WorldWideScience

Sample records for spherical accretion shock

  1. Linear analysis on the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kazuya; Yamada, Shoichi, E-mail: ktakahashi@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-20

    We analyzed the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion flows. We have in mind an application to the post-bounce phase of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Such non-spherical perturbations have been suggested by a series of papers by Arnett, who has numerically investigated violent convections in the outer layers of pre-collapse stars. Moreover, Couch and Ott demonstrated in their numerical simulations that such perturbations may lead to a successful supernova even for a progenitor that fails to explode without fluctuations. This study investigated the linear growth of perturbations during the infall onto a stalled shock wave. The linearized equations are solved as an initial and boundary value problem with the use of a Laplace transform. The background is a Bondi accretion flow whose parameters are chosen to mimic the 15 M {sub ☉} progenitor model by Woosley and Heger, which is supposed to be a typical progenitor of CCSNe. We found that the perturbations that are given at a large radius grow as they flow down to the shock radius; the density perturbations can be amplified by a factor of 30, for example. We analytically show that the growth rate is proportional to l, the index of the spherical harmonics. We also found that the perturbations oscillate in time with frequencies that are similar to those of the standing accretion shock instability. This may have an implication for shock revival in CCSNe, which will be investigated in our forthcoming paper in more detail.

  2. Shocks in the relativistic transonic accretion with low angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suková, P.; Charzyński, S.; Janiuk, A.

    2017-12-01

    We perform 1D/2D/3D relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of accretion flows with low angular momentum, filling the gap between spherically symmetric Bondi accretion and disc-like accretion flows. Scenarios with different directional distributions of angular momentum of falling matter and varying values of key parameters such as spin of central black hole, energy and angular momentum of matter are considered. In some of the scenarios the shock front is formed. We identify ranges of parameters for which the shock after formation moves towards or outwards the central black hole or the long-lasting oscillating shock is observed. The frequencies of oscillations of shock positions which can cause flaring in mass accretion rate are extracted. The results are scalable with mass of central black hole and can be compared to the quasi-periodic oscillations of selected microquasars (such as GRS 1915+105, XTE J1550-564 or IGR J17091-3624), as well as to the supermassive black holes in the centres of weakly active galaxies, such as Sgr A*.

  3. Parametric study of flow patterns behind the standing accretion shock wave for core-collapse supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakami, Wakana; Nagakura, Hiroki [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yamada, Shoichi, E-mail: wakana@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-05-10

    In this study, we conduct three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations systematically to investigate the flow patterns behind the accretion shock waves that are commonly formed in the post-bounce phase of core-collapse supernovae. Adding small perturbations to spherically symmetric, steady, shocked accretion flows, we compute the subsequent evolutions to find what flow pattern emerges as a consequence of hydrodynamical instabilities such as convection and standing accretion shock instability for different neutrino luminosities and mass accretion rates. Depending on these two controlling parameters, various flow patterns are indeed realized. We classify them into three basic patterns and two intermediate ones; the former includes sloshing motion (SL), spiral motion (SP), and multiple buoyant bubble formation (BB); the latter consists of spiral motion with buoyant-bubble formation (SPB) and spiral motion with pulsationally changing rotational velocities (SPP). Although the post-shock flow is highly chaotic, there is a clear trend in the pattern realization. The sloshing and spiral motions tend to be dominant for high accretion rates and low neutrino luminosities, and multiple buoyant bubbles prevail for low accretion rates and high neutrino luminosities. It is interesting that the dominant pattern is not always identical between the semi-nonlinear and nonlinear phases near the critical luminosity; the intermediate cases are realized in the latter case. Running several simulations with different random perturbations, we confirm that the realization of flow pattern is robust in most cases.

  4. A numerical study of the stability of radiative shocks. [in accretion flows onto white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, J. N.; Wolff, M. T.; Durisen, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to the oscillatory instability of optically thin radiative shocks in time-dependent numerical calculations of accretion flows onto degenerate dwarfs. The present nonlinear calculations yield good quantitative agreement with the linear results obtained for oscillation frequencies, damping rates, and critical alpha-values. The fundamental mode and the first overtone in the shock radius and luminosity variations can be clearly identified, and evidence is sometimes seen for the second overtone. Time-dependent calculations are also performed which include additional physics relevant to degenerate dwarf accretion, such as electron thermal conduction, unequal electron and ion temperatures, Compton cooling, and relativistic corrections to the bremsstrahlung cooling law. All oscillatory modes are found to be damped, and hence stable, in the case of a 1-solar mass white dwarf accreting in spherical symmetry.

  5. ACCRETION SHOCKS IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AND THEIR SZ SIGNATURE FROM COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, Sandor M.; Hearn, Nathan; Haiman, Zoltan; Bryan, Greg; Evrard, August E.; Lake, George

    2009-01-01

    Cold dark matter (CDM) hierarchical structure formation models predict the existence of large-scale accretion shocks between the virial and turnaround radii of clusters of galaxies. Kocsis et al. suggest that the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signal associated with such shocks might be observable with the next generation radio interferometer, ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array). We study the three-dimensional distribution of accretion shocks around individual clusters of galaxies drawn from adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of ΛCDM (dark energy dominated CDM) models. In relaxed clusters, we find two distinct sets of shocks. One set ('virial shocks'), with Mach numbers of 2.5-4, is located at radii 0.9-1.3 R vir , where R vir is the spherical infall estimate of the virial radius, covering about 40%-50% of the total surface area around clusters at these radii. Another set of stronger shocks ( e xternal shocks ) is located farther out, at about 3 R vir , with large Mach numbers (∼100), covering about 40%-60% of the surface area. We simulate SZ surface brightness maps of relaxed massive galaxy clusters drawn from high-resolution AMR runs, and conclude that ALMA should be capable of detecting the virial shocks in massive clusters of galaxies. More simulations are needed to improve estimates of astrophysical noise and to determine optimal observational strategies.

  6. Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Murakami, M.; Taylor, B. D.; Zalesak, S. T.; Iwamoto, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.

  7. Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Murakami, M. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Taylor, B. D. [Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Zalesak, S. T. [Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States); Iwamoto, Y. [Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime Pref. 790-8577 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.

  8. Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Murakami, M.; Taylor, B. D.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.; Iwamoto, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.

  9. Radiatively-suppressed spherical accretion under relativistic radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Jun

    2018-03-01

    We numerically examine radiatively-suppressed relativistic spherical accretion flows on to a central object with mass M under Newtonian gravity and special relativity. We simultaneously solve both the relativistic radiative transfer equation and the relativistic hydrodynamical equations for spherically symmetric flows under the double iteration process in the case of the intermediate optical depth. We find that the accretion flow is suppressed, compared with the freefall case in the nonrelativistic regime. For example, in the case of accretion on to a luminous core with accretion luminosity L*, the freefall velocity v normalized by the speed of light c under the radiative force in the nonrelativistic regime is β (\\hat{r}) = v/c = -√{(1-Γ _*)/(\\hat{r}+1-Γ _*)}, where Γ* (≡ L*/LE, LE being the Eddington luminosity) is the Eddington parameter and \\hat{r} (= r/rS, rS being the Schwarzschild radius) the normalized radius, whereas the infall speed at the central core is ˜0.7β(1), irrespective of the mass-accretion rate. This is due to the relativistic effect; the comoving flux is enhanced by the advective flux. We briefly examine and discuss an isothermal case, where the emission takes place in the entire space.

  10. Quasi-periodic oscillations from post-shock accretion column of polars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Prasanta; Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2018-02-01

    A set of strongly magnetized accreting white dwarfs (polars) shows quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with frequency about a Hz in their optical luminosity. These Hz-frequency QPOs are thought to be generated by intensity variations of the emitted radiation originating at the post-shock accretion column. Thermal instability in the post-shock region, triggered by efficient cooling process at the base, is believed to be the primary reason behind the temporal variability. Here, we study the structure and the dynamical properties of the post-shock accretion column including the effects of bremsstrahlung and cyclotron radiation. We find that the presence of significant cyclotron emission in optical band reduces the overall variability of the post-shock region. In the case of a larger post-shock region above the stellar surface, the effects of stratification due to stellar gravity become important. An accretion column, influenced by the strong gravity, has a smaller variability as the strength of the thermal instability at the base of the column is reduced. On the other hand, the cool, dense plasma, accumulated just above the stellar surface, may enhance the post-shock variability due to the propagation of magnetic perturbations. These characteristics of the post-shock region are consistent with the observed properties of V834 Cen and in general with cataclysmic variable sources that exhibit QPO frequency of about a Hz.

  11. SHOCK-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVABLES AND SATELLITE FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhaohuan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 South Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Ju, Wenhua; Stone, James M., E-mail: zhzhu@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Circumplanetary disks (CPDs) control the growth of planets, supply material for satellites to form, and provide observational signatures of young forming planets. We have carried out two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with radiative cooling to study CPDs and suggested a new mechanism to drive the disk accretion. Two spiral shocks are present in CPDs, excited by the central star. We find that spiral shocks can at least contribute to, if not dominate, the angular momentum transport and energy dissipation in CPDs. Meanwhile, dissipation and heating by spiral shocks have a positive feedback on shock-driven accretion itself. As the disk is heated up by spiral shocks, the shocks become more open, leading to more efficient angular momentum transport. This shock-driven accretion is, on the other hand, unsteady due to production and destruction of vortices in disks. After being averaged over time, a quasi-steady accretion is reached from the planet’s Hill radius all the way to the planet surface, and the disk α  coefficient characterizing angular momentum transport is ∼0.001–0.02. The disk surface density ranges from 10 to 1000 g cm{sup −2} in our simulations, which is at least three orders of magnitude smaller than the “minimum-mass subnebula” model used to study satellite formation; instead it is more consistent with the “gas-starved” satellite formation model. Finally, we calculate the millimeter flux emitted by CPDs at ALMA and EVLA wavelength bands and predict the flux for several recently discovered CPD candidates, which suggests that ALMA is capable of discovering these accreting CPDs.

  12. SHOCK-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVABLES AND SATELLITE FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhaohuan; Ju, Wenhua; Stone, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Circumplanetary disks (CPDs) control the growth of planets, supply material for satellites to form, and provide observational signatures of young forming planets. We have carried out two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with radiative cooling to study CPDs and suggested a new mechanism to drive the disk accretion. Two spiral shocks are present in CPDs, excited by the central star. We find that spiral shocks can at least contribute to, if not dominate, the angular momentum transport and energy dissipation in CPDs. Meanwhile, dissipation and heating by spiral shocks have a positive feedback on shock-driven accretion itself. As the disk is heated up by spiral shocks, the shocks become more open, leading to more efficient angular momentum transport. This shock-driven accretion is, on the other hand, unsteady due to production and destruction of vortices in disks. After being averaged over time, a quasi-steady accretion is reached from the planet’s Hill radius all the way to the planet surface, and the disk α  coefficient characterizing angular momentum transport is ∼0.001–0.02. The disk surface density ranges from 10 to 1000 g cm −2 in our simulations, which is at least three orders of magnitude smaller than the “minimum-mass subnebula” model used to study satellite formation; instead it is more consistent with the “gas-starved” satellite formation model. Finally, we calculate the millimeter flux emitted by CPDs at ALMA and EVLA wavelength bands and predict the flux for several recently discovered CPD candidates, which suggests that ALMA is capable of discovering these accreting CPDs.

  13. Interaction of Accretion Shocks with Winds Kinsuk Acharya , Sandip ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Accretion shocks are known to oscillate in presence of cool- ing processes in the disk. This oscillation may also cause quasi-periodic oscillations of black holes. In the presence of strong winds, these shocks have oscillations in vertical direction as well. We show examples of shock oscillations under the influence of ...

  14. Synchrotron radiation from spherically accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipser, J.R.; Price, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Spherical accretion onto a Schwartzchild black hole, of gas with frozen-in magnetic field, is studied numerically and analytically for a range of hole masses and accretion rates in which synchrotron emission is the dominant radiative mechanism. At small radii the equipartition of magnetic, kinetic, and gravitational energy is assumed to apply, and the gas is heated by dissipation of infalling magnetic energy, turbulent energy, etc. The models can be classified into three types: (a) synchrotron cooling negligible, (b) synchrotron cooling important but synchrotron self-absorption negligible, (c) synchrotron cooling and self-absorption important. In the first case gas temperatures become very high near the horizon but luminosity efficiencies (luminosity/mass-energy accretion rate) are low. In cases (b) and (c) the gas flow near the horizon is essentially isothermal and luminosity efficiencies are fairly high. The analysis and results for the isothermal cases (b) and (c) are valid only for moderate dissipative heating and synchrotron self-absorption. If self-absorption is very strong or if dissipated energy is comparable to infall energy, Comptonization effects, not included in the analysis, become important

  15. Undergoing spherically symmetric steady-state accretion stability of white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienkiewicz, R [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw. N. Copernicus Astronomical Center

    1980-01-01

    Thermal and vibrational stabilities of accreting white dwarfs with steady-state nuclear burning were considered, assuming spherically symmetric accretion of the hydrogen-rich matter and using linear stability analysis. Almost all models with masses 0.2 M(sun) - 1.39 M(sun) were found to be unstable in some way. The type of instability expected to dominate is given as a function of the accretion rate. For most accretion rates it is the thermal instability. Oscillation periods are given for the models in which the vibrational instability is the most violent one. These periods are of the order of seconds or minutes. We expect that our stability analysis may suggest the cause of the variabilities of the hot components of some symbiotic stars, for a wide range of the accretion rates. In this case our models may serve as the initial conditions for evolutionary computations. The results predict that short-period oscillations should be observed in some hot nuclei of planetary nebulae.

  16. Standing non-dissipative shocks in black hole accretion and winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.K.

    1988-07-01

    We present all non-dissipative shock solutions for stationary, axially symmetric and rotating adiabatic flows of small transverse thickness in black hole potential. We show that for a given initial and final states of the flow, there can be as many as four formal shock locations in both the accretion and the winds. Only two (three) of these locations are acceptable for accretion onto black holes (neutron stars) and three of these locations are acceptable for winds. We prove that the shock strength and the temperature jump have a lower limit which does not depend upon the parameters of the flow or the force field in which the flow moves and is only a function of the adiabatic index of flow. (author). 14 refs, 12 figs

  17. Comptonization effects in spherical accretion onto black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipser, J.R.; Price, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    For spherical accretion of gas onto a black hole, dissipative heating (from magnetic reconnection), dissipation of turbulence, etc.) leads at high accretion rates to densities and temperatures at which Comptonization unavoidably plays an important role, both in determining gas temperature and in forming the emergent spectrum. A careful and reliable treatment of the interaction of the gas with the radiation field is greatly complicated by the necessity of dealing with the essentially nonlocal nature of Comptonization. We limit ourselves here to finding approximate descriptions of some observational features of such astrophysical objects with a simple, yet justifiable, Ansatz that evades the complexities of nonlocality. The results for accretion spectra are of interest, e.g., in connection with galactic halo objects (1--10 5 M/sub sun/). High mass (10 7 --10 10 M/sub sun/) cases are of interest as models for active galactic nuclei. In particular, a very natural connection between the ratio of luminosity to Eddington luminosity and the hardness of X-ray spectra emerges, suggesting that the observed X-ray hardness ratios of luminous sources are a consequence of those sources being more or less Eddington limited

  18. Theory of quasi-spherical accretion in X-ray pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakura, N.; Postnov, K.; Kochetkova, A.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.

    2012-02-01

    A theoretical model for quasi-spherical subsonic accretion on to slowly rotating magnetized neutron stars is constructed. In this model, the accreting matter subsonically settles down on to the rotating magnetosphere forming an extended quasi-static shell. This shell mediates the angular momentum removal from the rotating neutron star magnetosphere during spin-down episodes by large-scale convective motions. The accretion rate through the shell is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere. The settling regime of accretion can be realized for moderate accretion rates ? g s-1. At higher accretion rates, a free-fall gap above the neutron star magnetosphere appears due to rapid Compton cooling, and accretion becomes highly non-stationary. From observations of the spin-up/spin-down rates (the angular rotation frequency derivative ?, and ? near the torque reversal) of X-ray pulsars with known orbital periods, it is possible to determine the main dimensionless parameters of the model, as well as to estimate the magnetic field of the neutron star. We illustrate the model by determining these parameters for three wind-fed X-ray pulsars GX 301-2, Vela X-1 and GX 1+4. The model explains both the spin-up/spin-down of the pulsar frequency on large time-scales and the irregular short-term frequency fluctuations, which can correlate or anticorrelate with the X-ray flux fluctuations in different systems. It is shown that in real pulsars an almost iso-angular-momentum rotation law with ω˜ 1/R2, due to strongly anisotropic radial turbulent motions sustained by large-scale convection, is preferred.

  19. Standing shocks in adiabatic black hole accretion of rotating matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A.; Chakrabarti, S.K.

    1988-08-01

    We present all the solutions for stationary, axially symmetric, transonic, adiabatic flows with polytropic, rotating fluid configurations of small transverse thickness, in an arbitrarily chosen potential. Special attention is paid to the formation of the standing shocks in the case of black hole accretion and winds. We point out the possibility of three types of shocks depending upon three extreme physical conditions at the shocks. These are: Rankine-Hugoniot shocks, isentropic compression waves, and isothermal shocks. We write down the shock conditions for these three cases and discuss briefly the physical situations under which these shocks may form. A complete discussion on the properties of these shocks will be presented elsewhere. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs

  20. Spherically symmetric near-critical accretion onto neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical and approximate analytic solutions for time-independent, spherically symmetric, radiation pressure-dominated accretion flows are presented. For flows with luminosities at infinity, L-infinity, sufficiently close to the Eddington limit L-crit, the flow velocity profile is qualitatively different from the modified free-fall profile v(r) = (1 - L-infinity/L-crit)exp 1/2 (2GM/r)exp 1/2. Advective contributions to the comoving radiation flux decelerate the flow within a criical radius, and, in this settling region, the velocity of the flow decreases linearly with decreasing radius. 14 refs

  1. Nearly collisionless spherical accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begelman, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    A fluid-like gas accretes much more efficiently than a collisionless gas. The ability of an accreting gas to behave like a fluid depends on the relationship of the mean free path of a gas particle at r → infinity lambdasub(infinity), to the typical length scales associated with the star-gas system. This relationship is examined in detail. For constant collision cross-section evidence is found for a rapid changeover from collisionless to fluid-like accretion flow when lambdasub(infinity) drops below a certain value, but for hard Coulomb collisions, the transition is more gradual, and is sensitive to the adiabatic index of the gas at r→ infinity. To these results must be added the effects of the substantial cusp of bound particles, which always develops in a system with arbitrarily small but non-zero cross-section. The density run in such a cusp depends on the collision properties of the particles. 'Loss-cone' accretion from the cusp may in some cases exceed the predicted accretion rate. (author)

  2. Theoretical, numerical and experimental study of accretion shocks dynamics in magnetic cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busschaert, Clotilde

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic cataclysmic variables are interacting binary Systems containing a highly magnetized white dwarf which accretes material from a companion. Material is led along magnetic field lines and falls onto the magnetic pole(s) supersonically forming an accretion column. As the material hits the surface, a reverse shock is formed and the shocked region is structured by the cooling effect of radiation processes. This work is a multidisciplinary study of the dynamics of the accretion column. Firstly, a numerical study of the accretion column structure at the astrophysical scale is presented. The observational consequences are discussed. This approach is completed by experiments using radiative flows generated by powerful lasers. The relevance of such experiments is based on the establishment of scaling laws. News scaling laws in the frame of radiative ideal or resistive MHD are exposed. The results of the sizing and the interpretation of the POLAR experimental campaign of 2012 on LULI2000 installation are presented. (author) [fr

  3. Spherical strong-shock generation for shock-ignition inertial fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theobald, W.; Seka, W.; Lafon, M.; Anderson, K. S.; Hohenberger, M.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Edgell, D. H.; Yaakobi, B.; Shvydky, A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Nora, R.; Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Department of Physics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Casner, A.; Reverdin, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Ribeyre, X.; Vallet, A. [Université de Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications) UMR 5107 F-33400 Talence (France); Peebles, J.; Beg, F. N. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Recent experiments on the Laboratory for Laser Energetics' OMEGA laser have been carried out to produce strong shocks in solid spherical targets with direct laser illumination. The shocks are launched at pressures of several hundred Mbars and reach Gbar upon convergence. The results are relevant to the validation of the shock-ignition scheme and to the development of an OMEGA experimental platform to study material properties at Gbar pressures. The experiments investigate the strength of the ablation pressure and the hot-electron production at incident laser intensities of ∼2 to 6 × 10{sup 15 }W/cm{sup 2} and demonstrate ablation pressures exceeding 300 Mbar, which is crucial to developing a shock-ignition target design for the National Ignition Facility. The timing of the x-ray flash from shock convergence in the center of the solid plastic target is used to infer the ablation and shock pressures. Laser–plasma instabilities produce hot-electrons with a moderate temperature (<100 keV). The instantaneous conversion efficiencies of laser power into hot-electron power reached up to ∼15% in the intensity spike. The large amount of hot electrons is correlated with an earlier x-ray flash and a strong increase in its magnitude. This suggests that hot electrons contribute to the augmentation of the shock strength.

  4. EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE PROTOSTARS VIA DISK ACCRETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yorke, Harold W.

    2010-01-01

    Mass accretion onto (proto-)stars at high accretion rates M-dot * > 10 -4 M sun yr -1 is expected in massive star formation. We study the evolution of massive protostars at such high rates by numerically solving the stellar structure equations. In this paper, we examine the evolution via disk accretion. We consider a limiting case of 'cold' disk accretion, whereby most of the stellar photosphere can radiate freely with negligible backwarming from the accretion flow, and the accreting material settles onto the star with the same specific entropy as the photosphere. We compare our results to the calculated evolution via spherically symmetric accretion, the opposite limit, whereby the material accreting onto the star contains the entropy produced in the accretion shock front. We examine how different accretion geometries affect the evolution of massive protostars. For cold disk accretion at 10 -3 M sun yr -1 , the radius of a protostar is initially small, R * ≅ a few R sun . After several solar masses have accreted, the protostar begins to bloat up and for M * ≅ 10 M sun the stellar radius attains its maximum of 30-400 R sun . The large radius ∼100 R sun is also a feature of spherically symmetric accretion at the same accreted mass and accretion rate. Hence, expansion to a large radius is a robust feature of accreting massive protostars. At later times, the protostar eventually begins to contract and reaches the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) for M * ≅ 30 M sun , independent of the accretion geometry. For accretion rates exceeding several 10 -3 M sun yr -1 , the protostar never contracts to the ZAMS. The very large radius of several hundreds R sun results in the low effective temperature and low UV luminosity of the protostar. Such bloated protostars could well explain the existence of bright high-mass protostellar objects, which lack detectable H II regions.

  5. Shocks in the relativistic transonic accretion with low angular momentum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suková, Petra; Charzynski, S.; Janiuk, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 472, č. 4 (2017), s. 4327-4342 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-06962Y Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion discs * hydrodynamics * shock waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  6. Shock waves from non-spherically collapsing cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Farhat, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    Combining simultaneous high-speed imaging and hydrophone measurements, we uncover details of the multiple shock wave emission from laser-induced cavitation bubbles collapsing in a non-spherical way. For strongly deformed bubbles collapsing near a free surface, we identify the distinct shock waves caused by the jet impact onto the opposite bubble wall and by the individual collapses of the remaining bubble segments. The energy carried by each of these shocks depends on the level of bubble deformation, quantified by the anisotropy parameter ζ, the dimensionless equivalent of the Kelvin impulse. For jetting bubbles, at ζ water hammer as ph = 0.45 (ρc2 Δp) 1 / 2ζ-1 .

  7. Upper Limit of the Viscosity Parameter in Accretion Flows around a Black Hole with Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkoti, Shreeram; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-01-01

    Black hole accretion is necessarily transonic; thus, flows must become supersonic and, therefore, sub-Keplerian before they enter into the black hole. The viscous timescale is much longer than the infall timescale close to a black hole. Hence, the angular momentum remains almost constant and the centrifugal force ˜ {l}2/{r}3 becomes increasingly dominant over the gravitational force ˜ 1/{r}2. The slowed down matter piles creating an accretion shock. The flow between shock and inner sonic point is puffed up and behaves like a boundary layer. This so-called Comptonizing cloud/corona produces hard X-rays and jets/outflows and, therefore, is an important component of black hole astrophysics. In this paper, we study steady state viscous, axisymmetric, transonic accretion flows around a Schwarzschild black hole. We adopt a viscosity parameter α and compute the highest possible value of α (namely, {α }{cr}) for each pair of two inner boundary parameters (namely, specific angular momentum carried to horizon, lin and specific energy at inner sonic point, E({x}{in})) which is still capable of producing a standing or oscillating shock. We find that while such possibilities exist for α as high as {α }{cr}=0.3 in very small regions of the flow parameter space, typical {α }{cr} appears to be about ˜0.05-0.1. Coincidentally, this also happens to be the typical viscosity parameter achieved by simulations of magnetorotational instabilities in accretion flows. We therefore believe that all realistic accretion flows are likely to have centrifugal pressure supported shocks unless the viscosity parameter everywhere is higher than {α }{cr}.

  8. 3D numerical modeling of YSO accretion shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsakos T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of YSO accretion shocks is determined by radiative processes as well as the strength and structure of the magnetic field. A quasi-periodic emission signature is theoretically expected to be observed, but observations do not confirm any such pattern. In this work, we assume a uniform background field, in the regime of optically thin energy losses, and we study the multi-dimensional shock evolution in the presence of perturbations, i.e. clumps in the stream and an acoustic energy flux flowing at the base of the chromosphere. We perform 3D MHD simulations using the PLUTO code, modelling locally the impact of the infalling gas onto the chromosphere. We find that the structure and dynamics of the post-shock region is strongly dependent on the plasma-beta (thermal over magnetic pressure, different values of which may give distinguishable emission signatures, relevant for observations. In particular, a strong magnetic field effectively confines the plasma inside its flux tubes and leads to the formation of quasi-independent fibrils. The fibrils may oscillate out of phase and hence the sum of their contributions in the emission results in a smooth overall profile. On the contrary, a weak magnetic field is not found to have any significant effect on the shocked plasma and the turbulent hot slab that forms is found to retain its periodic signature.

  9. Role of local absorption on the X-ray emission from MHD accretion shocks in classical T Tauri stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accretion processes onto classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs are believed to generate shocks at the stellar surface due to the impact of supersonic downflowing plasma. Although current models of accretion streams provide a plausible global picture of this process, several aspects are still unclear. For example, the observed X-ray luminosity in accretion shocks is, in general, well below the predicted value. A possible explanation discussed in the literature is in terms of significant absorption of the emission due to the thick surrounding medium. Here we consider a 2D MHD model describing an accretion stream propagating through the atmosphere of a CTTS and impacting onto its chromosphere. The model includes all the relevant physics, namely the gravity, the thermal conduction, and the radiative cooling, and a realistic description of the unperturbed stellar atmosphere (from the chromosphere to the corona. From the model results, we synthesize the X-ray emission emerging from the hot slab produced by the accretion shock, exploring different configurations and strengths of the stellar magnetic field. The synthesis includes the local absorption by the thick surrounding medium and the Doppler shift of lines due to the component of plasma velocity along the line-of-sight. We explore the effects of absorption on the emerging X-ray spectrum, considering different inclinations of the accretion stream with respect to the observer. Finally we compare our results with the observations.

  10. Absolute Hugoniot measurements from a spherically convergent shock using x-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Damian C.; Kritcher, Andrea L.; Hawreliak, James A.; Lazicki, Amy; MacPhee, Andrew; Bachmann, Benjamin; Döppner, Tilo; Nilsen, Joseph; Collins, Gilbert W.; Glenzer, Siegfried; Rothman, Stephen D.; Kraus, Dominik; Falcone, Roger W.

    2018-05-01

    The canonical high pressure equation of state measurement is to induce a shock wave in the sample material and measure two mechanical properties of the shocked material or shock wave. For accurate measurements, the experiment is normally designed to generate a planar shock which is as steady as possible in space and time, and a single state is measured. A converging shock strengthens as it propagates, so a range of shock pressures is induced in a single experiment. However, equation of state measurements must then account for spatial and temporal gradients. We have used x-ray radiography of spherically converging shocks to determine states along the shock Hugoniot. The radius-time history of the shock, and thus its speed, was measured by radiographing the position of the shock front as a function of time using an x-ray streak camera. The density profile of the shock was then inferred from the x-ray transmission at each instant of time. Simultaneous measurement of the density at the shock front and the shock speed determines an absolute mechanical Hugoniot state. The density profile was reconstructed using the known, unshocked density which strongly constrains the density jump at the shock front. The radiographic configuration and streak camera behavior were treated in detail to reduce systematic errors. Measurements were performed on the Omega and National Ignition Facility lasers, using a hohlraum to induce a spatially uniform drive over the outside of a solid, spherical sample and a laser-heated thermal plasma as an x-ray source for radiography. Absolute shock Hugoniot measurements were demonstrated for carbon-containing samples of different composition and initial density, up to temperatures at which K-shell ionization reduced the opacity behind the shock. Here we present the experimental method using measurements of polystyrene as an example.

  11. Discrete Element Simulation of Elastoplastic Shock Wave Propagation in Spherical Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shoaib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastoplastic shock wave propagation in a one-dimensional assembly of spherical metal particles is presented by extending well-established quasistatic compaction models. The compaction process is modeled by a discrete element method while using elastic and plastic loading, elastic unloading, and adhesion at contacts with typical dynamic loading parameters. Of particular interest is to study the development of the elastoplastic shock wave, its propagation, and reflection during entire loading process. Simulation results yield information on contact behavior, velocity, and deformation of particles during dynamic loading. Effects of shock wave propagation on loading parameters are also discussed. The elastoplastic shock propagation in granular material has many practical applications including the high-velocity compaction of particulate material.

  12. STANDING SHOCK INSTABILITY IN ADVECTION-DOMINATED ACCRETION FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Truong [Department of Physics, Astronomy and Geology, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149 (United States); Wood, Kent S.; Wolff, Michael T. [High Energy Space Environment Branch, Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Becker, Peter A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Putney, Joy, E-mail: tle@berry.edu [Department of Physics and Engineering, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA 24450 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Depending on the values of the energy and angular momentum per unit mass in the gas supplied at large radii, inviscid advection-dominated accretion flows can display velocity profiles with either preshock deceleration or preshock acceleration. Nakayama has shown that these two types of flow configurations are expected to have different stability properties. By employing the Chevalier and Imamura linearization method and the Nakayama instability boundary conditions, we discover that there are regions of parameter space where disks/shocks with outflows can be stable or unstable. In regions of instability, we find that preshock deceleration is always unstable to the zeroth mode with zero frequency of oscillation, but is always stable to the fundamental mode and overtones. Furthermore, we also find that preshock acceleration is always unstable to the zeroth mode and that the fundamental mode and overtones become increasingly less stable as the shock location moves away from the horizon when the disk half-height expands above ∼12 gravitational radii at the shock radius. In regions of stability, we demonstrate the zeroth mode to be stable for the velocity profiles that exhibit preshock acceleration and deceleration. Moreover, for models that are linearly unstable, our model suggests the possible existence of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with ratios 2:3 and 3:5. These ratios are believed to occur in stellar and supermassive black hole candidates, for example, in GRS 1915+105 and Sgr A*, respectively. We expect that similar QPO ratios also exist in regions of stable shocks.

  13. VARIABILITY FROM NON-AXISYMMETRIC FLUCTUATIONS INTERACTING WITH STANDING SHOCKS IN TILTED BLACK HOLE ACCRETION DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henisey, Ken B. [Natural Science Division, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA 90263 (United States); Blaes, Omer M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fragile, P. Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    We study the spatial and temporal behavior of fluid in fully three-dimensional, general relativistic, magnetohydrodynamical simulations of both tilted and untilted black hole accretion flows. We uncover characteristically greater variability in tilted simulations at frequencies similar to those predicted by the formalism of trapped modes, but ultimately conclude that its spatial structure is inconsistent with a modal interpretation. We find instead that previously identified, transient, overdense clumps orbiting on roughly Keplerian trajectories appear generically in our global simulations, independent of tilt. Associated with these fluctuations are acoustic spiral waves interior to the orbits of the clumps. We show that the two non-axisymmetric standing shock structures that exist in the inner regions of these tilted flows effectively amplify the variability caused by these spiral waves to markedly higher levels than in untilted flows, which lack standing shocks. Our identification of clumps, spirals, and spiral-shock interactions in these fully general relativistic, magnetohydrodynamical simulations suggests that these features may be important dynamical elements in models that incorporate tilt as a way to explain the observed variability in black hole accretion flows.

  14. Hard X-ray emission from accretion shocks around galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli

    2010-02-01

    We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed from several galaxy clusters is consistent with a simple model, in which the nonthermal emission is produced by inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by electrons accelerated in cluster accretion shocks: The dependence of HXR surface brightness on cluster temperature is consistent with that predicted by the model, and the observed HXR luminosity is consistent with the fraction of shock thermal energy deposited in relativistic electrons being lesssim0.1. Alternative models, where the HXR emission is predicted to be correlated with the cluster thermal emission, are disfavored by the data. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) γ-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed.

  15. Hard X-ray emission from accretion shocks around galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli, E-mail: doron.kushnir@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: eli.waxman@weizmann.ac.il [Physics Faculty, Weizmann Institute of Science, PO Box 26, Rehovot (Israel)

    2010-02-01

    We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed from several galaxy clusters is consistent with a simple model, in which the nonthermal emission is produced by inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by electrons accelerated in cluster accretion shocks: The dependence of HXR surface brightness on cluster temperature is consistent with that predicted by the model, and the observed HXR luminosity is consistent with the fraction of shock thermal energy deposited in relativistic electrons being ∼<0.1. Alternative models, where the HXR emission is predicted to be correlated with the cluster thermal emission, are disfavored by the data. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) γ-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed.

  16. Hard X-ray emission from accretion shocks around galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli

    2010-01-01

    We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed from several galaxy clusters is consistent with a simple model, in which the nonthermal emission is produced by inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by electrons accelerated in cluster accretion shocks: The dependence of HXR surface brightness on cluster temperature is consistent with that predicted by the model, and the observed HXR luminosity is consistent with the fraction of shock thermal energy deposited in relativistic electrons being ∼<0.1. Alternative models, where the HXR emission is predicted to be correlated with the cluster thermal emission, are disfavored by the data. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) γ-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed

  17. Self-similar dynamic converging shocks - I. An isothermal gas sphere with self-gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yu-Qing; Shi, Chun-Hui

    2014-07-01

    We explore novel self-similar dynamic evolution of converging spherical shocks in a self-gravitating isothermal gas under conceivable astrophysical situations. The construction of such converging shocks involves a time-reversal operation on feasible flow profiles in self-similar expansion with a proper care for the increasing direction of the specific entropy. Pioneered by Guderley since 1942 but without self-gravity so far, self-similar converging shocks are important for implosion processes in aerodynamics, combustion, and inertial fusion. Self-gravity necessarily plays a key role for grossly spherical structures in very broad contexts of astrophysics and cosmology, such as planets, stars, molecular clouds (cores), compact objects, planetary nebulae, supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, supernova remnants, globular clusters, galactic bulges, elliptical galaxies, clusters of galaxies as well as relatively hollow cavity or bubble structures on diverse spatial and temporal scales. Large-scale dynamic flows associated with such quasi-spherical systems (including collapses, accretions, fall-backs, winds and outflows, explosions, etc.) in their initiation, formation, and evolution are likely encounter converging spherical shocks at times. Our formalism lays an important theoretical basis for pertinent astrophysical and cosmological applications of various converging shock solutions and for developing and calibrating numerical codes. As examples, we describe converging shock triggered star formation, supernova explosions, and void collapses.

  18. IMPETUS: Consistent SPH calculations of 3D spherical Bondi accretion onto a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Velasquez, J. M.; Sigalotti, L. Di G.; Gabbasov, R.; Cruz, F.; Klapp, J.

    2018-04-01

    We present three-dimensional calculations of spherically symmetric Bondi accretion onto a stationary supermassive black hole (SMBH) of mass 108M⊙ within a radial range of 0.02 - 10 pc, using a modified version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) GADGET-2 code, which ensures approximate first-order consistency (i.e., second-order accuracy) for the particle approximation. First-order consistency is restored by allowing the number of neighbours, nneigh, and the smoothing length, h, to vary with the total number of particles, N, such that the asymptotic limits nneigh → ∞ and h → 0 hold as N → ∞. The ability of the method to reproduce the isothermal (γ = 1) and adiabatic (γ = 5/3) Bondi accretion is investigated with increased spatial resolution. In particular, for the isothermal models the numerical radial profiles closely match the Bondi solution, except near the accretor, where the density and radial velocity are slightly underestimated. However, as nneigh is increased and h is decreased, the calculations approach first-order consistency and the deviations from the Bondi solution decrease. The density and radial velocity profiles for the adiabatic models are qualitatively similar to those for the isothermal Bondi accretion. Steady-state Bondi accretion is reproduced by the highly resolved consistent models with a percent relative error of ≲ 1% for γ = 1 and ˜9% for γ = 5/3, with the adiabatic accretion taking longer than the isothermal case to reach steady flow. The performance of the method is assessed by comparing the results with those obtained using the standard GADGET-2 and the GIZMO codes.

  19. Spherical shock due to point explosion with varying energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. B.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1983-05-01

    The motion of a perfect gas behind a weak or strong spherical point-explosion shock wave in a nonuniform rest atmosphere is investigated analytically for the case of variable flow energy. The self-similar solutions derived are also adaptable to a uniform expanding piston. The solution is applied to the isothermal case, and the results of numerical integration are presented in graphs showing the density, velocity, and pressure distributions for different values of delta. The findings are considered significant for investigations of sonic booms, laser production of plasmas, high-altitude nuclear detonations, supernova explosions, and the sudden expansion of the solar corona, and for the laboratory production of high temperatures using shock waves.

  20. Neutrino-driven supernovae: An accretion instability in a nuclear physics controlled environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janka, H.-T.; Buras, R.; Kitaura Joyanes, F.S.; Marek, A.; Rampp, M.; Scheck, L.

    2005-01-01

    New simulations demonstrate that low-mode, nonradial hydrodynamic instabilities of the accretion shock help starting hot-bubble convection in supernovae and thus support explosions by the neutrino-heating mechanism. The prevailing conditions depend on the high-density equation of state which governs stellar core collapse, core bounce, and neutron star formation. Tests of this sensitivity to nuclear physics variations are shown for spherically symmetric models. Implications of current explosion models for r-process nucleosynthesis are addressed

  1. Characteristics of transonic spherical symmetric accretion flow in Schwarzschild-de Sitter and Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter backgrounds, in pseudo-general relativistic paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shubhrangshu; Banik, Prabir

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present a complete work on steady state spherically symmetric Bondi type accretion flow in the presence of cosmological constant (Λ) in both Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SDS) and Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter (SADS) backgrounds considering an isolated supermassive black hole (SMBH), with the inclusion of a simple radiative transfer scheme, in the pseudo-general relativistic paradigm. We do an extensive analysis on the transonic behavior of the Bondi type accretion flow onto the cosmological BHs including a complete analysis of the global parameter space and the stability of flow, and do a complete study of the global family of solutions for a generic polytropic flow. Bondi type accretion flow in SADS background renders multiplicity in its transonic behavior with inner "saddle" type and outer "center" type sonic points, with the transonic solutions forming closed loops or contours. There is always a limiting value for ∣Λ∣ up to which we obtain valid stationary transonic solutions, which correspond to both SDS and SADS geometries; this limiting value moderately increases with the increasing radiative efficiency of the flow, especially correspond to Bondi type accretion flow in SADS background. Repulsive Λ suppresses the Bondi accretion rate by an order of magnitude for relativistic Bondi type accretion flow for a certain range in temperature, and with a marginal increase in the Bondi accretion rate if the corresponding accretion flow occurs in SADS background. However, for a strongly radiative Bondi type accretion flow with high mass accretion rate, the presence of cosmological constant do not much influence the corresponding Bondi accretion rate of the flow. Our analysis show that the relic cosmological constant has a substantial effect on Bondi type accretion flow onto isolated SMBHs and their transonic solutions beyond length-scale of kiloparsecs, especially if the Bondi type accretion occurs onto the host supergiant ellipticals or central

  2. QUENCHED COLD ACCRETION OF A LARGE-SCALE METAL-POOR FILAMENT DUE TO VIRIAL SHOCKING IN THE HALO OF A MASSIVE z = 0.7 GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, Christopher W.; Holtzman, Jon; Nielsen, Nikole M.; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Spitler, Lee R. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Steidel, Charles C. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    Using HST/COS/STIS and HIRES/Keck high-resolution spectra, we have studied a remarkable H I absorbing complex at z = 0.672 toward the quasar Q1317+277. The H I absorption has a velocity spread of {Delta}v = 1600 km s{sup -1}, comprises 21 Voigt profile components, and resides at an impact parameter of D = 58 kpc from a bright, high-mass (log M {sub vir}/M {sub Sun} {approx_equal} 13.7) elliptical galaxy that is deduced to have a 6 Gyr old, solar metallicity stellar population. Ionization models suggest the majority of the structure is cold gas surrounding a shock-heated cloud that is kinematically adjacent to a multi-phase group of clouds with detected C III, C IV, and O VI absorption, suggestive of a conductive interface near the shock. The deduced metallicities are consistent with the moderate in situ enrichment relative to the levels observed in the z {approx} 3 Ly{alpha} forest. We interpret the H I complex as a metal-poor filamentary structure being shock heated as it accretes into the halo of the galaxy. The data support the scenario of an early formation period (z > 4) in which the galaxy was presumably fed by cold-mode gas accretion that was later quenched via virial shocking by the hot halo such that, by intermediate redshift, the cold filamentary accreting gas is continuing to be disrupted by shock heating. Thus, continued filamentary accretion is being mixed into the hot halo, indicating that the star formation of the galaxy will likely remain quenched. To date, the galaxy and the H I absorption complex provide some of the most compelling observational data supporting the theoretical picture in which accretion is virial shocked in the hot coronal halos of high-mass galaxies.

  3. Contributions to the study of astrophysical plasmas. From accretion-ejection flows to particle acceleration in shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    After having outlined that the study of turbulence is a point of convergence between mathematics and physics, and that magnetic turbulence is omnipresent in astrophysical plasmas and also present in the interstellar medium, in stars and in their environment, in accretion disks, at the vicinity of shocks, and so on, the author proposes an overview of his research works which started with a research thesis on magnetised accretion disks and transport of relativistic particles in a magnetic turbulence. So, in this report for an accreditation to supervise research (HDR), he first focuses on physics of systems in accretion, and particularly on magnetised accretion-ejection structures. He evokes his work on a stationary modelling of these structures, on magnetohydrodynamics digital simulation of these systems, and on some instabilities in accretion disks and their interest in astrophysics. In a second part, the author reports his works on numerical assessment of coefficients of spatial diffusion of cosmic rays in a magnetic turbulence, and the description of multi-scale environments such as supernovae debris or different regions of extra-galactic jets.

  4. SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES POWERED BY FALLBACK ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexter, Jason; Kasen, Daniel, E-mail: jdexter@berkeley.edu [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time ({approx}>days) power potentially associated with the accretion of this 'fallback' material could significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of progenitor masses and radii and explosion energies. The accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star or black hole decreases as M-dot {proportional_to}t{sup -5/3} at late times, but its normalization can be significantly enhanced at low explosion energies, in very massive stars, or if a strong reverse shock wave forms at the helium/hydrogen interface in the progenitor. If the resulting super-Eddington accretion drives an outflow which thermalizes in the outgoing ejecta, the supernova debris will be re-energized at a time when photons can diffuse out efficiently. The resulting light curves are different and more diverse than previous fallback supernova models which ignored the input of accretion power and produced short-lived, dim transients. The possible outcomes when fallback accretion power is significant include super-luminous ({approx}> 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) Type II events of both short and long durations, as well as luminous Type I events from compact stars that may have experienced significant mass loss. Accretion power may unbind the remaining infalling material, causing a sudden decrease in the brightness of some long duration Type II events. This scenario may be relevant for explaining some of the recently discovered classes of peculiar and rare supernovae.

  5. ACCRETION OF SUPERSONIC WINDS ONTO BLACK HOLES IN 3D: STABILITY OF THE SHOCK CONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia-Linares, M.; Guzmán, F. S. [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo. Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2015-10-10

    Using numerical simulations we present the accretion of supersonic winds onto a rotating black hole in three dimensions. We study five representative directions of the wind with respect to the axis of rotation of the black hole and focus on the evolution and stability of the high-density shock cone that is formed during the process. We explore both the regime in which the shock cone is expected to be stable in order to confirm previous results obtained with two-dimensional simulations, and the regime in which the shock cone is expected to show a flip–flop (FF) type of instability. The methods used to attempt a triggering of the instability were (i) the accumulation of numerical errors and (ii) the explicit application of a perturbation on the velocity field after the shock cone was formed. The result is negative, that is, we did not find the FF instability within the parameter space we explored, including cases that are expected to be unstable.

  6. Spherical shock-wave propagation in three-dimensional granular packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kun; Bai, Chun-Hua

    2011-02-01

    We investigate numerically the spherical shock-wave propagation in an open dense granular packing perturbed by the sudden expansion of a spherical intruder in the interior of the pack, focusing on the correlation between geometrical fabrics and propagating properties. The measurements of the temporal and spatial variations in a variety of propagating properties define a consistent serrated wave substructure with characteristic length on the orders of particle diameters. Further inspection of particle packing reveals a well-defined particle layering that persists several particle diameters away from the intruder, although its dominant effects are only within one to two diameters. This interface-induced layering not only exactly coincides with the serrated wave profile, but also highlights the competition between two energy transmission mechanisms involving distinct transport speeds. The alternating dominances between these two mechanisms contribute to the nonlinear wave propagation on the particle scale. Moreover, the proliferation of intricate three-dimensional contact force networks suggests the anisotropic stress transmission, which is found to also arise from the localized packing structure in the vicinity of the intruder.

  7. Study of magnetized accretion flow with variable Γ equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuldeep; Chattopadhyay, Indranil

    2018-05-01

    We present here the solutions of magnetized accretion flow on to a compact object with hard surface such as neutron stars. The magnetic field of the central star is assumed dipolar and the magnetic axis is assumed to be aligned with the rotation axis of the star. We have used an equation of state for the accreting fluid in which the adiabatic index is dependent on temperature and composition of the flow. We have also included cooling processes like bremsstrahlung and cyclotron processes in the accretion flow. We found all possible accretion solutions. All accretion solutions terminate with a shock very near to the star surface and the height of this primary shock does not vary much with either the spin period or the Bernoulli parameter of the flow, although the strength of the shock may vary with the period. For moderately rotating central star, there is possible formation of multiple sonic points in the flow and therefore, a second shock far away from the star surface may also form. However, the second shock is much weaker than the primary one near the surface. We found that if rotation period is below a certain value (P*), then multiple critical points or multiple shocks are not possible and P* depends upon the composition of the flow. We also found that cooling effect dominates after the shock and that the cyclotron and the bremsstrahlung cooling processes should be considered to obtain a consistent accretion solution.

  8. Dissipative advective accretion disc solutions with variable adiabatic index around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Chattopadhyay, Indranil

    2014-10-01

    We investigated accretion on to black holes in presence of viscosity and cooling, by employing an equation of state with variable adiabatic index and multispecies fluid. We obtained the expression of generalized Bernoulli parameter which is a constant of motion for an accretion flow in presence of viscosity and cooling. We obtained all possible transonic solutions for a variety of boundary conditions, viscosity parameters and accretion rates. We identified the solutions with their positions in the parameter space of generalized Bernoulli parameter and the angular momentum on the horizon. We showed that a shocked solution is more luminous than a shock-free one. For particular energies and viscosity parameters, we obtained accretion disc luminosities in the range of 10- 4 - 1.2 times Eddington luminosity, and the radiative efficiency seemed to increase with the mass accretion rate too. We found steady state shock solutions even for high-viscosity parameters, high accretion rates and for wide range of composition of the flow, starting from purely electron-proton to lepton-dominated accretion flow. However, similar to earlier studies of inviscid flow, accretion shock was not obtained for electron-positron pair plasma.

  9. The acceleration of electrons at a spherical coronal shock in a streamer-like coronal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiangliang, E-mail: kongx@sdu.edu.cn; Chen, Yao, E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Guo, Fan, E-mail: guofan.ustc@gmail.com [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    We study the effect of large-scale coronal magnetic field on the electron acceleration at a spherical coronal shock using a test-particle method. The coronal field is approximated by an analytical solution with a streamer-like magnetic field featured by partially open magnetic field and a current sheet at the equator atop the closed region. It shows that the closed field plays the role of a trapping agency of shock-accelerated electrons, allowing for repetitive reflection and acceleration, therefore can greatly enhance the shock-electron acceleration efficiency. It is found that, with an ad hoc pitch-angle scattering, electron injected in the open field at the shock flank can be accelerated to high energies as well. In addition, if the shock is faster or stronger, a relatively harder electron energy spectrum and a larger maximum energy can be achieved.

  10. Properties of two-temperature dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dihingia, Indu K.; Das, Santabrata; Mandal, Samir

    2018-04-01

    We study the properties of two-temperature accretion flow around a non-rotating black hole in presence of various dissipative processes where pseudo-Newtonian potential is adopted to mimic the effect of general relativity. The flow encounters energy loss by means of radiative processes acted on the electrons and at the same time, flow heats up as a consequence of viscous heating effective on ions. We assumed that the flow is exposed with the stochastic magnetic fields that leads to Synchrotron emission of electrons and these emissions are further strengthen by Compton scattering. We obtain the two-temperature global accretion solutions in terms of dissipation parameters, namely, viscosity (α) and accretion rate ({\\dot{m}}), and find for the first time in the literature that such solutions may contain standing shock waves. Solutions of this kind are multitransonic in nature, as they simultaneously pass through both inner critical point (xin) and outer critical point (xout) before crossing the black hole horizon. We calculate the properties of shock-induced global accretion solutions in terms of the flow parameters. We further show that two-temperature shocked accretion flow is not a discrete solution, instead such solution exists for wide range of flow parameters. We identify the effective domain of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that parameter space shrinks as the dissipation is increased. Since the post-shock region is hotter due to the effect of shock compression, it naturally emits hard X-rays, and therefore, the two-temperature shocked accretion solution has the potential to explain the spectral properties of the black hole sources.

  11. The interaction of laser driven shock waves with a spherical density perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, D.R; Budil, K.S.; Klein, R.I.; Perry, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Strong shock waves produced by illumination of a CH target by laser produced x-rays were driven through a copper sphere. The motion and deformation of the sphere were measured using radiographs generated by backlighting the sphere with a large area backlighter. The sphere became non-spherical after the passage of the shock, having a complicated down-stream structure. This was an instability-induced structure that was predicted by calculations. The experiment is a convenient laboratory model of the complicated interactions occurring in much larger systems such as in astrophysics in the interaction of shocks formed in the interstellar medium with various types of clouds. In particular, the experiment is a useful tool for checking the computational ability of the new generation ASCI computers, as it requires three-dimensional modeling. This experiment has shown that three dimensional calculations seem to be necessary to describe major features observed in the experiment. Any attempt to explain hydrodynamic behavior with similar instabilities must take into account these three dimensional effects

  12. The structure and spectrum of the accretion shock in the atmospheres of young stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodin, Alexandr

    2018-04-01

    The structure and spectrum of the accretion shock have been self-consistently simulated for a wide range of parameters typical for Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTS). Radiative cooling of the shocked gas was calculated, taking into account the self-absorption and non-equilibrium (time-dependent) effects in the level populations. These effects modify the standard cooling curve for an optically thin plasma in coronal equilibrium, however the shape of high-temperature (T > 3 × 105 K) part of the curve remains unchanged. The applied methods allow us to smoothly describe the transition from the cooling flow to the hydrostatic stellar atmosphere. Thanks to this approach, it has been found that the narrow component of He II lines is formed predominantly in the irradiated stationary atmosphere (hotspot), i.e. at velocities of the settling gas law via the full energy flux.

  13. Wind accretion: Theory and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakura, N. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.

    2015-07-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus on different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star (NS): the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically towards the NS magnetosphere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. These two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg s-1. In the subsonic case, which sets in at lower luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must form around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In turn, two regimes of subsonic accretion are possible, depending on plasma cooling mechanism (Compton or radiative) near the magnetopshere. The transition from the high-luminosity with Compton cooling to the lowluminosity (Lx ≲ 3 × 1035 erg s-1) with radiative cooling can be responsible for the onset of the off states repeatedly observed in several low-luminosity slowly accreting pulsars, such as Vela X-1, GX 301-2, and 4U 1907+09. The triggering of the transitionmay be due to a switch in the X-ray beam pattern in response to a change in the optical depth in the accretion column with changing luminosity. We also show that in the settling accretion theory, bright X-ray flares (~1038-1040 erg) observed in supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXT) can be produced by sporadic capture of magnetized stellar wind plasma. At sufficiently low accretion rates, magnetic reconnection can enhance the magnetospheric plasma entry rate, resulting in copious production of X-ray photons, strong Compton cooling and ultimately in unstable accretion of the entire shell. A bright flare develops on the free-fall time scale in the shell, and the typical energy released in an SFXT bright flare corresponds to the mass

  14. Time-dependent Models of Magnetospheric Accretion onto Young Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, C. E.; Espaillat, C. C. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Owen, J. E. [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Adams, F. C., E-mail: connorr@bu.edu [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Accretion onto Classical T Tauri stars is thought to take place through the action of magnetospheric processes, with gas in the inner disk being channeled onto the star’s surface by the stellar magnetic field lines. Young stars are known to accrete material in a time-variable manner, and the source of this variability remains an open problem, particularly on the shortest (∼day) timescales. Using one-dimensional time-dependent numerical simulations that follow the field line geometry, we find that for plausibly realistic young stars, steady-state transonic accretion occurs naturally in the absence of any other source of variability. However, we show that if the density in the inner disk varies smoothly in time with ∼day-long timescales (e.g., due to turbulence), this complication can lead to the development of shocks in the accretion column. These shocks propagate along the accretion column and ultimately hit the star, leading to rapid, large amplitude changes in the accretion rate. We argue that when these shocks hit the star, the observed time dependence will be a rapid increase in accretion luminosity, followed by a slower decline, and could be an explanation for some of the short-period variability observed in accreting young stars. Our one-dimensional approach bridges previous analytic work to more complicated multi-dimensional simulations and observations.

  15. Time-dependent Models of Magnetospheric Accretion onto Young Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C. E.; Espaillat, C. C.; Owen, J. E.; Adams, F. C.

    2017-01-01

    Accretion onto Classical T Tauri stars is thought to take place through the action of magnetospheric processes, with gas in the inner disk being channeled onto the star’s surface by the stellar magnetic field lines. Young stars are known to accrete material in a time-variable manner, and the source of this variability remains an open problem, particularly on the shortest (∼day) timescales. Using one-dimensional time-dependent numerical simulations that follow the field line geometry, we find that for plausibly realistic young stars, steady-state transonic accretion occurs naturally in the absence of any other source of variability. However, we show that if the density in the inner disk varies smoothly in time with ∼day-long timescales (e.g., due to turbulence), this complication can lead to the development of shocks in the accretion column. These shocks propagate along the accretion column and ultimately hit the star, leading to rapid, large amplitude changes in the accretion rate. We argue that when these shocks hit the star, the observed time dependence will be a rapid increase in accretion luminosity, followed by a slower decline, and could be an explanation for some of the short-period variability observed in accreting young stars. Our one-dimensional approach bridges previous analytic work to more complicated multi-dimensional simulations and observations.

  16. Estimation of bipolar jets from accretion discs around Kerr black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Chattopadhyay, Indranil

    2017-08-01

    We analyse flows around a rotating black hole and obtain self-consistent accretion-ejection solutions in full general relativistic prescription. Entire energy-angular momentum parameter space is investigated in the advective regime to obtain shocked and shock-free accretion solutions. Jet equations of motion are solved along the von Zeipel surfaces computed from the post-shock disc, simultaneously with the equations of accretion disc along the equatorial plane. For a given spin parameter, the mass outflow rate increases as the shock moves closer to the black hole, but eventually decreases, maximizing at some intermediate value of shock location. Interestingly, we obtain all types of possible jet solutions, for example, steady shock solution with multiple critical points, bound solution with two critical points and smooth solution with single critical point. Multiple critical points may exist in jet solution for spin parameter as ≥ 0.5. The jet terminal speed generally increases if the accretion shock forms closer to the horizon and is higher for corotating black hole than the counter-rotating and the non-rotating one. Quantitatively speaking, shocks in jet may form for spin parameter as > 0.6 and jet shocks range between 6rg and 130rg above the equatorial plane, while the jet terminal speed vj∞ > 0.35 c if Bernoulli parameter E≥1.01 for as > 0.99.

  17. TOWARD A MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC THEORY OF THE STATIONARY ACCRETION SHOCK INSTABILITY: TOY MODEL OF THE ADVECTIVE-ACOUSTIC CYCLE IN A MAGNETIZED FLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilet, Jerome; Foglizzo, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a magnetic field on the linear phase of the advective-acoustic instability is investigated as a first step toward a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory of the stationary accretion shock instability taking place during stellar core collapse. We study a toy model where the flow behind a planar stationary accretion shock is adiabatically decelerated by an external potential. Two magnetic field geometries are considered: parallel or perpendicular to the shock. The entropy-vorticity wave, which is simply advected in the unmagnetized limit, separates into five different waves: the entropy perturbations are advected, while the vorticity can propagate along the field lines through two Alfven waves and two slow magnetosonic waves. The two cycles existing in the unmagnetized limit, advective-acoustic and purely acoustic, are replaced by up to six distinct MHD cycles. The phase differences among the cycles play an important role in determining the total cycle efficiency and hence the growth rate. Oscillations in the growth rate as a function of the magnetic field strength are due to this varying phase shift. A vertical magnetic field hardly affects the cycle efficiency in the regime of super-Alfvenic accretion that is considered. In contrast, we find that a horizontal magnetic field strongly increases the efficiencies of the vorticity cycles that bend the field lines, resulting in a significant increase of the growth rate if the different cycles are in phase. These magnetic effects are significant for large-scale modes if the Alfven velocity is a sizable fraction of the flow velocity.

  18. Neutron star accretion and the neutrino fireball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.; Herant, M.E.; Benz, W.

    1991-01-01

    The mixing necessary to explain the ''Fe'' line widths and possibly the observed red shifts of 1987A is explained in terms of large scale, entropy conserving, up and down flows (calculated with a smooth particle 2-D code) taking place between the neutron star and the explosion shock wave due to the gravity and neutrino deposition. Depending upon conditions of entropy and mass flux further accretion takes place in single events, similar to relaxation oscillator, fed by the downward flows of low entropy matter. The shock, in turn, is driven by the upflow of the buoyant high entropy bubbles. Some accretion events will reach a temperature high enough to create a neutrino ''fireball,'' a region hot enough, 11 Mev, so as to be partially opaque to its own (neutrino) radiation. The continuing neutrino deposition drives the explosion shock until the entropy of matter flowing downwards onto the neutron star is high enough to prevent further accretion. This process should result in a robust supernova explosion

  19. Discrimination of Thermal versus Mechanical Effects of Shock on Rock Magnetic Properties of Spherically Shocked up to 10-160 GPa Basalt and Diabase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezaeva, N. S.; Swanson-Hysell, N.; Tikoo, S.; Badyukov, D. D.; Kars, M. A. C.; Egli, R.; Chareev, D. A.; Fairchild, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how shock waves generated during hypervelocity impacts affect rock magnetic properties is key for interpreting the paleomagnetic records of lunar rocks, meteorites, and cratered planetary surfaces. Laboratory simulations of impacts show that ultra-high shocks may induce substantial post-shock heating of the target material. At high pressures (>10 GPa), shock heating occurs in tandem with mechanical effects, such as grain fracturing and creation of crystallographic defects and dislocations within magnetic grains. This makes it difficult to conclude whether shock-induced changes in the rock magnetic properties of target materials are primarily associated with mechanical or thermal effects. Here we present novel experimental methods to discriminate between mechanical and thermal effects of shock on magnetic properties and illustrate it with two examples of spherically shocked terrestrial basalt and diabase [1], which were shocked to pressures of 10 to >160 GPa, and investigate possible explanations for the observed shock-induced magnetic hardening (i.e., increase in remanent coercivity Bcr). The methods consist of i) conducting extra heating experiments at temperatures resembling those experienced during high-pressure shock events on untreated equivalents of shocked rocks (with further comparison of Bcr of shocked and heated samples) and ii) quantitative comparison of high-resolution first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams (field step: 0.5-0.7 mT) for shocked, heated and untreated specimens. Using this approach, we demonstrated that the shock-induced coercivity hardening in our samples is predominantly due to solid-state, mechanical effects of shock rather than alteration associated with shock heating. Indeed, heating-induced changes in Bcr in the post-shock temperature range were minor. Visual inspection of FORC contours (in addition to detailed analyses) reveals a stretching of the FORC distribution of shocked sample towards higher coercivities

  20. Accretion and evaporation of modified Hayward black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, Ujjal

    2015-01-01

    We assume the most general static spherically symmetric black hole metric. The accretion of any general kind of fluid flow around the black hole is investigated. The accretion of the fluid flow around the modified Hayward black hole is analyzed, and we then calculate the critical point, the fluid's four-velocity, and the velocity of sound during the accretion process. Also the nature of the dynamical mass of the black hole during accretion of the fluid flow, taking into consideration Hawking radiation from the black hole, i.e., evaporation of the black hole, is analyzed. (orig.)

