R2 = 0,75 se sobressaiu em relação a ZCAS (R2 = 0,43. O SF condiciona 80% das variações entre ROI e índice SPI anual, enquanto a ZCAS em apenas 40%.

  9. A refined model of the prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 T3SS basal body reveals the molecular basis for its assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Julien R C; Worrall, Liam J; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G; DiMaio, Frank; Pfuetzner, Richard A; Felise, Heather B; Vuckovic, Marija; Yu, Angel C; Miller, Samuel I; Baker, David; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2013-01-01

    The T3SS injectisome is a syringe-shaped macromolecular assembly found in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria that allows for the direct delivery of virulence effectors into host cells. It is composed of a "basal body", a lock-nut structure spanning both bacterial membranes, and a "needle" that protrudes away from the bacterial surface. A hollow channel spans throughout the apparatus, permitting the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytosol to the host plasma membrane. The basal body is composed largely of three membrane-embedded proteins that form oligomerized concentric rings. Here, we report the crystal structures of three domains of the prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 basal body, and use a new approach incorporating symmetric flexible backbone docking and EM data to produce a model for their oligomeric assembly. The obtained models, validated by biochemical and in vivo assays, reveal the molecular details of the interactions driving basal body assembly, and notably demonstrate a conserved oligomerization mechanism.

  10. Comparison of methods for localizing the source position of deauthentication attacks on WAP 802.11n using Chanalyzer and Wi-Spy 2.4x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaweres, R. B.; Mokoginta, S.; Alaydrus, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper descnbes a comparison of three methods used to locate the position of the source of deauthentication attacks on Wi-Fi using Chanalyzer, and Wi-Spy 2.4x adapter. The three methods are wardriving, absorption and trilateration. The position of constant deauthentication attacks is more easily analyzed compared to that of random attacks. Signal propagation may provide a comparison between signal strength and distance which makes the position of attackers more easily located. The results are shown on the chart patterns generated from the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSS). And it is proven that these three methods can be used to localize the position of attackers, and can be recommended for use in the environment of organizations using Wi-Fi.

  11. The type VI secretion system encoded in SPI-6 plays a role in gastrointestinal colonization and systemic spread of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pezoa

    Full Text Available The role of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs in pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium infection in the chicken is poorly studied, while many studies have been completed in murine models. The Type VI Secretion System (T6SS is a recently described protein secretion system in Gram-negative bacteria. The genus Salmonella contains five phylogenetically distinct T6SS encoded in differentially distributed genomic islands. S. Typhimurium harbors a T6SS encoded in SPI-6 (T6SSSPI-6, which contributes to the ability of Salmonella to colonize mice. On the other hand, serotype Gallinarum harbors a T6SS encoded in SPI-19 (T6SSSPI-19 that is required for colonization of chicks. In this work, we investigated the role of T6SSSPI-6 in infection of chicks by S. Typhimurium. Oral infection of White Leghorn chicks showed that a ΔT6SSSPI-6 mutant had reduced colonization of the gut and internal organs, compared with the wild-type strain. Transfer of the intact T6SSSPI-6 gene cluster into the T6SS mutant restored bacterial colonization. In addition, our results showed that transfer of T6SSSPI-19 from S. Gallinarum to the ΔT6SSSPI-6 mutant of S. Typhimurium not only complemented the colonization defect but also resulted in a transient increase in the colonization of the cecum and ileum of chicks at days 1 and 3 post-infection. Our data indicates that T6SSSPI-6 contributes to chicken colonization and suggests that both T6SSSPI-6 and T6SSSPI-19 perform similar functions in vivo despite belonging to different phylogenetic families.

  12. Multicenter preoperative stroke risk index for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia (McSPI) Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M F; Wolman, R; Kanchuger, M; Marschall, K; Mora-Mangano, C; Roach, G; Smith, L R; Aggarwal, A; Nussmeier, N; Herskowitz, A; Mangano, D T

    1996-11-01

    The paradox of present cardiac surgery is that the more elderly and debilitated patients benefit most from cardiac surgery compared with medical therapy, yet they sustain greater overall risk for morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. The goal of the present study was to develop a preoperative index predicting major perioperative neurological events in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. As part of a prospective, multicenter, observational study (McSPI Research Group), we enrolled 2417 patients at 24 academic medical centers in the United States. Patients who died intraoperatively or had concomitant open-heart procedures were excluded from analysis, resulting in a total of 2107 for analysis. Sixty-eight patients (3.2%) developed adverse neurological events, defined as cerebrovascular accident, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or persistent coma. Bivariate analysis was applied to determine associations between preoperative variables and neurological events. Significant bivariate predictors were identified then logically grouped, and for each cluster, a score was calculated based on principal components. Key predictor variables were age, history of previous neurological disease, diabetes, history of vascular disease, previous coronary artery surgery, unstable angina, and history of pulmonary disease, the coefficients for which were used to develop a preoperative stroke risk index that was validated by bootstrap (c-index = 0.778). Stroke risk could then be determined for each patient, calculating a patient's risk for stroke within 95% confidence intervals. With the McSPI stroke risk index developed in this study, neurological risk can be estimated, and the most appropriate group for perioperative therapy can be identified. Further refinement and validation of this index, however, are necessary and are under way in current studies.

  13. Status of Wrought FeCrAl-UO2 Capsules Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harp, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Core, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linton, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Candidate cladding materials for accident tolerant fuel applications require extensive testing and validation prior to commercial deployment within the nuclear power industry. One class of cladding materials, FeCrAl alloys, is currently undergoing such effort. Within these activities is a series of irradiation programs within the Advanced Test Reactor. These programs are developed to aid in commercial maturation and understand the fundamental mechanisms controlling the cladding performance during normal operation of a typical light water reactor. Three different irradiation programs are on-going; one designed as a simple proof-of-principle concept, the other to evaluate the susceptibility of FeCrAl to fuel-cladding chemical interaction, and the last to fully simulate the conditions of a pressurized water reactor experimentally. To date, nondestructive post-irradiation examination has been completed on the rodlet deemed FCA-L3 from the simple proof-of-concept irradiation program. Initial results show possible breach of the rodlet under irradiation but further studies are needed to conclusively determine whether breach has occurred and the underlying reasons for such a possible failure. Further work includes characterizing additional rodlets following irradiation.

  14. An Algorithm of an X-ray Hit Allocation to a Single Pixel in a Cluster and Its Test-Circuit Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, G. W. [AGH-UST, Cracow; Fahim, F. [Fermilab; Grybos, P. [AGH-UST, Cracow; Hoff, J. [Fermilab; Maj, P. [AGH-UST, Cracow; Siddons, D. P. [Brookhaven; Kmon, P. [AGH-UST, Cracow; Trimpl, M. [Fermilab; Zimmerman, T. [Fermilab

    2017-05-06

    An on-chip implementable algorithm for allocation of an X-ray photon imprint, called a hit, to a single pixel in the presence of charge sharing in a highly segmented pixel detector is described. Its proof-of-principle implementation is also given supported by the results of tests using a highly collimated X-ray photon beam from a synchrotron source. The algorithm handles asynchronous arrivals of X-ray photons. Activation of groups of pixels, comparisons of peak amplitudes of pulses within an active neighborhood and finally latching of the results of these comparisons constitute the three procedural steps of the algorithm. A grouping of pixels to one virtual pixel that recovers composite signals and event driven strobes to control comparisons of fractional signals between neighboring pixels are the actuators of the algorithm. The circuitry necessary to implement the algorithm requires an extensive inter-pixel connection grid of analog and digital signals that are exchanged between pixels. A test-circuit implementation of the algorithm was achieved with a small array of 32×32 pixels and the device was exposed to an 8 keV highly collimated to a diameter of 3 μm X-ray beam. The results of these tests are given in the paper assessing physical implementation of the algorithm.

  15. Reaction System Design for NO2 Oxidation of Used Nuclear Fuel for the FY17 Hot Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jared A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DelCul, Guillermo Daniel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-25

    A dry pretreatment process based on the oxidation of used nuclear fuel to convert it to a fine powder is being studied for the removal and capture of tritium and iodine before subsequent processing. The process converts oxide fuel into a fine powder at low temperature using NO2/O2 mixtures. The form of the powder product can be selected to be U3O8, UO3, or a nitrate by adjusting the processing conditions. All the fundamental tenets of the process have been successfully demonstrated as a proof of principle, and many aspects have been corroborated multiple times at laboratory scale. The present thrust is to develop the process to a technology-readiness level sufficient to evaluate and estimate the cost of an engineering-scale implementation. A previous roadmap analysis of the implementation determined that the most desirable approach would be based on kilogram-scale experiments using real fuel in parallel with multi-kg testing of prototype systems using surrogate material. Following the planned approach, kilogram-scale experiments will be conducted in FY 2017. This report describes the primary reaction system designs and the equipment that has been fabricated. Details related to instrumentation, data acquisition, and controls have been previously reported.

  16. Development and in vitro testing of liposomal gadolinium-formulations for neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    For the improvement of current neutron capture therapy, several liposomal formulations of neutron capture agent gadolinium were developed and tested in a glioma cell model. Formulations were analyzed regarding physicochemical and biological parameters, such as size, zeta potential, uptake into cancer cells and performance under neutron irradiation. The neutron and photon dose derived from intracellular as well as extracellular Gd was calculated via Monte Carlo simulations and set in correlation with the reduction of cell survival after irradiation. To investigate the suitability of Gd as a radiosensitizer for photon radiation, cells were also irradiated with synchrotron radiation in addition to clinically used photons generated by linear accelerator. Irradiation with neutrons led to significantly lower survival for Gd-liposome-treated F98 and LN229 cells, compared to irradiated control cells and cells treated with non-liposomal Gd-DTPA. Correlation between Gd-content and -dose and respective cell survival displayed proportional relationship for most of the applied formulations. Photon irradiation experiments showed the proof-of-principle for the radiosensitizer approach, although the photon spectra currently used have to be optimized for higher efficiency of the radiosensitizer. In conclusion, the newly developed Gd-liposomes show great potential for the improvement of radiation treatment options for highly malignant glioblastoma.

  17. SMELL-S and SMELL-R: Olfactory tests not influenced by odor-specific insensitivity or prior olfactory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Julien W; Keller, Andreas; Wong, Michele; Jiang, Rong-San; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2017-10-24

    Smell dysfunction is a common and underdiagnosed medical condition that can have serious consequences. It is also an early biomarker of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, where olfactory deficits precede detectable memory loss. Clinical tests that evaluate the sense of smell face two major challenges. First, human sensitivity to individual odorants varies significantly, so test results may be unreliable in people with low sensitivity to a test odorant but an otherwise normal sense of smell. Second, prior familiarity with odor stimuli can bias smell test performance. We have developed nonsemantic tests for olfactory sensitivity (SMELL-S) and olfactory resolution (SMELL-R) that use mixtures of odorants that have unfamiliar smells. The tests can be self-administered by healthy individuals with minimal training and show high test-retest reliability. Because SMELL-S uses odor mixtures rather than a single molecule, odor-specific insensitivity is averaged out, and the test accurately distinguished people with normal and dysfunctional smell. SMELL-R is a discrimination test in which the difference between two stimulus mixtures can be altered stepwise. This is an advance over current discrimination tests, which ask subjects to discriminate monomolecular odorants whose difference in odor cannot be quantified. SMELL-R showed significantly less bias in scores between North American and Taiwanese subjects than conventional semantically based smell tests that need to be adapted to different languages and cultures. Based on these proof-of-principle results in healthy individuals, we predict that SMELL-S and SMELL-R will be broadly effective in diagnosing smell dysfunction. Published under the PNAS license.

