WorldWideScience

Sample records for spent fuel dissolver

  1. Studies in the dissolver off-gas system for a spent FBR fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, E.; Huefner, R.; Weirich, F.

    1982-01-01

    Investigations of possible modifications of the process steps of a dissolver off-gas (DOG) system for a spent FBR fuel reprocessing plant are reported. The following operations are discussed: iodine removal from the fuel solution; behaviour of NOsub(x) and iodine in nitric acid off-gas scrubbers at different temperatures and nitric acid concentrations; iodine desorption from the scrub acid; selective absorption of noble gases in refrigerant-12; cold traps. The combination of suitable procedures to produce a total DOG system is described. (U.K.)

  2. Methods for conditioning wastes from spent fuel cans and dissolver residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Regge, P.; Loida, A.; Schmidt-Hansberg, T.; Sombret, C.

    1985-04-01

    Several methods for conditioning spent fuel decladding hulls or dissolver residues have been considered in various countries of the European Community. Five of these methods use embedding technique with or without prior compaction: they are based on incorporation in metallic alloys, glass, ceramics, cements and metals or graphite compounds. A sixth one consists in melting the decladding materials. The corresponding research programs have been pursued to varying states of progress with regard to demonstrating their feasibility on an industrial scale and the use of genuine wastes in bench scale experiments. The properties of the conditioned wastes have been investigated. Special attention has been paid to the corrosion resistance to various aqueous media as tap water, brine or clayey water. Although no categorical conclusion can be drawn from the initial results, the available finding provide a basis for assessing the different processes [fr

  3. The effect of dissolved hydrogen on the dissolution of {sup 233}U doped UO{sub 2}(s) high burn-up spent fuel and MOX fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbol, P. [Inst. for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Spahiu, K. (ed.) [and others

    2005-03-01

    In this report the results of the experimental work carried out in a large EU-research project (SFS, 2001-2004) on spent fuel stability in the presence of various amounts of near field hydrogen are presented. Studies of the dissolution of {sup 233}U doped UO{sub 2}(s) simulating 'old' spent fuel were carried out as static leaching tests, autoclave tests with various hydrogen concentrations and electrochemical tests. The results of the leaching behaviour of a high burn-up spent fuel pellet in 5 M NaCl solutions in the presence of 3.2 bar H{sub 2} pressure and of MOX fuel in dilute synthetic groundwater under 53 bar H{sub 2} pressure are also presented. In all the experimental studies carried out in this project, a considerable effect of hydrogen in the dissolution rates of radioactive materials was observed. The experimental results obtained in this project with a-doped UO{sub 2}, high burn-up spent fuel and MOX fuel together with literature data give a reliable background to use fractional alteration/dissolution rates for spent fuel of the order of 10{sup -6}/yr - 10{sup -8}/yr with a recommended value of 4x10{sup -7}/yr for dissolved hydrogen concentrations above 10{sup -3} M and Fe(II) concentrations typical for European repository concepts. Finally, based on a review of the experimental data and available literature data, potential mechanisms of the hydrogen effect are also discussed. The work reported in this document was performed as part of the Project SFS of the European Commission 5th Framework Programme under contract no FIKW-CT-2001-20192 SFS. It represents the deliverable D10 of the experimental work package 'Key experiments using a-doped UO{sub 2} and real spent fuel', coordinated by SKB with the participation of ITU, FZK-INE, ENRESA, CIEMAT, ARMINES-SUBATECH and SKB.

  4. Spent fuels program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of this task is to support the Domestic Spent Fuel Storage Program through studies involving the transport of spent fuel. A catalog was developed to provide authoritative, timely, and accessible transportation information for persons involved in the transport of irradiated reactor fuel. The catalog, drafted and submitted to the Transportation Technology Center, Sandia National Laboratories, for their review and approval, covers such topics as federal, state, and local regulations, spent fuel characteristics, cask characteristics, transportation costs, and emergency response information

  5. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2005-01-01

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  6. Spent fuel centralized storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chometon, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear energy producer countries have felt the need to build a centralized spent fuel storage before reprocessing (for example, COGEMA in FRANCE), either in an adjoining plant on an appropriate site, or isolated. More rarely, this storage enables to decide whether to reprocess or to definitely store spent fuel considered as being waste: for example CLAB in Sweden. Our Company is specialized in the design and construction of spent fuel centralized storage plants. Storage generally takes place in a pool in order to facilitate handling operations and retrieving of these fuels, but these operations may also be effected in a dry way, either in concrete structures or in storage casks. With respect to pools, which might currently be the most appropriate and flexible system, several improvements have recently been made in the design of cask reception facilities and spent fuel storage. These improvements are presented, hereafter [fr

  7. Spent fuel centralized storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillif, L.; Chometon, P.L.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear energy producer countries have felt the need to build a centralized spent fuel storage before reprocessing, either in an adjoining plant on an appropriate site, or isolated. More rarely, this storage enables to decide whether to reprocess or to definitely store spent fuel considered as being waste: for example CLAB in Sweden. Our Company SGN is specialized among others in the design and construction of spent fuel centralized storage plants. Storage generally takes place in a pool in order to facilitate handling operations and retrieving of these fuels, but these operations may also be effected in a dry way, either in concrete structures or in storage casks. With respect to pools, which might currently be the most appropriate and flexible system, several improvements have recently been made in the design of cask reception facilities and spent fuel storage. These improvements are presented, hereafter [fr

  8. Spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The production of nuclear electricity results in the generation of spent fuel that requires safe, secure and efficient management. Appropriate management of the resulting spent fuel is a key issue for the steady and sustainable growth of nuclear energy. Currently about 10,000 tonnes heavy metal (HM) of spent fuel are unloaded every year from nuclear power reactors worldwide, of which 8,500 t HM need to be stored (after accounting for reprocessed fuel). This is the largest continuous source of civil radioactive material generated, and needs to be managed appropriately. Member States have referred to storage periods of 100 years and even beyond, and as storage quantities and durations extend, new challenges arise in the institutional as well as in the technical area. The IAEA gives high priority to safe and effective spent fuel management. As an example of continuing efforts, the 2003 International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors gathered 125 participants from 35 member states to exchange information on this important subject. With its large number of Member States, the IAEA is well-positioned to gather and share information useful in addressing Member State priorities. IAEA activities on this topic include plans to produce technical documents as resources for a range of priority topics: spent fuel performance assessment and research, burnup credit applications, cask maintenance, cask loading optimization, long term storage requirements including records maintenance, economics, spent fuel treatment, remote technology, and influence of fuel design on spent fuel storage. In addition to broader topics, the IAEA supports coordinated research projects and technical cooperation projects focused on specific needs

  9. Spent fuel workshop'2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2002 spent fuel workshop: Session 1 - Research Projects: Overview on the IN CAN PROCESSES European project (M. Cowper), Overview on the SPENT FUEL STABILITY European project (C. Poinssot), Overview on the French R and D project on spent fuel long term evolution, PRECCI (C. Poinssot); Session 2 - Spent Fuel Oxidation: Oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals (F. Garrido), Experimental results on SF oxidation and new modeling approach (L. Desgranges), LWR spent fuel oxidation - effects of burn-up and humidity (B. Hanson), An approach to modeling CANDU fuel oxidation under dry storage conditions (P. Taylor); Session 3 - Spent Fuel Dissolution Experiments: Overview on high burnup spent fuel dissolution studies at FZK/INE (A. Loida), Results on the influence of hydrogen on spent fuel leaching (K. Spahiu), Leaching of spent UO 2 fuel under inert and reducing conditions (Y. Albinsson), Fuel corrosion investigation by electrochemical techniques (D. Wegen), A reanalysis of LWR spent fuel flow through dissolution tests (B. Hanson), U-bearing secondary phases formed during fuel corrosion (R. Finch), The near-field chemical conditions and spent fuel leaching (D. Cui), The release of radionuclides from spent fuel in bentonite block (S.S. Kim), Trace actinide behavior in altered spent fuel (E. Buck, B. Hanson); Session 4 - Radiolysis Issues: The effect of radiolysis on UO 2 dissolution determined from electrochemical experiments with 238 Pu doped UO 2 M. Stroess-Gascoyne (F. King, J.S. Betteridge, F. Garisto), doped UO 2 studies (V. Rondinella), Preliminary results of static and dynamic dissolution tests with α doped UO 2 in Boom clay conditions (K. Lemmens), Studies of the behavior of UO 2 / water interfaces under He 2+ beam (C. Corbel), Alpha and gamma radiolysis effects on UO 2 alteration in water (C. Jegou), Behavior of Pu-doped pellets in brines (M. Kelm), On the potential catalytic behavior of

  10. The spent fuel fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The spent fuel is not a waste. It can be upgrade by a reprocessing which extracts all products able to produce energy. The today situation is presented and economically analyzed and future alternatives are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  11. Disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Ferguson, D.E.; Croff, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Based on preliminary analyses, spent fuel assemblies are an acceptable form for waste disposal. The following studies appear necessary to bring our knowledge of spent fuel as a final disposal form to a level comparable with that of the solidified wastes from reprocessing: 1. A complete systems analysis is needed of spent fuel disposition from reactor discharge to final isolation in a repository. 2. Since it appears desirable to encase the spent fuel assembly in a metal canister, candidate materials for this container need to be studied. 3. It is highly likely that some ''filler'' material will be needed between the fuel elements and the can. 4. Leachability, stability, and waste-rock interaction studies should be carried out on the fuels. The major disadvantages of spent fuel as a disposal form are the lower maximum heat loading, 60 kW/acre versus 150 kW/acre for high-level waste from a reprocessing plant; the greater long-term potential hazard due to the larger quantities of plutonium and uranium introduced into a repository; and the possibility of criticality in case the repository is breached. The major advantages are the lower cost and increased near-term safety resulting from eliminating reprocessing and the treatment and handling of the wastes therefrom

  12. Spent fuel storage and isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensky, M.S.; Kurzeka, W.J.; Bauer, A.A.; Carr, J.A.; Matthews, S.C.

    1979-02-01

    The principal spent fuel activities conducted within the commercial waste and spent fuel within the Commercial Waste and Spent Fuel Packaging Program are: simulated near-surface (drywell) storage demonstrations at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site; surface (sealed storage cask) and drywell demonstrations at the Nevada Test Site; and spent fuel receiving and packaging facility conceptual design. These investigations are described

  13. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  14. Guidebook on spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Guidebook summarizes the experience and information in various areas related to spent fuel storage: technological aspects, the transport of spent fuel, economical, regulatory and institutional aspects, international safeguards, evaluation criteria for the selection of a specific spent fuel storage concept, international cooperation on spent fuel storage. The last part of the Guidebook presents specific problems on the spent fuel storage in the United Kingdom, Sweden, USSR, USA, Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland

  15. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Lizana, F.

    2015-01-01

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  16. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  17. Compacting spent fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus for compacting spent fuel rods comprises transferring the rods from a nuclear fuel rod assembly into a different nuclear fuel rod container having a smaller cross section than the assembly. The individual rods are moved from a fuel assembly and through a transition funnel by movable grippers at opposite ends of the funnel. One movable gripper reciprocates between gripping and release positions in a gap between the fuel assembly and the transition funnel. All of the fuel rods are withdrawn concurrently and are merged towards one another into a tighter array within the transition funnel and emerge as a bundle. A movable and a stationary bundle gripper are provided between the funnel and the storage container to advance the bundle of fuel rods into the container. (author)

  18. Spent fuel counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drayer, D.D.

    1988-09-01

    In many cases the IAEA must inspect spent fuel shipping casks before they leave facilities. Similarly, inspections may be required at the location where a cask is received and unloaded. In order to reduce the number of inspections required, it would be desirable to develop a system to count spent fuel assemblies as they are loaded or removed from shipping casks. This report discusses several methods which potentially could be used for performing this function. A concept for a Spent Fuel Counter System is proposed which uses a Laser Surveillance System (LASSY), Cerenkov Viewing Device (CVD), and Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS), all coupled together. In the proposed system, LASSY would provide an indication that an object is being placed into or removed from the cask, the CVD would be used to determine if the object has the radiation characteristics of a spent fuel assembly, and the MIVS would record the information. The system may need to be designed so that the operator could determine that it was operating correctly during the loading operations. This would help prevent anomalies from occurring which could only be resolved through reverification measures. Before such a system could be implemented testing would be necessary to determine that the individual components would each work adequately in this application. The issues of reliability, intrusiveness, and cask sealing should also be addressed before a development program is undertaken. 12 refs., 1 fig

  19. Encapsulating spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies. The rods are completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete in which metallic fibres are incorporated to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. This technique provides the advantage of acceptable long-term stability for storage over the conventional underwater storage method. Examples are given of suitable concrete compositions. (UK)

  20. Spent fuel reprocessing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Hirokazu; Mizuguchi, Koji; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki.

    1996-01-01

    Spent oxide fuels containing oxides of uranium and transuranium elements are dismantled and sheared, then oxide fuels are reduced into metals of uranium and transuranium elements in a molten salt with or without mechanical removal of coatings. The reduced metals of uranium and transuranium elements and the molten salts are subjected to phase separation. From the metals of uranium and transuranium elements subjected to phase separation, uranium is separated to a solid cathode and transuranium elements are separated to a cadmium cathode by an electrolytic method. Molten salts deposited together with uranium to the solid cathode, and uranium and transuranium elements deposited to the cadmium cathode are distilled to remove deposited molten salts and cadmium. As a result, TRU oxides (solid) such as UO 2 , Pu 2 in spent fuels can be reduced to U and TRU by a high temperature metallurgical method not using an aqueous solution to separate them in the form of metal from other ingredients, and further, metal fuels can be obtained through an injection molding step depending on the purpose. (N.H.)

  1. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  2. Spent fuel interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif C.

    2003-01-01

    The official inauguration of the spent fuel interim storage took place on Monday July 28, 2003 at Cernavoda NNP. The inaugural event was attended by local and central public authority representatives, a Canadian Government delegation as well as newsmen from local and central mass media and numerous specialists from Cernavoda NPP compound. Mr Andrei Grigorescu, State Secretary with the Economy and Commerce Ministry, underlined in his talk the importance of this objective for the continuous development of nuclear power in Romania as well as for Romania's complying with the EU practice in this field. Also the excellent collaboration between the Canadian contractor AECL and the Romanian partners Nuclear Montaj, CITON, UTI, General Concret in the accomplishment of this unit at the planned terms and costs. On behalf of Canadian delegation, spoke Minister Don Boudria. He underlined the importance which the Canadian Government affords to the cooperation with Romania aiming at specific objectives in the field of nuclear power such as the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and spent fuel interim storage. After traditional cutting of the inaugural ribbon by the two Ministers the festivities continued on the Cernavoda NPP Compound with undersigning the documents regarding the project completion and a press conference

  3. WWER spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.C.; Lettington, C.

    1994-01-01

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs

  4. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  5. Spent fuel storage at KURRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagome, Y.; Fujita, Y.; Kanda, K.

    2004-01-01

    The Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KURRI) has more than 200 MTR-type spent fuel elements stored in water pools. The longest pool residence time is 21 years at present. The integrity of spent fuel elements have been confirmed by a visual inspection and a sipping test. The spent fuel elements should be reprocessed in accordance with KURRI's policy. KURRI is now negotiating with a reprocessing plant to make a contract, as considering the consequences in U.S. (author)

  6. Containing method for spent fuel and spent fuel containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi; Hanada, Yoshine.

    1996-01-01

    Upon containing spent fuels, a metal vessel main body and a support spacer having fuel containing holes are provided. The support spacer is disposed in the inside of the metal vessel main body, and spent fuel assemblies are loaded in the fuel containing holes. Then, a lid is welded at the opening of the metal vessel main body to provide a sealing state. In this state, heat released from the spent fuel assemblies is transferred to the wall of the metal vessel main body via the support spacer. Since the support spacer has a greater heat conductivity than gases, heat of the spent fuel assemblies tends to be released to the outside, thereby capable of removing heat of the spent fuel assemblies effectively. In addition, since the surfaces of the spent fuel assemblies are in contact with the inner surface of the fuel containing holes of the support spacer, impact-resistance and earthquake-resistance are ensured, and radiation from the spent fuel assemblies is decayed by passing through the layer of the support spacer. (T.M.)

  7. Spent fuel transporting vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagaya, Takeshi.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of annular cooling fins are disposed each at an equal distance on the outer circumferential surface of a vessel main body. An electric power generation module is disposed on the surface of the cooling fins. The electric power generation module comprises a plurality of thermoelectric power generation elements. In each of the thermoelectric generation elements, the inner side thereof in contact with the surface of the cooling fin is at a high temperature while the outer side thereof is at a low temperature nearly equal with an atmospheric temperature. A predetermined amount of electric power is generated by seebeck effect due to the temperature difference. The electric power is always stored in a battery. Accordingly, even if a power generator of a ship should fail and power supply is stopped during transportation of the vessels for spent nuclear fuels, an appropriate amount of electric power can be supplied to a cooling device of the ship. (I.N.)

  8. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineo, H.; Nomura, Y.; Sakamoto, K.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan 52 commercial nuclear power units are now operated, and the total power generation capacity is about 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising is about 13,500 tU as of March 1997. Spent fuel is reprocessed, and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. In February 1997 short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, backend measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away from reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Research and development on spent fuel storage has been carried out, particularly on dry storage technology. Fundamental studies are also conducted to implement the burnup credit into the criticality safety design of storage and transportation casks. Rokkasho reprocessing plant is being constructed towards its commencement in 2003, and Pu utilization in LWRs will be started in 1999. Research and development of future recycling technology are also continued for the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  9. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste

  10. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste.