  1. The fate or organic matter during planetary accretion - Preliminary studies of the organic chemistry of experimentally shocked Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, Tracy N.; Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.; Becker, Christopher H.

    1992-01-01

    The fate of organic matter in carbonaceous meteorites during hypervelocity (1-2 km/sec) impacts is investigated using results of experiments in which three samples of the Murchison (CM2) carbonaceous chondrite were shocked to 19, 20, and 36 GPa and analyzed by highly sensitive thermal-desorption photoionization mass spectrometry (SALI). The thermal-desorptive SALI mass spectra of unshocked CM2 material revealed presence of indigenous aliphatic, aromatic, sulfur, and organosulfur compounds, and samples shocked to about 20 GPa showed little or no loss of organic matter. On the other hand, samples shocked to 36 GPa exhibited about 70 percent loss of organic material and a lower alkene/alkane ratio than did the starting material. The results suggest that it is unlikely that the indigenous organic matter in carbonaceous chondritelike planetesimals could have survived the impact on the earth in the later stages of earth's accretion.

  2. Shock-induced hotspot formation and chemical reaction initiation in PETN containing a spherical void

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Tzu-Ray; Thompson, Aidan P

    2014-01-01

    We present results of reactive molecular dynamics simulations of hotspot formation and chemical reaction initiation in shock-induced compression of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) with the ReaxFF reactive force field. A supported shockwave is driven through a PETN crystal containing a 20 nm spherical void at a sub-threshold impact velocity of 2 km/s. Formation of a hotspot due to shock-induced void collapse is observed. During void collapse, NO 2 is the dominant species ejected from the upstream void surface. Once the ejecta collide with the downstream void surface and the hotspot develops, formation of final products such as N 2 and H 2 O is observed. The simulation provides a detailed picture of how void collapse and hotspot formation leads to initiation at sub-threshold impact velocities.

  3. SIMULATIONS OF VISCOUS ACCRETION FLOW AROUND BLACK HOLES IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL CYLINDRICAL GEOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong-Jae; Hyung, Siek [School of Science Education (Astronomy), Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 28644 (Korea, Republic of); Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Kumar, Rajiv [ARIES, Manora Peak, Nainital-263002, Uttarakhand (India); Ryu, Dongsu, E-mail: seong@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences UNIST, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    We simulate shock-free and shocked viscous accretion flows onto a black hole in a two-dimensional cylindrical geometry, where initial conditions were chosen from analytical solutions. The simulation code used the Lagrangian total variation diminishing plus remap routine, which enabled us to attain high accuracy in capturing shocks and to handle the angular momentum distribution correctly. The inviscid shock-free accretion disk solution produced a thick disk structure, while the viscous shock-free solution attained a Bondi-like structure, but in either case, no jet activity nor any quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO)-like activity developed. The steady-state shocked solution in the inviscid as well as in the viscous regime matched theoretical predictions well. However, increasing viscosity renders the accretion shock unstable. Large-amplitude shock oscillation is accompanied by intermittent, transient inner multiple shocks. This oscillation of the inner part of the disk is interpreted as the source of QPO in hard X-rays observed in micro-quasars. Strong shock oscillation induces strong episodic jet emission. The jets also show the existence of shocks, which are produced as one shell hits the preceding one. The periodicities of the jets and shock oscillation are similar; the jets for the higher viscosity parameter appear to be stronger and faster.

  4. The Acceleration of Charged Particles at a Spherical Shock Moving through an Irregular Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacalone, J. [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-10-20

    We investigate the physics of charged-particle acceleration at spherical shocks moving into a uniform plasma containing a turbulent magnetic field with a uniform mean. This has applications to particle acceleration at astrophysical shocks, most notably, to supernovae blast waves. We numerically integrate the equations of motion of a large number of test protons moving under the influence of electric and magnetic fields determined from a kinematically defined plasma flow associated with a radially propagating blast wave. Distribution functions are determined from the positions and velocities of the protons. The unshocked plasma contains a magnetic field with a uniform mean and an irregular component having a Kolmogorov-like power spectrum. The field inside the blast wave is determined from Maxwell’s equations. The angle between the average magnetic field and unit normal to the shock varies with position along its surface. It is quasi-perpendicular to the unit normal near the sphere’s equator, and quasi-parallel to it near the poles. We find that the highest intensities of particles, accelerated by the shock, are at the poles of the blast wave. The particles “collect” at the poles as they approximately adhere to magnetic field lines that move poleward from their initial encounter with the shock at the equator, as the shock expands. The field lines at the poles have been connected to the shock the longest. We also find that the highest-energy protons are initially accelerated near the equator or near the quasi-perpendicular portion of the shock, where the acceleration is more rapid.

  5. Numerical procedure for the calculation of nonsteady spherical shock fronts with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, K.H.

    The basis of the numerical method is an implicit difference scheme with time backward differences to a freely moving coordinate system. The coordinate system itself is determined simultaneously with the iterative solution of the physical equations as a function of the physical variables. Shock fronts, even nonsteady ones, are calculated as discontinuities according to the Rankine--Hugoniot equations. The radiation field is obtained from the two-dimensional, static, spherically symmetric transport equation in conjunction with the time-dependent one-dimensional moment equations. No artificial viscosity of any type is ever used. The applicability of the method developed is demonstrated by an example involving the calculation of protostar collapse. 11 figures

  6. Relativistic shocks in electron-positron plasmas, and polar cap accretion onto neutron stars: Two non-linear problems in astrophysical plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arons, J.

    1988-01-01

    I outline particle simulations and theory of relativistic shock waves in an e/sup +-/ plasma. Magnetic reflection of particles is an essential role in the shock structure. Instability of the reflected particles in the shock front produces intense extraordinary mode radiation. Such shocks are candidates for the particle accelerator in plerions and in extragalactic jets only if the upstream Poynting flux composes no more than 10% of the total. I summarize analytical and numerical studies of radiation dominated accretion onto the magnetic poles of neutron stars. The upper limit to the photon luminosity depends upon magnetic confinement, not upon the dragging of photons into the star. Numerical solutions show the plasma forms large scale ''photon bubbles.'' I suggest the percolative loss of radiation controls the pressure and therefore the limits of magnetic confinement. Loss of magnetic confinement through resistive interchange instability is suggested as a means of generating TeV to PeV voltage drops along the magnetic field. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. Accretion of Ghost Condensate by Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, A

    2004-06-02

    The intent of this letter is to point out that the accretion of a ghost condensate by black holes could be extremely efficient. We analyze steady-state spherically symmetric flows of the ghost fluid in the gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole and calculate the accretion rate. Unlike minimally coupled scalar field or quintessence, the accretion rate is set not by the cosmological energy density of the field, but by the energy scale of the ghost condensate theory. If hydrodynamical flow is established, it could be as high as tenth of a solar mass per second for 10MeV-scale ghost condensate accreting onto a stellar-sized black hole, which puts serious constraints on the parameters of the ghost condensate model.

  8. Minidisks in Binary Black Hole Accretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Geoffrey; MacFadyen, Andrew, E-mail: gsr257@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Newtonian simulations have demonstrated that accretion onto binary black holes produces accretion disks around each black hole (“minidisks”), fed by gas streams flowing through the circumbinary cavity from the surrounding circumbinary disk. We study the dynamics and radiation of an individual black hole minidisk using 2D hydrodynamical simulations performed with a new general relativistic version of the moving-mesh code Disco. We introduce a comoving energy variable that enables highly accurate integration of these high Mach number flows. Tidally induced spiral shock waves are excited in the disk and propagate through the innermost stable circular orbit, providing a Reynolds stress that causes efficient accretion by purely hydrodynamic means and producing a radiative signature brighter in hard X-rays than the Novikov–Thorne model. Disk cooling is provided by a local blackbody prescription that allows the disk to evolve self-consistently to a temperature profile where hydrodynamic heating is balanced by radiative cooling. We find that the spiral shock structure is in agreement with the relativistic dispersion relation for tightly wound linear waves. We measure the shock-induced dissipation and find outward angular momentum transport corresponding to an effective alpha parameter of order 0.01. We perform ray-tracing image calculations from the simulations to produce theoretical minidisk spectra and viewing-angle-dependent images for comparison with observations.

  9. Inclusion of TCAF model in XSPEC to study accretion flow dynamics around black hole candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Dipak; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Mondal, Santanu

    Spectral and Temporal properties of black hole candidates can be well understood with the Chakrabarti-Titarchuk solution of two component advective flow (TCAF). This model requires two accretion rates, namely, the Keplerian disk accretion rate and the sub-Keplerian halo accretion rate, the latter being composed of a low angular momentum flow which may or may not develop a shock. In this solution, the relevant parameter is the relative importance of the halo (which creates the Compton cloud region) rate with respect to the Keplerian disk rate (soft photon source). Though this model has been used earlier to manually fit data of several black hole candidates quite satisfactorily, for the first time we are able to create a user friendly version by implementing additive Table model FITS file into GSFC/NASA's spectral analysis software package XSPEC. This enables any user to extract physical parameters of accretion flows, such as two accretion rates, shock location, shock strength etc. for any black hole candidate. Most importantly, unlike any other theoretical model, we show that TCAF is capable of predicting timing properties from spectral fits, since in TCAF, a shock is responsible for deciding spectral slopes as well as QPO frequencies.

  10. X-RAY SIGNATURES OF NON-EQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION EFFECTS IN GALAXY CLUSTER ACCRETION SHOCK REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ka-Wah; Sarazin, Craig L.; Ji Li

    2011-01-01

    The densities in the outer regions of clusters of galaxies are very low, and the collisional timescales are very long. As a result, heavy elements will be under-ionized after they have passed through the accretion shock. We have studied systematically the effects of non-equilibrium ionization for relaxed clusters in the ΛCDM cosmology using one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. We found that non-equilibrium ionization effects do not depend on cluster mass, but depend strongly on redshift which can be understood by self-similar scaling arguments. The effects are stronger for clusters at lower redshifts. We present X-ray signatures such as surface brightness profiles and emission lines in detail for a massive cluster at low redshift. In general, soft emission (0.3-1.0 keV) is enhanced significantly by under-ionization, and the enhancement can be nearly an order of magnitude near the shock radius. The most prominent non-equilibrium ionization signature we found is the O VII and O VIII line ratio. The ratios for non-equilibrium ionization and collisional ionization equilibrium models are different by more than an order of magnitude at radii beyond half of the shock radius. These non-equilibrium ionization signatures are equally strong for models with different non-adiabatic shock electron heating efficiencies. We have also calculated the detectability of the O VII and O VIII lines with the future International X-ray Observatory (IXO). Depending on the line ratio measured, we conclude that an exposure of ∼130-380 ks on a moderate-redshift, massive regular cluster with the X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) on the IXO will be sufficient to provide a strong test for the non-equilibrium ionization model.

  11. Accretion onto a noncommutative geometry inspired black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rahul [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); Jamia Millia Islamia, Multidisciplinary Centre for Advanced Research and Studies (MCARS), New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)

    2017-09-15

    The spherically symmetric accretion onto a noncommutative (NC) inspired Schwarzschild black hole is treated for a polytropic fluid. The critical accretion rate M, sonic speed a{sub s} and other flow parameters are generalized for the NC inspired static black hole and compared with the results obtained for the standard Schwarzschild black holes. Also explicit expressions for gas compression ratios and temperature profiles below the accretion radius and at the event horizon are derived. This analysis is a generalization of Michel's solution to the NC geometry. Owing to the NC corrected black hole, the accretion flow parameters also have been modified. It turns out that M ∼ M{sup 2} is still achievable but r{sub s} seems to be substantially decreased due to the NC effects. They in turn do affect the accretion process. (orig.)

  12. Electrostatic noise measurement with a pair of spherical probes near interplanetary shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, J.; Touzin, F.

    1991-01-01

    In order to obtain accurate measurements of electrostatic noise spectra on board the ISEE 1 satellite, near interplanetary shock waves, the authors perform a detailed theoretical and numerical study of an antenna consisting of a pair of spherical probes. They compute the quasi-thermal electrostatic noise observed theoretically on the antenna by assuming that the solar wind plasma can be properly represented by the sum of two Maxwellian distributions (core and halo). They study the dependence of the electrostatic spectra on the antenna length and on the different plasma parameters, particularly on the density and temperature ratio of the core and of the halo. They show that by also taking into account the instrumental noise and the shot noise on the antenna, a calibration factor can be precisely determined for the antenna that they consider. They display some results obtained from measurements of electrostatic noise spectra behind interplanetary shock waves. Finally, they discuss the real meaning of a specific halo temperature, and they show that, in a first approximation, the theoretical results are only slightly modified when they consider types of distributions other than Maxwellians

  13. Accretion of a ghost condensate by black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Andrei V.

    2004-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to point out that the accretion of a ghost condensate by black holes could be extremely efficient. We analyze steady-state spherically symmetric flows of the ghost fluid in the gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole and calculate the accretion rate. Unlike minimally coupled scalar field or quintessence, the accretion rate is set not by the cosmological energy density of the field, but by the energy scale of the ghost condensate theory. If hydrodynamical flow is established, it could be as high as a tenth of a solar mass per second for 10 MeV scale ghost condensate accreting onto a stellar-sized black hole, which puts serious constraints on the parameters of the ghost condensate model

  14. Relativistic shocks in electron-positron plasmas, and polar cap accretion onto neutron stars: Two non-linear problems in astrophysical plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arons, J.

    1988-08-15

    I outline particle simulations and theory of relativistic shock waves in an e/sup +-/ plasma. Magnetic reflection of particles is an essential role in the shock structure. Instability of the reflected particles in the shock front produces intense extraordinary mode radiation. Such shocks are candidates for the particle accelerator in plerions and in extragalactic jets only if the upstream Poynting flux composes no more than 10% of the total. I summarize analytical and numerical studies of radiation dominated accretion onto the magnetic poles of neutron stars. The upper limit to the photon luminosity depends upon magnetic confinement, not upon the dragging of photons into the star. Numerical solutions show the plasma forms large scale ''photon bubbles.'' I suggest the percolative loss of radiation controls the pressure and therefore the limits of magnetic confinement. Loss of magnetic confinement through resistive interchange instability is suggested as a means of generating TeV to PeV voltage drops along the magnetic field. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Accretion on to Magnetic White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickramasinghe Dayal

    2014-01-01

    The polars have no counterparts in neutron star systems and their study provides unique insights into the complex nature of the magnetospheric boundary. The observed properties of accretion shocks at the white dwarf surface such as the anomalous soft-X-ray excess and its time variability provide strong support for the hypothesis that under certain circumstances the field channelled funnel flow is “blobby”. This has been attributed to interchange instabilities such as the Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the shocked gas at the stream-magnetosphere boundary where the stream fragments into discrete clumps of gas. As the clumps penetrate into the magnetosphere, they are shredded into smaller mass blobs via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that then couple on to field lines over an extended inner transition region in the orbital plane. The more massive blobs penetrate deep into the photosphere of the white dwarf releasing their energy as a reprocessed soft-X-ray black body component. Although similar instabilities are expected in the inner transition region in disced accretion albeit on a different scale there has been no direct observational evidence for blobby accretion in the generally lower field and disced IPs.

  16. STOCHASTIC NATURE OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS WITH STANDING ACCRETION SHOCK INSTABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotake, Kei; Iwakami, Wakana; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Yamada, Shoichi

    2009-01-01

    We study the properties of gravitational waves (GWs) based on three-dimensional (3D) simulations, which demonstrate neutrino-driven explosions aided by standing accretion shock instability (SASI). Pushed by evidence supporting slow rotation prior to core collapse, we focus on the asphericities in neutrino emissions and matter motions outside the protoneutron star. By performing a ray-tracing calculation in 3D, we estimate accurately the gravitational waveforms from anisotropic neutrino emissions. In contrast to the previous work assuming axisymmetry, we find that the gravitational waveforms vary much more stochastically because the explosion anisotropies depend sensitively on the growth of SASI which develops chaotically in all directions. Our results show that the GW spectrum has its peak near ∼100 Hz, reflecting SASI-induced matter overturns of ∼O(10) ms. We point out that the detection of such signals, possibly visible to the LIGO-class detectors for a Galactic supernova, could be an important probe into the long-veiled explosion mechanism.

  17. Numerical study of nonspherical black hole accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes in detail a two-dimensional, axisymmetric computer code for calculating fully relativistic ideal gas hydrodynamics around a Kerr black hole. The aim is to study fully dynamic inviscid fluid accretion onto black holes, as well as to study the evolution and development of nonlinear instabilities in pressure supported accretion disks. In order to fully calibrate and document the code, certain analytic solutions for shock tubes and special accretion flows are derived; these solutions form the basis for code testing. The numerical techniques used are developed and discussed. A variety of alternate differencing schemes are compared on an analytic test bed. Some discussion is devoted to general issues in finite differencing. The working code is calibrated using analytically solvable accretion problems, including the radial accretion of dust and of fluid with pressure (Bondi accretion). Two dimensional test problems include the spiraling infall of low angular momentum fluid, the formation of a pressure supported torus, and the stable evolution of a torus. A series of numerical models are discussed and illustrated with selected plots

  18. Accretion onto a noncommutative-inspired Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Paik, Biplab; Mandal, Rituparna

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of ordinary baryonic matter accretion onto the noncommutative (NC) geometry-inspired Schwarzschild black hole. The fundamental equations governing the spherically symmetric steady state matter accretion are deduced. These equations are seen to be modified due to the presence of noncommutativity. The matter accretion rate is computed and is found to increase rapidly with the increase in strength of the NC parameter. The sonic radius reduces while the sound speed at the sonic point increases with the increase in the strength of noncommutativity. The profile of the thermal environment is finally investigated below the sonic radius and at the event horizon and is found to be affected by noncommutativity.

  19. Analogue Hawking radiation from astrophysical black-hole accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tapas K

    2004-01-01

    We show that spherical accretion onto astrophysical black holes can be considered as a natural example of an analogue system. We provide, for the first time, an exact analytical scheme for calculating the analogue Hawking temperature and surface gravity for general relativistic accretion onto astrophysical black holes. Our calculation may bridge the gap between the theory of transonic astrophysical accretion and the theory of analogue Hawking radiation. We show that the domination of the analogue Hawking temperature over the actual Hawking temperature may be a real astrophysical phenomenon, though observational tests of this fact will at best be difficult and at worst might prove to be impossible. We also discuss the possibilities of the emergence of analogue white holes around astrophysical black holes. Our calculation is general enough to accommodate accreting black holes with any mass

  20. Possible Imprints of Cold-mode Accretion on the Present-day Properties of Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies suggest that a significant part of the primordial gas accretes onto forming galaxies as narrow filaments of cold gas without building a shock and experiencing heating. Using a simple model of disk galaxy evolution that combines the growth of dark matter halos predicted by cosmological simulations with a hypothetical form of cold-mode accretion, we investigate how this cold-accretion mode affects the formation process of disk galaxies. It is found that the shock-heating and cold-accretion models produce compatible results for low-mass galaxies owing to the short cooling timescale in such galaxies. However, cold accretion significantly alters the evolution of disk galaxies more massive than the Milky Way and puts observable fingerprints on their present properties. For a galaxy with a virial mass {M}{vir}=2.5× {10}12 {M}ȯ , the scale length of the stellar disk is larger by 41% in the cold-accretion model than in the shock-heating model, with the former model reproducing the steep rise in the size–mass relation observed at the high-mass end. Furthermore, the stellar component of massive galaxies becomes significantly redder (0.66 in u ‑ r at {M}{vir}=2.5× {10}12 {M}ȯ ), and the observed color–mass relation in nearby galaxies is qualitatively reproduced. These results suggest that large disk galaxies with red optical colors may be the product of cold-mode accretion. The essential role of cold accretion is to promote disk formation in the intermediate-evolution phase (0.5< z< 1.5) by providing the primordial gas having large angular momentum and to terminate late-epoch accretion, quenching star formation and making massive galaxies red.

  1. Uniformity of spherical shock wave dynamically stabilized by two successive laser profiles in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temporal, M., E-mail: mauro.temporal@hotmail.com [Centre de Mathématiques et de Leurs Applications, ENS Cachan and CNRS, 61 Av. du President Wilson, F-94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Canaud, B. [CEA, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon Cedex (France); Garbett, W. J. [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Ramis, R. [ETSI Aeronáutica y del Espacio, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    The implosion uniformity of a directly driven spherical inertial confinement fusion capsule is considered within the context of the Laser Mégajoule configuration. Two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic simulations have been performed assuming irradiation with two laser beam cones located at 49° and 131° with respect to the axis of symmetry. The laser energy deposition causes an inward shock wave whose surface is tracked in time, providing the time evolution of its non-uniformity. The illumination model has been used to optimize the laser intensity profiles used as input in the 2D hydro-calculations. It is found that a single stationary laser profile does not maintain a uniform shock front over time. To overcome this drawback, it is proposed to use two laser profiles acting successively in time, in order to dynamically stabilize the non-uniformity of the shock front.

  2. MN Lup: X-RAYS FROM A WEAKLY ACCRETING T TAURI STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Wolter, U.; Robrade, J.

    2013-01-01

    Young T Tauri stars (TTS) are surrounded by an accretion disk, which over time disperses due to photoevaporation, accretion, and possibly planet formation. The accretion shock on the central star produces an UV/optical veiling continuum, line emission, and X-ray signatures. As the accretion rate decreases, the impact on the central star must change. In this article we study MN Lup, a young star where no indications of a disk are seen in IR observations. We present XMM-Newton and VLT/UVES observations, some of them taken simultaneously. The X-ray data show that MN Lup is an active star with L X /L bol close to the saturation limit. However, we find high densities (n e > 3 × 10 10 cm –3 ) in the X-ray grating spectrum. This can be well fitted using an accretion shock model with an accretion rate of 2 × 10 –11 M ☉ yr –1 . Despite the simple Hα line profile which has a broad component, but no absorption signatures as typically seen on accreting TTS, we find rotational modulation in Ca II K and in photospheric absorption lines. These line profile modulations do not clearly indicate the presence of a localized hot accretion spot on the star. In the Hα line we see a prominence in absorption about 2R * above the stellar surface—the first of its kind on a TTS. MN Lup is also the only TTS where accretion is seen, but no dust disk is detected that could fuel it. We suggest that MN Lup presents a unique and short-lived state in the disk evolution. It may have lost its dust disk only recently and is now accreting the remaining gas at a very low rate.

  3. Spherical shock-ignition experiments with the 40 + 20-beam configuration on OMEGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theobald, W.; Anderson, K. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Gotchev, O. V.; Hohenberger, M.; Hu, S. X.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Nora, R.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Physics at the University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Lafon, M. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); University of Bordeaux, CEA, CNRS, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), F-33400 Talence (France); Casner, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G. [University of Bordeaux, CEA, CNRS, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), F-33400 Talence (France); Frenje, J. A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); and others

    2012-10-15

    Spherical shock-ignition experiments on OMEGA used a novel beam configuration that separates low-intensity compression beams and high-intensity spike beams. Significant improvements in the performance of plastic-shell, D{sub 2} implosions were observed with repointed beams. The analysis of the coupling of the high-intensity spike beam energy into the imploding capsule indicates that absorbed hot-electron energy contributes to the coupling. The backscattering of laser energy was measured to reach up to 36% at single-beam intensities of {approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Hard x-ray measurements revealed a relatively low hot-electron temperature of {approx}30 keV independent of intensity and timing. At the highest intensity, stimulated Brillouin scattering occurs near and above the quarter-critical density and the two-plasmon-decay instability is suppressed.

  4. Magnetospheres of accreting compact objects in binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, J.J.

    1985-09-01

    Bright pulsating X-ray sources (X-ray pulsars, AM Her stars,...) have been identified as strongly magnetized compact objects accreting matter from a binary companion. We give here a summary of some of the work which has been recently done to try to understand the interaction between the magnetic field of the compact object and the matter around. We examine in turn the models describing the interaction of the field with: i) a spherically symmetric accretion flow; ii) a thin keplerian accretion disk; iii) the companion itself. In all these cases, we pay particular attention to the following problems: i) how the external plasma interacting with the magnetosphere can get mixed with the field; ii) by which mechanism the magnetic field controls the mass-momentum-energy exchanges between the two stars. In conclusion, we compare the magnetosphere of an accreting compact object with that one of a planet [fr

  5. Variable accretion of stellar winds onto Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, Jorge; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2006-12-01

    We report a 3-dimensional numerical study of the accretion of stellar winds onto Sgr A*, the super-massive black hole at the centre of our Galaxy. Compared with previous investigations, we allow the stars to be on realistic orbits, include the recently discovered slow wind sources, and allow for optically thin radiative cooling. We frst show the strong inflience of the stellar dynamics on the accretion onto the central black hole. We then present more realistic simulations of Sgr A* accretion and frid that the slow winds shock and rapidly cool, forming cold gas clumps and flaments that coexist with the hot X-ray emitting gas. The accretion rate in this case is highly variable on time-scales of tens to hundreds of years. Such variability can in principle lead to a strongly non-linear response through accretion fbw physics not resolved here, making Sgr A* an important energy source for the Galactic centre.

  6. Variable accretion of stellar winds onto Sgr A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadra, Jorge [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Nayakshin, Sergei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, LEI 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    We report a 3-dimensional numerical study of the accretion of stellar winds onto Sgr A*, the super-massive black hole at the centre of our Galaxy. Compared with previous investigations, we allow the stars to be on realistic orbits, include the recently discovered slow wind sources, and allow for optically thin radiative cooling. We frst show the strong inflience of the stellar dynamics on the accretion onto the central black hole. We then present more realistic simulations of Sgr A* accretion and frid that the slow winds shock and rapidly cool, forming cold gas clumps and flaments that coexist with the hot X-ray emitting gas. The accretion rate in this case is highly variable on time-scales of tens to hundreds of years. Such variability can in principle lead to a strongly non-linear response through accretion fbw physics not resolved here, making Sgr A* an important energy source for the Galactic centre.

  7. Variable accretion of stellar winds onto Sgr A*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuadra, Jorge; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    We report a 3-dimensional numerical study of the accretion of stellar winds onto Sgr A*, the super-massive black hole at the centre of our Galaxy. Compared with previous investigations, we allow the stars to be on realistic orbits, include the recently discovered slow wind sources, and allow for optically thin radiative cooling. We frst show the strong inflience of the stellar dynamics on the accretion onto the central black hole. We then present more realistic simulations of Sgr A* accretion and frid that the slow winds shock and rapidly cool, forming cold gas clumps and flaments that coexist with the hot X-ray emitting gas. The accretion rate in this case is highly variable on time-scales of tens to hundreds of years. Such variability can in principle lead to a strongly non-linear response through accretion fbw physics not resolved here, making Sgr A* an important energy source for the Galactic centre

  8. Magnetogasdynamic spherical shock wave in a non-ideal gas under gravitational field with conductive and radiative heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, G.; Vishwakarma, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    Similarity solutions are obtained for the flow behind a spherical shock wave in a non-ideal gas under gravitational field with conductive and radiative heat fluxes, in the presence of a spatially decreasing azimuthal magnetic field. The shock wave is driven by a piston moving with time according to power law. The radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model and the heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law for heat conduction. Similarity solutions exist only when the surrounding medium is of constant density. The gas is assumed to have infinite electrical conductivity and to obey a simplified van der Waals equation of state. It is shown that an increase of the gravitational parameter or the Alfven-Mach number or the parameter of the non-idealness of the gas decreases the compressibility of the gas in the flow-field behind the shock, and hence there is a decrease in the shock strength. The pressure and density vanish at the inner surface (piston) and hence a vacuum is formed at the center of symmetry. The shock waves in conducting non-ideal gas under gravitational field with conductive and radiative heat fluxes can be important for description of shocks in supernova explosions, in the study of a flare produced shock in the solar wind, central part of star burst galaxies, nuclear explosion etc. The solutions obtained can be used to interpret measurements carried out by space craft in the solar wind and in neighborhood of the Earth's magnetosphere.

  9. General relativistic hydrodynamics with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) and modeling of accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Orhan

    We present a general procedure to solve the General Relativistic Hydrodynamical (GRH) equations with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) and model of an accretion disk around a black hole. To do this, the GRH equations are written in a conservative form to exploit their hyperbolic character. The numerical solutions of the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations is done by High Resolution Shock Capturing schemes (HRSC), specifically designed to solve non-linear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These schemes depend on the characteristic information of the system. We use Marquina fluxes with MUSCL left and right states to solve GRH equations. First, we carry out different test problems with uniform and AMR grids on the special relativistic hydrodynamics equations to verify the second order convergence of the code in 1D, 2 D and 3D. Second, we solve the GRH equations and use the general relativistic test problems to compare the numerical solutions with analytic ones. In order to this, we couple the flux part of general relativistic hydrodynamic equation with a source part using Strang splitting. The coupling of the GRH equations is carried out in a treatment which gives second order accurate solutions in space and time. The test problems examined include shock tubes, geodesic flows, and circular motion of particle around the black hole. Finally, we apply this code to the accretion disk problems around the black hole using the Schwarzschild metric at the background of the computational domain. We find spiral shocks on the accretion disk. They are observationally expected results. We also examine the star-disk interaction near a massive black hole. We find that when stars are grounded down or a hole is punched on the accretion disk, they create shock waves which destroy the accretion disk.

  10. Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M.U.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes. (orig.)

  11. Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M.U. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes. (orig.)

  12. Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M. Umair

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes.

  13. Study of magnetized accretion flow with cooling processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... 2University of Delhi, South Campus, Delhi 110 021, India. ∗ ... Abstract. We have studied shock in magnetized accretion flow/funnel flow in case of neutron star with .... where Ap is the area of cross-section of the flux tube.

  14. Applying a physical continuum model to describe the broadband X-ray spectra of accreting pulsars at high luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottschmidt, Katja; Hemphill, Paul B.; Wolff, Michael T.; Cheatham, Diana M.; Iwakiri, Wataru; Gottlieb, Amy M.; Falkner, Sebastian; Ballhausen, Ralf; Fuerst, Felix; Kuehnel, Matthias; Ferrigno, Carlo; Becker, Peter A.; Wood, Kent S.; Wilms, Joern

    2018-01-01

    A new window for better understanding the accretion onto strongly magnetized neutron stars in X-ray binaries is opening. In these systems the accreted material follows the magnetic field lines as it approaches the neutron star, forming accretion columns above the magnetic poles. The plasma falls toward the neutron star surface at near-relativistic speeds, losing energy by emitting X-rays. The X-ray spectral continua are commonly described using phenomenological models, i.e., power laws with different types of curved cut-offs at higher energies. Here we consider high luminosity pulsars. In these systems the mass transfer rate is high enough that the accreting plasma is thought to be decelerated in a radiation-dominated radiative shock in the accretion columns. While the theory of the emission from such shocks had already been developed by 2007, a model for direct comparison with X-ray continuum spectra in xspec or isis has only recently become available. Characteristic parameters of this model are the accretion column radius and the plasma temperature, among others. Here we analyze the broadband X-ray spectra of the accreting pulsars Centaurus X-3 and 4U 1626-67 obtained with NuSTAR. We present results from traditional empirical modeling as well as successfully apply the radiation-dominated radiative shock model. We also take the opportunity to compare to similar recent analyses of both sources using these and other observations.

  15. Self-similar solutions for implosion and reflection of coalesced shocks in a plasma : spherical and cylindrical geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavda, L.K.

    1978-01-01

    Approximate analytic solutions to the self-similar equations of gas dynamics for a plasma, treated as an ideal gas with specific heat ratio γ=5/3 are obtained for the implosion and subsequent reflection of various types of shock sequences in spherical and cylindrical geometries. This is based on the lowest-order polynomial approximation in the reduced fluid velocity, for a suitable nonlinear function of the sound velocity and the fluid velocity. However, the method developed here is powerful enough to be extended analytically to higher order polynomial approximations, to obtain successive approximations to the exact self-similar solutions. Also obtained, for the first time, are exact asymptotic solutions, in analytic form, for the reflected shocks. Criteria are given that may enable one to make a choice between the two geometries for maximising compression or temperature of the gas. These solutions should be useful in the study of inertial confinement of a plasma. (author)

  16. Spiral shocks on a Roche lobe overflow in a semi-detached binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, K.; Matsuda, T.; Hachisu, I.

    1986-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations of a Roche lobe overflow in a semi-detached binary system with a mass ratio of unity are carried out. The region of the computation covers both a mass-losing star filling its critical Roche lobe and a mass-accreting compact star. Gas ejected from the mass-losing star with specified energy flows through the L1 point to form an elephant trunk and an accretion ring. It is found that spiral-shaped shocks are formed on the accretion ring. It is suggested that the gas in the accretion ring loses angular momentum at the shocks and spirals in towards the compact star even without viscosity. (author)

  17. Multiwavelength diagnostics of accretion in an X-ray selected sample of CTTSs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, R. L.; Argiroffi, C.; Sacco, G. G.; Orlando, S.; Peres, G.; Reale, F.; Maggio, A.

    2011-02-01

    Context. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy has revealed soft X-rays from high density plasma in classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs), probably arising from the accretion shock region. However, the mass accretion rates derived from the X-ray observations are consistently lower than those derived from UV/optical/NIR studies. Aims: We aim to test the hypothesis that the high density soft X-ray emission originates from accretion by analysing, in a homogeneous manner, optical accretion indicators for an X-ray selected sample of CTTSs. Methods: We analyse optical spectra of the X-ray selected sample of CTTSs and calculate the accretion rates based on measuring the Hα, Hβ, Hγ, He ii 4686 Å, He i 5016 Å, He i 5876 Å, O i 6300 Å, and He i 6678 Å equivalent widths. In addition, we also calculate the accretion rates based on the full width at 10% maximum of the Hα line. The different optical tracers of accretion are compared and discussed. The derived accretion rates are then compared to the accretion rates derived from the X-ray spectroscopy. Results: We find that, for each CTTS in our sample, the different optical tracers predict mass-accretion rates that agree within the errors, albeit with a spread of ≈ 1 order of magnitude. Typically, mass-accretion rates derived from Hα and He i 5876 Å are larger than those derived from Hβ, Hγ, and O i. In addition, the Hα full width at 10%, whilst a good indicator of accretion, may not accurately measure the mass-accretion rate. When the optical mass-accretion rates are compared to the X-ray derived mass-accretion rates, we find that: a) the latter are always lower (but by varying amounts); b) the latter range within a factor of ≈ 2 around 2 × 10-10 M⊙ yr-1, despite the former spanning a range of ≈ 3 orders of magnitude. We suggest that the systematic underestimate of the X-ray derived mass-accretion rates could depend on the density distribution inside the accretion streams, where the densest part of the stream is

  18. NEUTRINO-DRIVEN TURBULENT CONVECTION AND STANDING ACCRETION SHOCK INSTABILITY IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Ott, Christian D.; Radice, David; Roberts, Luke F.; Haas, Roland; Reisswig, Christian; Mösta, Philipp; Klion, Hannah; Schnetter, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a series of numerical experiments into the nature of three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics in the postbounce stalled-shock phase of core-collapse supernovae using 3D general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of a 27 M ⊙ progenitor star with a neutrino leakage/heating scheme. We vary the strength of neutrino heating and find three cases of 3D dynamics: (1) neutrino-driven convection, (2) initially neutrino-driven convection and subsequent development of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI), and (3) SASI-dominated evolution. This confirms previous 3D results of Hanke et al. and Couch and Connor. We carry out simulations with resolutions differing by up to a factor of ∼4 and demonstrate that low resolution is artificially favorable for explosion in the 3D convection-dominated case since it decreases the efficiency of energy transport to small scales. Low resolution results in higher radial convective fluxes of energy and enthalpy, more fully buoyant mass, and stronger neutrino heating. In the SASI-dominated case, lower resolution damps SASI oscillations. In the convection-dominated case, a quasi-stationary angular kinetic energy spectrum E(ℓ) develops in the heating layer. Like other 3D studies, we find E(ℓ) ∝ℓ −1 in the “inertial range,” while theory and local simulations argue for E(ℓ) ∝ ℓ −5/3 . We argue that current 3D simulations do not resolve the inertial range of turbulence and are affected by numerical viscosity up to the energy-containing scale, creating a “bottleneck” that prevents an efficient turbulent cascade

  19. Clumpy wind accretion in Supergiant X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mellah, I.; Sundqvist, J. O.; Keppens, R.

    2017-12-01

    Supergiant X-ray binaries (\\sgx) contain a neutron star (NS) orbiting a Supergiant O/B star. The fraction of the dense and fast line-driven wind from the stellar companion which is accreted by the NS is responsible for most of the X-ray emission from those system. Classic \\sgx display photometric variability of their hard X-ray emission, typically from a few 10^{35} to a few 10^{37}erg\\cdots^{-1}. Inhomogeneities (\\aka clumps) in the wind from the star are expected to play a role in this time variability. We run 3D hydrodynamical (HD) finite volume simulations to follow the accretion of the inhomogeneous stellar wind by the NS over almost 3 orders of magnitude. To model the unperturbed wind far upstream the NS, we use recent simulations which managed to resolve its micro-structure. We observe the formation of a Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton (BHL) like bow shock around the accretor and follow the clumps as they cross it, down to the NS magnetosphere. Compared to previous estimations discarding the HD effects, we measure lower time variability due to both the damping effect of the shock and the necessity to evacuate angular momentum to enable accretion. We also compute the associated time-variable column density and compare it to recent observations in Vela X-1.

  20. Disk accretion onto magnetic T Tauri stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenigl, A.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamical and radiative consequences of disk accretion onto magnetic T Tauri stars (TTS) are examined using the Ghosh and Lamb model. It is shown that a prolonged disk accretion phase is compatible with the low rotation rates measured in these stars if they possess a kilogauss strength field that disrupts the disk at a distance of a few stellar radii from the center. It is estimated that a steady state in which the net torque exerted on the star is zero can be attained on a time scale that is shorter than the age of the youngest visible TTS. Although the disk does not develop an ordinary shear boundary layer in this case, one can account for the observed UV excess and Balmer emission in terms of the shocks that form at the bottom of the high-latitude magnetic accretion columns on the stellar surface. This picture also provides a natural explanation of some of the puzzling variability properties of stars like DF Tau and RY Lup. YY Ori stars are interpreted as magnetic TTS in which the observer's line of sight is roughly parallel to an accretion column. 37 refs

  1. Nonlinear mechanics of surface growth for cylindrical and spherical elastic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozio, Fabio; Yavari, Arash

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we formulate the initial-boundary value problems of accreting cylindrical and spherical nonlinear elastic solids in a geometric framework. It is assumed that the body grows as a result of addition of new (stress-free or pre-stressed) material on part of its boundary. We construct Riemannian material manifolds for a growing body with metrics explicitly depending on the history of applied external loads and deformation during accretion and the growth velocity. We numerically solve the governing equilibrium equations in the case of neo-Hookean solids and compare the accretion and residual stresses with those calculated using the linear mechanics of surface growth.

  2. Shock dynamics of weak imploding cylindrical and spherical shock waves with non-ideal gas effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, R K

    2013-01-01

    The author (Anand 2012 Astrophys. Space Sci. 342 377–88) recently obtained jump relations across a shock front in non-ideal gas flow taking into consideration the equation of state for a non-ideal gas as given by Landau and Lifshitz. In this paper an analytical solution for one-dimensional adiabatic flow behind weak converging shock waves propagating in a non-ideal gas is obtained by using Whitham's (1974 Linear and Nonlinear Waves (New York: Wiley)) geometrical shock dynamics approach. The effects of an increase in (i) the propagation distance from the centre of convergence, (ii) the non-idealness parameter and (iii) the adiabatic index of the gas, on the shock velocity, pressure, density, particle velocity, adiabatic compressibility and the change in entropy across the shock front, are analyzed. The results provided a clear picture of whether and how the non-idealness parameter and the adiabatic index affect the flow field behind the imploding shock front. (paper)

  3. On the illumination of neutron star accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, D. R.

    2018-03-01

    The illumination of the accretion disc in a neutron star X-ray binary by X-rays emitted from (or close to) the neutron star surface is explored through general relativistic ray tracing simulations. The applicability of the canonical suite of relativistically broadened emission line models (developed for black holes) to discs around neutron stars is evaluated. These models were found to describe well emission lines from neutron star accretion discs unless the neutron star radius is larger than the innermost stable orbit of the accretion disc at 6 rg or the disc is viewed at high inclination, above 60° where shadowing of the back side of the disc becomes important. Theoretical emissivity profiles were computed for accretion discs illuminated by hotspots on the neutron star surfaces, bands of emission and emission by the entirety of the hot, spherical star surface and in all cases, the emissivity profile of the accretion disc was found to be well represented by a single power law falling off slightly steeper than r-3. Steepening of the emissivity index was found where the emission is close to the disc plane and the disc can appear truncated when illuminated by a hotspot at high latitude. The emissivity profile of the accretion disc in Serpens X-1 was measured and found to be consistent with a single unbroken power law with index q=3.5_{-0.4}^{+0.3}, suggestive of illumination by the boundary layer between the disc and neutron star surface.

  4. NEUTRINO-DRIVEN TURBULENT CONVECTION AND STANDING ACCRETION SHOCK INSTABILITY IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Ott, Christian D.; Radice, David; Roberts, Luke F.; Haas, Roland; Reisswig, Christian; Mösta, Philipp; Klion, Hannah [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schnetter, Erik, E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.edu [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-20

    We conduct a series of numerical experiments into the nature of three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics in the postbounce stalled-shock phase of core-collapse supernovae using 3D general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of a 27 M{sub ⊙} progenitor star with a neutrino leakage/heating scheme. We vary the strength of neutrino heating and find three cases of 3D dynamics: (1) neutrino-driven convection, (2) initially neutrino-driven convection and subsequent development of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI), and (3) SASI-dominated evolution. This confirms previous 3D results of Hanke et al. and Couch and Connor. We carry out simulations with resolutions differing by up to a factor of ∼4 and demonstrate that low resolution is artificially favorable for explosion in the 3D convection-dominated case since it decreases the efficiency of energy transport to small scales. Low resolution results in higher radial convective fluxes of energy and enthalpy, more fully buoyant mass, and stronger neutrino heating. In the SASI-dominated case, lower resolution damps SASI oscillations. In the convection-dominated case, a quasi-stationary angular kinetic energy spectrum E(ℓ) develops in the heating layer. Like other 3D studies, we find E(ℓ) ∝ℓ{sup −1} in the “inertial range,” while theory and local simulations argue for E(ℓ) ∝ ℓ{sup −5/3}. We argue that current 3D simulations do not resolve the inertial range of turbulence and are affected by numerical viscosity up to the energy-containing scale, creating a “bottleneck” that prevents an efficient turbulent cascade.

  5. Cosmic Rays and Non-thermal Emission Induced by Accretion of Cool Gas onto the Galactic Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Susumu; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Arakawa, Masanori; Renaud, Matthieu; Wada, Keiichi

    2017-11-01

    On both observational and theoretical grounds, the disk of our Galaxy should be accreting cool gas with temperature ≲ {10}5 K via the halo at a rate ˜1 {{M}⊙ {yr}}-1. At least some of this accretion is mediated by high-velocity clouds (HVCs), observed to be traveling in the halo with velocities of a few 100 km s-1 and occasionally impacting the disk at such velocities, especially in the outer regions of the Galaxy. We address the possibility of particle acceleration in shocks triggered by such HVC accretion events, and the detectability of consequent non-thermal emission in the radio to gamma-ray bands and high-energy neutrinos. For plausible shock velocities ˜ 300 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and magnetic field strengths ˜ 0.3{--}10 μ {{G}}, electrons and protons may be accelerated up to ˜1-10 TeV and ˜ 30{--}{10}3 TeV, respectively, in sufficiently strong adiabatic shocks during their lifetime of ˜ {10}6 {{yr}}. The resultant pion decay and inverse Compton gamma-rays may be the origin of some unidentified Galactic GeV-TeV sources, particularly the “dark” source HESS J1503-582 that is spatially coincident with the anomalous H I structure known as “forbidden-velocity wings.” Correlation of their locations with star-forming regions may be weak, absent, or even opposite. Non-thermal radio and X-ray emission from primary and/or secondary electrons may be detectable with deeper observations. The contribution of HVC accretion to Galactic cosmic rays is subdominant, but could be non-negligible in the outer Galaxy. As the thermal emission induced by HVC accretion is likely difficult to detect, observations of such phenomena may offer a unique perspective on probing gas accretion onto the Milky Way and other galaxies.

  6. LOW-METALLICITY PROTOSTARS AND THE MAXIMUM STELLAR MASS RESULTING FROM RADIATIVE FEEDBACK: SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC CALCULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    The final mass of a newborn star is set at the epoch when the mass accretion onto the star is terminated. We study the evolution of accreting protostars and the limits of accretion in low-metallicity environments under spherical symmetry. Accretion rates onto protostars are estimated via the temperature evolution of prestellar cores with different metallicities. The derived rates increase with decreasing metallicity, from M-dot≅10 -6 M odot yr -1 at Z = Z sun to 10 -3 M sun yr -1 at Z = 0. With the derived accretion rates, the protostellar evolution is numerically calculated. We find that, at lower metallicity, the protostar has a larger radius and reaches the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) at higher stellar mass. Using this protostellar evolution, we evaluate the upper stellar mass limit where the mass accretion is hindered by radiative feedback. We consider the effects of radiation pressure exerted on the accreting envelope, and expansion of an H II region. The mass accretion is finally terminated by radiation pressure on dust grains in the envelope for Z ∼> 10 -3 Z sun and by the expanding H II region for lower metallicity. The mass limit from these effects increases with decreasing metallicity from M * ≅ 10 M sun at Z = Z sun to ≅300 M sun at Z = 10 -6 Z sun . The termination of accretion occurs after the central star arrives at the ZAMS at all metallicities, which allows us to neglect protostellar evolution effects in discussing the upper mass limit by stellar feedback. The fragmentation induced by line cooling in low-metallicity clouds yields prestellar cores with masses large enough that the final stellar mass is set by the feedback effects. Although relaxing the assumption of spherical symmetry will alter feedback effects, our results will be a benchmark for more realistic evolution to be explored in future studies.

  7. Hyper-Eddington accretion in GRB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiuk, A.; Czerny, B.; Perna, R.; Di Matteo, T.

    2005-01-01

    Popular models of the GRB origin associate this event with a cosmic explosion, birth of a stellar mass black ho le and jet ejection. Due to the shock collisions that happen in the jet, the gamma rays are produced and we detect a burst of duration up to several tens of seconds. This burst duration is determined by the lifetime of the central engine, which may be different in various scenarios. Characteristically, the observed bursts have a bimodal distribution and constitute the two classes: short (t < 2 s) and long bursts. Theoretical models invoke the mergers of two neutron stars or a neutron star with a black hole, or, on the other hand, a massive star explosion (collapsar). In any of these models we have a phase of disc accretion onto a newly born black hole: the di se is formed from the disrupted neutron star or fed by the material fallback from the ejected collapsar envelope. The disc is extremely hot and dense, and the accretion rate is orders of magnitude higher than the Eddington rate. In such physical conditions the main cooling mechanism is neutrino emission, and one of possible ways of energy extraction from the accretion disc is the neutrino-antineutrino annihilation

  8. An approximate solution for spherical and cylindrical piston problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the growth and decay of shock strengths for spherical and cylindrical pistons starting from a non-zero ... conditions at an appropriate level, a new theory of shock dynamics (NTSD) has been proposed (Ravindran and ..... sive, its packing density etc. which are not included in our mathematical formulation, it may explain the ...

  9. Radio emission from Sgr A*: pulsar transits through the accretion disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, I. M.; Petropoulou, M.; Mimica, P.; Giannios, D.

    2017-06-01

    Radiatively inefficient accretion flow models have been shown to accurately account for the spectrum and luminosity observed from Sgr A* in the X-ray regime down to mm wavelengths. However, observations at a few GHz cannot be explained by thermal electrons alone but require the presence of an additional non-thermal particle population. Here, we propose a model for the origin of such a population in the accretion flow via means of a pulsar orbiting the supermassive black hole in our Galaxy. Interactions between the relativistic pulsar wind with the disc lead to the formation of a bow shock in the wind. During the pulsar's transit through the accretion disc, relativistic pairs, accelerated at the shock front, are injected into the disc. The radio-emitting particles are long lived and remain within the disc long after the pulsar's transit. Periodic pulsar transits through the disc result in regular injection episodes of non-thermal particles. We show that for a pulsar with spin-down luminosity Lsd ˜ 3 × 1035 erg s-1 and a wind Lorentz factor of γw ˜ 104 a quasi-steady synchrotron emission is established with luminosities in the 1-10 GHz range comparable to the observed one.

  10. rHARM: ACCRETION AND EJECTION IN RESISTIVE GR-MHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Qian; Fendt, Christian [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Noble, Scott [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Tulsa, Tulsa (United States); Bugli, Matteo, E-mail: qian@mpia.de, E-mail: fendt@mpia.de [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    Turbulent magnetic diffusivity plays an important role for accretion disks and the launching of disk winds. We have implemented magnetic diffusivity and respective resistivity in the general relativistic MHD code HARM. This paper describes the theoretical background of our implementation, its numerical realization, our numerical tests, and preliminary applications. The test simulations of the new code rHARM are compared to an analytic solution of the diffusion equation and a classical shock tube problem. We have further investigated the evolution of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in tori around black holes (BHs) for a range of magnetic diffusivities. We find an indication for a critical magnetic diffusivity (for our setup) beyond which no MRI develops in the linear regime and for which accretion of torus material to the BH is delayed. Preliminary simulations of magnetically diffusive thin accretion disks around Schwarzschild BHs that are threaded by a large-scale poloidal magnetic field show the launching of disk winds with mass fluxes of about 50% of the accretion rate. The disk magnetic diffusivity allows for efficient disk accretion that replenishes the mass reservoir of the inner disk area and thus allows for long-term simulations of wind launching for more than 5000 time units.

  11. Numerical Simulations of Wind Accretion in Symbiotic Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, M.; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D.

    2009-08-01

    About half of the binary systems are close enough to each other for mass to be exchanged between them at some point in their evolution, yet the accretion mechanism in wind accreting binaries is not well understood. We study the dynamical effects of gravitational focusing by a binary companion on winds from late-type stars. In particular, we investigate the mass transfer and formation of accretion disks around the secondary in detached systems consisting of an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) mass-losing star and an accreting companion. The presence of mass outflows is studied as a function of mass-loss rate, wind temperature, and binary orbital parameters. A two-dimensional hydrodynamical model is used to study the stability of mass transfer in wind accreting symbiotic binary systems. In our simulations we use an adiabatic equation of state and a modified version of the isothermal approximation, where the temperature depends on the distance from the mass losing star and its companion. The code uses a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement method that allows us to have high resolution at the position of the secondary and resolve the formation of bow shocks and accretion disks. We explore the accretion flow between the components and formation of accretion disks for a range of orbital separations and wind parameters. Our results show the formation of stream flow between the stars and accretion disks of various sizes for certain orbital configurations. For a typical slow and massive wind from an AGB star the flow pattern is similar to a Roche lobe overflow with accretion rates of 10% of the mass loss from the primary. Stable disks with exponentially decreasing density profiles and masses of the order 10-4 solar masses are formed when wind acceleration occurs at several stellar radii. The disks are geometrically thin with eccentric streamlines and close to Keplerian velocity profiles. The formation of tidal streams and accretion disks is found to be weakly dependent on

  12. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF WIND ACCRETION IN SYMBIOTIC BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Val-Borro, M.; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D.

    2009-01-01

    About half of the binary systems are close enough to each other for mass to be exchanged between them at some point in their evolution, yet the accretion mechanism in wind accreting binaries is not well understood. We study the dynamical effects of gravitational focusing by a binary companion on winds from late-type stars. In particular, we investigate the mass transfer and formation of accretion disks around the secondary in detached systems consisting of an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) mass-losing star and an accreting companion. The presence of mass outflows is studied as a function of mass-loss rate, wind temperature, and binary orbital parameters. A two-dimensional hydrodynamical model is used to study the stability of mass transfer in wind accreting symbiotic binary systems. In our simulations we use an adiabatic equation of state and a modified version of the isothermal approximation, where the temperature depends on the distance from the mass losing star and its companion. The code uses a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement method that allows us to have high resolution at the position of the secondary and resolve the formation of bow shocks and accretion disks. We explore the accretion flow between the components and formation of accretion disks for a range of orbital separations and wind parameters. Our results show the formation of stream flow between the stars and accretion disks of various sizes for certain orbital configurations. For a typical slow and massive wind from an AGB star the flow pattern is similar to a Roche lobe overflow with accretion rates of 10% of the mass loss from the primary. Stable disks with exponentially decreasing density profiles and masses of the order 10 -4 solar masses are formed when wind acceleration occurs at several stellar radii. The disks are geometrically thin with eccentric streamlines and close to Keplerian velocity profiles. The formation of tidal streams and accretion disks is found to be weakly dependent

  13. Comments on ''Analysis of spherical imploding shocks''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    It is asserted that Fujimoto and Mishkin's article is incorrect in its claim for a pressure extremum at or behind the shock for all values of γ and in its claim for an analytical form for the similarity exponent

  14. Structure and Dynamics of the Accretion Process and Wind in TW Hya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, A. K.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Berlind, P.; Strader, Jay; Smith, Graeme H.

    2014-07-01

    Time-domain spectroscopy of the classical accreting T Tauri star, TW Hya, covering a decade and spanning the far UV to the near-infrared spectral regions can identify the radiation sources, the atmospheric structure produced by accretion, and properties of the stellar wind. On timescales from days to years, substantial changes occur in emission line profiles and line strengths. Our extensive time-domain spectroscopy suggests that the broad near-IR, optical, and far-uv emission lines, centered on the star, originate in a turbulent post-shock region and can undergo scattering by the overlying stellar wind as well as some absorption from infalling material. Stable absorption features appear in Hα, apparently caused by an accreting column silhouetted in the stellar wind. Inflow of material onto the star is revealed by the near-IR He I 10830 Å line, and its free-fall velocity correlates inversely with the strength of the post-shock emission, consistent with a dipole accretion model. However, the predictions of hydrogen line profiles based on accretion stream models are not well-matched by these observations. Evidence of an accelerating warm to hot stellar wind is shown by the near-IR He I line, and emission profiles of C II, C III, C IV, N V, and O VI. The outflow of material changes substantially in both speed and opacity in the yearly sampling of the near-IR He I line over a decade. Terminal outflow velocities that range from 200 km s-1 to almost 400 km s-1 in He I appear to be directly related to the amount of post-shock emission, giving evidence for an accretion-driven stellar wind. Calculations of the emission from realistic post-shock regions are needed. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support

  15. Standing shocks in magnetized dissipative accretion flow around ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BIPLOB SARKAR

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... flow around a black hole admits shock when the flow parameters are tuned for a considerable range. ... not exceed the gas pressure (Pgas) since the magnetic flux will ..... rily characterizes the spectral and temporal behaviour.

  16. HOT HIGH-MASS ACCRETION DISK CANDIDATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuther, H.; Walsh, A. J.; Longmore, S. N.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the physical properties of accretion disks in high-mass star formation, we present a study of a dozen high-mass accretion disk candidates observed at high spatial resolution with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) in the high-excitation (4,4) and (5,5) lines of NH 3 . All of our originally selected sources were detected in both NH 3 transitions, directly associated with CH 3 OH Class II maser emission and implying that high-excitation NH 3 lines are good tracers of the dense gas components in hot-core-type targets. Only the one source that did not satisfy the initial selection criteria remained undetected. From the 11 mapped sources, six show clear signatures of rotation and/or infall motions. These signatures vary from velocity gradients perpendicular to the outflows, to infall signatures in absorption against ultracompact H II regions, to more spherical infall signatures in emission. Although our spatial resolution is ∼1000 AU, we do not find clear Keplerian signatures in any of the sources. Furthermore, we also do not find flattened structures. In contrast to this, in several of the sources with rotational signatures, the spatial structure is approximately spherical with sizes exceeding 10 4 AU, showing considerable clumpy sub-structure at even smaller scales. This implies that on average typical Keplerian accretion disks-if they exist as expected-should be confined to regions usually smaller than 1000 AU. It is likely that these disks are fed by the larger-scale rotating envelope structure we observe here. Furthermore, we do detect 1.25 cm continuum emission in most fields of view. While in some cases weak cm continuum emission is associated with our targets, more typically larger-scale H II regions are seen offset more than 10'' from our sources. While these H II regions are unlikely to be directly related to the target regions, this spatial association nevertheless additionally stresses that high-mass star formation rarely

  17. The evolution of accretion in young stellar objects: Strong accretors at 3-10 Myr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingleby, Laura; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Miller, Jon; McClure, Melissa [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hernández, Jesus; Briceno, Cesar [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía (CIDA), Mérida, 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Espaillat, Catherine, E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu, E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu, E-mail: cce@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    While the rate of accretion onto T Tauri stars is predicted to decline with age, objects with strong accretion have been detected at ages of up to 10 Myr. We analyze a sample of these old accretors, identified by having a significant U band excess and infrared emission from a circumstellar disk. Objects were selected from the ∼3 Myr σ Ori, 4-6 Myr Orion OB1b, and 7-10 Myr Orion OB1a star forming associations. We use high-resolution spectra from the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle to estimate the veiling of absorption lines and calculate extinction for our T Tauri sample. We also use observations obtained with the Magellan Echellette and, in a few cases, the SWIFT Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope to estimate the excess produced in the accretion shock, which is then fit with accretion shock models to estimate the accretion rate. We find that even objects as old as 10 Myr may have high accretion rates, up to ∼10{sup –8} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. These objects cannot be explained by viscous evolution models, which would deplete the disk in shorter timescales unless the initial disk mass is very high, a situation that is unstable. We show that the infrared spectral energy distribution of one object, CVSO 206, does not reveal evidence of significant dust evolution, which would be expected during the 10 Myr lifetime. We compare this object to predictions from photoevaporation and planet formation models and suggest that neither of these processes have had a strong impact on the disk of CVSO 206.

  18. Axisymmetric accretion flows very near black holes and Rosen-collapsed objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeger, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    Motivated by the need for stronger observational leverage on the black hole hypothesis and for a more detailed characterization of axisymmetric accretion flows across the marginally stable circular orbit rsub(ms), a general approach for describing the non-Keplerian accretion in the region rsub(H) 0 , where rsub(H) = radius of the event horizon and r 0 > = rsub(ms) is developed. The procedure possesses many advantages, including easily imposed consistency with the Keplerian for r > rsub(o), the avoidance of ad hoc boundary conditions at rsub(ms) and/or at rsub(H) and its application also to accretion in Rosen's bimetric theory, whose spherically symmetric solution has the same qualitative orbital topography as that of general relativity. It becomes apparent, furthermore, that the particular viscosity law chosen in this procedure will have a crucial bearing on the flow in the region rsub(ms) 0 . (author)

  19. Bright emissive core-shell spherical microparticles for shock compression spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, James M.; Banishev, Alexandr A.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the response to shock compression of rhodamine 6G (R6G) dye encapsulated in 1.25 μm diameter silica microspheres. When R6G was encapsulated in microspheres, the emission intensity under steady-state irradiation (the brightness) was 3.4 times greater than the same dye in solution (the free dye). At least part of the brightness improvement was caused by an enhanced radiative rate. When the microspheres were embedded in poly-methylmethacrylate subjected to planar shocks in the 3–8.4 GPa range by laser-driven flyer plates, the dye emission redshifted and lost intensity. The dye emission redshift represents an instantaneous response to changes in the local density. In free dye samples, the shock-induced intensity loss had considerably slower rise times and fall times than the redshift. When dye was encapsulated in microspheres, the time dependence of the intensity loss matched the redshift almost exactly over a range of shock pressures and durations. The faster response to shock of dye in silica microspheres was explained by dye photophysics. The microsphere environment decreased the singlet state lifetime, which decreased the rise time, and it also decreased the triplet state lifetime, which decreased the fall time. Since it is much easier and more convenient to make measurements of intensity rather than spectral shift, these microspheres represent a substantial improvement in optical sensors to monitor shock compression of microstructured materials.