  18. Prenatal RhD Testing : A Review of Studies Published from 2006 to 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legler, Tobias Joerg; Mueller, Sina Patricia; Haverkamp, Alexander; Grill, Simon; Hahn, Sinuhe

    2009-01-01

    The availability of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for the fetal RhD status (NIPD RhD) is an obvious benefit for alloimmunized pregnant women. This review gives information about the performance characteristics of current diagnostic technologies and recent promising proof-of-principle studies.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis Antibody Testing in Vaginal Mucosal Material versus Blood Samples of Women Attending a Fertility Clinic and an STI Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Land, Jolande A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Morré, Servaas A; van der Sande, Marianne A B

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia infections often follow an asymptomatic course but may damage the reproductive tract. Chlamydia antibodies in serum are used as markers for past infections and can relate to tubal pathology and infertility. This "proof of principle" study aimed to assess whether Chlamydia antibodies are detectable in easier to obtain, noninvasive, vaginal mucosa samples and relate to current or past infection. Methods. We compared outcomes of Chlamydia IgG and IgA antibody tests in serum and vaginal mucosal swabs in (a) 77 women attending a fertility clinic, of whom 25 tested positive for serum-IgG and (b) 107 women visiting an STI centre, including 30 Chlamydia PCR-positive subjects. Results. In the STI clinic, active Chlamydia infections were linked to serum-IgG and serum-IgA (P material. Serum-IgG had stronger associations with current or past infections. Mucosa-IgA also showed associations with (past) infection and complications. IgA presence in vaginal mucosa warrants further epidemiological studies.

  20. Evaluation of research activities and research needs to increase the impact and applicability of alternative testing strategies in risk assessment practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Ans; Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne W A; Jean Horbach, G; van de Sandt, Johannes J M; Groothuis, Geny M M; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Blaauboer, Bas J

    2011-10-01

    The present paper aims at identifying strategies to increase the impact and applicability of alternative testing strategies in risk assessment. To this end, a quantitative and qualitative literature evaluation was performed on (a) current research efforts in the development of in vitro methods aiming for alternatives to animal testing, (b) the possibilities and limitations of in vitro methods for regulatory purposes and (c) the potential of physiologically-based kinetic (PBK) modeling to improve the impact and applicability of in vitro methods in risk assessment practice. Overall, the evaluation showed that the focus of state-of-the-art research activities does not seem to be optimally directed at developing in vitro alternatives for those endpoints that are most animal-demanding, such as reproductive and developmental toxicity, and carcinogenicity. A key limitation in the application of in vitro alternatives to such systemic endpoints is that in vitro methods do not provide so-called points of departure, necessary for regulators to set safe exposure limits. PBK-modeling could contribute to overcoming this limitation by providing a method that allows extrapolation of in vitro concentration-response curves to in vivo dose-response curves. However, more proofs of principle are required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of DNA Aptamers and Quantum Dots to Lateral Flow Test Strips for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens with Improved Sensitivity versus Colloidal Gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Bruno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies aimed at improving the sensitivity of foodborne pathogen detection via lateral flow (LF test strips by use of high affinity DNA aptamers for capture and reporter functions when coupled to red-emitting quantum dots (Qdot 655 are reported. A variety of DNA aptamers developed against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica were paired in capture and reporter combinations to determine which yielded the strongest detection of their cognate bacteria using a colloidal gold screening system. Several promising sandwich combinations were identified for each of the three bacterial LF strip systems. The best E. coli aptamer-LF system was further studied and yielded a visible limit of detection (LOD of ~3,000 E. coli 8739 and ~6,000 E. coli O157:H7 in buffer. These LODs were reduced to ~300–600 bacterial cells per test respectively by switching to a Qdot 655 aptamer-LF system. Novel aspects of these assays such as the use of high levels of detergents to avoid quantum dot agglutination and enhance migration in analytical membranes, identification of optimal analytical membrane types, UV-immobilization of capture aptamers, and novel dual biotin/digoxigenin-end labeled aptamer streptavidin-colloidal gold or -Qdot 655 conjugates plus anti-digoxigenin antibody control lines are also discussed. In general, this work provides proof-of-principle for highly sensitive aptamer-Qdot LF strip assays for rapid foodborne pathogen detection.

  2. Persvazivní techniky v lifestylových časopisech a jejich vliv na formování životního stylu : obsahová analýza časopisu Spy

    OpenAIRE

    Jeřábek, David

    2010-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Persuasive techniques in lifestyle magazines and their effect on lifestyle-forming : content analysis of Spy magazines" generally deals with media effects on audiences. It introduces the historic development of perspectives on mass media and mass communication and the effects of media and their research. In particular it focuses on the effects of the so-called lifestyle media on the lifestyle and identity of mainly younger consumers of media products. It specifically evaluate...

  3. Interacting dark matter contribution to the galactic 511 keV gamma ray emission: constraining the morphology with INTEGRAL/SPI observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Aaron C.; Cline, James M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montréal, Québec, H3A 2T8 Canada (Canada); Martin, Pierrick, E-mail: vincenta@hep.physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: pierrick.martin@obs.ujf-grenoble.fr, E-mail: jcline@hep.physics.mcgill.ca [Institut de Planétologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2012-04-01

    We compare the full-sky morphology of the 511 keV gamma ray excess measured by the INTEGRAL/SPI experiment to predictions of models based on dark matter (DM) scatterings that produce low-energy positrons: either MeV-scale DM that annihilates directly into e{sup +}e{sup −} pairs, or heavy DM that inelastically scatters into an excited state (XDM) followed by decay into e{sup +}e{sup −} and the ground state. By direct comparison to the data, we find that such explanations are consistent with dark matter halo profiles predicted by numerical many-body simulations for a Milky Way-like galaxy. Our results favor an Einasto profile over the cuspier NFW distribution and exclude decaying dark matter scenarios whose predicted spatial distribution is too broad. We obtain a good fit to the shape of the signal using six fewer degrees of freedom than previous empirical fits to the 511 keV data. We find that the ratio of flux at Earth from the galactic bulge to that of the disk is between 1.9 and 2.4, taking into account that 73% of the disk contribution may be attributed to the beta decay of radioactive {sup 26}Al.

  4. Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on Drought Characteristics in the Hwanghae Plain, North Korea Using Time Series SPI and SPEI: 1981–2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available North Korea is a food-deficit nation in which climate change could have a significant impact on drought. We analyzed drought characteristics in the Hwanghae Plain, North Korea using both the multiple timescales of the standardized precipitation index (SPI and the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI from 1981 to 2100. The probability of non-exceedance for a one-month SPEI below −1.0 was only 1.1% in the spring season of 1995 but increased to 24.4% in 2085. The SPEI for a ten-year return period varied from −0.6 to −0.9 in 1995 and decreased to −1.18 in 2025. The results indicate that severe drought is more likely to occur in future as a result of climate change. The seasonal drought conditions were also significantly influenced by climate change. The largest decrease in the SPEI occurred in late spring and early summer, both of which are important for rice growth. Drought characteristics include severity, duration, and intensity. Therefore, we applied the time series of SPIs and SPEIs to the runs theory and found that the drought intensity identified by one-month SPEIs in 1995 was at a level of 1.21, which reached 1.39 in 2085, implying that climate change will intensify drought in the future.

  5. Examining the extreme 2017 spring drought event in South Korea using a suite of drought indices (SPI, SC-PDSI, SPEI, EDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, W. H.; Hayes, M. J.; Svoboda, M. D.; Fuchs, B.; Tadesse, T.; Wilhite, D. A.; Hong, E. M.; Kim, T.

    2017-12-01

    South Korea has experienced extreme droughts in 1994-1995, 2000-2001, 2012, 2015, and 2016-2017. The 2017 spring drought (with especially low winter precipitation recorded in winter 2016) affected a large portion of central and western South Korea, and was one of the most severe droughts in the region since the 2000-2001 drought. The spring drought of 2017 was characterized by exceptionally low precipitation with total precipitation from January to June being 50% lower than the mean normal precipitation record (1981-2010) over most of western South Korea. It was the climatologically driest spring over the 1961-2016 record period. Effective drought monitoring and management depends on which drought indices are selected because each drought index has different drought criteria or levels of drought severity, associated with drought responses. In this study, for the quantitative analysis of the spring 2017 drought event in South Korea, four widely-used drought indices, including the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), the Self-Calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (SC-PDSI), and the Effective Drought Index (EDI) are compared with observed drought damaged areas in the context of agricultural drought impacts. The South Korean government (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) and Korea Rural Community Corporation (KRC)) has been operating a government-level drought monitoring system since 2016. Results from this study can be used to improve the drought monitoring applications, as well as drought planning and preparedness in South Korea.

  6. The life and death of massive stars revealed by the observation of nuclear gamma-ray lines with the Integral/SPI spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this research thesis is to bring up observational constraints on the mechanisms which govern life and death of massive stars, i.e. stars having an initial mass greater than eight times the Sun's mass, and smaller than 120 to 150 solar masses. Thus, it aims at detecting the vestiges of recent and close supernovae in order to find out the traces of the dynamics of their first instants. The author has explored the radiation of three radio-isotopes accessible to the nuclear gamma astronomy ( 44 Ti, 60 Fe, 26 Al) using observations performed with high resolution gamma spectrometer (SPI) on the INTEGRAL international observatory. After an overview of the present knowledge on the massive star explosion mechanism, the author presents the specificities and potential of the investigated radio-isotopes. He describes the data treatment methods and a population synthesis programme for the prediction of decay gamma streaks, and then reports its work on the inner dynamics of Cassiopeia A explosion, the stellar activity of the galaxy revealed by the radioisotope observation, the nucleo-synthetic activity of the Swan region

  7. SPI-Based Analyses of Drought Changes over the Past 60 Years in China’s Major Crop-Growing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the changes in drought patterns in China’s major crop-growing areas over the past 60 years. The analysis was done using both weather station data and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI rainfall data to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. The results showed that the occurrences of extreme drought were the most serious in recent years in the Southwest China and Sichuan crop-growing areas. The Yangtze River (MLRY and South China crop-growing areas experienced extreme droughts during 1960–1980, whereas the Northeast China and Huang–Huai–Hai crop-growing areas experienced extreme droughts around 2003. The analysis showed that the SPIs calculated by TRMM data at time scales of one, three, and six months were reliable for monitoring drought in the study regions, but for 12 months, the SPIs calculated by gauge and TRMM data showed less consistency. The analysis of the spatial distribution of droughts over the past 15 years using TMI rainfall data revealed that more than 60% of the area experienced extreme drought in 2011 over the MLRY region and in 1998 over the Huang–Huai–Hai region. The frequency of different intensity droughts presented significant spatial heterogeneity in each crop-growing region.

  8. Efficacy of combined endoscopic lithotomy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, and additional electrohydraulic lithotripsy using the SpyGlass direct visualization system or X-ray guided EHL as needed, for pancreatic lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ken; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Okano, Naoki; Mimura, Takahiko; Kishimoto, Yui; Hara, Seiichi; Takuma, Kensuke

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of combined endoscopic lithotomy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), and additional electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) as needed, for the treatment of pancreatic duct stones, we retrospectively evaluated 98 patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic lithiasis. For the management of main pancreatic duct (MPD) stones in 98 patients, we performed combined endoscopic treatment (ET)/ESWL therapy as the first treatment option. When combined ET/ESWL was unsuccessful, EHL with the SpyGlass Direct Visualization system or X-ray guided EHL was performed. Outpatient ESWL was reserved as one of the final treatment options. Fragmentation was successful in 80 (81.6%) patients as follows: combined ET/ESWL: 67 cases; SpyGlass EHL: 4 cases; X-ray guided EHL: 3 cases; and outpatient ESWL: 6 cases. Successful outcome was obtained by combined ET/ESWL in 67 of the 98 patients (74.5%), by EHL in 7 of 14 patients (7.1%), and by outpatient ESWL in 6 of 6 patients (6.1%). Negotiating the guidewire through a severe MPD stricture was significantly associated with a higher rate of stone fragmentation (P = 0.0003). In cases where combined ET/ESWL was not successful for stone clearance, EHL using the SpyGlass system or X-ray guided EHL was effective in cases where the guidewire could be negotiated through the MPD stricture and it increased the fragmentation rate.

  9. Evaluating Robot-Operator Job Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moses, Franklin L; Brooks, Peter S; Hofmann, M; Johnson, E; Laveson, J; Zaccaro, S

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper views the operator and robot as a team, outlines a schema for measuring robot-operator team performance, and presents an initial proof-of-principle test for quantitatively assessing that performance...