  11. IAEA spent fuel storage glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The aim of this glossary is to provide a basis for improved international understanding of terms used in the important area of spent fuel storage technology. The glossary is the product of an IAEA Consultant Group with valuable input from a substantial list of reviewers. The glossary emphasizes fuel storage relevant to power reactors, but is also widely applicable to research reactors. The intention is to define terms from current technologies. Terms are limited to those directly related to spent fuel storage

  12. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  13. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  14. Intermodal transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.

    1983-09-01

    Concepts for transportation of spent fuel in rail casks from nuclear power plant sites with no rail service are under consideration by the US Department of Energy in the Commercial Spent Fuel Management program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report identifies and evaluates three alternative systems for intermodal transfer of spent fuel: heavy-haul truck to rail, barge to rail, and barge to heavy-haul truck. This report concludes that, with some modifications and provisions for new equipment, existing rail and marine systems can provide a transportation base for the intermodal transfer of spent fuel to federal interim storage facilities. Some needed land transportation support and loading and unloading equipment does not currently exist. There are insufficient shipping casks available at this time, but the industrial capability to meet projected needs appears adequate

  15. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahashi, K.; Maeda, M.; Nakai, T.

    1996-01-01

    Japan has scarce energy resources and depends on foreign resources for 84% of its energy needs. Therefore, Japan has made efforts to utilize nuclear power as a key energy source since mid-1950's. Today, the nuclear energy produced from 49 nuclear power plants is responsible for about 31% of Japan's total electricity supply. The cumulative amount of spent fuel generated as of March 1995 was about 11,600 Mg U. Japan's policy of spent fuel management is to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and recycle recovered plutonium and uranium as nuclear fuel. The Tokai reprocessing plant continues stable operation keeping the annual treatment capacity or around 90 Mg U. A commercial reprocessing plant is under construction at Rokkasho, northern part of Japan. Although FBR is the principal reactor to use plutonium, LWR will be a major power source for some time and recycling of the fuel in LWRs will be prompted. (author). 3 figs

  16. Regular Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Regular Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management (RAGSFM) was established in accordance with the recommendations of the Expert Group on International Spent Fuel Management in 1982. The Advisory Group consists of nominated experts from countries with considerable experience and/or requirements in such aspects of the back-end of the fuel cycle as storage, safety, transportation and treatment of spent fuel. The RAGSFM activities cover the following main topics: a) Analysis and summary of spent fuel arisings and storage facilities; b) Interface between spent fuel storage and transportation activities; c) Spent fuel storage process and technology and related safety issues; d)Treatment of spent fuel

  17. Transportation of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Toshiichi

    1976-01-01

    The spent nuclear fuel taken out of reactors is cooled in the cooling pool in each power station for a definite time, then transported to a reprocessing plant. At present, there is no reprocessing plant in Japan, therefore the spent nuclear fuel is shipped abroad. In this paper, the experiences and the present situation in Japan are described on the transport of the spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, centering around the works in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co. The spent nuclear fuel in Tsuruga Power Station was first transported in Apr. 1973, and since then, about 36 tons were shipped to Britain by 5 times of transport. The reprocessing plant in Japan is expected to start operation in Apr. 1977, accordingly the spent nuclear fuel used for the trial will be transported in Japan in the latter half of this year. Among the permission and approval required for the transport of spent nuclear fuel, the acquisition of the certificate for transport casks and the approval of land and sea transports are main tasks. The relevant laws are the law concerning the regulations of nuclear raw material, nuclear fuel and reactors and the law concerning the safety of ships. The casks used in Tsuruga Power Station and EXL III type, and the charging of spent nuclear fuel, the decontamination of the casks, the leak test, land transport with a self-running vehicle, loading on board an exclusive carrier and sea transport are briefly explained. The casks and the ship for domestic transport are being prepared. (Kato, I.)

  18. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B. S.; Park, Y. S.; Oh, S. C.; Kim, S. H.; Cho, M. W.; Hong, D. H.

    1997-12-01

    Since the nation's policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  19. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B. S.; Park, Y. S.; Oh, S. C.; Kim, S. H.; Cho, M. W.; Hong, D. H

    1997-12-01

    Since the nation`s policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  20. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handier exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. A study of the movement of spent fuel casks through ports, including the loading and unloading of containers from cargo vessels, afforded an opportunity to estimate the radiation doses to those individuals handling the spent fuels with doses to the public along subsequent transportation routes of the fuel. A number of states require redundant inspections and for escorts over long distances on highways; thus handlers, inspectors, escort personnel, and others who are not normally classified as radiation workers may sustain doses high enough to warrant concern about occupational safety. This paper addresses the question of radiation safety for these workers. Data were obtained during, observation of the offloading of reactor spent fuel (research reactor spent fuel, in this instance) which included estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Exposure times and distance were also for other workers, including crane operators, scale operators, security personnel and truck drivers. RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values then facilitated estimation of the dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  2. TMI-2 spent fuel shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.; Burton, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    TMI-2 failed fuel will be shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for use in the DOE Core Examination Program. The fuel debris will be loaded into three types of canisters during defueling and dry loaded into a spent fuel shipping cask. The cask design accommodates seven canisters per cask and has two separate containment vessels with ''leaktight'' seals. Shipments are expectd to begin in early 1986

  3. Container for spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    The container of the present invention comprises a container main body having a body portion which can contain spent fuel assemblies and a lid, and heat pipes having an evaporation portion disposed along the outer surface of the spent fuel assemblies to be contained and a condensation portion exposed to the outside of the container main body. Further, the heat pipe is formed spirally at the evaporation portions so as to surround the outer circumference of the spent fuel assemblies, branched into a plurality of portions at the condensation portion, each of the branched portion of the condensation portion being exposed to the outside of the container main body, and is tightly in contact with the periphery of the slit portions disposed to the container main body. Then, since released after heat is transferred to the outside of the container main body from the evaporation portion of the heat pipe along the outer surface of the spent fuel assemblies by way of the condensation portion of the heat pipes exposed to the outside of the container main body, the efficiency of the heat transfer is extremely improved to enhance the effect of removing heat of spent fuel assemblies. Further, cooling effect is enhanced by the spiral form of the evaporation portion and the branched condensation portion. (N.H.)

  4. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago, J.A.; Gravalos, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    There are presently nine Light Water Reactors in operation, representing around a 34% of the overall electricity production. In the early years, a small amount of spent fuel was sent to be reprocessed, although this policy was cancelled in favor of the open cycle option. A state owned company, ENRESA, was created in 1984, which was given the mandate to manage all kinds of radioactive wastes generated in the country. Under the present scenario, a rough overall amount of 7000 tU of spent fuel will be produced during the lifetime of the plants, which will go into final disposal. (author)

  5. Spent nuclear fuel transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers the problems of shipping spent fuel from nuclear power stations to reprocessing plants and also the principal ways of solving these problems with a view to achieving maximum economy and safety in transport. The increase in the number of nuclear power plants in the USSR will entail an intensification of spent-fuel shipments. Higher burnup and the need to reduce cooling time call for heavier and more complex shipping containers. The problem of shipping spent fuel should be tackled comprehensively, bearing in mind the requirements of safety and economy. One solution to these problems is to develop rational and cheap designs of such containers. In addition, the world-wide trend towards more thorough protection of the environment against pollution and of the health of the population requires the devotion of constant attention to improving the reliability and safety of shipments. The paper considers the prospects for nuclear power development in the USSR and in other member countries of the CMEA (1976-1980), the composition and design of some Soviet packaging assemblies, the appropriate cooling time for spent fuel from thermal reactor power stations, procedures for reducing fuel-shipping costs, some methodological problems of container calculation and design, and finally problems of testing and checking containers on test rigs. (author)

  6. Characteristics of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-04-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will, or may, eventually be disposed of in a geological repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. This report deals with spent fuels, but for completeness, the other sources are described briefly. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characteristics include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. In addition, the present inventories and projected quantities of the various wastes are needed. This information has been assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Worldwide spent fuel transportation logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.E.; Garrison, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the worldwide transportation requirements for spent fuel. Included are estimates of numbers and types of shipments by mode and cask type for 1985 and the year 2000. In addition, projected capital and transportation costs are presented. For the year 1977 and prior years inclusive, there is a cumulative worldwide requirement for approximately 300 MTU of spent fuel storage at away-from-reactor (AFR) facilities. The cumulative requirements for years through 1985 are projected to be nearly 10,000 MTU, and for the years through 2000 the requirements are conservatively expected to exceed 60,000 MTU. These AFR requirements may be related directly to spent fuel transportation requirements. In total nearly 77,000 total cask shipments of spent fuel will be required between 1977 and 2000. These shipments will include truck, rail, and intermodal moves with many ocean and coastal water shipments. A limited number of shipments by air may also occur. The US fraction of these is expected to include 39,000 truck shipments and 14,000 rail shipments. European shipments to regional facilities are expected to be primarily by rail or water mode and are projected to account for 16,000 moves. Pacific basin shipments will account for 4500 moves. The remaining are from other regions. Over 400 casks will be needed to meet the transportation demands. Capital investment is expected to reach $800,000,000 in 1977 dollars. Cumulative transport costs will be a staggering $4.4 billion dollars

  8. Overview of spent fuel management and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.; Ernst, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    Results compiled in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel worldwide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialized and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. Some projections of spent fuel inventories to the year 2006 are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Spent nuclear fuel in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peev, P.; Kalimanov, N.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the nuclear energy sector in Bulgaria is characterized by two major stages. The first stage consisted of providing a scientific basis for the programme for development of the nuclear energy sector in the country and was completed with the construction of an experimental water-water reactor. At present, spent nuclear fuel from this reactor is placed in a water filled storage facility and will be transported back to Russia. The second stage consisted of the construction of the 6 NPP units at the Kozloduy site. The spent nuclear fuel from the six units is stored in at reactor pools and in an additional on-site storage facility which is nearly full. In order to engage the government of the country with the on-site storage problems, the new management of the National Electric Company elaborated a policy on nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management. The underlying policy is de facto the selection of the 'deferred decision' option for its spent fuel management. (author)

  10. HTGR spent fuel storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgoyne, R.M.; Holder, N.D.

    1979-04-01

    This report documents a study of alternate methods of storing high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) spent fuel. General requirements and design considerations are defined for a storage facility integral to a fuel recycle plant. Requirements for stand-alone storage are briefly considered. Three alternate water-cooled storage conceptual designs (plug well, portable well, and monolith) are considered and compared to a previous air-cooled design. A concept using portable storage wells in racks appears to be the most favorable, subject to seismic analysis and economic evaluation verification

  11. Sealed can of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a seal plug cover with a gripping portion fitted to a canning machine and a gripping portion fitted to a gripper of the same configuration as a fuel body for handling the fuel body so as to facilitate the handling work. Structure: A sealed can comprises a vessel and a seal plug cover, said cover being substantially in the form of a bottomed cylinder, which is slipped on the vessel and air-tightly secured by a fastening bolt between it and a flange. The spent fuel body is received into the vessel together with coolant during the step of canning operation. Said seal plug cover has two gripping portions, one for opening and closing the plug cover of the canning machine as an exclusive use member, the other being in the form of a hook-shaped peripheral groove, whereby the gripping portions may be effectively used using the same gripper when the spent fuel body is transported while being received in the sealed can or when the fuel body is removed from the sealed can. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. Spent Fuel Working Group Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Toole, T.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy is storing large amounts of spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials (herein referred to as RINM). In the past, the Department reprocessed RINM to recover plutonium, tritium, and other isotopes. However, the Department has ceased or is phasing out reprocessing operations. As a consequence, Department facilities designed, constructed, and operated to store RINM for relatively short periods of time now store RINM, pending decisions on the disposition of these materials. The extended use of the facilities, combined with their known degradation and that of their stored materials, has led to uncertainties about safety. To ensure that extended storage is safe (i.e., that protection exists for workers, the public, and the environment), the conditions of these storage facilities had to be assessed. The compelling need for such an assessment led to the Secretary's initiative on spent fuel, which is the subject of this report. This report comprises three volumes: Volume I; Summary Results of the Spent Fuel Working Group Evaluation; Volume II, Working Group Assessment Team Reports and Protocol; Volume III; Operating Contractor Site Team Reports. This volume presents the overall results of the Working Group's Evaluation. The group assessed 66 facilities spread across 11 sites. It identified: (1) facilities that should be considered for priority attention. (2) programmatic issues to be considered in decision making about interim storage plans and (3) specific vulnerabilities for some of these facilities

  13. Near surface spent fuel storage: environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, I.C.; Shipler, D.B.; McKee, R.W.; Glenn, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Interim storage of spent fuel appears inevitable because of the lack of reprocessing plants and spent fuel repositories. This paper examines the environmental issues potentially associated with management of spent fuel before disposal or reprocessing in a reference scenario. The radiological impacts of spent fuel storage are limited to low-level releases of noble gases and iodine. Water needed for water basin storage of spent fuel and transportation accidents are considered; the need to minimize the distance travelled is pointed out. Resource commitments for construction of the storage facilities are analyzed

  14. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10 -7 spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10 -9 /mile

  15. Thermal model of spent fuel transport cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.E.M.; Rahman, F.A.; Sultan, G.F.; Khalil, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    The investigation provides a theoretical model to represent the thermal behaviour of the spent fuel elements when transported in a dry shipping cask under normal transport conditions. The heat transfer process in the spent fuel elements and within the cask are modeled which include the radiant heat transfer within the cask and the heat transfer by thermal conduction within the spent fuel element. The model considers the net radiant method for radiant heat transfer process from the inner most heated element to the surrounding spent elements. The heat conduction through fuel interior, fuel-clad interface and on clad surface are also presented. (author) 6 figs., 9 refs

  16. Spent fuel. Dissolution and oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.

    1989-03-01

    Data from studies of the low temperature air oxidation of spent fuel were retrieved in order to provide a basis for comparison between the mechanism of oxidation in air and corrosion in water. U 3 O 7 is formed by diffusion of oxygen into the UO 2 lattice. A diffusion coefficient of oxygen in the fuel matric was calculated for 25 degree C to be in the range of 10 -23 to 10 -25 m 2 /s. The initial rates of U release from spent fuel and from UO 2 appear to be similar. The lowest rates (at 25 degree c >10 -4 g/(m 2 d)) were observed under reducing conditions. Under oxidizing conditions the rates depend mainly of the nature and concentraion of the oxidant and/or on corbonate. In contact with air, typical initial rates at room temperature were in the range between 0.001 and 0.1 g/(m 2 d). A study of apparent U solubility under oxidizing conditions was performed and it was suggested that the controlling factor is the redox potential at the UO 2 surface rather than the E h of the bulk solution. Electrochemical arguments were used to predict that at saturation, the surface potential will eventually reach a value given by the boundaries at either the U 3 O 7 /U 3 O 8 or the U 3 O 7 /schoepite stability field, and a comparison with spent fuel leach data showed that the solution concentration of uranium is close to the calculated U solubility at the U 3 O 7 /U 3 O 8 boundary. The difference in the cumulative Sr and U release was calculated from data from Studsvik laboratory. The results reveal that the rate of Sr release decreases with the square root of time under U-saturated conditions. This time dependence may be rationalized either by grain boundary diffusion or by diffusion into the fuel matrix. Hence, there seems to be a possibility of an agreement between the Sr release data, structural information and data for oxygen diffusion in UO 2 . (G.B.)

  17. Spent fuel receipt and lag storage facility for the spent fuel handling and packaging program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.E.; King, F.D.

    1979-01-01

    Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is participating in the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging Program for retrievable, near-surface storage of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. One of SRL's responsibilities is to provide a technical description of the wet fuel receipt and lag storage part of the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging (SFHP) facility. This document is the required technical description

  18. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values for describing dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel. Data obtained during observation of the offloading of research reactor spent fuel at Newport News Terminal in the Port of Hampton Roads, Virginia, are described. These data include estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors, and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Other workers include crane operators, scale operators, security personnel, and truck drivers. The data are compared to the default data in RADTRAN 4, and the latter are found to be conservative. The casks were loaded under IAEA supervision at their point of origin, and three separate radiological inspections of each cask were performed at the entry to the port (Hampton Roads) by the U.S. Coast Guard, the state of Virginia, and the shipping firm. As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handler exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. (author)

  19. Spent fuel shipping cask accident evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, S.R.

    1975-12-01

    Mathematical models have been developed to simulate the dynamic behavior, following a hypothetical accident and fire, of typical casks designed for the rail shipment of spent fuel from nuclear reactors, and to determine the extent of radioactive releases under postulated conditions. The casks modeled were the IF-300, designed by the General Electric Company for the shipment of spent LWR fuel, and a cask designed by the Aerojet Manufacturing Company for the shipment of spent LMFBR fuel.