  20. Relativistic sonic geometry for isothermal accretion in the Kerr metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif Shaikh, Md

    2018-03-01

    We linearly perturb advective isothermal transonic accretion onto rotating astrophysical black holes to study the emergence of the relativistic acoustic spacetime and to investigate how the salient features of this spacetime is influenced by the spin angular momentum of the black hole. We have perturbed three different quantities—the velocity potential, the mass accretion rate and the relativistic Bernoulli’s constant to show that the acoustic metric obtained for these three cases are the same up to a conformal factor. By constructing the required causal structures, it has been demonstrated that the acoustic black holes are formed at the transonic points of the flow and the acoustic white holes are formed at the shock location. The corresponding acoustic surface gravity has been computed in terms of the relevant accretion variables and the background metric elements. We have performed a linear stability analysis of the background stationary flow.

  1. Motion of shocks through interplanetary streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.F.; Scudder, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    A model for the motion of flare-generated shocks through interplanetary streams is presented, illustrating the effects of a stream-shock interaction on the shock strength and geometry. It is a gas dynamic calculation based on Whitham's method and on an empirical approximation for the relevant characteristics of streams. The results show that the Mach number of a shock can decrease appreciably to near unity in the interaction region ahead of streams and that the interaction of a spherically symmetric shock with a spiral-shaped corotating stream can cause significant distortions of the initial shock front geometry. The geometry of the February 15--16, 1967, shock discussed by Lepping and Chao (1972) is qualitatively explained by this model

  2. Chaotic cold accretion on to black holes in rotating atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspari, M.; Brighenti, F.; Temi, P.

    2015-07-01

    The fueling of black holes is one key problem in the evolution of baryons in the universe. Chaotic cold accretion (CCA) profoundly differs from classic accretion models, as Bondi and thin disc theories. Using 3D high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, we now probe the impact of rotation on the hot and cold accretion flow in a typical massive galaxy. In the hot mode, with or without turbulence, the pressure-dominated flow forms a geometrically thick rotational barrier, suppressing the black hole accretion rate to ~1/3 of the spherical case value. When radiative cooling is dominant, the gas loses pressure support and quickly circularizes in a cold thin disk; the accretion rate is decoupled from the cooling rate, although it is higher than that of the hot mode. In the more common state of a turbulent and heated atmosphere, CCA drives the dynamics if the gas velocity dispersion exceeds the rotational velocity, i.e., turbulent Taylor number Tat 1), the broadening of the distribution and the efficiency of collisions diminish, damping the accretion rate ∝ Tat-1, until the cold disk drives the dynamics. This is exacerbated by the increased difficulty to grow TI in a rotating halo. The simulated sub-Eddington accretion rates cover the range inferred from AGN cavity observations. CCA predicts inner flat X-ray temperature and r-1 density profiles, as recently discovered in M 87 and NGC 3115. The synthetic Hα images reproduce the main features of cold gas observations in massive ellipticals, as the line fluxes and the filaments versus disk morphology. Such dichotomy is key for the long-term AGN feedback cycle. As gas cools, filamentary CCA develops and boosts AGN heating; the cold mode is thus reduced and the rotating disk remains the sole cold structure. Its consumption leaves the atmosphere in hot mode with suppressed accretion and feedback, reloading the cycle.

  3. Shock Revival in Core-collapse Supernovae: A Phase-diagram Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Daniel; Balberg, Shmuel; Keshet, Uri

    2015-12-01

    We examine the conditions for the revival of the stalled accretion shock in core-collapse supernovae, in the context of the neutrino heating mechanism. We combine one-dimensional simulations of the shock revival process with a derivation of a quasi-stationary approximation, which is both accurate and efficient in predicting the flow. In particular, this approach is used to explore how the evolution of the accretion shock depends on the shock radius, RS, and velocity, VS (in addition to other global properties of the system). We do so through a phase-space analysis of the shock acceleration, aS, in the {R}S{--}{V}S plane, shown to provide quantitative insights into the initiation and nature of runaway expansion. In the particular case of an initially stationary ({V}S=0, {a}S=0) profile, the prospects for an explosion can be assessed by the initial signs of the partial derivatives of the shock acceleration, in analogy to a linear damped/anti-damped oscillator. If \\partial {a}S/\\partial {R}S\\lt 0 and \\partial {a}S/\\partial {V}S\\gt 0, runaway will likely occur after several oscillations, while if \\partial {a}S/\\partial {R}S\\gt 0, runaway expansion will commence in a non-oscillatory fashion. These two modes of runaway correspond to low and high mass accretion rates, respectively. We also use the quasi-stationary approximation to assess the advection-to-heating timescale ratio in the gain region, often used as an explosion proxy. Indeed, this ratio does tend to ∼1 in conjunction with runaway conditions, but neither this unit value nor the specific choice of the gain region as a point of reference appear to be unique in this regard.

  4. Binary system containing the pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 and ultra-violet and x-radiation from accreting magnetic white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, A.R.

    1978-01-01

    Part I of the thesis deals with the binary system containing the pulsar PSR 1913 + 16. The system has been touted as a laboratory for testing relativistic theories of gravity, and is also a challenge for theories of stellar evolution. However, proposed uses of the system rely on assumptions about the nature of the pulsar's unobserved companion. Ways of determining the nature of the companion from observation of the pulsar are discussed. Geometrical constraints on the size of the pulsar's orbit and the observed slow rate of the orbit's precession require that the companion be a black hole, a neutron star, a white dwarf or a helium main-sequence star. Observable second-order relativistic effects may or may not further restrict the list of candidates. The discussion summarizes Masters and Roberts, 1975 Ap.J. (Letters), 195, L107, and Roberts, Masters and Arnett, 1976, Ap. J., 203, 196. Part II of the thesis treats ultra-violet and X-radiation from accreting magnetic white dwarfs. Matter from a companion star falling onto a white dwarf is shock-heated near the stellar surface and radiatively cooled. The post-shock region is approximated by a uniform, geometrically thin slab and determine the physical conditions behind the shock and the emitted spectrum for a range of stellar masses, magnetic fields and accretion rates. At low magnetic fields and high accretion rates, bremsstrahlung is the dominant cooling mechanism and the post-shock material is a single fluid (the electrons and ions have a common temperature). As the magnetic field increases or the accretion rate decreases, cyclotron emission becomes more important than bremsstrahlung

  5. Two-fluid dusty shocks: simple benchmarking problems and applications to protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Andrew; Wardle, Mark

    2018-05-01

    The key role that dust plays in the interstellar medium has motivated the development of numerical codes designed to study the coupled evolution of dust and gas in systems such as turbulent molecular clouds and protoplanetary discs. Drift between dust and gas has proven to be important as well as numerically challenging. We provide simple benchmarking problems for dusty gas codes by numerically solving the two-fluid dust-gas equations for steady, plane-parallel shock waves. The two distinct shock solutions to these equations allow a numerical code to test different forms of drag between the two fluids, the strength of that drag and the dust to gas ratio. We also provide an astrophysical application of J-type dust-gas shocks to studying the structure of accretion shocks on to protoplanetary discs. We find that two-fluid effects are most important for grains larger than 1 μm, and that the peak dust temperature within an accretion shock provides a signature of the dust-to-gas ratio of the infalling material.

  6. Magnetized SASI: its mechanism and possible connection to some QPOs in XRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhang, Prasun; Sharma, Prateek; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2018-05-01

    The presence of a surface at the inner boundary, such as in a neutron star or a white dwarf, allows the existence of a standing shock in steady spherical accretion. The standing shock can become unstable in 2D or 3D; this is called the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). Two mechanisms - advective-acoustic and purely acoustic - have been proposed to explain SASI. Using axisymmetric hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we find that the advective-acoustic mechanism better matches the observed oscillation time-scales in our simulations. The global shock oscillations present in the accretion flow can explain many observed high frequency (≳100 Hz) quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in X-ray binaries. The presence of a moderately strong magnetic field adds more features to the shock oscillation pattern, giving rise to low frequency modulation in the computed light curve. This low frequency modulation can be responsible for ˜100 Hz QPOs (known as hHz QPOs). We propose that the appearance of hHz QPO determines the separation of twin peak QPOs of higher frequencies.

  7. Unsteady Plasma Ejections from Hollow Accretion Columns of Galactic Neutron Stars as a Trigger for Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    1995-09-01

    We propose a model of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) based on close Galactic neutron stars with accretion disks. We outline a simple mechanism of unsteady plasma ejections during episodic accretion events. The relative kinetic energy of ejected blobs can be converted into gamma-rays by internal shocks. The beaming of gamma-ray emission can be responsible for the observed isotropic angular distribution of GRBs.

  8. Species separation and kinetic effects in collisional plasma shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellei, C., E-mail: bellei1@llnl.gov; Wilks, S. C.; Amendt, P. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Rinderknecht, H.; Zylstra, A.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The properties of collisional shock waves propagating in uniform plasmas are studied with ion-kinetic calculations, in both slab and spherical geometry and for the case of one and two ion species. Despite the presence of an electric field at the shock front—and in contrast to the case where an interface is initially present [C. Bellei et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 044702 (2013)]—essentially no ion reflection at the shock front is observed due to collisions, with a probability of reflection ≲10{sup −4} for the cases presented. A kinetic two-ion-species spherical convergent shock is studied in detail and compared against an average-species calculation, confirming effects of species separation and differential heating of the ion species at the shock front. The effect of different ion temperatures on the DT and D{sup 3}He fusion reactivity is discussed in the fluid limit and is estimated to be moderately important.

  9. POPULATION III GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND BREAKOUT CRITERIA FOR ACCRETION-POWERED JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagakura, Hiroki; Suwa, Yudai [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ioka, Kunihito, E-mail: hiroki@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [KEK Theory Center, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the propagation of accretion-powered jets in various types of massive stars such as Wolf-Rayet stars, light Population III (Pop III) stars, and massive Pop III stars, all of which are the progenitor candidates of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We perform two-dimensional axisymmetric simulations of relativistic hydrodynamics, taking into account both the envelope collapse and the jet propagation (i.e., the negative feedback of the jet on the accretion). Based on our hydrodynamic simulations, we show for the first time that the accretion-powered jet can potentially break out relativistically from the outer layers of Pop III progenitors. In our simulations, the accretion rate is estimated by the mass flux going through the inner boundary, and the jet is injected with a fixed accretion-to-jet conversion efficiency {eta}. By varying the efficiency {eta} and opening angle {theta}{sub op} for more than 40 models, we find that the jet can make a relativistic breakout from all types of progenitors for GRBs if a simple condition {eta} {approx}> 10{sup -4}({theta}{sub op}/8 Degree-Sign ){sup 2} is satisfied, which is consistent with analytical estimates. Otherwise no explosion or some failed spherical explosions occur.

  10. FeO and H-2O and the homogeneous accretion of the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M. A.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Shock devolatilization recovery data for brunite (Mg(OH)2) shocked to 13 and 23 GPa are presented. These data combined with previous data for serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) are used to constrain the minimum size terrestrial planet for which planetesimal infall will result in an impact generated water atmosphere. Assuming, in hydrous phyllosilicates, model calculations simulating the interaction of metallic iron with impact released free water on the surface of the accreting Earth were carried out. It is assumed that the reaction of water with iron in the presence of enstatite is the prime source of the terrestrial FeO component of silicates and oxides. Lower and upper bounds on the terrestrial FeO budget are based on mantle FeO content and possible incorporation of FeO in the outer core. We demonstrate that the iron water reaction would result in the absence of atmospheric/hydrospheric water, if homogeneous accretion is assumed.

  11. FeO and H2O and the homogeneous accretion of the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M. A.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Shock devolatilization recovery data for brunite (Mg(OH)2) shocked to 13 and 23 GPa are presented. These data combined with previous data for serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) are used to constrain the minimum size terrestrial planet for which planetesimal infall will result in an impact generated water atmosphere. Assuming, in hydrous phyllosilicates, model calculations simulating the interaction of metallic iron with impact released free water on the surface of the accreting earth were carried out. It is assumed that the reaction of water with iron in the presence of enstatite is the prime source of the terrestrial FeO component of silicates and oxides. Lower and upper bounds on the terrestrial FeO budget are based on mantle FeO content and possible incorporation of FeO in the outer core. We demonstrate that the iron water reaction would resuit in the absence of atmospheric/hydrospheric water, if homogeneous accretion is assumed.

  12. First Octahedral Spherical Hohlraum Energetics Experiment at the SGIII Laser Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wen Yi; Li, Zhichao; Chen, Yao-Hua; Xie, Xufei; Ren, Guoli; Cao, Hui; Li, Shu; Lan, Ke; Liu, Jie; Li, Yongsheng; Li, Sanwei; Guo, Liang; Liu, Yonggang; Yang, Dong; Jiang, Xiaohua; Hou, Lifei; Du, Huabing; Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Li, Chaoguang; Zhan, Xiayu; Wang, Zhebin; Deng, Keli; Wang, Qiangqiang; Deng, Bo; Wang, Feng; Yang, Jiamin; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Yuan, Guanghui; Zhang, Haijun; Jiang, Baibin; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Qianqian; He, Zhibing; Du, Kai; Deng, Xuewei; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Liquan; Huang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yuancheng; Hu, Dongxia; Zheng, Kuixing; Zhu, Qihua; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-04-01

    The first octahedral spherical hohlraum energetics experiment is accomplished at the SGIII laser facility. For the first time, the 32 laser beams are injected into the octahedral spherical hohlraum through six laser entrance holes. Two techniques are used to diagnose the radiation field of the octahedral spherical hohlraum in order to obtain comprehensive experimental data. The radiation flux streaming out of laser entrance holes is measured by six flat-response x-ray detectors (FXRDs) and four M -band x-ray detectors, which are placed at different locations of the SGIII target chamber. The radiation temperature is derived from the measured flux of FXRD by using the blackbody assumption. The peak radiation temperature inside hohlraum is determined by the shock wave technique. The experimental results show that the octahedral spherical hohlraum radiation temperature is in the range of 170-182 eV with drive laser energies of 71 kJ to 84 kJ. The radiation temperature inside the hohlraum determined by the shock wave technique is about 175 eV at 71 kJ. For the flat-top laser pulse of 3 ns, the conversion efficiency of gas-filled octahedral spherical hohlraum from laser into soft x rays is about 80% according to the two-dimensional numerical simulation.

  13. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Grant R; Oonk, J B Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael W

    2016-06-09

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds--a departure from the 'hot mode' accretion model--although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing 'shadows' cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.

  14. Mixing by shear instabilities in differentially rotating inhomogeneous stars with application to accreting white dwarf models for novae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, J.

    1983-10-01

    The problem of how shear instabilities redistribute matter and angular momentum accreted by a star from a disk is considered. Necessary conditions for stability of the star to nonaxisymmetric perturbations are derived by use of the short wavelength approximation. By considering growth rates, it is shown that freshly accreted material rapidly takes up a quasi-spherical distribution due to dynamical instabilities. However, mixing inward toward the stellar interior occurs on a thermal time scale or longer.

  15. Acceleration mechanisms flares, magnetic reconnection and shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    Several mechanisms are briefly discussed for the acceleration of particles in the astrophysical environment. Included are hydrodynamic acceleration, spherically convergent shocks, shock and a density gradient, coherent electromagnetic acceleration, the flux tube origin, symmetries and instabilities, reconnection, galactic flares, intergalactic acceleration, stochastic acceleration, and astrophysical shocks. It is noted that the supernova shock wave models still depend critically on the presupernova star structure and the assumption of highly compact presupernova models for type I supernovae. 37 references

  16. RADIO TRANSIENTS FROM ACCRETION-INDUCED COLLAPSE OF WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate observational properties of accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs (WDs) in radio frequencies. If AIC is triggered by accretion from a companion star, a dense circumstellar medium can be formed around the progenitor system. Then, the ejecta from AIC collide with the dense circumstellar medium, creating a strong shock. The strong shock can produce synchrotron emission that can be observed in radio frequencies. Even if AIC occurs as a result of WD mergers, we argue that AIC may cause fast radio bursts (FRBs) if a certain condition is satisfied. If AIC forms neutron stars (NSs) that are so massive that rotation is required to support themselves (i.e., supramassive NSs), the supramassive NSs may immediately lose their rotational energy by the r-mode instability and collapse to black holes. If the collapsing supramassive NSs are strongly magnetized, they may emit FRBs, as previously proposed. The AIC radio transients from single-degenerate systems may be detected in future radio transient surveys like the Very Large Array Sky Survey or the Square Kilometer Array transient survey. Because AIC has been proposed as a source of gravitational waves (GWs), GWs from AIC may be accompanied by radio-bright transients that can be used to confirm the AIC origin of observed GWs.

  17. RADIO TRANSIENTS FROM ACCRETION-INDUCED COLLAPSE OF WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Takashi J., E-mail: takashi.moriya@nao.ac.jp [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-10-20

    We investigate observational properties of accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs (WDs) in radio frequencies. If AIC is triggered by accretion from a companion star, a dense circumstellar medium can be formed around the progenitor system. Then, the ejecta from AIC collide with the dense circumstellar medium, creating a strong shock. The strong shock can produce synchrotron emission that can be observed in radio frequencies. Even if AIC occurs as a result of WD mergers, we argue that AIC may cause fast radio bursts (FRBs) if a certain condition is satisfied. If AIC forms neutron stars (NSs) that are so massive that rotation is required to support themselves (i.e., supramassive NSs), the supramassive NSs may immediately lose their rotational energy by the r-mode instability and collapse to black holes. If the collapsing supramassive NSs are strongly magnetized, they may emit FRBs, as previously proposed. The AIC radio transients from single-degenerate systems may be detected in future radio transient surveys like the Very Large Array Sky Survey or the Square Kilometer Array transient survey. Because AIC has been proposed as a source of gravitational waves (GWs), GWs from AIC may be accompanied by radio-bright transients that can be used to confirm the AIC origin of observed GWs.

  18. Accretion from a clumpy massive-star wind in supergiant X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mellah, I.; Sundqvist, J. O.; Keppens, R.

    2018-04-01

    Supergiant X-ray binaries (SgXB) host a compact object, often a neutron star (NS), orbiting an evolved O/B star. Mass transfer proceeds through the intense line-driven wind of the stellar donor, a fraction of which is captured by the gravitational field of the NS. The subsequent accretion process on to the NS is responsible for the abundant X-ray emission from SgXB. They also display peak-to-peak variability of the X-ray flux by a factor of a few 10-100, along with changes in the hardness ratios possibly due to varying absorption along the line of sight. We use recent radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of inhomogeneities (a.k.a. clumps) in the non-stationary wind of massive hot stars to evaluate their impact on the time-variable accretion process. For this, we run 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the wind in the vicinity of the accretor to investigate the formation of the bow shock and follow the inhomogeneous flow over several spatial orders of magnitude, down to the NS magnetosphere. In particular, we show that the impact of the wind clumps on the time variability of the intrinsic mass accretion rate is severely tempered by the crossing of the shock, compared to the purely ballistic Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton estimation. We also account for the variable absorption due to clumps passing by the line of sight and estimate the final effective variability of the column density and mass accretion rate for different orbital separations. Finally, we compare our results to the most recent analysis of the X-ray flux and the hardness ratio in Vela X-1.

  19. Shock formation within sonoluminescence bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong, V.Q.; Szeri, A.J.; Young, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    A strong case has been made by several authors that sharp, spherically symmetric shocks converging on the center of a spherical bubble driven by a strong acoustic field give rise to rapid compression and heating that produces the brief flash of light known as sonoluminescence. The formation of such shocks is considered. It is found that, although at the main collapse the bubble wall does indeed launch an inwardly-traveling compression wave, and although the subsequent reflection of the wave at the bubble center produces a very rapid temperature peak, the wave is prevented from steepening into a sharp shock by an adverse gradient in the sound speed caused by heat transfer. It is shown that the mathematical characteristics of the flow can be prevented from accumulating into a shock front by this adverse sound speed gradient. A range of results is presented for a variety of bubble ambient radii and sound field amplitudes suggested by experiments. The time scale of the peak temperature in the bubble is set by the dynamics of the compression wave: this is typically in the range 100 - 300 ps (FWHM) in concert with recent measurements of the sonoluminescence pulse width. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  20. Accretion and ejection in resistive GR-MHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Qian

    2017-05-10

    In this thesis, the accretion and ejection processes from a black hole accretion system is investigated by means of resistive general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. As a supplement to the results from prior research with non-relativistic simulations, my results confirm that the winds and outflows originated from thin accretion disks can also be observed in general relativistic simulations. In the first part, the execution of the implementation of resistivity, namely magnetic diffusivity, into the existing non-resistive general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code HARM is illustrated. The test simulations of the new code rHARM include the comparison with analytical solution of the diffusion equation and a classic shock tube test. rHARM shows reliable performances in these tests. In the second part, rHARM is applied to investigate the evolution of magnetized tori. The results show that the existence of resistivity leads to inefficient accretions of matter from tori onto black holes by weakening the magnetorotational instability inside the tori. An indication for a critical magnetic diffusivity in this simulation setup is found beyond which no magnetorotational instability develops in the linear regime. In the third part, as the main purpose of this PhD project, rHARM is used to perform simulations of magnetically diffusive thin accretion disks that are threaded by a large-scale poloidal magnetic field around non-rotating and rotating black holes. These long-term simulations last 3000 code time units, which are about 195 rotation periods at the disk inner boundary, correspondingly. Their computational domains extend from black hole horizon to 80 Schwarzschild radii. Outflows driven from the accretion disk are clearly seen. These outflows have the typical radial velocity of 0.1 speed of light. In my analyses, I argue that these outflows are driven by the magnetic pressure gradient from the toroidal magnetic field generated by the rotation of the disk

  1. Propagation of a Strong Shock Over a Random Bed of Spherical Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Y. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Neal, C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Salari, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jackson, T. L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Balachandar, S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Thakur, S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Propagation of a strong shock through a bed of particles results in complex wave dynamics such as a reflected shock, a transmitted shock, and highly unsteady flow inside the particle bed. In this paper we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of shock propagation in air over a random bed of particles. We assume the flow is inviscid and governed by the Euler equations of gas dynamics. Simulations are carried out by varying the volume fraction of the particle bed at a fixed shock Mach number. We compute the unsteady inviscid streamwise and transverse drag coefficients as a function of time for each particle in the random bed as a function of volume fraction. We show that (i) there are significant variations in the peak drag for the particles in the bed, (ii) the mean peak drag as a function of streamwise distance through the bed decreases with a slope that increases as the volume fraction increases, and (iii) the deviation from the mean peak drag does not correlate with local volume fraction. We also present the local Mach number and pressure contours for the different volume fractions to explain the various observed complex physical mechanisms occurring during the shock-particle interactions. Since the shock interaction with the random bed of particles leads to transmitted and reflected waves, we compute the average flow properties to characterize the strength of the transmitted and reflected shock waves and quantify the energy dissipation inside the particle bed. Finally, to better understand the complex wave dynamics in a random bed, we consider a simpler approximation of a planar shock propagating in a duct with a sudden area change. We obtain Riemann solutions to this problem, which are used to compare with fully resolved numerical simulations.

  2. Design of Experiments Relevant to Accreting Stream-Disk Impact in Interacting Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauland, Christine; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Young, R.; Plewa, T.

    2010-05-01

    In many Cataclysmic Binary systems, mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow onto an accretion disk occurs. This produces a hot spot from the heating created by the supersonic impact of the infalling flow with the rotating accretion disk, which can produce a radiative reverse shock in the infalling flow. This collision region has many ambiguities as a radiation hydrodynamic system. Depending upon conditions, it has been argued (Armitgae & Livio, ApJ 493, 898) that the shocked region may be optically thin, thick, or intermediate, which has the potential to significantly alter its structure and emissions. Laboratory experiments have yet to produce colliding flows that create a radiative reverse shock or to produce obliquely incident colliding flows, both of which are aspects of these Binary systems. We have undertaken the design of such an experiment, aimed at the Omega-60 laser facility. The design elements include the production of postshock flows within a dense material layer or ejecta flows by release of material from a shocked layer. Obtaining a radiative reverse shock in the laboratory requires producing a sufficiently fast flow (> 100 km/s) within a material whose opacity is large enough to produce energetically significant emission from experimentally achievable layers. In this poster we will discuss the astrophysical context, the experimental design work we have done, and the challenges of implementing and diagnosing an actual experiment. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, by the National Laser User Facility Program in NNSA-DS and by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC. The corresponding grant numbers are DE-FG52-09NA29548, DE-FG52-09NA29034, and DE-FC52-08NA28616.

  3. Application of Underwater Shock Wave Focusing to the Development of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes a summary of a research project for the development of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), which has been carried out, under close collaboration between the Shock Wave Research Center of Tohoku University and the School of Medicine, Tohoku University. The ESWL is a noninvasive clinical treatment of disintegrating human calculi and one of the most peaceful applications of shock waves. Underwater spherical shock waves were generated by explosion of microexplosives. Characteristics of the underwater shock waves and of ultrasound focusing were studied by means of holographic interferometric flow visualization and polyvinyliden-difluoride (PVDF) pressure transducers. These focused pressures, when applied to clinical treatments, could effectively and noninvasively disintegrate urinary tract stones or gallbladder stones. However, despite clincal success, tissue damage occurs during ESWL treatments, and the possible mechanism of tissue damage is briefly described.

  4. Shock Interaction with Random Spherical Particle Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Chris; Mehta, Yash; Salari, Kambiz; Jackson, Thomas L.; Balachandar, S. "Bala"; Thakur, Siddharth

    2016-11-01

    In this talk we present results on fully resolved simulations of shock interaction with randomly distributed bed of particles. Multiple simulations were carried out by varying the number of particles to isolate the effect of volume fraction. Major focus of these simulations was to understand 1) the effect of the shockwave and volume fraction on the forces experienced by the particles, 2) the effect of particles on the shock wave, and 3) fluid mediated particle-particle interactions. Peak drag force for particles at different volume fractions show a downward trend as the depth of the bed increased. This can be attributed to dissipation of energy as the shockwave travels through the bed of particles. One of the fascinating observations from these simulations was the fluctuations in different quantities due to presence of multiple particles and their random distribution. These are large simulations with hundreds of particles resulting in large amount of data. We present statistical analysis of the data and make relevant observations. Average pressure in the computational domain is computed to characterize the strengths of the reflected and transmitted waves. We also present flow field contour plots to support our observations. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  5. Anchoring Polar Magnetic Field in a Stationary Thick Accretion Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Maryam; Abbassi, Shahram, E-mail: samadimojarad@um.ac.ir [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, 91775-1436 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-20

    We investigate the properties of a hot accretion flow bathed in a poloidal magnetic field. We consider an axisymmetric viscous-resistive flow in the steady-state configuration. We assume that the dominant mechanism of energy dissipation is due to turbulence viscosity and magnetic diffusivity. A certain fraction of that energy can be advected toward the central compact object. We employ the self-similar method in the radial direction to find a system of ODEs with just one varible, θ in the spherical coordinates. For the existence and maintenance of a purely poloidal magnetic field in a rotating thick disk, we find that the necessary condition is a constant value of angular velocity along a magnetic field line. We obtain an analytical solution for the poloidal magnetic flux. We explore possible changes in the vertical structure of the disk under the influences of symmetric and asymmetric magnetic fields. Our results reveal that a polar magnetic field with even symmetry about the equatorial plane makes the disk vertically thin. Moreover, the accretion rate decreases when we consider a strong magnetic field. Finally, we notice that hot magnetized accretion flows can be fully advected even in a slim shape.

  6. Quasistationary solutions of scalar fields around accreting black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Izquierdo, Paula; Font, José A.; Montero, Pedro J.

    2016-08-01

    Massive scalar fields can form long-lived configurations around black holes. These configurations, dubbed quasibound states, have been studied both in the linear and nonlinear regimes. In this paper, we show that quasibound states can form in a dynamical scenario in which the mass of the black hole grows significantly due to the capture of infalling matter. We solve the Klein-Gordon equation numerically in spherical symmetry, mimicking the evolution of the spacetime through a sequence of analytic Schwarzschild black hole solutions of increasing mass. It is found that the frequency of oscillation of the quasibound states decreases as the mass of the black hole increases. In addition, accretion leads to an increase of the exponential decay of the scalar field energy. We compare the black hole mass growth rates used in our study with estimates from observational surveys and extrapolate our results to values of the scalar field masses consistent with models that propose scalar fields as dark matter in the universe. We show that, even for unrealistically large mass accretion rates, quasibound states around accreting black holes can survive for cosmological time scales. Our results provide further support to the intriguing possibility of the existence of dark matter halos based on (ultralight) scalar fields surrounding supermassive black holes in galactic centers.

  7. How young the accretion-powered pulsars could be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostina, M. V.; Ikhsanov, N. R.

    2017-12-01

    A question about the age of accretion-powered X-ray pulsars has recently been reopened by a discovery of the X-ray pulsar SXP 1062 in the SMC. This High Mass X-ray Binary (HMXB) contains a neutron star rotating with the period of 1062 s and is associated with a supernova remnant of the age ∼ 104 yr. An attempt to explain the origin of this young long-period X-ray pulsar within the traditional scenario of three basic states (ejector, propeller and accretor) encounters difficulties. Even if this pulsar were born as a magnetar the spin-down time during the propeller stage would exceed 104 yr. Here we explore a more circuitous way of the pulsar spin evolution in HMXBs, in which the propeller stage in the evolutionary track is avoided. We find this way to be possible if the stellar wind of the massive companion to the neutron star is magnetized. The geometry of plasma flow captured by the neutron star in this case differs from spherically symmetrical and the magnetospheric radius of the neutron star is smaller than that evaluated in the convention accretion scenarios. We show that the age of an accretion-powered pulsar in this case can be as small as ∼ 104 years without the need of invoking initial magnetic field in excess of 1013 G.

  8. Relativistic low angular momentum accretion: long time evolution of hydrodynamical inviscid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Patryk; Piróg, Michał; Font, José A.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate relativistic low angular momentum accretion of inviscid perfect fluid onto a Schwarzschild black hole. The simulations are performed with a general-relativistic, high-resolution (second-order), shock-capturing, hydrodynamical numerical code. We use horizon-penetrating Eddington–Finkelstein coordinates to remove inaccuracies in regions of strong gravity near the black hole horizon and show the expected convergence of the code with the Michel solution and stationary Fishbone–Moncrief toroids. We recover, in the framework of relativistic hydrodynamics, the qualitative behavior known from previous Newtonian studies that used a Bondi background flow in a pseudo-relativistic gravitational potential with a latitude-dependent angular momentum at the outer boundary. Our models exhibit characteristic ‘turbulent’ behavior and the attained accretion rates are lower than those of the Bondi–Michel radial flow. For sufficiently low values of the asymptotic sound speed, geometrically thick tori form in the equatorial plane surrounding the black hole horizon while accretion takes place mainly through the poles.

  9. A spherical model for the transient x-ray source A0620-00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilworth, C.; Maraschi, L.; Perola, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    The continuum spectrum of the transient X-ray source A0620-00, from infrared to X-ray frequencies, is interpreted as emission from a uniform spherical cloud of hot gas in which the free-free spectrum is modified by Thomson scattering. On this basis, the radius and the density of the cloud, and the distance of the source, are derived. The change of the spectrum with the time indicates a decrease of both radius and density with decreasing luminosity. Considering the production of X-rays to be due to impulsive accretion in a low-mass binary system, these results open the question as to whether the accreting object is a white dwarf rather than a neutron star. (author)

  10. Strong Shock Propagating Over A Random Bed of Spherical Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Yash; Salari, Kambiz; Jackson, Thomas L.; Balachandar, S.; Thakur, Siddharth

    2017-11-01

    The study of shock interaction with particles has been largely motivated because of its wide-ranging applications. The complex interaction between the compressible flow features, such as shock wave and expansion fan, and the dispersed phase makes this multi-phase flow very difficult to predict and control. In this talk we will be presenting results on fully resolved inviscid simulations of shock interaction with random bed of particles. One of the fascinating observations from these simulations are the flow field fluctuations due to the presence of randomly distributed particles. Rigorous averaging (Favre averaging) of the governing equations results in Reynolds stress like term, which can be classified as pseudo turbulence in this case. We have computed this ``Reynolds stress'' term along with individual fluctuations and the turbulent kinetic energy. Average pressure was also computed to characterize the strength of the transmitted and the reflected waves. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program.

  11. Numerical relativity in spherical coordinates with the Einstein Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Vassilios; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela; Ruchlin, Ian; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.

    2018-04-01

    Numerical relativity codes that do not make assumptions on spatial symmetries most commonly adopt Cartesian coordinates. While these coordinates have many attractive features, spherical coordinates are much better suited to take advantage of approximate symmetries in a number of astrophysical objects, including single stars, black holes, and accretion disks. While the appearance of coordinate singularities often spoils numerical relativity simulations in spherical coordinates, especially in the absence of any symmetry assumptions, it has recently been demonstrated that these problems can be avoided if the coordinate singularities are handled analytically. This is possible with the help of a reference-metric version of the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation together with a proper rescaling of tensorial quantities. In this paper we report on an implementation of this formalism in the Einstein Toolkit. We adapt the Einstein Toolkit infrastructure, originally designed for Cartesian coordinates, to handle spherical coordinates, by providing appropriate boundary conditions at both inner and outer boundaries. We perform numerical simulations for a disturbed Kerr black hole, extract the gravitational wave signal, and demonstrate that the noise in these signals is orders of magnitude smaller when computed on spherical grids rather than Cartesian grids. With the public release of our new Einstein Toolkit thorns, our methods for numerical relativity in spherical coordinates will become available to the entire numerical relativity community.

  12. Scaling laws for spherical pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.P.; Palleschi, V.; Vaselli, M.

    1991-01-01

    In spherical pinch (SP) experiments, the plasma heated at the center of a cell to reach ignition temperature is confined by imploding shock waves for a time long enough to satisfy the Lawson criterion for plasma fusion. In earlier theoretical studies, the expansion of the central plasma either is neglected or is assumed to be radially uniform. The energy is considered to be deposited instantaneously at the center of the cell and the nonlinear heat conduction equation is solved to study the temporal evolution of the central plasma. Incorporating the ignition condition for the average temperature of the expanding fireball, and its confinement by imploding convergent shock waves, which may be fired from the periphery of the cell with some time delay, the scaling laws for satisfying the Lawson criterion are investigated in detail. The relevant calculations indicate that the cumulative effects of the convergent shock waves in the vicinity of the center of the cell play an important role in these scaling laws. (author)

  13. Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A López; Lombardini, M; Hill, D J

    2011-11-01

    We present an approximate description of the behavior of an elastic-plastic material processed by a cylindrically or spherically symmetric converging shock, following Whitham's shock dynamics theory. Originally applied with success to various gas dynamics problems, this theory is presently derived for solid media, in both elastic and plastic regimes. The exact solutions of the shock dynamics equations obtained reproduce well the results obtained by high-resolution numerical simulations. The examined constitutive laws share a compressible neo-Hookean structure for the internal energy e=e(s)(I(1))+e(h)(ρ,ς), where e(s) accounts for shear through the first invariant of the Cauchy-Green tensor, and e(h) represents the hydrostatic contribution as a function of the density ρ and entropy ς. In the strong-shock limit, reached as the shock approaches the axis or origin r=0, we show that compression effects are dominant over shear deformations. For an isothermal constitutive law, i.e., e(h)=e(h)(ρ), with a power-law dependence e(h) is proportional to ρ(α), shock dynamics predicts that for a converging shock located at r=R(t) at time t, the Mach number increases as M is proportional to [log(1/R)](α), independently of the space index s, where s=2 in cylindrical geometry and 3 in spherical geometry. An alternative isothermal constitutive law with p(ρ) of the arctanh type, which enforces a finite density in the strong-shock limit, leads to M is proportional to R(-(s-1)) for strong shocks. A nonisothermal constitutive law, whose hydrostatic part e(h) is that of an ideal gas, is also tested, recovering the strong-shock limit M is proportional to R(-(s-1)/n(γ)) originally derived by Whitham for perfect gases, where γ is inherently related to the maximum compression ratio that the material can reach, (γ+1)/(γ-1). From these strong-shock limits, we also estimate analytically the density, radial velocity, pressure, and sound speed immediately behind the shock. While the

  14. PARTICLE ACCELERATION AT THE HELIOSPHERIC TERMINATION SHOCK WITH A STOCHASTIC SHOCK OBLIQUITY APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Aaron D.; Le Roux, Jakobus A.

    2013-01-01

    Observations by the plasma and magnetic field instruments on board the Voyager 2 spacecraft suggest that the termination shock is weak with a compression ratio of ∼2. However, this is contrary to the observations of accelerated particle spectra at the termination shock, where standard diffusive shock acceleration theory predicts a compression ratio closer to ∼2.9. Using our focused transport model, we investigate pickup proton acceleration at a stationary spherical termination shock with a moderately strong compression ratio of 2.8 to include both the subshock and precursor. We show that for the particle energies observed by the Voyager 2 Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instrument, pickup protons will have effective length scales of diffusion that are larger than the combined subshock and precursor termination shock structure observed. As a result, the particles will experience a total effective termination shock compression ratio that is larger than values inferred by the plasma and magnetic field instruments for the subshock and similar to the value predicted by diffusive shock acceleration theory. Furthermore, using a stochastically varying magnetic field angle, we are able to qualitatively reproduce the multiple power-law structure observed for the LECP spectra downstream of the termination shock

  15. Shock Wave Propagation in Layered Planetary Interiors: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkani-Hamed, J.; Monteux, J.

    2017-12-01

    The end of the terrestrial planet accretion is characterized by numerous large impacts. About 90% of the mass of a large planet is accreted while the core mantle separation is occurring, because of the accretionary and the short-lived radio-isotope heating. The characteristics of the shockwave propagation, hence the existing scaling laws are poorly known within the layered planets. Here, we use iSALE-2D hydrocode simulations to calculate shock pressure in a differentiated Mars type body for impact velocities of 5-20 km/s, and impactor sizes of 100-400 km. We use two different rheologies for the target interior, an inviscid model ("no-stress model") and a pressure and damage-dependent strength model ("elaborated model"). To better characterize the shock pressure within the whole mantle as a function of distance from the impact site, we propose the following distribution: (1) a near field zone larger than the isobaric core that extends to 7-15 times the projectile radius into the target, where the peak shock pressure decays exponentially with increasing distance, (2) a far field zone where the pressure decays with distance following a power law. The shock pressure decreases more rapidly with distance in the near field for the elaborated model than for the no-stress model because of the influence of acoustic fluidization and damage. However to better illustrate the influence of the rheology on the shock propagation, we use the same expressions to fit the shock pressure with distance for both models. At the core-mantle boundary, CMB, the peak shock pressure jumps as the shock wave enters the core. We derived the boundary condition at CMB for the peak shock pressure. It is less sensitive to the impact velocity or the impactor size, but strongly depends on the rheology of the planet's mantle. Because of the lower shock wave velocity in the core compared to that in the mantle, the refracted shockwave propagates toward the symmetry axis of the planet, and the shock

  16. Physics of IED blast shock tube simulations for mTBI research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mediavilla Varas, J.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Meijer, S.R.; Berg, A.C. van den; Sibma, P.C.; Bree, J.L.M.J. van; Vries, D.V.W.M. de

    2011-01-01

    Shock tube experiments and simulations are conducted with a spherical gelatin filled skull- brain surrogate, in order to study the mechanisms leading to blast induced mild traumatic brain injury. A shock tube including sensor system is optimized to simulate realistic impro-vised explosive device

  17. Magnetically gated accretion in an accreting 'non-magnetic' white dwarf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, S; Maccarone, T J; D'Angelo, C; Knigge, C; Groot, P J

    2017-12-13

    White dwarfs are often found in binary systems with orbital periods ranging from tens of minutes to hours in which they can accrete gas from their companion stars. In about 15 per cent of these binaries, the magnetic field of the white dwarf is strong enough (at 10 6 gauss or more) to channel the accreted matter along field lines onto the magnetic poles. The remaining systems are referred to as 'non-magnetic', because until now there has been no evidence that they have a magnetic field that is strong enough to affect the accretion dynamics. Here we report an analysis of archival optical observations of the 'non-magnetic' accreting white dwarf in the binary system MV Lyrae, whose light curve displays quasi-periodic bursts of about 30 minutes duration roughly every 2 hours. The timescale and amplitude of these bursts indicate the presence of an unstable, magnetically regulated accretion mode, which in turn implies the existence of magnetically gated accretion, in which disk material builds up around the magnetospheric boundary (at the co-rotation radius) and then accretes onto the white dwarf, producing bursts powered by the release of gravitational potential energy. We infer a surface magnetic field strength for the white dwarf in MV Lyrae of between 2 × 10 4 gauss and 1 × 10 5 gauss, too low to be detectable by other current methods. Our discovery provides a new way of studying the strength and evolution of magnetic fields in accreting white dwarfs and extends the connections between accretion onto white dwarfs, young stellar objects and neutron stars, for which similar magnetically gated accretion cycles have been identified.

  18. Curved Radio Spectra of Weak Cluster Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

    2015-08-01

    In order to understand certain observed features of arc-like giant radio relics such as the rareness, uniform surface brightness, and curved integrated spectra, we explore a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) model for radio relics in which a spherical shock impinges on a magnetized cloud containing fossil relativistic electrons. Toward this end, we perform DSA simulations of spherical shocks with the parameters relevant for the Sausage radio relic in cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301, and calculate the ensuing radio synchrotron emission from re-accelerated electrons. Three types of fossil electron populations are considered: a delta-function like population with the shock injection momentum, a power-law distribution, and a power law with an exponential cutoff. The surface brightness profile of the radio-emitting postshock region and the volume-integrated radio spectrum are calculated and compared with observations. We find that the observed width of the Sausage relic can be explained reasonably well by shocks with speed {u}{{s}}˜ 3× {10}3 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and sonic Mach number {M}{{s}}˜ 3. These shocks produce curved radio spectra that steepen gradually over (0.1-10){ν }{br} with a break frequency {ν }{br}˜ 1 GHz if the duration of electron acceleration is ˜60-80 Myr. However, the abrupt increase in the spectral index above ˜1.5 GHz observed in the Sausage relic seems to indicate that additional physical processes, other than radiative losses, operate for electrons with {γ }{{e}}≳ {10}4.

  19. Confined detonations with cylindrical and spherical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linan, A.; Lecuona, A.

    1979-01-01

    An imploding spherical or cylindrical detonation, starting in the interface of the detonantion with an external inert media, used as a reflector, creates on it a strong shock wave moving outward from the interface. An initially weak shock wave appears in the detonated media that travels toward the center, and it could reach the detonation wave, enforcing it in its process of implosion. To describe the fluid field, the Euler s equations are solved by means of expansions valid for the early stages of the process. Isentropic of the type P/pγ-K for the detonated and compressed inert media are used. For liquid or solid reflectors a more appropriate equation is used. (Author) 8 refs

  20. Strong imploding shock, the representative curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C.

    1981-01-01

    The representative curve of the ideal gas behind the front of a spherically, or cylindrically, symmetric strong imploding shock is shown to pass through the point where the reduced pressure is maximum, P(xisub(m)) = Psub(m)sub(a)sub(x). (orig.)

  1. Simulations of Turbulent Flows with Strong Shocks and Density Variations: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjiva Lele

    2012-10-01

    The target of this SciDAC Science Application was to develop a new capability based on high-order and high-resolution schemes to simulate shock-turbulence interactions and multi-material mixing in planar and spherical geometries, and to study Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov turbulent mixing. These fundamental problems have direct application in high-speed engineering flows, such as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule implosions and scramjet combustion, and also in the natural occurrence of supernovae explosions. Another component of this project was the development of subgrid-scale (SGS) models for large-eddy simulations of flows involving shock-turbulence interaction and multi-material mixing, that were to be validated with the DNS databases generated during the program. The numerical codes developed are designed for massively-parallel computer architectures, ensuring good scaling performance. Their algorithms were validated by means of a sequence of benchmark problems. The original multi-stage plan for this five-year project included the following milestones: 1) refinement of numerical algorithms for application to the shock-turbulence interaction problem and multi-material mixing (years 1-2); 2) direct numerical simulations (DNS) of canonical shock-turbulence interaction (years 2-3), targeted at improving our understanding of the physics behind the combined two phenomena and also at guiding the development of SGS models; 3) large-eddy simulations (LES) of shock-turbulence interaction (years 3-5), improving SGS models based on the DNS obtained in the previous phase; 4) DNS of planar/spherical RM multi-material mixing (years 3-5), also with the two-fold objective of gaining insight into the relevant physics of this instability and aiding in devising new modeling strategies for multi-material mixing; 5) LES of planar/spherical RM mixing (years 4-5), integrating the improved SGS and multi-material models developed in stages 3 and 5. This final report is

  2. Standing Shocks around Black Holes and Estimation of Outflow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. We self-consistently obtain shock locations in an accretion flow by using an analytical method. One can obtain the spectral properties, quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies and the outflow rates when the inflow parameters are known. Since temperature of the CENBOL decides the spectral states of the black hole, ...

  3. THE NuSTAR X-RAY SPECTRUM OF HERCULES X-1: A RADIATION-DOMINATED RADIATIVE SHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Michael T.; Wood, Kent S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Becker, Peter A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 (United States); Gottlieb, Amy M.; Marcu-Cheatham, Diana M.; Pottschmidt, Katja [Department of Physics and Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Fürst, Felix [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hemphill, Paul B. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Wilms, Jörn [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Sternwartstr, 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2016-11-10

    We report on new spectral modeling of the accreting X-ray pulsar Hercules X-1. Our radiation-dominated radiative shock model is an implementation of the analytic work of Becker and Wolff on Comptonized accretion flows onto magnetic neutron stars. We obtain a good fit to the spin-phase-averaged 4–78 keV X-ray spectrum observed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array during a main-on phase of the Her X-1 35 day accretion disk precession period. This model allows us to estimate the accretion rate, the Comptonizing temperature of the radiating plasma, the radius of the magnetic polar cap, and the average scattering opacity parameters in the accretion column. This is in contrast to previous phenomenological models that characterized the shape of the X-ray spectrum, but could not determine the physical parameters of the accretion flow. We describe the spectral fitting details and discuss the interpretation of the accretion flow physical parameters.

  4. RADIATION PRESSURE-SUPPORTED ACCRETION DISKS: VERTICAL STRUCTURE, ENERGY ADVECTION, AND CONVECTIVE STABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Weimin

    2012-01-01

    By taking into account the local energy balance per unit volume between the viscous heating and the advective cooling plus the radiative cooling, we investigate the vertical structure of radiation pressure-supported accretion disks in spherical coordinates. Our solutions show that the photosphere of the disk is close to the polar axis and therefore the disk seems to be extremely thick. However, the density profile implies that most of the accreted matter exists in a moderate range around the equatorial plane. We show that the well-known polytropic relation between the pressure and the density is unsuitable for describing the vertical structure of radiation pressure-supported disks. More importantly, we find that the energy advection is significant even for slightly sub-Eddington accretion disks. We argue that the non-negligible advection may help us understand why the standard thin disk model is likely to be inaccurate above ∼0.3 Eddington luminosity, which was found by some works on black hole spin measurement. Furthermore, the solutions satisfy the Solberg-Høiland conditions, which indicate the disk to be convectively stable. In addition, we discuss the possible link between our disk model and ultraluminous X-ray sources.

  5. Accreting CO material onto ONe white dwarfs towards accretion-induced collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Yuan; Wang, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The final outcomes of accreting ONe white dwarfs (ONe WDs) have been studied for several decades, but there are still some issues that are not resolved. Recently, some studies suggested that the deflagration of oxygen would occur for accreting ONe WDs with Chandrasekhar masses. In this paper, we aim to investigate whether ONe WDs can experience accretion-induced collapse (AIC) or explosions when their masses approach the Chandrasekhar limit. Employing the stellar evolution code Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA), we simulate the long-term evolution of ONe WDs with accreting CO material. The ONe WDs undergo weak multicycle carbon flashes during the mass-accretion process, leading to mass increase of the WDs. We found that different initial WD masses and mass-accretion rates influence the evolution of central density and temperature. However, the central temperature cannot reach the explosive oxygen ignition temperature due to neutrino cooling. This work implies that the final outcome of accreting ONe WDs is electron-capture induced collapse rather than thermonuclear explosion.

  6. Planar shock focusing through perfect gas lens: First experimental demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biamino, Laurent; Mariani, Christian; Jourdan, Georges; Houas, Lazhar; Vandenboomgaerde, Marc; Souffland, Denis

    2014-01-01

    When a shock wave crosses an interface between two materials, this interface becomes unstable and the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability develops. Such instability has been extensively studied in the planar case, and numerous results were presented during the previous workshops. But the Richtmyer-Meshkov (Richtmyer, 1960, 'Taylor Instability in Shock Acceleration of Compressible Fluids,' Commun. Pure Appl. Math., 13(2), pp. 297-319; Meshkov, 1969, 'Interface of Two Gases Accelerated by a Shock Wave,' Fluid Dyn., 4(5), pp. 101-104) instability also occurs in a spherical case where the convergence effects must be taken into account. As far as we know, no conventional (straight section) shock tube facility has been used to experimentally study the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in spherical geometry. The idea originally proposed by Dimotakis and Samtaney (2006, 'Planar Shock Cylindrical Focusing by a Perfect-Gas Lens,' Phys. Fluid., 18(3), pp. 031705-031708) and later generalized by Vandenboomgaerde and Aymard (2011, 'Analytical Theory for Planar Shock Focusing Through Perfect Gas Lens and Shock Tube Experiment Designs,' Phys. Fluid., 23(1), pp. 016101-016113) was to retain the flexibility of a conventional shock tube to convert a planar shock wave into a cylindrical one through a perfect gas lens. This can be done when a planar shock wave passes through a shaped interface between two gases. By coupling the shape with the impedance mismatch at the interface, it is possible to generate a circular transmitted shock wave. In order to experimentally check the feasibility of this approach, we have implemented the gas lens technique on a conventional shock tube with the help of a convergent test section, an elliptic stereo lithographed grid, and a nitrocellulose membrane. First experimental sequences of Schlieren images have been obtained for an incident shock wave Mach number equal to 1.15 and an air/SF_6-shaped interface. Experimental results indicate that the shock that moves

  7. Hydrodynamic ejection of bipolar flows from objects undergoing disk accretion: T Tauri stars, massive pre-main-sequence objects, and cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torbett, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    A general mechanism is presented for generating pressure-driven winds that are intrinsically bipolar from objects undergoing disk accretion. The energy librated in a boundary layer shock as the disk matter impacts the central object is shown to be sufficient to eject a fraction βapprox.10 -2 to 10 -3 of the accreted mass. These winds are driven by a mechanism that accelerates the flow perpendicular to the plane of the disk and can therefore account for the bipolar geometry of the mass loss observed near young stars. The mass loss contained in these winds is comparable to that inferred for young stars. Thus, disk accretion-driven winds may constitute the T Tauri phase of stellar evolution. This mechanism is generally applicable, and thus massive pre-main-sequence objects as well as cataclysmic variables at times of enhanced accretion are predicted to eject bipolar outflows as well. Unmagnetized accreting neutron stas are also expected to eject bipolar flows. Since this mechanism requires stellar surfaces, however, it will not operate in disk accretion onto black holes

  8. Two-stream instability in collisionless shocks and foreshock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckmann, M E; Eliasson, B; Shukla, P K; Sircombe, N J; Dendy, R O

    2006-01-01

    Shocks play a key role in plasma thermalization and particle acceleration in the near Earth space plasma, in astrophysical plasma and in laser plasma interactions. An accurate understanding of the physics of plasma shocks is thus of immense importance. We give an overview over some recent developments in particle-in-cell simulations of plasma shocks and foreshock dynamics. We focus on ion reflection by shocks and on the two-stream instabilities these beams can drive, and these are placed in the context of experimental observations, e.g. by the Cluster mission. We discuss how we may expand the insight gained from the observation of proton beam driven instabilities at near Earth plasma shocks to better understand their astrophysical counterparts, such as ion beam instabilities triggered by internal and external shocks in the relativistic jets of gamma ray bursts, shocks in the accretion discs of micro-quasars and supernova remnant shocks. It is discussed how and why the peak energy that can be reached by particles that are accelerated by two-stream instabilities increases from keV energies to GeV energies and beyond, as we increase the streaming speed to relativistic values, and why the particle energy spectrum sometimes resembles power law distributions

  9. Two-stream instability in collisionless shocks and foreshock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, M E [Institute of Theoretical Physics IV and Centre for Plasma Science and Astrophysics, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Eliasson, B [Institute of Theoretical Physics IV and Centre for Plasma Science and Astrophysics, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Shukla, P K [Institute of Theoretical Physics IV and Centre for Plasma Science and Astrophysics, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Sircombe, N J [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Warwick University, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Dendy, R O [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Warwick University, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    Shocks play a key role in plasma thermalization and particle acceleration in the near Earth space plasma, in astrophysical plasma and in laser plasma interactions. An accurate understanding of the physics of plasma shocks is thus of immense importance. We give an overview over some recent developments in particle-in-cell simulations of plasma shocks and foreshock dynamics. We focus on ion reflection by shocks and on the two-stream instabilities these beams can drive, and these are placed in the context of experimental observations, e.g. by the Cluster mission. We discuss how we may expand the insight gained from the observation of proton beam driven instabilities at near Earth plasma shocks to better understand their astrophysical counterparts, such as ion beam instabilities triggered by internal and external shocks in the relativistic jets of gamma ray bursts, shocks in the accretion discs of micro-quasars and supernova remnant shocks. It is discussed how and why the peak energy that can be reached by particles that are accelerated by two-stream instabilities increases from keV energies to GeV energies and beyond, as we increase the streaming speed to relativistic values, and why the particle energy spectrum sometimes resembles power law distributions.

  10. : Nuclear Spirals and Mass Accretion to Supermassive Black Holes in Weakly-Barred Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Elmegreen, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Disk galaxies, especially barred-spiral galaxies, abound with rings and spirals in their nuclear regions. Nuclear spirals existing even in weakly barred galaxies are thought to channel gas inflows to supermassive black holes residing at the centers. We use high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of nuclear gas spirals driven by weak bar-like or oval potentials. The amplitude of the spirals increases toward the center by a geometric effect, readily developing into shocks at small radii even for very weak potentials. The shape of the spirals and shocks depends rather sensitively on the background shear. When shear is low, the nuclear spirals are loosely wound and the shocks are almost straight, resulting in large mass inflows toward the center. When shear is high, on the other hand, the spirals are tightly wound and the shocks are oblique, forming a circumnuclear disk through which gas flows inward at a relatively lower rate. The induced mass inflow rates are enough to power black hole accretion in various types of Seyfert galaxies.

  11. Progressive damage during thermal shock cycling of D-gun sprayed thermal barrier coatings with hollow spherical ZrO{sub 2}-8Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, P.L. [State Key Lab for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China) and School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: csun@imr.ac.cn; Wang, Q.M. [State Key Lab for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Gong, J. [State Key Lab for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sun, C. [State Key Lab for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhou, Y.C. [State Key Lab for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2006-11-05

    Thermal shock cycling behaviors of D-gun sprayed TBCs with a hollow spherical ZrO{sub 2}-8Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (HSP-YSZ) top coat and NiCrAlY bond coat on directionally solidified Ni-base superalloys DZ125 were investigated at high temperature (1100 deg. C) {r_reversible} room temperature (RT) repeatedly by water quenching. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the coating microstructure and failure morphology. The results showed that failure of the D-gun sprayed TBC starts with crack initiation along the splats boundary in the ceramic top coat and the non-alumina oxides. The cracks propagate and coalesce with the increasing thermal cycling. The extensive cracking of the rapidly formed non-alumina oxides, resulting from the depletion of aluminum in the bond coat, aids to delamination of the outer ceramic layer. The stress distributions in TGO layer at different thermal shock cycles was measured by luminescence spectroscopy to investigate the failure mechanism of TBC system.

  12. Accretion of matter onto white dwarfs as a possible x-ray mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGregoria, A.J.

    1973-01-01

    Accretion of matter onto white dwarfs is investigated; to see if x-rays are produced; to see what type of radiation spectrum one gets; to see what type of short term time dependent behavior one gets; and, finally, to see how everything varies as the rate of inflow of matter is varied and as the mass and radius of the white dwarf under consideration are varied. The main approximation used is the assumption of spherical symmetry. The motivation behind the investigation is to see how well one can explain the various x-ray sources known

  13. From the advective-acoustic instability to the asymmetric explosions of Core Collapse Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galletti, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    The advective-acoustic cycle is a hydrodynamical mechanism fed by the coupling between advected waves (entropy, vorticity) and an acoustic feedback. Already studied in physics (rumble instability in ramjet, whistling tea kettle), it was introduced in astrophysics in the frame of the instability of the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion flow. In this thesis, we propose this cycle as an explanation for the asymmetry of the explosion of Core Collapse Supernovae. The evaluation of Eigenmodes for the classical accretion above a solid surface (white dwarfs, neutron stars) and the use of a toy-model reveal the importance of the advective-acoustic cycle in such an instable accretion flow. Following these results and the comparison with numerical simulations, a modelization of the flow when the shock stalls during a Core Collapse Supernova, shows that the advective-acoustic cycle is a natural mechanism to explain the non-spherical instability of the shock. The domination of l = 1 modes may be responsible for the observed pulsar kicks. (author) [fr

  14. Accretion dynamics and polarized x-ray emission of magnetized neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arons, J.

    1991-01-01

    The basic ideas of accretion onto magnetized neutron stars are outlined. These are applied to a simple model of the structure of the plasma mound sitting at the magnetic poles of such as star, in which upward diffusion of photons is balanced by their downward advection. This steady flow model of the plasma's dynamical state is used to compute the emission of polarized X-rays from the optically thick, birefringent medium. The linear polarization of the continuum radiation emerging from the quasi-static mound is found to be as much as 40% at some rotation phases, but is insensitive to the geometry of the accretion flow. The role of the accretion shock, whose detailed polarimetric and spectral characteristics have yet to be calculated, is emphasized as the final determinant of the properties of the emerging X-rays. Some results describing the fully time dependent dynamics of the flow are also presented. In particular, steady flow onto a neutron star is shown to exhibit formation of ''photon bubbles,'' regions of greatly reduced plasma density filled with radiation which form and rise on millisecond time scales. The possible role of these complex structures in the flow for the formation of the emergent spectrum is briefly outlined

  15. Accretion dynamics and polarized X-ray emission of magnetized neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    The basic ideas of accretion onto magnetized neutron stars are outlined. These are applied to a simple model of the structure of the plasma mound sitting at the magnetic poles of such a star, in which upward diffusion of photons is balanced by their downward advection. This steady flow model of the plasma's dynamical state is used to compute the emission of polarized X-raysfrom the optically thick, birefringent medium. The linear polarization of the continuum radiation emerging from the quasi-static mound is found to be as much as 40 percent at some rotation phases, but is insensitive to the geometry of the accretion flow. The role of the accretion shock, whose detailed polarimetric and spectral characteristics have yet to be calculated, is emphasized as the final determinant of the properties of the emerging X-rays. Some results describing the fully time dependent dynamics of the flow are also presented. In particular, steady flow onto a neutron star is shown to exhibit formation of 'photon bubbles', regions of greatly reduced plasma density filled with radiation which form and rise on millisecond time scale. The possible role of these complex structures in the flow for the formation of the emergent spectrum is briefly outlined.

  16. Numerical Simulation of the SVS 13 Microjet and Bow Shock Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Carl L.; Jones, Jeremiah R.; Hodapp, Klaus W.

    2016-10-01

    Numerical simulations of the SVS 13 microjet and bow shock bubble are performed using the WENO method that reproduces the main features and dynamics of data from the Keck Telescope/OSIRIS velocity-resolved integral field spectrograph: an expanding, cooler bow shock bubble, with the bubble center moving at approximately 50 km s-1 with a radial expansion velocity of 11 km s-1, surrounding the fast, hotter jet, which is propagating at 156 km s-1. Contact and bow shock waves are visible in the simulations both from the initial short jet pulse that creates the nearly spherical bow shock bubble and from the fast microjet, while a terminal Mach disk shock is visible near the tip of the continuous microjet, which reduces the velocity of the jet gas down to the flow velocity of the contact discontinuity at the leading edge of the jet. At 21.1 years after the launch of the initial bubble pulse, the jet has caught up with and penetrated almost all the way across the bow shock bubble of the slower initial pulse. At times later than about 22 years, the jet has penetrated through the bubble and thereafter begins to subsume its spherical form. Emission maps from the simulations of the jet—traced by the emission of the shock-excited 1.644 μm [Fe II] line—and the bow shock bubble—traced in the lower excitation 2.122 μm H2 1-0 S(1) line—projected onto the plane of the sky are presented, and are in good agreement with the Keck observations.

  17. Analytical criterion for shock ignition of fusion reaction in hot spot

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeyre X.; Tikhonchuk V.T.; Breil J.; Lafon M.; Vallet A.; Bel E. Le

    2013-01-01

    Shock ignition of DT capsules involves two major steps. First, the fuel is assembled by means of a low velocity conventional implosion. At stagnation, the central core has a temperature lower than the one needed for ignition. Then a second, strong spherical converging shock, launched from a high intensity laser spike, arrives to the core. This shock crosses the core, rebounds at the target center and increases the central pressure to the ignition conditions. In this work we consider this latt...