  10. Development of a simple field test for vehicle exhaust to detect illicit use of dyed diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Scott D; Wright, Bob W

    2011-10-30

    Tax-free diesel fuel is intended for off-road uses such as agricultural operations, but illicit use of this fuel does occur and is a convenient way of evading payment of excise taxes. Current enforcement to prevent this practice involves visual inspection for the red azo dye added to the fuel to indicate its tax-free status. This approach, while very effective, has shortcomings such as the invasive nature of the tests and/or various deceptive tactics applied by tax evaders. A test designed to detect illicit dyed-fuel use by analyzing the vehicle exhaust would circumvent these shortcomings. This paper describes the development of a simple color spot test designed to detect the use of tax-free (i.e., dyed) fuel by analyzing the engine exhaust. Development efforts first investigated the combustion products of C.I. Solvent Red 164 (the azo dye formulation used in the United States to tag tax-free fuel). A variety of aryl amines were identified as characteristic molecular remnants that appear to survive combustion. A number of micro-analytical color tests specific for aryl amines were then investigated. One test that detected aryl amines by reacting with 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde seemed to be particularly applicable and was used in a proof-of-principle experiment. The 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde color spot test was able to clearly distinguish between engines that were burning regular fuel and those that were burning dyed diesel fuel. Further development will refine this color spot test to provide an easy-to-use field test. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a in free neutron decay. Testing the standard model with the aSPECT-spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, Michael

    2011-02-04

    The {beta}-decay of free neutrons is a strongly over-determined process in the Standard Model (SM) of Particle Physics and is described by a multitude of observables. Some of those observables are sensitive to physics beyond the SM. For example, the correlation coefficients of the involved particles belong to them. The spectrometer aSPECT was designed to measure precisely the shape of the proton energy spectrum and to extract from it the electron anti-neutrino angular correlation coefficient a. A first test period (2005/2006) showed the ''proof-of-principles''. The limiting influence of uncontrollable background conditions in the spectrometer made it impossible to extract a reliable value for the coefficient a (published in 2008). A second measurement cycle (2007/2008) aimed to under-run the relative accuracy of previous experiments ({delta}a)/(a)=5%. I performed the analysis of the data taken there which is the emphasis of this doctoral thesis. A central point are background studies. The systematic impact of background on a was reduced to ({delta}a{sup (syst.)})/(a)=0.61 %. The statistical accuracy of the analyzed measurements is ({delta}a{sup (stat.)})/(a){approx}1.4 %. Besides, saturation effects of the detector electronics were investigated which were initially observed. These turned out not to be correctable on a sufficient level. An applicable idea how to avoid the saturation effects is discussed in the last chapter. (orig.)

  12. The electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a in free neutron decay. Testing the standard model with the aSPECT-spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The β-decay of free neutrons is a strongly over-determined process in the Standard Model (SM) of Particle Physics and is described by a multitude of observables. Some of those observables are sensitive to physics beyond the SM. For example, the correlation coefficients of the involved particles belong to them. The spectrometer aSPECT was designed to measure precisely the shape of the proton energy spectrum and to extract from it the electron anti-neutrino angular correlation coefficient a. A first test period (2005/2006) showed the ''proof-of-principles''. The limiting influence of uncontrollable background conditions in the spectrometer made it impossible to extract a reliable value for the coefficient a (published in 2008). A second measurement cycle (2007/2008) aimed to under-run the relative accuracy of previous experiments (δa)/(a)=5%. I performed the analysis of the data taken there which is the emphasis of this doctoral thesis. A central point are background studies. The systematic impact of background on a was reduced to (δa (syst.) )/(a)=0.61 %. The statistical accuracy of the analyzed measurements is (δa (stat.) )/(a)∼1.4 %. Besides, saturation effects of the detector electronics were investigated which were initially observed. These turned out not to be correctable on a sufficient level. An applicable idea how to avoid the saturation effects is discussed in the last chapter. (orig.)

  13. Architectural Modelling of Alternatives for Verification of New Interventions on the Example of the Romanesque Palace at Spiš Castle in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorová, Jana; Kalesný, František; Polomová, Beata; Vojteková, Eva

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the results of the first phase of the research project SK-VEGA 1/0951/16 on using transparent and translucent structures in historical buildings. The team of researchers from the Faculty of Architecture SUT Bratislava introduces possibilities of using lightweight roofs on the model example of a dominant medieval ruin (Romanesque Palace, Spiš Castle, UNESCO site). Architectural 3D-modelling of alternatives gains new methodical importance in conditions, when in real practice only safeguarding conservation approaches are preferred. Research based on design serves as a tool for decision-making on further restoration approaches to a specific cultural heritage object. The selected Romanesque Palace of the Spiš Castle has passed through many structural periods. The interior doesn’t exist and the perimeter walls create a raised landscape landmark. Romanesque, gothic and renaissance periods were identifiable. It would be possible to reconstruct these periods partially hypothetically on the basis of saved archive materials. Inner structures and the roofing of the palace were in individual historical periods changed. Exact frame models of a new roofing were created on the principle of hypothetical reconstruction: from the indication of the medieval form, renaissance form until contemporary new forms respecting the present day horizontal palace’s topping. The aim of the first stage of the research was to present a few architectural alternatives of the roof structure refilling according to the given cultural heritage determinants and structural possibilities. We introduce 12 solutions in graphic and text, which present architectural models of a new roofing, covering the interior by transparent structure based on glass panels and translucent structures based on a textile membrane. We achieve a new space for new functional use of the palace by means of various ways of physical enclosing. On the other side, we work with alternatives of the perimeter wall

  14. Pretreatment vitamin D level and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer on the I-SPY trial (CALGB 150007/150015/ACRIN6657).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy S; Chen, Jinbo; Kapoor, Shiv; Friedman, Claire; Mies, Carolyn; Esserman, Laura; DeMichele, Angela

    2014-06-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that vitamin D (vitD) enhances chemotherapy-induced cell death. The objective of this study was to determine whether pretreatment vitD levels were associated with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in women with breast cancer. Study patients (n = 82) were enrolled on the I-SPY TRIAL, had HER2-negative tumors, and available pretreatment serum. VitD levels were measured via DiaSorin radioimmunoassay. The primary outcome was pathologic residual cancer burden (RCB; dichotomized 0/1 vs. 2/3). Secondary outcomes included biomarkers of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis (Ki67, grade, Bcl2, respectively) and 3-year relapse-free survival (RFS). Mean and median vitD values were 22.7 ng/mL (SD 11.9) and 23.1 ng/mL, respectively; 72% of patients had levels deemed "insufficient" (Ki67, or body mass index (BMI). Lower vitD levels were associated with higher tumor Ki67 adjusting for race (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90-0.99). VitD level was not associated with 3-year RFS, either alone (hazard ratio [HzR], 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.02) or after adjustment for HR, grade, Ki-67, BMI, or response. VitD insufficiency was common at the time of breast cancer diagnosis among women who were candidates for NACT and was associated with a more proliferative phenotype. However, vitD levels had no impact on tumor response to NACT or short-term prognosis. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Live cell imaging reveals novel functions of Salmonella enterica SPI2-T3SS effector proteins in remodeling of the host cell endosomal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, Roopa; Liebl, David; Chikkaballi, Deepak; Liss, Viktoria; Hensel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular Salmonella enterica induce a massive remodeling of the endosomal system in infected host cells. One dramatic consequence of this interference is the induction of various extensive tubular aggregations of membrane vesicles, and tubules positive for late endosomal/lysosomal markers are referred to as Salmonella-induced filaments or SIF. SIF are highly dynamic in nature with extension and collapse velocities of 0.4-0.5 µm x sec-1. The induction of SIF depends on the function of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2) encoded type III secretion system (T3SS) and a subset of effector proteins. In this study, we applied live cell imaging and electron microscopy to analyze the role of individual effector proteins in SIF morphology and dynamic properties of SIF. SIF in cells infected with sifB, sseJ, sseK1, sseK2, sseI, sseL, sspH1, sspH2, slrP, steC, gogB or pipB mutant strains showed a morphology and dynamics comparable to SIF induced by WT Salmonella. SIF were absent in cells infected with the sifA-deficient strain and live cell analyses allowed tracking of the loss of the SCV membrane of intracellular sifA Salmonella. In contrast to analyses in fixed cells, in living host cells SIF induced by sseF- or sseG-deficient strains were not discontinuous, but rather continuous and thinner in diameter. A very dramatic phenotype was observed for the pipB2-deficient strain that induced very bulky, non-dynamic aggregations of membrane vesicles. Our study underlines the requirement of the study of Salmonella-host interaction in living systems and reveals new phenotypes due to the intracellular activities of Salmonella.

  16. Immunolymphoscintigraphy for metastatic sentinel nodes: test of a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, A H; Nielsen, B S; Madsen, J

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To develop a method and obtain proof-of-principle for immunolymphoscintigraphy for identification of metastatic sentinel nodes. Methods. We selected one of four tumour-specific antibodies against human breast cancer and investigated (1), in immune-deficient (nude) mice with xenograft human b...... in healthy rabbits. Results and Conclusion. Our paper suggests the theoretical possibility of a model of dual isotope immuno-lymphoscintigraphy for noninvasive, preoperative, malignant sentinel node imaging....

  17. Quantum Strategies: Proposal to Experimentally Test a Quantum Economics Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-09

    protocols can add security to competitive situations; and analyzing the feasibility of running multi-party quantum games over metro-distance optical... games of complete informa- tion. Physics Letters A, 272:291-303, August 2000. [21] D. A. Meyer. Quantum Communication in Games . In S. M. Barnett, E ...feasibility of quantum games , we proposed to implement a proof-of-principle quantum public goods game , and to experimentally demonstrate that the quantum

  18. Potential Functional Embedding Theory at the Correlated Wave Function Level. 2. Error Sources and Performance Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Yu, Kuang; Libisch, Florian; Dieterich, Johannes M; Carter, Emily A

    2017-03-14

    Quantum mechanical embedding theories partition a complex system into multiple spatial regions that can use different electronic structure methods within each, to optimize trade-offs between accuracy and cost. The present work incorporates accurate but expensive correlated wave function (CW) methods for a subsystem containing the phenomenon or feature of greatest interest, while self-consistently capturing quantum effects of the surroundings using fast but less accurate density functional theory (DFT) approximations. We recently proposed two embedding methods [for a review, see: Acc. Chem. Res. 2014 , 47 , 2768 ]: density functional embedding theory (DFET) and potential functional embedding theory (PFET). DFET provides a fast but non-self-consistent density-based embedding scheme, whereas PFET offers a more rigorous theoretical framework to perform fully self-consistent, variational CW/DFT calculations [as defined in part 1, CW/DFT means subsystem 1(2) is treated with CW(DFT) methods]. When originally presented, PFET was only tested at the DFT/DFT level of theory as a proof of principle within a planewave (PW) basis. Part 1 of this two-part series demonstrated that PFET can be made to work well with mixed Gaussian type orbital (GTO)/PW bases, as long as optimized GTO bases and consistent electron-ion potentials are employed throughout. Here in part 2 we conduct the first PFET calculations at the CW/DFT level and compare them to DFET and full CW benchmarks. We test the performance of PFET at the CW/DFT level for a variety of types of interactions (hydrogen bonding, metallic, and ionic). By introducing an intermediate CW/DFT embedding scheme denoted DFET/PFET, we show how PFET remedies different types of errors in DFET, serving as a more robust type of embedding theory.

  19. I spy, I spy with my little eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribbers, J.; Keuten, M.G.A.; van Rompay, T.

    2017-01-01

    Aims
    The basis of this study lies in hygiene of swimming pools, where it is argued that taking a pre-swim shower would lead to a decrease in release of pollutants in the swimming pool, which in the end would lead to the decrease of health issues as red eyes and asthma. However, previous research

  20. Molecular imaging probes spy on the body's inner workings: miniaturized microscopes, microbubbles, 7- and 15-T scanners, diffusion-tensor MRI, and other molecular-imaging technologies are pushing molecular imaging into the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging is one of the hot-button areas within medical imaging. This technology employs imaging techniques in concert with molecular probes, or biomarkers, that together noninvasively spy on cellular function and molecular processes. In some cases, this technology may be able to detect the very earliest stages of diseases and eliminate them on the spot. This paper discusses how miniaturized microscopes, microbubbles, 7T and 15T scanners, diffusion-tensor MRI and other molecular imaging technologies are pushing molecular imaging into the future.