  20. DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY SPENT FUEL CLADDING HULLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T; John Mickalonis, J

    2006-09-27

    The reprocessing of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) generates a Zircaloy cladding hull waste which requires disposal as a high level waste in the geologic repository. The hulls are primarily contaminated with fission products and actinides from the fuel. During fuel irradiation, these contaminants are deposited in a thin layer of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) which forms on the cladding surface at the elevated temperatures present in a nuclear reactor. Therefore, if the hulls are treated to remove the ZrO{sub 2} layer, a majority of the contamination will be removed and the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a low level waste (LLW). Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant savings due to the high costs associated with geologic disposal. To assess the feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls, two treatment processes developed for dissolving fuels containing zirconium (Zr) metal or alloys were evaluated. Small-scale dissolution experiments were performed using the ZIRFLEX process which employs a boiling ammonium fluoride (NH{sub 4}F)/ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) solution to dissolve Zr or Zircaloy cladding and a hydrofluoric acid (HF) process developed for complete dissolution of Zr-containing fuels. The feasibility experiments were performed using Zircaloy-4 metal coupons which were electrochemically oxidized to produce a thin ZrO{sub 2} layer on the surface. Once the oxide layer was in place, the ease of removing the layer using methods based on the two processes was evaluated. The ZIRFLEX and HF dissolution processes were both successful in removing a 0.2 mm (thick) oxide layer from Zircaloy-4 coupons. Although the ZIRFLEX process was effective in removing the oxide layer, two potential shortcomings were identified. The formation of ammonium hexafluorozirconate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}) on the metal surface prior to dissolution in the bulk solution could hinder the decontamination

  1. Spent fuel storage for ISER plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takasuke; Kimura, Yuzi

    1987-01-01

    ISER is an intrinsically safe reactor basing its safety only on physical laws, and uses a steel reactor vessel in order to be economical. For such a new type reactor, it is essentially important to be accepted by the society by showing that the reactor is more profitable than conventional reactors to the public in both technical and economic viewpoint. It is also important that the reactor raises no serious problem in the total fuel cycle. Reprocessing seems one of the major worldwide fuel cycle issues. Spent fuel storage is also one of the key technologies for fuel cycle back end. Various systems for ISER spent fuel storages are examined in the present report. Spent fuel specifications of ISER are similar to those of LWR and therefore, most of LWR spent fuel technologies are basically applicable to ISER spent fuel. Design requirements and examples of storage facilities are also discussed. Dry storage seems to be preferable for the relatively long cooling time spent fuel like ISER's one from economical viewpoint. Vault storage will possibly be the most advantageous for large storage capacity. Another point for discussion is the location and international collaboration for spent fuel storages: ISER expected to be a worldwide energy source and therefore, international spent fuel management seems to be fairly attractive way for an energy recipient country. (Nogami, K.)

  2. Spent fuels transportation coming from Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Maritime transportation of spent fuels from Australia to France fits into the contract between COGEMA and ANSTO, signed in 1999. This document proposes nine information cards in this domain: HIFAR a key tool of the nuclear, scientific and technological australian program; a presentation of the ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization; the HIFAR spent fuel management problem; the COGEMA expertise in favor of the research reactor spent fuel; the spent fuel reprocessing at La Hague; the transports management; the transport safety (2 cards); the regulatory framework of the transports. (A.L.B.)

  3. Safety analysis of spent fuel packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Hiroshi; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Tai, Hideto

    1987-01-01

    Many types of spent fuel packagings have been manufactured and been used for transport of spent fuels discharged from nuclear power plant. These spent fuel packagings need to be assesed thoroughly about safety transportation because spent fuels loaded into the packaging have high radioactivity and generation of heat. This paper explains the outline of safety analysis of a packaging, Safety analysis is performed for structural, thermal, containment, shielding and criticality factors, and MARC-CDC, TRUMP, ORIGEN, QAD, ANISN, KENO, etc computer codes are used for such analysis. (author)

  4. I-129, Kr-85, C-14 and NO/sub x/ removal from spent fuel dissolver off-gas at atmospheric pressure and at reduced off-gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; Huefner, R.

    1981-01-01

    A dissolver off-gas (DOG) system suitable for a LWR, FBR or HTR spent fuel reprocessing plant is described, incorporating the following features: (1) the DOG flow is reduced to a reasonably small volume, using fumeless dissolution conditions, by maintaining high concentrations, the retention procedures are simplified and accompanied by an economic reduction of the equipment size; (2) all process operations are conducted at atmospheric or subatmospheric pressure, including noble gas removal by selective absorption, without using high temperature processes; (3) all processes, except HEPA filtering, are continuous and do not accumulate large amounts of waste nuclides, the DOG process sequence is mutually compatible with itself and with processing in the headend, showing on-line redundancy for the removal of the most radiotoxic nuclides; and (4) the DOG system only deviates slightly from proven technology. The stage of development and relevant results are given both for a lab. scale and a pilot plant scale

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Safety Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1996-02-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Safety Management Plan describes the new nuclear facility regulatory requirements basis for the Spemt Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project and establishes the plan to achieve compliance with this basis at the new SNF Project facilities

  6. The management strategy of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi Parapak; Siti Alimah

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of management strategy of spent nuclear fuel has been carried out. Spent nuclear fuel is one of the by-products of nuclear power plant. The technical operations related to the management of spent fuel discharged from reactors are called the back-end fuel cycle. It can be largely divided into three option s : the once-through cycle, the closed cycle and the so-called ‟wait and see” policy. Whatever strategy is selected for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, Away-from-Reactor (AFR) storage facilities has to be constructed. For the once through cycle, the entire content of spent fuel is considered as waste, and is subject to be disposed of into a deep underground repository. In the closed cycle, however, can be divided into: (1) uranium and plutonium are recovered from spent fuel by reprocessing and recycled to manufacture mixed oxide (MOX) fuel rods, (2) waste transmutation in accelerator-driven subcritical reactors, (3) DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel In CANDU) concept. In wait and see policy, which means first storing the spent fuel and deciding at a later stage on reprocessing or disposal. (author)

  7. Spent fuel management in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.

    1998-01-01

    From Indian point of view, the spent fuel management by the reprocessing and plutonium recycle option is considered to be a superior and an inevitable option. The nuclear energy programme in Indian envisages three stages of implementation involving installation of thermal reactors in the first phase followed by recycling of plutonium from reprocessed fuel in fast breeder reactors and in the third phase utilization of its large thorium reserves in reactor system based on U-233-Th cycle. The Indian programme for Waste Management envisages disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in near surface disposal facilities and deep geological disposal for high level and alpha bearing wastes. A Waste Immobilization Plant (WHIP), employing metallic melter for HLW vitrification is operational at Tarapur. Two more WIPs are being set up at Kalpakkam and Tarapur. A Solid waste Storage Surveillance Facility (SSSF) is also set up for interim storage of vitrified HLW. Site investigations are in progress for selecting site for ultimate disposal in igneous rock formations. R and D works is taken up on partitioning of HLW. Solvent extraction and extraction chromatographic studies are in progress. Presently emphasis is on separation of heat generating short lived nuclides like strontium and alpha emitters. (author)

  8. Research reactor spent fuel in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimenko, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the research reactors in Ukraine, their spent fuel facilities and spent fuel management problems. Nuclear sciences, technology and industry are highly developed in Ukraine. There are 5 NPPs in the country with 14 operating reactors which have total power capacity of 12,800 MW

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-11-03

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities

  11. Costing of spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report deals with economic analysis and cost estimation, based on exploration of relevant issues, including a survey of analytical tools for assessment and updated information on the market and financial issues associated with spent fuel storage. The development of new storage technologies and changes in some of the circumstances affecting the costs of spent fuel storage are also incorporated. This report aims to provide comprehensive information on spent fuel storage costs to engineers and nuclear professionals as well as other stakeholders in the nuclear industry. This report is meant to provide informative guidance on economic aspects involved in selecting a spent fuel storage system, including basic methods of analysis and cost data for project evaluation and comparison of storage options, together with financial and business aspects associated with spent fuel storage. After the review of technical options for spent fuel storage in Section 2, cost categories and components involved in the lifecycle of a storage facility are identified in Section 3 and factors affecting costs of spent fuel storage are then reviewed in the Section 4. Methods for cost estimation and analysis are introduced in Section 5, and other financial and business aspects associated with spent fuel storage are discussed in Section 6.

  12. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  13. Spent nuclear fuel disposal liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis examines the social efficiency of nuclear power when the risks of accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides from a spent fuel disposal facility are considered. The analysis consists of two major parts. First, a theoretical economic model of the use of nuclear power including the risks associated with releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility is developed. Second, the costs of nuclear power, including the risks associated with a radionuclide release, are empirically compared to the costs of fossil fuel-fired generation of electricity. Under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the federally owned and operated spent nuclear fuel disposal facility is not required to maintain a reserve fund to cover damages from an accidental radionuclide release. Thus, the risks of a harmful radionuclide release are not included in the spent nuclear fuel disposal fee charged to the electric utilities. Since the electric utilities do not pay the full, social costs of spent fuel disposal, they use nuclear fuel in excess of the social optimum. An insurance mechanism is proposed to internalize the risks associated with spent fueled disposal. Under this proposal, the Federal government is required to insure the disposal facility against any liabilities arising from accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides

  14. Proceedings of the third spent fuel workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werme, L.

    1984-03-01

    The third workshop, held in Boston, Mass. November 10-11, 1983 was organized by Battelle PNL. Questions concerning spent fuel behaviour in nuclear waste repositories were discussed. The following three lectures were presented. The corrosion of Spent UO 2 -Fuel in Synthetic Groundwater, R.S. Forsyth, K. Svanberg and L.O. Werme. Leaching and Radiolysis Studies on UO 2 Fuel, L.H. Johnson, S. Stroes-Gascoyne, D.W. Shoesmith, M.G. Bailey and D.M. Sellinger. Comparison of Spent Fuel and UO 2 Release in Salt Brines, W.J. Gray and G.L. McVay. (G.B.)

  15. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Michael James; Bean, Thomas E.; Brower, Jeffrey O.; Luke, Dale E.; Patterson, M. W.; Robb, Alan K.; Sindelar, Robert; Smith, Rebecca E.; Tonc, Vincent F.; Tripp, Julia L.; Winston, Philip L.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center's (INTEC's) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and

  16. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Michael James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bean, Thomas E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brower, Jeffrey O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Luke, Dale E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Patterson, M. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, Alan K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Rebecca E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonc, Vincent F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tripp, Julia L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center’s (INTEC’s) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and analyzing

  17. The cost of spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C.; Badillo, V.; Alonso, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments, constructing repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution?, or What is the best technology for an specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while others works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However currently, the plants are under a process for extended power up-rate to 20% of original power and also there are plans to extended operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. (Author)

  18. Nuclear spent fuel management. Experience and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel can be stored safely for long periods at relatively low cost, but some form of permanent disposal will eventually be necessary. This report examines the options for spent fuel management, explores the future prospects for each stage of the back-end of the fuel cycle and provides a thorough review of past experience and the technical status of the alternatives. Current policies and practices in twelve OECD countries are surveyed

  19. Rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Herbert J.; Clark, Philip M.; Gilcrest, James D.

    1978-06-20

    A rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed fuel elements. The enclosures are fixed at the lower ends thereof to a base. Pockets are formed between confronting walls of adjacent enclosures for receiving high absorption neutron absorbers, such as Boral, cadmium, borated stainless steel and the like for the closer spacing of spent fuel elements.

  20. Spent Fuel Management Newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This Newsletter has been prepared in accordance with the recommendations of the International Regular Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management and the Agency's programme (GC XXXII/837, Table 76, item 14). The main purpose of the Newsletter is to provide Member States with new information about the state-of-the-art in one of the most important parts of the nuclear fuel cycle - Spent Fuel Management. The contents of this publication consists of two parts: (1) IAEA Secretariat contribution -work and programme of the Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Technology Section of the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management, recent and planned meetings and publications, Technical Co-operation projects, Co-ordinated Research programmes, etc. (2) Country reports - national programmes on spent fuel management: current and planned storage and reprocessing capacities, spent fuel arisings, safety, transportation, storage, treatment of spent fuel, some aspects of uranium and plutonium recycling, etc. The IAEA expects to publish the Newsletter once every two years between the publications of the Regular Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management. Figs and tabs

  1. Spent fuel transport in fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrousse, M.

    1977-01-01

    The transport of radioactive substances is a minor part of the fuel cycle because the quantities of matter involved are very small. However the length and complexity of the cycle, the weight of the packing, the respective distances between stations, enrichment plants and reprocessing plants are such that the problem is not negligible. In addition these transports have considerable psychological importance. The most interesting is spent fuel transport which requires exceptionally efficient packaging, especially where thermal and mechanical resistance are concerned. To meet the safety criteria necessary for the protection of both public and users it was decided to use the maximum capacity consistent with rail transport and to avoid coolant fluids under pressure. Since no single type of packing is suitable for all existing stations an effort has been made to standardise handling accessories, and future trands are towards maximum automation. A discussion on the various technical solutions available for the construction of these packing systems is followed by a description of those used for the two types of packaging ordered by COGEMA [fr

  2. Rock cavern storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Kyung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Ki [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The rock cavern storage for spent fuel has been assessed to apply in Korea with reviewing the state of the art of the technologies for surface storage and rock cavern storage of spent fuel. The technical feasibility and economic aspects of the rock cavern storage of spent fuel were also analyzed. A considerable area of flat land isolated from the exterior are needed to meet the requirement for the site of the surface storage facilities. It may, however, not be easy to secure such areas in the mountainous region of Korea. Instead, the spent fuel storage facilities constructed in the rock cavern moderate their demands for the suitable site. As a result, the rock cavern storage is a promising alternative for the storage of spent fuel in the aspect of natural and social environments. The rock cavern storage of spent fuel has several advantages compared with the surface storage, and there is no significant difference on the viewpoint of economy between the two alternatives. In addition, no great technical difficulties are present to apply the rock cavern storage technologies to the storage of domestic spent fuel.

  3. Nuclear criticality safety studies applicable to spent fuel shipping cask designs and spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.S.

    1980-11-01

    Criticality analyses of water-moderated and reflected arrays of LWR fresh and spent fuel assemblies were carried out in this study. The calculated results indicate that using the assumption of fresh fuel loading in spent fuel shipping cask design leads to assembly spacings which are about twice the spacings of spent fuel loadings. Some shipping cask walls of composite lead and water are more effective neutron reflectors than water of 30.48 cm

  4. Programme on spent fuel management in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, M.P.; Rao, M.K.; Prasad, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The Indian Atomic Energy Programme aims at harnessing the natural resources in the most optimal manner. To achieve this end, a three phase Nuclear Power Programme was devised in the early days of establishment of the Department of Atomic Energy. It envisages the utilization of the modest uranium reserves and rich thorium deposits in the country. The limited natural reserves of fuel materials have prompted India to pay increased attention to the back end of the fuel cycle, which consists of Reprocessing and Waste Management. The spent fuel is valued in India as a source for fuel and is treated accordingly, to recover the important fissile materials. Thus, the route of reprocessing of spent fuel in order to recycle uranium and plutonium in future reactors was opted for. Today, India possesses the capability and facilities, catering to the entire fuel cycle, i.e., starting from the mining of the ore, through fabrication of fuel and its application in reactors, to reprocessing of the spent fuel and appropriate waste management. With the third Reprocessing Plant almost ready for commissioning and second and third waste Immobilization Plants under constructions, the Spent Fuel Management Programme has come of age in India. This paper presents an overview of the status of the spent fuel management programme and its future perspective. (author)

  5. Transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, M.; Lenail, B.

    1987-01-01

    From a safety standpoint, spent fuel is clearly not ideal for permanent disposal and reprocessing is the best method of preparing wastes for long-term storage in a repository. Furthermore, the future may demonstrate that some fission products recovered in reprocessing have economic applications. Many countries have in fact reached the point at which the recycling of plutonium and uranium from spent fuel is economical in LWR's. Even in countries where this is not yet evident, (i.e., the United States), the French example shows that the day will come when spent fuel will be retrieved for reprocessing and recycle. It is highly questionable whether spent fuel will ever be considered and treated as waste in the same sense as fission products and processed as such, i.e., packaged in a waste form for permanent disposal. Even when recycled fuel material can no longer be reused in LWR's because of poor reactivity, it will be usable in FBR's. Based on the considerable experience gained by SGN and Cogema, this paper has provided practical discussion and illustrations of spent fuel transport and storage of a very important step in the nuclear fuel management process. The best of spent fuel storage depends on technical, economic and policy considerations. Each design has a role to play and we hope that the above discussion will help clarify certain issues

  6. Spent fuel workshop'2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, Ch

    2002-07-01

    This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2002 spent fuel workshop: Session 1 - Research Projects: Overview on the IN CAN PROCESSES European project (M. Cowper), Overview on the SPENT FUEL STABILITY European project (C. Poinssot), Overview on the French R and D project on spent fuel long term evolution, PRECCI (C. Poinssot); Session 2 - Spent Fuel Oxidation: Oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals (F. Garrido), Experimental results on SF oxidation and new modeling approach (L. Desgranges), LWR spent fuel oxidation - effects of burn-up and humidity (B. Hanson), An approach to modeling CANDU fuel oxidation under dry storage conditions (P. Taylor); Session 3 - Spent Fuel Dissolution Experiments: Overview on high burnup spent fuel dissolution studies at FZK/INE (A. Loida), Results on the influence of hydrogen on spent fuel leaching (K. Spahiu), Leaching of spent UO{sub 2} fuel under inert and reducing conditions (Y. Albinsson), Fuel corrosion investigation by electrochemical techniques (D. Wegen), A reanalysis of LWR spent fuel flow through dissolution tests (B. Hanson), U-bearing secondary phases formed during fuel corrosion (R. Finch), The near-field chemical conditions and spent fuel leaching (D. Cui), The release of radionuclides from spent fuel in bentonite block (S.S. Kim), Trace actinide behavior in altered spent fuel (E. Buck, B. Hanson); Session 4 - Radiolysis Issues: The effect of radiolysis on UO{sub 2} dissolution determined from electrochemical experiments with {sup 238}Pu doped UO{sub 2} M. Stroess-Gascoyne (F. King, J.S. Betteridge, F. Garisto), doped UO{sub 2} studies (V. Rondinella), Preliminary results of static and dynamic dissolution tests with {alpha} doped UO{sub 2} in Boom clay conditions (K. Lemmens), Studies of the behavior of UO{sub 2} / water interfaces under He{sup 2+} beam (C. Corbel), Alpha and gamma radiolysis effects on UO{sub 2} alteration in water (C. Jegou), Behavior of Pu-doped pellets in brines

  7. Casette for storage of spent fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, S.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a design of a casette for spent fuel storage in a fuelstorage pool. The new design, based on flexible spacers, allows the fuel assemblies to be packed more compact and the fuel storage pool used in a more economic way

  8. An analysis of spent fuel characteristics for reactor RA spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Vukadin, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The need for reducing the intrinsic conservatism in the criticality safety assessment has led to the development of validated methods for assessing the reactivity effects associated with fuel burnup. This paper gives an overview of the work being performed to investigate the spent fuel characteristics and nuclear criticality safety of the reactor RA spent fuel storage. An analysis methodology is presented along with information representing the validation of the methods and geometrical models. Finally, the criticality safety analysis of the stainless steel containers and aluminum barrels, filled with spent fuel elements, is presented to demonstrate that an adequate margin of subcriticality is proved for the reactor RA spent fuel storage.(author)

  9. Effects of environments on spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, C.W.; Jacobson, L.D.; Menon, M.N.

    1979-07-01

    This report describes the influence of water storage environment and transportation on spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies. It also estimates the storage duration and capacity requirements for several assumed scenarios

  10. Spent fuel storage requirements 1993--2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements through the year 2040. The needs are estimated for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the reactor storage pools. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of spent fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. The nuclear utilities provide historical data through December 1992 on the end of reactor life are based on the DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges

  11. Drying of mock spent nuclear fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepeau, J.C.; Reese, S.; McIlroy, H.M. Jr. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lords, R.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Spent nuclear fuel elements are stored in underwater cooling pools until the elements can be safely handled and prepared for interim dry storage. The fuel was intended for short-term storage in water before it was to be reprocessed. However, the fuel will no longer be reprocessed, and extended storage in water has caused many of the aluminum-clad elements to degrade, exposing the uranium fuel. In addition, sludge, comprised of corroded aluminum and sediment, has accumulated in and around the fuel plates. The water in the sludge must be removed before the spent fuel elements can be placed in dry storage. Experiments have been performed on mock spent fuel elements with simulated corrosion product applied between the plates. A series of vacuum and heating cycles were used to dry the elements, and a mixture of clay and aluminum oxide was used to simulate corrosion products on the elements. The procedures used in the experiments were determined to be adequate to dry the mock spent fuel elements, and the temperature behavior of the simulated corrosion product within the fuel elements could be used to determine when the element was dry. On plates where areas of wet simulant were found, a sharp frying front was observed that separated the wet and dry parts of the simulated corrosion product. The drying front propagated inward towards the center of the mock fuel elements over time.