  18. Bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Siew-Wan; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2015-10-06

    The study of the interaction of bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound is sometimes termed 'acoustic cavitation'. It is of importance in many biomedical applications where sound waves are applied. The use of shock waves and ultrasound in medical treatments is appealing because of their non-invasiveness. In this review, we present a variety of acoustics-bubble interactions, with a focus on shock wave-bubble interaction and bubble cloud phenomena. The dynamics of a single spherically oscillating bubble is rather well understood. However, when there is a nearby surface, the bubble often collapses non-spherically with a high-speed jet. The direction of the jet depends on the 'resistance' of the boundary: the bubble jets towards a rigid boundary, splits up near an elastic boundary, and jets away from a free surface. The presence of a shock wave complicates the bubble dynamics further. We shall discuss both experimental studies using high-speed photography and numerical simulations involving shock wave-bubble interaction. In biomedical applications, instead of a single bubble, often clouds of bubbles appear (consisting of many individual bubbles). The dynamics of such a bubble cloud is even more complex. We shall show some of the phenomena observed in a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field. The nonlinear nature of the sound field and the complex inter-bubble interaction in a cloud present challenges to a comprehensive understanding of the physics of the bubble cloud in HIFU. We conclude the article with some comments on the challenges ahead.

  19. Structure of the effective potential for a spherical wormhole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montelongo Garcia, N.; Zannias, T.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the effective potential V describing causal geodesics near the throat of an arbitrary spherical wormhole is analyzed. Einstein's equations relative to a set of regular coordinates covering a vicinity of the throat imply that any spherical wormhole can be constructed from solutions of an effective initial value problem with the throat serving as an initial value surface. The initial data involve matter variables, the area A(0) of the throat, and the gradient Λ(0) of the redshift factor on the throat. Whenever Λ(0)=0, the effective potential V has a critical point on the throat. Conditions upon the data are derived ensuring that the critical point is a local minimum (respectively maximum). For particular families of quasi-Schwarzschild wormholes, V exhibits a local minimum on the throat independently upon the energy E and angular momentum L 2 of the test particles and thus such wormholes admit stable circular timelike and null geodesics on the throat. For families of Chaplygin wormholes, we show that such geodesics are unstable. Based on a suitable power series representation of the metric, properties of V away from the throat are obtained that are useful for the analysis of accretion disks and radiation processes near the throat of any spherical wormhole.

  20. Accreting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2014-01-01

    I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these ...

  1. Accretion from an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livio, M.; Soker, N.; Koo, M. de; Savonije, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of accretion by a compact object from an inhomogeneous medium is studied in the general γnot=1 case. The mass accretion rate is found to decrease with increasing γ. The rate of accretion of angular momentum is found to be significantly lower than the rate at which angular momentum is deposited into the Bondi-Hoyle, symmetrical, accretion cylinder. The consequences of the results are studied for the cases of neutron stars accreting from the winds of early-type companions and white dwarfs and main-sequence stars accreting from winds of cool giants. (author)

  2. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE SVS 13 MICROJET AND BOW SHOCK BUBBLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Carl L.; Jones, Jeremiah R.; Hodapp, Klaus W.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the SVS 13 microjet and bow shock bubble are performed using the WENO method that reproduces the main features and dynamics of data from the Keck Telescope/OSIRIS velocity-resolved integral field spectrograph: an expanding, cooler bow shock bubble, with the bubble center moving at approximately 50 km s −1 with a radial expansion velocity of 11 km s −1 , surrounding the fast, hotter jet, which is propagating at 156 km s −1 . Contact and bow shock waves are visible in the simulations both from the initial short jet pulse that creates the nearly spherical bow shock bubble and from the fast microjet, while a terminal Mach disk shock is visible near the tip of the continuous microjet, which reduces the velocity of the jet gas down to the flow velocity of the contact discontinuity at the leading edge of the jet. At 21.1 years after the launch of the initial bubble pulse, the jet has caught up with and penetrated almost all the way across the bow shock bubble of the slower initial pulse. At times later than about 22 years, the jet has penetrated through the bubble and thereafter begins to subsume its spherical form. Emission maps from the simulations of the jet—traced by the emission of the shock-excited 1.644 μ m [Fe ii] line—and the bow shock bubble—traced in the lower excitation 2.122 μ m H 2 1–0 S(1) line—projected onto the plane of the sky are presented, and are in good agreement with the Keck observations.

  3. Observation of interaction of shock wave with gas bubble by image converter camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, M.; Tada, M.; Tsuji, T.; Isuzugawa, Kohji

    1995-05-01

    When a spark discharge occurs at the first focal point of a semiellipsoid or a reflector located in water, a spherical shock wave is produced. A part of the wave spreads without reflecting on the reflector and is called direct wave in this paper. Another part reflects on the semiellipsoid and converges near the second focal point, that is named the focusing wave, and locally produces a high pressure. This phenomenon is applied to disintegrators of kidney stone. But it is concerned that cavitation bubbles induced in the body by the expansion wave following the focusing wave will injure human tissue around kidney stone. In this paper, in order to examine what happens when shock waves strike bubbles on human tissue, the aspect that an air bubble is truck by the spherical shock wave or its behavior is visualized by the schlieren system and its photographs are taken using an image converter camera. Besides,the variation of the pressure amplitude caused by the shock wave and the flow of water around the bubble is measured with a pressure probe.

  4. Self-similar solutions for implosion and reflection of strong and weak shocks in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, B.N.; Chavda, L.K.

    1980-06-01

    We present an improved approximation scheme for finding approximate solutions in analytic form to the self-similar equations of gas dynamics. The method gives better agreement with exact results not only for the weak shocks which were considered previously but also for strong shocks for which the previous method gave poor results. We have considered various shock configurations in spherical and cylindrical geometries. (author)

  5. Underwater Shock Wave Research Applied to Therapeutic Device Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Shimokawa, H.

    2013-07-01

    The chronological development of underwater shock wave research performed at the Shock Wave Research Center of the Institute of Fluid Science at the Tohoku University is presented. Firstly, the generation of planar underwater shock waves in shock tubes and their visualization by using the conventional shadowgraph and schlieren methods are described. Secondly, the generation of spherical underwater shock waves by exploding lead azide pellets weighing from several tens of micrograms to 100 mg, that were ignited by irradiating with a Q-switched laser beam, and their visualization by using double exposure holographic interferometry are presented. The initiation, propagation, reflection, focusing of underwater shock waves, and their interaction with various interfaces, in particular, with air bubbles, are visualized quantitatively. Based on such a fundamental underwater shock wave research, collaboration with the School of Medicine at the Tohoku University was started for developing a shock wave assisted therapeutic device, which was named an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL). Miniature shock waves created by irradiation with Q-switched HO:YAG laser beams are studied, as applied to damaged dysfunctional nerve cells in the myocardium in a precisely controlled manner, and are effectively used to design a catheter for treating arrhythmia.

  6. RADIATIVELY EFFICIENT MAGNETIZED BONDI ACCRETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Andrew J.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Teyssier, Romain

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out a numerical study of the effect of large-scale magnetic fields on the rate of accretion from a uniform, isothermal gas onto a resistive, stationary point mass. Only mass, not magnetic flux, accretes onto the point mass. The simulations for this study avoid complications arising from boundary conditions by keeping the boundaries far from the accreting object. Our simulations leverage adaptive refinement methodology to attain high spatial fidelity close to the accreting object. Our results are particularly relevant to the problem of star formation from a magnetized molecular cloud in which thermal energy is radiated away on timescales much shorter than the dynamical timescale. Contrary to the adiabatic case, our simulations show convergence toward a finite accretion rate in the limit in which the radius of the accreting object vanishes, regardless of magnetic field strength. For very weak magnetic fields, the accretion rate first approaches the Bondi value and then drops by a factor of ∼2 as magnetic flux builds up near the point mass. For strong magnetic fields, the steady-state accretion rate is reduced by a factor of ∼0.2 β 1/2 compared to the Bondi value, where β is the ratio of the gas pressure to the magnetic pressure. We give a simple expression for the accretion rate as a function of the magnetic field strength. Approximate analytic results are given in the Appendices for both time-dependent accretion in the limit of weak magnetic fields and steady-state accretion for the case of strong magnetic fields.

  7. RADIATIVELY EFFICIENT MAGNETIZED BONDI ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Andrew J.; Klein, Richard I. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); McKee, Christopher F. [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Krumholz, Mark R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 94560 (United States); Teyssier, Romain, E-mail: ajcunn@gmail.com [Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-01-10

    We have carried out a numerical study of the effect of large-scale magnetic fields on the rate of accretion from a uniform, isothermal gas onto a resistive, stationary point mass. Only mass, not magnetic flux, accretes onto the point mass. The simulations for this study avoid complications arising from boundary conditions by keeping the boundaries far from the accreting object. Our simulations leverage adaptive refinement methodology to attain high spatial fidelity close to the accreting object. Our results are particularly relevant to the problem of star formation from a magnetized molecular cloud in which thermal energy is radiated away on timescales much shorter than the dynamical timescale. Contrary to the adiabatic case, our simulations show convergence toward a finite accretion rate in the limit in which the radius of the accreting object vanishes, regardless of magnetic field strength. For very weak magnetic fields, the accretion rate first approaches the Bondi value and then drops by a factor of {approx}2 as magnetic flux builds up near the point mass. For strong magnetic fields, the steady-state accretion rate is reduced by a factor of {approx}0.2 {beta}{sup 1/2} compared to the Bondi value, where {beta} is the ratio of the gas pressure to the magnetic pressure. We give a simple expression for the accretion rate as a function of the magnetic field strength. Approximate analytic results are given in the Appendices for both time-dependent accretion in the limit of weak magnetic fields and steady-state accretion for the case of strong magnetic fields.

  8. The Emerging Paradigm of Pebble Accretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, C.W.; Pessah, M.; Gressel, O.

    2017-01-01

    Pebble accretion is the mechanism in which small particles ("pebbles") accrete onto big bodies big (planetesimals or planetary embryos) in gas-rich environments. In pebble accretion accretion , accretion occurs by settling and depends only on the mass of the gravitating body gravitating , not its

  9. Numerical study of shock waves in non-ideal magnetogasdynamics (MHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addepalli Ramu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow of strong converging shock waves in cylindrical or spherical symmetry in MHD, which is propagating into plasma, is analyzed. The plasma is assumed to be non-ideal gas whose equation of state is of Mie–Gruneisen type. Suitable transformations reduce the governing equations into ordinary differential equations of Poincare type. In the present work, McQueen and Royce equations of state (EOS have been considered with suitable material constants and the spherical and cylindrical cases are worked out in detail to investigate the behavior and the influence on the shock wave propagation by energy input and β(ρ/ρ0, the measure of shock strength. The similarity solution is valid for adiabatic flow as long as the counter pressure is neglected. The numerical technique applied in this paper provides a global solution to the implosion problem for the flow variables, the similarity exponent α for different Gruneisen parameters. It is shown that increasing β(ρ/ρ0 does not automatically decelerate the shock front but the velocity and pressure behind the shock front increases quickly in the presence of the magnetic field and decreases slowly and become constant. This becomes true whether the piston is accelerated, is moving at constant speed or is decelerated. These results are presented through the illustrative graphs and tables. The magnetic field effects on the flow variables through a medium and total energy under the influence of strong magnetic field are also presented.

  10. Investigation of Shock-Induced Reactions in a Ni+Al Powder Mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, D. E.; Thadhani, N. N.

    2006-01-01

    The shock-compression and reaction response of equi-volumetric micron-scale (∼50-60% dense) spherical nickel and aluminum powder mixtures is investigated in the range of the calculated crush-up pressure (P = 0.4 GPa) and up to 6 GPa. Time resolved stress measurements (using PVDF gauges) coupled with VISAR data is used to determine the shock states. Evidence of reaction or lack thereof is inferred by comparing the measured states with calculated Hugoniot state of reaction products based on the ballotechnic model proposed by Bennett and Horie, (Shock Waves 4:127-136). Post-impact micro-structural analysis of recovered material and comparison of calculated and measured product states is used to establish the criterion for reaction occurring in the shock or post-shock states

  11. A FOCUSED TRANSPORT APPROACH TO THE TIME-DEPENDENT SHOCK ACCELERATION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES AT A FAST TRAVELING SHOCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most sophisticated models for solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejection driven shocks are based on standard diffusive shock acceleration theory. However, this theory, which only applies when SEP pitch-angle anisotropies are small, might have difficulty in describing first-order Fermi acceleration or the shock pre-heating and injection of SEPs into first-order Fermi acceleration accurately at lower SEP speeds where SEP pitch-angle anisotropies upstream near the shock can be large. To avoid this problem, we use a time-dependent focused transport model to reinvestigate first-order Fermi acceleration at planar parallel and quasi-parallel spherical traveling shocks between the Sun and Earth with high shock speeds associated with rare extreme gradual SEP events. The focused transport model is also used to investigate and compare three different shock pre-heating mechanisms associated with different aspects of the nonuniform cross-shock solar wind flow, namely, the convergence of the flow (adiabatic compression), the shear tensor of the flow, and the acceleration of the flow, and a fourth shock pre-heating mechanism associated with the cross-shock electric field, to determine which pre-heating mechanism contributes the most to injecting shock pre-heated source particles into the first-order Fermi acceleration process. The effects of variations in traveling shock conditions, such as increasing shock obliquity and shock slowdown, and variations in the SEP source with increasing shock distance from the Sun on the coupled processes of shock pre-heating, injection, and first-order Fermi acceleration are analyzed. Besides the finding that the cross-shock acceleration of the solar wind flow yields the dominant shock pre-heating mechanism at high shock speeds, we find that first-order Fermi acceleration at fast traveling shocks differs in a number of respects from the predictions and assumptions of standard steady-state diffusive shock

  12. Bondi or not Bondi: the impact of resolution on accretion and drag force modelling for Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, R. S.; Slyz, A.; Devriendt, J.

    2018-04-01

    Whilst in galaxy-size simulations, supermassive black holes (SMBH) are entirely handled by sub-grid algorithms, computational power now allows the accretion radius of such objects to be resolved in smaller scale simulations. In this paper, we investigate the impact of resolution on two commonly used SMBH sub-grid algorithms; the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton (BHL) formula for accretion onto a point mass, and the related estimate of the drag force exerted onto a point mass by a gaseous medium. We find that when the accretion region around the black hole scales with resolution, and the BHL formula is evaluated using local mass-averaged quantities, the accretion algorithm smoothly transitions from the analytic BHL formula (at low resolution) to a supply limited accretion (SLA) scheme (at high resolution). However, when a similar procedure is employed to estimate the drag force it can lead to significant errors in its magnitude, and/or apply this force in the wrong direction in highly resolved simulations. At high Mach numbers and for small accretors, we also find evidence of the advective-acoustic instability operating in the adiabatic case, and of an instability developing around the wake's stagnation point in the quasi-isothermal case. Moreover, at very high resolution, and Mach numbers above M_∞ ≥ 3, the flow behind the accretion bow shock becomes entirely dominated by these instabilities. As a result, accretion rates onto the black hole drop by about an order of magnitude in the adiabatic case, compared to the analytic BHL formula.

  13. Gain curves and hydrodynamic modeling for shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, M.; Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G.

    2010-01-01

    Ignition of a precompressed thermonuclear fuel by means of a converging shock is now considered as a credible scheme to obtain high gains for inertial fusion energy. This work aims at modeling the successive stages of the fuel time history, from compression to final thermonuclear combustion, in order to provide the gain curves of shock ignition (SI). The leading physical mechanism at work in SI is pressure amplification, at first by spherical convergence, and by collision with the shock reflected at center during the stagnation process. These two effects are analyzed, and ignition conditions are provided as functions of the shock pressure and implosion velocity. Ignition conditions are obtained from a non-isobaric fuel assembly, for which we present a gain model. The corresponding gain curves exhibit a significantly lower ignition threshold and higher target gains than conventional central ignition.

  14. Comments on ''Analysis of spherical imploding shocks''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, R.B.

    1980-04-01

    It is asserted that Fujimoto and Mishkin's article is incorrect in its claim for a pressure extremum at or behind the shock for all values of ..gamma.. and in its claim for an analytical form for the similarity exponent. (AIP)

  15. General relativistic study of astrophysical jets with internal shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Mukesh K.; Chattopadhyay, Indranil

    2017-08-01

    We explore the possibility of the formation of steady internal shocks in jets around black holes. We consider a fluid described by a relativistic equation of state, flowing about the axis of symmetry (θ = 0) in a Schwarzschild metric. We use two models for the jet geometry: (I) a conical geometry and (II) a geometry with non-conical cross-section. A jet with conical geometry has a smooth flow, while the jet with non-conical cross-section undergoes multiple sonic points and even standing shock. The jet shock becomes stronger, as the shock location is situated farther from the central black hole. Jets with very high energy and very low energy do not harbour shocks, but jets with intermediate energies do harbour shocks. One advantage of these shocks, as opposed to shocks mediated by external medium, is that these shocks have no effect on the jet terminal speed, but may act as possible sites for particle acceleration. Typically, a jet with specific energy 1.8c2 will achieve a terminal speed of v∞ = 0.813c for jet with any geometry, where, c is the speed of light in vacuum. But for a jet of non-conical cross-section for which the length scale of the inner torus of the accretion disc is 40rg, then, in addition, a steady shock will form at rsh ˜ 7.5rg and compression ratio of R ˜ 2.7. Moreover, electron-proton jet seems to harbour the strongest shock. We will discuss possible consequences of such a scenario.

  16. The gravitational shock wave of a massless particle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't; Dray, T

    1985-01-01

    The (spherical) gravitational shock wave due to a massless particle moving at the speed of light along the horizon of the Schwarzchild black hole is obtained. Special cases of our procedure yield previous results by Aichelburg and Sexl[1] for a photon in Minkowski vpace and by Penrose [2] for

  17. Accretion-Ejection Instability in magnetized accretion disk around compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varniere, Peggy

    2002-01-01

    The major problem in accretion physics come from the origin of angular momentum transfer in the disk. My PhD deal with a mechanism (the Accretion-Ejection Instability, AEI) able to explain and link together accretion in the inner region of the disk and ejection. This instability occurs in magnetized accretion disk near equipartition with gas pressure. We first study the impact of some relativistic effects on the instability, particularly on the m = 1 mode. And compared the results with the Quasi-Periodic Oscillation (QPO) observed in micro-quasars. In the second part we study analytically and numerically the Alfven wave emission mechanism which re-emit the angular momentum and energy taken from the inner region of the disk into the corona. The last part deals with MHD numerical simulation. First of all a 2D non-linear disk simulation which contribute to QPO modelization. The last chapter is about a beginning collaboration on 3D simulation in order to study the Alfven wave emission in the corona. (author) [fr

  18. Tandem shock wave cavitation enhancement for extracorporeal lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loske, Achim M.; Prieto, Fernando E.; Fernández, Francisco; van Cauwelaert, Javier

    2002-11-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been successful for more than twenty years in treating patients with kidney stones. Hundreds of underwater shock waves are generated outside the patient's body and focused on the kidney stone. Stones fracture mainly due to spalling, cavitation and layer separation. Cavitation bubbles are produced in the vicinity of the stone by the tensile phase of each shock wave. Bubbles expand, stabilize and finally collapse violently, creating stone-damaging secondary shock waves and microjets. Bubble collapse can be intensified by sending a second shock wave a few hundred microseconds after the first. A novel method of generating two piezoelectrically generated shock waves with an adjustable time delay between 50 and 950 µs is described and tested. The objective is to enhance cavitation-induced damage to kidney stones during ESWL in order to reduce treatment time. In vitro kidney stone model fragmentation efficiency and pressure measurements were compared with those for a standard ESWL system. Results indicate that fragmentation efficiency was significantly enhanced at a shock wave delay of about 400 and 250 µs using rectangular and spherical stone phantoms, respectively. The system presented here could be installed in clinical devices at relatively low cost, without the need for a second shock wave generator.

  19. On accretion from an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.E.; Pringle, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Hypersonic accretion flow in two dimensions from an infinite medium which contains a small density and/or velocity gradient is considered. To first order in rsub(a)/h, where rsub(a) is the accretion radius and h the scale of the gradient, the accretion rate is unaffected and the accreted angular momentum is zero. Thus previous estimates of the amount of angular momentum accreted may severely overestimate the actual value. (author)

  20. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the spherical pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.B.; Hilko, B.; Panarella, E.

    1994-01-01

    The spherical pinch (SP) concept is an outgrowth of the inertial confinement model (ICF). Unlike the ICF where instabilities, especially the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, have been studied extensively, the instability study of the spherical pinch has just begun. The Raleigh-Taylor instability is investigated for the first time in the SP in the present work. By using the simple condition for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability ∇p · ∇p < O (density and pressure gradients have opposite direction), we have qualitatively identified the regions for development of instabilities in the SP. It is found that the explosion phase (central discharge) is stable and instabilities take place in the imploding phase. However, the growth rate for the instability is not in exponential form, and the appearance of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability does not prevent the main shock wave from converging to the center of the sphere

  1. 2D RADIATION-HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF SUPERNOVA SHOCK BREAKOUT IN BIPOLAR EXPLOSIONS OF A BLUE SUPERGIANT PROGENITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Shigeyama, Toshikazu [Research Center for the Early Universe, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-07-10

    A two-dimensional special relativistic radiation-hydrodynamics code is developed and applied to numerical simulations of supernova shock breakout in bipolar explosions of a blue supergiant. Our calculations successfully simulate the dynamical evolution of a blast wave in the star and its emergence from the surface. Results of the model with spherical energy deposition show a good agreement with previous simulations. Furthermore, we calculate several models with bipolar energy deposition and compare their results with the spherically symmetric model. The bolometric light curves of the shock breakout emission are calculated by a ray-tracing method. Our radiation-hydrodynamic models indicate that the early part of the shock breakout emission can be used to probe the geometry of the blast wave produced as a result of the gravitational collapse of the iron core.

  2. Snow accretion on overhead wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Y. [Meteorological Research Inst. for Technology Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tachizaki, S.; Sudo, N. [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Ltd., Miyagi (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Wet snow accretion can cause extensive damage to transmission systems. This paper reviewed some of the difficulties faced by researchers in the study of wet snow accretion on overhead lines in Japan. The study of snow accretion phenomena is complicated by the range of phase changes in water. Snowflakes produced in an upper atmospheric layer with a temperature below freezing do not melt when they go through a lower atmospheric layer with a temperature above freezing, but are in a mixed state of solid and liquid due to the latent heat of melting. The complicated properties of water make studies of snow accretion difficult, as well as the fact that snow changes its physical properties rapidly, due to the effects of ambient temperature, rainfall, and solar radiation. The adhesive forces that cause snow accretion include freezing; bonding through freezing; sintering; condensation and freezing of vapor in the air; mechanical intertwining of snowflakes; capillary action due to liquids; coherent forces between ice particles and water formed through the metamorphosis of snowflakes. In addition to these complexities, differences in laboratory room environments and natural snow environments can also pose difficulties for researchers. Equations describing the relationship between the density of accreted snow and the meteorological parameters involved were presented, as well as empirical equations which suggested that snow accretion efficiency has a dependency on air temperature. An empirical model for estimating snow loads in Japan was outlined, as well as various experiments observing show shedding. Correlations for wet snow accretion included precipitation intensity; duration of precipitation; air temperature; wind speed and wind direction in relation to the overhead line. Issues concerning topography and wet snow accretion were reviewed. It was concluded that studies of snow accretion will benefit by the collection of data in each matrix of the relevant parameters. 12 refs

  3. Dynamics of Laser-Driven Shock Waves in Solid Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Velikovich, A. L.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Grun, J.; Metzler, N.; Zalesak, S. T.; Gardner, J. H.; Oh, J.; Harding, E. C.

    2009-11-01

    Accurate shock timing is a key issue of both indirect- and direct-drive laser fusions. The experiments on the Nike laser at NRL presented here were made possible by improvements in the imaging capability of our monochromatic x-ray diagnostics based on Bragg reflection from spherically curved crystals. Side-on imaging implemented on Nike makes it possible to observe dynamics of the shock wave and ablation front in laser-driven solid targets. We can choose to observe a sequence of 2D images or a continuous time evolution of an image resolved in one spatial dimension. A sequence of 300 ps snapshots taken using vanadium backlighter at 5.2 keV reveals propagation of a shock wave in a solid plastic target. The shape of the shock wave reflects the intensity distribution in the Nike beam. The streak records with continuous time resolution show the x-t trajectory of a laser-driven shock wave in a 10% solid density DVB foam.

  4. Nuclear Spiral Shocks and Induced Gas Inflows in Weak Oval Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong-Tae [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    Nuclear spirals are ubiquitous in galaxy centers. They exist not only in strong barred galaxies but also in galaxies without noticeable bars. We use high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of nuclear gas spirals driven by weak bar-like and oval potentials. The amplitude of the spirals increases toward the center by a geometric effect, readily developing into shocks at small radii even for very weak potentials. The shape of the spirals and shocks depends rather sensitively on the background shear. When shear is low, the nuclear spirals are loosely wound and the shocks are almost straight, resulting in large mass inflows toward the center. When shear is high, on the other hand, the spirals are tightly wound and the shocks are oblique, forming a circumnuclear disk through which gas flows inward at a relatively lower rate. The induced mass inflow rates are enough to power black hole accretion in various types of Seyfert galaxies as well as to drive supersonic turbulence at small radii.

  5. Suppression of Self-Induced Flavor Conversion in the Supernova Accretion Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikas, Srdjan; Raffelt, Georg G.; Hüdepohl, Lorenz; Janka, Hans-Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Self-induced flavor conversions of supernova (SN) neutrinos can strongly modify the flavor-dependent fluxes. We perform a linearized flavor stability analysis with accretion-phase matter profiles of a 15M⊙ spherically symmetric model and corresponding neutrino fluxes. We use realistic energy and angle distributions, the latter deviating strongly from quasi-isotropic emission, thus accounting for both multiangle and multienergy effects. For our matter and neutrino density profile we always find stable conditions: flavor conversions are limited to the usual Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. In this case one may distinguish the neutrino mass hierarchy in a SN neutrino signal if the mixing angle θ13 is as large as suggested by recent experiments.

  6. Equation-of-state dependent features in shock-oscillation modulated neutrino and gravitational-wave signals from supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, A.; Janka, H.-T.; Müller, E.

    2009-03-01

    We present two-dimensional (axisymmetric) neutrino-hydrodynamic simulations of the long-time accretion phase of a 15 M_⊙ progenitor star after core bounce and before the launch of a supernova explosion, when non-radial hydrodynamic instabilities like convection occur in different regions of the collapsing stellar core and the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) leads to large-amplitude oscillations of the stalled shock with a period of tens of milliseconds. Our simulations were performed with the Prometheus-Vertex code, which includes a multi-flavor, energy-dependent neutrino transport scheme and employs an effective relativistic gravitational potential. Testing the influence of a stiff and a soft equation of state for hot neutron star matter, we find that the non-radial mass motions in the supernova core impose a time variability on the neutrino and gravitational-wave signals with larger amplitudes, as well as higher frequencies in the case of a more compact nascent neutron star. After the prompt shock-breakout burst of electron neutrinos, a more compact accreting remnant produces higher neutrino luminosities and higher mean neutrino energies. The observable neutrino emission in the SASI sloshing direction exhibits a modulation of several ten percent in the luminosities and around 1 MeV in the mean energies with most power at typical SASI frequencies between roughly 20 and 100 Hz. The modulation is caused by quasi-periodic variations in the mass accretion rate of the neutron star in each hemisphere. At times later than ~50-100 ms after bounce, the gravitational-wave amplitude is dominated by the growing low-frequency (⪉200 Hz) signal associated with anisotropic neutrino emission. A high-frequency wave signal results from nonradial gas flows in the outer layers of the anisotropically accreting neutron star. Right after bounce such nonradial mass motions occur due to prompt post-shock convection in both considered cases and contribute mostly to the early

  7. Kidney damage in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a numerical approach for different shock profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Kerstin; Ortiz, Michael

    2009-08-01

    In shock-wave lithotripsy--a medical procedure to fragment kidney stones--the patient is subjected to hypersonic waves focused at the kidney stone. Although this procedure is widely applied, the physics behind this medical treatment, in particular the question of how the injuries to the surrounding kidney tissue arise, is still under investigation. To contribute to the solution of this problem, two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations of a human kidney under shock-wave loading are presented. For this purpose a constitutive model of the bio-mechanical system kidney is introduced, which is able to map large visco-elastic deformations and, in particular, material damage. The specific phenomena of cavitation induced oscillating bubbles is modeled here as an evolution of spherical pores within the soft kidney tissue. By means of large scale finite element simulations, we study the shock-wave propagation into the kidney tissue, adapt unknown material parameters and analyze the resulting stress states. The simulations predict localized damage in the human kidney in the same regions as observed in animal experiments. Furthermore, the numerical results suggest that in first instance the pressure amplitude of the shock wave impulse (and not so much its exact time-pressure profile) is responsible for damaging the kidney tissue.

  8. Radiating shocks and condensations in flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    Rapid energy release (by either ''thick target'' (beam) or ''thermal'' models of heating) in solar flare loop models usually leads to ''chromospheric evaporation,'' the process of heating cool chromospheric material to coronal temperatures, and the resulting increase in hot soft x-ray emitting plasma. The evaporated plasma flows up into the coronal portion of the loop because of the increased pressure in the evaporated region. However, the pressure increase also leads to a number of interesting phenomena in the flare chromosphere, which will be the subject of this paper. The sudden pressure increase in the evaporated plasma initiates a downward moving ''chromospheric condensation,'' an overdense region which gradually decelerates as it accretes material and propagates into the gravitationally stratified chromosphere. Solutions to an equation of motion for this condensation shows that its motion decays after about one minute of propagation into the chromosphere. When the front of this downflowing region is supersonic relative to the atmosphere ahead of it, a radiating shock will form. If the downflow is rapid enough, the shock strength should be sufficient to excite uv radiation normally associated with the transition region, and furthermore, the radiating shock will be brighter than the transition region. These results lead to a number of observationally testable relationships between the optical and ultraviolet spectra from the condensation and radiating shock

  9. Shock-timing experiments for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debras, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Laser Megajoule (LMJ), which should achieve energy gain in an indirect drive inertial confinement fusion configuration, is being built in France by the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives). To achieve thermonuclear ignition, the compression of a spherical target will have to be controlled by a series of accurately timed centripetal shocks, with a finely tuned level. A first experiment, performed in 2010 on the LIL (Ligne d'Integration Laser) facility at CEA, has allowed us to study the coalescence of two planar shocks in an indirectly-driven sample of polystyrene, within the framework of shock timing. The main objectives were to validate the experimental concept and the numerical simulations, as a proof-of-principle for future shock-timing campaigns. The main diagnostics used for this study are VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflection) and an optical shock breakout diagnostic, taking into account optical perturbations caused by X-rays. In another experiment, conducted on the LULI (Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses) laser facility in 2010, we studied the timing of two planar directly-driven shocks using the same diagnostics. This latter study is related to the shock ignition concept, with the long-term perspective of energy production. This thesis presents these two experiments and their results. (author) [fr

  10. Magnetohydrodynamics of accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkelsson, U.

    1994-04-01

    The thesis consists of an introduction and summary, and five research papers. The introduction and summary provides the background in accretion disk physics and magnetohydrodynamics. The research papers describe numerical studies of magnetohydrodynamical processes in accretion disks. Paper 1 is a one-dimensional study of the effect of magnetic buoyancy on a flux tube in an accretion disk. The stabilizing influence of an accretion disk corona on the flux tube is demonstrated. Paper 2-4 present numerical simulations of mean-field dynamos in accretion disks. Paper 11 verifies the correctness of the numerical code by comparing linear models to previous work by other groups. The results are also extended to somewhat modified disk models. A transition from an oscillatory mode of negative parity for thick disks to a steady mode of even parity for thin disks is found. Preliminary results for nonlinear dynamos at very high dynamo numbers are also presented. Paper 3 describes the bifurcation behaviour of the nonlinear dynamos. For positive dynamo numbers it is found that the initial steady solution is replaced by an oscillatory solution of odd parity. For negative dynamo numbers the solution becomes chaotic at sufficiently high dynamo numbers. Paper 4 continues the studies of nonlinear dynamos, and it is demonstrated that a chaotic solution appears even for positive dynamo numbers, but that it returns to a steady solution of mixed parity at very high dynamo numbers. Paper 5 describes a first attempt at simulating the small-scale turbulence of an accretion disk in three dimensions. There is only find cases of decaying turbulence, but this is rather due to limitations of the simulations than that turbulence is really absent in accretion disks

  11. Quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting magnetic white dwarfs. II. The asset of numerical modelling for interpreting observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschaert, C.; Falize, É.; Michaut, C.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Mouchet, M.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Magnetic cataclysmic variables are close binary systems containing a strongly magnetized white dwarf that accretes matter coming from an M-dwarf companion. The high magnetic field strength leads to the formation of an accretion column instead of an accretion disk. High-energy radiation coming from those objects is emitted from the column close to the white dwarf photosphere at the impact region. Its properties depend on the characteristics of the white dwarf and an accurate accretion column model allows the properties of the binary system to be inferred, such as the white dwarf mass, its magnetic field, and the accretion rate. Aims: We study the temporal and spectral behaviour of the accretion region and use the tools we developed to accurately connect the simulation results to the X-ray and optical astronomical observations. Methods: The radiation hydrodynamics code Hades was adapted to simulate this specific accretion phenomena. Classical approaches were used to model the radiative losses of the two main radiative processes: bremsstrahlung and cyclotron. Synthetic light curves and X-ray spectra were extracted from numerical simulations. A fast Fourier analysis was performed on the simulated light curves. The oscillation frequencies and amplitudes in the X-ray and optical domains are studied to compare those numerical results to observational ones. Different dimensional formulae were developed to complete the numerical evaluations. Results: The complete characterization of the emitting region is described for the two main radiative regimes: when only the bremsstrahlung losses and when both cyclotron and bremsstrahlung losses are considered. The effect of the non-linear cooling instability regime on the accretion column behaviour is analysed. Variation in luminosity on short timescales (~1 s quasi-periodic oscillations) is an expected consequence of this specific dynamic. The importance of secondary shock instability on the quasi-periodic oscillation

  12. Cavitation bubble nucleation induced by shock-bubble interaction in a gelatin gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Ryota; Ando, Keita

    2018-05-01

    An optical visualization technique is developed to study cavitation bubble nucleation that results from interaction between a laser-induced shock and a preexisting gas bubble in a 10 wt. % gelatin gel; images of the nucleated cavitation bubbles are captured and the cavitation inception pressure is determined based on Euler flow simulation. A spherical gas cavity is generated by focusing an infrared laser pulse into a gas-supersaturated gel and the size of the laser-generated bubble in mechanical equilibrium is tuned via mass transfer of the dissolved gas into the bubble. A spherical shock is then generated, through rapid expansion of plasma induced by the laser focusing, in the vicinity of the gas bubble. The shock-bubble interaction is recorded by a CCD camera with flash illumination of a nanosecond green laser pulse. The observation captures cavitation inception in the gel under tension that results from acoustic impedance mismatching at the bubble interface interacting with the shock. We measure the probability of cavitation inception from a series of the repeated experiments, by varying the bubble radius and the standoff distance. The threshold pressure is defined at the cavitation inception probability equal to one half and is calculated, through comparisons to Euler flow simulation, at -24.4 MPa. This threshold value is similar to that from shock-bubble interaction experiments using water, meaning that viscoelasticity of the 10 wt. % gelatin gel has a limited impact on bubble nucleation dynamics.

  13. Shock physics with the nova laser for ICF applications. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammel, B.A.; Cauble, R.; Celliers, P.

    1995-01-01

    The physics of high pressure shocks plays a central role in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). In indirect drive ICF, x-rays from a gold cavity (hohlraum) are used to ablatively drive a series of high pressure shocks into a spherical target (capsule). These shocks converge at the center, compressing the fuel and forming a hot dense core. The target performance, such as peak fuel density and temperature and neutron yield, depends critically on hock timing, and material compressibility. Accurate predictions of NIF target performance depends critically on shock timing and material compressibility. Current measurement techniques enable us to accurately determine shock timing in planar samples of abator material as a function of laser drive. Although this technique does not separately address uncertainties in material EOS and opacity, it does allow us to tune the laser drive until the desired shock timing is achieved. Experiments to directly address the EOS of D 2 ice are planned to further increase the margin for ignition in current target designs

  14. THERMAL AND DYNAMICAL PROPERTIES OF GAS ACCRETING ONTO A SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN AN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mościbrodzka, M.; Proga, D.

    2013-01-01

    We study stability of gas accretion in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our grid-based simulations cover a radial range from 0.1 to 200 pc, which may enable linking the galactic/cosmological simulations with small-scale black hole (BH) accretion models within a few hundreds of Schwarzschild radii. Here, as in previous studies by our group, we include gas radiative cooling as well as heating by a sub-Eddington X-ray source near the central supermassive BH of 10 8 M ☉ . Our theoretical estimates and simulations show that for the X-ray luminosity, L X ∼ 0.008 L Edd , the gas is thermally and convectively unstable within the computational domain. In the simulations, we observe that very tiny fluctuations in an initially smooth, spherically symmetric, accretion flow, grow first linearly and then nonlinearly. Consequently, an initially one-phase flow relatively quickly transitions into a two-phase/cold-hot accretion flow. For L X = 0.015 L Edd or higher, the cold clouds continue to accrete but in some regions of the hot phase, the gas starts to move outward. For L X Edd , the cold phase contribution to the total mass accretion rate only moderately dominates over the hot phase contribution. This result might have some consequences for cosmological simulations of the so-called AGN feedback problem. Our simulations confirm the previous results of Barai et al. who used smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations to tackle the same problem. Here, however, because we use a grid-based code to solve equations in one dimension and two dimensions, we are able to follow the gas dynamics at much higher spacial resolution and for longer time compared with the three-dimensional SPH simulations. One of the new features revealed by our simulations is that the cold condensations in the accretion flow initially form long filaments, but at the later times, those filaments may break into smaller clouds advected outward within the hot outflow. Therefore, these simulations may serve as

  15. Accretion onto CO White Dwarfs using MESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wanda; Starrfield, Sumner

    2018-06-01

    The nature of type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) progenitor systems and their underlying mechanism are not well understood. There are two competing progenitor scenarios: the single-degenerate scenario wherein a white dwarf (WD) star accretes material from a companion star, reaching the Chandrasekhar mass limit; and, the double-degenerate scenario wherein two WDs merge. In this study, we investigate the single-degenerate scenario by accretion onto carbon-oxygen (CO) WDs using the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA). We vary the WD mass, composition of the accreting material, and accretion rate in our models. Mixing between the accreted material and the WD core is informed by multidimensional studies that suggest occurance after thermonuclear runaway (TNR) ensues. We compare the accretion of solar composition material onto CO WDs with the accretion of mixed solar and core material after TNR. As many of our models eject less material than accreted, our study supports that accretion onto CO WDs is a feasible channel for SNe I progenitors.

  16. Diagnosing radiative shocks from deuterium and tritium implosions on NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, A; Divol, L; Weber, S; Döppner, T; Kyrala, G A; Kilne, J; Izumi, N; Glenn, S; Ma, T; Town, R P; Bradley, D K; Glenzer, S H

    2012-10-01

    During the recent ignition tuning campaign at the National Ignition Facility, layered cryogenic deuterium and tritium capsules were imploded via x-ray driven ablation. The hardened gated x-ray imager diagnostic temporally and spatially resolves the x-ray emission from the core of the capsule implosion at energies above ~8 keV. On multiple implosions, ~200-400 ps after peak compression a spherically expanding radiative shock has been observed. This paper describes the methods used to characterize the radial profile and rate of expansion of the shock induced x-ray emission.

  17. Relativistic, accreting disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A; Jaroszynski, M.; Sikora, M.

    1978-01-01

    An analytic theory of the hydrodynamical structure of accreting disks (without self-gravitation but with pressure) orbiting around and axially symmetric, stationary, compact body (e.g. black hole) is presented. The inner edge of the marginally stable accreting disk (i.e. disk with constant angular momentum density) has a sharp cusp located on the equatorial plane between rsub(ms) and rsub(mb). The existence of the cusp is also typical for any angular momentum distribution. The physical importance of the cusp follows from the close analogy with the case of a close binary system (L 1 Lagrange point on the Roche lobe). The existence of the cusp is thus a crucial phenomenon in such problems as boundary condition for the viscous stresses, accretion rate etc. (orig.) [de

  18. Fermi bubbles inflated by winds launched from the hot accretion flow in Sgr A*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou, Guobin; Yuan, Feng; Bu, Defu; Sun, Mouyuan; Su, Meng

    2014-01-01

    A pair of giant gamma-ray Bubbles has been revealed by Fermi-LAT. In this paper we investigate their formation mechanism. Observations have indicated that the activity of the supermassive black hole located at the Galactic center, Sgr A*, was much stronger than at the present time. Specifically, one possibility is that while Sgr A* was also in the hot accretion regime, the accretion rate should be 10 3 -10 4 times higher during the past ∼10 7 yr. On the other hand, recent magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of hot accretion flows have unambiguously shown the existence and obtained the properties of strong winds. Based on this knowledge, by performing three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, we show in this paper that the Fermi Bubbles could be inflated by winds launched from the 'past' hot accretion flow in Sgr A*. In our model, the active phase of Sgr A* is required to last for about 10 million years and it was quenched no more than 0.2 million years ago. The central molecular zone (CMZ) is included and it collimates the wind orientation toward the Galactic poles. Viscosity suppresses the Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and results in the smoothness of the Bubbles edge. The main observational features of the Bubbles can be well explained. Specifically, the ROSAT X-ray features are interpreted by the shocked interstellar medium and the interaction region between the wind and CMZ gas. The thermal pressure and temperature obtained in our model are consistent with recent Suzaku observations.

  19. Imaging the Ejecta in Classical Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin

    2016-10-01

    A nova outburst results when sufficient mass accretes from a companion star onto the surface of a white dwarf, triggering a thermonuclear explosion. In classical novae the bulk of the emission comes from the warm, expanding ejecta. The prevailing theories assume that the explosion occurs as a single, spherically symmetric ejection event and predict a simple relationship between the white dwarf mass, the accretion rate, and the mass loss and energetics of the explosion. However, observations with modern instruments indicate that nova eruptions are far from simple. There is now evidence for multiple ejection events, common envelopes, non-spherical geometry, and even jet-like structures in the ejecta. Our ENova collaboration combines radio, mm, optical, and X-ray observations and detailed theoretical modelling to study the most common major explosions in the universe. Among our results so far are the direct demonstration of the importance of shocks in novae, including the detection of gamma-ray producing shocks in several sources, and the realization that multiple, long-lived outflows are much more common than previously assumed. Here we propose to continue these highly successful observations with coordinated detailed VLA radio interferometry and HST optical imaging and spectroscropy of several recent novae with substantial VLA monitoring already in progress.

  20. Accretion onto a Kiselev black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Lei [Hebei University, College of Physical Science and Technology, Baoding (China); Yang, Rongjia [Hebei University, College of Physical Science and Technology, Baoding (China); Hebei University, Hebei Key Lab of Optic-Electronic Information and Materials, Baoding (China)

    2017-05-15

    We consider accretion onto a Kiselev black hole. We obtain the fundamental equations for accretion without the back-reaction. We determine the general analytic expressions for the critical points and the mass accretion rate and find the physical conditions the critical points should fulfill. The case of a polytropic gas are discussed in detail. It turns out that the quintessence parameter plays an important role in the accretion process. (orig.)

  1. A polar-drive shock-ignition design for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K. S.; McKenty, P. W.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Marozas, J. A.; Skupsky, S.; Shvydky, A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Physics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Hohenberger, M.; Theobald, W.; Lafon, M.; Nora, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Shock ignition [R. Betti et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 155001 (2007)] is being pursued as a viable option to achieve ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Shock-ignition target designs use a high-intensity laser spike at the end of a low-adiabat assembly pulse to launch a spherically convergent strong shock to ignite the hot spot of an imploding capsule. A shock-ignition target design for the NIF is presented. One-dimensional simulations indicate an ignition threshold factor of 4.1 with a gain of 58. A polar-drive beam-pointing configuration for shock-ignition experiments on the NIF at 750 kJ is proposed. The capsule design is shown to be robust to the various one- and two-dimensional effects and nonuniformities anticipated on the NIF. The target is predicted to ignite with a gain of 38 when including all anticipated levels of nonuniformity and system uncertainty.

  2. Development and implementation of a pressure propagation code applicable in spherical geometry to euler/isentropic/acoustic modelling. Comparative treatment of shock-up and refection on simplified rigid or elastic obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essers, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A sophisticated computer code for the calculation of plane or spherical pressure waves and their reflection on a simplified rigid or flexible obstacle has been constructed. Different options: choice of explicit or implicit scheme, use of eulerian, isentropic or acoustic flow models, introduction of different artificial viscosities, use of uniform or non-uniform adaptive grids have been made available and validated by simple shock waves computations. The results from different numerical experiments are presented. They have been used to evaluate the values of artificial viscosity coefficients leading to acceptable pressure pulses. In particular, the following important conclusions have been confirmed: - the linear acoustic model leads to important errors except for extremely weak overpressures; - an excellent accuracy can be obtained with the non-linear isentropic model in a wide overpressure range; - as opposed to the eulerian and to the non-linear isentropic models, the acoustic model is completely uncapable of predicting the shock-up phenomenon, and can therefore lead to important errors in the prediction of the pulse shape even for very weak overpressures

  3. Gravity signatures of terrane accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Heather; Abbott, Dallas

    1999-01-01

    In modern collisional environments, accreted terranes are bracketed by forearc gravity lows, a gravitational feature which results from the abandonment of the original trench and the initiation of a new trench seaward of the accreted terrane. The size and shape of the gravity low depends on the type of accreted feature and the strength of the formerly subducting plate. Along the Central American trench, the accretion of Gorgona Island caused a seaward trench jump of 48 to 66 km. The relict trench axes show up as gravity lows behind the trench with minimum values of -78 mgal (N of Gorgona) and -49 mgal (S of Gorgona) respectively. These forearc gravity lows have little or no topographic expression. The active trench immediately seaward of these forearc gravity lows has minimum gravity values of -59 mgal (N of Gorgona) and -58 mgal (S of Gorgona), respectively. In the north, the active trench has a less pronounced gravity low than the sediment covered forearc. In the Mariana arc, two Cretaceous seamounts have been accreted to the Eocene arc. The northern seamount is most likely a large block, the southern seamount may be a thrust slice. These more recent accretion events have produced modest forearc topographic and gravity lows in comparison with the topographic and gravity lows within the active trench. However, the minimum values of the Mariana forearc gravity lows are modest only by comparison to the Mariana Trench (-216 mgal); their absolute values are more negative than at Gorgona Island (-145 to -146 mgal). We speculate that the forearc gravity lows and seaward trench jumps near Gorgona Island were produced by the accretion of a hotspot island from a strong plate. The Mariana gravity lows and seaward trench jumps (or thrust slices) were the result of breaking a relatively weak plate close to the seamount edifice. These gravity lows resulting from accretion events should be preserved in older accreted terranes.

  4. Relativistic, accreting disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, M A; Jaroszynski, M; Sikora, M [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw

    1978-02-01

    An analytic theory of the hydrodynamical structure of accreting disks (without self-gravitation but with pressure) orbiting around an axially symmetric, stationary, compact body (e.g. black hole) is presented. The inner edge of the marginally stable accreting disk (i.e. disk with constant angular momentum density) has a sharp cusp located on the equatorial plane between r/sub ms/ and r/sub mb/. The existence of the cusp is also typical for any angular momentum distribution. The physical importance of the cusp follows from the close analogy with the case of a close binary system (L/sub 1/ Lagrange point on the Roche lobe). The existence of the cusp is thus a crucial phenomenon in such problems as boundary condition for the viscous stresses, accretion rate, etc.

  5. General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Magnetically Choked Accretion Flows around Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Jonathan C.; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Blandford, Roger D.

    2012-04-26

    Black hole (BH) accretion flows and jets are qualitatively affected by the presence of ordered magnetic fields. We study fully three-dimensional global general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of radially extended and thick (height H to cylindrical radius R ratio of |H/R| {approx} 0.2-1) accretion flows around BHs with various dimensionless spins (a/M, with BH mass M) and with initially toroidally-dominated ({phi}-directed) and poloidally-dominated (R-z directed) magnetic fields. Firstly, for toroidal field models and BHs with high enough |a/M|, coherent large-scale (i.e. >> H) dipolar poloidal magnetic flux patches emerge, thread the BH, and generate transient relativistic jets. Secondly, for poloidal field models, poloidal magnetic flux readily accretes through the disk from large radii and builds-up to a natural saturation point near the BH. While models with |H/R| {approx} 1 and |a/M| {le} 0.5 do not launch jets due to quenching by mass infall, for sufficiently high |a/M| or low |H/R| the polar magnetic field compresses the inflow into a geometrically thin highly non-axisymmetric 'magnetically choked accretion flow' (MCAF) within which the standard linear magneto-rotational instability is suppressed. The condition of a highly-magnetized state over most of the horizon is optimal for the Blandford-Znajek mechanism that generates persistent relativistic jets with and 100% efficiency for |a/M| {approx}> 0.9. A magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetospheric interface forms between the compressed inflow and bulging jet magnetosphere, which drives a new jet-disk oscillation (JDO) type of quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) mechanism. The high-frequency QPO has spherical harmonic |m| = 1 mode period of {tau} {approx} 70GM/c{sup 3} for a/M {approx} 0.9 with coherence quality factors Q {approx}> 10. Overall, our models are qualitatively distinct from most prior MHD simulations (typically, |H/R| << 1 and poloidal flux is

  6. A nova outburst powered by shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kwan-Lok; Metzger, Brian D.; Chomiuk, Laura; Vurm, Indrek; Strader, Jay; Finzell, Thomas; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Nelson, Thomas; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Prieto, José L.; Kafka, Stella; Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Thompson, Todd A.; Luckas, Paul J.; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    Classical novae are runaway thermonuclear burning events on the surfaces of accreting white dwarfs in close binary star systems, sometimes appearing as new naked-eye sources in the night sky1. The standard model of novae predicts that their optical luminosity derives from energy released near the hot white dwarf, which is reprocessed through the ejected material2-5. Recent studies using the Fermi Large Area Telescope have shown that many classical novae are accompanied by gigaelectronvolt γ-ray emission6,7. This emission likely originates from strong shocks, providing new insights into the properties of nova outflows and allowing them to be used as laboratories for the study of the unknown efficiency of particle acceleration in shocks. Here, we report γ-ray and optical observations of the Milky Way nova ASASSN-16ma, which is among the brightest novae ever detected in γ-rays. The γ-ray and optical light curves show a remarkable correlation, implying that the majority of the optical light comes from reprocessed emission from shocks rather than the white dwarf8. The ratio of γ-ray to optical flux in ASASSN-16ma directly constrains the acceleration efficiency of non-thermal particles to be around 0.005, favouring hadronic models for the γ-ray emission9. The need to accelerate particles up to energies exceeding 100 gigaelectronvolts provides compelling evidence for magnetic field amplification in the shocks.

  7. WIND-ACCRETION DISKS IN WIDE BINARIES, SECOND-GENERATION PROTOPLANETARY DISKS, AND ACCRETION ONTO WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perets, Hagai B.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Mass transfer from an evolved donor star to its binary companion is a standard feature of stellar evolution in binaries. In wide binaries, the companion star captures some of the mass ejected in a wind by the primary star. The captured material forms an accretion disk. Here, we study the evolution of wind-accretion disks, using a numerical approach which allows us to follow the long-term evolution. For a broad range of initial conditions, we derive the radial density and temperature profiles of the disk. In most cases, wind accretion leads to long-lived stable disks over the lifetime of the asymptotic giant branch donor star. The disks have masses of a few times 10 –5 -10 –3 M ☉ , with surface density and temperature profiles that follow broken power laws. The total mass in the disk scales approximately linearly with the viscosity parameter used. Roughly, 50%-80% of the mass falling into the disk accretes onto the central star; the rest flows out through the outer edge of the disk into the stellar wind of the primary. For systems with large accretion rates, the secondary accretes as much as 0.1 M ☉ . When the secondary is a white dwarf, accretion naturally leads to nova and supernova eruptions. For all types of secondary star, the surface density and temperature profiles of massive disks resemble structures observed in protoplanetary disks, suggesting that coordinated observational programs might improve our understanding of uncertain disk physics.

  8. Mixed ice accretion on aircraft wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Zaid A.; Turnbull, Barbara; Hibberd, Stephen; Choi, Kwing-So

    2018-02-01

    Ice accretion is a problematic natural phenomenon that affects a wide range of engineering applications including power cables, radio masts, and wind turbines. Accretion on aircraft wings occurs when supercooled water droplets freeze instantaneously on impact to form rime ice or runback as water along the wing to form glaze ice. Most models to date have ignored the accretion of mixed ice, which is a combination of rime and glaze. A parameter we term the "freezing fraction" is defined as the fraction of a supercooled droplet that freezes on impact with the top surface of the accretion ice to explore the concept of mixed ice accretion. Additionally we consider different "packing densities" of rime ice, mimicking the different bulk rime densities observed in nature. Ice accretion is considered in four stages: rime, primary mixed, secondary mixed, and glaze ice. Predictions match with existing models and experimental data in the limiting rime and glaze cases. The mixed ice formulation however provides additional insight into the composition of the overall ice structure, which ultimately influences adhesion and ice thickness, and shows that for similar atmospheric parameter ranges, this simple mixed ice description leads to very different accretion rates. A simple one-dimensional energy balance was solved to show how this freezing fraction parameter increases with decrease in atmospheric temperature, with lower freezing fraction promoting glaze ice accretion.

  9. Formation of solar-type stars in spherical symmetry. II. Effects of detailed constitutive relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, K.A.; Newman, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A time-dependent hydrodynamical calculation of the spherically symmetric self-gravitational collapse and accretion of a homogeneous Jeans unstable 1 M/sub sun/ protostellar cloud has been performed using the detailed equation-of-state tables of Fontaine, Graboske, and Van Horn. It is found that the inner 0.03 M/sub sun/ of the core enters a partially degenerate region during the main accretion phase. A well-pronounced off-center temperature maximum develops under the combined influences of electron degeneracy and pressure ionization. A hydrogen ionization zone within the quasi-hydrostatic core drives core oscillations with typical periods of a few months in the transition phase from the second (final) collpase to the accretion stage. A third collapse does not occur, because of the gradual (''soft'') ionization of hydrogen at high density (rhoapprox. =1 g cm -3 ). Gas opacities were taken from the King IVa tables of Cox and Tabor, and dust opacities from Bertout and Yorke. Energy transport by radiation was treated by solution of the time-dependent moment equations with an Eddington factor f derived from the static transport equation. The diffusion approximation with f=1/3 would offer an adequate description of the protostellar core, but the intensity of the constant luminosity radiation field becomes highly anisotropic in local optically thin regions of the envelope. The degree of anisotropy in optically thick regions is determined by the temperature dependence of the dust opacity and the depletion of matter from the envelope. Near the end of the accretion phase the entire envelope is characterized by complete anisotropy f=1

  10. Migration of accreting giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crida, A.; Bitsch, B.; Raibaldi, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of 2D hydro simulations of giant planets in proto-planetary discs, which accrete gas at a more or less high rate. First, starting from a solid core of 20 Earth masses, we show that as soon as the runaway accretion of gas turns on, the planet is saved from type I migration : the gap opening mass is reached before the planet is lost into its host star. Furthermore, gas accretion helps opening the gap in low mass discs. Consequently, if the accretion rate is limited to the disc supply, then the planet is already inside a gap and in type II migration. We further show that the type II migration of a Jupiter mass planet actually depends on its accretion rate. Only when the accretion is high do we retrieve the classical picture where no gas crosses the gap and the planet follows the disc spreading. These results impact our understanding of planet migration and planet population synthesis models. The e-poster presenting these results in French can be found here: L'e-poster présentant ces résultats en français est disponible à cette adresse: http://sf2a.eu/semaine-sf2a/2016/posterpdfs/156_179_49.pdf.

  11. Supernovae Ia in 2017: a long time delay from merger/accretion to explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Noam

    2018-04-01

    I use recent observational and theoretical studies of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to further constrain the viable SN Ia scenarios and to argue that there must be a substantial time delay between the end of the merger of the white dwarf (WD) with a companion or the end of mass accretion on to the WD and its terminal explosion. This merger/accretion to explosion delay (MED) is required to allow the binary system to lead to a more or less spherical explosion and to prevent a pre-explosion ionizing radiation. Considering these recent results and the required MED, I conclude that the core degenerate scenario is somewhat more favorable over the other scenarios, followed by the double degenerate scenario. Although the single degenerate scenario is viable as well, it is less likely to account for common (normal) SN Ia. As all scenarios require substantial MED, the MED has turned from a disadvantage of the core degenerate scenario to a challenge that theory should overcome. I hope that the requirement for a MED will stimulate the discussion of the different SN Ia scenarios and the comparison of the scenarios to each other.

  12. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek A. Abramowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks, Shakura-Sunyaev (thin disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs. After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs.

  13. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P Chris

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).

  14. Pebble Accretion in Turbulent Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziyan; Bai, Xue-Ning; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.

    2017-09-01

    It has been realized in recent years that the accretion of pebble-sized dust particles onto planetary cores is an important mode of core growth, which enables the formation of giant planets at large distances and assists planet formation in general. The pebble accretion theory is built upon the orbit theory of dust particles in a laminar protoplanetary disk (PPD). For sufficiently large core mass (in the “Hill regime”), essentially all particles of appropriate sizes entering the Hill sphere can be captured. However, the outer regions of PPDs are expected to be weakly turbulent due to the magnetorotational instability (MRI), where turbulent stirring of particle orbits may affect the efficiency of pebble accretion. We conduct shearing-box simulations of pebble accretion with different levels of MRI turbulence (strongly turbulent assuming ideal magnetohydrodynamics, weakly turbulent in the presence of ambipolar diffusion, and laminar) and different core masses to test the efficiency of pebble accretion at a microphysical level. We find that accretion remains efficient for marginally coupled particles (dimensionless stopping time {τ }s˜ 0.1{--}1) even in the presence of strong MRI turbulence. Though more dust particles are brought toward the core by the turbulence, this effect is largely canceled by a reduction in accretion probability. As a result, the overall effect of turbulence on the accretion rate is mainly reflected in the changes in the thickness of the dust layer. On the other hand, we find that the efficiency of pebble accretion for strongly coupled particles (down to {τ }s˜ 0.01) can be modestly reduced by strong turbulence for low-mass cores.

  15. Cosmic-ray acceleration at stellar wind terminal shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.M.; Forman, M.A.; Axford, W.I.

    1985-01-01

    Steady-state, spherically symmetric, analytic solutions of the cosmic-ray transport equations, applicable to the problem of acceleration of cosmic rays at the terminal shock to a stellar wind, are studied. The spectra, gradients, and flow patterns of particle modulated and accelerated by the stellar wind and shock are investigated by means of monoenergetic-source solutions at finite radius, as well as solutions with monoenergetic and power-law Galactic spectra. The solutions obtained apply in the test particle limit in which the cosmic rays do not modify the background flow. The solutions show a characteristic power-law momentum spectrum for accelerated particles and a more complex spectrum of particles that are decelerated in the stellar wind. The power-law spectral index depends on the compression ratio of the shock and on the modulation parameters characterizing propagation conditions in the upstream and downstream regions of the shock. Solutions of the transport equations for the total density N (integrated over all energies), pressure P/sub c/, and energy flux F/sub c/ of Galactic cosmic rays interacting with a stellar wind and shock are also studied. The density N(r) increases with radius r, and for strong shocks with large enough modulation parameters, there may be a significant enhancement of the pressure of weakly relativistic particles near the shock compared to the cosmic-ray background pressure P/sub infinity/. The emergent energy flux at infinity is of the order of 4π R 2 V 1 P/sub infinity/ (V 1 is wind velocity upstream of the shock, R is shock radius)

  16. TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING SHORT-LIVED RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. II. VARIED SHOCK WAVE AND CLOUD CORE PARAMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu, E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the short-lived radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of {approx}10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.