  1. The life and death of massive stars revealed by the observation of nuclear gamma-ray lines with the Integral/SPI spectrometer; La vie et la mort des etoiles massives revelees par l'observation des raies gamma nucleaires grace au spectrometre INTEGRAL/SPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P

    2008-11-15

    The aim of this research thesis is to bring up observational constraints on the mechanisms which govern life and death of massive stars, i.e. stars having an initial mass greater than eight times the Sun's mass, and smaller than 120 to 150 solar masses. Thus, it aims at detecting the vestiges of recent and close supernovae in order to find out the traces of the dynamics of their first instants. The author has explored the radiation of three radio-isotopes accessible to the nuclear gamma astronomy ({sup 44}Ti, {sup 60}Fe, {sup 26}Al) using observations performed with high resolution gamma spectrometer (SPI) on the INTEGRAL international observatory. After an overview of the present knowledge on the massive star explosion mechanism, the author presents the specificities and potential of the investigated radio-isotopes. He describes the data treatment methods and a population synthesis programme for the prediction of decay gamma streaks, and then reports its work on the inner dynamics of Cassiopeia A explosion, the stellar activity of the galaxy revealed by the radioisotope observation, the nucleo-synthetic activity of the Swan region.

  2. Added Value via SPI supplement

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplement that indicates where to find the source data sets on the EPA system. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Bowden, J., K.D. Talgo, T....

  3. Design, simulation and testing of capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer-based phospholipidic biosensor elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapeliauskas, E; Vanagas, G; Barauskas, D; Mikolajunas, M; Pakenas, E; Pelenis, D; Sergalis, G; Jukna, T; Virzonis, D

    2015-01-01

    In this study we present theoretical proof of the principle of using interdigital capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT IDTs) for the detection of phospholipid membrane elasticity. Proof of principle was needed to find out whether the new type of microelectromechanical sensors of the toxins incorporated with the lipid membranes was feasible. CMUT IDTs for 10 MHz operation in water, with 146 µm spaced double fingers were designed and fabricated using the surface micromachining technique. Fabricated CMUTs were tested for their resonance in air and for Scholte-type wave transmission in deionized water and isopropanol solutions containing 0%, 10% and 20% water. The amplitude and phase velocity of the excited and received Scholte waves were measured in a 200 µm height microchannel, capped with a thick layer of soft polymer, which suppressed the production of non-informative guided waves. It was determined that the average sensitivity of Scholte wave phase velocity within the given range of solution concentrations is 2.9 m s −1 per one percent. Experimental data were also used to verify the adequacy of the finite element model, which was found to be suitable for reliable prediction of the phospholipid membrane elasticity impact on the Scholte wave phase velocity or the resonance frequency in the present IDT structure. It was determined that for the analyzed conditions (the elasticity of simulated phospholipid membrane changed from 1 to 5 GPa) the sensitivity of the measurement channel is expected to be no worse than 2 kHz GPa −1 in terms of the Scholte wave and CMUT IDT resonance frequency. This leads to a positive conclusion on the feasibility of the new sensor type. (paper)

  4. Design, simulation and testing of capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer-based phospholipidic biosensor elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapeliauskas, E.; Vanagas, G.; Barauskas, D.; Mikolajunas, M.; Pakenas, E.; Pelenis, D.; Sergalis, G.; Jukna, T.; Virzonis, D.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we present theoretical proof of the principle of using interdigital capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT IDTs) for the detection of phospholipid membrane elasticity. Proof of principle was needed to find out whether the new type of microelectromechanical sensors of the toxins incorporated with the lipid membranes was feasible. CMUT IDTs for 10 MHz operation in water, with 146 µm spaced double fingers were designed and fabricated using the surface micromachining technique. Fabricated CMUTs were tested for their resonance in air and for Scholte-type wave transmission in deionized water and isopropanol solutions containing 0%, 10% and 20% water. The amplitude and phase velocity of the excited and received Scholte waves were measured in a 200 µm height microchannel, capped with a thick layer of soft polymer, which suppressed the production of non-informative guided waves. It was determined that the average sensitivity of Scholte wave phase velocity within the given range of solution concentrations is 2.9 m s-1 per one percent. Experimental data were also used to verify the adequacy of the finite element model, which was found to be suitable for reliable prediction of the phospholipid membrane elasticity impact on the Scholte wave phase velocity or the resonance frequency in the present IDT structure. It was determined that for the analyzed conditions (the elasticity of simulated phospholipid membrane changed from 1 to 5 GPa) the sensitivity of the measurement channel is expected to be no worse than 2 kHz GPa-1 in terms of the Scholte wave and CMUT IDT resonance frequency. This leads to a positive conclusion on the feasibility of the new sensor type.

  5. Rail deployment and storage procedure and test for ITER blanket remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakudate, S.; Shibanuma, K.

    2003-01-01

    A concept of rail-mounted vehicle manipulator system has been developed to apply to the maintenance of the ITER blanket composed of ∼400 modules in the vacuum vessel. The most critical issue of the vehicle manipulator system is the feasibility of the deployment and storage of the articulated rail, composed of eight rail links without any driving mechanism in the joints. To solve this issue, a new driving mechanism and procedure for the rail deployment and storage has been proposed, taking account of the repeated operation of the multi-rail links deployed and stored in the same kinematical manner. The new driving mechanism, which is different from those of a usual articulated manipulator or 'articulated boom' equipped with actuators in every joint for movement, is composed of three external mechanisms installed outside the articulated rail, i.e. a vehicle traveling mechanism as main driver and two auxiliary driving mechanisms. A simplified synchronized control of three driving mechanisms has also been proposed, including 'torque-limit control' for suppression of the overload of the mechanisms. These proposals have been tested using a full-scale vehicle manipulator system, in order to demonstrate the proof of principle for rail deployment and storage. As a result, the articulated rail has been successfully deployed and stored within 6 h each, less than the target of 8 h, by means of the three external driving mechanisms and the proposed synchronized control. In addition, the overload caused by an unexpected mismatch of the synchronized control of three driving mechanisms has also been successfully suppressed less than the rated torque by the proposed 'torque-limit control'. It is therefore concluded that the feasibility of the rail deployment and storage of the vehicle manipulator system has been demonstrated

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis Antibody Testing in Vaginal Mucosal Material versus Blood Samples of Women Attending a Fertility Clinic and an STI Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; Land, Jolande A.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; Morré, Servaas A.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia infections often follow an asymptomatic course but may damage the reproductive tract. Chlamydia antibodies in serum are used as markers for past infections and can relate to tubal pathology and infertility. This "proof of principle" study aimed to assess whether Chlamydia

  7. Same day identification and full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles made possible by a combined lysis-filtration method with MALDI-TOF VITEK mass spectrometry and the VITEK2 system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Machen

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections or sepsis have the potential to improve patient care. This proof-of-principle study evaluates the Lysis-Filtration Method for identification as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles in a clinical setting. A total of 100 non-duplicated positive blood cultures were tested and 1012 microorganism-antimicrobial combinations were assessed. An aliquot of non-charcoal blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer briefly before being filtered and washed. Microorganisms recovered from the filter membrane were first identified by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight VITEK® Mass Spectrometry (VITEK MS. After quick identification from VITEK MS, filtered microorganisms were inoculated to VITEK®2 system for full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing analysis. Of 100 bottles tested, the VITEK MS resulted in 94.0% correct organism identification to the species level. Compared to the conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from VITEK®2 resulted in 93.5% (946/1012 category agreement of antimicrobials tested, with 3.6% (36/1012 minor error, 1.7% (7/1012 major error, and 1.3% (13/1012 very major error of antimicrobials. The average time to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was 11.4 hours by using the Lysis-Filtration method for both VITEK MS and VITEK®2 compared to 56.3 hours by using conventional methods (p<0.00001. Thus, the same-day results of microorganism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing directly from positive blood culture can be achieved and can be used for appropriate antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship.

  8. Same Day Identification and Full Panel Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria from Positive Blood Culture Bottles Made Possible by a Combined Lysis-Filtration Method with MALDI-TOF VITEK Mass Spectrometry and the VITEK2 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machen, Alexandra; Drake, Tim; Wang, Yun F. (Wayne)

    2014-01-01

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections or sepsis have the potential to improve patient care. This proof-of-principle study evaluates the Lysis-Filtration Method for identification as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles in a clinical setting. A total of 100 non-duplicated positive blood cultures were tested and 1012 microorganism-antimicrobial combinations were assessed. An aliquot of non-charcoal blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer briefly before being filtered and washed. Microorganisms recovered from the filter membrane were first identified by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight VITEK® Mass Spectrometry (VITEK MS). After quick identification from VITEK MS, filtered microorganisms were inoculated to VITEK®2 system for full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing analysis. Of 100 bottles tested, the VITEK MS resulted in 94.0% correct organism identification to the species level. Compared to the conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from VITEK®2 resulted in 93.5% (946/1012) category agreement of antimicrobials tested, with 3.6% (36/1012) minor error, 1.7% (7/1012) major error, and 1.3% (13/1012) very major error of antimicrobials. The average time to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was 11.4 hours by using the Lysis-Filtration method for both VITEK MS and VITEK®2 compared to 56.3 hours by using conventional methods (p<0.00001). Thus, the same-day results of microorganism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing directly from positive blood culture can be achieved and can be used for appropriate antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship. PMID:24551067

  9. The man, who wasn't a spy. The life of the communist and scientist Klaus Fuchs; Der Mann, der kein Spion war. Das Leben des Kommunisten und Wissenschaftlers Klaus Fuchs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, R.

    2005-07-01

    In 1949 the Sovjet Union ignited her first atomic bomb, many years earlyer than expected by western secret services. A decisive role played the German physicist Klaus Fuchs. From 1943 to 1946 he cooperated in the US atomic bomb program, called Manhatten Project. All knowledge he yield, all information he got, he passed on secret ways to the Sovjet Union. In 1950 he was exposed and condemned because of spying. This book is worldwide the first comprehensive biography of a man, who had been regarded as the ''most dangerous spy of the 20th century'' in the western world, and his work had been kept a secret in the East lasting for decades. The author evaluated an extensive source material from the USA, Great Britain and the Sovjet Union, released to pubication not till after 1990. Furtheron he could rely on the memory of many actors in the surrounding of Klaus Fuchs, who also found the way to the publicity after the end of the East-West-Conflict. (GL)

  10. Vztah spišských Romů k přírodě ve světle antropologických teorií

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Pelikán

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with relation between Romanies from Spiš and nature. It discusses its connections with their ethnic identity. It fits the topic in context of anthropological theories, which are completed with knowledge of psychologists and gypsy-focused historians. It argues with a shortcut of harmonious coexistence of Romanies and nature (“Myth of the ecologically noble savage” and also with authors who deny them direct relationship with nature. Study finds theoretical background among five authors dealing with foreign gypsy groups from anthropological perspective. At the end text formulates two hypotheses: Romanies from Spiš have distinctive relationship with nature and their ethnicity can be view as both “non-Gorgio” and “non-natural”.  The non-agrarian relationship to landscape (nature as environment is more specific and is rather evolving contrary to majority; however, landscape in surroundings of settlements has strong spiritual tone and acts as a space of immediate interaction with supernatural. Dichotomy nature-culture (relationship to nature as a principle is quite similar to other ethnic groups and to our non-modern history. Second hypothesis comes from studies upon relevant majority stereotypes of Gypsies. It says major look on Romanies is in many ways similar to our view of nature and also has very analogical evolution.