  12. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Won; Shin, Y. J.; Cho, S. H.

    2004-03-01

    The research on spent fuel management focuses on the maximization of the disposal efficiency by a volume reduction, the improvement of the environmental friendliness by the partitioning and transmutation of the long lived nuclides, and the recycling of the spent fuel for an efficient utilization of the uranium source. In the second phase which started in 2001, the performance test of the advanced spent fuel management process consisting of voloxidation, reduction of spent fuel and the lithium recovery process has been completed successfully on a laboratory scale. The world-premier spent fuel reduction hot test of a 5 kgHM/batch has been performed successfully by joint research with Russia and the valuable data on the actinides and FPs material balance and the characteristics of the metal product were obtained with experience to help design an engineering scale reduction system. The electrolytic reduction technology which integrates uranium oxide reduction in a molten LiCl-Li 2 O system and Li 2 O electrolysis is developed and a unique reaction system is also devised. Design data such as the treatment capacity, current density and mass transfer behavior obtained from the performance test of a 5 kgU/batch electrolytic reduction system pave the way for the third phase of the hot cell demonstration of the advanced spent fuel management technology

  13. Pyrochemical processing of DOE spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, efficient method for conditioning spent nuclear fuel is under development. This method, known as pyrochemical processing, or open-quotes pyroprocessing,close quotes provides a separation of fission products from the actinide elements present in spent fuel and further separates pure uranium from the transuranic elements. The process can facilitate the timely and environmentally-sound treatment of the highly diverse collection of spent fuel currently in the inventory of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The pyroprocess utilizes elevated-temperature processes to prepare spent fuel for fission product separation; that separation is accomplished by a molten salt electrorefining step that provides efficient (>99.9%) separation of transuranics. The resultant waste forms from the pyroprocess, are stable under envisioned repository environment conditions and highly leach-resistant. Treatment of any spent fuel type produces a set of common high-level waste forms, one a mineral and the other a metal alloy, that can be readily qualified for repository disposal and avoid the substantial costs that would be associated with the qualification of the numerous spent fuel types included in the DOE inventory

  14. Final environmental statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    In October 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced a Spent Fuel Storage Policy for nuclear power reactors. Under this policy, as approved by the President, US utilities will be given the opportunity to deliver spent fuel to US Government custody in exchange for payment of a fee. The US Government will also be prepared to accept a limited amount of spent fuel from foreign sources when such action would contribute to meeting nonproliferation goals. Under the new policy, spent fuel transferred to the US Government will be delivered - at user expense - to a US Government-approved site. Foreign spent fuel would be stored in Interim Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS) facilities with domestic fuel. This volume of the environmental impact statement includes effects associated with implementing or not implementing the Spent Fuel Storage Policy for the foreign fuels. The analyses show that there are no substantial radiological health impacts whether the policy is implemented or not. In no case considered does the population dose commitment exceed 0.000006% of the world population dose commitment from natural radiation sources over the period analyzed. Full implementation of the US offer to accept a limited amount of foreign spent fuel for storage provides the greatest benefits for US nonproliferation policy. Acceptance of lesser quantities of foreign spent fuel in the US or less US support of foreign spent fuel storage abroad provides some nonproliferation benefits, but at a significantly lower level than full implementation of the offer. Not implementing the policy in regard to foreign spent fuel will be least productive in the context of US nonproliferation objectives. The remainder of the summary provides a brief description of the options that are evaluated, the facilities involved in these options, and the environmental impacts, including nonproliferation considerations, associated with each option

  15. Developing Spent Fuel Assembly for Advanced NDA Instrument Calibration - NGSI Spent Fuel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianwei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gauld, Ian C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Banfield, James [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, NC (United States); Skutnik, Steven [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the application of modeling and simulation to support the performance assessment and calibration of the advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments developed under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) Project. Advanced NDA instrument calibration will likely require reference spent fuel assemblies with well-characterized nuclide compositions that can serve as working standards. Because no reference spent fuel standard currently exists, and the practical ability to obtain direct measurement of nuclide compositions using destructive assay (DA) measurements of an entire fuel assembly is prohibitive in the near term due to the complexity and cost of spent fuel experiments, modeling and simulation will be required to construct such reference fuel assemblies. These calculations will be used to support instrument field tests at the Swedish Interim Storage Facility (Clab) for Spent Nuclear Fuel.

  16. Spent fuel storage and transportation - ANSTO experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, Tony

    2002-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has operated the 10 MW DIDO class High Flux Materials Test Reactor (HIFAR) since 1958. Refuelling the reactor produces about 38 spent fuel elements each year. Australia has no power reactors and only one operating research reactor so that a reprocessing plant in Australia is not an economic proposition. The HEU fuel for HIFAR is manufactured at Dounreay using UK or US origin enriched uranium. Spent fuel was originally sent to Dounreay, UK for reprocessing but this plant was shutdown in 1998. ANSTO participates in the US Foreign Research Reactor Spent Fuel Return program and also has a contract with COGEMA for the reprocessing of non-US origin fuel

  17. Evolution of spent fuel dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standring, Paul Nicholas [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology; Takats, Ferenc [TS ENERCON KFT, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-11-15

    Around 10,000 tHM of spent fuel is discharged per year from the nuclear power plants in operation. Whilst the bulk of spent fuel is still held in at reactor pools, 24 countries have developed storage facilities; either on the reactor site or away from the reactor site. Of the 146 operational AFR storage facilities about 80 % employ dry storage; the majority being deployed over the last 20 years. This reflects both the development of dry storage technology as well as changes in politics and trading relationships that have affected spent fuel management policies. The paper describes the various approaches to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle for power reactor fuels and provides data on deployed storage technologies.

  18. Fact sheet on spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA gives high priority to safe and effective spent fuel management. As an example of continuing efforts, the 2003 International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors gathered 125 participants from 35 member states to exchange information on this important subject. With its large number of Member States, the IAEA is well-positioned to gather and share information useful in addressing Member State priorities. IAEA activities on this topic include plans to produce technical documents as resources for a range of priority topics: spent fuel performance assessment and research, burnup credit applications, cask maintenance, cask loading optimization, long term storage requirements including records maintenance, economics, spent fuel treatment, remote technology, and influence of fuel design on spent fuel storage. In addition to broader topics, the IAEA supports coordinated research projects and technical cooperation projects focused on specific needs. The proceedings of the 2003 IAEA conference on storage of spent fuel from power reactors has been ranked in the top twenty most accessed IAEA publications. These proceedings are available for free downloads at http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PubDetails.asp?pubId=6924]. The IAEA organized and held a 2004 meeting focused on long term spent fuel storage provisions in Central and Eastern Europe, using technical cooperation funds to support participation by these Member States. Over ninety percent of the participants in this meeting rated its value as good or excellent, with participants noting that the IAEA is having a positive effect in stimulating communication, cooperation, and information dissemination on this important topic. The IAEA was advised in 2004 that results from a recent coordinated research project (IAEA-TECDOC-1343) were used by one Member State to justify higher clad temperatures for spent fuel in dry storage, leading to more efficient storage and reduced costs. Long term

  19. Electrochemical studies on spent fuel corrosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo, J. de; Casas, I.; Clarens, F.; Gimenez, J.; Rovira, M.

    2003-01-01

    This presentations is mainly based on the electrochemical studies carried out by the Canadian team and the research group of the Berlin University. Electrochemical studies allow to study separately both the anodic reaction which corresponds-sources on UO 2 -electrodes response is one of to the UO 2 dissolution and the cathodic reaction that is the reduction of the oxidants. By using intensity current-potential plots a mechanisms of UO 2 corrosion has been established. At-300 mV (vs SCE), irreversible oxidation of UO 2 takes place and dissolution begins. In the absence of complexing agents like carbonate, an oxidised layer is formed at 100 mV a stoichiometry close to UO 2 . In carbonate medium, the oxidized layer is not formed because the U(VI) formed is rapidly dissolved. Results in terms of dissolution rates obtained by electrochemical measurements are similar to the ones obtained in dissolution experiments by using flow through reactors and similar kinetic laws are obtained. The effect of external α and γ-sources on UO 2 -electrodes response is one of the few available data on the effects of radiolysis on the UO 2 dissolution rate and can offer a complementary knowledge to the spent fuel and α-doped pellets dissolution experiments. (Author)

  20. Thermal analysis of spent nuclear fuels repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, F.; Salome, J.; Cardoso, F.; Velasquez, C.E.; Pereira, C. [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear - Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte MG, CEP 31270-901 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores - CNPq, Asa Norte, Brazilia (Brazil); Viana, C. [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear - Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte MG, CEP 31270-901 (Brazil); Barros, G.P. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear-CNEN, Rua Gal Severiano, n 90 - Botafogo, 22290-901, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    In the first part, Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), Very High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Reactor System (ADS) spent fuels (SF) were evaluated to the thermal of the spent fuel pool (SFP) without an external cooling system. The goal is to compare the water boiling time of the pool storing different types of spent nuclear fuels. This study used the software ANSYS Workbench 16.2 - student version. For the VHTR, two types of fuel were analyzed: (Th,TRU)O{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}. This part of the studies were performed for wet storage condition using a single type of SF and decay heat values at times t=0 and t=10 years after the reactor discharge. The ANSYS CFX module was used and the results show that the time that water takes to reach the boiling point varies from 2.4 minutes for the case of VHTR-(Th,TRU)O{sub 2} SF at time t=0 year after reactor discharge until 32.4 hours for the case of PWR SF at time t=10 years after the discharge reactor. The second part of this work consists of modeling a geological repository. Firstly, the temperature evaluation of the spent fuel from a PWR was analyzed. A PWR canister was simulated using the ANSYS transient thermal module. Then the temperature of canister could be computed during the time spent on a portion of a geological repository. The mean temperature on the canister surface increased during the first nine years, reaching a plateau at 35.5 C. degrees between the tenth and twentieth years after the geological disposal. The idea is to extend this study for the other systems analyzed in the first part. The idea is to include in the study, the spent fuels from VHTR and ADS and to compare the canister behavior using different spent fuels. (authors)

  1. Neutron intensity of fast reactor spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Misao; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    Neutron intensity of spent fuel of the JOYO Mk-II core with a burnup of 62,500 MWd/t and cooling time of 5.2 years was measured at the spent fuel storage pond. The measured data were compared with the calculated values based on the JOYO core management code system `MAGI`, and the average C/E approximately 1.2 was obtained. It was found that the axial neutron intensity didn`t simply follow the burnup distribution, and the neutron intensity was locally increased at the bottom end of the fuel region due to an accumulation of {sup 244}Cm. (author)

  2. Integrated spent nuclear fuel database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henline, S.P.; Klingler, K.G.; Schierman, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Distributed Information Systems software Unit at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has designed and developed an Integrated Spent Nuclear Fuel Database System (ISNFDS), which maintains a computerized inventory of all US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Commercial SNF is not included in the ISNFDS unless it is owned or stored by DOE. The ISNFDS is an integrated, single data source containing accurate, traceable, and consistent data and provides extensive data for each fuel, extensive facility data for every facility, and numerous data reports and queries

  3. Spent fuel storage requirements, 1990--2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, R.; Bierschbach, M.

    1990-11-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with US Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements over the next 51 years, through the year 2040. The needs for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the pools are estimated. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. Historical data through December 1989 are derived from the 1990 Form RW-859 data survey of nuclear utilities. Projected discharges through the end of reactor life are based on DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges. 15 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Hanford spent fuel inventory baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsman, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    This document compiles technical data on irradiated fuel stored at the Hanford Site in support of the Hanford SNF Management Environmental Impact Statement. Fuel included is from the Defense Production Reactors (N Reactor and the single-pass reactors; B, C, D, DR, F, H, KE and KW), the Hanford Fast Flux Test Facility Reactor, the Shipping port Pressurized Water Reactor, and small amounts of miscellaneous fuel from several commercial, research, and experimental reactors

  5. Spent fuel storage practices and perspectives for WWER fuel in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takats, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture the general issues and options in spent fuel management and storage are reviewed. Quantities of spent fuel world-wide and spent fuel amounts in storage as well as spent fuel capacities are presented. Selected examples of typical spent fuel storage facilities are discussed. The storage technologies applied for WWER fuel is presented. Description of other relevant storage technologies is included

  6. Storing the world's spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Weinberg, A.M.; Alonso, M.

    1985-01-01

    Given the world's prodigious future energy requirements and the inevitable depletion of oil and gas, it would be foolhardy consciously to seek limitations on the growth of nuclear power. Indeed, the authors continue to believe that the global nuclear power enterprise, as measured by installed reactor capacity, can become much larger in the future without increasing proliferation risks. To accomplish this objective will require renewed dedication to the non-proliferation regime, and it will require some new initiatives. Foremost among these would be the establishment of a spent fuel take-back service, in which one or a few states would retrieve spent nuclear fuel from nations generating it. The centralized retrieval of spent fuel would remove accessible plutonium from the control of national leaders in non-nuclear-weapons states, thereby eliminating the temptation to use this material for weapons. The Soviets already implement a retrieval policy with the spent fuel generated by East European allies. The authors believe that it is time for the US to reopen the issue of spent-fuel retrieval, and thus to strengthen its non-proliferation policies and the nonproliferation regime in general. 7 references

  7. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usang, M. D., E-mail: mark-dennis@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P. [Reactor Department, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  8. Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in Spent Fuel Management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation in this area, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to elaborate the general recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. This report which is a result of the third IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (the first and second were held in 1984 and 1986) is intended to provide the reader with an overview of the status of spent fuel management programmes in a number of leading countries, with a description of the past and present IAEA activities in this field of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and with the Agency's plans for the next years, based on the proposals and recommendations of Member States. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 14 papers presented at the advisory group meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Status and prospects for spent fuel management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portal, R.; L'Epine, P. de

    1996-01-01

    The spent fuel arisings and storage capacities, the interface between fuel storage and transportation activities, the spent fuel storage technology, the reprocessing and recycling industrial activities in France are described in the paper. (author). 6 figs, 8 tabs

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  11. Status of spent fuel shipping cask development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, I.K.; Hinschberger, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how several new-generation shopping cask systems are being developed for safe and economical transport of commercial spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive wastes for the generating sites to a federal geologic repository or monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. Primary objectives of the from-reactor spent fuel cask development work are: to increase cask payloads by taking advantage of the increased at-reactor storage time under the current spent fuel management scenario, to facilitate more efficient cask handling operations with reduced occupational radiation exposure, and to promote standardization of the physical interfaces between casks and the shipping and receiving facilities. Increased cask payloads will significantly reduce the numbers of shipments, with corresponding reductions in transportation costs and risks to transportation workers, cask handling personnel, and the general public

  12. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M.S.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures

  13. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology

  14. Acceptance of spent fuel of varying characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.M.

    1990-03-01

    This paper is a preliminary overview of a study with the primary objective of establishing a set of acceptance selection criteria and corresponding spent fuel characteristics to be incorporated as a component of requirements for the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). A number of alternative acceptance allocations and selection rules were analyzed to determine the operational sensitivity of each element of the FWMS to the resultant spent fuel characteristics. Preliminary recommendations of the study include three different sets of selection rules to be included in the FWMS design basis. 2 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Classification of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This report is one of a series of eight prepared by E. R. Johnson Associates, Inc. (JAI) under ORNL's contract with DOE's OCRWM Systems Integration Program and in support of the Annual Capacity Report (ACR) Issue Resolution Process. The report topics relate specifically to the list of high-priority technical waste acceptance issues developed jointly by DOE and a utility-working group. JAI performed various analyses and studies on each topic to serve as starting points for further discussion and analysis leading eventually to finalizing the process by which DOE will accept spent fuel and waste into its waste management system. This document discusses the classification of spent nuclear fuels