  17. 2-Shock layered tuning campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Laurent; Dittrich, T.; Khan, S.; Kyrala, G.; Ma, T.; MacLaren, S.; Ralph, J.; Salmonson, J.; Tipton, R.; Los Alamos Natl Lab Team; Lawrence Livermore Natl Lab Team

    2016-10-01

    The 2-Shock platform has been developed to maintain shell sphericity throughout the compression phase of an indirect-drive target implosion and produce a stagnating hot spot in a quasi 1D-like manner. A sub-scale, 1700 _m outer diameter, and thick, 200 _m, uniformly Silicon doped, gas-filled plastic capsule is driven inside a nominal size 5750 _m diameter ignition hohlraum. The hohlraum fill is near vacuum to reduce back-scatter and improve laser/drive coupling. A two-shock pulse of about 1 MJ of laser energy drives the capsule. The thick capsule prevents ablation front feed-through to the imploded core. This platform has demonstrated its efficiency to tune a predictable and reproducible 1-D implosion with a nearly round shape. It has been shown that the high foot performance was dominated by the local defect growth due to the ablation front instability and by the hohlraum radiation asymmetries. The idea here is to take advantage of this 2-Shock platform to design a 1D-like layered implosion and eliminates the deleterious effects of radiation asymmetries and ablation front instability growth. We present the design work and our first experimental results of this near one-dimensional 2-Shock layered design. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Analysis of two colliding fractionally damped spherical shells in modelling blunt human head impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossikhin, Yury A.; Shitikova, Marina V.

    2013-06-01

    The collision of two elastic or viscoelastic spherical shells is investigated as a model for the dynamic response of a human head impacted by another head or by some spherical object. Determination of the impact force that is actually being transmitted to bone will require the model for the shock interaction of the impactor and human head. This model is indended to be used in simulating crash scenarios in frontal impacts, and provide an effective tool to estimate the severity of effect on the human head and to estimate brain injury risks. The model developed here suggests that after the moment of impact quasi-longitudinal and quasi-transverse shock waves are generated, which then propagate along the spherical shells. The solution behind the wave fronts is constructed with the help of the theory of discontinuities. It is assumed that the viscoelastic features of the shells are exhibited only in the contact domain, while the remaining parts retain their elastic properties. In this case, the contact spot is assumed to be a plane disk with constant radius, and the viscoelastic features of the shells are described by the fractional derivative standard linear solid model. In the case under consideration, the governing differential equations are solved analytically by the Laplace transform technique. It is shown that the fractional parameter of the fractional derivative model plays very important role, since its variation allows one to take into account the age-related changes in the mechanical properties of bone.

  19. How fast can a black hole eat. [Equation stationary spherically symmetric solutions, Thompson scattering, mass flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, P; Meszaros, P [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.)

    1976-11-01

    Stationary spherically symmetric solutions of the equations for accretion of large mass flows onto a black hole, including the interaction of matter and radiation due to Thomson scattering in diffusion approximation are constructed. The relevance of these solutions is discussed with respect to the question of whether the limitation of the luminosity (Eddington limit) also implies an upper bound to the possible rate of mass flow. The question remains open until all instabilities have been studied. At the moment a negative answer is favoured.

  20. WIND-ACCRETION DISKS IN WIDE BINARIES, SECOND-GENERATION PROTOPLANETARY DISKS, AND ACCRETION ONTO WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perets, Hagai B. [Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: hperets@physics.technion.ac.il [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    Mass transfer from an evolved donor star to its binary companion is a standard feature of stellar evolution in binaries. In wide binaries, the companion star captures some of the mass ejected in a wind by the primary star. The captured material forms an accretion disk. Here, we study the evolution of wind-accretion disks, using a numerical approach which allows us to follow the long-term evolution. For a broad range of initial conditions, we derive the radial density and temperature profiles of the disk. In most cases, wind accretion leads to long-lived stable disks over the lifetime of the asymptotic giant branch donor star. The disks have masses of a few times 10{sup -5}-10{sup -3} M {sub Sun }, with surface density and temperature profiles that follow broken power laws. The total mass in the disk scales approximately linearly with the viscosity parameter used. Roughly, 50%-80% of the mass falling into the disk accretes onto the central star; the rest flows out through the outer edge of the disk into the stellar wind of the primary. For systems with large accretion rates, the secondary accretes as much as 0.1 M {sub Sun }. When the secondary is a white dwarf, accretion naturally leads to nova and supernova eruptions. For all types of secondary star, the surface density and temperature profiles of massive disks resemble structures observed in protoplanetary disks, suggesting that coordinated observational programs might improve our understanding of uncertain disk physics.

  1. Accretion Disks Around Binary Black Holes of Unequal Mass: GRMHD Simulations Near Decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Roman; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Pfeiffer, Harald, P.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simulations in general relativity of magnetized disks onto black hole binaries. We vary the binary mass ratio from 1:1 to 1:10 and evolve the systems when they orbit near the binary disk decoupling radius. We compare (surface) density profiles, accretion rates (relative to a single, non-spinning black hole), variability, effective alpha-stress levels and luminosities as functions of the mass ratio. We treat the disks in two limiting regimes: rapid radiative cooling and no radiative cooling. The magnetic field lines clearly reveal jets emerging from both black hole horizons and merging into one common jet at large distances. The magnetic fields give rise to much stronger shock heating than the pure hydrodynamic flows, completely alter the disk structure, and boost accretion rates and luminosities. Accretion streams near the horizons are among the densest structures; in fact, the 1:10 no-cooling evolution results in a refilling of the cavity. The typical effective temperature in the bulk of the disk is approx. 10(exp5) (M / 10(exp 8)M solar mass (exp -1/4(L/L(sub edd) (exp 1/4K) yielding characteristic thermal frequencies approx. 10 (exp 15) (M /10(exp 8)M solar mass) (exp -1/4(L/L (sub edd) (1+z) (exp -1)Hz. These systems are thus promising targets for many extragalactic optical surveys, such as LSST, WFIRST, and PanSTARRS.

  2. Shock Ignition of Thermonuclear Fuel with High Areal Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betti, R.; Zhou, C. D.; Anderson, K. S.; Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Perkins, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    A novel method by C. Zhou and R. Betti [Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, 140 (2005)] to assemble and ignite thermonuclear fuel is presented. Massive cryogenic shells are first imploded by direct laser light with a low implosion velocity and on a low adiabat leading to fuel assemblies with large areal densities. The assembled fuel is ignited from a central hot spot heated by the collision of a spherically convergent ignitor shock and the return shock. The resulting fuel assembly features a hot-spot pressure greater than the surrounding dense fuel pressure. Such a nonisobaric assembly requires a lower energy threshold for ignition than the conventional isobaric one. The ignitor shock can be launched by a spike in the laser power or by particle beams. The thermonuclear gain can be significantly larger than in conventional isobaric ignition for equal driver energy

  3. Shock ignition of thermonuclear fuel with high areal density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, R; Zhou, C D; Anderson, K S; Perkins, L J; Theobald, W; Solodov, A A

    2007-04-13

    A novel method by C. Zhou and R. Betti [Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, 140 (2005)] to assemble and ignite thermonuclear fuel is presented. Massive cryogenic shells are first imploded by direct laser light with a low implosion velocity and on a low adiabat leading to fuel assemblies with large areal densities. The assembled fuel is ignited from a central hot spot heated by the collision of a spherically convergent ignitor shock and the return shock. The resulting fuel assembly features a hot-spot pressure greater than the surrounding dense fuel pressure. Such a nonisobaric assembly requires a lower energy threshold for ignition than the conventional isobaric one. The ignitor shock can be launched by a spike in the laser power or by particle beams. The thermonuclear gain can be significantly larger than in conventional isobaric ignition for equal driver energy.

  4. X-RAY OUTFLOWS AND SUPER-EDDINGTON ACCRETION IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Roberts, T. P.; Middleton, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of X-ray continuum emission and flux variability have not conclusively revealed the nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) at the high-luminosity end of the distribution (those with L X ≥ 10 40 erg s –1 ). These are of particular interest because the luminosity requires either super-Eddington accretion onto a black hole of mass ∼10 M ☉ or more standard accretion onto an intermediate-mass black hole. Super-Eddington accretion models predict strong outflowing winds, making atomic absorption lines a key diagnostic of the nature of extreme ULXs. To search for such features, we have undertaken a long, 500 ks observing campaign on Holmberg IX X-1 with Suzaku. This is the most sensitive data set in the iron K bandpass for a bright, isolated ULX to date, yet we find no statistically significant atomic features in either emission or absorption; any undetected narrow features must have equivalent widths less than 15-20 eV at 99% confidence. These limits are far below the ∼>150 eV lines expected if observed trends between mass inflow and outflow rates extend into the super-Eddington regime and in fact rule out the line strengths observed from disk winds in a variety of sub-Eddington black holes. We therefore cannot be viewing the central regions of Holmberg IX X-1 through any substantial column of material, ruling out models of spherical super-Eddington accretion. If Holmberg IX X-1 is a super-Eddington source, any associated outflow must have an anisotropic geometry. Finally, the lack of iron emission suggests that the stellar companion cannot be launching a strong wind and that Holmberg IX X-1 must primarily accrete via Roche-lobe overflow

  5. Super-Eddington Accretion in Tidal Disruption Events: the Impact of Realistic Fallback Rates on Accretion Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Samantha; Coughlin, Eric R.; Nixon, Chris

    2018-04-01

    After the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole, disrupted stellar debris can fall back to the hole at a rate significantly exceeding its Eddington limit. To understand how black hole mass affects the duration of super-Eddington accretion in tidal disruption events, we first run a suite of simulations of the disruption of a Solar-like star by a supermassive black hole of varying mass to directly measure the fallback rate onto the hole, and we compare these fallback rates to the analytic predictions of the "frozen-in" model. Then, adopting a Zero-Bernoulli Accretion flow as an analytic prescription for the accretion flow around the hole, we investigate how the accretion rate onto the black hole evolves with the more accurate fallback rates calculated from the simulations. We find that numerically-simulated fallback rates yield accretion rates onto the hole that can, depending on the black hole mass, be nearly an order of magnitude larger than those predicted by the frozen-in approximation. Our results place new limits on the maximum black hole mass for which super-Eddington accretion occurs in tidal disruption events.

  6. Hot Accretion onto Black Holes with Outflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Myeong-Gu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Classic Bondi accretion flow can be generalized to rotating viscous accretion flow. Study of hot accretion flow onto black holes show that its physical charateristics change from Bondi-like for small gas angular momentum to disk-like for Keperian gas angular momentum. Especially, the mass accretion rate divided by the Bondi accretion rate is proportional to the viscosity parameter alpha and inversely proportional to the gas angular momentum divided by the Keplerian angular momentum at the Bondi radius for gas angular momentum comparable to the Keplerian value. The possible presence of outflow will increase the mass inflow rate at the Bondi radius but decrease the mass accretion rate across the black hole horizon by many orders of magnitude. This implies that the growth history of supermassive black holes and their coevolution with host galaxies will be dramatically changed when the accreted gas has angular momentum or develops an outflow.

  7. SPIN EVOLUTION OF ACCRETING YOUNG STARS. II. EFFECT OF ACCRETION-POWERED STELLAR WINDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matt, Sean P.; Pinzón, Giovanni; Greene, Thomas P.; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a model for the rotational evolution of a young, solar-mass star interacting magnetically with an accretion disk. As in a previous paper (Paper I), the model includes changes in the star's mass and radius as it descends the Hayashi track, a decreasing accretion rate, and a prescription for the angular momentum transfer between the star and disk. Paper I concluded that, for the relatively strong magnetic coupling expected in real systems, additional processes are necessary to explain the existence of slowly rotating pre-main-sequence stars. In the present paper, we extend the stellar spin model to include the effect of a spin-down torque that arises from an accretion-powered stellar wind (APSW). For a range of magnetic field strengths, accretion rates, initial spin rates, and mass outflow rates, the modeled stars exhibit rotation periods within the range of 1-10 days in the age range of 1-3 Myr. This range coincides with the bulk of the observed rotation periods, with the slow rotators corresponding to stars with the lowest accretion rates, strongest magnetic fields, and/or highest stellar wind mass outflow rates. We also make a direct, quantitative comparison between the APSW scenario and the two types of disk-locking models (namely, the X-wind and Ghosh and Lamb type models) and identify some remaining theoretical issues for understanding young star spins.

  8. Source to Accretion Disk Tilt

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, M. M.; Martin, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Many different system types retrogradely precess, and retrograde precession could be from a tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk. However, a source to cause and maintain disk tilt is unknown. In this work, we show that accretion disks can tilt due to a force called lift. Lift results from differing gas stream supersonic speeds over and under an accretion disk. Because lift acts at the disk's center of pressure, a torque is applied around a rotation axis passing through...

  9. Propagation of a shock wave in a radiating spherically symmetric distribution of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, L.; Nunez, L.; Universidad de Los Andes, Merida, Venezuela)

    1987-01-01

    A method used to study the evolution of radiating spheres reported by Herrera et al. (1980) is extended to the case in which the sphere is divided in two regions by a shock wave front. The equations of state at both sides of the shock are different, and the solutions are matched on it via the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. The outer-region metric is matched with a Vaidya solution on the boundary surface of the sphere. As an example of the procedure, two known solutions for radiating systems are considered. The matter distribution is free of singularities everywhere within the sphere and a Gaussian-like pulse is assumed to carry out a fraction of the total mass. Exploding models are then obtained. Finally, the results are discussed in the light of recent work on gravitational collapse and supernovae. 29 references

  10. The End of Accretion: The X-Ray Binary/Millisecond Pulsar Transition Object PSR J1023+0038

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Millisecond radio pulsars (MSRPs), those spinning hundreds of times per second, have long been understood to be old pulsars that have been spun up by the accretion of matter from a companion in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) phase. Yet the details of this transformation, particularly the end of the accretion process and the birth of a radio pulsar, remain mysterious. I will describe the discovery and detailed study of the first object known to transition between MSRP and LMXB states, PSR J1023+0038. By dint of a multiwavelength campaign of observations in the RMSP state, we are able to measure all the key system parameters and show the existence of an X-ray shock close to the pulsar-facing side of the companion. Since the discovery of PSR J1023+0038, two more objects (XSS J12270-4859 and M28I) have been found to make the same transition, and the study of these transitioning objects has become an active field of research. Most interestingly, PSR J1023+0038 has transitioned back into an LMXB state, with an active accretion disk and a puzzling increase in gamma-ray flux. Our detailed picture of the system allows us to test models of accretion against the phenomena we observe in PSR J1023+0038, and in fact these observations challenge current models: in spite of the low luminosity of the system (and low inferred accretion rate) some material is penetrating the centrifugal barrier and falling on the neutron-star surface. Key evidence for explaining this puzzling behaviour will come when PSR J1023+0038 returns to an MSRP state and we are able to compare pulsar timing models from after the LMXB state with those we obtained in this work.

  11. Dynamics of ionizing shock waves on adiabatic motions of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Sklizkov, G.V.; Shikanov, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an experimental investigation of free (adiabatic) motion of a spherical ionizing wave in deuterium produced by an expanding laser plasma. It is shown that the discrepancy between the free movement of shock waves (which lead to total ionization of the gas) and the Sedov-Taylor model of a spontaneous point explosion is not related to variations in the adiabat exponent γ and the motion occurs for a constant γ=5/3. The effect is ascribed to the influence of the shock wave front structure on the dynamics of its propagation. An analytic expression for the motion of symmetric ionizing shock waves is found which has an accuracy of better than 1%. As a result the adiabat exponent was determined experimentally. A method for determining the energy of a shock wave on the basis of its dynamics of motion is developed which has an accuracy of approximately 5% [ru

  12. Accretion disks in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begelman, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The innermost regions of the central engines in active galactic nuclei are examined, and it is shown how different modes of accretion with angular momentum may account for the diverse manifestations of activity in the nuclei of galaxies. These modes are subsequently compared with the observed properties of quasars, Type I Seyferts, and radio galaxies. It was found that the qualitative features of an accretion flow orbiting a massive black hole depend principally on the ratio of the actual accretion rate to the Eddington accretion rate. For a value of this ratio much less than one, the flow may become an ion torus supported by gas pressure; for a value much greater than one, the flow traps its radiative output and becomes an inefficient radiation torus. At intermediate values, the flow may settle into a thin accretion disk. 62 references

  13. Optical and X-ray luminosities of expanding nebulae around ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwek, Magdalena; Sądowski, Aleksander; Narayan, Ramesh; Roberts, Timothy P.; Soria, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    We have performed a set of simulations of expanding, spherically symmetric nebulae inflated by winds from accreting black holes in ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). We implemented a realistic cooling function to account for free-free and bound-free cooling. For all model parameters we considered, the forward shock in the interstellar medium becomes radiative at a radius ˜100 pc. The emission is primarily in optical and UV, and the radiative luminosity is about 50 per cent of the total kinetic luminosity of the wind. In contrast, the reverse shock in the wind is adiabatic so long as the terminal outflow velocity of the wind vw ≳ 0.003c. The shocked wind in these models radiates in X-rays, but with a luminosity of only ˜1035 erg s-1. For wind velocities vw ≲ 0.001c, the shocked wind becomes radiative, but it is no longer hot enough to produce X-rays. Instead it emits in optical and UV, and the radiative luminosity is comparable to 100 per cent of the wind kinetic luminosity. We suggest that measuring the optical luminosities and putting limits on the X-ray and radio emission from shock-ionized ULX bubbles may help in estimating the mass outflow rate of the central accretion disc and the velocity of the outflow.

  14. The impact of the form of the Euler equations for radial flow in cylindrical and spherical coordinates on numerical conservation and accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, P. E.; Balachandar, S.

    2018-03-01

    The radial one-dimensional Euler equations are often rewritten in what is known as the geometric source form. The differential operator is identical to the Cartesian case, but source terms result. Since the theory and numerical methods for the Cartesian case are well-developed, they are often applied without modification to cylindrical and spherical geometries. However, numerical conservation is lost. In this article, AUSM^+ -up is applied to a numerically conservative (discrete) form of the Euler equations labeled the geometric form, a nearly conservative variation termed the geometric flux form, and the geometric source form. The resulting numerical methods are compared analytically and numerically through three types of test problems: subsonic, smooth, steady-state solutions, Sedov's similarity solution for point or line-source explosions, and shock tube problems. Numerical conservation is analyzed for all three forms in both spherical and cylindrical coordinates. All three forms result in constant enthalpy for steady flows. The spatial truncation errors have essentially the same order of convergence, but the rate constants are superior for the geometric and geometric flux forms for the steady-state solutions. Only the geometric form produces the correct shock location for Sedov's solution, and a direct connection between the errors in the shock locations and energy conservation is found. The shock tube problems are evaluated with respect to feature location using an approximation with a very fine discretization as the benchmark. Extensions to second order appropriate for cylindrical and spherical coordinates are also presented and analyzed numerically. Conclusions are drawn, and recommendations are made. A derivation of the steady-state solution is given in the Appendix.

  15. Confined detonations with cylindrical and spherical symmetry; Detonaciones confinadas con simetria esferica y cilindrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linan, A; Lecuona, A

    1979-07-01

    An imploding spherical or cylindrical detonation, starting in the interface of the detonantion with an external inert media, used as a reflector, creates on it a strong shock wave moving outward from the interface. An initially weak shock wave appears in the detonated media that travels toward the center, and it could reach the detonation wave, enforcing it in its process of implosion. To describe the fluid field, the Euler s equations are solved by means of expansions valid for the early stages of the process. Isentropic of the type P/p{gamma}-K for the detonated and compressed inert media are used. For liquid or solid reflectors a more appropriate equation is used. (Author) 8 refs.

  16. Oblique shock waves in granular flows over bluff bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopan Nandu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular flows around an object have been the focus of numerous analytical, experimental and simulation studies. The structure and nature of the oblique shock wave developed when a quasi-two dimensional flow of spherical granular particles streams past an immersed, fixed cylindrical obstacle forms the focus of this study. The binary granular mixture, consisting of particles of the same diameter but different material properties, is investigated by using a modified LIGGGHTS package as the simulation engine. Variations in the solid fraction and granular temperature within the resulting flow are studied. The Mach number is calculated and is used to distinguish between the subsonic and the supersonic regions of the bow shock.

  17. Shock wave and flame front induced detonation in a rapid compression machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Qi, Y.; Xiang, S.; Mével, R.; Wang, Z.

    2018-05-01

    The present study focuses on one mode of detonation initiation observed in a rapid compression machine (RCM). This mode is referred to as shock wave and flame front-induced detonation (SWFID). Experimental high-speed imaging and two-dimensional numerical simulations with skeletal chemistry are combined to unravel the dominant steps of detonation initiation under SWFID conditions. It is shown that the interaction between the shock wave generated by the end-gas auto-ignition and the spherical flame creates a region of high pressure and temperature which enables the acceleration of the flame front and the detonation onset. The experimental observation lacks adequate spatial and temporal resolution despite good reproducibility of the detonation onset. Based on the numerical results, phenomenological interpretation of the event within the framework of shock wave refraction indicates that the formation of a free-precursor shock wave at the transition between regular and irregular refraction may be responsible for detonation onset. The present results along with previous findings on shock wave reflection-induced detonation in the RCM indicate that super-knock occurs after the interaction of the shock wave generated by end-gas auto-ignition with the RCM walls, preignition flame, or another shock wave.

  18. Cyclic and heteroclinic flows near general static spherically symmetric black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ayyesha K.; Jamil, Mubasher [National University of Sciences and Technology(NUST), Department of Mathematics, School of Natural Sciences (SNS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Engineering Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Faizal, Mir [University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Alberta (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    We investigate the Michel-type accretion onto a static spherically symmetric black hole. Using a Hamiltonian dynamical approach, we show that the standard method employed for tackling the accretion problem has masked some properties of the fluid flow. We determine new analytical solutions that are neither transonic nor supersonic as the fluid approaches the horizon(s); rather, they remain subsonic for all values of the radial coordinate. Moreover, the three-velocity vanishes and the pressure diverges on the horizon(s), resulting in a flow-out of the fluid under the effect of its own pressure. This is in favor of the earlier prediction that pressure-dominant regions form near the horizon. This result does not depend on the form of the metric and it applies to a neighborhood of any horizon where the time coordinate is timelike. For anti-de Sitter-like f(R) black holes we discuss the stability of the critical flow and determine separatrix heteroclinic orbits. For de Sitter-like f(R) black holes, we construct polytropic cyclic, non-homoclinic, physical flows connecting the two horizons. These flows become non-relativistic for Hamiltonian values higher than the critical value, allowing for a good estimate of the proper period of the flow. (orig.)

  19. Analytical criterion for shock ignition of fusion reaction in hot spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeyre, X.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Breil, J.; Lafon, M.; Vallet, A.; Bel, E. L.

    2013-01-01

    Shock ignition of DT capsules involves two major steps. First, the fuel is assembled by means of a low velocity conventional implosion. At stagnation, the central core has a temperature lower than the one needed for ignition. Then a second, strong spherical converging shock, launched from a high intensity laser spike, arrives to the core. This shock crosses the core, rebounds at the target center and increases the central pressure to the ignition conditions. In this work we consider this latter phase by using the Guderley self-similar solution for converging flows. Our model accounts for the fusion reaction energy deposition, thermal and radiation losses thus describing the basic physics of hot spot ignition. The ignition criterion derived from the analytical model is successfully compared with full scale hydrodynamic simulations. (authors)

  20. Simulating X-ray bursts during a transient accretion event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Zac; Heger, Alexander; Galloway, Duncan K.

    2018-06-01

    Modelling of thermonuclear X-ray bursts on accreting neutron stars has to date focused on stable accretion rates. However, bursts are also observed during episodes of transient accretion. During such events, the accretion rate can evolve significantly between bursts, and this regime provides a unique test for burst models. The accretion-powered millisecond pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658 exhibits accretion outbursts every 2-3 yr. During the well-sampled month-long outburst of 2002 October, four helium-rich X-ray bursts were observed. Using this event as a test case, we present the first multizone simulations of X-ray bursts under a time-dependent accretion rate. We investigate the effect of using a time-dependent accretion rate in comparison to constant, averaged rates. Initial results suggest that using a constant, average accretion rate between bursts may underestimate the recurrence time when the accretion rate is decreasing, and overestimate it when the accretion rate is increasing. Our model, with an accreted hydrogen fraction of X = 0.44 and a CNO metallicity of ZCNO = 0.02, reproduces the observed burst arrival times and fluences with root mean square (rms) errors of 2.8 h, and 0.11× 10^{-6} erg cm^{-2}, respectively. Our results support previous modelling that predicted two unobserved bursts and indicate that additional bursts were also missed by observations.

  1. Cold gas accretion in galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancisi, Renzo; Fraternali, Filippo; Oosterloo, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    Evidence for the accretion of cold gas in galaxies has been rapidly accumulating in the past years. HI observations of galaxies and their environment have brought to light new facts and phenomena which are evidence of ongoing or recent accretion: (1) A large number of galaxies are accompanied by

  2. Increases to Inferred Rates of Planetesimal Accretion due to Thermohaline Mixing in Metal-accreting White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Evan B.; Bildsten, Lars

    2018-06-01

    Many isolated, old white dwarfs (WDs) show surprising evidence of metals in their photospheres. Given that the timescale for gravitational sedimentation is astronomically short, this is taken as evidence for ongoing accretion, likely of tidally disrupted planetesimals. The rate of such accretion, {\\dot{M}}acc}, is important to constrain, and most modeling of this process relies on assuming an equilibrium between diffusive sedimentation and metal accretion supplied to the WD’s surface convective envelope. Building on the earlier work of Deal and collaborators, we show that high {\\dot{M}}acc} models with only diffusive sedimentation are unstable to thermohaline mixing and that models that account for the enhanced mixing from the active thermohaline instability require larger accretion rates, sometimes reaching {\\dot{M}}acc}≈ {10}13 {{g}} {{{s}}}-1 to explain observed calcium abundances. We present results from a grid of MESA models that include both diffusion and thermohaline mixing. These results demonstrate that both mechanisms are essential for understanding metal pollution across the range of polluted WDs with hydrogen atmospheres. Another consequence of active thermohaline mixing is that the observed metal abundance ratios are identical to accreted material.

  3. Laboratory astrophysics with high energy and high power lasers: from radiative shocks to young star jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diziere, A.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory astrophysics are a rapidly developing domain of the High Energy Density Physics. It aims to recreate at smaller scales physical processes that astronomical telescopes have difficulties observing. We shall approach, in this thesis, three major subjects: 1) Jets ejected from young stars, characterized by an important collimation degree and ending with a bow shock; 2) Radiative shocks in which radiation emitted by the shock front itself plays a dominant role in its structure and 3) Accretion shocks in magnetic cataclysmic variables whose important cooling factor allows them to reach stationarity. From the conception to experimental realization, we shall attempt to reproduce in laboratory each of these processes by respecting the scaling laws linking both situations (experimental and astrophysical) established beforehand. The implementation of a large array of visible and X-ray diagnostics will finally allow to completely characterize them and calculate the dimensionless numbers that validate the astrophysical relevance. (author) [fr

  4. Topics in the physics of accretion onto black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeger, W.R.

    1977-06-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction and overview; boundary-condition modification of accretion-disk models; standard assumptions and nonkeplerian inner-disk models; the 'inner edge' of accretion disks and spiral orbits; a review of comptonization in accretion disks and a criterion for Lightman-Eardley stability; the thickening of accretion disks and flows; radial pressure gradients and low-angular-momentum accretion; accretion-disk scenarios for X-ray transient and burst sources; photon pair-creation processes in transrelativistic plasmas; and the astrophysical consequences of Rosen's bi-metric theory of gravity. (U.K.)

  5. Accretion flow dynamics during 1999 outburst of XTE J1859+226—modeling of broadband spectra and constraining the source mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Anuj; Mandal, S.; Sreehari, H.; Radhika, D.; Das, Santabrata; Chattopadhyay, I.; Iyer, N.; Agrawal, V. K.; Aktar, R.

    2018-05-01

    We examine the dynamical behavior of accretion flow around XTE J1859+226 during the 1999 outburst by analyzing the entire outburst data (˜166 days) from RXTE Satellite. Towards this, we study the hysteresis behavior in the hardness intensity diagram (HID) based on the broadband (3-150 keV) spectral modeling, spectral signature of jet ejection and the evolution of Quasi-periodic Oscillation (QPO) frequencies using the two-component advective flow model around a black hole. We compute the flow parameters, namely Keplerian accretion rate (\\dot{m}d), sub-Keplerian accretion rate (\\dot{m}h), shock location (rs) and black hole mass (M_{bh}) from the spectral modeling and study their evolution along the q-diagram. Subsequently, the kinetic jet power is computed as L^{obs}_{jet} ˜3-6 ×10^{37} erg s^{-1} during one of the observed radio flares which indicates that jet power corresponds to 8-16% mass outflow rate from the disc. This estimate of mass outflow rate is in close agreement with the change in total accretion rate (˜14%) required for spectral modeling before and during the flare. Finally, we provide a mass estimate of the source XTE J1859+226 based on the spectral modeling that lies in the range of 5.2-7.9 M_{⊙} with 90% confidence.

  6. Structures formation through self-organized accretion on cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdzek, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that the formation of structures through accretion by a cosmic string is driven by a natural feed-back mechanism: a part of the energy radiated by accretions creates a pressure on the accretion disk itself. This phenomenon leads to a nonlinear evolution of the accretion process. Thus, the formation of structures results as a consequence of a self-organized growth of the accreting central object.

  7. Experimental investigation of shock wave - bubble interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Mohsen

    2010-04-09

    In this work, the dynamics of laser-generated single cavitation bubbles exposed to lithotripter shock waves has been investigated experimentally. The energy of the impinging shock wave is varied in several steps. High-speed photography and pressure field measurements simultaneously with image acquisition provide the possibility of capturing the fast bubble dynamics under the effect of the shock wave impact. The pressure measurement is performed using a fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) which operates based on optical diagnostics of the shock wave propagating medium. After a short introduction in chapter 1 an overview of the previous studies in chapter 2 is presented. The reported literatures include theoretical and experimental investigations of several configurations of physical problems in the field of bubble dynamics. In chapter 3 a theoretical description of propagation of a shock wave in a liquid like water has been discussed. Different kinds of reflection of a shock wave at an interface are taken into account. Undisturbed bubble dynamics as well as interaction between a planar shock wave and an initially spherical bubble are explored theoretically. Some physical parameters which are important in this issue such as the velocity of the shock-induced liquid jet, Kelvin impulse and kinetic energy are explained. The shock waves are generated in a water filled container by a focusing piezoelectric generator. The shock wave profile has a positive part with pulse duration of ∼1 μs followed by a longer tension tail (i.e. ∼3 μs). In chapter 4 high-speed images depict the propagation of a shock wave in the water filled tank. The maximum pressure is also derived for different intensity levels of the shock wave generator. The measurement is performed in the free field (i.e. in the absence of laser-generated single bubbles). In chapter 5 the interaction between lithotripter shock waves and laserinduced single cavitation bubbles is investigated experimentally. An

  8. Behaviour modelling of two aluminas in divergent spherical pyrotechnical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaise, F.; Tranchet, J.Y.; Collombet, F.

    1997-01-01

    Two pure aluminas of different characteristics have been subjected to the propagation of a longitudinal divergent spherical shock wave through pyrotechnical experiments. An approach combining a phenomenological analysis and numerical 1D-calculations is proposed to study the behaviour of these aluminas submitted to that type of wave loading. The modelling, proposed in a previous paper, is refined and gives satisfying experimentation-calculation correlations. An analysis of the influence exerted by the various encountered phenomena (plastic activity, pore closure, microcracking) is performed. The significant consequence of the activation of damage with an extension criterion is also underlined. (orig.)

  9. Simulation and Analysis of Converging Shock Wave Test Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-21

    Results and analysis pertaining to the simulation of the Guderley converging shock wave test problem (and associated code verification hydrodynamics test problems involving converging shock waves) in the LANL ASC radiation-hydrodynamics code xRAGE are presented. One-dimensional (1D) spherical and two-dimensional (2D) axi-symmetric geometric setups are utilized and evaluated in this study, as is an instantiation of the xRAGE adaptive mesh refinement capability. For the 2D simulations, a 'Surrogate Guderley' test problem is developed and used to obviate subtleties inherent to the true Guderley solution's initialization on a square grid, while still maintaining a high degree of fidelity to the original problem, and minimally straining the general credibility of associated analysis and conclusions.

  10. EPISODIC ACCRETION AT EARLY STAGES OF EVOLUTION OF LOW-MASS STARS AND BROWN DWARFS: A SOLUTION FOR THE OBSERVED LUMINOSITY SPREAD IN H-R DIAGRAMS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraffe, I.; Chabrier, G.; Gallardo, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present evolutionary models for young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs taking into account episodic phases of accretion at early stages of the evolution, a scenario supported by recent large surveys of embedded protostars. An evolution including short episodes of vigorous accretion followed by longer quiescent phases can explain the observed luminosity spread in H-R diagrams of star-forming regions at ages of a few Myr, for objects ranging from a few Jupiter masses to a few tenths of a solar mass. The gravitational contraction of these accreting objects strongly departs from the standard Hayashi track at constant T eff . The best agreement with the observed luminosity scatter is obtained if most of the accretion shock energy is radiated away. The obtained luminosity spread at 1 Myr in the H-R diagram is equivalent to what can be misinterpreted as an ∼10 Myr age spread for non-accreting objects. We also predict a significant spread in radius at a given T eff , as suggested by recent observations. These calculations bear important consequences for our understanding of star formation and early stages of evolution and on the determination of the initial mass function for young (≤ a few Myr) clusters. Our results also show that the concept of a stellar birthline for low-mass objects has no valid support.

  11. AN ENERGETIC AGN OUTBURST POWERED BY A RAPIDLY SPINNING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE OR AN ACCRETING ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, B. R.; Kazemzadeh, F.; Kirkpatrick, C. C.; Rafferty, D. A.; Birzan, L.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Wise, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    Powering the 10 62 erg nuclear outburst in the MS0735.6+7421 cluster central galaxy by accretion with a 10% mass-to-energy conversion efficiency implies that its putative supermassive black hole (SMBH) grew by ∼6 x 10 8 M sun over the past 100 Myr. Guided by data at several wavelengths, we place upper limits on the amount of cold gas and star formation near the nucleus of 9 M sun and sun yr -1 , respectively. These limits imply that an implausibly large fraction of the preexisting cold gas in the inner several kpc must have been consumed by its SMBH at the rate of ∼3-5 M sun yr -1 during the past 100 Myr while leaving no trace of star formation. Such a high accretion rate would be difficult to maintain by stellar accretion or the Bondi mechanism, unless the black hole mass approaches 10 11 M sun . Furthermore, its feeble nuclear luminosities in the UV, I, and X-ray bands compared to its enormous mechanical power are inconsistent with rapid accretion onto a ∼5 x 10 9 M sun black hole. We suggest instead that the active galactic nucleus (AGN) outburst is powered by angular momentum released from a rapidly spinning black hole. The rotational energy and power available from a spinning black hole are consistent with the cavity and shock energetics inferred from X-ray observations. A maximally spinning 10 9 M sun black hole contains enough rotational energy, ∼10 62 erg, to quench a cooling flow over its lifetime and to contribute significantly to the excess entropy found in the hot atmospheres of groups and clusters. Two modes of AGN feedback may be quenching star formation in elliptical galaxies centered in cooling halos at late times. An accretion mode that operates in gas-rich systems, and a spin mode operating at modest accretion rates. The spin conjecture may be avoided in MS0735 by appealing to Bondi accretion onto a central black hole whose mass greatly exceeds 10 10 M sun . The host galaxy's unusually large 3.8 kpc stellar core radius (light deficit) may

  12. Thin accretion disks in stationary axisymmetric wormhole spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the physical properties and the equilibrium thermal radiation emission characteristics of matter forming thin accretion disks in stationary axially symmetric wormhole spacetimes. The thin disk models are constructed by taking different values of the wormhole's angular velocity, and the time averaged energy flux, the disk temperature, and the emission spectra of the accretion disks are obtained. Comparing the mass accretion in a rotating wormhole geometry with the one of a Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for wormholes than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating wormholes provide a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Therefore specific signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum of thin disks around rotating wormholes, thus leading to the possibility of distinguishing wormhole geometries by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  13. THE MAGELLANIC STREAM: BREAK-UP AND ACCRETION ONTO THE HOT GALACTIC CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepper-García, Thor; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Sutherland, Ralph S. [Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australia National University, Woden, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2015-11-10

    The Magellanic H i Stream (≈2 × 10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙} [d/55 kpc]{sup 2}) encircling the Galaxy at a distance d is arguably the most important tracer of what happens to gas accreting onto a disk galaxy. Recent observations reveal that the Stream’s mass is in fact dominated (3:1) by its ionized component. Here we revisit the origin of the mysterious Hα recombination emission observed along much of its length that is overly bright (∼150–200 mR) for the known Galactic ultraviolet (UV) background (≈20–40 mR [d/55 kpc]{sup −2}). In an earlier model, we proposed that a slow shock cascade was operating along the Stream due to its interaction with the extended Galactic hot corona. We find that for a smooth coronal density profile, this model can explain the bright Hα emission if the coronal density satisfies 2 × 10{sup −4} < (n/cm{sup −3}) < 4 × 10{sup −4} at d = 55 kpc. But in view of updated parameters for the Galactic halo and mounting evidence that most of the Stream must lie far beyond the Magellanic Clouds (d > 55 kpc), we revisit the shock cascade model in detail. At lower densities, the H i gas is broken down by the shock cascade but mostly mixes with the hot corona without significant recombination. At higher densities, the hot coronal mass (including the other baryonic components) exceeds the baryon budget of the Galaxy. If the Hα emission arises from the shock cascade, the upper limit on the smooth coronal density constrains the Stream’s mean distance to ≲75 kpc. If, as some models indicate, the Stream is even further out, either the shock cascade is operating in a regime where the corona is substantially mass-loaded with recent gas debris, or an entirely different ionization mechanism is responsible.

  14. Gamma-burst emission from neutron-star accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgate, S. A.; Petschek, A. G.; Sarracino, R.

    1983-01-01

    A model for emission of the hard photons of gamma bursts is presented. The model assumes accretion at nearly the Eddington limited rate onto a neutron star without a magnetic field. Initially soft photons are heated as they are compressed between the accreting matter and the star. A large electric field due to relatively small charge separation is required to drag electrons into the star with the nuclei against the flux of photons leaking out through the accreting matter. The photon number is not increased substantially by Bremsstrahlung or any other process. It is suggested that instability in an accretion disc might provide the infalling matter required.

  15. Gas accretion onto galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume presents the current state of gas accretion studies from both observational and theoretical perspectives, and charts our progress towards answering the fundamental yet elusive question of how galaxies get their gas. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve has been a central focus in astronomy for over a century. These studies have accelerated in the new millennium, driven by two key advances: the establishment of a firm concordance cosmological model that provides the backbone on which galaxies form and grow, and the recognition that galaxies grow not in isolation but within a “cosmic ecosystem” that includes the vast reservoir of gas filling intergalactic space. This latter aspect in which galaxies continually exchange matter with the intergalactic medium via inflows and outflows has been dubbed the “baryon cycle”. The topic of this book is directly related to the baryon cycle, in particular its least well constrained aspect, namely gas accretion. Accretion is a rare area of ast...

  16. NuSTAR Discovery of a Cyclotron Line in the Accreting X-Ray Pulsar IGR J16393-4643

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Krivonos, Roman; Stern, Daniel; Mori, Kaya; Rahoui, Farid; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The high-mass X-ray binary and accreting X-ray pulsar IGR J16393-4643 was observed by the Nuclear Spectroscope Telescope Array in the 3-79 keV energy band for a net exposure time of 50 ks. We present the results of this observation which enabled the discovery of a cyclotron resonant scattering feature with a centroid energy of -29.3(sup +1.1)(sub -1.3) keV. This allowed us to measure the magnetic field strength of the neutron star for the first time: B = (2.5 +/- 0.1) x 10(exp 12) G. The known pulsation period is now observed at 904.0+/- 0.1 s. Since 2006, the neutron star has undergone a long-term spin-up trend at a rate of P= -2 x 10(exp -8) s s(exp -1) (-0.6 s per year, or a frequency derivative of v = 3 x 10(exp -14) Hz s(exp -1)). In the power density spectrum, a break appears at the pulse frequency which separates the zero slope at low frequency from the steeper slope at high frequency. This addition of angular momentum to the neutron star could be due to the accretion of a quasi-spherical wind, or it could be caused by the transient appearance of a prograde accretion disk that is nearly in corotation with the neutron star whose magnetospheric radius is around 2 x 10(exp 8) cm.

  17. Certain Solutions Of Shock-Waves In Non-Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanti Pandey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In present paper non similar solutions for plane, cylindrical and spherical unsteady flows of non-ideal gas behind shock wave of arbitrary strength initiated by the instantaneous release of finite energy and propagating in a non-ideal gas is investigated. Asymptotic analysis is applied to obtain a solution up to second order. Solution for numerical calculation Runga-Kutta method of fourth order is applied and is concluded that for non-ideal case there is a decrease in velocity, pressure and density for 0th and IInd order in comparison to ideal gas but a increasing tendency in velocity, pressure and density for Ist order in comparison to ideal gas. The energy of explosion J0 for ideal gas is greater in comparison to non-ideal gas for plane, cylindrical and spherical waves.

  18. Dynamic processes during accretion into a black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Bisonvatyi-kogan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Accretion disc theory was first developed as a theory with the local heat balance, where the whole energy produced by a viscous heating was emitted to the sides of the disc. One of the most important new invention of this theory was a phenomenological treatment of the turbulent viscosity, known as “alpha” prescription, when the (rϕ component of the stress tensor was approximated by (αP with a unknown constant α This prescription played the role in the accretion disc theory as well important as the mixing-length theory of convection for stellar evolution. Sources of turbulence in the accretion disc are discussed, including nonlinear hydrodynamic turbulence, convection and magnetic filed role. In parallel to the optically thick geometrically thin accretion disc models, a new branch of the optically thin accretion disc models was discovered, with a larger thickness for the same total luminosity. The choice between these solutions should be done of the base of stability analysis. The ideas underlying the necessity to include advection into the accretion disc theory are presented and first models with advection are reviewed. The present status of the solution for a low-luminous optically thin accretion disc model with advection is discussed and the limits for an advection dominated accretion flows (ADAF imposed by the presence of magnetic field are analyzed.

  19. Sonoluminescence, shock waves, and micro-thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, W.C.; Clarke, D.B.; White, J.W.; Young, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    We have performed numerical hydrodynamic simulations of the growth and collapse of a sonoluminescing bubble in a liquid. Our calculations show that spherically converging shock waves are generated during the collapse of the bubble. The combination of the shock waves and a realistic equation of state for the gas in the bubble provides an explanation for the measured picosecond optical pulse widths and indicates that the temperatures near the center of the bubble may exceed 3O eV. This leads naturally to speculation about obtaining micro-thermonuclear fusion in a bubble filled with deuterium (D 2 ) gas. Consequently, we performed numerical simulations of the collapse of a D 2 bubble in D 2 0. A pressure spike added to the periodic driving amplitude creates temperatures that may be sufficient to generate a very small, but measurable number of thermonuclear D-D fusion reactions in the bubble

  20. Three-dimensional GRMHD Simulations of Neutrino-cooled Accretion Disks from Neutron Star Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Daniel M.; Metzger, Brian D.

    2018-05-01

    Merging binaries consisting of two neutron stars (NSs) or an NS and a stellar-mass black hole typically form a massive accretion torus around the remnant black hole or long-lived NS. Outflows from these neutrino-cooled accretion disks represent an important site for r-process nucleosynthesis and the generation of kilonovae. We present the first three-dimensional, general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations including weak interactions and a realistic equation of state of such accretion disks over viscous timescales (380 ms). We witness the emergence of steady-state MHD turbulence, a magnetic dynamo with an ∼20 ms cycle, and the generation of a “hot” disk corona that launches powerful thermal outflows aided by the energy released as free nucleons recombine into α-particles. We identify a self-regulation mechanism that keeps the midplane electron fraction low (Y e ∼ 0.1) over viscous timescales. This neutron-rich reservoir, in turn, feeds outflows that retain a sufficiently low value of Y e ≈ 0.2 to robustly synthesize third-peak r-process elements. The quasi-spherical outflows are projected to unbind 40% of the initial disk mass with typical asymptotic escape velocities of 0.1c and may thus represent the dominant mass ejection mechanism in NS–NS mergers. Including neutrino absorption, our findings agree with previous hydrodynamical α-disk simulations that the entire range of r-process nuclei from the first to the third r-process peak can be synthesized in the outflows, in good agreement with observed solar system abundances. The asymptotic escape velocities and quantity of ejecta, when extrapolated to moderately higher disk masses, are consistent with those needed to explain the red kilonova emission following the NS merger GW170817.

  1. The formation of massive molecular filaments and massive stars triggered by a magnetohydrodynamic shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Hennebelle, Patrick; Fukui, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Iwasaki, Kazunari; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2018-05-01

    Recent observations suggest an that intensive molecular cloud collision can trigger massive star/cluster formation. The most important physical process caused by the collision is a shock compression. In this paper, the influence of a shock wave on the evolution of a molecular cloud is studied numerically by using isothermal magnetohydrodynamics simulations with the effect of self-gravity. Adaptive mesh refinement and sink particle techniques are used to follow the long-time evolution of the shocked cloud. We find that the shock compression of a turbulent inhomogeneous molecular cloud creates massive filaments, which lie perpendicularly to the background magnetic field, as we have pointed out in a previous paper. The massive filament shows global collapse along the filament, which feeds a sink particle located at the collapse center. We observe a high accretion rate \\dot{M}_acc> 10^{-4} M_{⊙}yr-1 that is high enough to allow the formation of even O-type stars. The most massive sink particle achieves M > 50 M_{⊙} in a few times 105 yr after the onset of the filament collapse.

  2. Theory of Disk Accretion onto Magnetic Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disk accretion onto magnetic stars occurs in a variety of systems, including accreting neutron stars (with both high and low magnetic fields, white dwarfs, and protostars. We review some of the key physical processes in magnetosphere-disk interaction, highlighting the theoretical uncertainties. We also discuss some applications to the observations of accreting neutron star and protostellar systems, as well as possible connections to protoplanetary disks and exoplanets.

  3. Gravitomagnetic acceleration from black hole accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J; Mathews, G J

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how the motion of the neutral masses in an accretion disk orbiting a black hole creates a general-relativistic magnetic-like (gravitomagnetic) field that vertically accelerates neutral particles near an accretion disk upward and then inward toward the axis of the accretion disk. Even though this gravitomagnetic field is not the only mechanism contributing to the production of jets, it presents a novel means to identify one general relativistic effect from a much more complicated problem. In addition, as the accelerated material above or below the accretion disk nears the axis with a nearly vertical direction, a frame-dragging effect twists the trajectories around the axis thus contributing to the collimation of the jet. (note)

  4. Gravitomagnetic acceleration from black hole accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, J.; Mathews, G. J.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate how the motion of the neutral masses in an accretion disk orbiting a black hole creates a general-relativistic magnetic-like (gravitomagnetic) field that vertically accelerates neutral particles near an accretion disk upward and then inward toward the axis of the accretion disk. Even though this gravitomagnetic field is not the only mechanism contributing to the production of jets, it presents a novel means to identify one general relativistic effect from a much more complicated problem. In addition, as the accelerated material above or below the accretion disk nears the axis with a nearly vertical direction, a frame-dragging effect twists the trajectories around the axis thus contributing to the collimation of the jet.

  5. Early Results from NICER Observations of Accreting Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Ozel, Feryal; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Bult, Peter; Cackett, Ed; Chenevez, Jerome; Fabian, Andy; Guillot, Sebastien; Guver, Tolga; Homan, Jeroen; Keek, Laurens; Lamb, Frederick; Ludlam, Renee; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Markwardt, Craig B.; Miller, Jon M.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Wolff, Michael T.

    2018-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) offers significant new capabilities for the study of accreting neuton stars relative to previous X-ray missions including large effective area, low background, and greatly improved low-energy response. The NICER Burst and Accretion Working Group has designed a 2 Ms observation program to study a number of phenomena in accreting neutron stars including type-I X-ray bursts, superbursts, accretion-powered pulsations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and accretion disk reflection spectra. We present some early results from the first six months of the NICER mission.

  6. SPREADING LAYERS IN ACCRETING OBJECTS: ROLE OF ACOUSTIC WAVES FOR ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSPORT, MIXING, AND THERMODYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippov, Alexander A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M., E-mail: sashaph@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    Disk accretion at a high rate onto a white dwarf (WD) or a neutron star has been suggested to result in the formation of a spreading layer (SL)—a belt-like structure on the object's surface, in which the accreted matter steadily spreads in the poleward (meridional) direction while spinning down. To assess its basic characteristics, we perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of supersonic SLs in the relevant morphology with a simple prescription for cooling. We demonstrate that supersonic shear naturally present at the base of the SL inevitably drives sonic instability that gives rise to large-scale acoustic modes governing the evolution of the SL. These modes dominate the transport of momentum and energy, which is intrinsically global and cannot be characterized via some form of local effective viscosity (e.g., α-viscosity). The global nature of the wave-driven transport should have important implications for triggering Type I X-ray bursts in low-mass X-ray binaries. The nonlinear evolution of waves into a system of shocks drives effective rearrangement (sensitively depending on thermodynamical properties of the flow) and deceleration of the SL, which ultimately becomes transonic and susceptible to regular Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. We interpret this evolution in terms of the global structure of the SL and suggest that mixing of the SL material with the underlying stellar fluid should become effective only at intermediate latitudes on the accreting object's surface, where the flow has decelerated appreciably. In the near-equatorial regions the transport is dominated by acoustic waves and mixing is less efficient. We speculate that this latitudinal nonuniformity of mixing in accreting WDs may be linked to the observed bipolar morphology of classical nova ejecta.

  7. Measuring the spins of accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, Jeffrey E; Narayan, Ramesh; Gou, Lijun; Kulkarni, Akshay; Penna, Robert F; Steiner, James F; Davis, Shane W; Orosz, Jerome A; Remillard, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    A typical galaxy is thought to contain tens of millions of stellar-mass black holes, the collapsed remnants of once massive stars, and a single nuclear supermassive black hole. Both classes of black holes accrete gas from their environments. The accreting gas forms a flattened orbiting structure known as an accretion disk. During the past several years, it has become possible to obtain measurements of the spins of the two classes of black holes by modeling the x-ray emission from their accretion disks. Two methods are employed, both of which depend upon identifying the inner radius of the accretion disk with the innermost stable circular orbit, whose radius depends only on the mass and spin of the black hole. In the Fe Kα method, which applies to both classes of black holes, one models the profile of the relativistically broadened iron line with a special focus on the gravitationally redshifted red wing of the line. In the continuum-fitting (CF) method, which has so far only been applied to stellar-mass black holes, one models the thermal x-ray continuum spectrum of the accretion disk. We discuss both methods, with a strong emphasis on the CF method and its application to stellar-mass black holes. Spin results for eight stellar-mass black holes are summarized. These data are used to argue that the high spins of at least some of these black holes are natal, and that the presence or absence of relativistic jets in accreting black holes is not entirely determined by the spin of the black hole.

  8. Nonlinear reflection of a spherically divergent N-wave from a plane surface: Optical interferometry measurements in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karzova, M.; Yuldashev, P.; Khokhlova, V.; Ollivier, S.; Blanc-Benon, Ph.

    2015-01-01

    Mach stem is a well-known structure typically observed in the process of strong (acoustic Mach numbers greater than 0.4) step-shock waves reflection from a rigid boundary. However, this phenomenon has been much less studied for weak shocks in nonlinear acoustic fields where Mach numbers are in the range from 0.001 to 0.01 and pressure waveforms have more complicated waveforms than step shocks. The goal of this work was to demonstrate experimentally how nonlinear reflection occurs in air for very weak spherically divergent acoustic spark-generated pulses resembling an N-wave. Measurements of reflection patterns were performed using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A thin laser beam with sub-millimeter cross-section was used to obtain the time resolution of 0.4 µs, which is 6 times higher than the time resolution of the condenser microphones. Pressure waveforms were reconstructed using the inverse Abel transform applied to the phase of the signal measured by the interferometer. The Mach stem formation was observed experimentally as a result of collision of the incident and reflected shock pulses. It was shown that irregular reflection of the pulse occurred in a dynamic way and the length of the Mach stem increased linearly while the pulse propagated along the surface. Since the front shock of the spark-generated pulse was steeper than the rear shock, irregular type of reflection was observed only for the front shock of the pulse while the rear shock reflection occurred in a regular regime

  9. Nonlinear reflection of a spherically divergent N-wave from a plane surface: Optical interferometry measurements in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karzova, M., E-mail: masha@acs366.phys.msu.ru [Laboratoire de Mécanique des Fluides et d’Acoustique, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Yuldashev, P.; Khokhlova, V. [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ollivier, S.; Blanc-Benon, Ph. [Laboratoire de Mécanique des Fluides et d’Acoustique, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France)

    2015-10-28

    Mach stem is a well-known structure typically observed in the process of strong (acoustic Mach numbers greater than 0.4) step-shock waves reflection from a rigid boundary. However, this phenomenon has been much less studied for weak shocks in nonlinear acoustic fields where Mach numbers are in the range from 0.001 to 0.01 and pressure waveforms have more complicated waveforms than step shocks. The goal of this work was to demonstrate experimentally how nonlinear reflection occurs in air for very weak spherically divergent acoustic spark-generated pulses resembling an N-wave. Measurements of reflection patterns were performed using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A thin laser beam with sub-millimeter cross-section was used to obtain the time resolution of 0.4 µs, which is 6 times higher than the time resolution of the condenser microphones. Pressure waveforms were reconstructed using the inverse Abel transform applied to the phase of the signal measured by the interferometer. The Mach stem formation was observed experimentally as a result of collision of the incident and reflected shock pulses. It was shown that irregular reflection of the pulse occurred in a dynamic way and the length of the Mach stem increased linearly while the pulse propagated along the surface. Since the front shock of the spark-generated pulse was steeper than the rear shock, irregular type of reflection was observed only for the front shock of the pulse while the rear shock reflection occurred in a regular regime.

  10. Spherical neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2006-11-21

    A spherical neutron generator is formed with a small spherical target and a spherical shell RF-driven plasma ion source surrounding the target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) ion plasma is produced by RF excitation in the plasma ion source using an RF antenna. The plasma generation region is a spherical shell between an outer chamber and an inner extraction electrode. A spherical neutron generating target is at the center of the chamber and is biased negatively with respect to the extraction electrode which contains many holes. Ions passing through the holes in the extraction electrode are focused onto the target which produces neutrons by D-D or D-T reactions.

  11. A spin-down mechanism for accreting neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illarionov, A.F.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.); Kompaneets, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    We propose a new spin-down mechanism for accreting neutron stars that explains the existence of a number of long-period (p≅100-1000 s) X-ray pulsars in wide binaries with OB-stars. The spin-down is a result of efficient angular momentum transfer from the rotating magnetosphere of the accreting star to an outflowing stream of magnetized matter. The outflow is formed within a limited solid angle, and the outflow rate is less than the accretion rate. The outflow formation is connected with the anisotropy and intensity of the hard X-ray emission of the neutron star. X-rays from the pulsar heat through Compton scattering the accreting matter anisotropically. The heated matter has a lower density than the surrounding accreting matter and flows up by the action of the buoyancy force. We find the criterion for the outflow to form deep in the accretion flow (i.e., close to the neutron star magnetosphere). The neutron star loses angular momentum when the outflow forms so deep as to capture the magnetic field lines from the rotating magnetosphere. The balance between angular momentum gain by accreting gas and loss by outflowing matter takes place at a particular value of the period of the spinning neutron star. (orig.)

  12. Cauchy-perturbative matching reexamined: Tests in spherical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, Burkhard; Pazos, Enrique; Diener, Peter; Tiglio, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    During the last few years progress has been made on several fronts making it possible to revisit Cauchy-perturbative matching (CPM) in numerical relativity in a more robust and accurate way. This paper is the first in a series where we plan to analyze CPM in the light of these new results. One of the new developments is an understanding of how to impose constraint-preserving boundary conditions (CPBC); though most of the related research has been driven by outer boundaries, one can use them for matching interface boundaries as well. Another front is related to numerically stable evolutions using multiple patches, which in the context of CPM allows the matching to be performed on a spherical surface, thus avoiding interpolations between Cartesian and spherical grids. One way of achieving stability for such schemes of arbitrary high order is through the use of penalty techniques and discrete derivatives satisfying summation by parts (SBP). Recently, new, very efficient and high-order accurate derivatives satisfying SBP and associated dissipation operators have been constructed. Here we start by testing all these techniques applied to CPM in a setting that is simple enough to study all the ingredients in great detail: Einstein's equations in spherical symmetry, describing a black hole coupled to a massless scalar field. We show that with the techniques described above, the errors introduced by Cauchy-perturbative matching are very small, and that very long-term and accurate CPM evolutions can be achieved. Our tests include the accretion and ring-down phase of a Schwarzschild black hole with CPM, where we find that the discrete evolution introduces, with a low spatial resolution of Δr=M/10, an error of 0.3% after an evolution time of 1,000,000M. For a black hole of solar mass, this corresponds to approximately 5s, and is therefore at the lower end of timescales discussed e.g. in the collapsar model of gamma-ray burst engines

  13. Review of gravitomagnetic acceleration from accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, J.; Mathews, G. J.

    2015-11-01

    We review the development of the equations of gravitoelectromagnetism and summarize how the motion of the neutral masses in an accretion disk orbiting a black hole creates a general-relativistic magnetic-like (gravitomagnetic) field that vertically accelerates neutral particles near the accretion disk upward and then inward toward the axis of the accretion disk. Even though this gravitomagnetic field is not the only mechanism to produce collimated jets, it is a novel means to identify one general relativistic effect from a much more complicated problem. In addition, as the accelerated material above or below the accretion disk nears the axis with a nearly vertical direction, a frame-dragging effect twists the trajectories around the axis thus contributing to the collimation of the jet.

  14. Crystal structure of a small heat-shock protein from Xylella fastidiosa reveals a distinct high-order structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Emanuella Maria Barreto; Scorsato, Valéria; Dos Santos, Marcelo Leite; Júnior, Atilio Tomazini; Tada, Susely Ferraz Siqueira; Dos Santos, Clelton Aparecido; de Toledo, Marcelo Augusto Szymanski; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Polikarpov, Igor; Aparicio, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis is a disease that attacks economically important citrus plantations and is caused by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. In this work, the structure of a small heat-shock protein from X. fastidiosa (XfsHSP17.9) is reported. The high-order structures of small heat-shock proteins from other organisms are arranged in the forms of double-disc, hollow-sphere or spherical assemblies. Unexpectedly, the structure reported here reveals a high-order architecture forming a nearly square cavity.

  15. A Solution to the Protostellar Accretion Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Padoan, Paolo; Kritsuk, Alexei; Norman, Michael L.; Nordlund, Ake

    2004-01-01

    Accretion rates of order 10^-8 M_\\odot/yr are observed in young protostars of approximately a solar mass with evidence of circumstellar disks. The accretion rate is significantly lower for protostars of smaller mass, approximately proportional to the second power of the stellar mass, \\dot{M}_accr\\propto M^2. The traditional view is that the observed accretion is the consequence of the angular momentum transport in isolated protostellar disks, controlled by disk turbulence or self--gravity. Ho...

  16. The effect of spherical shells of matter on the Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dray, T.; Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht; Hooft, G. 't

    1985-01-01

    Based on previous work we show how to join two Schwarzschild solutions, possibly with different masses along null cylinders each representing a spherical shell of infalling or outgoing massless matter. One of the Schwarzschild masses can be zero, i.e. one region can be flat. The above procedure can be repeated to produce spacetimes with a C 0 metric describing several different (possibly flat) Schwarzschild regions separated by shells of matter. An exhaustive treatment of the ways of combining four such regions is given; the extension to many regions is then straightforward. Cases of special interest are: (1) the scattering of two spherical gravitational ''shock waves'' at the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole, and (2) a configuration involving only one external universe, which may be relevant to quantization problems in general relativity. In the latter example, only an infinitesimal amount of matter is sufficient to remove the ''Wheeler wormhole'' to another universe. (orig.)

  17. Effects of magnetic fields on magnetohydrodynamic cylindrical and spherical Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, Ravi; Pullin, D. I.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of seed magnetic fields on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability driven by converging cylindrical and spherical implosions in ideal magnetohydrodynamics are investigated. Two different seed field configurations at various strengths are applied over a cylindrical or spherical density interface which has a single-dominant-mode perturbation. The shocks that excite the instability are generated with appropriate Riemann problems in a numerical formulation and the effect of the seed field on the growth rate and symmetry of the perturbations on the density interface is examined. We find reduced perturbation growth for both field configurations and all tested strengths. The extent of growth suppression increases with seed field strength but varies with the angle of the field to interface. The seed field configuration does not significantly affect extent of suppression of the instability, allowing it to be chosen to minimize its effect on implosion distortion. However, stronger seed fields are required in three dimensions to suppress the instability effectively.

  18. Effects of magnetic fields on magnetohydrodynamic cylindrical and spherical Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2015-10-06

    The effects of seed magnetic fields on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability driven by converging cylindrical and spherical implosions in ideal magnetohydrodynamics are investigated. Two different seed field configurations at various strengths are applied over a cylindrical or spherical density interface which has a single-dominant-mode perturbation. The shocks that excite the instability are generated with appropriate Riemann problems in a numerical formulation and the effect of the seed field on the growth rate and symmetry of the perturbations on the density interface is examined. We find reduced perturbation growth for both field configurations and all tested strengths. The extent of growth suppression increases with seed field strength but varies with the angle of the field to interface. The seed field configuration does not significantly affect extent of suppression of the instability, allowing it to be chosen to minimize its effect on implosion distortion. However, stronger seed fields are required in three dimensions to suppress the instability effectively.