  11. The classification of motor neuron defects in the zebrafish embryo toxicity test (ZFET) as an animal alternative approach to assess developmental neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth-Köhne, Elke; Wichmann, Arne; Delov, Vera; Fenske, Martina

    2012-07-01

    Rodents are widely used to test the developmental neurotoxicity potential of chemical substances. The regulatory test procedures are elaborate and the requirement of numerous animals is ethically disputable. Therefore, non-animal alternatives are highly desirable, but appropriate test systems that meet regulatory demands are not yet available. Hence, we have developed a new developmental neurotoxicity assay based on specific whole-mount immunostainings of primary and secondary motor neurons (using the monoclonal antibodies znp1 and zn8) in zebrafish embryos. By classifying the motor neuron defects, we evaluated the severity of the neurotoxic damage to individual primary and secondary motor neurons caused by chemical exposure and determined the corresponding effect concentration values (EC₅₀). In a proof-of-principle study, we investigated the effects of three model compounds thiocyclam, cartap and disulfiram, which show some neurotoxicity-indicating effects in vertebrates, and the positive controls ethanol and nicotine and the negative controls 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and triclosan. As a quantitative measure of the neurotoxic potential of the test compounds, we calculated the ratios of the EC₅₀ values for motor neuron defects and the cumulative malformations, as determined in a zebrafish embryo toxicity test (zFET). Based on this index, disulfiram was classified as the most potent and thiocyclam as the least potent developmental neurotoxin. The index also confirmed the control compounds as positive and negative neurotoxicants. Our findings demonstrate that this index can be used to reliably distinguish between neurotoxic and non-neurotoxic chemicals and provide a sound estimate for the neurodevelopmental hazard potential of a chemical. The demonstrated method can be a feasible approach to reduce the number of animals used in developmental neurotoxicity evaluation procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The high-density Z-pinch as a pulsed fusion neutron source for fusion nuclear technology and materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Sethian, J.D.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The dense Z-pinch (DZP) is one of the earliest and simplest plasma heating and confinement schemes. Recent experimental advances based on plasma initiation from hair-like (10s μm in radius) solid hydrogen filaments have so far not encountered the usually devastating MHD instabilities that plagued early DZP experiments. These encouraging results along with debt of a number of proof-of principle, high-current (1--2 MA in 10--100 ns) experiments have prompted consideration of the DZP as a pulsed source of DT fusion neutrons of sufficient strength (/dot S//sub N/ ≥ 10 19 n/s) to provide uncollided neutron fluxes in excess of I/sub ω/ = 5--10 MW/m 2 over test volumes of 10--30 litre or greater. While this neutron source would be pulsed (100s ns pulse widths, 10--100 Hz pulse rate), giving flux time compressions in the range 10 5 --10 6 , its simplicity, near-time feasibility, low cost, high-Q operation, and relevance to fusion systems that may provide a pulsed commercial end-product (e.g., inertial confinement or the DZP itself) together create the impetus for preliminary considerations as a neutron source for fusion nuclear technology and materials testings. The results of a preliminary parametric systems study (focusing primarily on physics issues), conceptual design, and cost versus performance analyses are presented. The DZP promises an expensive and efficient means to provide pulsed DT neutrons at an average rate in excess of 10 19 n/s, with neutron currents I/sub ω/ /approx lt/ 10 MW/m 2 over volumes V/sub exp/ ≥ 30 litre using single-pulse technologies that differ little from those being used in present-day experiments. 34 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  13. In-Tank Elutriation Test Report And Independent Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, H. H.; Adamson, D. J.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steeper, T. J.

    2011-04-13

    grown in size over a period of decades. 2. The radionuclides were apparently either in the form of soluble compounds, like cesium, or micrometer sized particles of actinide oxides or hydroxides. 3. After the initial tank retrieval the tank contained cobble which is not conducive to elutriation. Only after the tank contents were treated with thousands of gallons of 50 wt% caustic, were the solids converted to sand which is compatible with elutriation. Discussions between SRNL and PNNL resulted in plans to test elutriation in two phases; in Phase 1 particles would be separated by differences in settling velocity in an existing scaled tank with its associated hardware and in Phase 2 additional hardware, such as a hydrocyclone, would be added downstream to separate slow settling partciels from liquid. Phase 1 of in-tank elutriation was tested for Proof of Principle in theEngineering Development Laboratory of SRNL in a 41" diameter, 87 gallon tank. The tank had been previously used as a 1/22 scale model of Hanford Waste Tank AY-102. The objective of the testing was to determine which tank operating parameters achieved the best separation between fast- and slow-settling particles. For Phase 1 testing a simulated waste tank supernatant, slow-settling particles and fast-settling particles were loaded to the scaled tank. Because this was a Proof of Principle test, readily available solids particles were used that represented fast-settling and slow-settling particles. The tank contents were agitated using rotating mixer jet pumps (MJP) which suspended solids while liquids and solids were drawn out of the tank with a suction tube. The goal was to determine the optimum hydraulic operating conditions to achieve clean separation in which the residual solids in the tank were nearly all fast-settling particles and the solids transferred out of the tank were nearly all slow-settling particles. Tests were conducted at different pump jet velocities, suction tube diameters and suction tube

  14. Software Process Improvement: Continuous Integration and Testing for Web Application Development

    OpenAIRE

    MUHONEN, MATIAS

    2009-01-01

    Software testing is not the only approach to improve software quality but, perhaps, one of the most important ones. This is because testing gives us the confidence that the software will work as it should in its intended environment. In this thesis the author introduces a Software Process Improvement (SPI) technique for conducting automated web application security testing. The continuous integration process provides rapid and automatic feedback on the security of the web applications under d...

  15. Demonstration of the iodine and NO/sub x/ removal systems in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory integrated equipment test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.E.; Jubin, R.T.

    1987-03-01

    This report summarizes the findings from three sets of experiments on iodine and NO/sub x/ removal performance using dual downdraft condensers in the dissolver off-gas line. The initial experiments were conducted in the laboratory using glassware in proof-of-principle tests. Two additional sets of condenser experiments were conducted using equipment prototyical for a 0.5-t/d plant in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report also describes the NO/sub x/ removal performance of a packed scrubber in the IET during the dissolution of depleted uranium oxides. The overall iodine pass-through efficiency of the condensers in the IET was high as desired. Removal efficiencies ranged from only 0.35 to 6.29%, indicating that the bulk of the iodine in the off-gas will be transferred on through the condensers to the iodox process for final disposal rather than recycled to the dissolver. The optimum operating temperature for the first condenser was in the range of 50 to 70 0 C, with the temperature of the second condenser held near 20 0 C. The NO/sub x/ removal performance of the combined dual condensers and packed scrubber resulted in effluent off-gas stream NO/sub x/ compositions of ∼0.4 to 1.0%, which are acceptable levels for the iodox process. The NO/sub x/ removal efficiency of the condensers ranged from ∼5 to 58%, but was generally around 20%. The removal efficiency of the packed tower scrubber was observed to be in the range of 40 to 60%. The NO/sub x/ removal performance of the condensers tended to complement the performance of the scrubber in that the condenser removal afficiency was high when the scrubber efficiency was low and vice versa

  16. A Protein-Conjugate Approach to Develop a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Antigen Detection Test for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kailash P.; Saito, Mayuko; Atluri, Vidya L.; Rolán, Hortensia G.; Young, Briana; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Smits, Henk; Ricaldi, Jessica N.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsolis, Renee M.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Human brucellosis is most commonly diagnosed by serology based on agglutination of fixed Brucella abortus as antigen. Nucleic acid amplification techniques have not proven capable of reproducibly and sensitively demonstrating the presence of Brucella DNA in clinical specimens. We sought to optimize a monoclonal antibody-based assay to detect Brucella melitensis lipopolysaccharide in blood by conjugating B. melitensis LPS to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, an immunogenic protein carrier to maximize IgG affinity of monoclonal antibodies. A panel of specific of monoclonal antibodies was obtained that recognized both B. melitensis and B. abortus lipopolysaccharide epitopes. An antigen capture assay was developed that detected B. melitensis in the blood of experimentally infected mice and, in a pilot study, in naturally infected Peruvian subjects. As a proof of principle, a majority (7/10) of the patients with positive blood cultures had B. melitensis lipopolysaccharide detected in the initial blood specimen obtained. One of 10 patients with relapsed brucellosis and negative blood culture had a positive serum antigen test. No seronegative/blood culture negative patients had a positive serum antigen test. Analysis of the pair of monoclonal antibodies (2D1, 2E8) used in the capture ELISA for potential cross-reactivity in the detection of lipopolysaccharides of E. coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica O9 showed specificity for Brucella lipopolysaccharide. This new approach to develop antigen-detection monoclonal antibodies against a T cell-independent polysaccharide antigen based on immunogenic protein conjugation may lead to the production of improved rapid point-of-care-deployable assays for the diagnosis of brucellosis and other infectious diseases. PMID:24901521

  17. Minimally invasive (13)C-breath test to examine phenylalanine metabolism in children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Abrar; Murthy, Gayathri; Ueda, Keiko; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Elango, Rajavel

    2015-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) leading to increased levels of phenylalanine in the plasma. Phenylalanine levels and phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) activity monitoring are currently limited to conventional blood dot testing. 1-(13)C-phenylalanine, a stable isotope can be used to examine phenylalanine metabolism, as the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine occurs in vivo via PAH and subsequently releases the carboxyl labeled (13)C as (13)CO2 in breath. Our objective was to examine phenylalanine metabolism in children with PKU using a minimally-invasive 1-(13)C-phenylalanine breath test ((13)C-PBT). Nine children (7 M: 2 F, mean age 12.5 ± 2.87 y) with PKU participated in the study twice: once before and once after sapropterin supplementation. Children were provided 6 mg/kg oral dose of 1-(13)C-phenylalanine and breath samples were collected at 20 min intervals for a period of 2h. Rate of CO2 production was measured at 60 min post-oral dose using indirect calorimetry. The percentage of 1-(13)C-phenylalanine exhaled as (13)CO2 was measured over a 2h period. Prior to studying children with PKU, we tested the study protocol in healthy children (n = 6; 4M: 2F, mean age 10.2 ± 2.48 y) as proof of principle. Production of a peak enrichment (Cmax) of (13)CO2 (% of dose) in all healthy children occurred at 20 min ranging from 17-29% of dose, with a subsequent return to ~5% by the end of 2h. Production of (13)CO2 from 1-(13)C-phenylalanine in all children with PKU prior to sapropterin treatment remained low. Following sapropterin supplementation for a week, production of (13)CO2 significantly increased in five children with a subsequent decline in blood phenylalanine levels, suggesting improved PAH activity. Sapropterin treatment was not effective in three children whose (13)CO2 production remained unchanged, and did not show a reduction in blood phenylalanine levels and improvement

  18. Method-independent, Computationally Frugal Convergence Testing for Sensitivity Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, J.; Tolson, B.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing complexity and runtime of environmental models lead to the current situation that the calibration of all model parameters or the estimation of all of their uncertainty is often computationally infeasible. Hence, techniques to determine the sensitivity of model parameters are used to identify most important parameters. All subsequent model calibrations or uncertainty estimation procedures focus then only on these subsets of parameters and are hence less computational demanding. While the examination of the convergence of calibration and uncertainty methods is state-of-the-art, the convergence of the sensitivity methods is usually not checked. If any, bootstrapping of the sensitivity results is used to determine the reliability of the estimated indexes. Bootstrapping, however, might as well become computationally expensive in case of large model outputs and a high number of bootstraps. We, therefore, present a Model Variable Augmentation (MVA) approach to check the convergence of sensitivity indexes without performing any additional model run. This technique is method- and model-independent. It can be applied either during the sensitivity analysis (SA) or afterwards. The latter case enables the checking of already processed sensitivity indexes. To demonstrate the method's independency of the convergence testing method, we applied it to two widely used, global SA methods: the screening method known as Morris method or Elementary Effects (Morris 1991) and the variance-based Sobol' method (Solbol' 1993). The new convergence testing method is first scrutinized using 12 analytical benchmark functions (Cuntz & Mai et al. 2015) where the true indexes of aforementioned three methods are known. This proof of principle shows that the method reliably determines the uncertainty of the SA results when different budgets are used for the SA. The results show that the new frugal method is able to test the convergence and therefore the reliability of SA results in an

  19. Magnetic Beads Enhance Adhesion of NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts: A Proof-of-Principle In Vitro Study for Implant-Mediated Long-Term Drug Delivery to the Inner Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliuos, Pooyan; Schulze, Jennifer; Schomaker, Markus; Reuter, Günter; Stolle, Stefan R O; Werner, Darja; Ripken, Tammo; Lenarz, Thomas; Warnecke, Athanasia

    2016-01-01

    Long-term drug delivery to the inner ear may be achieved by functionalizing cochlear implant (CI) electrodes with cells providing neuroprotective factors. However, effective strategies in order to coat implant surfaces with cells need to be developed. Our vision is to make benefit of electromagnetic field attracting forces generated by CI electrodes to bind BDNF-secreting cells that are labelled with magnetic beads (MB) onto the electrode surfaces. Thus, the effect of MB-labelling on cell viability and BDNF production were investigated. Murine NIH 3T3 fibroblasts-genetically modified to produce BDNF-were labelled with MB. Atomic force and bright field microscopy illustrated the internalization of MB by fibroblasts after 24 h of cultivation. Labelling cells with MB did not expose cytotoxic effects on fibroblasts and allowed adhesion on magnetic surfaces with sufficient BDNF release. Our data demonstrate a novel approach for mediating enhanced long-term adhesion of BDNF-secreting fibroblasts on model electrode surfaces for cell-based drug delivery applications in vitro and in vivo. This therapeutic strategy, once transferred to cells suitable for clinical application, may allow the biological modifications of CI surfaces with cells releasing neurotrophic or other factors of interest.