  16. Transporting spent nuclear fuel: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    Although high-level radioactive waste from both commercial and defense activities will be shipped to the repository, this booklet focuses on various aspects of transporting commercial spent fuel, which accounts for the majority of the material to be shipped. The booklet is intended to give the reader a basic understanding of the following: the reasons for transportation of spent nuclear fuel, the methods by which it is shipped, the safety and security precautions taken for its transportation, emergency response procedures in the event of an accident, and the DOE program to develop a system uniquely appropriate to NWPA transportation requirements

  17. Spent Fuel Storage Operation - Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    Experience gained in planning, constructing, licensing, operating, managing and modifying spent fuel storage facilities in some Member States now exceeds 50 years. Continual improvement is only achieved through post-project review and ongoing evaluation of operations and processes. This publication is aimed at collating and sharing lessons learned. Hopefully, the information provided will assist Member States that already have a developed storage capability and also those considering development of a spent nuclear fuel storage capability in making informed decisions when managing their spent nuclear fuel. This publication is expected to complement the ongoing Coordinated Research Project on Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research (SPAR-III); the scope of which prioritizes facility operational practices in lieu of fuel and structural components behaviour over extended durations. The origins of the current publication stem from a consultants meeting held on 10-12 December 2007 in Vienna, with three participants from the IAEA, Slovenia and USA, where an initial questionnaire on spent fuel storage was formulated (Annex I). The resultant questionnaire was circulated to participants of a technical meeting, Spent Fuel Storage Operations - Lessons Learned. The technical meeting was held in Vienna on 13-16 October 2008, and sixteen participants from ten countries attended. A consultants meeting took place on 18-20 May 2009 in Vienna, with five participants from the IAEA, Slovenia, UK and USA. The participants reviewed the completed questionnaires and produced an initial draft of this publication. A third consultants meeting took place on 9-11 March 2010, which six participants from Canada, Hungary, IAEA, Slovenia and the USA attended. The meeting formulated a second questionnaire (Annex II) as a mechanism for gaining further input for this publication. A final consultants meeting was arranged on 20-22 June 2011 in Vienna. Six participants from Hungary, IAEA, Japan

  18. Mechanism of dissolved water in jet fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Zong, Zhimin; Hu, Jianqiang; Ma, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Dissolved water content is an important performance index of jet fuel quality. The excess water content in jet fuel directly affects the quality of fuel and the normal operation of the flight equipment, even severely endangering the flight safety. Many factors would affect the water content in jet fuel. In this paper, considering the effects of internal and external factors on the dissolved water content in No. 3 jet fuel, such as toluene content, environmental temperature, humidity, and anti-icing agent concentration, by Karl Fischer electrometric titration using a trace moisture analyzer. A model was developed to evaluate the dissolved water content under different conditions. The model provides an effective reference for the accurate and efficient determination of jet fuel moisture content.

  19. Actinide chemistry and spent fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werme, L.O.

    1990-01-01

    Spent fuel as a high level waste form has been studied for over a decade. Although the fuel contains a multitude of radionuclides, only a few of them will actually constitute a long term potential radiotoxic hazard. These elements are, after some thousand years, plutonium and neptunium. Up to about 100,000 years plutonium is by far dominating the radiotoxicity after which neptunium becomes the dominating element. In this paper, the results obtained on plutonium and neptunium releases from spent fuel are reviewed and discussed. Attempts are made to interpret the data obtained for different fuel types and groundwaters in terms of the chemistry of the respective elements as well as in terms of release kinetics

  20. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A.; Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant

  1. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Product specifications are limits and controls established for each significant parameter that potentially affects safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for transport to dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the spent fuel packaged in MultiCanister Overpacks (MCOs) to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The SNF includes N Reactor fuel and single-pass reactor fuel. The FRS removes the SNF from the storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The MCO loading system places the baskets into MCO/Cask assembly packages. These packages are then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the MCO cask packages are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCOs are removed from the casks, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The key criteria necessary to achieve these goals are documented in this specification

  2. Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squires, K.G.

    1995-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel

  3. Concrete encapsulation for spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1981-01-01

    Concrete systems, mixtures and methods for encapsulating and storing spent nuclear fuel. Fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies is completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete having incorporated therein metallic fibers to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. The metallic fibers and the polymers can be distributed in a single concrete layer, or separate contiguous layers can be utilized for the conductivity and impermeability characteristics

  4. Development of advanced spent fuel management process. System analysis of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, S.G.; Kang, D.S.; Seo, C.S.; Lee, H.H.; Shin, Y.J.; Park, S.W.

    1999-03-01

    The system analysis of an advanced spent fuel management process to establish a non-proliferation model for the long-term spent fuel management is performed by comparing the several dry processes, such as a salt transport process, a lithium process, the IFR process developed in America, and DDP developed in Russia. In our system analysis, the non-proliferation concept is focused on the separation factor between uranium and plutonium and decontamination factors of products in each process, and the non-proliferation model for the long-term spent fuel management has finally been introduced. (Author). 29 refs., 17 tabs., 12 figs

  5. Total quality in spent fuel pool reracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranston, J.S.; Bradbury, R.B.; Cacciapouti, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear utility environment is one of strict cost control under prescriptive regulations and increasing public scrutiny. This paper presents the results of A Total Quality approach, by a dedicated team, that addresses the need for increased on-site spent fuel storage in this environment. Innovations to spent fuel pool reracking, driven by utilities' specific technical needs and shrinking budgets, have resulted in both product improvements and lower prices. A Total Quality approach to the entire turnkey project is taken, thereby creating synergism and process efficiency in each of the major phases of the project: design and analysis, licensing, fabrication, installation and disposal. Specific technical advances and the proven quality of the team members minimizes risk to the utility and its shareholders and provides a complete, cost effective service. Proper evaluation of spent fuel storage methods and vendors requires a full understanding of currently available customer driven initiatives that reduce cost while improving quality. In all phases of a spent fuel reracking project, from new rack design and analysis through old rack disposal, the integration of diverse experts, at all levels and throughout all phases of a reracking project, better serves utility needs. This Total Quality environment in conjunction with many technical improvements results in a higher quality product at a lower cost

  6. Safeguardability of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T. K. (Tien K.); Lee, S. Y. (Sang Yoon); Burr, Tom; Russo, P. A. (Phyllis A.); Menlove, Howard O.; Kim, H. D.; Ko, W. I. (Won Il); Park, S. W.; Park, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) is an electro-metallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent nuclear fuel into a metallic form. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing this technology since 1977 for the purpose of spent fuel management and is planning to perform a lab-scale demonstration in 2006. By using of this technology, a significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel is expected, which would lighten the burden of final disposal in terms of disposal size, safety and economics. In the framework of collaboration agreement to develop the safeguards system for the ACP, a joint study on the safeguardability of the ACP technology has been performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the KAERI since 2002. In this study, the safeguardability of the ACP technology was examined for the pilot-scale facility. The process and material flows were conceptually designed, and the uncertainties in material accounting were estimated with international target values.

  7. Spent fuel and waste inventories and projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, W.L.; Finney, B.C.; Alexander, C.W.; Blomeke, J.O.; McNair, J.M.

    1980-08-01

    Current inventories of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy radioactive wastes were compiled, based on judgments of the most reliable information available from Government sources and the open literature. Future waste generation rates and quantities to be accumulated over the remainder of this century are also presented, based on a present projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related activities. Spent fuel projections are based on the current DOE/EIA estimate of nuclear growth, which projects 180 GW(e) in the year 2000. It is recognized that the calculated spent fuel discharges are probably high in view of recent reactor cancellations; hence adjustments will be made in future updates of this report. Wastes considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, low-level wastes, mill tailings (active sites), and remedial action wastes. The latter category includes mill tailings (inactive sites), surplus facilities, formerly utilized sites, and the Grand Junction Project. For each category, waste volume inventories and projections are given through the year 2000. The land usage requirements are given for storage/disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes, and for present inventories of mill tailings

  8. Regional spent fuel storage facility (RSFSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the meetings held on the technology and safety aspects of regional spent fuel storage facilities. The questions of technique, economy and key public and political issues will be covered as well as the aspects to be considered for implementation of a regional facility. (author)

  9. Operation of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the IAEA's programme on safety of spent fuel storage. This is for interim spent fuel storage facilities that are not integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. Following the introduction, Section 2 describes key activities in the operation of spent fuel storage facilities. Section 3 lists the basic safety considerations for storage facility operation, the fundamental safety objectives being subcriticality, heat removal and radiation protection. Recommendations for organizing the management of a facility are contained in Section 4. Section 5 deals with aspects of training and qualification; Section 6 describes the phases of the commissioning of a spent fuel storage facility. Section 7 describes operational limits and conditions, while Section 8 deals with operating procedures and instructions. Section 9 deals with maintenance, testing, examination and inspection. Section 10 presents recommendations for radiation and environmental protection. Recommendations for the quality assurance (QA) system are presented in Section 11. Section 12 describes the aspects of safeguards and physical protection to be taken into account during operations; Section 13 gives guidance for decommissioning. 15 refs, 5 tabs

  10. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project

  11. Past and future IAEA spent fuel management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, A.

    1993-01-01

    The main objectives and strategies of the Agency's activities in the area of spent fuel management are to promote the exchange of information between Member States on technical, safety, environmental and economic aspects of spent fuel management technology, including storage, transport and treatment of spent fuel, and to provide assistance to Member States in the planning, implementation and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This paper give a list of the meetings held since the last issue of the Spent Fuel Management Newsletter

  12. Thermal analysis for spent fuel casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal analyses for spent fuel storage or transportation must demonstrate that the heat produced in the fuel will be removed without causing excessive fuel cladding temperatures or cask surface temperatures. The time required to ship fuel from a reactor to another site is a matter of days so temperature control during shipment is a short term concern and temperatures of 1100-1200 degrees F are acceptable in a hypothetical fire scenario, but storage is envisioned for twenty years or more and temperatures are limited to 380 degrees C (716 F). Elevated temperatures do more that weaken fuel cladding: the materials of the fuel basket also weaken with higher temperature, thermal stresses may cause cracks to form in welds, and impact limiter materials may soften or degrade. The high temperatures of a fire cause loss of liquid neutron shields and may cause solid materials to char and insulate a cask after the fire

  13. The psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, J.; Eraenen, L.

    1999-03-01

    In this report the potential psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal to inhabitants of a community are assessed on the basis of earlier research. In studying the situation, different interpretations and meanings given to nuclear power are considered. First, spent fuel disposal is studied as fear-arousing and consequently stressful situation. Psychosomatic effects of stress and coping strategies used by an individual are presented. Stress as a collective phenomenon and coping mechanisms available for a community are also assessed. Stress reactions caused by natural disasters and technological disasters are compared. Consequences of nuclear power plant accidents are reviewed, e.g. research done on the accident at Three Mile Island power plant. Reasons for the disorganising effect on a community caused by a technological disaster are compared to the altruistic community often seen after natural disasters. The potential reactions that a spent fuel disposal plant can arouse in inhabitants are evaluated. Both short-term and long-term reactions are evaluated as well as reactions under normal functioning, after an incident and as a consequence of an accident. Finally an evaluation of how the decision-making system and citizens' opportunity to influence the decision-making affect the experience of threat is expressed. As a conclusion we see that spent fuel disposal can arouse fear and stress in people. However, the level of the stress is probably low. The stress is at strongest at the time of the starting of the spent fuel disposal plant. With time people get used to the presence of the plant and the threat experienced gets smaller. (orig.)

  14. Numerical Estimation of the Spent Fuel Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Durbin, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilke, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Margraf, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunn, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Sabotage of spent nuclear fuel casks remains a concern nearly forty years after attacks against shipment casks were first analyzed and has a renewed relevance in the post-9/11 environment. A limited number of full-scale tests and supporting efforts using surrogate materials, typically depleted uranium dioxide (DUO 2 ), have been conducted in the interim to more definitively determine the source term from these postulated events. However, the validity of these large- scale results remain in question due to the lack of a defensible spent fuel ratio (SFR), defined as the amount of respirable aerosol generated by an attack on a mass of spent fuel compared to that of an otherwise identical surrogate. Previous attempts to define the SFR in the 1980's have resulted in estimates ranging from 0.42 to 12 and include suboptimal experimental techniques and data comparisons. Because of the large uncertainty surrounding the SFR, estimates of releases from security-related events may be unnecessarily conservative. Credible arguments exist that the SFR does not exceed a value of unity. A defensible determination of the SFR in this lower range would greatly reduce the calculated risk associated with the transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask systems. In the present work, the shock physics codes CTH and ALE3D were used to simulate spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and DUO 2 targets impacted by a high-velocity jet at an ambient temperature condition. These preliminary results are used to illustrate an approach to estimate the respirable release fraction for each type of material and ultimately, an estimate of the SFR. This page intentionally blank

  15. Subsurface storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, L.M.; Szulinski, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The Atlantic Richfield Company has developed the concept of storing spent fuel in dry caissons. Cooling is passive; safety and safeguard features appear promising. The capacity of a caisson to dissipate heat depends on site-specific soil characteristics and on the diameter of the caisson. It is estimated that approx. 2 kW can be dissipated in the length of one fuel element. Fuel elements can be stacked with little effect on temperature. A spacing of approx. 7.5 m (25 ft) between caissons appears rasonable. Business planning indicates a cost of approx. 0.2 mill/kWh for a 15-yr storage period. 12 figures, 4 tables

  16. Historical overview of domestic spent fuel shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Wankerl, M.W.; Armstrong, S.; Hamberger, C.; Schmid, S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide available historical data on most commercial and research reactor spent fuel shipments that have been completed in the United States between 1964 and 1989. This information includes data on the sources of spent fuel that has been shipped, the types of shipping casks used, the number of fuel assemblies that have been shipped, and the number of shipments that have been made. The data are updated periodically to keep abreast of changes. Information on shipments is provided for planning purposes; to support program decisions of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM); and to inform interested members of the public, federal, state, and local government, Indian tribes, and the transportation community. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Corrosion surveillance in spent fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    In mid-1991, corrosion of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel was observed in the light-water filled basins at the Savannah River site. A corrosion surveillance program was initiated in the P, K, L-Reactor basins and in the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This program verified the aggressive nature of the pitting corrosion and provided recommendations for changes in basin operations to permit extended longer term interim storage. The changes were implemented during 1994--1996 and have resulted in significantly improved basin water quality with conductivity in the 1--3 microS/cm range. Under these improved conditions, no new pitting has been observed over the last three years. This paper describes the corrosion surveillance program at SRS and what has been learned about the corrosion of aluminum-clad in spent fuel storage pools

  18. Impact analysis of spent fuel jacket assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramayo, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the analyses performed in support of the reracking of the High Flux Isotope Reactor pool, it became necessary to prove the structural integrity of the spent fuel jacket assemblies subjected to gravity drop that result from postulated accidents associated with the handling of these assemblies while submerged in the pool. The spent fuel jacket assemblies are an integral part of the reracking project, and serve to house fuel assemblies. The structure integrity of the jacket assemblies from loads that result from impact from a height of 10 feet onto specified targets has been performed analytically using the computer program LS-DYNA3D. Nine attitudes of the assembly at the time of impact have been considered. Results of the analyses show that there is no failure of the assemblies as a result of the impact scenarios considered

  19. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Shin, Y. J.; Do, J. B.; You, G. S.; Seo, J. S.; Lee, H. G.