  19. Stress intensity factors for complete internal and external cracks in spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.J.; Chen, H.

    1989-01-01

    Cracks or flows found in the nuclear structure must be fully evaluated to assure the safety of the plant. The weight function method has been widely used in the determination of stress intensity factors for cracks under stress gradient e.g. for thermal shock loading. The unique features of the weight function method is that once the weight function for a particular cracked geometry is determined the stress intensity factors at the crack tip for any loading applied to the flawed structure can be calculated by a simple integration. In this paper the stress intensity factors of the complete, part-through internal and external cracks in a spherical shell are determined. The finite element method was used to develop the weight functions for the flawed geometry. The approximate crack surface profile was used to derive the weight functions. The stress intensity factors associated with the cracks in spherical shells under internal pressure are determined by both the weight functions and the direct finite element method

  20. Pulsed Accretion in the T Tauri Binary TWA 3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Herczeg, Gregory J. [The Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Akeson, Rachel L.; Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    TWA 3A is the most recent addition to a small group of young binary systems that both actively accrete from a circumbinary disk and have spectroscopic orbital solutions. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to test binary accretion theory in a well-constrained setting. To examine TWA 3A’s time-variable accretion behavior, we have conducted a two-year, optical photometric monitoring campaign, obtaining dense orbital phase coverage (∼20 observations per orbit) for ∼15 orbital periods. From U -band measurements we derive the time-dependent binary mass accretion rate, finding bursts of accretion near each periastron passage. On average, these enhanced accretion events evolve over orbital phases 0.85 to 1.05, reaching their peak at periastron. The specific accretion rate increases above the quiescent value by a factor of ∼4 on average but the peak can be as high as an order of magnitude in a given orbit. The phase dependence and amplitude of TWA 3A accretion is in good agreement with numerical simulations of binary accretion with similar orbital parameters. In these simulations, periastron accretion bursts are fueled by periodic streams of material from the circumbinary disk that are driven by the binary orbit. We find that TWA 3A’s average accretion behavior is remarkably similar to DQ Tau, another T Tauri binary with similar orbital parameters, but with significantly less variability from orbit to orbit. This is only the second clear case of orbital-phase-dependent accretion in a T Tauri binary.

  1. Focused Wind Mass Accretion in Mira AB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita; de Val-Borro, M.; Hack, W.; Raymond, J.; Sasselov, D.; Lee, N. P.

    2011-05-01

    At a distance of about only 100pc, Mira AB is the nearest symbiotic system containing an Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star (Mira A), and a compact accreting companion (Mira B) at about 0.5" from Mira A. Symbiotic systems are interacting binaries with a key evolutionary importance as potential progenitors of a fraction of asymmetric Planetary Nebulae, and SN type Ia, cosmological distance indicators. The region of interaction has been studied using high-angular resolution, multiwavelength observations ranging from radio to X-ray wavelengths. Our results, including high-angular resolution Chandra imaging, show a "bridge" between Mira A and Mira B, indicating gravitational focusing of the Mira A wind, whereby components exchange matter directly in addition to the wind accretion. We carried out a study using 2-D hydrodynamical models of focused wind mass accretion to determine the region of wind acceleration and the characteristics of the accretion in Mira AB. We highlight some of our results and discuss the impact on our understanding of accretion processes in symbiotic systems and other detached and semidetached interacting systems.

  2. Shock ignition of high gain inertial fusion capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurtz, G.; Ribeyre, X.; Lebel, E.; Casner, A.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Inertial Confinement Fusion relies on the compression of small amounts of an equimolar mix of Deuterium and Tritium (DT) up to volumic masses of several hundreds of g/cm 3 . Such high densities are obtained by means of the implosion of a spherical shell made of cryogenic DT fuel. In the conventional scheme a hot spot is formed in the central part of the pellet at the end of the implosion. If the pressure of this hot spot is large enough (several hundreds of Gbars), thermonuclear heating occurs with a characteristic time shorter than the hydrodynamic confinement time and the target self ignites. Since the central hot spot pressure results from the conversion of the shell kinetic energy into thermal energy, the threshold for the ignition of a given mass of DT is a direct function of the implosion velocity. Typical implosion velocities for central self ignition are of the order of 400 km/s. Such high velocities imply both a strong acceleration of the shell and the use of large aspect ration shells in order to optimize the hydrodynamic efficiency of the implosion, at least in direct drive. These two features strongly enhance the risk of shell beak up at time of acceleration under the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Furthermore the formation of the hot spot may itself the unstable, this reducing its effective mass. High compression may be achieved at much lower velocities, thus reducing the energy budget and enhancing the implosion safety, but the corresponding fuel assembly requires an additional heating in order to reach ignition. This heating may be obtained from a 70-100 kJ laser pulse, delivered in 10-15 ps (Fast Ignition). An alternative idea is to boost up the central pressure of a target imploded at a sub-ignition velocity by means of a convergent strong shock launched at the end of the compression phase. This Shock Ignition (SI) concept has been suggested in 1983 by Scherbakov et al. More recently, R. Betti et al. developed

  3. Convergence of shock waves between conical and parabolic boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanuka, D.; Zinowits, H. E.; Antonov, O.; Efimov, S.; Virozub, A.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2016-07-15

    Convergence of shock waves, generated by underwater electrical explosions of cylindrical wire arrays, between either parabolic or conical bounding walls is investigated. A high-current pulse with a peak of ∼550 kA and rise time of ∼300 ns was applied for the wire array explosion. Strong self-emission from an optical fiber placed at the origin of the implosion was used for estimating the time of flight of the shock wave. 2D hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper showed that the pressure obtained in the vicinity of the implosion is ∼7 times higher in the case of parabolic walls. However, comparison with a spherical wire array explosion showed that the pressure in the implosion vicinity in that case is higher than the pressure in the current experiment with parabolic bounding walls because of strong shock wave reflections from the walls. It is shown that this drawback of the bounding walls can be significantly minimized by optimization of the wire array geometry.

  4. Misaligned Accretion and Jet Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew; Nixon, Chris

    2018-04-01

    Disk accretion onto a black hole is often misaligned from its spin axis. If the disk maintains a significant magnetic field normal to its local plane, we show that dipole radiation from Lense–Thirring precessing disk annuli can extract a significant fraction of the accretion energy, sharply peaked toward small disk radii R (as R ‑17/2 for fields with constant equipartition ratio). This low-frequency emission is immediately absorbed by surrounding matter or refracted toward the regions of lowest density. The resultant mechanical pressure, dipole angular pattern, and much lower matter density toward the rotational poles create a strong tendency to drive jets along the black hole spin axis, similar to the spin-axis jets of radio pulsars, also strong dipole emitters. The coherent primary emission may explain the high brightness temperatures seen in jets. The intrinsic disk emission is modulated at Lense–Thirring frequencies near the inner edge, providing a physical mechanism for low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). Dipole emission requires nonzero hole spin, but uses only disk accretion energy. No spin energy is extracted, unlike the Blandford–Znajek process. Magnetohydrodynamic/general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD/GRMHD) formulations do not directly give radiation fields, but can be checked post-process for dipole emission and therefore self-consistency, given sufficient resolution. Jets driven by dipole radiation should be more common in active galactic nuclei (AGN) than in X-ray binaries, and in low accretion-rate states than high, agreeing with observation. In non-black hole accretion, misaligned disk annuli precess because of the accretor’s mass quadrupole moment, similarly producing jets and QPOs.

  5. Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion onto Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Andrea; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramírez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    Binary stars are not rare. While only close binary stars will eventually interact with one another, even the widest binary systems interact with their gaseous surroundings. The rates of accretion and the gaseous drag forces arising in these interactions are the key to understanding how these systems evolve. This poster examines accretion flows around a binary system moving supersonically through a background gas. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion using the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH. We simulate a range of values of semi-major axis of the orbit relative to the gravitational focusing impact parameter of the pair. On large scales, gas is gravitationally focused by the center-of-mass of the binary, leading to dynamical friction drag and to the accretion of mass and momentum. On smaller scales, the orbital motion imprints itself on the gas. Notably, the magnitude and direction of the forces acting on the binary inherit this orbital dependence. The long-term evolution of the binary is determined by the timescales for accretion, slow down of the center-of-mass, and decay of the orbit. We use our simulations to measure these timescales and to establish a hierarchy between them. In general, our simulations indicate that binaries moving through gaseous media will slow down before the orbit decays.

  6. He stars and He-accreting CO white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limongi, M.; Tornambe, A.

    1991-01-01

    He star models in the mass range 0.4-1.0 solar mass have been evolved until the red giant phase or, depending on their mass, until crystallization on the white-dwarf cooling sequence. Some of the degenerate structures obtained in these computations have been successively accreted at various He accretion rates in order to better define the fate of the accreting dwarf versus its mass and accretion rate for a fixed degeneracy level of the accreting dwarf. He stars have been further induced to transfer mass to a degenerate companion through Roche lobe overflow, in conditions of large gravitational wave radiation by the system. CO dwarfs in binary systems with He stars are found to experience a thermal behavior whose effects are such to locate the structure on the verge of obtaining a strong SN-like explosive event. 22 refs

  7. Energy transport in radially accreting white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.M.

    1986-10-01

    Some of the non-thermal energy transport processes which may be present in a white dwarf accretion column are examined and it is determined whether these could in any way contribute to a resolution of the soft X-ray puzzle. The first two Chapters of this Thesis constitute a review of the observations and proposed models for white dwarf accretion columns. In Chapter 3 we show that in Kuijpers and Pringle's original bombardment model of white dwarf accretion columns, in which the energy of the accreting material is deposited uniformly into a static atmosphere which then radiates the energy away as optically thin bremsstrahlung/line radiation, an incorrect Coulomb collisional timescale was used. In Chapter 4 we extend the calculations of Chapter 3 to include the effect of cyclotron radiation. It is concluded that a cyclotron cooled bombardment solution for a white dwarf accretion column may exist. We extend this calculation to derive a simple piecewise uniform temperature structure for such an accretion column, incorporating the effect of thermal conduction. In Chaper 5 we examine two of the non thermal emission mechanisms that might be present in white dwarf accretion columns:- non thermal Lyman-{alpha} emission and non thermal inverse bremsstrahlung emission. It is shown that neither would actually be sufficiently large to be detectable. In Chapter 6 some possible extensions to the work presented are suggested. (author).

  8. Coherence of burst oscillations and accretion-powered pulsations in the accreting millisecond pulsar XTE J1814-338

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watts, A.L.; Patruno, A.; van der Klis, M.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray timing of the accretion-powered pulsations during the 2003 outburst of the accreting millisecond pulsar XTE J1814-338 has revealed variation in the pulse time of arrival residuals. These can be interpreted in several ways, including spin-down and wandering of the fuel impact point around the

  9. Nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven, aspherical supernova explosion of a massive star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, S.; Hashimoto, M.; Ono, M.; Kotake, K.; Ohnishi, N.

    2011-01-01

    We examine explosive nucleosynthesis of p-nuclei during a delayed neutrino-driven, aspherical supernova explosion aided by standing accretion shock instability, based on two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the explosion of a 15M · star. We find that p-nuclei are mainly produced through γ-processes, and that the nuclei lighter than 92 Mo are abundantly synthesized in slightly neutron-rich bubbles with electron fractions of Y e ≤0.48. 94 Mo, 96 Ru, and 98 Ru, are underproduced compared with the solar system, as in the spherical model.

  10. Introduction to the theory of diffusive shock acceleration of energetic particles in tenuous plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, L.O. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.))

    1983-08-01

    The central idea of diffusive shock acceleration is presented from microscopic and macroscopic viewpoints; applied to reactionless test particles in a steady plane shock the mechanism is shown to produce a power law spectrum in momentum with a slope which, to lowest order in the ratio of plasma to particle speed, depends only on the compression in the shock. The associated time scale is found (also by a macroscopic and a microscopic method) and the problems of spherical shocks, as exemplified by a point explosion and a stellar-wind terminator, are treated by singular perturbation theory. The effect of including the particle reaction is then studied. It is shown that if the scattering is due to resonant waves these can rapidly grow with unknown consequences. The possible steady modified shock structures are classified and generalized Rankine-Hugoniot conditions found. Modifications of the spectrum are discussed on the basis of an exact, if rather artificial, solution, a high-energy asymptotic expansion and a perturbation expansion due to Blandford. It is pointed out that no steady solution can exist for very strong shocks; the possible time dependence is briefly discussed.

  11. Introduction to the theory of diffusive shock acceleration of energetic particles in tenuous plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, L.Oc.

    1983-08-01

    The central idea of diffusive shock acceleration is presented from microscopic and macroscopic viewpoints applied to reactionless test particles in a steady plane shock. The mechanism is shown to produce a power law spectrum in momentum with a slope which, to lowest order in the ratio of plasma to particle speed, depends only on the compression in the shock. The associated time scale is found (also by a macroscopic and a microscopic method) and the problems of spherical shocks, as exemplified by a point explosion and a stellar-wind terminator, are treated by singular perturbation theory. The effect of including the particle reaction is then studied. It is shown that if the scattering is due to resonant waves these can rapidly grow with unknown consequences. The possible steady modified shock structures are classified and generalized Rankine-Hugoniot conditions found. Modifications of the spectrum are discussed on the basis of an exact, if rather artificial, solution, a high-energy asymptotic expansion and a perturbation expansion due to Blandford. It is pointed out that no steady solution can exist for very strong shocks. The possible time dependence is briefly discussed. 75 references.

  12. Contribution to study of interfaces instabilities in plane, cylindrical and spherical geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toque, Nathalie

    1996-12-01

    This thesis proposes several experiments of hydrodynamical instabilities which are studied, numerically and theoretically. The experiments are in plane and cylindrical geometry. Their X-ray radiographies show the evolution of an interface between two solid media crossed by a detonation wave. These materials are initially solid. They become liquide under shock wave or stay between two phases, solid and liquid. The numerical study aims at simulating with the codes EAD and Ouranos, the interfaces instabilities which appear in the experiments. The experimental radiographies and the numerical pictures are in quite good agreement. The theoretical study suggests to modelise a spatio-temporal part of the experiments to obtain the quantitative development of perturbations at the interfaces and in the flows. The models are linear and in plane, cylindrical and spherical geometry. They preceed the inoming study of transition between linear and non linear development of instabilities in multifluids flows crossed by shock waves.

  13. The accretion of migrating giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürmann, Christoph; Kley, Wilhelm

    2017-02-01

    Aims: Most studies concerning the growth and evolution of massive planets focus either on their accretion or their migration only. In this work we study both processes concurrently to investigate how they might mutually affect one another. Methods: We modeled a two-dimensional disk with a steady accretion flow onto the central star and embedded a Jupiter mass planet at 5.2 au. The disk is locally isothermal and viscosity is modeled using a constant α. The planet is held on a fixed orbit for a few hundred orbits to allow the disk to adapt and carve a gap. After this period, the planet is released and free to move according to the gravitational interaction with the gas disk. The mass accretion onto the planet is modeled by removing a fraction of gas from the inner Hill sphere, and the removed mass and momentum can be added to the planet. Results: Our results show that a fast migrating planet is able to accrete more gas than a slower migrating planet. Utilizing a tracer fluid we analyzed the origin of the accreted gas originating predominantly from the inner disk for a fast migrating planet. In the case of slower migration, the fraction of gas from the outer disk increases. We also found that even for very high accretion rates, in some cases gas crosses the planetary gap from the inner to the outer disk. Our simulations show that the crossing of gas changes during the migration process as the migration rate slows down. Therefore, classical type II migration where the planet migrates with the viscous drift rate and no gas crosses the gap is no general process but may only occur for special parameters and at a certain time during the orbital evolution of the planet.

  14. Relativistic jets from accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coriat, Mickael

    2010-01-01

    Matter ejection processes, more commonly called jets, are among the most ubiquitous phenomena of the universe at ail scales of size and energy and are inseparable from accretion process. This intimate link, still poorly understood, is the main focus of this thesis. Through multi-wavelength observations of X-ray binary Systems hosting a black hole, I will try to bring new constraints on the physics of relativistic jets and the accretion - ejection coupling. We strive first to compare the simultaneous infrared, optical and X-ray emissions of the binary GX 339-4 over a period of five years. We study the nature of the central accretion flow, one of the least understood emission components of X-ray binaries, both in its geometry and in term of the physical processes that take place. This component is fundamental since it is could be the jets launching area or be highly connected to it. Then we focus on the infrared emission of the jets to investigate the physical conditions close to the jets base. We finally study the influence of irradiation of the outer accretion disc by the central X-ray source. Then, we present the results of a long-term radio and X-ray study of the micro-quasar H1743- 322. This System belongs to a population of accreting black holes that display, for a given X-ray luminosity, a radio emission fainter than expected. We make several assumptions about the physical origin of this phenomenon and show in particular that these sources could have a radiatively efficient central accretion flow. We finally explore the phases of return to the hard state of GX 339-4. We follow the re-emergence of the compact jets emission and try to bring new constraints on the physics of jet formation. (author) [fr

  15. Acceleration of galactic cosmic rays in shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.

    1981-06-01

    The old problem of the origin of cosmic rays has triggered off fresh interest owing to the discovery of a new model which enables a lot of energy to be transferred to a small number of particles on the one hand and the discovery of the coronal environment in which this transfer occurs, on the other. In this paper, interest is taken in the galactic cosmic rays and an endeavour is made to find out if the model can reveal the existence of cosmic rays over a wide energy range. The existence of an energy break, predicted by the model, was recognized fairly early but, in the literature, it varies from 30 GeV ro 10 6 GeV according to the authors. A study has been made of the two main causes of an energy break: the sphericity of the shock and the life time of the shock wave [fr

  16. Stability of black hole accretion disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerny B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the issues of stability of accretion disks that may undergo the limit-cycle oscillations due to the two main types of thermal-viscous instabilities. These are induced either by the domination of radiation pressure in the innermost regions close to the central black hole, or by the partial ionization of hydrogen in the zone of appropriate temperatures. These physical processes may lead to the intermittent activity in AGN on timescales between hundreds and millions of years. We list a number of observational facts that support the idea of the cyclic activity in high accretion rate sources. We conclude however that the observed features of quasars may provide only indirect signatures of the underlying instabilities. Also, the support from the sources with stellar mass black holes, whose variability timescales are observationally feasible, is limited to a few cases of the microquasars. Therefore we consider a number of plausible mechanisms of stabilization of the limit cycle oscillations in high accretion rate accretion disks. The newly found is the stabilizing effect of the stochastic viscosity fluctuations.

  17. Accretion onto a charged higher-dimensional black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Iftikhar, Sehrish

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the steady-state polytropic fluid accretion onto a higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. We formulate the generalized mass flux conservation equation, energy flux conservation and relativistic Bernoulli equation to discuss the accretion process. The critical accretion is investigated by finding the critical radius, the critical sound velocity, and the critical flow velocity. We also explore gas compression and temperature profiles to analyze the asymptotic behavior. It is found that the results for the Schwarzschild black hole are recovered when q = 0 in four dimensions. We conclude that the accretion process in higher dimensions becomes slower in the presence of charge. (orig.)

  18. Accretion onto a charged higher-dimensional black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Iftikhar, Sehrish [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-03-15

    This paper deals with the steady-state polytropic fluid accretion onto a higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. We formulate the generalized mass flux conservation equation, energy flux conservation and relativistic Bernoulli equation to discuss the accretion process. The critical accretion is investigated by finding the critical radius, the critical sound velocity, and the critical flow velocity. We also explore gas compression and temperature profiles to analyze the asymptotic behavior. It is found that the results for the Schwarzschild black hole are recovered when q = 0 in four dimensions. We conclude that the accretion process in higher dimensions becomes slower in the presence of charge. (orig.)

  19. Pre-main-sequence disk accretion in Z Canis Majoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S.J.; Hewett, R.; Edwards, S.; Strom, K.M.; Strom, S.E.; Stauffer, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested that the pre-main-sequence object Z CMa is a luminous accretion disk, similar in many respects to the FU Orionis variables. Z CMa shows the broad, doubled optical absorption lines expected from a rapidly rotating accretion disk. The first overtone CO absorption detected in Z CMa is blue-shifted, suggesting line formation in a disk wind. Accretion at rates about 0.001 solar mass/yr over 100 yr is required to explain the luminosity of Z CMa. The large amount of material accreted (0.1 solar mass/yr) indicates that Z CMa is in a very early stage of stellar evolution, possibly in an initial phase of massive disk accretion. 41 references

  20. Pre-main-sequence disk accretion in Z Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S. J.; Hewett, R.; Edwards, S.; Strom, K. M.; Strom, S. E.; Stauffer, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested that the pre-main-sequence object Z CMa is a luminous accretion disk, similar in many respects to the FU Orionis variables. Z CMa shows the broad, doubled optical absorption lines expected from a rapidly rotating accretion disk. The first overtone CO absorption detected in Z CMa is blue-shifted, suggesting line formation in a disk wind. Accretion at rates about 0.001 solar mass/yr over 100 yr is required to explain the luminosity of Z CMa. The large amount of material accreted (0.1 solar mass/yr) indicates that Z CMa is in a very early stage of stellar evolution, possibly in an initial phase of massive disk accretion.

  1. Accretion in Radiative Equipartition (AiRE) Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdi, Yasaman K.; Afshordi, Niayesh, E-mail: yyazdi@pitp.ca, E-mail: nafshordi@pitp.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2017-07-01

    Standard accretion disk theory predicts that the total pressure in disks at typical (sub-)Eddington accretion rates becomes radiation pressure dominated. However, radiation pressure dominated disks are thermally unstable. Since these disks are observed in approximate steady state over the instability timescale, our accretion models in the radiation-pressure-dominated regime (i.e., inner disk) need to be modified. Here, we present a modification to the Shakura and Sunyaev model, where the radiation pressure is in equipartition with the gas pressure in the inner region. We call these flows accretion in radiative equipartition (AiRE) disks. We introduce the basic features of AiRE disks and show how they modify disk properties such as the Toomre parameter and the central temperature. We then show that the accretion rate of AiRE disks is limited from above and below, by Toomre and nodal sonic point instabilities, respectively. The former leads to a strict upper limit on the mass of supermassive black holes as a function of cosmic time (and spin), while the latter could explain the transition between hard and soft states of X-ray binaries.

  2. Spherical sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi; Schreiner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This book presents, in a consistent and unified overview, results and developments in the field of today´s spherical sampling, particularly arising in mathematical geosciences. Although the book often refers to original contributions, the authors made them accessible to (graduate) students and scientists not only from mathematics but also from geosciences and geoengineering. Building a library of topics in spherical sampling theory it shows how advances in this theory lead to new discoveries in mathematical, geodetic, geophysical as well as other scientific branches like neuro-medicine. A must-to-read for everybody working in the area of spherical sampling.

  3. Regimes of mini black hole abandoned to accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Biplab

    2018-01-01

    Being inspired by the Eddington’s idea, along with other auxiliary arguments, it is unveiled that there exist regimes of a black hole that would prohibit accretion of ordinary energy. In explicit words, there exists a lower bound to black hole mass below which matter accretion process does not run for black holes. Not merely the baryonic matter, but, in regimes, also the massless photons could get prohibited from rushing into a black hole. However, unlike the baryon accretion abandoned black hole regime, the mass-regime of a black hole prohibiting accretion of radiation could vary along with its ambient temperature. For example, we discuss that earlier to 10‑8 s after the big-bang, as the cosmological temperature of the Universe grew above ˜ 1014 K, the mass range of black hole designating the radiation accretion abandoned regime, had to be in varying state being connected with the instantaneous age of the evolving Universe by an “one half” power law. It happens to be a fact that a black hole holding regimes prohibiting accretion of energy is gigantic by its size in comparison to the Planck length-scale. Hence the emergence of these regimes demands mini black holes for not being viable as profound suckers of energy. Consideration of accretion abandoned regimes could be crucial for constraining or judging the evolution of primordial black holes over the age of the Universe.

  4. X-ray pulsars: accretion flow deceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.S.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray pulsars are thought to be neutron stars that derive the energy for their x-ray emission by accreting material onto their magnetic polar caps. The accreting material and the x-ray pulsar atmospheres were idealized as fully ionized plasmas consisting only of electrons and protons. A high magnetic field (∼ 5 x 10 12 Gauss) permeates the atmospheric plasma, and causes the motion of atmospheric electrons perpendicular to the field to be quantized into discrete Landau levels. All atmospheric electrons initially lie in the Landau ground state, but in the author's calculations of Coulomb collisions between atmospheric electrons and accreting protons, he allows for processes that leave the electrons in the first excited Landau level. He also considers interactions between accreting protons and the collective modes of the atmospheric plasma. Division of the electromagnetic interaction of a fast proton with a magnetized plasma into single particle and collective effects is described in detail in Chapter 2. Deceleration of the accretion flow due to Coulomb collisions with atmospheric electrons and collective plasma effects was studied in a number of computer simulations. These simulations, along with a discussion of the physical state of the atmospheric plasma and its interactions with a past proton, are presented in Chapter 3. Details of the atmospheric model and a description of the results of the simulations are given in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains some brief concluding remarks, and some thoughts on future research

  5. Thermal structure of accreting neutron stars and strange stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miralda-Escude, J.; Paczynski, B.; Haensel, P.

    1990-01-01

    Steady-state models of accreting neutron stars and strange stars are presented, and their properties as a function of accretion rate are analyzed. The models have steady-state envelopes, with stationary hydrogen burning taken into account, the helium shell flashes artificially suppressed, and the crust with a large number of secondary heat sources. The deep interiors are almost isothermal and are close to thermal equilibrium. A large number of models were calculated for many values of the accretion rates, with ordinary, pion-condensed, and strange cores, with and without secondary heat sources in the crust, and with the heavy element content of the accreting matter in the range Z = 0.0002-0.02. All models show a similar pattern of changes as the accretion rate is varied. For low accretion rates, the hydrogen burning shell is unstable; for intermediate rates, the hydrogen burning shell is stable, but helium burning is not; for high rates, the two shell sources burn together and are unstable. 60 refs

  6. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: INSTABILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  7. Accretion outbursts in self-gravitating protoplanetary disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Nelson, Richard P., E-mail: jaehbae@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: zhuzh@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: r.p.nelson@qmul.ac.uk [Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-01

    We improve on our previous treatments of the long-term evolution of protostellar disks by explicitly solving disk self-gravity in two dimensions. The current model is an extension of the one-dimensional layered accretion disk model of Bae et al. We find that gravitational instability (GI)-induced spiral density waves heat disks via compressional heating (i.e., PdV work), and can trigger accretion outbursts by activating the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the magnetically inert disk dead zone. The GI-induced spiral waves propagate well inside of the gravitationally unstable region before they trigger outbursts at R ≲ 1 AU where GI cannot be sustained. This long-range propagation of waves cannot be reproduced with the previously used local α treatments for GI. In our standard model where zero dead-zone residual viscosity (α{sub rd}) is assumed, the GI-induced stress measured at the onset of outbursts is locally as large as 0.01 in terms of the generic α parameter. However, as suggested in our previous one-dimensional calculations, we confirm that the presence of a small but finite α{sub rd} triggers thermally driven bursts of accretion instead of the GI + MRI-driven outbursts that are observed when α{sub rd} = 0. The inclusion of non-zero residual viscosity in the dead zone decreases the importance of GI soon after mass feeding from the envelope cloud ceases. During the infall phase while the central protostar is still embedded, our models stay in a 'quiescent' accretion phase with M-dot {sub acc}∼10{sup −8}--10{sup −7} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} over 60% of the time and spend less than 15% of the infall phase in accretion outbursts. While our models indicate that episodic mass accretion during protostellar evolution can qualitatively help explain the low accretion luminosities seen in most low-mass protostars, detailed tests of the mechanism will require model calculations for a range of protostellar masses with some constraint on the

  8. Accretion outbursts in self-gravitating protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Nelson, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    We improve on our previous treatments of the long-term evolution of protostellar disks by explicitly solving disk self-gravity in two dimensions. The current model is an extension of the one-dimensional layered accretion disk model of Bae et al. We find that gravitational instability (GI)-induced spiral density waves heat disks via compressional heating (i.e., PdV work), and can trigger accretion outbursts by activating the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the magnetically inert disk dead zone. The GI-induced spiral waves propagate well inside of the gravitationally unstable region before they trigger outbursts at R ≲ 1 AU where GI cannot be sustained. This long-range propagation of waves cannot be reproduced with the previously used local α treatments for GI. In our standard model where zero dead-zone residual viscosity (α rd ) is assumed, the GI-induced stress measured at the onset of outbursts is locally as large as 0.01 in terms of the generic α parameter. However, as suggested in our previous one-dimensional calculations, we confirm that the presence of a small but finite α rd triggers thermally driven bursts of accretion instead of the GI + MRI-driven outbursts that are observed when α rd = 0. The inclusion of non-zero residual viscosity in the dead zone decreases the importance of GI soon after mass feeding from the envelope cloud ceases. During the infall phase while the central protostar is still embedded, our models stay in a 'quiescent' accretion phase with M-dot acc ∼10 −8 --10 −7 M ⊙ yr −1 over 60% of the time and spend less than 15% of the infall phase in accretion outbursts. While our models indicate that episodic mass accretion during protostellar evolution can qualitatively help explain the low accretion luminosities seen in most low-mass protostars, detailed tests of the mechanism will require model calculations for a range of protostellar masses with some constraint on the initial core angular momentum, which

  9. The structure of shock wave in a gas consisting of ideally elastic, rigid spherical molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremisin, F. G.

    1972-01-01

    Principal approaches are examined to the theoretical study of the shock layer structure. The choice of a molecular model is discussed and three procedures are formulated. These include a numerical calculation method, solution of the kinetic relaxation equation, and solution of the Boltzmann equation.

  10. The analytical solution of the problem of a shock focusing in a gas for one-dimensional case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestakovskaya, E. S.; Magazov, F. G.

    2018-03-01

    The analytical solution of the problem of an imploding shock wave in the vessel with an impermeable wall is constructed for the cases of planar, cylindrical and spherical symmetry. The negative velocity is set at the vessel boundary. The velocity of cold ideal gas is zero. At the initial time the shock spreads from this point into the center of symmetry. The boundary moves under the particular law which conforms to the movement of the shock. In Euler variables it moves but in Lagrangian variables its trajectory is a vertical line. Equations that determine the structure of the gas flow between the shock front and the boundary as a function of time and the Lagrangian coordinate as well as the dependence of the entropy on the shock wave velocity are obtained. Self-similar coefficients and corresponding critical values of self-similar coordinates were found for a wide range of adiabatic index. The problem is solved for Lagrangian coordinates.

  11. 3D Modeling of Accretion Disks and Circumbinary Envelopes in Close Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisikalo, D.

    2010-12-01

    A number of observations prove the complex flow structure in close binary stars. The gas dynamic structure of the flow is governed by the stream of matter from the inner Lagrange point, the accretion disk, the circum-disk halo, and the circumbinary envelope. Observations reflect the current state of a binary system and for their interpretation one should consider the gas dynamics of flow patterns. Three-dimensional numerical gasdynamical modeling is used to study the gaseous flow structure and dynamics in close binaries. It is shown that the periodic variations of the positions of the disk and the bow shock formed when the inner parts of the circumbinary envelope flow around the disk result in variations in both the rate of angular-momentum transfer to the disk and the flow structure near the Lagrange point L3. All these factors lead to periodic ejections of matter from the accretion disk and circum-disk halo into the outer layers of the circumbinary envelope. The results of simulations are used to estimate the physical parameters of the circumbinary envelope, including 3D matter distribution in it, and the matter-flow configuration and dynamics. The envelope becomes optically thick for systems with high mass-exchange rates, M⊙=10-8 Msun/year, and has a significant influence on the binary's observed features. The uneven phase distributions of the matter and density variations due to periodic injections of matter into the envelope are important for interpretations of observations of CBSs.

  12. Hydrodynamic modelling of the shock ignition scheme for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The shock ignition concept in inertial confinement fusion uses an intense power spike at the end of an assembly laser pulse. The key features of shock ignition are the generation of a high ablation pressure, the shock pressure amplification by at least a factor of a hundred in the cold fuel shell and the shock coupling to the hot-spot. In this thesis, new semi-analytical hydrodynamic models are developed to describe the ignitor shock from its generation up to the moment of fuel ignition. A model is developed to describe a spherical converging shock wave in a pre-heated hot spot. The self-similar solution developed by Guderley is perturbed over the shock Mach number Ms ≥≥1. The first order correction accounts for the effects of the shock strength. An analytical ignition criterion is defined in terms of the shock strength and the hot-spot areal density. The ignition threshold is higher when the initial Mach number of the shock is lower. A minimal shock pressure of 20 Gbar is needed when it enters the hot-spot. The shock dynamics in the imploding shell is then analyzed. The shock is propagating into a non inertial medium with a high radial pressure gradient and an overall pressure increase with time. The collision with a returning shock coming from the assembly phase enhances further the ignitor shock pressure. The analytical theory allows to describe the shock pressure and strength evolution in a typical shock ignition implosion. It is demonstrated that, in the case of the HiPER target design, a generation shock pressure near the ablation zone on the order of 300-400 Mbar is needed. An analysis of experiments on the strong shock generation performed on the OMEGA laser facility is presented. It is shown that a shock pressure close to 300 Mbar near the ablation zone has been reached with an absorbed laser intensity up to 2 * 10 15 W:cm -2 and a laser wavelength of 351 nm. This value is two times higher than the one expected from collisional laser absorption only

  13. Soft-sphere simulations of a planar shock interaction with a granular bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Cameron; Balachandar, S.; McGrath, Thomas P.

    2018-03-01

    Here we consider the problem of shock propagation through a layer of spherical particles. A point particle force model is used to capture the shock-induced aerodynamic force acting upon the particles. The discrete element method (DEM) code liggghts is used to implement the shock-induced force as well as to capture the collisional forces within the system. A volume-fraction-dependent drag correction is applied using Voronoi tessellation to calculate the volume of fluid around each individual particle. A statistically stationary frame is chosen so that spatial and temporal averaging can be performed to calculate ensemble-averaged macroscopic quantities, such as the granular temperature. A parametric study is carried out by varying the coefficient of restitution for three sets of multiphase shock conditions. A self-similar profile is obtained for the granular temperature that is dependent on the coefficient of restitution. A traveling wave structure is observed in the particle concentration downstream of the shock and this instability arises from the volume-fraction-dependent drag force. The intensity of the traveling wave increases significantly as inelastic collisions are introduced. Downstream of the shock, the variance in Voronoi volume fraction is shown to have a strong dependence upon the coefficient of restitution, indicating clustering of particles induced by collisional dissipation. Statistics of the Voronoi volume are computed upstream and downstream of the shock and compared to theoretical results for randomly distributed hard spheres.

  14. Radiation-driven Turbulent Accretion onto Massive Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, KwangHo; Wise, John H.; Bogdanović, Tamara, E-mail: kwangho.park@physics.gatech.edu [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    Accretion of gas and interaction of matter and radiation are at the heart of many questions pertaining to black hole (BH) growth and coevolution of massive BHs and their host galaxies. To answer them, it is critical to quantify how the ionizing radiation that emanates from the innermost regions of the BH accretion flow couples to the surrounding medium and how it regulates the BH fueling. In this work, we use high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) radiation-hydrodynamic simulations with the code Enzo , equipped with adaptive ray-tracing module Moray , to investigate radiation-regulated BH accretion of cold gas. Our simulations reproduce findings from an earlier generation of 1D/2D simulations: the accretion-powered UV and X-ray radiation forms a highly ionized bubble, which leads to suppression of BH accretion rate characterized by quasi-periodic outbursts. A new feature revealed by the 3D simulations is the highly turbulent nature of the gas flow in vicinity of the ionization front. During quiescent periods between accretion outbursts, the ionized bubble shrinks in size and the gas density that precedes the ionization front increases. Consequently, the 3D simulations show oscillations in the accretion rate of only ∼2–3 orders of magnitude, significantly smaller than 1D/2D models. We calculate the energy budget of the gas flow and find that turbulence is the main contributor to the kinetic energy of the gas but corresponds to less than 10% of its thermal energy and thus does not contribute significantly to the pressure support of the gas.

  15. An introduction to the theory of diffusive shock acceleration of energetic particles in tenuous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, L.O'C.

    1983-01-01

    The central idea of diffusive shock acceleration is presented from microscopic and macroscopic viewpoints; applied to reactionless test particles in a steady plane shock the mechanism is shown to produce a power law spectrum in momentum with a slope which, to lowest order in the ratio of plasma to particle speed, depends only on the compression in the shock. The associated time scale is found (also by a macroscopic and a microscopic method) and the problems of spherical shocks, as exemplified by a point explosion and a stellar-wind terminator, are treated by singular perturbation theory. The effect of including the particle reaction is then studied. It is shown that if the scattering is due to resonant waves these can rapidly grow with unknown consequences. The possible steady modified shock structures are classified and generalised Rankine-Hugoniot conditions found. Modifications of the spectrum are discussed on the basis of an exact, if rather artificial, solution, a high-energy asymptotic expansion and a perturbation expansion due to Blandford. It is pointed out that no steady solution can exist for very strong shocks; the possible time dependence is briefly discussed. (author)

  16. Effects of ice accretion on the aerodynamics of bridge cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demartino, C.; Koss, Holger; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2015-01-01

    and stay cables. The aim of this paper is twofold; first, it was investigated the ice accretion process and the final shape of the ice accreted; then the aerodynamics of the ice accreted bridge cables was characterized, and related to the ice shape. Different climatic conditions, i.e. combinations...... of temperature, wind speed and yaw angle of accretion, were reproduced in a climatic wind tunnel, giving rise to different types of accretion. These were chosen such to generate the most common natural ice formations expected to produce bridge cable vibrations. A description of the geometric characteristics...

  17. Cooling of Accretion-Heated Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnands, Rudy; Degenaar, Nathalie; Page, Dany

    2017-09-01

    We present a brief, observational review about the study of the cooling behaviour of accretion-heated neutron stars and the inferences about the neutron-star crust and core that have been obtained from these studies. Accretion of matter during outbursts can heat the crust out of thermal equilibrium with the core and after the accretion episodes are over, the crust will cool down until crust-core equilibrium is restored. We discuss the observed properties of the crust cooling sources and what has been learned about the physics of neutron-star crusts. We also briefly discuss those systems that have been observed long after their outbursts were over, i.e, during times when the crust and core are expected to be in thermal equilibrium. The surface temperature is then a direct probe for the core temperature. By comparing the expected temperatures based on estimates of the accretion history of the targets with the observed ones, the physics of neutron-star cores can be investigated. Finally, we discuss similar studies performed for strongly magnetized neutron stars in which the magnetic field might play an important role in the heating and cooling of the neutron stars.

  18. MEASURING TINY MASS ACCRETION RATES ONTO YOUNG BROWN DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, Gregory J.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2009-01-01

    We present low-resolution Keck I/LRIS spectra spanning from 3200 to 9000 A of nine young brown dwarfs and three low-mass stars in the TW Hya Association and in Upper Sco. The optical spectral types of the brown dwarfs range from M5.5 to M8.75, though two have near-IR spectral types of early L dwarfs. We report new accretion rates derived from excess Balmer continuum emission for the low-mass stars TW Hya and Hen 3-600A and the brown dwarfs 2MASS J12073347-3932540, UScoCTIO 128, SSSPM J1102-3431, USco J160606.29-233513.3, DENIS-P J160603.9-205644, and Oph J162225-240515B, and upper limits on accretion for the low-mass star Hen 3-600B and the brown dwarfs UScoCTIO 112, Oph J162225-240515A, and USco J160723.82-221102.0. For the six brown dwarfs in our sample that are faintest at short wavelengths, the accretion luminosity or upper limit is measurable only when the image is binned over large wavelength intervals. This method extends our sensitivity to accretion rate down to ∼10 -13 M sun yr -1 for brown dwarfs. Since the ability to measure an accretion rate from excess Balmer continuum emission depends on the contrast between excess continuum emission and the underlying photosphere, for objects with earlier spectral types the upper limit on accretion rate is much higher. Absolute uncertainties in our accretion rate measurements of ∼3-5 include uncertainty in accretion models, brown dwarf masses, and distance. The accretion rate of 2 x 10 -12 M sun yr -1 onto 2MASS J12073347-3932540 is within 15% of two previous measurements, despite large changes in the Hα flux.

  19. Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes ...

  20. Accretion Disks and Coronae in the X-Ray Flashlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenaar, Nathalie; Ballantyne, David R.; Belloni, Tomaso; Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Chen, Yu-Peng; Ji, Long; Kretschmar, Peter; Kuulkers, Erik; Li, Jian; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Malzac, Julien; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2018-02-01

    Plasma accreted onto the surface of a neutron star can ignite due to unstable thermonuclear burning and produce a bright flash of X-ray emission called a Type-I X-ray burst. Such events are very common; thousands have been observed to date from over a hundred accreting neutron stars. The intense, often Eddington-limited, radiation generated in these thermonuclear explosions can have a discernible effect on the surrounding accretion flow that consists of an accretion disk and a hot electron corona. Type-I X-ray bursts can therefore serve as direct, repeating probes of the internal dynamics of the accretion process. In this work we review and interpret the observational evidence for the impact that Type-I X-ray bursts have on accretion disks and coronae. We also provide an outlook of how to make further progress in this research field with prospective experiments and analysis techniques, and by exploiting the technical capabilities of the new and concept X-ray missions ASTROSAT, NICER, Insight-HXMT, eXTP, and STROBE-X.

  1. WIND-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN TRANSITIONAL PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lile; Goodman, Jeremy J. [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    Transitional protostellar disks have inner cavities that are heavily depleted in dust and gas, yet most of them show signs of ongoing accretion, often at rates comparable to full disks. We show that recent constraints on the gas surface density in a few well-studied disk cavities suggest that the accretion speed is at least transsonic. We propose that this is the natural result of accretion driven by magnetized winds. Typical physical conditions of the gas inside these cavities are estimated for plausible X-ray and FUV radiation fields. The gas near the midplane is molecular and predominantly neutral, with a dimensionless ambipolar parameter in the right general range for wind solutions of the type developed by Königl, Wardle, and others. That is to say, the density of ions and electrons is sufficient for moderately good coupling to the magnetic field, but it is not so good that the magnetic flux needs to be dragged inward by the accreting neutrals.

  2. Growth of black holes in the interior of rotating neutron stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, C.; Tinyakov, P.

    2014-01-01

    Mini-black holes made of dark matter that can potentially form in the interior of neutron stars always have been thought to grow by accreting the matter of the core of the star via a spherical Bondi accretion. However, neutron stars have sometimes significant angular velocities that can...... in principle stall the spherical accretion and potentially change the conclusions derived about the time it takes for black holes to destroy a star. We study the effect of the star rotation on the growth of such black holes and the evolution of the black hole spin. Assuming no mechanisms of angular momentum...... evacuation, we find that even moderate rotation rates can in fact destroy spherical accretion at the early stages of the black hole growth. However, we demonstrate that the viscosity of nuclear matter can alleviate the effect of rotation, making it possible for the black hole to maintain spherical accretion...

  3. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  4. Transitional millisecond pulsars in the low-level accretion state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaodard, Amruta D.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Archibald, Anne; Bogdanov, Slavko; Deller, Adam; Hernandez Santisteban, Juan; Patruno, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Caroline; Bassa, Cees; Amruta Jaodand

    2018-01-01

    In the canonical pulsar recycling scenario, a slowly spinning neutron star can be rejuvenated to rapid spin rates by the transfer of angular momentum and mass from a binary companion star. Over the last decade, the discovery of three transitional millisecond pulsars (tMSPs) has allowed us to study recycling in detail. These systems transition between accretion-powered (X-ray) and rotation-powered (radio) pulsar states within just a few days, raising questions such as: what triggers the state transition, when does the recycling process truly end, and what will the radio pulsar’s final spin rate be? Systematic multi-wavelength campaigns over the last decade have provided critical insights: multi-year-long, low-level accretion states showing coherent X-ray pulsations; extremely stable, bi-modal X-ray light curves; outflows probed by radio continuum emission; a surprising gamma-ray brightening during accretion, etc. In my thesis I am trying to bring these clues together to understand the low-level accretion process that recycles a pulsar. For example, recently we timed PSR J1023+0038 in the accretion state and found it to be spinning down ~26% faster compared to the non-accreting radio pulsar state. We are currently conducting simultaneous multi-wavelength campaigns (XMM, HST, Kepler and VLA) to understand the global variability of the accretion flow, as well as high-energy Fermi-LAT observations to probe the gamma-ray emission mechanism. I will highlight these recent developments, while also presenting a broad overview of tMSPs as exciting new laboratories to test low-level accretion onto magnetized neutron stars.

  5. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandel, A.; Urry, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested here that the UV and X-ray emission of BL Lac objects may originate in an accretion disk. Using detailed calculations of accretion disk spectra, the best-measured ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted, and the mass and accretion rate required is determined. The ultraviolet through soft X-ray continuum is well fitted by the spectrum of an accretion disk, but near-Eddington accretion rates are required to produce the soft X-ray excess. A hot disk or corona could Comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power-law spectrum in the 1-10 keV range. The dynamic time scale in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft X-ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations observed in these two wave bands; the mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard X-ray variability. 37 refs

  6. Spherical Bessel transform via exponential sum approximation of spherical Bessel function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Hidekazu

    2018-02-01

    A new algorithm for numerical evaluation of spherical Bessel transform is proposed in this paper. In this method, the spherical Bessel function is approximately represented as an exponential sum with complex parameters. This is obtained by expressing an integral representation of spherical Bessel function in complex plane, and discretizing contour integrals along steepest descent paths and a contour path parallel to real axis using numerical quadrature rule with the double-exponential transformation. The number of terms in the expression is reduced using the modified balanced truncation method. The residual part of integrand is also expanded by exponential functions using Prony-like method. The spherical Bessel transform can be evaluated analytically on arbitrary points in half-open interval.

  7. TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS UNDERGOING LAYERED ACCRETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesniak, M. V.; Desch, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the temperature structures of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) around T Tauri stars heated by both incident starlight and viscous dissipation. We present a new algorithm for calculating the temperatures in disks in hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium, based on Rybicki's method for iteratively calculating the vertical temperature structure within an annulus. At each iteration, the method solves for the temperature at all locations simultaneously, and converges rapidly even at high (>>10 4 ) optical depth. The method retains the full frequency dependence of the radiation field. We use this algorithm to study for the first time disks evolving via the magnetorotational instability. Because PPD midplanes are weakly ionized, this instability operates preferentially in their surface layers, and disks will undergo layered accretion. We find that the midplane temperatures T mid are strongly affected by the column density Σ a of the active layers, even for fixed mass accretion rate M-dot . Models assuming uniform accretion predict midplane temperatures in the terrestrial planet forming region several x 10 2 K higher than our layered accretion models do. For M-dot -7 M sun yr -1 and the column densities Σ a -2 associated with layered accretion, disk temperatures are indistinguishable from those of a passively heated disk. We find emergent spectra are insensitive to Σ a , making it difficult to observationally identify disks undergoing layered versus uniform accretion.

  8. Uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces admitted by spherically symmetric static spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Robert; Siddiqui, Azad A.

    2007-11-01

    It is known that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit a foliation by flat hypersurfaces. Such foliations have explicitly been constructed for some spacetimes, using different approaches, but none of them have proved or even discussed the uniqueness of these foliations. The issue of uniqueness becomes more important due to suitability of flat foliations for studying black hole physics. Here, flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces are obtained by a direct method. It is found that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit flat spherically symmetric hypersurfaces, and that these hypersurfaces are unique up to translation under the timelike Killing vector. This result guarantees the uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric foliations for such spacetimes.

  9. SURPRISINGLY WEAK MAGNETISM ON YOUNG ACCRETING BROWN DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, A.; Basri, G.; Christensen, U. R.

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the surface magnetic flux on four accreting young brown dwarfs and one nonaccreting young very low mass (VLM) star utilizing high-resolution spectra of absorption lines of the FeH molecule. A magnetic field of 1-2 kG had been proposed for one of the brown dwarfs, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) J1207334-393254, because of its similarities to higher mass T Tauri stars as manifested in accretion and the presence of a jet. We do not find clear evidence for a kilogauss field in any of our young brown dwarfs but do find a 2 kG field on the young VLM star. Our 3σ upper limit for the magnetic flux in 2MASS J1207334-393254 just reaches 1 kG. We estimate the magnetic field required for accretion in young brown dwarfs given the observed rotations, and find that fields of only a few hundred gauss are sufficient for magnetospheric accretion. This predicted value is less than our observed upper limit. We conclude that magnetic fields in young brown dwarfs are a factor of 5 or more lower than in young stars of about one solar mass, and in older stars with spectral types similar to our young brown dwarfs. It is interesting that, during the first few million years, the fields scale down with mass in line with what is needed for magnetospheric accretion, yet no such scaling is observed at later ages within the same effective temperature range. This scaling is opposite to the trend in rotation, with shorter rotation periods for very young accreting brown dwarfs compared with accreting solar-mass objects (and very low Rossby numbers in all cases). We speculate that in young objects a deeper intrinsic connection may exist between magnetospheric accretion and magnetic field strength, or that magnetic field generation in brown dwarfs may be less efficient than in stars. Neither of these currently has an easy physical explanation.

  10. Cyclotron Lines in Accreting Neutron Star Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Jörn; Schönherr, Gabriele; Schmid, Julia; Dauser, Thomas; Kreykenbohm, Ingo

    2009-05-01

    Cyclotron lines are formed through transitions of electrons between discrete Landau levels in the accretion columns of accreting neutron stars with strong (1012 G) magnetic fields. We summarize recent results on the formation of the spectral continuum of such systems, describe recent advances in the modeling of the lines based on a modification of the commonly used Monte Carlo approach, and discuss new results on the dependence of the measured cyclotron line energy from the luminosity of transient neutron star systems. Finally, we show that Simbol-X will be ideally suited to build and improve the observational database of accreting and strongly magnetized neutron stars.

  11. Thin accretion disk around regular black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIU Tianqi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Penrose′s cosmic censorship conjecture says that naked singularities do not exist in nature.So,it seems reasonable to further conjecture that not even a singularity exists in nature.In this paper,a regular black hole without singularity is studied in detail,especially on its thin accretion disk,energy flux,radiation temperature and accretion efficiency.It is found that the interaction of regular black hole is stronger than that of the Schwarzschild black hole. Furthermore,the thin accretion will be more efficiency to lost energy while the mass of black hole decreased. These particular properties may be used to distinguish between black holes.

  12. Interferometric investigation of shock waves induced by a TEA-CO2 laser produced plasma in air in front of a solid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, D.; Apostol, I.; Cojocaru, E.; Draganescu, V.; Mihailescu, N.I.; Morjan, I.; Konov, I.V.

    1979-06-01

    The shock waves induced in the surrounding atmosphere by an air plasma were investigated by laser interferometry. The air breakdown plasma was produced by a TEA-CO 2 laser in front of a solid target. The results were compared to the predictions of theory of intense explosions in gases and a good agreement was inferred. It was also determined that the symmetry of the expansion of the initial shock wave is determined by the plasma source shape and, accordingly, depends on the laser power density incident on the target surface. However, for further stages all the shock waves expand spherically. (author)

  13. The Splashback Radius of Halos from Particle Dynamics. II. Dependence on Mass, Accretion Rate, Redshift, and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Benedikt; Mansfield, Philip; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; More, Surhud

    2017-07-01

    The splashback radius R sp, the apocentric radius of particles on their first orbit after falling into a dark matter halo, has recently been suggested to be a physically motivated halo boundary that separates accreting from orbiting material. Using the Sparta code presented in Paper I, we analyze the orbits of billions of particles in cosmological simulations of structure formation and measure R sp for a large sample of halos that span a mass range from dwarf galaxy to massive cluster halos, reach redshift 8, and include WMAP, Planck, and self-similar cosmologies. We analyze the dependence of R sp/R 200m and M sp/M 200m on the mass accretion rate Γ, halo mass, redshift, and cosmology. The scatter in these relations varies between 0.02 and 0.1 dex. While we confirm the known trend that R sp/R 200m decreases with Γ, the relationships turn out to be more complex than previously thought, demonstrating that R sp is an independent definition of the halo boundary that cannot trivially be reconstructed from spherical overdensity definitions. We present fitting functions for R sp/R 200m and M sp/M 200m as a function of accretion rate, peak height, and redshift, achieving an accuracy of 5% or better everywhere in the parameter space explored. We discuss the physical meaning of the distribution of particle apocenters and show that the previously proposed definition of R sp as the radius of the steepest logarithmic density slope encloses roughly three-quarters of the apocenters. Finally, we conclude that no analytical model presented thus far can fully explain our results.

  14. VARIABLE ACCRETION OUTBURSTS IN PROTOSTELLAR EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Gammie, Charles

    2013-01-01

    We extend the one-dimensional, two-zone models of long-term protostellar disk evolution with infall of Zhu et al. to consider the potential effects of a finite viscosity in regions where the ionization is too low for the magnetorotational instability (MRI) to operate (the d ead zone ) . We find that the presence of a small but finite dead zone viscosity, as suggested by simulations of stratified disks with MRI-active outer layers, can trigger inside-out bursts of accretion, starting at or near the inner edge of the disk, instead of the previously found outside-in bursts with zero dead zone viscosity, which originate at a few AU in radius. These inside-out bursts of accretion bear a qualitative resemblance to the outburst behavior of one FU Ori object, V1515 Cyg, in contrast to the outside-in burst models, which more closely resemble the accretion events in FU Ori and V1057 Cyg. Our results suggest that the type and frequency of outbursts are potentially a probe of transport efficiency in the dead zone. Simulations must treat the inner disk regions, R ∼< 0.5 AU, to show the detailed time evolution of accretion outbursts in general and to observe the inside-out bursts in particular.

  15. VARIABLE ACCRETION OUTBURSTS IN PROTOSTELLAR EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Gammie, Charles, E-mail: jaehbae@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: zhuzh@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: gammie@illinois.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    We extend the one-dimensional, two-zone models of long-term protostellar disk evolution with infall of Zhu et al. to consider the potential effects of a finite viscosity in regions where the ionization is too low for the magnetorotational instability (MRI) to operate (the {sup d}ead zone{sup )}. We find that the presence of a small but finite dead zone viscosity, as suggested by simulations of stratified disks with MRI-active outer layers, can trigger inside-out bursts of accretion, starting at or near the inner edge of the disk, instead of the previously found outside-in bursts with zero dead zone viscosity, which originate at a few AU in radius. These inside-out bursts of accretion bear a qualitative resemblance to the outburst behavior of one FU Ori object, V1515 Cyg, in contrast to the outside-in burst models, which more closely resemble the accretion events in FU Ori and V1057 Cyg. Our results suggest that the type and frequency of outbursts are potentially a probe of transport efficiency in the dead zone. Simulations must treat the inner disk regions, R {approx}< 0.5 AU, to show the detailed time evolution of accretion outbursts in general and to observe the inside-out bursts in particular.

  16. m-Accretive extensions of a sectorial operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlinskii, Yu M; Popov, A B [East-Ukrainian National University, Lugansk (Ukraine)

    2013-08-31

    A description of all the maximal accretive extensions and their resolvents is given for a densely defined closed sectorial operator in terms of abstract boundary conditions. These results are applied to parametrize all the m-accretive extensions of a symmetric operator in a planar model of one-centre point interaction. Bibliography: 40 titles.

  17. Analytical solution of the problem of a shock wave in the collapsing gas in Lagrangian coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuropatenko, V. F.; Shestakovskaya, E. S.

    2016-10-01

    It is proposed the exact solution of the problem of a convergent shock wave and gas dynamic compression in a spherical vessel with an impermeable wall in Lagrangian coordinates. At the initial time the speed of cold ideal gas is equal to zero, and a negative velocity is set on boundary of the sphere. When t > t0 the shock wave spreads from this point into the gas. The boundary of the sphere will move under the certain law correlated with the motion of the shock wave. The trajectories of the gas particles in Lagrangian coordinates are straight lines. The equations determining the structure of the gas flow between the shock front and gas border have been found as a function of time and Lagrangian coordinate. The dependence of the entropy on the velocity of the shock wave has been found too. For Lagrangian coordinates the problem is first solved. It is fundamentally different from previously known formulations of the problem of the self-convergence of the self-similar shock wave to the center of symmetry and its reflection from the center, which was built up for the infinite area in Euler coordinates.

  18. Accretion disks in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) have taunted astrophysicists for a quarter century. How do these objects produce huge luminosities---in some cases, far outshining our galaxy---from a region perhaps no larger than the solar system? Accretion onto supermassive black holes has been widely considered the best buy in theories of AGN. Much work has gone into accretion disk theory, searches for black holes in galactic nuclei, and observational tests. These efforts have not proved the disk model, but there is progress. Evidence for black holes in the nuclei of nearby galaxies is provided by observations of stellar velocities, and radiation from the disk's hot surface may be observed in the ultraviolet (UV) and neighboring spectral bands. In the review, the author describe some of the recent work on accretion disks in AGN, with an emphasis on points of contact between theory and observation

  19. First results of spherical GEMs

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Serge Duarte; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; de Oliveira, Rui; Ropelewski, Leszek; van Stenis, Miranda; Taureg, Hans; Villa, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We developed a method to make GEM foils with a spherical geometry. Tests of this procedure and with the resulting spherical GEMs are presented. Together with a spherical drift electrode, a spherical conversion gap can be formed. This eliminates the parallax error for detection of x-rays, neutrons or UV photons when a gaseous converter is used. This parallax error limits the spatial resolution at wide scattering angles. Besides spherical GEMs, we have developed curved spacers to maintain accurate spacing, and a conical field cage to prevent edge distortion of the radial drift field up to the limit of the angular acceptance of the detector. With these components first tests are done in a setup with a spherical entrance window but a planar readout structure; results will be presented and discussed. A flat readout structure poses difficulties, however. Therefore we will show advanced plans to make a prototype of an entirely spherical double-GEM detector, including a spherical 2D readout structure. This detector w...

  20. Observational diagnostics of accretion on young stars and brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Beate; Argiroffi, Costanza

    I present a summary of recent observational constraints on the accretion properties of young stars and brown dwarfs with focus on the high-energy emission. In their T Tauri phase young stars assemble a few percent of their mass by accretion from a disk. Various observational signatures of disks around pre-main sequence stars and the ensuing accretion process are found in the IR and optical regime: e.g. excess emission above the stellar photosphere, strong and broad emission lines, optical veiling. At high energies evidence for accretion is less obvious, and the X-ray emission from stars has historically been ascribed to magnetically confined coronal plasmas. While being true for the bulk of the emission, new insight obtained from XMM-Newton and Chandra observations has unveiled contributions from accretion and outflow processes to the X-ray emission from young stars. Their smaller siblings, the brown dwarfs, have been shown to undergo a T Tauri phase on the basis of optical/IR observations of disks and measurements of accretion rates. Most re-cently, first evidence was found for X-rays produced by accretion in a young brown dwarf, complementing the suspected analogy between stars and substellar objects.