  20. Magnetic Beads Enhance Adhesion of NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts: A Proof-of-Principle In Vitro Study for Implant-Mediated Long-Term Drug Delivery to the Inner Ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooyan Aliuos

    Full Text Available Long-term drug delivery to the inner ear may be achieved by functionalizing cochlear implant (CI electrodes with cells providing neuroprotective factors. However, effective strategies in order to coat implant surfaces with cells need to be developed. Our vision is to make benefit of electromagnetic field attracting forces generated by CI electrodes to bind BDNF-secreting cells that are labelled with magnetic beads (MB onto the electrode surfaces. Thus, the effect of MB-labelling on cell viability and BDNF production were investigated.Murine NIH 3T3 fibroblasts-genetically modified to produce BDNF-were labelled with MB.Atomic force and bright field microscopy illustrated the internalization of MB by fibroblasts after 24 h of cultivation. Labelling cells with MB did not expose cytotoxic effects on fibroblasts and allowed adhesion on magnetic surfaces with sufficient BDNF release.Our data demonstrate a novel approach for mediating enhanced long-term adhesion of BDNF-secreting fibroblasts on model electrode surfaces for cell-based drug delivery applications in vitro and in vivo. This therapeutic strategy, once transferred to cells suitable for clinical application, may allow the biological modifications of CI surfaces with cells releasing neurotrophic or other factors of interest.

  1. Patient education with or without manual therapy compared to a control group in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. A proof-of-principle three-arm parallel group randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, E; Hartvigsen, J; Christensen, H W

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a patient education (PE) program with or without the added effect of manual therapy (MT) compared to a minimal control intervention (MCI).......To investigate the effectiveness of a patient education (PE) program with or without the added effect of manual therapy (MT) compared to a minimal control intervention (MCI)....

  2. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Reports on Review of the Fusion Materials Research Program, Review of the Proposed Proof-of-Principle Programs, Review of the Possible Pathways for Pursuing Burning Plasma Physics, and Comments on the ER Facilities Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-07-01

    The Fusion Energy Science Advisory Committee was asked to conduct a review of Fusion Materials Research Program (the Structural Materials portion of the Fusion Program) by Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of Energy Research for the Department of Energy. This request was motivated by the fact that significant changes have been made in the overall direction of the Fusion Program from one primarily focused on the milestones necessary to the construction of successively larger machines to one where the necessary scientific basis for an attractive fusion energy system is. better understood. It was in this context that the review of current scientific excellence and recommendations for future goals and balance within the Program was requested.

  3. The role of outcome expectancies for a training program consisting of meditation, breathing exercises, and cold exposure on the response to endotoxin administration: a proof-of-principle study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, H. van; Kox, M.; Pickkers, P.; Evers, A.W.

    2016-01-01

    Expectancies play a major role for the treatment outcome of a broad variety of immune-mediated conditions and may strengthen or mimic the effects of regular long-term therapies. This study adds to a recently published study of Kox et al. (PNAS 111:7379-7384, 2014) on the ability to voluntarily

  4. The role of outcome expectancies for a training program consisting of meditation, breathing exercises, and cold exposure on the response to endotoxin administration: a proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Middendorp, Henriët; Kox, Matthijs; Pickkers, Peter; Evers, Andrea W M

    2016-04-01

    Expectancies play a major role for the treatment outcome of a broad variety of immune-mediated conditions and may strengthen or mimic the effects of regular long-term therapies. This study adds to a recently published study of Kox et al. (PNAS 111:7379-7384, 2014) on the ability to voluntarily influence the physiological stress response in healthy men after a training program consisting of meditation, breathing techniques, and exposure to cold, which found highly promising results on the clinical, autonomic, and immune response to experimentally induced inflammation (using the experimental human endotoxemia model). Within this project, a number of variables were included to assess the role of generalized (optimism, neuroticism) and specific outcome expectancies (related to the effects of the training on health) on the response to endotoxin administration after training. Indications were found that especially the generalized outcome expectancy optimism is a potential determinant of the autonomic (epinephrine: rho = 0.76, p training, whereas more specific expectations with regard to the effects of the training could be especially relevant for the clinical symptom report (flu-like symptoms: rho = -0.71, p training responses and potentiate their effects by means of optimism-inducing interventions in patients with immune-mediated rheumatic conditions.

  5. LHCb - Measurement of the branching fraction ratio $\\cal{B}$ $(B_{c}^{+} \\to \\psi(2S)\\pi^+)$ / $\\cal{B}$ $(B_{c}^{+} \\to {J}\\psi\\pi^+)$ at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    An, Liupan

    2016-01-01

    Using the $pp$ collision data collected by LHCb at center-of-mass energies $\\sqrt{s} \\, = 7 \\, {\\rm TeV} \\,$ and $8 \\, {\\rm TeV} \\,$, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3 \\, \\mathrm{fb}^{-1} \\,$, the ratio of the branching fraction of the $B_{c}^{+} \\to \\psi(2S)\\pi^+$ decay relative to that of the $B_{c}^{+} \\to J/\\psi\\pi^+$ decay is measured to be ${0.268 \\pm 0.032\\mathrm{\\,(stat)} \\pm 0.007\\mathrm{\\,(syst)} \\pm 0.006\\,(\\mathrm{BF}) }$. The first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the uncertainties on the branching fractions of the $J/\\psi \\to \\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ and $\\psi(2S) \\to \\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ decays. To enhance the signal significance with limited $B_{c}^{+}$ statistics, the boosted decision tree selection is used to separate the signal and background effectively. The systematic uncertainties are discussed extensively. This measurement is consistent with the previous LHCb result, and the statistical uncertainty is halved.

  6. Optimal implementation of green infrastructure practices to minimize influences of land use change and climate change on hydrology and water quality: Case study in Spy Run Creek watershed, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Engel, Bernard A; Collingsworth, Paris D; Pijanowski, Bryan C

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient loading from the Maumee River watershed is a significant reason for the harmful algal blooms (HABs) problem in Lake Erie. The nutrient loading from urban areas needs to be reduced with the installation of green infrastructure (GI) practices. The Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model was used to explore the influences of land use (LU) and climate change on water quantity and quality in Spy Run Creek watershed (SRCW) (part of Maumee River watershed), decide whether and where excess phosphorus loading existed, identify critical areas to understand where the greatest amount of runoff/pollutants originated, and optimally implement GI practices to obtain maximum environmental benefits with the lowest costs. Both LU/climate changes increased runoff/pollutants generated from the watershed. Areas with the highest runoff/pollutant amount per area, or critical areas, differed for various environmental concerns, land uses (LUs), and climates. Compared to optimization considering all areas, optimization conducted only in critical areas can provide similar cost-effective results with decreased computational time for low levels of runoff/pollutant reductions, but critical area optimization results were not as cost-effective for higher levels of runoff/pollutant reductions. Runoff/pollutants for 2011/2050 LUs/climates could be reduced to amounts of 2001 LU/climate by installation of GI practices with annual expenditures of $0.34 to $2.05 million. The optimization scenarios that were able to obtain the 2001 runoff level in 2011/2050, can also reduce all pollutants to 2001 levels in this watershed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diplomáticos, periodistas, espías y publicistas: la cruzada mexicana-bolchevique en América Latina Diplomats, journalists, spies and publicists: the Mexican-Bolshevik campaign in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Yankelevich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hacia mediados de la década de 1920, sectores importantes de la administración del presidente John Calvin Coolidge y de la opinión pública norteamericana, estuvieron convencidos de que México estaba gobernado por una camarilla comunistas. Esta percepción tuvo su origen en un irresuelto conflicto que los revolucionarios mexicanos sostuvieron con gobernantes y empresarios norteamericanos desde la promulgación de la Constitución de 1917; a lo que se sumó una serie de actitudes del presidente Calles desafiando a sectores conservadores de la sociedad mexicana junto a poderosos intereses estadounidenses. En este texto se estudian las estrategias y los personajes que contribuyeron a gestar la idea de un Méxicosoviet, prestando una particular atención al trabajo desarrollado por espías al servicio del gobierno norteamericano, pero también a la labor de intelectuales que bajo protección callista llevaron cabo una muy difundida obra de carácter anticlerical y antiimperialista.In the mid-20s important sectors within President John Calvin Coolidge's administration as well as American public opinion were convinced that Mexico had found itself governed by a group of communists. This idea arose due to an unsolved conflict, which the Mexican revolutionaries had had with the government and American businessmen since the preparation of the 1917Constitution. This was added to a series of actions of President Calles challenging sectors within Mexican society as well as the powerful interests of the Americans. In this text strategies and characters are studied that contributed to the evolution of the idea of a soviet Mexico, paying particular attention not only to the work developed by spies at the service of the American government, but also to the work of the intellectuals that under the Callista protection took on a complete and comprehensive job of spreading anticlerical and anti-imperialist propaganda.

  8. Spying on the neighbors' pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xantheas, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    The structure and properties of the aqueous proton is of fundamental interest in many areas of chemistry and biology. Acids and bases are molecules that are able to transfer (donate / accept) a proton according to Brønsted and Lowry, a process that was further explained by Lewis in terms of changes in their electronic structure in an attempt to offer a generalization of the Arrhenius theory. Simple proton transfers or the ones coupled to an electron transfer determine speciation, valence and reactivity in aqueous media and explain electrochemical processes, while voltage-gated proton channels have severe implications to the function of a number of tissues and species.

  9. Movie Physics: pirates, spies and other worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Del Rio, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Fernandez, V.; Martin, J. L.; Sanchez-Tejerina, L.; Perez, G.; Ares, L.; Vasallo, E.; Martin, P.; Villa, V.; Garcia, S.; Vara, M.; Martin, S.; Alvarez, P.; Gonzalez, C.; Lopez, P.; Burgos, M. A.; Gonzalez, V. M.; Carbajo, J.; Velasco-Merino, C.; Hevia, F.; Martinez, F.; Martinez, J. F.; Gonzalez-Herrero, D.; Gloriani, A. H.; Mateos, D.

    Taking advantage of many popular films, the basics of many physical principles can be shown in a really attractive and stunning way. Five shows/workshops form this project attending the necessities of the target public: kids become pirates, high-school students are pushed to the limit and visit other fantasy worlds, and the general public discover the powers of physics and some terrifying secrets. By November 2015 we have obtained more than 2900 viewers. The activities have been presented in different national and international conferences, on an international science fair and have been published by several Spanish media. During 2015 the Physics League Association has received three international awards due to some activities from this project. Additional Authors: B. G. del Rio [1 2], V. González-Fernández [1 2], J. L. Martín [1], L. Sánchez-Tejerina [1 2], G. Pérez [1], L. Ares [1], E. Vasallo [1], P. Martín [1], V. Villa [1], S. García [1], M. Vara [1], S. Martín [1], P. Álvarez [1], C. González [1], P. López [1], M.A. Burgos [1 2], V. M. González [1], J. Carbajo [1], C. Velasco-Merino [1 2], F. Hevia [1 2], D. Gutiez [1], F. Martínez [1], J. F. Martínez [1], L. E. Vazquez [1], M. Bueno [1], M. Escribano [1], P. Guillem [1], R. García [1], D. González [1], D. González-Herrero [1 2], A. H. Gloriani [1 2], J. Cítores [1], J. Hernández [1], A. Álvarez [1], M. Álvarez [1], D. Mateos [1 2] [1] Physics League Association, SPAIN [2] Universidad de Valladolid, SPAIN Aps Mini Grants 2015, EPS Young Minds and OSA.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Spies on 'Black Eye'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Residing roughly 17 million light years from Earth, in the northern constellation Coma Berenices, is a merged star system known as Messier 64 (M64). First cataloged in the 18th century by the French astronomer Messier, M64 is a result of two colliding galaxies and has an unusual appearance as well as bizarre internal motions. It has a spectacular dark band of absorbing dust in front of its bright nucleus, lending to it the nickname of the 'Black Eye' or 'Evil Eye' galaxy. Fine details of the dark band can be seen in this image of the central portion of M64 obtained by the Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Appearing to be a fairly normal pinwheel-shaped galaxy, the M64 stars are rotating in the same direction, clockwise, as in the majority of galaxies. However, detailed studies in the 1990's led to the remarkable discovery that the interstellar gas in the outer regions of M64 rotates in the opposite direction from the gas and stars in the irner region. Astronomers believe that the oppositely rotating gas arose when M64 absorbed a satellite galaxy that collided with it, perhaps more than one billion years ago. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

  11. Cliffs of ice spied on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voosen, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Scientists have discovered eight cliffs of nearly pure water ice on Mars, some of which stand nearly 100 meters tall. The discovery points to large stores of underground ice buried only a meter or two below the surface at surprisingly low martian latitudes, in regions where ice had not yet been detected. Each cliff seems to be the naked face of a glacier, tantalizing scientists with the promise of a layer-cake record of past martian climates and space enthusiasts with a potential resource for future human bases. Scientists discovered the cliffs with a high-resolution camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, revisiting the sites to show their subsequent retreat as a result of vaporization, and their persistence in the martian summer. The hunt should now be on, scientists say, for similar sites closer to the equator.