    1998-03-01

    This study is to develop an advanced spent fuel management process for countries which have not yet decided a back-end nuclear fuel cycle policy. The aims of this process development based on the pyroreduction technology of PWR spent fuels with molten lithium, are to reduce the storage volume by a quarter and to reduce the storage cooling load in half by the preferential removal of highly radioactive decay-heat elements such as Cs-137 and Sr-90 only. From the experimental results which confirm the feasibility of metallization technology, it is concluded that there are no problems in aspects of reaction kinetics and equilibrium. However, the operating performance test of each equipment on an engineering scale still remain and will be conducted in 1999. (author). 21 refs., 45 tabs., 119 figs

  20. The Spent Fuel Management in Finland and Modifications of Spent Fuel Storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maaranen, Paeivi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to share the Finnish regulator's (STUK) experiences on regulatory oversight of the enlargement of a spent fuel interim storage. An overview of the current situation of spent fuel management in Finland will also be given. In addition, the planned modifications and requirements set for spent fuel storages due to the Fukushima accident are discussed. In Finland, there are four operating reactors, one under construction and two reactors that have a Council of State's Decision-in-Principle to proceed with the planning and licensing of a new reactor. In Olkiluoto, the two operating ASEA-Atom BWR units and the Areva EPR under construction have a shared interim storage for the spent fuel. The storage was designed and constructed in 1980's. The option for enlarging the storage was foreseen in the original design. Considering three operating units to produce their spent fuel and the final disposal to begin in 2022, extra space in the spent fuel storage is estimated to be needed in around 2014. The operator decided to double the number of the spent fuel pools of the storage and the construction began in 2010. The capacity of the enlarged spent fuel storage is considered to be sufficient for the three Olkiluoto units. The enlargement of the interim storage was included in Olkiluoto NPP 1 and 2 operating license. The licensing of the enlargement was conducted as a major plant modification. The operator needed the approval from STUK to conduct the enlargement. Prior to the construction of this modification, the operator was required to submit the similar documentation as needed for applying for the construction license of a nuclear facility. When conducting changes in an old nuclear facility, the new safety requirements have to be followed. The major challenge in the designing the enlargement of the spent fuel storage was to modify it to withstand a large airplane crash. The operator chose to cover the pools with protecting slabs and also to

  1. Present status of JMTR spent fuel shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Masataka; Watanabe, Masao; Yokokawa, Makoto; Sato, Hiroshi; Ito, Haruhiko

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been consistently making the enrichment reduction of reactor fuels in cooperation with RERTR Program and FRR SNF Acceptance Program both conducted along with the U.S. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy and JMTR, 50 MW test reactor in Oarai Research Establishment, has achieved core conversion, from its initial 93% enriched UAl alloy to 45% enriched uranium-aluminide fuel, and then to the current 19.8% enriched uranium-silicide fuel. In order to return all of JMTR spent fuels, to be discharged from the reactor by May 12, 2006, to the U.S.A. by May 12, 2009, JAERI is planning the transportation schedule based on one shipment per year. The sixth shipment of spent fuels to U.S. was carried out as scheduled this year, where the total number of fuels shipped amounts to 651 elements. All of the UAl alloy elements have so far been shipped and now shipments of 45% enriched uranium-aluminide type fuels are in progress. Thus far the JMTR SFs have been transported on schedule. From 2003 onward are scheduled more then 850 elements to be shipped. In this paper, we describe our activities on the transportation in general and the schedule for the SFs shipments. (author)

  2. Nuclear fuel transport and particularly spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear material transport is an essential activity for COGEMA linking the different steps of the fuel cycle transport systems have to be safe and reliable. Spent fuel transport is more particularly examined in this paper because the development of reprocessing plant. Industrial, techmical and economical aspects are reviewed [fr

  3. Centralized disassembly and packaging of spent fuel in the DOE spent fuel management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    In October 1984, E.R. Johnson Associates, Inc. (JAI) initiated a study of the prospective use of a centralized facility for the disassembly and packaging of spent fuel to support the various elements of the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) spent fuel management system, including facilities for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and repositories. It was DOE's original plan to receive spent fuel at each repository where it would be disassembled and packaged (overpacked) for disposal purposes. Subsequently, DOE considered the prospective use of MRS of spent fuel as an option for providing safe and reliable management of spent fuel. This study was designed to consider possible advantages of the use of centralized facilities for disassembly and packaging of spent fuel at whose location storage facilities could be added as required. The study was divided into three principal technical tasks that covered: (a) development of requirements and criteria for the central disassembly and packaging facility and associated systems. (2) Development of conceptual designs for the central disassembly and packaging facility and associated systems. (3) Estimation of capital and operating costs involved for all system facilities and determination of life cycle costs for various scenarios of operation - for comparison with the reference system

  4. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Joon; Cho, S. H.; You, G. S.

    2001-04-01

    Currently, the economic advantage of any known approach to the back end fuel cycle of a nuclear power reactor has not been well established. Thus the long term storage of the spent fuel in a safe manner is one of the important issues to be resolved in countries where the nuclear power has a relatively heavy weight in power production of that country. At KAERI, as a solution to this particular issue midterm storage of the spent fuel, an alternative approach has been developed. This approach includes the decladding and pulverization process of the spent PWR fuel rod, the reducing process from the uranium oxide to a metallic uranium powder using Li metal in a LiCl salt, the continuous casting process of the reduced metal, and the recovery process of Li from mixed salts by the electrolysis. We conducted the laboratory scale tests of each processes for the technical feasibility and determination for the operational conditions for this approach. Also, we performed the theoretical safety analysis and conducted integral tests for the equipment integration through the Mock-up facility with non-radioactive samples. There were no major issues in the approach, however, material incompatibility of the alkaline metal and oxide in a salt at a high temperature and the reactor that contains the salt became a show stopper of the process. Also the difficulty of the clear separation of the salt with metals reduced from the oxide became a major issue

  5. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B. S.; Yoon, J. S.; Hong, H. D. (and others)

    2007-02-15

    In this research, the remote handling technology was developed for the ACP application. The ACP gives a possible solution to reduce the rapidly cumulative amount of spent fuels generated from the nuclear power plants in Korea. The remote technologies developed in this work are a slitting device, a voloxidizer, a modified telescopic servo manipulator and a digital mock-up. A slitting device was developed to declad the spent fuel rod-cuts and collect the spent fuel UO{sub 2} pellets. A voloxidizer was developed to convert the spent fuel UO{sub 2} pellets obtained from the slitting process in to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder. Experiments were performed to test the capabilities and remote operation of the developed slitting device and voloxidizer by using simulated rod-cuts and fuel in the ACP hot cell. A telescopic servo manipulator was redesigned and manufactured improving the structure of the prototype. This servo manipulator was installed in the ACP hot cell, and the target module for maintenance of the process equipment was selected. The optimal procedures for remote operation were made through the maintenance tests by using the servo manipulator. The ACP digital mockup in a virtual environment was established to secure a reliability and safety of remote operation and maintenance. The simulation for the remote operation and maintenance was implemented and the operability was analyzed. A digital mockup about the preliminary conceptual design of an enginnering-scale ACP was established, and an analysis about a scale of facility and remote handling was accomplished. The real-time diagnostic technique was developed to detect the possible fault accidents of the slitting device. An assessment of radiation effect for various sensors was also conducted in the radiation environment.

  6. Semiautomatic spent-fuel-handling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, M.

    1990-01-01

    The technology for the total automation of the entire fuel handling operation, has been in existence for several years. The simplest form, or first phase of modernization, is the semiautomatic fuel handling positioning system. Several of these types of platforms are in existence today, and recently CIMCORP/PaR systems completed a semiautomatic spent-fuel handling machine (SFHM) built for Calvert Cliffs, owned by Baltimore Gas and Electric. CIMCORP has provided a semiautomated spent nuclear fuel handling system consisting of the following: (1) newly designed refueling platform bridge and trolley; (2) CIMCORP CIMROC 4000 based automatic controls technology; (3) closed circuit TV surveillance of fuel grappling operations; and (4) direct replacement of the original system provided in 1971. All SFHM motions are driven under computer control, with fully automatic bridge and trolley traverse and manually activated hoisting and grappling. Position feedback for motion control and position indication is provided by resolvers. In operation, the technician selects machine destination on a touch screen and the control system automatically positions the bridge and trolley at the desired location. Future automation of fuel grappling and hoisting can be preformed with relatively few machine modifications

  7. Final environmental impact statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Charge for spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The United States Government policy relating to nuclear fuel reprocessing, which was announced by President Carter on April 7, 1977, provides for an indefinite deferral of reprocessing, and thus commits light water reactor (LWR) plants to a once-through fuel cycle during that indefinite period. In a subsequent action implementing that policy, the Department of Energy (DOE) on October 18, 1977 announced a spent fuel policy which would enable domestic, and on a selective basis, foreign utilities to deliver spent fuel to the US Government for interim storage and final geologic disposal, and pay the Government a fee for such services. This volume addresses itself to whether the fee charged for these services, by its level or its structure, would have any effect on the environmental impacts of implementing the Spent Fuel Policy itself. This volume thus analyzes the fee and various alternatives to determine the interaction between the fee and the degree of participation by domestic utilities and foreign countries in the proposed spent fuel program for implementing the Spent Fuel Policy. It also analyzes the effect, if any, of the fee on the growth of nuclear power

  8. Design of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Guide is for interim spent fuel storage facilities that are not integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. Following the introduction, Section 2 describes the general safety requirements applicable to the design of both wet and dry spent fuel storage facilities; Section 3 deals with the design requirements specific to either wet or dry storage. Recommendations for the auxiliary systems of any storage facility are contained in Section 4; these are necessary to ensure the safety of the system and its safe operation. Section 5 provides recommendations for establishing the quality assurance system for a storage facility. Section 6 discusses the requirements for inspection and maintenance that must be considered during the design. Finally, Section 7 provides guidance on design features to be considered to facilitate eventual decommissioning. 18 refs

  9. Cost analysis methodology of spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report deals with the cost analysis of interim spent fuel storage; however, it is not intended either to give a detailed cost analysis or to compare the costs of the different options. This report provides a methodology for calculating the costs of different options for interim storage of the spent fuel produced in the reactor cores. Different technical features and storage options (dry and wet, away from reactor and at reactor) are considered and the factors affecting all options defined. The major cost categories are analysed. Then the net present value of each option is calculated and the levelized cost determined. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted taking into account the uncertainty in the different cost estimates. Examples of current storage practices in some countries are included in the Appendices, with description of the most relevant technical and economic aspects. 16 figs, 14 tabs

  10. Natural convection cooling of spent fuels depository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menant, B.

    2000-01-01

    The operating CASCAD Facility was commissioned at Cadarache since 1990. Spent fuels are being storage for a 50 years period. The heat giving by the wastes is evacuated essentially by natural convection. The Trio U software is applied to the thermohydraulic operating of the system. The results allow to illustrate the installation and show system instabilities effects which appear at many scales. (A.L.B.)

  11. Towards a Swedish repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroem, P.-E.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear power is producing electricity for the benefit of society but is also leaving radioactive residues behind. It is our responsibility to handle these residues in a safe and proper manner. The development of a system for handling spent fuel from nuclear power plants has proceeded in steps. The same is true for the actual construction of facilities and will continue to be the case for the final repository for spent fuel and other types of long-lived wastes. The primary objective in constructing the repository will be to isolate and contain the radioactive waste. In case the isolation fails for some reason the multibarrier system should retain and retard the radionuclides that might come into contact with the groundwater. A repository is now planned to be built in two steps where the first step will include deposition of about 400 canisters with spent fuel. This first step should be finished in about 20 years from now and be followed by an extensive evaluation of the results from not only this particular step but also from the development of alternative routes before deciding on how to proceed. A special facility to encapsulate the spent fuel is also required. Such an encapsulation plant is proposed to be constructed as an extension of the existing interim storage CLAB. Finding a site for the repository is a critical issue in the implementation of any repository. The siting process started a few years ago and made some progress but is by no means yet completed. It will go on at least into the early part of the next decade. When the present nuclear power plants begin to be due for retirement there should also be some facilities in place to take permanent care of the long-lived radioactive residues. Progress in siting will be a prerequisite for success in our responsibility to make progress towards a safe permanent solution of the waste issue. (orig.)

  12. Safety assessment for spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Practice has been prepared as part of the IAEA's programme on the safety assessment of interim spent fuel storage facilities which are not an integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. This report provides general guidance on the safety assessment process, discussing both deterministic and probabilistic assessment methods. It describes the safety assessment process for normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences and also related to accident conditions. 10 refs, 2 tabs

  13. Spent fuel packaging and its safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Kimitaka; Nakaoki, Kozo; Tamamura, Tadao; Matsuda, Fumio; Fukudome, Kazuyuki

    1983-01-01

    An all stainless steel B(U) type packaging is proposed to transport spent fuels discharged from research reactors and other radioactive materials. The package is used dry and provided with surface fins to absorb drop shock and to dissipate decay heat. Safety was analyzed for structural, thermal, containment shielding and criticality factors, and the integrity of the package was confirmed with the MARC-CDC, TRUMP, ORIGEN, QAD, ANISN, and KENO computer codes. (author)

  14. Management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The programme consists of the long-term and short-term programme, the continued bedrock investigations, the underground research laboratory, the decision-making procedure in the site selection process and information questions during the site selection process. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel hereby subunits both the SKB's R and D Programme 86 and the Board's statement concerning the programme. Decisions in the matter have been made by the Board's executive committee. (DG)

  15. European experience with spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, I.A.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Transport Ltd has transported 5000 tonnes of spent fuel from 35 reactors in 8 European countries since 1972. Transport management is governed by the Quality Plan for: transport administration, packaging and shipment procedures at the shipping plant, operations at the power plant, and packaging and shipment organization at the power plant. Selection of a suitable carrier device is made with regard to the shipping plant requirements, physical limitations of the reactor, fuel characteristics, and transport route constraints. The transport plan is set up taking into account exploitation of the casks, reactor shut-down requirements, fuel acceptance plans at the reprocessing plant, and cask maintenance periods. A transport cycle involving spent fuel shipment to La Hague or to Sellafield takes typically two or four weeks, respectively. Most transports through Europe are by rail. A special-design railway ferry boat serves transports to the United Kingdom. Both wet or dry casks are employed. Modern casks are designed for high burnups and for oxide fuels. (J.B.)

  16. Considerations for the transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    In our society today the transportation of radioactive materials, and most particularly spent reactor fuel, is surrounded by considerable emotion and a wealth of information, good and bad. The transportation of these materials is viewed as unique and distinct from the transportation of other hazardous materials and as a particularly vulnerable component of the nuclear power activities of this nation. Added to this is the concept, widely held, that almost everyone is an expert on the transportation of radioactive materials. One significant contribution to this level of emotion is the notion that all roads (rail and highway), on which these goods will be transported, somehow traverse everyone's backyard. The issue of the transportation of spent fuel has thus become a political battleground. Perhaps this should not be surprising since it has all of the right characteristics for such politicization in that it is pervasive, emotional, and visible. In order that those involved in the discussion of this activity might be able to reach some rational conclusions, this paper offers some background information which might be useful to a broad range of individuals in developing their own perspectives. The intent is to address the safety of transporting spent fuel from a technical standpoint without the emotional content which is frequently a part of this argument

  17. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 4. Pacific basin spent fuel logistics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the conceptual framework for a Pacific Basin Spent Fuel Logistics System (PBSFLS); and preliminarily describes programatic steps that might be taken to implement such a system. The PBSFLS concept is described in terms of its technical and institutional components. The preferred PBSFLS concept embodies the rationale of emplacing a fuel cycle system which can adjust to the technical and institutional non-proliferation solutions as they are developed and accepted by nations. The concept is structured on the basis of initially implementing a regional spent fuel storage and transportation system which can technically and institutionally accommodate downstream needs for energy recovery and long-term waste management solutions.

  18. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 4. Pacific basin spent fuel logistics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the conceptual framework for a Pacific Basin Spent Fuel Logistics System (PBSFLS); and preliminarily describes programatic steps that might be taken to implement such a system. The PBSFLS concept is described in terms of its technical and institutional components. The preferred PBSFLS concept embodies the rationale of emplacing a fuel cycle system which can adjust to the technical and institutional non-proliferation solutions as they are developed and accepted by nations. The concept is structured on the basis of initially implementing a regional spent fuel storage and transportation system which can technically and institutionally accommodate downstream needs for energy recovery and long-term waste management solutions

  19. Overview of spent fuel management options: Technology and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeman, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    The options for spent fuel management discussed in this paper. There are several spent fuel management options available to utilities beyond the traditional options of reracking and transshipment. Two different dry storage options have been licensed by NRC and it appears that NRC will issue a license amendment to allow for the storage of consolidated spent fuel in the very near future. The use of either of these spent fuel management options is highly dependent upon the individual requirements of the utility. There are several factors that must be considered when choosing a specific fuel management option. Either of these spent fuel management options, dry storage or rod consolidation, is capable of meeting the needs of utilities for additional spent fuel storage until DOE begins accepting spent fuel for final disposal in 1998

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project operational staffing plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debban, B.L.

    1996-03-01

    Using the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project's current process flow concepts and knowledge from cognizant engineering and operational personnel, an initial assessment of the SNF Project radiological exposure and resource requirements was completed. A small project team completed a step by step analysis of fuel movement in the K Basins to the new interim storage location, the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This analysis looked at fuel retrieval, conditioning of the fuel, and transportation of the fuel. This plan describes the staffing structure for fuel processing, fuel movement, and the maintenance and operation (M ampersand O) staffing requirements of the facilities. This initial draft does not identify the support function resources required for M ampersand O, i.e., administrative and engineering (technical support). These will be included in future revisions to the plan. This plan looks at the resource requirements for the SNF subprojects, specifically, the operations of the facilities, balances resources where applicable, rotates crews where applicable, and attempts to use individuals in multi-task assignments. This plan does not apply to the construction phase of planned projects that affect staffing levels of K Basins

  1. Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Topics covered during the 'Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment' were as follows: Selection of constructions and materials, fuel element development concepts; Fabrication of spherical coated fuel particles and fuel element on their base; investigation of fuel properties; Spent fuel treatment and storage; Head-end processing of HTGR fuel elements; investigation of HTGR fuel regeneration process; applicability of gas-fluorine technology of regeneration of spent HTGR fuel elements

  2. Spent fuel pool cleanup and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Each of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford had a large water-filled spent fuel pool to provide interim storage of irradiated fuel while awaiting shipment to the separation facilities. After cessation of reactor operations the fuel was removed from the pools and the water levels were drawn down to a 5- to 10-foot depth. The pools were maintained with the water to provide shielding and radiological control. What appeared to be a straightforward project to process the water, remove the sediments from the basin, and stabilize the contamination on the floors and walls became a very complex and time consuming operation. The sediment characteristics varied from pool to pool, the ion exchange system required modification, areas of hard-pack sediments were discovered on the floors, special arrangements to handle and package high dose rate items for shipment were required, and contract problems ensued with the subcontractor. The original schedule to complete the project from preliminary engineering to final stabilization of the pools was 15 months. The actual time required was about 25 months. The original cost estimate to perform the work was $2,651,000. The actual cost of the project was $5,120,000, which included $150,000 for payment of claims to the subcontractor. This paper summarizes the experiences associated with the cleanup and radiological stabilization of the 100-B, -C, -D, and -DR spent fuel pools, and discusses a number of lessons learned items

  3. Current status of spent fuel management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuansong

    2005-01-01

    The administration organization and the laws and regulations on spent fuel management in China are described at first. In the year of 2000, CNN C and GNPJVC signed a contract of take-over mode for spent fuel, in which CNNC will take-over the spent fuel annually since 2003. In the year of 2001, CNNC and QNPC signed another contract of take-over mode for spent fuel. Transportation by road is the realistic selections of the transportation of the spent fuel from the nuclear power stations to LNFC. As for spent fuel management, the construction of CNNC's reprocessing pilot plant is going on and R and D of spent fuel management are launching continuously. (author)

  4. A study on the expulsion of iodine from spent-fuel solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Akira; Ishikawa, Niroh [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    During dissolution of spent nuclear fuels, some radioiodine remains in spent-fuel solutions. Its expulsion to dissolver off-gas is important to minimize iodine escape to the environment. In our current work, the iodine remaining in spent-fuel solutions varied from 0 to 10% after dissolution of spent PWR-fuel specimens (approximately 3 g each). The amount remaining probably was dependent upon the dissolution time required. The cause is ascribable to the increased nitrous acid concentration that results from NOx generated during dissolution. The presence of nitrous acid was confirmed spectrophotometrically in an NO-HNO{sub 3} system at 100{degrees}C. Experiments examining NOx concentration versus the quantity of iodine in a simulated spent-fuel solution indicate that iodine (I{minus}) in spent fuels is subjected to the following three reactions: (1) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitric acid, (2) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitrous acid arising from NOx, and (3) formation of colloidal iodine (AgI, PdI{sub 2}), the major iodine species in a spent-fuel solution. Reaction (2) competes with reaction (3) to control the quantity of iodine remaining in solution. The following two-step expulsion process to remove iodine from a spent-fuel solution was derived from these experiments: Step One - Heat spent-fuel solutions without NOx sparging. When aged colloidal iodine is present, an excess amount of iodate should be added to the solution. Step Two - Sparge the fuel solution with NOx while heating. Effect of this new method was confirmed by use of a spent PWR-fuel solution.