  1. The internal propagation of fusion flame with the strong shock of a laser driven plasma block for advanced nuclear fuel ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekynia, B.; Razavipour, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    An accelerated skin layer may be used to ignite solid state fuels. Detailed analyses were clarified by solving the hydrodynamic equations for nonlinear force driven plasma block ignition. In this paper, the complementary mechanisms are included for the advanced fuel ignition: external factors such as lasers, compression, shock waves, and sparks. The other category is created within the plasma fusion as reheating of an alpha particle, the Bremsstrahlung absorption, expansion, conduction, and shock waves generated by explosions. With the new condition for the control of shock waves, the spherical deuterium-tritium fuel density should be increased to 75 times that of the solid state. The threshold ignition energy flux density for advanced fuel ignition may be obtained using temperature equations, including the ones for the density profile obtained through the continuity equation and the expansion velocity for the r ≠ 0 layers. These thresholds are significantly reduced in comparison with the ignition thresholds at x = 0 for solid advanced fuels. The quantum correction for the collision frequency is applied in the case of the delay in ion heating. Under the shock wave condition, the spherical proton-boron and proton-lithium fuel densities should be increased to densities 120 and 180 times that of the solid state. These plasma compressions are achieved through a longer duration laser pulse or X-ray. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  2. Hydrodynamic simulations of accretion disks in cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Masahito; Osaki, Yoji

    1990-01-01

    The tidal effects of secondary stars on accretion disks in cataclysmic variables are studied by two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. The time evolution of an accretion disk under a constant mass supply rate from the secondary is followed until it reaches a quasi-steady state. We have examined various cases of different mass ratios of binary systems. It is found that the accretion disk settles into a steady state of an elongated disk fixed in the rotating frame of the binary in a binary system with comparable masses of component stars. On the other hand, in the case of a low-mass secondary, the accretion disk develops a non-axisymmetric (eccentric) structure and finally settles into a periodically oscillating state in which a non-axisymmetric eccentric disk rotates in the opposite direction to the orbital motion of the binary in the rotating frame of the binary. The period of oscillation is a few percent longer than the orbital period of the binary, and it offers a natural explanation for the ''superhump'' periodicity of SU UMa stars. Our results thus confirm basically those of Whitehurst (1988, AAA 45.064.032) who discovered the tidal instability of an accretion disk in the case of a low-mass secondary. We then discuss the cause of the tidal instability. It is shown that the tidal instability of accretion disks is caused by a parametric resonance between particle orbits and an orbiting secondary star with a 1:3 period ratio. (author)

  3. Solar neutrinos and solar accretion of interstellar matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, M.J.; Talbot, R.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    It is argued that if the Hoyle-Lyttleton mass accretion rate applies (Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc., Math. Phys. Sci. 35: 405 (1939)) the accretion of interstellar matter by the Sun is sufficient to enhance the surface heavy element abundances. This will also apply to other solar-type stars. The enhancement may be sufficient to allow the construction of consistent solar models with an interior heavy element abundance significantly lower than the observed surface abundance. This state of affairs lowers the predicted solar neutrino flux. It has been suggested that a similar enhancement of surface abundances might occur due to accretion of 'planetesimals' left over after formation of the solar system, and both processes may occur, thereby increasing the effect. The simple accretion model of Hoyle and Lyttleton is discussed mathematically. A crucial question to be answered by future research, however, is whether or not accretion on to the solar surface actually occurs. One of the most obvious obstacles is the outward flowing solar wind, and this is discussed. It appears that the outward flow can be reversed to an inward flow for certain interstellar cloud densities. (U.K.)

  4. Plasma viscosity with mass transport in spherical inertial confinement fusion implosion simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vold, E. L.; Molvig, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Joglekar, A. S. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Ortega, M. I. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Moll, R. [University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Fenn, D. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The effects of viscosity and small-scale atomic-level mixing on plasmas in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) currently represent challenges in ICF research. Many current ICF hydrodynamic codes ignore the effects of viscosity though recent research indicates viscosity and mixing by classical transport processes may have a substantial impact on implosion dynamics. We have implemented a Lagrangian hydrodynamic code in one-dimensional spherical geometry with plasma viscosity and mass transport and including a three temperature model for ions, electrons, and radiation treated in a gray radiation diffusion approximation. The code is used to study ICF implosion differences with and without plasma viscosity and to determine the impacts of viscosity on temperature histories and neutron yield. It was found that plasma viscosity has substantial impacts on ICF shock dynamics characterized by shock burn timing, maximum burn temperatures, convergence ratio, and time history of neutron production rates. Plasma viscosity reduces the need for artificial viscosity to maintain numerical stability in the Lagrangian formulation and also modifies the flux-limiting needed for electron thermal conduction.

  5. Migration of accreting giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, C.; Crida, A.; Lega, E.; Méheut, H.

    2017-09-01

    Giant planets forming in protoplanetary disks migrate relative to their host star. By repelling the gas in their vicinity, they form gaps in the disk's structure. If they are effectively locked in their gap, it follows that their migration rate is governed by the accretion of the disk itself onto the star, in a so-called type II fashion. Recent results showed however that a locking mechanism was still lacking, and was required to understand how giant planets may survive their disk. We propose that planetary accretion may play this part, and help reach this slow migration regime.

  6. Accretion and jets from stellar-mass to supermassive black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connors, R.M.T.

    2017-01-01

    Accretion and jets occur in many astrophysical systems across a multitude of size and mass scales, and environments. As such, the study of accretion and jet physics has for decades been, and still remains, a hot topic in astrophysics. Accretion onto black holes has particular significance for many

  7. Wind accretion and formation of disk structures in symbiotic binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, M.; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D. D.; Stone, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate gravitationally focused wind accretion in binary systems consisting of an evolved star with a gaseous envelope and a compact accreting companion. We study the mass accretion and formation of an accretion disk around the secondary caused by the strong wind from the primary late-type component using global 2D and 3D hydrodynamic numerical simulations. In particular, the dependence of the mass accretion rate on the mass loss rate, wind temperature and orbital parameters of the system is considered. For a typical slow and massive wind from an evolved star the mass transfer through a focused wind results in rapid infall onto the secondary. A stream flow is created between the stars with accretion rates of a 2--10% percent of the mass loss from the primary. This mechanism could be an important method for explaining periodic modulations in the accretion rates for a broad range of interacting binary systems and fueling of a large population of X-ray binary systems. We test the plausibility of these accretion flows indicated by the simulations by comparing with observations of the symbiotic variable system CH Cyg.

  8. The formation of stars by gravitational collapse rather than competitive accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.

    2005-11-01

    There are two dominant models of how stars form. Under gravitational collapse, star-forming molecular clumps, of typically hundreds to thousands of solar masses (Msolar), fragment into gaseous cores that subsequently collapse to make individual stars or small multiple systems. In contrast, competitive accretion theory suggests that at birth all stars are much smaller than the typical stellar mass (~0.5Msolar), and that final stellar masses are determined by the subsequent accretion of unbound gas from the clump. Competitive accretion models interpret brown dwarfs and free-floating planets as protostars ejected from star-forming clumps before they have accreted much mass; key predictions of this model are that such objects should lack disks, have high velocity dispersions, form more frequently in denser clumps, and that the mean stellar mass should vary within the Galaxy. Here we derive the rate of competitive accretion as a function of the star-forming environment, based partly on simulation, and determine in what types of environments competitive accretion can occur. We show that no observed star-forming region can undergo significant competitive accretion, and that the simulations that show competitive accretion do so because the assumed properties differ from those determined by observation. Our result shows that stars form by gravitational collapse, and explains why observations have failed to confirm predictions of the competitive accretion model.

  9. Evolution of the spherical clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    The possible processes of the Galaxy spherical clusters formation and evolution are described on a popular level. The orbits of spherical cluster motion and their spatial velocities are determined. Given are the distrbutions of spherical cluster stars according to their velocities and the observed distribution of spherical clusters in the area of the Galaxy slow evolution. The dissipation and dynamic friction processes destructing clusters with the mass less than 10 4 of solar mass and bringing about the reduction of clusters in the Galaxy are considered. The paradox of forming mainly X-ray sources in spherical clusters is explained. The schematic image of possible ways of forming X-ray sources in spherical clusters is given

  10. Thermal structure of the accreting earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, D.L.; Pflugrath, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The energy associated with the accretion of the earth and the segregation of the core is more than sufficient to melt the entire earth. In order to understand the thermal evolution of the early earth it is necessary to study the relevant heat transfer mechanisms. In this paper we postulate the existence of a global magma ocean and carry out calculations of the heat flux through it in order to determine its depth. In the solid mantle heat is transferred by the upward migration of magma. This magma supplies the magma ocean. The increase in the mantle liquidus with depth (pressure) is the dominant effect influencing heat transfer through the magma ocean. We find that a magma ocean with a depth of the order of 20 km would have existed as the earth accreted. We conclude that the core segregated and an atmosphere was formed during accretion

  11. Brown dwarf accretion: Nonconventional star formation over very long timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Milan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the process of accretion of interstellar gas by the Galactic population of brown dwarfs over very long timescales typical for physical eschatology. In particular, we use the classical Hoyle-Lyttleton-Bondi accretion model to investigate the rate at which brown dwarfs collect enough additional mass to become red dwarfs, accretion-induced changes in the mass function of the low- mass objects, and the corresponding accretion heating of brown dwarfs. In addition, we show how we can make the definition of the final mass function for stellar objects more precise.

  12. Basic properties of a stationary accretion disk surrounding a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Reiun

    1977-01-01

    The structure of a stationary accretion disk surrounding a black hole is studied by means of newly developed basic equations. The basic equations are derived under the assumption that the vertical distribution of disk matter is given by a polytrope. For a Keplerian accretion disk, basic equations reduce to a differential equation of the first order. We have found that solutions of an optically thick accretion disk converge to a limiting value, irrespective of the outer boundary condition. This gives the happy consequence that the inner structure of an optically thick accretion disk is determined irrespective of the outer boundary condition. On the contrary, an optically thin accretion disk shows bimodal behavior, that is, two physically distinct states exist depending on the outer boundary condition imposed at the outer edge of the accretion disk. (auth.)

  13. Fundamentals of spherical array processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of spherical microphone arrays. It is written for graduate students, researchers and engineers who work with spherical microphone arrays in a wide range of applications.   The first two chapters provide the reader with the necessary mathematical and physical background, including an introduction to the spherical Fourier transform and the formulation of plane-wave sound fields in the spherical harmonic domain. The third chapter covers the theory of spatial sampling, employed when selecting the positions of microphones to sample sound pressure functions in space. Subsequent chapters present various spherical array configurations, including the popular rigid-sphere-based configuration. Beamforming (spatial filtering) in the spherical harmonics domain, including axis-symmetric beamforming, and the performance measures of directivity index and white noise gain are introduced, and a range of optimal beamformers for spherical arrays, includi...

  14. Acceleration of Solar Energetic Particles at a Fast Traveling Shock in Non-uniform Coronal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, J. A.; Arthur, A. D.

    2017-09-01

    Time-dependent solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration is investigated at a fast, nearly parallel spherical traveling shock in the strongly non-uniform corona by solving the standard focused transport equation for SEPs and transport equations for parallel propagating Alfvén waves that form a set of coupled equations. This enables the modeling of self-excitation of Alfvén waves in the inertial range by SEPs ahead of the shock and its role in enhancing the efficiency of the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of SEPs in a self-regulatory fashion. Preliminary results suggest that, because of the highly non-uniform coronal conditions that the shock encounters, both DSA and wave excitation are highly time-dependent processes. Thus, DSA spectra of SEPs strongly deviate from the simple power-law prediction of standard steady-state DSA theory and initially strong wave excitation weakens rapidly. Consequently, the ability of DSA to produce high energy SEPs in the corona of ∼1 GeV, as observed in the strongest gradual SEP events, appears to be strongly curtailed at a fast nearly parallel shock, but further research is needed before final conclusions can be drawn.

  15. General Relativistic Radiant Shock Waves in the Post-Quasistatic Approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H, Jorge A Rueda [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101, Venezuela Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Nunez, L A [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101, Venezuela Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico, Universidad de Los Andes, CeCalCULA, Corporacion Parque Tecnologico de Merida, Merida 5101, Venezuela (Venezuela)

    2007-05-15

    An evolution of radiant shock wave front is considered in the framework of a recently presented method to study self-gravitating relativistic spheres, whose rationale becomes intelligible and finds full justification within the context of a suitable definition of the post-quasistatic approximation. The spherical matter configuration is divided into two regions by the shock and each side of the interface having a different equation of state and anisotropic phase. In order to simulate dissipation effects due to the transfer of photons and/or neutrinos within the matter configuration, we introduce the flux factor, the variable Eddington factor and a closure relation between them. As we expected the strong of the shock increases the speed of the fluid to relativistic ones and for some critical values is larger than light speed. In addition, we find that energy conditions are very sensible to the anisotropy, specially the strong energy condition. As a special feature of the model, we find that the contribution of the matter and radiation to the radial pressure are the same order of magnitude as in the mant as in the core, moreover, in the core radiation pressure is larger than matter pressure.

  16. General Relativistic Radiant Shock Waves in the Post-Quasistatic Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H, Jorge A Rueda; Nunez, L A

    2007-01-01

    An evolution of radiant shock wave front is considered in the framework of a recently presented method to study self-gravitating relativistic spheres, whose rationale becomes intelligible and finds full justification within the context of a suitable definition of the post-quasistatic approximation. The spherical matter configuration is divided into two regions by the shock and each side of the interface having a different equation of state and anisotropic phase. In order to simulate dissipation effects due to the transfer of photons and/or neutrinos within the matter configuration, we introduce the flux factor, the variable Eddington factor and a closure relation between them. As we expected the strong of the shock increases the speed of the fluid to relativistic ones and for some critical values is larger than light speed. In addition, we find that energy conditions are very sensible to the anisotropy, specially the strong energy condition. As a special feature of the model, we find that the contribution of the matter and radiation to the radial pressure are the same order of magnitude as in the mant as in the core, moreover, in the core radiation pressure is larger than matter pressure

  17. Gas-rich dwarfs and accretion phenomena in early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, J.; Norman, C.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the combined effects of cloud accretion and galactic winds and coronae. An accretion model is developed wherein gas-rich dwarf galaxies are accreted into galactic halos, which provides an adequate source of H I to account for observations of neutral gas in early-type galaxies. Accretion is found to fuel the wind, thereby regulating the accretion flow and yielding a time-dependent model for star formation, enrichment, and nuclear activity. The permissible parameter range for intergalactic gas clouds and galaxy groups is discussed, along with the frequency of gas-rich dwarfs and their large ratios of gas mass to luminosity. Also considered is the occurrence of gas stripping and the consequent formation of dwarf spheroidal systems that remain in the halo, and gas clouds that dissipate and suffer further infall. A cosmological implication of the model is that, because the characteristic time scale of a gas-rich dwarf galaxy to be accreted and lose its gas is comparable to a Hubble time, there may have been a far more extensive primordial distribution of such systems at earlier epochs.

  18. Optical nucleation of bubble clouds in a high pressure spherical resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Phillip; Sampathkumar, A; Murray, Todd W; Gaitan, D Felipe; Glynn Holt, R

    2011-11-01

    An experimental setup for nucleating clouds of bubbles in a high-pressure spherical resonator is described. Using nanosecond laser pulses and multiple phase gratings, bubble clouds are optically nucleated in an acoustic field. Dynamics of the clouds are captured using a high-speed CCD camera. The images reveal cloud nucleation, growth, and collapse and the resulting emission of radially expanding shockwaves. These shockwaves are reflected at the interior surface of the resonator and then reconverge to the center of the resonator. As the shocks reconverge upon the center of the resonator, they renucleate and grow the bubble cloud. This process is repeated over many acoustic cycles and with each successive shock reconvergence, the bubble cloud becomes more organized and centralized so that subsequent collapses give rise to stronger, better defined shockwaves. After many acoustic cycles individual bubbles cannot be distinguished and the cloud is then referred to as a cluster. Sustainability of the process is ultimately limited by the detuning of the acoustic field inside the resonator. The nucleation parameter space is studied in terms of laser firing phase, laser energy, and acoustic power used.

  19. Constraining jet physics in weakly accreting black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoff, Sera

    2007-04-01

    Outflowing jets are observed in a variety of astronomical objects such as accreting compact objects from X-ray binaries (XRBs) to active galactic nuclei (AGN), as well as at stellar birth and death. Yet we still do not know exactly what they are comprised of, why and how they form, or their exact relationship with the accretion flow. In this talk I will focus on jets in black hole systems, which provide the ideal test population for studying the relationship between inflow and outflow over an extreme range in mass and accretion rate. I will present several recent results from coordinated multi-wavelength studies of low-luminosity sources. These results not only support similar trends in weakly accreting black hole behavior across the mass scale, but also suggest that the same underlying physical model can explain their broadband spectra. I will discuss how comparisons between small- and large-scale systems are revealing new information about the regions nearest the black hole, providing clues about the creation of these weakest of jets. Furthermore, comparisons between our Galactic center nucleus Sgr A* and other sources at slightly higher accretion rates can illucidate the processes which drive central activity, and pave the way for new tests with upcoming instruments.

  20. Quasi-spherical compression of a spark-channel plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panarella, E.

    1980-01-01

    An axial spark channel in deuterium has been used as a target for implosive shock waves created with a conventional cylindrical theta-pinch device. The compression of the channel by the implosive waves raised the plasma electron temperature to approximately 120 eV for approximately 6 kJ of condenser bank energy and 1 Torr initial gas pressure. In order to improve the efficiency of compression of the channel plasma and to reduce the end losses inherent in the cylindrical configuration, the theta-pinch geometry was then converted from cylindrical into spherical. Under identical conditions of gas pressure and condenser bank energy, the electron temperature now peaked at approximately 400 eV. When the bank energy was increased to approximately 10 kJ, neutron production was observed. The total neutron output per shot ranged from 10 5 to 10 6 and increased inversely with the pinch discharge volume

  1. Second sound shock waves in rotating superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torczynski, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Second sound shock waves have been used to examine the breakdown of superfluidity in bulk He II. The maximum counterflow velocity achieved in this manner was measured at a variety of temperatures and pressures. The results are found to agree with predictions of vortex nucleation theories (Langer and Fisher, 1967) in their pressure and temperature dependences although it was shown that dissipation occurred only near the heater. A simple scaling argument is suggested, assuming breakdown occurs near the heater. A vortex dynamics model of breakdown (following the method of Turner, private communication) is developed. To examine the effect of vorticity on breakdown, second sound shocks were produced in rotating helium. Experiments were performed in which the shocks propagated either along or normal to the axis of rotation, called axial and transverse cases, respectively. In both cases the decay was seen to increase monotonically with the rotation rate. Furthermore, the decay was ongoing rather than being confined to a narrow region near the heater. However, the extraordinary dissipation in the transverse case seemed to be related primarily to the arrival of secondary waves from the heater-sidewall boundary. An explanation of this difference is put forth in terms of vortex nucleation in the bulk fluid, using ideas similar to Crocco's Theorem. In order to examine the breakdown of superfluidity away from walls in nonrotation fluid, spherically converging second shocks were produced. The temperature jumps of the waves were measured, and exact numerical solutions of the two-fluid jump conditions (Moody, 1983) were used to calculate the relative velocity in each case

  2. Highly Accreting Quasars at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Perea, Jaime; D'Onofrio, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic analysis for a sample of type 1 highly accreting quasars (LLedd>0.2) at high redshift, z 2-3. The quasars were observed with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC 10.4 m telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The highly accreting quasars were identified using the 4D Eigenvector 1 formalism, which is able to organize type 1 quasars over a broad range of redshift and luminosity. The kinematic and physical properties of the broad line region have been derived by fitting the profiles of strong UV emission lines such as AlIII, SiIII and CIII. The majority of our sources show strong blueshifts in the high-ionization lines and high Eddington ratios which are related with the productions of outflows. The importance of highly accreting quasars goes beyond a detailed understanding of their physics: their extreme Eddington ratio makes them candidates standard candles for cosmological studies.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Black Hole Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avara, Mark J.

    Black holes embody one of the few, simple, solutions to the Einstein field equations that describe our modern understanding of gravitation. In isolation they are small, dark, and elusive. However, when a gas cloud or star wanders too close, they light up our universe in a way no other cosmic object can. The processes of magnetohydrodynamics which describe the accretion inflow and outflows of plasma around black holes are highly coupled and nonlinear and so require numerical experiments for elucidation. These processes are at the heart of astrophysics since black holes, once they somehow reach super-massive status, influence the evolution of the largest structures in the universe. It has been my goal, with the body of work comprising this thesis, to explore the ways in which the influence of black holes on their surroundings differs from the predictions of standard accretion models. I have especially focused on how magnetization of the greater black hole environment can impact accretion systems.

  4. Spherical CNNs

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Taco S.; Geiger, Mario; Koehler, Jonas; Welling, Max

    2018-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have become the method of choice for learning problems involving 2D planar images. However, a number of problems of recent interest have created a demand for models that can analyze spherical images. Examples include omnidirectional vision for drones, robots, and autonomous cars, molecular regression problems, and global weather and climate modelling. A naive application of convolutional networks to a planar projection of the spherical signal is destined t...

  5. FILAMENTARY ACCRETION FLOWS IN THE EMBEDDED SERPENS SOUTH PROTOCLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, Helen; Myers, Philip C.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Wilson, Grant W.; Hedden, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    One puzzle in understanding how stars form in clusters is the source of mass—is all of the mass in place before the first stars are born, or is there an extended period when the cluster accretes material which can continuously fuel the star formation process? We use a multi-line spectral survey of the southern filament associated with the Serpens South embedded cluster-forming region in order to determine if mass is accreting from the filament onto the cluster, and whether the accretion rate is significant. Our analysis suggests that material is flowing along the filament's long axis at a rate of ∼30 M ☉ Myr –1 (inferred from the N 2 H + velocity gradient along the filament), and radially contracting onto the filament at ∼130 M ☉ Myr –1 (inferred from HNC self-absorption). These accretion rates are sufficient to supply mass to the central cluster at a similar rate to the current star formation rate in the cluster. Filamentary accretion flows may therefore be very important in the ongoing evolution of this cluster.

  6. Theories of magnetospheres around accreting compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyliunas, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    A wide class of galactic X-ray sources are believed to be binary systems where mass is flowing from a normal star to a companion that is a compact object, such as a neutron star. The strong magnetic fields of the compact object create a magnetosphere around it. We review the theoretical models developed to describe the properties of magnetospheres in such accreting binary systems. The size of the magnetosphere can be estimated from pressure balance arguments and is found to be small compared to the over-all size of the accretion region but large compared object if the latter is a neutron star. In the early models the magnetosphere was assumed to have open funnels in the polar regions, through which accreting plasma could pour in. Later, magnetically closed models were developed, with plasma entry made possible by instabilities at the magnetosphere boundary. The theory of plasma flow inside the magnetosphere has been formulated in analogy to a stellar wind with reversed flow; a complicating factor is the instability of the Alfven critical point for inflow. In the case of accretion via a well-defined disk, new problems if magnetospheric structure appear, in particular the question to what extent and by what process the magnetic fields from the compact object can penetrate into the acretion disk. Since the X-ray emission is powered by the gravitational energy released in the accretion process, mass transfer into the magnetosphere is of fundamental importance; the various proposed mechanisms are critically examined. (orig.)

  7. Hot accreting white dwarfs in the quasi-static approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iben, I. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of white dwarfs which are accreting hydrogen-rich matter at rates in the range 1.5 x 10 -9 to 2.5 x 10 -7 M/sub sun/ yr -1 are investigated in several approximations. Steady-burning models, in which matter is processed through nuclear-burning shells as rapidly as it is accreted, provide a framework for understanding the properties of models in which thermal pulses induced by hydrogen burning and helium burning are allowed to occur. In these latter models, the underlying carbon-oxygen core is chosen to be in a cycle-averaged steady state with regard to compressional heating and neutrino losses. Several of these models are evolved in the quasi-static approximation. Combining results obtained in the steady-burning approximation with those obtained in the quasi-static approximation, expressions are obtained for estimating, as functions of accretion rate and white dwarf mass, the thermal pulse recurrence period and the duration of hydrogen-burning phases. The time spent by an accreting model burning hydrogen as a large star of giant dimensions versus time spent burning hydrogen as a hot dwarf is also estimated as a function of model mass and accretion rate. Finally, suggestions for detecting observational counterparts of the theoretical models and suggestions for further theoretical investigations are offered. Subject headings: stars: accretion: stars: interiors: stars: novae: stars: symbiotic: stars: white dwarfs

  8. Formation of primordial supermassive stars by rapid mass accretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki [Department of Physics and Research Center for the Early Universe, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yorke, Harold W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Inayoshi, Kohei; Omukai, Kazuyuki, E-mail: takashi.hosokawa@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: hosokwtk@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-12-01

    Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion ( M-dot {sub ∗}≳0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond a redshift of about six. Extending our previous work, here we study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 10{sup 4–5} M {sub ☉}. Our stellar evolution calculations show that a star becomes supermassive while passing through the 'supergiant protostar' stage, whereby the star has a very bloated envelope and a contracting inner core. The stellar radius increases monotonically with the stellar mass until ≅ 100 AU for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, after which the star begins to slowly contract. Because of the large radius, the effective temperature is always less than 10{sup 4} K during rapid accretion. The accreting material is thus almost completely transparent to the stellar radiation. Only for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} can stellar UV feedback operate and disturb the mass accretion flow. We also examine the pulsation stability of accreting SMSs, showing that the pulsation-driven mass loss does not prevent stellar mass growth. Observational signatures of bloated SMSs should be detectable with future observational facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. Our results predict that an inner core of the accreting SMS should suffer from the general relativistic instability soon after the stellar mass exceeds 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. An extremely massive black hole should form after the collapse of the inner core.

  9. Evolution of accretion disks in tidal disruption events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Rong-Feng [Current address: Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. (Israel); Matzner, Christopher D., E-mail: rf.shen@mail.huji.ac.il, E-mail: matzner@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    During a stellar tidal disruption event (TDE), an accretion disk forms as stellar debris returns to the disruption site and circularizes. Rather than being confined within the circularizing radius, the disk can spread to larger radii to conserve angular momentum. A spreading disk is a source of matter for re-accretion at rates that may exceed the later stellar fallback rate, although a disk wind can suppress its contribution to the central black hole accretion rate. A spreading disk is detectible through a break in the central accretion rate history or, at longer wavelengths, by its own emission. We model the evolution of TDE disk size and accretion rate by accounting for the time-dependent fallback rate, for the influence of wind losses in the early advective stage, and for the possibility of thermal instability for accretion rates intermediate between the advection-dominated and gas-pressure-dominated states. The model provides a dynamic basis for modeling TDE light curves. All or part of a young TDE disk will precess as a solid body because of the Lense-Thirring effect, and precession may manifest itself as a quasi-periodic modulation of the light curve. The precession period increases with time. Applying our results to the jetted TDE candidate Swift J1644+57, whose X-ray light curve shows numerous quasi-periodic dips, we argue that the data best fit a scenario in which a main-sequence star was fully disrupted by an intermediate mass black hole on an orbit significantly inclined from the black hole equator, with the apparent jet shutoff at t = 500 days corresponding to a disk transition from the advective state to the gas-pressure-dominated state.

  10. Preparation and Optical Properties of Spherical Inverse Opals by Liquid Phase Deposition Using Spherical Colloidal Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoi, Y; Tominaga, T

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) inverse opals in spherical shape were prepared by liquid phase deposition (LPD) using spherical colloidal crystals as templates. Spherical colloidal crystals were produced by ink-jet drying technique. Aqueous emulsion droplets that contain polystyrene latex particles were ejected into air and dried. Closely packed colloidal crystals with spherical shape were obtained. The obtained spherical colloidal crystals were used as templates for the LPD. The templates were dispersed in the deposition solution of the LPD, i.e. a mixed solution of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid and reacted for 4 h at 30 °C. After the LPD process, the interstitial spaces of the spherical colloidal crystals were completely filled with titanium oxide. Subsequent heat treatment resulted in removal of templates and spherical titanium dioxide inverse opals. The spherical shape of the template was retained. SEM observations indicated that the periodic ordered voids were surrounded by titanium dioxide. The optical reflectance spectra indicated that the optical properties of the spherical titanium dioxide inverse opals were due to Bragg diffractions from the ordered structure. Filling in the voids of the inverse opals with different solvents caused remarkable changes in the reflectance peak.

  11. MHD Simulations of Magnetized Stars in the Propeller Regime of Accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lii Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accreting magnetized stars may be in the propeller regime of disc accretion in which the angular velocity of the stellar magnetosphere exceeds that of the inner disc. In these systems, the stellar magnetosphere acts as a centrifugal barrier and inhibits matter accretion onto the rapidly rotating star. Instead, the matter accreting through the disc accumulates at the disc-magnetosphere interface where it picks up angular momentum and is ejected from the system as a wide-angled outflow which gradually collimates at larger distances from the star. If the ejection rate is lower than the accretion rate, the matter will accumulate at the boundary faster than it can be ejected; in this case, accretion onto the star proceeds through an episodic accretion instability in which the episodes of matter accumulation are followed by a brief episode of simultaneous ejection and accretion of matter onto the star. In addition to the matter dominated wind component, the propeller outflow also exhibits a well-collimated, magnetically-dominated Poynting jet which transports energy and angular momentum away from the star. The propeller mechanism may explain some of the weakly-collimated jets and winds observed around some T Tauri stars as well as the episodic variability present in their light curves. It may also explain some of the quasi-periodic variability observed in cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars and other magnetized stars.

  12. Friction factor for water flow through packed beds of spherical and non-spherical particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaluđerović-Radoičić Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the experimental evaluation of different friction factor correlations for water flow through packed beds of spherical and non-spherical particles at ambient temperature. The experiments were performed by measuring the pressure drop across the bed. Packed beds made of monosized glass spherical particles of seven different diameters were used, as well as beds made of 16 fractions of quartz filtration sand obtained by sieving (polydisperse non-spherical particles. The range of bed voidages was 0.359–0.486, while the range of bed particle Reynolds numbers was from 0.3 to 286 for spherical particles and from 0.1 to 50 for non-spherical particles. The obtained results were compared using a number of available literature correlations. In order to improve the correlation results for spherical particles, a new simple equation was proposed in the form of Ergun’s equation, with modified coefficients. The new correlation had a mean absolute deviation between experimental and calculated values of pressure drop of 9.04%. For non-spherical quartz filtration sand particles the best fit was obtained using Ergun’s equation, with a mean absolute deviation of 10.36%. Surface-volume diameter (dSV necessary for correlating the data for filtration sand particles was calculated based on correlations for dV = f(dm and Ψ = f(dm. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. ON172022

  13. Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a review of our theoretical and experimental progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study. From our theoretical study, the octahedral spherical hohlraums with 6 Laser Entrance Holes (LEHs of octahedral symmetry have robust high symmetry during the capsule implosion at hohlraum-to-capsule radius ratio larger than 3.7. In addition, the octahedral spherical hohlraums also have potential superiority on low backscattering without supplementary technology. We studied the laser arrangement and constraints of the octahedral spherical hohlraums, and gave a design on the laser arrangement for ignition octahedral hohlraums. As a result, the injection angle of laser beams of 50°–60° was proposed as the optimum candidate range for the octahedral spherical hohlraums. We proposed a novel octahedral spherical hohlraum with cylindrical LEHs and LEH shields, in order to increase the laser coupling efficiency and improve the capsule symmetry and to mitigate the influence of the wall blowoff on laser transport. We studied on the sensitivity of the octahedral spherical hohlraums to random errors and compared the sensitivity among the octahedral spherical hohlraums, the rugby hohlraums and the cylindrical hohlraums, and the results show that the octahedral spherical hohlraums are robust to these random errors while the cylindrical hohlraums are the most sensitive. Up till to now, we have carried out three experiments on the spherical hohlraum with 2 LEHs on Shenguang(SG laser facilities, including demonstration of improving laser transport by using the cylindrical LEHs in the spherical hohlraums, spherical hohlraum energetics on the SGIII prototype laser facility, and comparisons of laser plasma instabilities between the spherical hohlraums and the cylindrical hohlraums on the SGIII laser facility.

  14. LUNAR ACCRETION FROM A ROCHE-INTERIOR FLUID DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Julien; Canup, Robin M., E-mail: julien@boulder.swri.edu, E-mail: robin@boulder.swri.edu [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We use a hybrid numerical approach to simulate the formation of the Moon from an impact-generated disk, consisting of a fluid model for the disk inside the Roche limit and an N-body code to describe accretion outside the Roche limit. As the inner disk spreads due to a thermally regulated viscosity, material is delivered across the Roche limit and accretes into moonlets that are added to the N-body simulation. Contrary to an accretion timescale of a few months obtained with prior pure N-body codes, here the final stage of the Moon's growth is controlled by the slow spreading of the inner disk, resulting in a total lunar accretion timescale of {approx}10{sup 2} years. It has been proposed that the inner disk may compositionally equilibrate with the Earth through diffusive mixing, which offers a potential explanation for the identical oxygen isotope compositions of the Earth and Moon. However, the mass fraction of the final Moon that is derived from the inner disk is limited by resonant torques between the disk and exterior growing moons. For initial disks containing <2.5 lunar masses (M{sub Last-Quarter-Moon }), we find that a final Moon with mass > 0.8 M{sub Last-Quarter-Moon} contains {<=}60% material derived from the inner disk, with this material preferentially delivered to the Moon at the end of its accretion.

  15. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes based ice accretion for aircraft wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkajani, Kazem Hasanzadeh

    remeshing and field smoothing. The new coupling is fully automated and capable of multi-step ice accretion simulations via a quasi-steady approach. In addition, the framework allows for flow analysis and aerodynamic performance prediction of the iced airfoils. The convergence of the quasi-steady algorithm is verified and identifies the need for an order of magnitude increase in the number of multi-time steps in icing simulations to achieve solver independent solutions. Second, a Multi-Block Navier-Stokes code, NSMB, is coupled with the CANICE2D icing framework. Attention is paid to the roughness implementation of the ONERA roughness model within the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model, and to the convergence of the steady and quasi-steady iterative procedure. Effects of uniform surface roughness in quasi-steady ice accretion simulation are analyzed through different validation test cases. The results of CANICE2D-NS show good agreement with experimental data both in terms of predicted ice shapes as well as aerodynamic analysis of predicted and experimental ice shapes. Third, an efficient single-block structured Navier-Stokes CFD code, NSCODE, is coupled with the CANICE2D-NS icing framework. Attention is paid to the roughness implementation of the Boeing model within the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model, and to acceleration of the convergence of the steady and quasi-steady iterative procedures. Effects of uniform surface roughness in quasi-steady ice accretion simulation are analyzed through different validation test cases, including code to code comparisons with the same framework coupled with the NSMB Navier-Stokes solver. The efficiency of the J-multigrid approach to solve the flow equations on complex iced geometries is demonstrated. Since it was noted in all these calculations that the ICEM-CFD grid generation package produced a number of issues such as inefficient mesh quality and smoothing deficiencies (notably grid shocks), a fourth study proposes a new mesh generation

  16. Broad-Band Variability in Accreting Compact Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Scaringi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cataclysmic variable stars are in many ways similar to X-ray binaries. Both types of systems possess an accretion disk, which in most cases can reach the surface (or event horizon of the central compact object. The main difference is that the embedded gravitational potential well in X-ray binaries is much deeper than those found in cataclysmic variables. As a result, X-ray binaries emit most of their radiation at X-ray wavelengths, as opposed to cataclysmic variables which emit mostly at optical/ultraviolet wavelengths. Both types of systems display aperiodic broad-band variability which can be associated to the accretion disk. Here, the properties of the observed X-ray variability in XRBs are compared to those observed at optical wavelengths in CVs. In most cases the variability properties of both types of systems are qualitatively similar once the relevant timescales associated with the inner accretion disk regions have been taken into account. The similarities include the observed power spectral density shapes, the rms-flux relation as well as Fourier-dependant time lags. Here a brief overview on these similarities is given, placing them in the context of the fluctuating accretion disk model which seeks to reproduce the observed variability.

  17. ACCRETION AND MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE CLASSICAL T TAURI BINARY DQ TAU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Ardila, David R.; Akeson, Rachel L.; Ciardi, David R.; Johns-Krull, Christopher; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Quijano-Vodniza, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The theory of binary star formation predicts that close binaries ( a < 100 au) will experience periodic pulsed accretion events as streams of material form at the inner edge of a circumbinary disk (CBD), cross a dynamically cleared gap, and feed circumstellar disks or accrete directly onto the stars. The archetype for the pulsed accretion theory is the eccentric, short-period, classical T Tauri binary DQ Tau. Low-cadence (∼daily) broadband photometry has shown brightening events near most periastron passages, just as numerical simulations would predict for an eccentric binary. Magnetic reconnection events (flares) during the collision of stellar magnetospheres near periastron could, however, produce the same periodic, broadband behavior when observed at a one-day cadence. To reveal the dominant physical mechanism seen in DQ Tau’s low-cadence observations, we have obtained continuous, moderate-cadence, multiband photometry over 10 orbital periods, supplemented with 27 nights of minute-cadence photometry centered on four separate periastron passages. While both accretion and stellar flares are present, the dominant timescale and morphology of brightening events are characteristic of accretion. On average, the mass accretion rate increases by a factor of five near periastron, in good agreement with recent models. Large variability is observed in the morphology and amplitude of accretion events from orbit to orbit. We argue that this is due to the absence of stable circumstellar disks around each star, compounded by inhomogeneities at the inner edge of the CBD and within the accretion streams themselves. Quasiperiodic apastron accretion events are also observed, which are not predicted by binary accretion theory.

  18. ACCRETION AND MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE CLASSICAL T TAURI BINARY DQ TAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ardila, David R. [The Aerospace Corporation, M2-266, El Segundo, CA 90245 (United States); Akeson, Rachel L.; Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Johns-Krull, Christopher [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Herczeg, Gregory J. [The Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Quijano-Vodniza, Alberto [University of Nariño Observatory, Pasto, Nariño (Colombia)

    2017-01-20

    The theory of binary star formation predicts that close binaries ( a < 100 au) will experience periodic pulsed accretion events as streams of material form at the inner edge of a circumbinary disk (CBD), cross a dynamically cleared gap, and feed circumstellar disks or accrete directly onto the stars. The archetype for the pulsed accretion theory is the eccentric, short-period, classical T Tauri binary DQ Tau. Low-cadence (∼daily) broadband photometry has shown brightening events near most periastron passages, just as numerical simulations would predict for an eccentric binary. Magnetic reconnection events (flares) during the collision of stellar magnetospheres near periastron could, however, produce the same periodic, broadband behavior when observed at a one-day cadence. To reveal the dominant physical mechanism seen in DQ Tau’s low-cadence observations, we have obtained continuous, moderate-cadence, multiband photometry over 10 orbital periods, supplemented with 27 nights of minute-cadence photometry centered on four separate periastron passages. While both accretion and stellar flares are present, the dominant timescale and morphology of brightening events are characteristic of accretion. On average, the mass accretion rate increases by a factor of five near periastron, in good agreement with recent models. Large variability is observed in the morphology and amplitude of accretion events from orbit to orbit. We argue that this is due to the absence of stable circumstellar disks around each star, compounded by inhomogeneities at the inner edge of the CBD and within the accretion streams themselves. Quasiperiodic apastron accretion events are also observed, which are not predicted by binary accretion theory.

  19. FILAMENTARY ACCRETION FLOWS IN THE EMBEDDED SERPENS SOUTH PROTOCLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Helen; Myers, Philip C.; Bourke, Tyler L. [Radio and Geoastronomy Division, Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS-42, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A.; Wilson, Grant W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Hedden, Abigail, E-mail: kirkh@mcmaster.ca [Army Research Labs, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    One puzzle in understanding how stars form in clusters is the source of mass-is all of the mass in place before the first stars are born, or is there an extended period when the cluster accretes material which can continuously fuel the star formation process? We use a multi-line spectral survey of the southern filament associated with the Serpens South embedded cluster-forming region in order to determine if mass is accreting from the filament onto the cluster, and whether the accretion rate is significant. Our analysis suggests that material is flowing along the filament's long axis at a rate of {approx}30 M{sub Sun} Myr{sup -1} (inferred from the N{sub 2}H{sup +} velocity gradient along the filament), and radially contracting onto the filament at {approx}130 M{sub Sun} Myr{sup -1} (inferred from HNC self-absorption). These accretion rates are sufficient to supply mass to the central cluster at a similar rate to the current star formation rate in the cluster. Filamentary accretion flows may therefore be very important in the ongoing evolution of this cluster.

  20. Luminosity profiles and the evolution of shock waves in general relativistic radiating spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, L.; Nunez, L.A.

    1989-10-01

    A method recently proposed by the authors to study the evolution of discontinuities in radiating spherically symmetric distributions of matter is systematically applied to model the evolution of a composite radiant sphere. The matter configuration, free of singularities, is divided in two regions by a shock wave front, and at each side of this interface a different equation of state is considered. Solutions are matched across the shock via the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions while the outer region metric joins the Vaidya solution at the boundary surface. The influence on the evolution of these composite spheres of different shapes of neutrino outburst profiles, and particular neutrino-transfer processes from the inner core to the outer mantel is explored. Prospective applications to supernova scenarios are discussed. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  1. Approximating a free-field blast environment in the test section of an explosively driven conical shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J. B.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents experimental data on incident overpressures and the corresponding impulses obtained in the test section of an explosively driven 10° (full angle) conical shock tube. Due to the shock tube's steel walls approximating the boundary conditions seen by a spherical sector cut out of a detonating sphere of energetic material, a 5.3-g pentolite shock tube driver charge produces peak overpressures corresponding to a free-field detonation from an 816-g sphere of pentolite. The four test section geometries investigated in this paper (open air, cylindrical, 10° inscribed square frustum, and 10° circumscribed square frustum) provide a variety of different time histories for the incident overpressures and impulses, with a circumscribed square frustum yielding the best approximation of the estimated blast environment that would have been produced by a free-field detonation.

  2. Hot accretion disks with electron-positron pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.R.; Lightman, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    The hot thermal accretion disks of the 1970s are studied and consideration is given to the effects of electron-positron pairs, which were originally neglected. It is found that disks cooled by internally produced photons have a critical accretion rate above which equilibrium is not possible in a radial annulus centered around r = 10 GM/c-squared, where M is the mass of the central object. This confirms and extends previous work by Kusunose and Takahara. Above the critical rate, pairs are created more rapidly than they can be destroyed. Below the critical rate, there are two solutions to the disk structure, one with a high pair density and one with a low pair density. Depending on the strength of the viscosity, the critical accretion rate corresponds to a critical luminosity of about 3-10 percent of the Eddington limit. 32 refs

  3. Accreting planets as dust dams in 'transition' disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, James E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate under what circumstances an embedded planet in a protoplanetary disk may sculpt the dust distribution such that it observationally presents as a 'transition' disk. We concern ourselves with 'transition' disks that have large holes (≳ 10 AU) and high accretion rates (∼10 –9 -10 –8 M ☉ yr –1 ), particularly, those disks which photoevaporative models struggle to explain. Adopting the observed accretion rates in 'transition' disks, we find that the accretion luminosity from the forming planet is significant, and can dominate over the stellar luminosity at the gap edge. This planetary accretion luminosity can apply a significant radiation pressure to small (s ≲ 1 μm) dust particles provided they are suitably decoupled from the gas. Secular evolution calculations that account for the evolution of the gas and dust components in a disk with an embedded, accreting planet, show that only with the addition of the radiation pressure can we explain the full observed characteristics of a 'transition' disk (NIR dip in the spectral energy distribution (SED), millimeter cavity, and high accretion rate). At suitably high planet masses (≳ 3-4 M J ), radiation pressure from the accreting planet is able to hold back the small dust particles, producing a heavily dust-depleted inner disk that is optically thin to infrared radiation. The planet-disk system will present as a 'transition' disk with a dip in the SED only when the planet mass and planetary accretion rate are high enough. At other times, it will present as a disk with a primordial SED, but with a cavity in the millimeter, as observed in a handful of protoplanetary disks.

  4. An Accretion Model for Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pinaki; Hernquist, Lars; Narayan, Ramesh

    2000-05-01

    We present a model for the anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) in which the emission is powered by accretion from a fossil disk, established from matter falling back onto the neutron star following its birth. The time-dependent accretion drives the neutron star toward a ``tracking'' solution in which the rotation period of the star increases slowly, in tandem with the declining accretion rate. For appropriate choices of disk mass, neutron star magnetic field strength, and initial spin period, we demonstrate that a rapidly rotating neutron star can be spun down to periods characteristic of AXPs on timescales comparable to the estimated ages of these sources. In other cases, accretion onto the neutron star switches off after a short time and the star becomes an ordinary radio pulsar. Thus, in our picture, radio pulsars and AXPs are drawn from the same underlying population, in contrast to the situation in models involving neutron stars with ultrastrong magnetic fields, which require a new population of stars with very different properties.

  5. Advection-dominated Inflow/Outflows from Evaporating Accretion Disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turolla; Dullemond

    2000-03-01

    In this Letter we investigate the properties of advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) fed by the evaporation of a Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk (SSD). In our picture, the ADAF fills the central cavity evacuated by the SSD and extends beyond the transition radius into a coronal region. We find that, because of global angular momentum conservation, a significant fraction of the hot gas flows away from the black hole, forming a transsonic wind, unless the injection rate depends only weakly on radius (if r2sigma&d2;~r-xi, xiBernoulli number of the inflowing gas is negative if the transition radius is less, similar100 Schwarzschild radii, so matter falling into the hole is gravitationally bound. The ratio of inflowing to outflowing mass is approximately 1/2, so in these solutions the accretion rate is of the same order as in standard ADAFs and much larger than in advection-dominated inflow/outflow models. The possible relevance of evaporation-fed solutions to accretion flows in black hole X-ray binaries is briefly discussed.

  6. Viscous-shock-layer solutions for turbulent flow of radiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. C.; Moss, J. N.

    1975-01-01

    The viscous-shock-layer equations for hypersonic laminar and turbulent flows of radiating or nonradiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium are presented for two-dimensional and axially-symmetric flow fields. Solutions were obtained using an implicit finite-difference scheme and results are presented for hypersonic flow over spherically-blunted cone configurations at freestream conditions representative of entry into the atmosphere of Venus. These data are compared with solutions obtained using other methods of analysis.

  7. Viscous shock layer solutions for turbulent flow of radiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. C.; Moss, J. N.

    1975-01-01

    The viscous shock layer equations for hypersonic laminar and turbulent flows of radiating or nonradiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium are presented for two-dimensional and axially symmetric flow fields. Solutions are obtained using an implicit finite difference scheme and results are presented for hypersonic flow over spherically blunted cone configurations at free stream conditions representative of entry into the atmosphere of Venus. These data are compared with solutions obtained using other methods of analysis.

  8. Highly Accreting Quasars at High Redshift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L. Martínez-Aldama

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic analysis for a sample of type 1 highly accreting quasars (L/LEdd ~ 1.0 at high redshift, z ~2–3. The quasars were observed with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC 10.4 m telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The highly accreting quasars were identified using the 4D Eigenvector 1 formalism, which is able to organize type 1 quasars over a broad range of redshift and luminosity. The kinematic and physical properties of the broad line region have been derived by fitting the profiles of strong UV emission lines such as Aliiiλ1860, Siiii]λ1892 and Ciii]λ1909. The majority of our sources show strong blueshifts in the high-ionization lines and high Eddington ratios which are related with the productions of outflows. The importance of highly accreting quasars goes beyond a detailed understanding of their physics: their extreme Eddington ratio makes them candidates standard candles for cosmological studies.

  9. On the resonant behavior of longitudinally vibrating accreting rods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of accreting structures is a new and fast developing branch of analytical mechanics basing on the theory of partial differential and integral equations. In the present paper the authors analyze qualitative properties of accreting rods...

  10. Holocene reef accretion: southwest Molokai, Hawaii, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Mary S.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Field, Michael E.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Grossman, Eric E.; Rooney, John J.B.; Conger, Christopher L.; Glenn, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Two reef systems off south Molokai, Hale O Lono and Hikauhi (separated by only 10 km), show strong and fundamental differences in modern ecosystem structure and Holocene accretion history that reflect the influence of wave-induced near-bed shear stresses on reef development in Hawaii. Both sites are exposed to similar impacts from south, Kona, and trade-wind swell. However, the Hale O Lono site is exposed to north swell and the Hikuahi site is not. As a result, the reef at Hale O Lono records no late Holocene net accretion while the reef at Hikauhi records consistent and robust accretion over late Holocene time. Analysis and dating of 24 cores from Hale O Lono and Hikauhi reveal the presence of five major lithofacies that reflect paleo-environmental conditions. In order of decreasing depositional energy they are: (1) coral-algal bindstone; (2) mixed skeletal rudstone; (3) massive coral framestone; (4) unconsolidated floatstone; and (5) branching coral framestone-bafflestone. At Hale O Lono, 10 cores document a backstepping reef ranging from ∼ 8,100 cal yr BP (offshore) to ∼ 4,800 cal yr BP (nearshore). A depauperate community of modern coral diminishes shoreward and seaward of ∼ 15 m depth due to wave energy, disrupted recruitment activities, and physical abrasion. Evidence suggests a change from conditions conducive to accretion during the early Holocene to conditions detrimental to accretion in the late Holocene. Reef structure at Hikauhi, reconstructed from 14 cores, reveals a thick, rapidly accreting and young reef (maximum age ∼ 900 cal yr BP). Living coral cover on this reef increases seaward with distance from the reef crest but terminates at a depth of ∼ 20 m where the reef ends in a large sand field. The primary limitation on vertical reef growth is accommodation space under wave base, not recruitment activities or energy conditions. Interpretations of cored lithofacies suggest that modern reef growth on the southwest corner of Molokai, and by

  11. Accretion-induced quasinormal mode excitation of a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagar, Alessandro; Zanotti, Olindo; Font, Jose A.; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2007-01-01

    By combining the numerical solution of the nonlinear hydrodynamics equations with the solution of the linear inhomogeneous Zerilli-Moncrief and Regge-Wheeler equations, we investigate the properties of the gravitational radiation emitted during the axisymmetric accretion of matter onto a Schwarzschild black hole. The matter models considered include quadrupolar dust shells and thick accretion disks, permitting us to simulate situations which may be encountered at the end stages of stellar gravitational collapse or binary neutron star merger. We focus on the interference pattern appearing in the energy spectra of the emitted gravitational waves and on the amount of excitation of the quasinormal modes of the accreting black hole. We show that, quite generically in the presence of accretion, the black-hole ringdown is not a simple superposition of quasinormal modes, although the fundamental mode is usually present and often dominates the gravitational-wave signal. We interpret this as due to backscattering of waves off the nonexponentially decaying part of the black-hole potential and to the finite spatial extension of the accreting matter. Our results suggest that the black-hole QNM contributions to the full gravitational-wave signal should be extremely small and possibly not detectable in generic astrophysical scenarios involving the accretion of extended distributions of matter

  12. A comparative study on laser induced shock cleaning of radioactive contaminants in air and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Prasad, Manisha; Bhatt, R. B.; Behere, P. G.; Biswas, D. J.

    2018-03-01

    Efficient removal of Uranium-di-oxide (UO2) particulates from stainless steel surface was effected by Nd-YAG laser induced plasma shock waves in air as well as in water environment. The propagation velocity of the generated shock wave was measured by employing the photo-acoustic probe deflection method. Monitoring of the alpha activity of the sample with a ZnS (Ag) scintillation detector before and after the laser exposure allowed the estimation of decontamination efficiency defined as the percentage removal of the initial activity. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of laser pulse energy, number of laser exposures, orientation of the sample, the separation between the substrate surface and the onset point of the shock wave on the de-contamination efficiency. The most optimised cleaning was found to occur when the laser beam impinged normally on the sample that was immersed in water and placed at a distance of ∼0.7 mm from the laser focal spot. Analysis of the cleaned surface by optical microscopes established that laser induced shock cleaning in no way altered the surface property. The shock force generated in both air and water has been estimated theoretically and has been found to exceed the Van der Waal's binding force for spherical contaminant particulate.

  13. THE EFFECT OF TRANSIENT ACCRETION ON THE SPIN-UP OF MILLISECOND PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Chakrabarty, Deepto, E-mail: sudip@tifr.res.in [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2017-01-20

    A millisecond pulsar is a neutron star that has been substantially spun up by accretion from a binary companion. A previously unrecognized factor governing the spin evolution of such pulsars is the crucial effect of nonsteady or transient accretion. We numerically compute the evolution of accreting neutron stars through a series of outburst and quiescent phases, considering the drastic variation of the accretion rate and the standard disk–magnetosphere interaction. We find that, for the same long-term average accretion rate, X-ray transients can spin up pulsars to rates several times higher than can persistent accretors, even when the spin-down due to electromagnetic radiation during quiescence is included. We also compute an analytical expression for the equilibrium spin frequency in transients, by taking spin equilibrium to mean that no net angular momentum is transferred to the neutron star in each outburst cycle. We find that the equilibrium spin rate for transients, which depends on the peak accretion rate during outbursts, can be much higher than that for persistent sources. This explains our numerical finding. This finding implies that any meaningful study of neutron star spin and magnetic field distributions requires the inclusion of the transient accretion effect, since most accreting neutron star sources are transients. Our finding also implies the existence of a submillisecond pulsar population, which is not observed. This may point to the need for a competing spin-down mechanism for the fastest-rotating accreting pulsars, such as gravitational radiation.

  14. Spinning up black holes with super-critical accretion flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sądowski, A.; Bursa, Michal; Abramowicz, M. A.; Kluzniak, W.; Lasota, J.-P.; Moderski, R.; Safarzadeh, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 532, August (2011), A41/1-A41/11 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : black hole physics * accretion * accretion disks Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.587, year: 2011

  15. Continuum Reverberation Mapping of AGN Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausnaugh, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, Bradley M. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Starkey, David A. [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom); Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Horne, Keith, E-mail: faus@mit.edu [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the AGN STORM Collaboration

    2017-12-05

    We show recent detections of inter-band continuum lags in three AGN (NGC 5548, NGC 2617, and MCG+08-11-011), which provide new constraints on the temperature profiles and absolute sizes of the accretion disks. We find lags larger than would be predicted for standard geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disks by factors of 2.3–3.3. For NGC 5548, the data span UV through optical/near-IR wavelengths, and we are able to discern a steeper temperature profile than the T ~ R{sup −3/4} expected for a standard thin disk. Using a physical model, we are also able to estimate the inclinations of the disks for two objects. These results are similar to those found from gravitational microlensing of strongly lensed quasars, and provide a complementary approach for investigating the accretion disk structure in local, low luminosity AGN.

  16. Viscoelastic shock wave in ballistic gelatin behind soft body armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Fan, Yurun; Li, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Ballistic gelatins are widely used as a surrogate of biological tissue in blunt trauma tests. Non-penetration impact tests of handgun bullets on the 10wt% ballistic gelatin block behind soft armor were carried out in which a high-speed camera recorded the crater׳s movement and pressure sensors imbedded in the gelatin block recorded the pressure waves at different locations. The observed shock wave attenuation indicates the necessity of considering the gelatin׳s viscoelasticity. A three-element viscoelastic constitutive model was adopted, in which the relevant parameters were obtained via fitting the damping free oscillations at the beginning of the creep-mode of rheological measurement, and by examining the data of published split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The viscoelastic model is determined by a retardation time of 5.5×10(-5)s for high oscillation frequencies and a stress relaxation time of 2.0-4.5×10(-7)s for shock wave attenuation. Using the characteristic-line method and the spherical wave assumption, the propagation of impact pressure wave front and the subsequent unloading profile can be simulated using the experimental velocity boundary condition. The established viscoelastic model considerably improves the prediction of shock wave attenuation in the ballistic gelatin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Accreting fluids onto regular black holes via Hamiltonian approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawad, Abdul [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Shahzad, M.U. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); University of Central Punjab, CAMS, UCP Business School, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-08-15

    We investigate the accretion of test fluids onto regular black holes such as Kehagias-Sfetsos black holes and regular black holes with Dagum distribution function. We analyze the accretion process when different test fluids are falling onto these regular black holes. The accreting fluid is being classified through the equation of state according to the features of regular black holes. The behavior of fluid flow and the existence of sonic points is being checked for these regular black holes. It is noted that the three-velocity depends on critical points and the equation of state parameter on phase space. (orig.)

  18. Do we see accreting magnetars in X-ray pulsars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postnov K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong magnetic field of accreting neutron stars (1014 G is hard to probe by Xray spectroscopy but can be indirectly inferred from spin-up/spin-down measurement in X-ray pulsars. The existing observations of slowly rotating X-ray pulsars are discussed. It is shown that magnetic fields of neutron stars derived from these observations (or lower limits in some cases fall within the standard 1012-1013 G range. Claims about the evidence for accreting magnetars are critically discussed in the light of recent progress in understanding of accretion onto slowly rotating neutron stars in the subsonic regime.

  19. Tori sequences as remnants of multiple accreting periods of Kerr SMBHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Super-massive black holes (SMBHs) hosted in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can be characterized by multi-accreting periods as the attractors interact with the environment during their life-time. These multi-accretion episodes should leave traces in the matter orbiting the attractor. Counterrotating and even misaligned structures orbiting around the SMBHs would be consequences of these episodes. Our task in this work is to consider situations where such accretions occur and to trace their remnants represented by several toroidal accreting fluids, corotating or counterrotating relative to the central Kerr attractor, and created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around SMBHs. We focus particularly on the emergence of matter instabilities, i.e., tori collisions, accretion onto the central Kerr black hole, or creation of jet-like structures (proto-jets). Each orbiting configuration is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluid. We prove that sequences of configurations and hot points, where an instability occurs, characterize the Kerr SMBHs, depending mainly on their spin-mass ratios. The occurrence of tori accretion or collision are strongly constrained by the fluid rotation with respect to the central black hole and the relative rotation with respect to each other. Our investigation provides characteristic of attractors where traces of multi-accreting episodes can be found and observed.

  20. Are Nanoparticles Spherical or Quasi-Spherical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Stanislav V; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Tschulik, Kristina; Fletcher, Stephen; Compton, Richard G

    2015-07-20

    The geometry of quasi-spherical nanoparticles is investigated. The combination of SEM imaging and electrochemical nano-impact experiments is demonstrated to allow sizing and characterization of the geometry of single silver nanoparticles. © 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Low-density, radiatively inefficient rotating-accretion flow on to a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayoshi, Kohei; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Haiman, Zoltán; Kuiper, Rolf

    2018-05-01

    We study low-density axisymmetric accretion flows on to black holes (BHs) with two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, adopting the α-viscosity prescription. When the gas angular momentum is low enough to form a rotationally supported disc within the Bondi radius (RB), we find a global steady accretion solution. The solution consists of a rotational equilibrium distribution around r ˜ RB, where the density follows ρ ∝ (1 + RB/r)3/2, surrounding a geometrically thick and optically thin accretion disc at the centrifugal radius RC(accretion flows (ρ ∝ r-1/2). In the inner solution, the gas inflow rate decreases towards the centre due to convection (\\dot{M}∝ r), and the net accretion rate (including both inflows and outflows) is strongly suppressed by several orders of magnitude from the Bondi accretion rate \\dot{M}_B. The net accretion rate depends on the viscous strength, following \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_B∝ (α /0.01)^{0.6}. This solution holds for low accretion rates of \\dot{M}_B/\\dot{M}_Edd≲ 10^{-3} having minimal radiation cooling, where \\dot{M}_Edd is the Eddington accretion rate. In a hot plasma at the bottom (r < 10-3 RB), thermal conduction would dominate the convective energy flux. Since suppression of the accretion by convection ceases, the final BH feeding rate is found to be \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_B˜ 10^{-3}-10-2. This rate is as low as \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_Edd˜ 10^{-7}-10-6 inferred for SgrA* and the nuclear BHs in M31 and M87, and can explain their low luminosities, without invoking any feedback mechanism.

  2. Sound wave generation by a spherically symmetric outburst and AGN feedback in galaxy clusters II: impact of thermal conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaping; Churazov, Eugene

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the impact of thermal conduction on the appearance of a shock-heated gas shell which is produced when a spherically symmetric outburst of a supermassive black hole inflates bubbles of relativistic plasma at the center of a galaxy cluster. The presence of the hot and low-density shell can be used as an ancillary indicator for a high rate of energy release during the outburst, which is required to drive strong shocks into the gas. Here we show that conduction can effectively erase such shell, unless the diffusion of electrons is heavily suppressed. We conclude that a more robust proxy to the energy release rate is the ratio between the shock radius and bubble radius. We also revisited the issue of sound waves dissipation induced by thermal conduction in a scenario, where characteristic wavelength of the sound wave is set by the total energy of the outburst. For a fiducial short outburst model, the dissipation length does not exceed the cooling radius in a typical cluster, provided that the conduction is suppressed by a factor not larger than ˜100. For quasi-continuous energy injection neither the shock-heated shell nor the outgoing sound wave are important and the role of conduction is subdominant.

  3. New Constraints on the Geometry and Kinematics of Matter Surrounding the Accretion Flow in X-Ray Binaries from Chandra High-energy Transmission Grating X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanavaris, P.; Yaqoob, T.

    2018-03-01

    The narrow, neutral Fe Kα fluorescence emission line in X-ray binaries (XRBs) is a powerful probe of the geometry, kinematics, and Fe abundance of matter around the accretion flow. In a recent study it has been claimed, using Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) spectra for a sample of XRBs, that the circumnuclear material is consistent with a solar-abundance, uniform, spherical distribution. It was also claimed that the Fe Kα line was unresolved in all cases by the HETG. However, these conclusions were based on ad hoc models that did not attempt to relate the global column density to the Fe Kα line emission. We revisit the sample and test a self-consistent model of a uniform, spherical X-ray reprocessor against HETG spectra from 56 observations of 14 Galactic XRBs. We find that the model is ruled out in 13/14 sources because a variable Fe abundance is required. In two sources a spherical distribution is viable, but with nonsolar Fe abundance. We also applied a solar-abundance Compton-thick reflection model, which can account for the spectra that are inconsistent with a spherical model, but spectra with a broader bandpass are required to better constrain model parameters. We also robustly measured the velocity width of the Fe Kα line and found FWHM values of up to ∼5000 km s‑1. Only in some spectra was the Fe Kα line unresolved by the HETG.

  4. New Constraints on the Geometry and Kinematics of Matter Surrounding the Accretion Flow in X-Ray Binaries from Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanavaris, P.; Yaqoob, T.