  12. The E166 experiment: Development of an undulator-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A longitudinal polarized positron beam is foreseen for the international linear collider (ILC). A proof-of-principle experiment has been performed in the final focus test beam at SLAC to demonstrate the production of polarized positrons for implementation at the ILC. The E166 experiment uses a 1 m long helical undulator in a ...

  13. Feasibility of Exposure Response Prevention to Treat Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism and an Intellectual Disability: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; Woodard, Cooper R.; Bodfish, James W.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence-based behavioral therapies or pharmacotherapies to treat repetitive behaviors found in autism. Effective behavioral therapies are needed to counter any negative consequences these behaviors may have on the child's early learning and socialization. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the feasibility…

  14. CO2 laser Thomson scattering diagnostic for fusion product alpha particle measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R. K.; Bennett, C. A.; Fletcher, L. K.; Hunter, H. T.; Hutchinson, D. P.

    1988-08-01

    A description of a CO2 laser Thomson scattering diagnostic for fusion product alpha particles is presented. Scattering calculations based on CIT plasma parameters are presented and compared to previous work based on TFTR parameters. System components are described and a proof-of-principle test in a nonburning plasma is discussed.

  15. A CO2 laser Thomson scattering diagnostic for fusion product alpha particle measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R. K.; Bennett, C. A.; Fletcher, L. K.; Hunter, H. T.; Hutchinson, D. P.

    A description of a CO2 laser Thomson scattering diagnostic for fusion alpha particles is presented. Scattering calculations based on CIT plasma parameters are presented and compared to previous work based on TFTR parameters. Systems components are described and a proof-of-principle test in a nonburning plasma is discussed.

  16. Test plan :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  17. Predictive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Predictive testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... you make the decision. What Is Predictive Genetic Testing Predictive genetic testing searches for genetic changes, or ...

  18. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Pharmacogenomic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to fit your genetic makeup What Is Pharmacogenomic Testing? Pharmacogenomic testing is done before your healthcare provider ...

  19. Trichomonas Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  20. Testing 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Presents articles on test anxiety, personality tests, history of tests and benefits to be derived from their use, tests as tools in career decision-making, temperament needs for certain jobs (as determined by personality tests), interest inventories, testing exceptional students, and testing to evaluate vocational needs of special needs groups.…

  1. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  2. Ham test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  3. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Test Anxiety KidsHealth / For Teens / Test Anxiety What's in this ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ...

  4. Urodynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Urodynamic Testing What is the urinary tract? The urinary tract ... view of the urinary tract What is urodynamic testing? Urodynamic testing is any procedure that looks at ...

  5. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) DHEAS ... can develop resistance to the drugs used to treat them, but that type of testing is performed ...

  6. Caracterização química e nutricional de plasteína produzida a partir de hidrolisado pancreático de isolado protéico de soja Chemical and nutritional characterization of plastein produced from pancreatic hydrolysate of soy protein isolate (SPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrian Thereza Serra Martins

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar a caracterização química e nutricional da plasteína produzida a partir de isolado protéico de soja (IPS. O hidrolisado de IPS foi produzido em sistema descontínuo, 5% de substrato, relação enzima/substrato 1/20, 6 h, 37°C, sob agitação. A plasteína foi produzida com 40% de substrato em solução aquosa, pH 7, 24 h a 37°C, sob repouso. Na caracterização química, foi verificada a distribuição dos pesos moleculares por meio de eletroforese (SDS-PAGE e cromatografia de exclusão molecular (CEM. A SDS-PAGE não permitiu a visualização das bandas tanto no hidrolisado quanto na plasteína. Na CEM o hidrolisado apresentou 5 frações de PM na faixa de 5,4 a 66,2 kDa e a plasteína com 2 frações de PM na faixa de 9,6 e 58,7 kDa. O escore químico de aminoácidos essenciais confirmou a presença dos aminoácidos sulfurados como limitantes, sendo obtidos os valores de 93,2 e 96,4% para o hidrolisado e plasteína, respectivamente. A modificação enzimática através da reação de síntese de plasteína mostrou ser um processo viável na produção de matéria-prima para formulações alimentares de uso em nutrição clínica e em outros sistemas, sendo necessária a suplementação de metionina quando utilizada como fonte exclusiva de proteína.The objective of this research was to characterize chemically the plastein produced from a pancreatic hydrolysate of soy protein isolate (SPI. The SPI hydrolysate was obtained by an enzymatic discontinuous process, with a 5% substrate concentration, an enzyme/substrate ratio of 1/20, 37ºC, 6 hours under constant stirring. The plastein was produced from this hydrolysate with a 40% substrate (w/v, pH 7, 37ºC, for 24 hours without stirring. The protein profile was analyzed by gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and by molecular exclusion chromatography (MEC. The SDS-PAGE did not permit the bands visualization. The MEC pointed that the SPI hydrolysate

  7. PROOF OF CONCEPT TEST OF A UNIQUE GASEOUS PERFLUROCARBON TRACER SYSTEM FOR VERIFICATION AND LONG TERM MONITORING OF CAPS AND COVER SYSTEMS CONDUCTED AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE BENTONITE MAT TEST FACILITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEISER,J.; SULLIVAN,T.; SERRATO,M.

    2002-02-24

    be used as a non-invasive method (if injection ports are emplaced prior to cover emplacement) on new covers or a minimally invasive method on existing covers. PFT verification will be useful at all buried waste sites using a cover system (e.g., treated or untreated chemical waste landfills) including DOE, commercial, and private sector sites. This paper discusses the initial field trial of the PFT cover monitoring system performed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in FY01. The experiments provided a successful proof-of-principle test of the PFT technology in monitoring caps and covers. An injection and sampling array was installed in the Bentomat test cap at the SRS Caps Test Facility. This system contained 6 feet of sandy soil beneath a 1/2 inch geosynthetic clay liner covered by an HDPE liner which was covered by 2 feet of clayey top soil. PFTs were injected into the sandy soil though a pre-existing system of access pipes below the cap and soil gas samples were taken on top of the cap. Mid-way into the injection period a series of 1 1/2 inch holes were punched into the cap (through the geomembrane) to provide a positive breach in the cap. Data will be presented that shows the initial cap was fairly tight and leak free and that the artificially induced leaks were detectable within two hours of occurrence.

  8. String test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duodenal parasites test; Giardia - string test ... To have this test, you swallow a string with a weighted gelatin capsule on the end. The string is pulled out 4 hours later. Any bile , blood, or mucus attached to ...

  9. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  10. Allergy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Allergy testing TTR Share | Allergy Testing If you have an allergy, your immune system ... to avoid contact with the pet if allergy testing shows an allergy to dust mites but not ...

  11. Pinworm test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... When a person has a pinworm infection, adult pinworms live in the intestine and colon. At night, the female adult worms deposit their eggs outside the rectum ...

  12. Determination of photoionization cross-sections of different organic molecules using gas chromatography coupled to single-photon ionization (SPI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) with an electron-beam-pumped rare gas excimer light source (EBEL): influence of molecular structure and analytical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschner, Markus S; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2011-07-01

    This work describes a fast and reliable method for determination of photoionization cross-sections (PICS) by means of gas chromatography (GC) coupled to single-photon ionization mass spectrometry (SPI-MS). Photoionization efficiency (PIE) data for 69 substances was obtained at a photon energy of 9.8 ± 0.4 eV using an innovative electron-beam-pumped rare gas excimer light source (EBEL) filled with argon. The investigated analytes comprise 12 alkylbenzenes as well as 11 other substituted benzenes, 23 n-alkanes, ten polyaromatic hydrocarbons, seven aromatic heterocycles, and six polyaromatic heterocycles. Absolute PICS for each substance at 9.8 eV are calculated from the relative photoionization efficiencies of the compounds with respect to benzene, whose photoionization cross-section data is well known. Furthermore, a direct correlation between the type of benzene substituents and their absolute PICS is presented and discussed in depth. Finally, comparison of previously measured photoionization cross-sections for 20 substances shows good agreement with the data of the present work.

  13. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  14. Parameters Optimization for a Novel Vacuum Laser Acceleration Test at BNL-ATF

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Lei; Zhou, Feng

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new VLA theory model which has revealed that the injection electrons with low energy and small incident angle relative to the laser beam are captured and significantly accelerated in a strong laser field. For the further step for verifying the novel-VLA mechanics, we propose to use the BNL-ATF Terawatt CO2 laser and a high-brightness electron beam to carry out a proof-of-principle beam experiment. Experiment setup including the laser injection optics and electron extraction system and beam diagnostics is presented. Extensive optimized simulation results with ATF practical parameters are also presented, which shows that even when the laser intensity is not very high, the net energy gain still can be seen obviously. This could be prospect for a new revolution of vacuum laser acceleration.

  15. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    1999-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  16. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  17. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  18. Workplace Testing: Who's Testing Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Eric Rolfe

    1989-01-01

    A survey conducted by the American Management Association on workplace-testing policies included questions about drug testing, polygraphs, and testing for the human immunodeficiency virus. The survey found that testing increased from 21 percent in 1986 to 37 percent in 1987 and 48 percent in the 1988 survey. (JOW)

  19. Status of the RFD Linac Structure Developement

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    The Proof-of-Principle (POP) prototype of the Rf-Focused Drift tube (RFD) linac structure is currently under test at Linac Systems, after years of delay due to a variety of technical problems. A discussion of these technical problems and their solutions will be presented. The status of these tests will be reported. Plans for future development of this linac structure will be revealed. Potential uses of this linac structure for a variety of scientific, medical, and industrial applications will...

  20. Nickel-hydrogen battery design for the Transporter Energy Storage Subsystem (TESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, John R.; Bourland, Deborah S.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on nickel hydrogen battery design for the transporter energy storage subsystem (TESS). Information is given on use in the Space Station Freedom, the launch configuration, use in the Mobile Servicing Center, battery design requirements, TESS subassembley design, proof of principle testing of a 6-cell battery, possible downsizing of TESS to support the Mobile Rocket Servicer Base System (MBS) redesign, TESS output capacity, and cell testing.

  1. Test quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.S.; Keller, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section XI of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing

  2. Test quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.S.; Keller, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section 11 of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves, respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing

  3. ACT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content View Sources Ask Us Also Known As ACT Activated Coagulation Time Formal Name Activated Clotting Time ... What is being tested? The activated clotting time (ACT) is a test that is used primarily to ...

  4. Genomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events and Multimedia Implementation Genetics 101 Family Health History Genomics and Diseases Genetic Counseling Genomic Testing Epidemiology Pathogen Genomics Resources Genomic Testing Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Fact Sheet: Identifying Opportunities to ...

  5. Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on to their children Screening embryos for disease Testing for genetic diseases in adults before they cause ... provide information about the pros and cons of testing. NIH: National Human Genome Research Institute

  6. Syphilis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Pp 1612-1614. ARUP Consult. Syphilis Testing Algorithm. PDF available for download at http://search.arupconsult.com/ ...

  7. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test.......Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test....

  8. Ferritin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal" values. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if ... along with other iron tests , when a routine complete blood count (CBC) shows that a person's hemoglobin and hematocrit ...