  5. Advanced waste forms from spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    More than one hundred spent nuclear fuel types, having an aggregate mass of more than 5000 metric tons (2700 metric tons of heavy metal), are stored by the United States Department of Energy. This paper proposes a method for converting this wide variety of fuel types into two waste forms for geologic disposal. The method is based on a molten salt electrorefining technique that was developed for conditioning the sodium-bonded, metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) for geologic disposal. The electrorefining method produces two stable, optionally actinide-free, high-level waste forms: an alloy formed from stainless steel, zirconium, and noble metal fission products, and a ceramic waste form containing the reactive metal fission products. Electrorefining and its accompanying head-end process are briefly described, and methods for isolating fission products and fabricating waste forms are discussed

  6. Preliminary Calculation on a Spent Fuel Pool Accident using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaehwan; Choi, Yu Jung; Hong, Tae Hyub; Kim, Hyeong-Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The probability of an accident happening at the spent fuel pool was believed to be quite low until the 2011 Fukushima accident occurred. Notably, large amount of spent fuel are normally stored in the spent fuel pool for a long time compared to the amount of fuel in the reactor core and the total heat released from the spent fuel is high enough to boil the water of the spent fuel pool when the cooling system does not operate. In addition, the enrichment and the burnup of the fuel have both increased in the past decade and heat generation from the spent fuel thereby has also increased. The failure of the cooling system at the spent fuel pool (hereafter, a loss-of-cooling accident) is one of the principal hypothetical causes of an accident that could occur at the spent fuel pool. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of-cooling accident was performed. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of cooling accident was performed with GOTHIC. The calculation results show boiling away of water in the spent fuel pool due to the loss-of-cooling accident and similar thermal performance of the spent fuel pool with previous research results.

  7. Current state of knowledge of water radiolysis effects on spent nuclear fuel corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.; Sunder, S.

    2000-07-01

    Literature data on the effect of water radiolysis products on spent-fuel oxidation and dissolution are reviewed. Effects of gamma radiolysis, alpha radiolysis, and dissolved O 2 or H 2 O 2 in unirradiated solutions are discussed separately. Also, the effect of carbonate in gamma-irradiated solutions and radiolysis effects on leaching of spent fuel are reviewed. In addition, a kinetic model for calculating the corrosion rates of UO 2 in solutions undergoing radiolysis is discussed. The model gives good agreement between calculated and measured corrosion rates in the case of gamma radiolysis and in unirradiated solutions containing dissolved oxygen or hydrogen peroxide. However, the model fails to predict the results of alpha radiolysis. In a recent study , it was shown that the model gave good agreement with measured corrosion rates of spent fuel exposed in deionized water. The applications of radiolysis studies for geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel are discussed. (author)

  8. Status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.

    2004-01-01

    Results compiled in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialised and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. (author)

  9. A drying system for spent fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.; Warinowski, M.; Nieminen, J.

    2007-06-01

    The report presents a proposed drying apparatus for spent fuel assemblies. The apparatus is used for removing the moisture left in fuel assemblies during intermediate storage and transport. The apparatus shall be installed in connection with the fuel handling cell of an encapsulation plant. The report presents basic requirements for and implementation of the drying system, calculation of the drying process, operation, service and maintenance of the equipment, as well as a cost estimate. Some aspects of the apparatus design are quite specified, but the actual detailed planning and final selection of components have not been included. The report also describes actions for possible malfunction and fault conditions. An objective of the drying system for fuel assemblies is to remove moisture from the assemblies prior to placing the same in a disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel. Drying is performed as a vacuum drying process for vaporizing and draining the moisture present on the surface of the assemblies. The apparatus comprises two pieces of drying equipment. One of the chambers is equipped to take up Lo1-2 fuel assemblies and the other OL1-2 fuel assemblies. The chambers have an internal space sufficient to accommodate also OL3 fuel assemblies, but this requires replacing the internal chamber structure for laying down the assemblies to be dried. The drying chambers can be closed with hatches facing the fuel handling cell. Water vapour pumped out of the chamber is collected in a controlled manner, first by condensing with a heat exchanger and further by freezing in a cold trap. For reasons of safety, the exhaust air of vacuum pumps is further delivered into the ventilation outlet duct of a controlled area. The adequate drying result is ascertained by a low final pressure of about 100 Pa, as well as by a sufficient holding time. The chamber is built for making its cleaning as easy as possible in the event of a fuel rod breaking during a drying, loading or unloading

  10. Spent fuel storage options: a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Bale, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The delayed decisions on nuclear fuel reprocessing strategies in the USA and other countries have forced the development of new long-term irradiated fuel storage techniques, to allow a larger volume of fuel to be held on the nuclear station site after removal from the reactor. The nuclear power industry has responded to the challenge by developing several viable options for long-term onsite storage, which can be employed individually or in tandem. They are: densification of storage in the existing spent fuel pool; building another fuel pool facility at the plant site; onsite cask park, and on site vault clusters. Desirable attributes of a storage option are: Safety: minimise the number of fuel handling steps; Economy: minimise total installed, and O and M cost; Security: protection from anti-nuclear protesters; Site adaptability: available site space, earthquake characteristics of the region and so on; Non-intrusiveness: minimise required modifications to existing plant systems; Modularisation: afford the option to adapt a modular approach for staged capital outlays; and Maturity: extent of industry experience with the technology. A critical appraisal is made of each of the four aforementioned storage options in the light of these criteria. (2 figures, 1 table, 4 references) (Author)

  11. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables

  12. Techniques for laser processing, assay, and examination of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Mitchell, R.C.; Rogell, M.L.

    1981-11-01

    Fuel examination studies were performed which have application to interim spent fuel storage. These studies were in three areas, i.e., laser drilling and rewelding demonstration, nondestructive assay techniques survey, and fuel examination techniques survey

  13. Expansion of capacity of spent fuel pools and associated problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, J.L. De; Lopez-Cotarelo, J.; Ramos, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Expanding the spent fuel storage pool capacity is a good solution for utilities facing the current shortage in fuel reprocessing capacity. The problems more likely to be found when expanding a spent fuel storage facility by using high density storage racks are reviewed. Basically three types of problems arise: 1) Problems related with the characteristics of the new facility. 2) Problems related with the works of expansion. 3) Problems related with the long term storage of large quantities of spent fuel. (author)

  14. Trunnions for spent fuel element shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, B.

    1989-01-01

    Trunnions are used on spent fuel element shipping casks for one or more of a combination of lifting, tilting or securing to a transport vehicle. Within the nuclear transportation industry there are many different philosophies on trunnions, concerning the shape, manufacture, attachment, inspection, maintenance and repair. With the volume of international transport of spent fuel now taking place, it is recognized that problems are occurring with casks in international traffic due to the variance of the philosophies, national standards, and the lack of an international standard. It was agreed through the ISO that an international standard was required to harmonize. It was not possible to evolve an international standard. It was only possible to evolve an international guide. To evolve a standard would mean superseding any existing national standards which already cover particular aspects of trunnions i.e. deceleration forces imposed on trunnions used as tie down features. Therefore the document is a guide only and allows existing national standards to take precedence where they exist. The guide covers design, manufacture, maintenance, repair and quality assurance. The guide covers trunnions used on spent fuel casks transported by road, rail and sea. The guide details the considerations which should be taken account of by cask designers, i.e. stress intensity, design features, inspection and test methods etc. Manufacture, attachment and pre-service testing is also covered. The guide details user requirements which should also be taken account of, i.e. servicing frequency, content, maintenance and repair. The application of quality assurance is described separately although the principles are used throughout the guide

  15. Recovery of decommissioning and spent fuel charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermanis, G.

    1982-01-01

    The licensing and financial aspects of NPP decommissioning, deactivation and dismantling of radioactive equipment in the USA are considered. Data on the costs of spent fuel transport and conservation are given. The state of the problem development in other countries is briefly described. It is pointed out that the technical aspect of the problem is much better studied than that of license-financial problem. At the same time in contrast to TPP NPP use is connected with considerable expenses after the end of a power plant sevice time

  16. Some factors to consider in handling and storing spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1985-11-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Wet storage experience has been summarized earlier in several other reports. This report summarizes pertinent items noted during FY 1985 concerning recent developments in the handling and storage of spent fuel and associated considerations. The subjects discussed include recent publications, findings, and developments associated with: (1) storage of water reactor spent fuel in water pools, (2) extended-burnup fuel, (3) fuel assembly reconstitution and reinsertion, (4) rod consolidation, (5) variations in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's definition of failed fuel, (6) detection of failed fuel rods, and (7) extended integrity of spent fuel. A list of pertinent publications is included

  17. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W. [Packaging Technology, Inc., Tacoma, WA (United States); Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  18. Spent fuel management: reprocessing or storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Soares, M.L. de; Oliveira Lopes, M.J. de

    1986-01-01

    A review of the spent fuel management concepts generally adopted in several countries is presented, including an analysis of the brazilian situation. The alternatives are the reprocessing, the interim storage and the final disposal in a repository after appropriate conditioning. The commercial operating reprocessing facilities in the Western World are located in France and in the United Kingdom. In the USA the anti-reprocessing policy from 1977 changed in 1981, when the government supported the resumption of commercial reprocessing and designated the private sector as responsible for providing these services. Small scale facilities are operating in India, Italy, Japan and West Germany. Pilot plants for LWR fuel are being planned by Spain, Pakistan and Argentina. (Author) [pt

  19. Spent fuel management: reprocessing or storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Soares, M.L. de; Oliveira Lopes, M.J. de.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the spent fuel management concepts generally adopted in several countries is presented, including an analysis of the brazilian situation. The alternatives are the reprocessing, the interim storage and the final disposal in a repository after appropriate conditioning. The commercial operating reprocessing facilities in the Western World are located in France and in the United Kingdom. In the USA the anti-reprocessing policy from 1977 changed in 1981, when the Government supported the resumption of commercial reprocessing and designated the private sector as responsible for providing these services. Small scale facilities are operating in India, Italy, Japan and West Germany. Pilot plant for LWR fuel are being planned by Spain, Pakistan and Argentina. (Author) [pt

  20. Potential Interface Issues in Spent Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    This publication is an output of a series of meetings to identify and evaluate issues and opportunities associated with interfaces in the back end of the fuel cycle (BEFC) and to describe effective management approaches based on the experience of Member States. During the meetings, participants from Member States and other international organizations shared and evaluated the main interfaces and potential interface issues among the spent fuel storage, transport, reprocessing and disposal of the BEFC, and also reviewed the national approaches to addressing these issues. The aim of this publication is to provide an approach to identify the interfaces in the BEFC as well as the potential issues that should be addressed. It also aims at responding to the solutions Member States most often find to be effective and, in some cases, were adjusted or revisited to reach the fixed target. Most of the interfaces and issues are country specific, as evidenced by the variety and diversity of examples provided in this publication

  1. Spent nuclear fuel project - criteria document spent nuclear fuel final safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The criteria document provides the criteria and planning guidance for developing the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). This FSAR will support the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office decision to authorize the procurement, installation, installation acceptance testing, startup, and operation of the SNF Project facilities (K Basins, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, and Canister Storage Building)

  2. The analysis of the RA reactor irradiated fuel cooling in the spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrhovac, M.; Afgan, N.; Spasojevic, D.; Jovic, V.

    1985-01-01

    According to the RA reactor exploitation plan the great quantity of the irradiated spent fuel will be disposed in the reactor spent fuel pool after each reactor campaign which will including the present spent fuel inventory increase the residual power level in the pool and will soon cause the pool capacity shortage. To enable the analysis of the irradiated fuel cooling the pool and characteristic spent fuel canister temperature distribution at the residual power maximum was done. The results obtained under the various spent fuel cooling conditions in the pit indicate the normal spent fuel thermal load even in the most inconvenient cooling conditions. (author)

  3. Antineutrino Monitoring of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran; Huber, Patrick; Kopp, Joachim

    2017-11-01

    Military and civilian applications of nuclear energy have left a significant amount of spent nuclear fuel over the past 70 years. Currently, in many countries worldwide, the use of nuclear energy is on the rise. Therefore, the management of highly radioactive nuclear waste is a pressing issue. In this paper, we explore antineutrino detectors as a tool for monitoring and safeguarding nuclear-waste material. We compute the flux and spectrum of antineutrinos emitted by spent nuclear fuel elements as a function of time, and we illustrate the usefulness of antineutrino detectors in several benchmark scenarios. In particular, we demonstrate how a measurement of the antineutrino flux can help to reverify the contents of a dry storage cask in case the monitoring chain by conventional means gets disrupted. We then comment on the usefulness of antineutrino detectors at long-term storage facilities such as Yucca mountain. Finally, we put forward antineutrino detection as a tool in locating underground "hot spots" in contaminated areas such as the Hanford site in Washington state.

  4. Development of Spent Fuel Examination Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Dong; Park, K. J.; Shin, H. S. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    For the official operation of ACPF Facility Attachment based on facility declared DIQ was issued by IAEA and officialized upon ROK government approval. This procedure gives an essential ground to negotiate Joint Determination between governments of ROK and US. For ACPF process material accountability a neutron coincidence counting system was developed and calibrated with Cf-252 source. Its performance test demonstrated that over-all counting efficiency was about 21% with random error, 1.5% against calibration source, which found to be satisfactory to the expected design specification. A calibration curve derived by MCNP code with relationship between ASNC doublet counts vs. neutron activity of Cm-244 showed calibration constant to be 2.78x10E5 counts/s.g which would be used for initial ACP hot operation test. Nuclear material transportation and temporary storage system was established for active demonstration of advanced spent fuel management process line and would be directly applied to the effective management of wastes arising from active demonstration and would later contribute as a base data to development of inter hot-cell movement system in pyro-processing line. In addition, an optimal spent fuel for the ACP demonstration was selected and a computer code was developed as a tool to estimate the expected source term at each key measurement point of ACP.

  5. Overview of the United States spent nuclear fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, W.L.

    1997-12-01

    As a result of the end of the Cold War, the mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has shifted from an emphasis on nuclear weapons development and production to an emphasis on the safe management and disposal of excess nuclear materials including spent nuclear fuel from both production and research reactors. Within the US, there are two groups managing spent nuclear fuel. Commercial nuclear power plants are managing their spent nuclear fuel at the individual reactor sites until the planned repository is opened. All other spent nuclear fuel, including research reactors, university reactors, naval reactors, and legacy material from the Cold War is managed by DOE. DOE's mission is to safely and efficiently manage its spent nuclear fuel and prepare it for disposal. This mission involves correcting existing vulnerabilities in spent fuel storage; moving spent fuel from wet basins to dry storage; processing at-risk spent fuel; and preparing spent fuel in road-ready condition for repository disposal. Most of DOE's spent nuclear fuel is stored in underwater basins (wet storage). Many of these basins are outdated, and spent fuel is to be removed and transferred to more modern basins or to new dry storage facilities. In 1995, DOE completed a complex-wide environmental impact analysis that resulted in spent fuel being sent to one of three principal DOE sites for interim storage (up to 40 years) prior to shipment to a repository. This regionalization by fuel type will allow for economies of scale yet minimize unnecessary transportation. This paper discusses the national SNF program, ultimate disposition of SNF, and the technical challenges that have yet to be resolved, namely, release rate testing, non-destructive assay, alternative treatments, drying, and chemical reactivity

  6. Providing flexibility in spent fuel and vitrified waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.; O'Tallamhain, C.; Brown, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The UK Central Electricity Generating Board is pondering a decision to build a dry vault store as a buffer in its overall AGR spent fuel management programme. The application of the dry vault is not limited to fuel from gas cooled reactors, it can be used for spent LWR fuel and vitrified waste. A cutaway diagram of such a vault is presented. (UK)

  7. Current state of knowledge in radiolysis effects on spent fuel corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.; Sunder, S.