    2018-01-01

    The narrow, neutral Fe Ka fluorescence emission line in X-ray binaries (XRBs) is a powerful probe of the geometry, kinematics, and Fe abundance of matter around the accretion flow. In a recent study it has been claimed, using Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) spectra for a sample of XRBs, that the circumnuclear material is consistent with a solar-abundance, uniform, spherical distribution. It was also claimed that the Fe Ka line was unresolved in all cases by the HETG. However, these conclusions were based on ad hoc models that did not attempt to relate the global column density to the Fe Ka line emission. We revisit the sample and test a self-consistent model of a uniform, spherical X-ray reprocessor against HETG spectra from 56 observations of 14 Galactic XRBs. We find that the model is ruled out in 13/14 sources because a variable Fe abundance is required. In two sources a spherical distribution is viable, but with nonsolar Fe abundance. We also applied a solar-abundance Compton-thick reflection model, which can account for the spectra that are inconsistent with a spherical model, but spectra with a broader bandpass are required to better constrain model parameters. We also robustly measured the velocity width of the Fe Ka line and found FWHM values of up to approx. 5000 km/s. Only in some spectra was the Fe Ka line unresolved by the HETG.

  5. Dynamically important magnetic fields near accreting supermassive black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaninasab, M; Clausen-Brown, E; Savolainen, T; Tchekhovskoy, A

    2014-06-05

    Accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of active galaxies often produce 'jets'--collimated bipolar outflows of relativistic particles. Magnetic fields probably play a critical role in jet formation and in accretion disk physics. A dynamically important magnetic field was recently found near the Galactic Centre black hole. If this is common and if the field continues to near the black hole event horizon, disk structures will be affected, invalidating assumptions made in standard models. Here we report that jet magnetic field and accretion disk luminosity are tightly correlated over seven orders of magnitude for a sample of 76 radio-loud active galaxies. We conclude that the jet-launching regions of these radio-loud galaxies are threaded by dynamically important fields, which will affect the disk properties. These fields obstruct gas infall, compress the accretion disk vertically, slow down the disk rotation by carrying away its angular momentum in an outflow and determine the directionality of jets.

  6. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  7. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2016-12-12

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  8. Criteria for retrograde rotation of accreting black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. G.; Piotrovich, M. Yu; Gnedin, Yu N.; Natsvlishvili, T. M.; Buliga, S. D.

    2018-06-01

    Rotating supermassive black holes produce jets and their origin is connected to the magnetic field that is generated by accreting matter flow. There is a point of view that electromagnetic fields around rotating black holes are brought to the hole by accretion. In this situation the prograde accreting discs produce weaker large-scale black hole threading magnetic fields, implying weaker jets than in retrograde regimes. The basic goal of this paper is to find the best candidates for retrograde accreting systems in observed active galactic nuclei. We show that active galactic nuclei with low Eddington ratio are really the best candidates for retrograde systems. This conclusion is obtained for kinetically dominated Fanaroff-Riley class II radio galaxies, flat-spectrum radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert I galaxies and a number of nearby galaxies. Our conclusion is that the best candidates for retrograde systems are the noticeable population of active galactic nuclei in the Universe. This result corresponds to the conclusion that in the merging process the interaction of merging black holes with a retrograde circumbinary disc is considerably more effective for shrinking the binary system.

  9. Accretion onto a moving Reissner-Nordström black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Lei; Yang, Rongjia, E-mail: jiaoleizhijia@163.com, E-mail: yangrongjia@tsinghua.org.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Hebei University, No. 180, Wusi east road, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2017-09-01

    We obtain an analytic solution for accretion of a gaseous medium with a adiabatic equation of state ( P =ρ) onto a Reissner-Nordström black hole which moves at a constant velocity through the medium. We obtain the specific expression for each component of the velocity and present the mass accretion rate which depends on the mass and the electric charge. The result we obtained may be helpful to understand the physical mechanism of accretion onto a moving black hole.

  10. Numerical simulation of increasing initial perturbations of a bubble in the bubble–shock interaction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, Boris [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutsky lane, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation); Levchenko, Vadim, E-mail: boris.korneev@phystech.edu [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, 4 Miusskaya square, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A set of numerical experiments on the interaction between a planar shock wave and a spherical bubble with a slightly perturbed surface is considered. Spectral analysis of the instability growth is carried out and three-dimensional Euler equations of fluid dynamics are chosen as the mathematical model for the process. The equations are solved via the Runge–Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method and the special DiamondTorre algorithm for multi-GPU implementation is used. (paper)

  11. Accretion and primary differentiation of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    In collecting samples from Mars to address questions such as whether Mars accreted homogeneously or heterogeneously, how Mars segregated into a metallic core and silicate mantle, and whether Mars outgassed catastrophically coincident with accretion or more serenely on a longer timescale, we must be guided by our experience in addressing these questions for the Earth, Moon, and igneous meteorite parent bodies. A key measurement to be made on any sample returned from Mars is its oxygen isotopic composition. A single measurement will suffice to bind the SNC meteorites to Mars or demonstrate that they cannot be samples of that planet. A positive identification of Mars as the SNC parent planet will permit all that has been learned from the SNC meteorites to be applied to Mars with confidence. A negative result will perhaps be more exciting in forcing us to look for another object that has been geologically active in the recent past. If the oxygen isotopic composition of Earth and Mars are established to be distinct, accretion theory must provide for different compositions for two planets now separated by only 0.5 AU

  12. The contribution of accreting black holes to the background radiation density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Black holes could generate radiation as a result of accretion. The requirement that this radiation should not have a density exceeding the observed background density places an interesting limit on the number of black holes, depending on the wavelength at which the radiation is generated and the efficiency with which it is produced from accreted material. Consideration of the radiation produced in the present epoch already constrains the mass range in which black holes could have a significant cosmological density. For pregalactic black holes, which may have been accreting more rapidly in the past, the constraint could be even stronger. However, because pregalactic accretion will in general increase the matter temperature of the Universe, it is a self-limiting process. For this reason the pregalactic accretion limit is not as strong as one might naively expect and it is generally weaker than the present epoch limit. (author)

  13. Effect of accretion on primordial black holes in Brans-Dicke theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, B.; Singh, L. P.; Majumdar, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the effect of accretion of radiation in the early Universe on primordial black holes in Brans-Dicke theory. The rate of growth of a primordial black hole due to accretion of radiation in Brans-Dicke theory is considerably smaller than the rate of growth of the cosmological horizon, thus making available sufficient radiation density for the black hole to accrete causally. We show that accretion of radiation by Brans-Dicke black holes overrides the effect of Hawking evaporation during the radiation dominated era. The subsequent evaporation of the black holes in later eras is further modified due to the variable gravitational 'constant', and they could survive up to longer times compared to the case of standard cosmology. We estimate the impact of accretion on modification of the constraint on their initial mass fraction obtained from the γ-ray background limit from presently evaporating primordial black holes.

  14. Changes in the metallicity of gas giant planets due to pebble accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R. J.; Nayakshin, S.

    2018-06-01

    We run numerical simulations to study the accretion of gas and dust grains on to gas giant planets embedded into massive protoplanetary discs. The outcome is found to depend on the disc cooling rate, planet mass, grain size, and irradiative feedback from the planet. If radiative cooling is efficient, planets accrete both gas and pebbles rapidly, open a gap, and usually become massive brown dwarfs. In the inefficient cooling case, gas is too hot to accrete on to the planet but pebble accretion continues and the planets migrate inward rapidly. Radiative feedback from the planet tends to suppress gas accretion. Our simulations predict that metal enrichment of planets by dust grain accretion inversely correlates with the final planet mass, in accordance with the observed trend in the inferred bulk composition of Solar system and exosolar giant planets. To account for observations, however, as many as ˜30-50 per cent of the dust mass should be in the form of large grains.

  15. Accretion-induced variability links young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Simone; Maccarone, Thomas J; Körding, Elmar; Knigge, Christian; Vaughan, Simon; Marsh, Thomas R; Aranzana, Ester; Dhillon, Vikram S; Barros, Susana C C

    2015-10-01

    The central engines of disc-accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to be scaled down versions of the supermassive black holes that power active galactic nuclei. However, if the physics of accretion is universal, it should also be possible to extend this scaling to other types of accreting systems, irrespective of accretor mass, size, or type. We examine new observations, obtained with Kepler/K2 and ULTRACAM, regarding accreting white dwarfs and young stellar objects. Every object in the sample displays the same linear correlation between the brightness of the source and its amplitude of variability (rms-flux relation) and obeys the same quantitative scaling relation as stellar-mass black holes and active galactic nuclei. We also show that the most important parameter in this scaling relation is the physical size of the accreting object. This establishes the universality of accretion physics from proto-stars still in the star-forming process to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies.

  16. On the Maximum Mass of Accreting Primordial Supermassive Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, T. E.; Heger, Alexander [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Whalen, Daniel J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Haemmerlé, Lionel; Klessen, Ralf S. [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische. Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-06-10

    Supermassive primordial stars are suspected to be the progenitors of the most massive quasars at z ∼ 6. Previous studies of such stars were either unable to resolve hydrodynamical timescales or considered stars in isolation, not in the extreme accretion flows in which they actually form. Therefore, they could not self-consistently predict their final masses at collapse, or those of the resulting supermassive black hole seeds, but rather invoked comparison to simple polytropic models. Here, we systematically examine the birth, evolution, and collapse of accreting, non-rotating supermassive stars under accretion rates of 0.01–10 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} using the stellar evolution code Kepler . Our approach includes post-Newtonian corrections to the stellar structure and an adaptive nuclear network and can transition to following the hydrodynamic evolution of supermassive stars after they encounter the general relativistic instability. We find that this instability triggers the collapse of the star at masses of 150,000–330,000 M {sub ⊙} for accretion rates of 0.1–10 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, and that the final mass of the star scales roughly logarithmically with the rate. The structure of the star, and thus its stability against collapse, is sensitive to the treatment of convection and the heat content of the outer accreted envelope. Comparison with other codes suggests differences here may lead to small deviations in the evolutionary state of the star as a function of time, that worsen with accretion rate. Since the general relativistic instability leads to the immediate death of these stars, our models place an upper limit on the masses of the first quasars at birth.

  17. Accretion onto magnetized neutron stars: Normal mode analysis of the interchange instability at the magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arons, J.; Lea, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    We describe the results of a linearized hydromagnetic stability analysis of the magnetopause of an accreting neutron star. The magnetosphere is assumed to be slowly rotating, and the plasma just outside of the magnetopause is assumed to be weakly magnetized. The plasma layer is assumed to be bounded above by a shock wave, and to be thin compared with the radius of the magnetosphere. Under these circumstances, the growing modes are shown to be localized in the direction parallel to the zero-order magnetic field. The structure of the modes is still similar to the flute mode, however. The growth rate at each magnetic latitude is lambda given by γ 2 =g/sub n/kα/sub eff/(lambda) tanh [kz/sub s/(lambda)] where g/sub n/ is the magnitude of the gravitational acceleration normal to the surface, kapprox. =vertical-barmvertical-bar/R (lambda)cos lambda, vertical-barmvertical-bar is the azimuthal mode number, R (lambda) is the radius of the magnetosphere, z/sub s/ is the height of the shock above the magnetopause, and α/sub eff/(lambda) <1 is the effective Atwood number which embodies the stabilizing effects of favorable curvature and magnetic tension. We calculate α/sub eff/(lambda), and also discuss the stabilizing effects of viscosity and of aligned flow parallel to the magnetopause

  18. Massive star formation by accretion. II. Rotation: how to circumvent the angular momentum barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.; Klessen, R. S.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Rotation plays a key role in the star-formation process, from pre-stellar cores to pre-main-sequence (PMS) objects. Understanding the formation of massive stars requires taking into account the accretion of angular momentum during their PMS phase. Aims: We study the PMS evolution of objects destined to become massive stars by accretion, focusing on the links between the physical conditions of the environment and the rotational properties of young stars. In particular, we look at the physical conditions that allow the production of massive stars by accretion. Methods: We present PMS models computed with a new version of the Geneva Stellar Evolution code self-consistently including accretion and rotation according to various accretion scenarios for mass and angular momentum. We describe the internal distribution of angular momentum in PMS stars accreting at high rates and we show how the various physical conditions impact their internal structures, evolutionary tracks, and rotation velocities during the PMS and the early main sequence. Results: We find that the smooth angular momentum accretion considered in previous studies leads to an angular momentum barrier and does not allow the formation of massive stars by accretion. A braking mechanism is needed in order to circumvent this angular momentum barrier. This mechanism has to be efficient enough to remove more than two thirds of the angular momentum from the inner accretion disc. Due to the weak efficiency of angular momentum transport by shear instability and meridional circulation during the accretion phase, the internal rotation profiles of accreting stars reflect essentially the angular momentum accretion history. As a consequence, careful choice of the angular momentum accretion history allows circumvention of any limitation in mass and velocity, and production of stars of any mass and velocity compatible with structure equations.

  19. A thin-shock-layer solution for nonequilibrium, inviscid hypersonic flows in earth, Martian, and Venusian atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, W. L.

    1971-01-01

    An approximate inverse solution is presented for the nonequilibrium flow in the inviscid shock layer about a vehicle in hypersonic flight. The method is based upon a thin-shock-layer approximation and has the advantage of being applicable to both subsonic and supersonic regions of the shock layer. The relative simplicity of the method makes it ideally suited for programming on a digital computer with a significant reduction in storage capacity and computing time required by other more exact methods. Comparison of nonequilibrium solutions for an air mixture obtained by the present method is made with solutions obtained by two other methods. Additional cases are presented for entry of spherical nose cones into representative Venusian and Martian atmospheres. A digital computer program written in FORTRAN language is presented that permits an arbitrary gas mixture to be employed in the solution. The effects of vibration, dissociation, recombination, electronic excitation, and ionization are included in the program.

  20. Observations of Accreting Pulsars with the FERMI-GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi comprises 12 NaI detectors spanning the 8-1000 keV band and 2 BGO detectors spanning the 100 keV to 40 MeV band. These detectors view the entire unocculted sky, providing long (approximately 40 ks/day) observations of accreting pulsars daily, which allow long-term monitoring of spin-frequencies and pulsed uxes via epoch-folded searches plus daily blind searches for new pulsars. Phase averaged uxes can be measured using the Earth occultation technique. In this talk I will present highlights of GBM accretion-powered pulsar monitoring such as the discovery of a torque reversal in 4U1626-67, a high-energy QPO in A0535+26, and evidence for a stable accretion disk in OAO 1657-415.

  1. How much boundary layer heating occurs in an accreting prenova white dwarf?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regev, O.; Shara, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Understanding boundary layer heating is crucial in determining the thermal structure of the accreted envelope of a prenova white dwarf. The matched asymptotic expansion method was used to solve consistently for the structure of accretion disks transferring matter onto rotating white dwarfs. The fraction of accretion energy transported into prenova white dwarf envelopes was calculated. These results should be used by modelers of nova eruptions; they will produce significantly lower degeneracies and weaker explosions than expected until now. Detailed models of accretion disks and boundary layers can also be used to calculate the amount of white dwarf heating during a dwarf nova outburst. In general, such models can serve as input to model atmosphere codes to predict more realistic spectra of disk-accreting objects. 29 refs

  2. Baseline Assessment of Net Calcium Carbonate Accretion Rates on U.S. Pacific Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ángel, Bernardo; Richards, Cristi L; Vroom, Peter S; Price, Nichole N; Schils, Tom; Young, Charles W; Smith, Jennifer; Johnson, Maggie D; Brainard, Russell E

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive quantitative baseline assessment of in situ net calcium carbonate accretion rates (g CaCO3 cm(-2) yr(-1)) of early successional recruitment communities on Calcification Accretion Unit (CAU) plates deployed on coral reefs at 78 discrete sites, across 11 islands in the central and south Pacific Oceans. Accretion rates varied substantially within and between islands, reef zones, levels of wave exposure, and island geomorphology. For forereef sites, mean accretion rates were the highest at Rose Atoll, Jarvis, and Swains Islands, and the lowest at Johnston Atoll and Tutuila. A comparison between reef zones showed higher accretion rates on forereefs compared to lagoon sites; mean accretion rates were also higher on windward than leeward sites but only for a subset of islands. High levels of spatial variability in net carbonate accretion rates reported herein draw attention to the heterogeneity of the community assemblages. Percent cover of key early successional taxa on CAU plates did not reflect that of the mature communities present on surrounding benthos, possibly due to the short deployment period (2 years) of the experimental units. Yet, net CaCO3 accretion rates were positively correlated with crustose coralline algae (CCA) percent cover on the surrounding benthos and on the CAU plates, which on average represented >70% of the accreted material. For foreeefs and lagoon sites combined CaCO3 accretion rates were statistically correlated with total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a; a GAM analysis indicated that SiOH and Halimeda were the best predictor variables of accretion rates on lagoon sites, and total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a for forereef sites, demonstrating the utility of CAUs as a tool to monitor changes in reef accretion rates as they relate to ocean acidification. This study underscores the pivotal role CCA play as a key benthic component and supporting actively calcifying reefs; high Mg-calcite exoskeletons makes CCA

  3. Baseline Assessment of Net Calcium Carbonate Accretion Rates on U.S. Pacific Reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Vargas-Ángel

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive quantitative baseline assessment of in situ net calcium carbonate accretion rates (g CaCO3 cm(-2 yr(-1 of early successional recruitment communities on Calcification Accretion Unit (CAU plates deployed on coral reefs at 78 discrete sites, across 11 islands in the central and south Pacific Oceans. Accretion rates varied substantially within and between islands, reef zones, levels of wave exposure, and island geomorphology. For forereef sites, mean accretion rates were the highest at Rose Atoll, Jarvis, and Swains Islands, and the lowest at Johnston Atoll and Tutuila. A comparison between reef zones showed higher accretion rates on forereefs compared to lagoon sites; mean accretion rates were also higher on windward than leeward sites but only for a subset of islands. High levels of spatial variability in net carbonate accretion rates reported herein draw attention to the heterogeneity of the community assemblages. Percent cover of key early successional taxa on CAU plates did not reflect that of the mature communities present on surrounding benthos, possibly due to the short deployment period (2 years of the experimental units. Yet, net CaCO3 accretion rates were positively correlated with crustose coralline algae (CCA percent cover on the surrounding benthos and on the CAU plates, which on average represented >70% of the accreted material. For foreeefs and lagoon sites combined CaCO3 accretion rates were statistically correlated with total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a; a GAM analysis indicated that SiOH and Halimeda were the best predictor variables of accretion rates on lagoon sites, and total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a for forereef sites, demonstrating the utility of CAUs as a tool to monitor changes in reef accretion rates as they relate to ocean acidification. This study underscores the pivotal role CCA play as a key benthic component and supporting actively calcifying reefs; high Mg-calcite exoskeletons

  4. Intermediate polars as low-field magnetic cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, D.T.; Kinwah Wu; Ferrario, Lilia

    1991-01-01

    We present the first detailed calculations of the polarization properties of extended accretion shocks on the surface of a magnetic white dwarf where allowance is made both for field spread and for the change in shock height as a function of specific accretion rate. These results are used to show conclusively that the null detection of circular polarization in most IPs imply fields of less than 5 MG. We suggest that the X-ray properties of MCVs depends critically on the fractional area of the white-dwarf surface over which accretion occurs, and on the type of accretion (smooth or clumpy). We argue that in the known IPs, accretion occurs via a disc. The accretion flow is smooth and a strong shock forms making them a powerful source of hard X-rays. We propose that there is a new class of MCV distinct from the IPs, where the white dwarf is asynchronous and accretes without a disc in which the accretion is clumpy and the radiation is mainly in the EUV region. (author)

  5. Localized thermonuclear runaways and volcanoes on degenerate dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shara, M.M.

    1982-10-15

    Practically all studies to date of thermonuclear runaways on degenerate dwarf stars in binary systems have considered only spherically symmetric eruptions. We emphasize that even slightly non-spherically symmetric accretion leads to transverse temperature gradients in the dwarfs' accreted envelopes. Over a rather broad range of parameter space, thermalization time scales in accreted envelopes are much longer than thermonuclear runaway time scales. Thus localized thermonuclear runaways (i.e., runaways much smaller than the host degenerate star) rather than spherically symmetric global eruptions are likely to occur on many degenerate dwarfs. Localized runaways are more likely to occur on more massive and/or hotter dwarfs.

  6. Can a Wind Model Mimic a Convection-Dominated Accretion Flow Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heon-Young

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we investigate the properties of advection-dominated accretion flows(ADAFs) in case that outflows carry away infalling matter with its angular momentum and energy. Positive Bernoulli numbers in ADAFs allow a fraction of the gas to be ex-pelled in a form of outflows. The ADAFs are also unstable to convection. We present self-similar solutions for advection-dominated accretion flows in the presence of out-flows from the accretion flows (ADIOS). The axisymmetric flow is treated in variables integrated over polar sections and the effects of outflows on the accretion rlow are parameterized for possible configurations compatible with the one dimensional self-similar ADAF solution. We explicitly derive self-similar solutions of ADAFs in the presence of outflows and show that the strong outflows in the accretion flows result in a flatter density profile, which is similar to that of the convection-dominated accretion flows (CDAFs) in which convection transports the a! ngular momentum inward and the energy outward. These two different versions of the ADAF model should show similar behaviors in X-ray spectrum to some extent. Even though the two models may show similar behaviors, they should be distinguishable due to different physical properties. We suggest that for a central object of which mass is known these two different accretion flows should have different X-ray flux value due to deficient matter in the wind model.

  7. Can a Wind Model Mimic a Convection-Dominated Accretion Flow Model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heon-Young Chang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the properties of advection-dominated accretion flows(ADAFs in case that outflows carry away infalling matter with its angular momentum and energy. Positive Bernoulli numbers in ADAFs allow a fraction of the gas to be ex-pelled in a form of outflows. The ADAFs are also unstable to convection. We present self-similar solutions for advection-dominated accretion flows in the presence of out-flows from the accretion flows (ADIOS. The axisymmetric flow is treated in variables integrated over polar sections and the effects of outflows on the accretion rlow are parameterized for possible configurations compatible with the one dimensional self-similar ADAF solution. We explicitly derive self-similar solutions of ADAFs in the presence of outflows and show that the strong outflows in the accretion flows result in a flatter density profile, which is similar to that of the convection-dominated accretion flows (CDAFs in which convection transports the a! ngular momentum inward and the energy outward. These two different versions of the ADAF model should show similar behaviors in X-ray spectrum to some extent. Even though the two models may show similar behaviors, they should be distinguishable due to different physical properties. We suggest that for a central object of which mass is known these two different accretion flows should have different X-ray flux value due to deficient matter in the wind model.

  8. Hydrogen and helium shell burning during white dwarf accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao; Meng, Xiang-Cun; Han, Zhan-Wen

    2018-05-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are believed to be thermonuclear explosions of carbon oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs) with masses close to the Chandrasekhar mass limit. How a CO WD accretes matter and grows in mass to this limit is not well understood, hindering our understanding of SN Ia explosions and the reliability of using SNe Ia as a cosmological distance indicator. In this work, we employed the stellar evolution code MESA to simulate the accretion process of hydrogen-rich material onto a 1.0 M ⊙ CO WD at a high rate (over the Eddington limit) of 4.3 × 10‑7 M ⊙ yr‑1. The simulation demonstrates the characteristics of the double shell burning on top of the WD, with a hydrogen shell burning on top of a helium burning shell. The results show that helium shell burning is not steady (i.e. it flashes). Flashes from the helium shell are weaker than those in the case of accretion of helium-rich material onto a CO WD. The carbon to oxygen mass ratio resulting from the helium shell burning is higher than what was previously thought. Interestingly, the CO WD growing due to accretion has an outer part containing a small fraction of helium in addition to carbon and oxygen. The flashes become weaker and weaker as the accretion continues.

  9. Spherical sila- and germa-homoaromaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongfang; Hirsch, Andreas; Nagase, Shigeru; Thiel, Walter; Schleyer, Paul von Ragué

    2003-12-17

    Guided by the 2(N + 1)2 electron-counting rule for spherical aromatic molecules, we have designed various spherical sila- and germa-homoaromatic systems rich in group 14 elements. Their aromaticity is revealed by density-functional computations of their structures and the nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS). Besides the formerly used endohedral inclusion strategy, spherical homoaromaticity is another way to stabilize silicon and germanium clusters.

  10. MAGNETOROTATIONAL-INSTABILITY-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xuening

    2011-01-01

    Non-ideal MHD effects play an important role in the gas dynamics in protoplanetary disks (PPDs). This paper addresses the influence of non-ideal MHD effects on the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and angular momentum transport in PPDs using the most up-to-date results from numerical simulations. We perform chemistry calculations using a complex reaction network with standard prescriptions for X-ray and cosmic-ray ionizations. We first show that whether or not grains are included, the recombination time is at least one order of magnitude less than the orbital time within five disk scale heights, justifying the validity of local ionization equilibrium and strong coupling limit in PPDs. The full conductivity tensor at different disk radii and heights is evaluated, with the MRI active region determined by requiring that (1) the Ohmic Elsasser number Λ be greater than 1 and (2) the ratio of gas to magnetic pressure β be greater than β min (Am) as identified in the recent study by Bai and Stone, where Am is the Elsasser number for ambipolar diffusion. With full flexibility as to the magnetic field strength, we provide a general framework for estimating the MRI-driven accretion rate M-dot and the magnetic field strength in the MRI active layer. We find that the MRI active layer always exists at any disk radius as long as the magnetic field in PPDs is sufficiently weak. However, the optimistically predicted M-dot in the inner disk (r = 1-10 AU) appears insufficient to account for the observed range of accretion rates in PPDs (around 10 -8 M sun yr -1 ) even in the grain-free calculation, and the presence of solar abundance sub-micron grains further reduces M-dot by one to two orders of magnitude. Moreover, we find that the predicted M-dot increases with radius in the inner disk where accretion is layered, which would lead to runaway mass accumulation if disk accretion is solely driven by the MRI. Our results suggest that stronger sources of ionization and

  11. SHOCK BREAKOUT FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, Anthony L.; Chang, Philip; Weinberg, Nevin N.

    2010-01-01

    The mode of explosive burning in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) remains an outstanding problem. It is generally thought to begin as a subsonic deflagration, but this may transition into a supersonic detonation (the delayed detonation transition, DDT). We argue that this transition leads to a breakout shock, which would provide the first unambiguous evidence that DDTs occur. Its main features are a hard X-ray flash (∼20 keV) lasting ∼10 -2 s with a total radiated energy of ∼10 40 erg, followed by a cooling tail. This creates a distinct feature in the visual light curve, which is separate from the nickel decay. This cooling tail has a maximum absolute visual magnitude of M V ∼ -9 to -10 at ∼1 day, which depends most sensitively on the white dwarf radius at the time of the DDT. As the thermal diffusion wave moves in, the composition of these surface layers may be imprinted as spectral features, which would help to discern between SN Ia progenitor models. Since this feature should accompany every SNe Ia, future deep surveys (e.g., m = 24) will see it out to a distance of ∼80 Mpc, giving a maximum rate of ∼60 yr -1 . Archival data sets can also be used to study the early rise dictated by the shock heating (at ∼20 days before maximum B-band light). A similar and slightly brighter event may also accompany core bounce during the accretion-induced collapse to a neutron star, but with a lower occurrence rate.

  12. Final stages of evolution of cold, mass-accreting white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernanz, M.; Isern, J.; Canal, R.; Labay, J.; Mochkovitch, R.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of solid C + O white dwarf models upon mass accretion is calculated up to the point of either explosive thermonuclear ignition or gravitational collapse. It is shown that both explosions and quiet collapses to a neutron star are possible for each of two different phase diagrams for high-density C + O mixtures. The ranges of initial masses and temperatures and of accretion rates leading to the different outcomes are determined. Problems concerning the chemical composition of the accreted matter and the effects of tidal dissipation are discussed. 68 references

  13. Parsec-Scale Accretion and Winds Irradiated by a Quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorodnitsyn, A.; Kallman, T.; Proga, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of properties of a parsec-scale torus exposed to illumination by the central black hole in an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Our physical model allows to investigate the balance between the formation of winds and accretion simultaneously. Radiation-driven winds are allowed by taking into account radiation pressure due to UV and IR radiation along with X-ray heating and dust sublimation. Accretion is allowed through angular momentum transport and the solution of the equations of radiative, viscous radiation hydrodynamics. Our methods adopt flux-limited diffusion radiation hydrodynamics for the dusty, infrared pressure driven part of the flow, along with X-ray heating and cooling. Angular momentum transport in the accreting part of the flow is modeled using effective viscosity. Our results demonstrate that radiation pressure on dust can play an important role in shaping AGN obscuration. For example, when the luminosity illuminating the torus exceeds L greater than 0.01 L(sub Edd), where L(sub Edd) is the Eddington luminosity, we find no episodes of sustained disk accretion because radiation pressure does not allow a disk to form. Despite the absence of the disk accretion, the flow of gas to smaller radii still proceeds at a rate 10(exp -4)-10(exp -1)M dot yr(exp -1) through the capturing of the gas from the hot evaporative flow, thus providing a mechanism to deliver gas from a radiation-pressure dominated torus to the inner accretion disk. As L L(sub edd) increases, larger radiation input leads to larger torus aspect ratios and increased obscuration of the central black hole. We also find the important role of the X-ray heated gas in shaping the obscuring torus.

  14. Swings between rotation and accretion power in a binary millisecond pulsar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papitto, A; Ferrigno, C; Bozzo, E; Rea, N; Pavan, L; Burderi, L; Burgay, M; Campana, S; Di Salvo, T; Falanga, M; Filipović, M D; Freire, P C C; Hessels, J W T; Possenti, A; Ransom, S M; Riggio, A; Romano, P; Sarkissian, J M; Stairs, I H; Stella, L; Torres, D F; Wieringa, M H; Wong, G F

    2013-09-26

    It is thought that neutron stars in low-mass binary systems can accrete matter and angular momentum from the companion star and be spun-up to millisecond rotational periods. During the accretion stage, the system is called a low-mass X-ray binary, and bright X-ray emission is observed. When the rate of mass transfer decreases in the later evolutionary stages, these binaries host a radio millisecond pulsar whose emission is powered by the neutron star's rotating magnetic field. This evolutionary model is supported by the detection of millisecond X-ray pulsations from several accreting neutron stars and also by the evidence for a past accretion disc in a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar. It has been proposed that a rotation-powered pulsar may temporarily switch on during periods of low mass inflow in some such systems. Only indirect evidence for this transition has hitherto been observed. Here we report observations of accretion-powered, millisecond X-ray pulsations from a neutron star previously seen as a rotation-powered radio pulsar. Within a few days after a month-long X-ray outburst, radio pulses were again detected. This not only shows the evolutionary link between accretion and rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, but also that some systems can swing between the two states on very short timescales.

  15. Mass-accreting white dwarfs and type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2018-05-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play a prominent role in understanding the evolution of the Universe. They are thought to be thermonuclear explosions of mass-accreting carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs) in binaries, although the mass donors of the accreting WDs are still not well determined. In this article, I review recent studies on mass-accreting WDs, including H- and He-accreting WDs. I also review currently most studied progenitor models of SNe Ia, i.e., the single-degenerate model (including the WD+MS channel, the WD+RG channel and the WD+He star channel), the double-degenerate model (including the violent merger scenario) and the sub-Chandrasekhar mass model. Recent progress on these progenitor models is discussed, including the initial parameter space for producing SNe Ia, the binary evolutionary paths to SNe Ia, the progenitor candidates for SNe Ia, the possible surviving companion stars of SNe Ia, some observational constraints, etc. Some other potential progenitor models of SNe Ia are also summarized, including the hybrid CONe WD model, the core-degenerate model, the double WD collision model, the spin-up/spin-down model and the model of WDs near black holes. To date, it seems that two or more progenitor models are needed to explain the observed diversity among SNe Ia.

  16. Accretion onto stellar mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    I present work on the accretion onto stellar mass black holes in several scenarios. Due to dynamical friction stellar mass black holes are expected to form high density cusps in the inner parsec of our Galaxy. These compact remnants may be accreting cold dense gas present there, and give rise to potentially observable X-ray emission. I build a simple but detailed time-dependent model of such emission. Future observations of the distribution and orbits of the gas in the inner parsec of Sgr A* will put tighter constraints on the cusp of compact remnants. GRS 1915+105 is an LMXB, whose large orbital period implies a very large accretion disc and explains the extraordinary duration of its current outburst. I present smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of the accretion disc. The models includes the thermo-viscous instability, irradiation from the central object and wind loss. I find that the outburst of GRS 1915+105 should last a minimum of 20 years and up to ˜ 100 years if the irradiation is playing a significant role in this system. The predicted recurrence times are of the order of 104 years, making the duty cycle of GRS 1915+105 to be a few 0.1%. I present a simple analytical method to describe the observable behaviour of long period black hole LMXBs, similar to GRS 1915+105. Constructing two simple models for the surface density in the disc, outburst and quiescence times are calculated as a function of orbital period. LMXBs are an important constituent of the X-ray light function (XLF) of giant elliptical galaxies. I find that the duty cycle can vary considerably with orbital period, with implications for modelling the XLF.

  17. Radiatively Driven Winds from Effective Boundary Layer around ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Matter accreting onto black holes suffers a standing or oscil- lating shock wave in much of the parameter space. The post-shock region is hot, puffed up and reprocesses soft photons from a Keplerian disc to produce the characteristic hard tail of the spectrum of accretion discs. The post-shock torus is also the base ...

  18. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Matter accreting onto black holes suffers a standing or oscillating shock wave in much of the parameter space. The post-shock region is hot, puffed up and reprocesses soft photons from a Keplerian disc to produce the characteristic hard tail of the spectrum of accretion discs. The post-shock torus is also the ...

  19. Accretion Processes in Star Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küffmeier, Michael

    for short-lived radionuclides that enrich the cloud as a result of supernova explosions of the massive stars allows us to analyze the distribution of the short-lived radionuclides around young forming stars. In contradiction to results from highly-idealized models, we find that the discrepancy in 26 Al...... that the accretion process of stars is heterogeneous in space, time and among different protostars. In some cases, disks form a few thousand years after stellar birth, whereas in other cases disk formation is suppressed due to efficient removal of angular momentum. Angular momentum is mainly transported outward...... with potentially observable fluctuations in the luminosity profile that are induced by variations in the accretion rate. Considering that gas inside protoplanetary disks is not fully ionized, I implemented a solver that accounts for nonideal MHD effects into a newly developed code framework called dispatch...

  20. Examining the effects of microstructure and loading on the shock initiation of HMX with mesoscale simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, H. Keo; Tarver, Craig; Bastea, Sorin

    2015-06-01

    We perform reactive mesoscale simulations to study shock initiation in HMX over a range of pore morphologies and sizes, porosities, and loading conditions in order to improve our understanding of structure-performance relationships. These relationships are important because they guide the development of advanced macroscale models incorporating hot spot mechanisms and the optimization of novel energetic material microstructures. Mesoscale simulations are performed using the multiphysics hydrocode, ALE3D. Spherical, elliptical, polygonal, and crack-like pore geometries 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 microns in size and 2, 5, 10, and 14% porosity are explored. Loading conditions are realized with shock pressures of 6, 10, 20, 38, and 50 GPa. A Cheetah-based tabular model, including temperature-dependent heat capacity, is used for the unreacted and the product equation-of-state. Also, in-line Cheetah is used to probe chemical species evolution. The influence of microstructure and shock loading on shock-to-detonation-transition run distance, reaction rate and product gas species evolution are discussed. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work is funded by the Joint DoD-DOE Munitions Program.

  1. Evidence of Accretion in Saturn's F Ring (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnor, C. B.; Buerle, K.; Murray, C. D.; Evans, M. W.; Cooper, N. J.; Williams, G. W.

    2010-12-01

    Lying slightly outside the classical Roche radius and being strongly perturbed by the adjacent moons Prometheus and Pandora, Saturn's F ring represents a unique astrophysical laboratory for examining the processes of mass accretion and moonlet formation. Recent images from the Cassini spacecraft reveal optically thick clumps, capable of casting shadows, and associated structures in regions of the F ring following close passage by Prometheus. Here we examine the accretion environment of the F ring and Prometheus' role in moonlet formation and evolution. Using the observed structures adjacent to these clumps and dynamical arguments we estimate the masses of these clumps and find them comparable to that of ~10-20-km contiguous moonlets. Further, we show that Prometheus' perturbations on the F ring create regions of enhanced density and low relative velocity that may accelerate the accretion of clumps and moonlets.

  2. Accretion disc boundary layers - geometrically and optically thin case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regev, Oded; Hougerat, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to an optically and geometrically thin boundary layer between an accretion disc and the accreting star. Analytical solutions are presented for a particular viscosity prescription in the boundary layer. For a typical example we find that the disc closely resembles standard steady-disc theory. It is identical to it everywhere save a narrow boundary layer, where the temperature increases rapidly inward (by an order of magnitude), the angular velocity achieves maximum and decreases to its surface value and other variables also undergo rapid changes. This and previous work can now be used to calculate the emission from accretion discs including the boundary layers for a wide range of parameters. (author)

  3. Black hole accretion discs and screened scalar hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth, E-mail: acd@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: r.jha@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel way to investigate scalar field profiles around black holes with an accretion disc for a range of models where the Compton wavelength of the scalar is large compared to other length scales. By analysing the problem in ''Weyl' coordinates, we are able to calculate the scalar profiles for accretion discs in the static Schwarzschild, as well as rotating Kerr, black holes. We comment on observational effects.

  4. Non-spherical core collapse supernovae. III. Evolution towards homology and dependence on the numerical resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawryszczak, A.; Guzman, J.; Plewa, T.; Kifonidis, K.

    2010-10-01

    Aims: We study the hydrodynamic evolution of a non-spherical core-collapse supernova in two spatial dimensions. We begin our study from the moment of shock revival - taking into account neutrino heating and cooling, nucleosynthesis, convection, and the standing accretion shock (SASI) instability of the supernova blast - and continue for the first week after the explosion when the expanding flow becomes homologous and the ejecta enter the early supernova remnant (SNR) phase. We observe the growth and interaction of Richtmyer-Meshkov, Rayleigh-Taylor, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities resulting in an extensive mixing of the heavy elements throughout the ejecta. We obtain a series of models at progressively higher resolution and provide a discussion of numerical convergence. Methods: Different from previous studies, our computations are performed in a single domain. Periodic mesh mapping is avoided. This is made possible by employing cylindrical coordinates, and an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) strategy in which the computational workload (defined as the product of the total number of computational cells and the length of the time step) is monitored and, if necessary, reduced. Results: Our results are in overall good agreement with the AMR simulations we have reported in the past. We show, however, that numerical convergence is difficult to achieve, due to the strongly non-linear nature of the problem. Even more importantly, we find that our model displays a strong tendency to expand laterally away from the equatorial plane and toward the poles. We demonstrate that this expansion is a physical property of the low-mode, SASI instability. Although the SASI operates only within about the first second of the explosion, it leaves behind a large lateral velocity gradient in the post shock layer which affects the evolution for minutes and hours later. This results in a prolate deformation of the ejecta and a fast advection of the highest-velocity 56Ni-rich material from

  5. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] (and others)

    2003-07-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  6. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes

    2003-01-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  7. Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André

    2013-01-01

    The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...

  8. Thermal Comptonization in standard accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraschi, L.; Molendi, S.

    1990-01-01

    The standard model of an accretion disk is considered. The temperature in the inner region is computed assuming that the radiated power derives from Comptonized photons, produced in a homogeneous single-temperature plasma, supported by radiation pressure. The photon production mechanisms are purely thermal, including ion-electron bremsstrahlung, bound-free and bound-bound processes, and e-e bremsstrahlung. Pair production is not included, which limits the validity of the treatment to kT less than 60 keV. Three different approximations for the effects of Comptonization on the energy loss are used, yielding temperatures which agree within 50 percent. The maximum temperature is very sensitive to the accretion rate and viscosity parameters, ranging, for a 10 to the 8th solar mass black hole, between 0.1 and 50 keV for m between 0.1 and 1 and alpha between 0.1 and 1 and, for a 10-solar-mass black hole, between 0.6 and 60 keV for m between 0.1 and 0.9 and alpha between 0.1 and 0.5. For high viscosity and accretion rates, the emission spectra show a flat component following a peak corresponding to the temperature of the innermost optically thick annulus. 28 refs

  9. ACCRETION DISKS WITH A LARGE SCALE MAGNETIC FIELD AROUND BLACK HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Bisnovatyi-Kogan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider accretion disks around black holes at high luminosity, and the problem of the formation of a large-scale magnetic field in such disks, taking into account the non-uniform vertical structure of the disk. The structure of advective accretion disks is investigated, and conditions for the formation of optically thin regions in central parts of the accretion disk are found. The high electrical conductivity of the outer layers of the disk prevents outward diffusion of the magnetic field. This implies a stationary state with a strong magnetic field in the inner parts of the accretion disk close to the black hole, and zero radial velocity at the surface of the disk. The problem of jet collimation by magneto-torsion oscillations is investigated.

  10. Universal subhalo accretion in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Bogna; Libeskind, Noam I.; Knebe, Alexander; Courtois, Hélène; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlöber, Stefan; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2017-12-01

    The influence of the large-scale structure on host haloes may be studied by examining the angular infall pattern of subhaloes. In particular, since warm dark matter (WDM) and cold dark matter (CDM) cosmologies predict different abundances and internal properties for haloes at the low-mass end of the mass function, it is interesting to examine if there are differences in how these low-mass haloes are accreted. The accretion events are defined as the moment a halo becomes a substructure, namely when it crosses its host's virial radius. We quantify the cosmic web at each point by the shear tensor and examine where, with respect to its eigenvectors, such accretion events occur in ΛCDM and ΛWDM (1 keV sterile neutrino) cosmological models. We find that the CDM and WDM subhaloes are preferentially accreted along the principal axis of the shear tensor corresponding to the direction of weakest collapse. The beaming strength is modulated by the host and subhalo masses and by the redshift at which the accretion event occurs. Although strongest for the most massive hosts and subhaloes at high redshift, the preferential infall is found to be always aligned with the axis of weakest collapse, thus we say that it has universal nature. We compare the strength of beaming in the ΛWDM cosmology with the one found in the ΛCDM scenario. While the main findings remain the same, the accretion in the ΛWDM model for the most massive host haloes appears more beamed than in ΛCDM cosmology across all the redshifts.

  11. Simulations of small solid accretion on to planetesimals in the presence of gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A. G.; Boley, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    The growth and migration of planetesimals in a young protoplanetary disc are fundamental to planet formation. In all models of early growth, there are several processes that can inhibit grains from reaching larger sizes. Nevertheless, observations suggest that growth of planetesimals must be rapid. If a small number of 100 km sized planetesimals do manage to form in the disc, then gas drag effects could enable them to efficiently accrete small solids from beyond their gravitationally focused cross-section. This gas-drag-enhanced accretion can allow planetesimals to grow at rapid rates, in principle. We present self-consistent hydrodynamics simulations with direct particle integration and gas-drag coupling to estimate the rate of planetesimal growth due to pebble accretion. Wind tunnel simulations are used to explore a range of particle sizes and disc conditions. We also explore analytic estimates of planetesimal growth and numerically integrate planetesimal drift due to the accretion of small solids. Our results show that, for almost every case that we consider, there is a clearly preferred particle size for accretion that depends on the properties of the accreting planetesimal and the local disc conditions. For solids much smaller than the preferred particle size, accretion rates are significantly reduced as the particles are entrained in the gas and flow around the planetesimal. Solids much larger than the preferred size accrete at rates consistent with gravitational focusing. Our analytic estimates for pebble accretion highlight the time-scales that are needed for the growth of large objects under different disc conditions and initial planetesimal sizes.

  12. Gravitomagnetic Acceleration of Black Hole Accretion Disk Matter to Polar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, John; Mathews, Grant

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that the motion of the neutral masses in an accretion disk orbiting a black hole creates a magnetic-like (gravitomagnetic) field that vertically accelerates neutral particles near the accretion disk away from the disk and then inward toward the axis of the accretion disk. Moreover, as the accelerated material nears the axis, a frame-dragging effect twists the trajectories around the axis thus contributing to the formation of a narrow polar jet emanating from the poles.

  13. Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology for Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam; Monastero, Marianne C.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the adverse aerodynamic effects due to ice accretion often relies on dry-air wind-tunnel testing of artificial, or simulated, ice shapes. Recent developments in ice-accretion documentation methods have yielded a laser-scanning capability that can measure highly three-dimensional (3-D) features of ice accreted in icing wind tunnels. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the aerodynamic accuracy of ice-accretion simulations generated from laser-scan data. Ice-accretion tests were conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel using an 18-in. chord, two-dimensional (2-D) straight wing with NACA 23012 airfoil section. For six ice-accretion cases, a 3-D laser scan was performed to document the ice geometry prior to the molding process. Aerodynamic performance testing was conducted at the University of Illinois low-speed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.8 × 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.18 with an 18-in. chord NACA 23012 airfoil model that was designed to accommodate the artificial ice shapes. The ice-accretion molds were used to fabricate one set of artificial ice shapes from polyurethane castings. The laser-scan data were used to fabricate another set of artificial ice shapes using rapid prototype manufacturing such as stereolithography. The iced-airfoil results with both sets of artificial ice shapes were compared to evaluate the aerodynamic simulation accuracy of the laser-scan data. For five of the six ice-accretion cases, there was excellent agreement in the iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance between the casting and laser-scan based simulations. For example, typical differences in iced-airfoil maximum lift coefficient were less than 3 percent with corresponding differences in stall angle of approximately 1 deg or less. The aerodynamic simulation accuracy reported in this paper has demonstrated the combined accuracy of the laser-scan and rapid-prototype manufacturing approach to simulating ice accretion for a NACA 23012 airfoil. For several

  14. The Shock Dynamics of Heterogeneous YSO Jets: 3D Simulations Meet Multi-epoch Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E. C.; Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Hartigan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 S. Main, Houston, TX 77521-1892 (United States); Lebedev, S. V. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-10

    High-resolution observations of young stellar object (YSO) jets show them to be composed of many small-scale knots or clumps. In this paper, we report results of 3D numerical simulations designed to study how such clumps interact and create morphologies and kinematic patterns seen in emission line observations. Our simulations focus on clump scale dynamics by imposing velocity differences between spherical, over-dense regions, which then lead to the formation of bow shocks as faster clumps overtake slower material. We show that much of the spatial structure apparent in emission line images of jets arises from the dynamics and interactions of these bow shocks. Our simulations show a variety of time-dependent features, including bright knots associated with Mach stems where the shocks intersect, a “frothy” emission structure that arises from the presence of the Nonlinear Thin Shell Instability along the surfaces of the bow shocks, and the merging and fragmentation of clumps. Our simulations use a new non-equilibrium cooling method to produce synthetic emission maps in H α and [S ii]. These are directly compared to multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope observations of Herbig–Haro jets. We find excellent agreement between features seen in the simulations and the observations in terms of both proper motion and morphologies. Thus we conclude that YSO jets may be dominated by heterogeneous structures and that interactions between these structures and the shocks they produce can account for many details of YSO jet evolution.

  15. Gravitational Waves from Accreting Neutron Stars Undergoing Common-envelope Inspiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgado, A. Miguel; Ricker, Paul M.; Huerta, E. A.

    2018-04-01

    The common-envelope phase is a likely formation channel for close binary systems containing compact objects. Neutron stars in common envelopes accrete at a fraction of the Bondi–Hoyle–Lyttleton accretion rate, since the stellar envelope is inhomogeneous, but they may still be able to accrete at hypercritical rates (though not enough to become black holes). We show that common-envelope systems consisting of a neutron star with a massive primary may be gravitational-wave (GW) sources detectable in the Advanced LIGO band as far away as the Magellanic Clouds. To characterize their evolution, we perform orbital integrations using 1D models of 12 M ⊙ and 20 M ⊙ primaries, considering the effects of density gradient on the accretion onto the NS and spin evolution. From the range of possible accretion rates relevant to common-envelope evolution, we find that these systems may be louder GW sources than low-mass X-ray binaries like Sco X-1, which are currently the target of directed searches for continuous GWs. We also find that their strain amplitude signal may allow for novel constraints on the orbital separation and inspiral timescale in common envelopes when combined with pre-common-envelope electromagnetic observations.

  16. On Hydromagnetic Stresses in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan

    2012-01-01

    Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear...... of efficient angular momentum transport in the inner disk regions. This suggests that the detailed structure of turbulent MHD accretion disk boundary layers could differ appreciably from those derived within the standard framework of turbulent shear viscosity...

  17. Momentum Transfer and Viscosity from Proton-Hydrogen Collisions Relevant to Shocks and Other Astrophysical Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, David Robert; Krstic, Predrag S.; Lee, Teck G.; Raymond, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The momentum transfer and viscosity cross sections for proton-hydrogen collisions are computed in the velocity range of ∼200-20,000 km s -1 relevant to a wide range of astrophysical environments such as SNR shocks, the solar wind, winds within young stellar objects or accretion disks, and the interstellar protons interacting with the heliosphere. A variety of theoretical approaches are used to arrive at a best estimate of these cross sections in this velocity range that smoothly connect with very accurate results previously computed for lower velocities. Contributions to the momentum transfer and viscosity cross sections from both elastic scattering and charge transfer are included

  18. Turbulence in Accretion Discs. The Global Baroclinic Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Hubert; Bodenheimer, Peter

    The transport of angular momentum away from the central object is a sufficient condition for a protoplanetary disk to accrete matter onto the star and spin it down. Magnetic fields cannot be of importance for this process in a large part of the cold and dusty disk where the planets supposedly form. Our new hypothesis on the angular momentum transport based on radiation hydro simulations is as follows: We present the global baroclinic instability as a source for vigorous turbulence leading to angular momentum transport in Keplerian accretion disks. We show by analytical considerations and three-dimensional radiation hydro simulations that, in particular, protoplanetary disks have a negative radial entropy gradient, which makes them baroclinic. Two-dimensional numerical simulations show that this baroclinic flow is unstable and produces turbulence. These findings are currently tested for numerical effects by performing barotropic simulations which show that imposed turbulence rapidly decays. The turbulence in baroclinic disks draws energy from the background shear, transports angular momentum outward and creates a radially inward bound accretion of matter, thus forming a self consistent process. Gravitational energy is transformed into turbulent kinetic energy, which is then dissipated, as in the classical accretion paradigm. We measure accretion rates in 2D and 3D simulations of dot M= - 10-9 to -10-7 Msolar yr-1 and viscosity parameters of α = 10-4 - 10-2, which fit perfectly together and agree reasonably with observations. The turbulence creates pressure waves, Rossby waves, and vortices in the (r-φ) plane of the disk. We demonstrate in a global simulation that these vortices tend to form out of little background noise and to be long-lasting features, which have already been suggested to lead to the formation of planets.

  19. Thin accretion disk signatures of slowly rotating black holes in Horava gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we consider the possibility of observationally testing Horava gravity by using the accretion disk properties around slowly rotating black holes of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) solution in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The energy flux, temperature distribution, the emission spectrum as well as the energy conversion efficiency are obtained, and compared to the standard slowly rotating general relativistic Kerr solution. Comparing the mass accretion in a slowly rotating KS geometry in Horava gravity with the one of a slowly rotating Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for the slowly rotating Kehagias-Sfetsos solution than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating KS solution provides a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Thus, distinct signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, leading to the possibility of directly testing Horava gravity models by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  20. Thin accretion disk signatures of slowly rotating black holes in Horava gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road (Hong Kong); Lobo, Francisco S N, E-mail: harko@hkucc.hku.hk, E-mail: zkovacs@hku.hk, E-mail: flobo@cii.fc.ul.pt [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-08-21

    In this work, we consider the possibility of observationally testing Horava gravity by using the accretion disk properties around slowly rotating black holes of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) solution in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The energy flux, temperature distribution, the emission spectrum as well as the energy conversion efficiency are obtained, and compared to the standard slowly rotating general relativistic Kerr solution. Comparing the mass accretion in a slowly rotating KS geometry in Horava gravity with the one of a slowly rotating Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for the slowly rotating Kehagias-Sfetsos solution than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating KS solution provides a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Thus, distinct signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, leading to the possibility of directly testing Horava gravity models by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  1. Fate of accreting white dwarfs: Type I supernovae vs collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi.

    1986-01-01

    The final fate of accreting C + O white dwarfs is either thermonuclear explosion or collapse, if the white dwarf mass grows to the Chandrasekhar mass. We discuss how the fate depends on the initial mass, age, composition of the white dwarf and the mass accretion rate. Relatively fast accretion leads to a carbon deflagration at low central density that gives rise to a Type Ia supernova. Slower accretion induces a helium detonation that could be observed as a Type Ib supernova. If the initial mass of the C + O white dwarf is larger than 1.2 Msub solar, a carbon deflagration starts at high central density and induces a collapse of the white dwarf to form a neutron star. We examine the critical condition for which a carbon deflagration leads to collapse, not explosion. For the case of explosion, we discuss to what extent the nucleosynthesis models are consistent with spectra of Type Ia and Ib supernovae. 61 refs., 18 figs

  2. PLANETESIMAL ACCRETION IN BINARY SYSTEMS: ROLE OF THE COMPANION'S ORBITAL INCLINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jiwei; Zhou Jilin

    2009-01-01

    Recent observations show that planets can reside in close binary systems with stellar separation of only ∼20 AU. However, planet formation in such close binary systems is a challenge to current theory. One of the major theoretical problems occurs in the intermediate stage-planetesimals accretion into planetary embryos-during which the companion's perturbations can stir up the relative velocities (utriV) of planetesimals and thus slow down or even cease their growth. Recent studies have shown that conditions could be even worse for accretion if the gas-disk evolution was included. However, all previous studies assumed a two-dimensional disk and a coplanar binary orbit. Extending previous studies by including a three-dimensional gas disk and an inclined binary orbit with small relative inclination of i B = 0. 0 1-5 0 , we numerically investigate the conditions for planetesimal accretion at 1-2 AU, an extension of the habitable zone (∼1-1.3 AU), around α Centauri A in this paper. Inclusion of the binary inclination leads to the following: (1) differential orbital phasing is realized in the three-dimensional space, and thus different-sized bodies are separated from each other, (2) total impact rate is lower, and impacts mainly occur between similar-sized bodies, (3) accretion is more favored, but the balance between accretion and erosion remains uncertain, and the 'possible accretion region' extends up to 2 AU when assuming an optimistic Q* (critical specific energy that leads to catastrophic fragmentation), and (4) impact velocities (utriV) are significantly reduced but still much larger than their escape velocities, which infers that planetesimals grow by means of type II runaway mode. As a conclusion, the inclusion of a small binary inclination is a promising mechanism that favors accretion, opening a possibility that planet formation in close binary systems can go through the difficult stage of planetesimals accretion into planetary embryos.

  3. Accretion torques due to three-dimensional channelled flows in magnetic cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.G.

    1986-01-01

    Angular momentum transfer due to three-dimensional magnetically channelled accretion flows in cataclysmic binaries is considered. The white dwarf experiences a torque due to the twist in that part of its magnetic field which interacts with the accretion stream. The channelling process can also enhance angular momentum exchange between the stream and the orbit by increasing the gravitational torques. The components of the accretion torque are calculated for an arbitrary static magnetic orientation of the white dwarf, and their variation with orientation is presented. For high inclinations of the accreting pole to the orbital plane the component of the accretion torque parallel to this plane can be comparable to its perpendicular component. It is shown that the parallel component of the torque is still significant relative to the perpendicular component if material links to the white dwarf's magnetic field well away from the L 1 region. (author)

  4. Constraints on two accretion disks centered on the equatorial plane of a Kerr SMBH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Daniela; Stuchlík, Zdeněk

    2017-12-01

    The possibility that two toroidal accretion configurations may be orbiting around a super–massive Kerr black hole has been addressed. Such tori may be formed during different stages of the Kerr attractor accretion history. We consider the relative rotation of the tori and the corotation or counterrotation of a single torus with respect to the Kerr attractor. We give classification of the couples of accreting and non–accreting tori in dependence on the Kerr black hole dimensionless spin. We demonstrate that only in few cases a double accretion tori system may be formed under specific conditions.

  5. Volatile accretion history of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B J; Halliday, A N; Rehkämper, M

    2010-10-28

    It has long been thought that the Earth had a protracted and complex history of volatile accretion and loss. Albarède paints a different picture, proposing that the Earth first formed as a dry planet which, like the Moon, was devoid of volatile constituents. He suggests that the Earth's complement of volatile elements was only established later, by the addition of a small veneer of volatile-rich material at ∼100 Myr (here and elsewhere, ages are relative to the origin of the Solar System). Here we argue that the Earth's mass balance of moderately volatile elements is inconsistent with Albarède's hypothesis but is well explained by the standard model of accretion from partially volatile-depleted material, accompanied by core formation.

  6. Inelastic accretion of inertial particles by a towed sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Robin; Henry, Christophe; Hachem, Elie; Bec, Jérémie

    2018-02-01

    The problem of accretion of small particles by a sphere embedded in a mean flow is studied in the case where the particles undergo inelastic collisions with the solid object. The collision efficiency, which gives the flux of particles experiencing at least one bounce on the sphere, is found to depend upon the sphere Reynolds number only through the value of the critical Stokes number below which no collision occurs. In the absence of molecular diffusion, it is demonstrated that multiple bounces do not provide enough energy dissipation for the particles to stick to the surface within a finite time. This excludes the possibility of any kind of inelastic collapse, so that determining an accretion efficiency requires modeling more precisely particle-surface microphysical interactions. A straightforward choice is to assume that the particles stick when their kinetic energy at impact is below a threshold. In this view, numerical simulations are performed to describe the statistics of impact velocities at various values of the Reynolds number. Successive bounces are shown to enhance accretion. These results are put together to provide a general qualitative picture on how the accretion efficiency depends upon the nondimensional parameters of the problem.

  7. Gravitomagnetic acceleration of accretion disk matter to polar jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, John; Mathews, Grant

    2016-03-01

    The motion of the masses of an accretion disk around a black hole creates a general relativistic, gravitomagnetic field (GEM) from the moving matter (be it charged or uncharged) of the accretion disk. This GEM field accelerates moving masses (neutral or charged) near the accretion disk vertically upward and away from the disk, and then inward toward the axis of the disk. As the accelerated material nears the axis with approximately vertical angles, a frame dragging effect contributes to the formation of narrow jets emanating from the poles. This GEM effect is numerically evaluated in the first post Newtonian (1PN) approximation from observable quantities like the mass and velocity of the disk. This GEM force is linear in the total mass of the accretion disk matter and quadratic in the velocity of matter near to the disk with approximately the same velocity. Since these masses and velocities can be quite high in astrophysical contexts, the GEM force, which in other contexts is weak, is quite significant. This GEM effect is compared to the ordinary electromagnetic effects applied to this problem in the past.

  8. Simulations of Converging Shock Collisions for Shock Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauppe, Joshua; Dodd, Evan; Loomis, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Shock ignition (SI) has been proposed as an alternative to achieving high gain in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. A central hot spot below the ignition threshold is created by an initial compression pulse, and a second laser pulse drives a strong converging shock into the fuel. The collision between the rebounding shock from the compression pulse and the converging shock results in amplification of the converging shock and increases the hot spot pressure above the ignition threshold. We investigate shock collision in SI drive schemes for cylindrical targets with a polystyrene foam interior using radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with the RAGE code. The configuration is similar to previous targets fielded on the Omega laser. The CH interior results in a lower convergence ratio and the cylindrical geometry facilitates visualization of the shock transit using an axial X-ray backlighter, both of which are important for comparison to potential experimental measurements. One-dimensional simulations are used to determine shock timing, and the effects of low mode asymmetries in 2D computations are also quantified. LA-UR-16-24773.

  9. Protostellar accretion traced with chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; Dunham, Michael M.

    2017-01-01

    . Our aim is to characterise protostellar accretion histories towards individual sources by utilising sublimation and freeze-out chemistry of CO. Methods. A sample of 24 embedded protostars are observed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in context of the large program "Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems...

  10. The spherical harmonics method, II (application to problems with plane and spherical symmetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, C

    1958-12-15

    The application of the spherical harmonic method to problems with plane or spherical symmetry is discussed in detail. The numerical results of some applications already made are included to indicate the degree of convergence obtained. Formulae for dealing with distributions of isotropic sources are developed. Tables useful in applying the method are given in Section 11. (author)

  11. Spectral and Timing Diagnostics of Accretion in XRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, M. N.

    One of the truly great advantages of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer has been its flexible scheduling coupled with the presence of the All Sky Monitor. This has allowed mutliple observations of given objects over a wide range of luminosities that, thanks to the ASM, can be placed within the context of the overall behavior of the source. This has begun to allow us to develop theories of how the accretion flow in black hole candidates changes as a function of state and accretion rate. A number of spectral and temporal correlations have been seen, others have merely been suggested as being probably or possible. In this talk I will review some of these suggestions, and outline those correlations that I think are firm and contrast them to those that I believe are still very speculative. I will discuss these observati