  9. Randomization tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edgington, Eugene S

    1980-01-01

    .... This book provides all the necessary theory and practical guidelines, such as instructions for writing computer programs, to permit experimenters to transform any statistical test into a distribution-free test...

  10. Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou test; Pap smear; Cervical cancer screening - Pap test; Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - Pap; CIN - Pap; Precancerous changes of the cervix - Pap; Cervical cancer - Pap; Squamous intraepithelial lesion - Pap; LSIL - Pap; HSIL - Pap; ...

  11. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical devices that are intended for use on samples of blood, urine, or other tissues ...

  12. Globulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you have liver or kidney disease . Serum protein electrophoresis. This blood test measures gamma globulins and other ... myeloma. Other names for globulin tests: Serum globulin electrophoresis, total protein What is it used for? Globulin ...

  13. Tensilon test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myasthenia gravis - tensilon ... tests to help tell the difference between myasthenia gravis and other conditions. ... The test helps: Diagnose myasthenia gravis Tell the difference between ... Monitor treatment with oral anticholinesterase drugs The ...

  14. DHEAS Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  15. Osmolality Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  16. Lipase Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  17. Neuropathy Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  18. Troponins Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  19. Prealbumin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  20. Progesterone Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  1. Iron Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  2. Serotonin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  3. Ammonia Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  4. Complement Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  5. Myoglobin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  6. AMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  7. Trypsinogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  8. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  9. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  10. Estrogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... in men and play a role in bone metabolism and growth in both sexes. Estrogen tests measure ...

  11. Nationale Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv......Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv...

  12. Software Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-15

    CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) . TYPE OF REPO RI.O COVERED_ US ARMY TEST AND EVALUATION COMMND TEST OF R&TN CEDURE Final------- SOFWAR TEST...verification, the TECON field activity A should offer to provide this service using the CRWG and the TIWG as vehicles for coordination. 2.2 Algorithm... services and controls the applications programs. Among its many functions are dispatching and scheduling of tasks; allocat- ing and freeing of memory

  13. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.

    1999-01-01

    , destroy the insulation and eventually cause breakdown. It is difficult to make a model of the real-life components that can be used to examine all of these phenomena. Some decisions have to be made on how to approach this problem, how to design a test cell and how the tests should be carried out....... In this paper, four suggestions on test cells are considered....

  14. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.

    1999-01-01

    the insulation and eventually cause breakdown.It is difficult to make a model of the real-life components that can be used to examine all of these phenomena. Some decisions have to be made on how to approach this problem, how to design a test cell and how the tests should be carried out. In this paper, four...... suggestions on test cells are considered....

  15. Evaluation of ADC mapping as an early predictor for tumor response to chemotherapy in recurrent glioma treated with bevacizumab/irinotecan. Proof of principle; Evaluation des ADC-Mappings als Praediktor fuer ein Ansprechen von Glioblastomrezidiven auf eine Therapie mit Avastin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringelstein, A.; Saleh, A.; Lanzman, R.S.; Mathys, C.; Moedder, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Turowski, B. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie/Neuroradiologie; Gizewski, E.R. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Schroeteler, J.; Rapp, M.; Sabel, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: The assessment of the radiological response of recurrent glioma is based on the Macdonald or RECIST criteria 8 to 10 weeks from the start of treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging using an apparent diffusion coefficient map may provide an earlier measure for predicting the response to therapy of recurrent glioma. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients with recurrent high-grade glioma were enrolled in a feasibility study of pretreatment MRI on day 1, intra-treatment MRI in week 3, and post-treatment MRI in week 12. Prognostically relevant ADC values (ADCprog) of each recurrent glioma at 3 weeks were calculated as a function of their pre- and intra-therapy ADC values (ADCpre - ADCintra = ADCprog). Because we hypothesized that smaller ADC values correlate with less Brownian motion of water molecules in the extracellular space and that a higher cell density may restrain this water diffusion, we set smaller ADC values at a second time point as 'progressive disease' (PD) and higher ADC values as 'partial response' (PR). A change in ADCprog of less than 10 x 10{sup 6} mm{sup 2}/sec was set as 'stable disease' (SD). The ADCprog values were always calculated before the final scan after 3 months was performed. The readers were blinded to the future development of the tumor. Results: In 10 of the 12 patients we could correctly predict the tumor response to chemotherapy. One patient died before the three-month control, and one recurrent glioma did not develop as predicted. ADC mapping is found to predict patient response at 3 weeks from the start of treatment, revealing that early changes in tumor diffusion values could be used as a prognostic indicator also for chemotherapeutically treated recurrences of high-grade glioma. (orig.)

  16. A high-power target experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, H G; Ludewig, H; Palmer, Robert; Samulyak, V; Simos, N; Tsang, Thomas; Bradshaw, T W; Drumm, Paul V; Edgecock, T R; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Bennett, Roger; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Fabich, Adrian; Haseroth, H; Haug, F; Lettry, Jacques; Hayato, Y; Yoshimura, Koji; Gabriel, Tony A; Graves, Van; Spampinato, P; Haines, John; McDonald, Kirk T

    2005-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed as a proof-of-principle test for a target system capable of converting a 4 MW proton beam into a high-intensity muon beam suitable for incorporation into either a neutrino factory complex or a muon collider. The target system is based on exposing a free mercury jet to an intense proton beam in the presence of a high strength solenoidal field.

  17. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Puck, Morten Rasmus

    Nationale test skubber undervisning i en forkert retning. Det er lærerne og skolelederne enige om. Men særligt skolelederne ser også muligheder for at bruge testen til at få viden om elevernes faglige kompetencer og om undervisningen. Det kommer til udtryk i rapporten Nationale test: Danske lærere...

  18. Oedometer Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Grete

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the results of oedometer tests carried out with samples from Eemian fresh-water deposits and the methods used to determine the preconsolidation pressure from the test results. The influence of creep in the material on the apparent preconsolidation pressure is estimated from a ...

  19. Bartlett test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The standard test for homogeneity of covariance matrices, known as the Bartlett test, is notoriously sensitive to violations of Gaussian assumptions. Its asymptotic behavior under non-Gaussian densities and its robustification (validity-robustness and efficiency-robustness) have been the subject of

  20. Thyroid Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  1. Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Loke Mun Sei

    2015-01-01

    Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.e. Jira, ...

  2. Simulation prediction and experiment setup of vacuum laser acceleration at Brookhaven National Lab-Accelerator Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, L., E-mail: leishao@ucla.edu [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Cline, D.; Ding, X. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ho, Y.K.; Kong, Q.; Xu, J.J. [Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Pogorelsky, I.; Yakimenko, V.; Kusche, K. [BNL-ATF, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2013-02-11

    This paper presents the pre-experiment plan and prediction of the first stage of vacuum laser acceleration (VLA) collaborating by UCLA, Fudan University and ATF-BNL. This first stage experiment is a proof-of-principle to support our previously posted novel VLA theory. Simulations show that based on ATF's current experimental conditions the electron beam with initial energy of 15 MeV can get net energy gain from an intense CO{sub 2} laser beam. The difference in electron beam energy spread is observable by the ATF beam line diagnostics system. Further, this energy spread expansion effect increases along with an increase in laser intensity. The proposal has been approved by the ATF committee and the experiment will be our next project.

  3. Objective Assessment of an Ionic Footbath (IonCleanse: Testing Its Ability to Remove Potentially Toxic Elements from the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic footbaths are often used in holistic health centres and spas to aid in detoxification; however, claims that these machines eliminate toxins from the body have not been rigorously evaluated. In this proof-of-principle study, we sought to measure the release of potentially toxic elements from ionic footbaths into distilled and tap water with and without feet. Water samples were collected and analyzed following 30-minute ionic footbath sessions without feet using both distilled (n=1 and tap water (n=6 and following four ionic footbaths using tap water (once/week for 4 weeks in six healthy participants. Urine collection samples were analyzed at four points during the study. Hair samples were analyzed for element concentrations at baseline and study conclusion. Contrary to claims made for the machine, there does not appear to be any specific induction of toxic element release through the feet when running the machine according to specifications.

  4. Objective Assessment of an Ionic Foot bath (Ion Cleanse): Testing Its Ability to Remove Potentially Toxic Elements from the Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, D.A.; Cooley, K.; Seely, D.; Kennedy, D.A.; Cooley, K.; Einarson, Th.R.; Seely, D.

    2012-01-01

    Ionic foot baths are often used in holistic health centres and spas to aid in detoxification; however, claims that these machines eliminate toxins from the body have not been rigorously evaluated. In this proof-of-principle study, we sought to measure the release of potentially toxic elements from ionic foot baths into distilled and tap water with and without feet. Water samples were collected and analyzed following 30-minute ionic foot bath sessions without feet using both distilled (n=1) and tap water (n=6) and following four ionic foot baths using tap water (once/week for 4 weeks) in six healthy participants. Urine collection samples were analyzed at four points during the study. Hair samples were analyzed for element concentrations at baseline and study conclusion. Contrary to claims made for the machine, there does not appear to be any specific induction of toxic element release through the feet when running the machine according to specifications

  5. PTT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are injured, bleeding occurs and a process called hemostasis begins. Small cell fragments called platelets adhere to ... be used to evaluate certain components of the hemostasis system. The PTT and PT tests each evaluate ...

  6. Insulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Syndrome Staph Infections and MRSA Stroke Testicular Cancer Thalassemia Thyroid Cancer Thyroid ... Get Tested? To help evaluate insulin production by the beta cells in the pancreas; to help diagnose the ...

  7. VDRL test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syphilis . The bacteria that cause syphilis is called Treponema pallidum. Your health care provider may order this test ... 59. Radolf JD, Tramont EC, Salazar JC. Syphilis ( Treponema pallidum ). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. ...

  8. Prolactin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toxin Testing Coagulation Cascade Coagulation Factors Cold Agglutinins Complement Complete Blood Count (CBC) Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) ... milk production not associated with pregnancy or breast-feeding ( galactorrhea ) Diagnose the cause of infertility and erectile ...

  9. Rubella Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/downloads/rubella.pdf through http://www.cdc.gov . Accessed May 2015. ...

  10. RSV Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... University Medical Center, LAB Letter [On-line newsletter]. PDF available for download at http://www.stanfordhospital.com/ ...

  11. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Harms Children: A Renewed Call of Primary Prevention. PDF available for download at http://www.cdc.gov/ ...

  12. Gonorrhea Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... cdc.gov/std/laboratory/2014labrec/2014-lab-rec.pdf. Accessed March 2016. Workowski, K. and Bolan, G. ( ...

  13. Just testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.

    1985-01-01

    In the 1950s, most of the men who witnessed Britain's nuclear tests at Christmas Island in the Pacific were national servicemen, aged 19 or 20. Some revelled in sun and swimming, some were bored, some were too busy to be bored. How many of the twenty thousand servicemen involved in the tests suspected that they might be exposed to radiation that would reveal itself a generation later in blood and bone cancers, sterility, cataracts, or deformities in their children. The Ministry of Defence insists nobody was in danger. This book tells a different story, in the words of the servicemen, and of their medical reports, about secrets which are no longer Official. It is important not only to the victims of a government's extraordinary reluctance to face up to the tragic consequences of a programme of nuclear tests on Christmas Island and in Australia, but to anyone concerned with the damage that nuclear testing is still doing in the world today. (author)

  14. Mono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Testing Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Tumor Marker AMAS Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Ammonia Amniocentesis Amylase ANCA/MPO/ ... Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases ...

  15. RPR test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... later stages of the infection. Some conditions may cause a false-positive test, including: IV drug use Lyme disease Certain types of pneumonia Malaria Pregnancy Systemic lupus erythematosus and some other autoimmune ...

  16. Procalcitonin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal" values. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if ... g., blood culture , urine culture ), lactate , blood gases , complete blood count (CBC) , and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis . When is ...

  17. Test Ship

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  18. Methanol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vein, most often in your arm or hand venipuncture . How to Prepare for the Test No special ... Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, ...

  19. Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... two drinks (the T question) = 2 points. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) can detect alcohol problems experienced ...

  20. Fibrinogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complete Blood Count (CBC) Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) Copper Cortisol Creatine Kinase (CK) Creatinine Creatinine Clearance Cryoglobulins ... such as PT, PTT, platelet function tests , fibrin degradation products (FDP), and D-dimer to help diagnose ...