    1998-09-01

    Literature data on the effect of water radiolysis products on spent fuel oxidation and dissolution have been reviewed. Effects of γ-radiolysis, α-radiolysis and dissolved O 2 or H 2 O 2 in unirradiated solutions have been discussed separately. Also the effect of carbonate in γ-irradiated solutions and radiolysis effects on leaching of spent fuels have been reviewed. In addition a radiolysis model for calculation of corrosion rates of UO 2 , presented previously, has been discussed. The model has been shown to give a good agreement between calculated and measured corrosion rates in the case of γ-radiolysis and in unirradiated solutions of dissolved oxygen or hydrogen peroxide. The model has failed to predict the results of α-radiolysis. In a recent study it was shown that the model gave a good agreement with measured corrosion rates of spent fuel exposed in deionized water

  8. Spent fuel management fee methodology and computer code user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, R.L.; White, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology and computer model described here were developed to analyze the cash flows for the federal government taking title to and managing spent nuclear fuel. The methodology has been used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the spent fuel disposal fee that will provide full cost recovery. Although the methodology was designed to analyze interim storage followed by spent fuel disposal, it could be used to calculate a fee for reprocessing spent fuel and disposing of the waste. The methodology consists of two phases. The first phase estimates government expenditures for spent fuel management. The second phase determines the fees that will result in revenues such that the government attains full cost recovery assuming various revenue collection philosophies. These two phases are discussed in detail in subsequent sections of this report. Each of the two phases constitute a computer module, called SPADE (SPent fuel Analysis and Disposal Economics) and FEAN (FEe ANalysis), respectively

  9. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology - Kinematic analysis of bilateral arms for abnormal spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyu Won; Yoo, Ju Sang; Kim, Jong Yoon [Chungbuk National University, Chongju (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    In the project of 'Development of Spent Fuel Remote Handling Technology', Preprocessing technique, mechanism and teleoperation technique are being developed. One of the mechanisms is a device for disassembling of the spent fuel bundle. However, there may be abnormal fuel bar among the fuel bundle, In this case the unpacking task will be difficult and dangerous. So, in that case, a force reflected teleoperation manipulator is desirable. The system is composed of a anthropomorphic input device at control site, power manipulator at remote site and control system. In this research, the forward and inverse kinematic equations of input device and manipulators has been solved, respectively. In addition, the mapping algorithm is proposed and shown using computer simulation. The reaction force of the telemanipulator with the environmental object is reflected through control system. The reaction force is decomposed into joint torque of the input device based on the jacobian equation. The obtained theoretical relations are verified through computer simulation and they will be used effectively in the spent fuel remote handling technology. 6 refs., 26 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  10. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING ROK SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL MANAGEMENT OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    CHAIM BRAUN; ROBERT FORREST

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss spent fuel management options in the Republic of Korea (ROK) from two interrelated perspectives: Centralized dry cask storage and spent fuel pyroprocessing and burning in sodium fast reactors (SFRs). We argue that the ROK will run out of space for at-reactors spent fuel storage by about the year 2030 and will thus need to transition centralized dry cask storage. Pyroprocessing plant capacity, even if approved and successfully licensed and constructed by that time, wil...

  11. Miscibility and oxidation rate of the simulated metallic spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, K. S.; Joo, J. S.; Shin, Y. J.; Oh, S. C. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    The simulated metallic spent fuel was fabricated by using Uranium, Neodymium and Palladium in order to study the miscibility of Neodymium and Palladium with Uranium. For analysis of long-term safty on the metallized spent fuel, the simulated metallic spent fuel was oxidized under pure oxygen environment at 183{approx}250 deg C. From the results, the oxidation rate correlation and activation energy were obtained.

  12. Nuclear Spent Fuel Management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.

    2015-01-01

    The radioactive waste management policy is established by the Spanish Government through the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce. This policy is described in the Cabinet-approved General Radioactive Waste Plan. ENRESA is the Spanish organization in charge of radioactive waste and nuclear SFM and nuclear installations decommissioning. The priority goal in SFM is the construction of the centralized storage facility named Almacén Temporal Centralizado (ATC), whose generic design was approved by the safety authority, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. This facility is planned for some 6.700 tons of heavy metal. The ATC site selection process, based on a volunteer community’s scheme, has been launched by the Government in December 2009. After the selection of a site in a participative and transparent process, the site characterization and licensing activities will support the construction of the facility. Meanwhile, extension of the on-site storage capacity has been implemented at the seven nuclear power plants sites, including past reracking at all sites. More recent activities are: reracking performed at Cofrentes NPP; dual purpose casks re-licensing for higher burnup at Trillo NPP; transfer of the spent fuel inventory at Jose Cabrera NPP to a dry-storage system, to allow decommissioning operations; and licence application of a dry-storage installation at Ascó NPP, to provide the needed capacity until the ATC facility operation. For financing planning purposes, the long-term management of spent fuel is based on direct disposal. A final decision about major fuel management options is not made yet. To assist the decision makers a number of activities are under way, including basic designs of a geological disposal facility for clay and granite host rocks, together with associated performance assessment, and supported by a R&D programme, which also includes research projects in other options like advanced separation and transmutation. (author)

  13. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrity Research and Development Survey for UKABWR Spent Fuel Interim Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mertyurek, Ugur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this report is to identify issues and support documentation and identify and detail existing research on spent fuel dry storage; provide information to support potential R&D for the UKABWR (United Kingdom Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) Spent Fuel Interim Storage (SFIS) Pre-Construction Safety Report; and support development of answers to questions developed by the regulator. Where there are gaps or insufficient data, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has summarized the research planned to provide the necessary data along with the schedule for the research, if known. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants has historically been stored on site (wet) in spent fuel pools pending ultimate disposition. Nuclear power users (countries, utilities, vendors) are developing a suite of options and set of supporting analyses that will enable future informed choices about how best to manage these materials. As part of that effort, they are beginning to lay the groundwork for implementing longer-term interim storage of the SNF and the Greater Than Class C (CTCC) waste (dry). Deploying dry storage will require a number of technical issues to be addressed. For the past 4-5 years, ORNL has been supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in identifying these key technical issues, managing the collection of data to be used in issue resolution, and identifying gaps in the needed data. During this effort, ORNL subject matter experts (SMEs) have become expert in understanding what information is publicly available and what gaps in data remain. To ensure the safety of the spent fuel under normal and frequent conditions of wet and subsequent dry storage, intact fuel must be shown to: 1.Maintain fuel cladding integrity; 2.Maintain its geometry for cooling, shielding, and subcriticality; 3.Maintain retrievability, and damaged fuel with pinhole or hairline cracks must be shown not to degrade further. Where PWR (pressurized water reactor) information is

  14. Improving of spent fuel monitoring in condition of Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklos, M.; Krsjak, V.; Bozik, M.; Vasina, D.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring of WWER fuel assemblies condition in Slovakia is presented in the paper. The leak tightness results of fuel assemblies used in Slovak WWER units in last 20 years are analyzed. Good experiences with the 'Sipping system' are described. The Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility in NPP Jaslovske Bohunice was build and put in operation in 1986. Since 1999, leak tests of WWER-440 fuel assemblies are provided by special leak tightness detection system 'Sipping in Pool' delivered by Framatome-ANP facility with external heating for the precise detection of active specimens. Another system for monitoring of fuel assemblies condition was implemented in December 2006 under the name 'SVYPP-440'. First non-active tests started at February 2007 and are described in the paper. Although those systems seems to be very effective, the detection time of all fuel assemblies in one storage pool is too long (several months). Therefore, a new 'on-line' detection system, based on new sorbent KNiFC-PAN for effective 134 Cs and 137 Cs activity was developed. This sorbent was compared with another type of sorbent NIFSIL and results are presented. The design of this detection system and its possible application in the Slovak wet spent fuel storage facility is discussed. For completeness, the initial results of the new system are also presented. (authors)

  15. Transportation and storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the generic actions to be taken by the Department of Energy, in cooperation with other US government agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, in support of the implementation of Administration policies with respect to the following international spent fuel management activities: bilateral cooperation related to expansion of foreign national storage capacities; multilateral and international cooperation related to development of multinational and international spent fuel storage regimes; fee-based transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage; and emergency transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage

  16. Status of Away From Reactor spent fuel storage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.D.

    1979-07-01

    The Away From Reactor (AFR) Spent Fuel Program that the US Department of Energy established in 1977 is intended to preclude the shutting down of commercial nuclear power reactors because of lack of storage space for spent fuel. Legislation now being considered by Congress includes plans to provide storage space for commercial spent fuel beginning in 1983. Utilities are being encouraged to provide as much storage space as possible in their existing storage facilities, but projections indicate that a significant amount of AFR storage will be required. The government is evaluating the use of both existing and new storage facilities to solve this forecasted storage problem for commercial spent fuel

  17. Remarks on the transportation of spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1992-01-01

    Information and data are provided on several aspects of the transportation of spent fuel elements. These aspects include contract, transportation, reprocessing batch size, and economical considerations. (author)

  18. Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables

  19. Survey of wet and dry spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    Spent fuel storage is one of the important stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and stands among the most vital challenges for countries operating nuclear power plants. Continuous attention is being given by the IAEA to the collection, analysis and exchange of information on spent fuel management. Its role in this area is to provide a forum for exchanging information and for coordinating and encouraging closer co-operation among Member States. Spent fuel management is recognized as a high priority IAEA activity. In 1997, the annual spent fuel arising from all types of power reactors worldwide amounted to about 10,500 tonnes heavy metal (t HM). The total amount of spent fuel accumulated worldwide at the end of 1997 was about 200,000 t HM of which about 130,000 t HM of spent fuel is presently being stored in at-reactor (AR) or away-from-reactor (AFR) storage facilities awaiting either reprocessing or final disposal and 70,000 t HM has been reprocessed. Projections indicate that the cumulative amount generated by 2010 may surpass 340,000 t HM and by the year 2015 395,000 t HM. Part of the spent fuel will be reprocessed and some countries took the option to dispose their spent fuel in a repository. Most countries with nuclear programmes are using the deferral of a decision approach, a 'wait and see' strategy with interim storage, which provides the ability to monitor the storage continuously and to retrieve the spent fuel later for either direct disposal or reprocessing. Some countries use different approaches for different types of fuel. Today the worldwide reprocessing capacity is only a fraction of the total spent fuel arising and since no final repository has yet been constructed, there will be an increasing demand for interim storage. The present survey contains information on the basic storage technologies and facility types, experience with wet and dry storage of spent fuel and international experience in spent fuel transport. The main aim is to provide spent fuel

  20. Spent nuclear fuel storage device and spent nuclear fuel storage method using the device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Yutaro

    1998-01-01

    Storage cells attachably/detachably support nuclear fuel containing vessels while keeping the vertical posture of them. A ventilation pipe which forms air channels for ventilating air to the outer circumference of the nuclear fuel containing vessel is disposed at the outer circumference of the nuclear fuel containing vessel contained in the storage cell. A shielding port for keeping the support openings gas tightly is moved, and a communication port thereof can be aligned with the upper portion of the support opening. The lower end of the transporting and containing vessel is placed on the shielding port, and an opening/closing shutter is opened. The gas tightness is kept by the shielding port, the nuclear fuel containing vessel filled with spent nuclear fuels is inserted to the support opening and supported. Then, the support opening is closed by a sealing lid. (I.N.)

  1. Nevada commercial spent nuclear fuel transportation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an historic overview of commercial reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments that have occurred in the state of Nevada, and to review the accident and incident experience for this type of shipments. Results show that between 1964 and 1990, 309 truck shipments covering approximately 40,000 miles moved through Nevada; this level of activity places Nevada tenth among the states in the number of truck shipments of SNF. For the same period, 15 rail shipments moving through the State covered approximately 6,500 miles, making Nevada 20th among the states in terms of number of rail shipments. None of these shipments had an accident or an incident associated with them. Because the data for Nevada are so limited, national data on SNF transportation and the safety of truck and rail transportation in general were also assessed.

  2. Characterization plan for Hanford spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrefah, J.; Thornton, T.A.; Thomas, L.E.; Berting, F.M.; Marschman, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) was terminated in 1972. Since that time a significant quantity of N Reactor and Single-Pass Reactor SNF has been stored in the 100 Area K-East (KE) and K-West (KW) reactor basins. Approximately 80% of all US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF resides at Hanford, the largest portion of which is in the water-filled KE and KW reactor basins. The basins were not designed for long-term storage of the SNF and it has become a priority to move the SNF to a more suitable location. As part of the project plan, SNF inventories will be chemically and physically characterized to provide information that will be used to resolve safety and technical issues for development of an environmentally benign and efficient extended interim storage and final disposition strategy for this defense production-reactor SNF

  3. Characterization plan for Hanford spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrefah, J.; Thornton, T.A.; Thomas, L.E.; Berting, F.M.; Marschman, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) was terminated in 1972. Since that time a significant quantity of N Reactor and Single-Pass Reactor SNF has been stored in the 100 Area K-East (KE) and K-West (KW) reactor basins. Approximately 80% of all US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF resides at Hanford, the largest portion of which is in the water-filled KE and KW reactor basins. The basins were not designed for long-term storage of the SNF and it has become a priority to move the SNF to a more suitable location. As part of the project plan, SNF inventories will be chemically and physically characterized to provide information that will be used to resolve safety and technical issues for development of an environmentally benign and efficient extended interim storage and final disposition strategy for this defense production-reactor SNF.

  4. Nevada commercial spent nuclear fuel transportation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an historic overview of commercial reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments that have occurred in the state of Nevada, and to review the accident and incident experience for this type of shipments. Results show that between 1964 and 1990, 309 truck shipments covering approximately 40,000 miles moved through Nevada; this level of activity places Nevada tenth among the states in the number of truck shipments of SNF. For the same period, 15 rail shipments moving through the State covered approximately 6,500 miles, making Nevada 20th among the states in terms of number of rail shipments. None of these shipments had an accident or an incident associated with them. Because the data for Nevada are so limited, national data on SNF transportation and the safety of truck and rail transportation in general were also assessed

  5. Calculating the plutonium in spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnham, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Many members of the public are concerned about plutonium. They are worried about its environmental, health and proliferation risks. Fundamental to all such considerations are two related questions: how much plutonium do nuclear reactors produce ? and how accurately do the relevant authorities know these production figures ? These two questions have been studied with particular reference to the UK civil Magnox reactors. In 1990 these were still the only UK civil reactors whose spent fuel had been reprocessed to extract plutonium in routine production. It has not been possible to conclude that the relevant government industry and safeguard authorities are aware of how much plutonium these reactors produce and that the figures are known to the highest achievable accuracy. To understand why, this chapter will outline some of the history of the attempts to get answers to these two questions. (author)

  6. Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on the storage of spent nuclear fuel. It covers all types of storage facilities and all types of spent fuel from nuclear power plants and research reactors. It takes into consideration the longer storage periods that have become necessary owing to delays in the development of disposal facilities and the decrease in reprocessing activities. It also considers developments associated with nuclear fuel, such as higher enrichment, mixed oxide fuels and higher burnup. The Safety Guide is not intended to cover the storage of spent fuel if this is part of the operation of a nuclear power plant or spent fuel reprocessing facility. Guidance is provided on all stages for spent fuel storage facilities, from planning through siting and design to operation and decommissioning, and in particular retrieval of spent fuel. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. Management system; 5. Safety case and safety assessment; 6. General safety considerations for storage of spent fuel. Appendix I: Specific safety considerations for wet or dry storage of spent fuel; Appendix II: Conditions for specific types of fuel and additional considerations; Annex: I: Short term and long term storage; Annex II: Operational and safety considerations for wet and dry spent fuel storage facilities; Annex III: Examples of sections of operating procedures for a spent fuel storage facility; Annex IV: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external human induced phenomena); Annex V: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external natural phenomena); Annex VI: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external human induced phenomena); Annex VII: Postulated initiating events for consideration in a safety assessment (internal phenomena).

  7. Storage of spent fuel from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkenhauer, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of possible inadequate nuclear fuel reprocessing capability upon a public utility, Washington Public Power Supply System, are studied. The possible alternatives for storing spent fuel are reviewed

  8. International development within the spent nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggeryd, I.; Broden, K.; Gelin, R.

    1990-06-01

    The report gives a survey of the newest international development of the fuel processing and the spent nuclear fuel cycle. The transmutation technology of long lived nuclides is discussed in more details. (K.A.E)

  9. Comparison of concepts for independent spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Ch.; Hintermayer, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    The design and the construction costs of independent spent fuel storage facilities show significant differences, reflecting the fuel receiving rate (during the lifetime of the power plant or within a very short period), the individual national policies and the design requirements in those countries. Major incremental construction expenditures for storage facilities originate from the capacity and the type of the facilities (casks or buildings), the method of fuel cooling (water or air), from the different design of buildings, the redundancy of equipment, an elaborate quality assurance program, and a single or multipurpose design (i.e. interim or long-term storage of spent fuel, interim storage of high level waste after fuel storage). The specific costs of different designs vary by a factor of 30 to 60 which might in the high case increase the nuclear generating costs remarkably. The paper also discusses the effect of spent fuel storage on fuel cycle alternatives with reprocessing or disposal of spent fuel. (author)

  10. Analytical methodology and facility description spent fuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    Three generic environmental impact statements (GEISs) on domestic fuels, foreign fuels, and storage charges are being prepared to provide environmental input into decisions on whether, and if so how the 1977 Presidential policy on spent fuel storage should be implmented. This report provides background information for two of these environmental impact statements: Storage of U.S. Spent Power Reactor Fuel and Storage of Foreign Spent Power Reactor Fuel. It includes the analytical methodology used in GEISs to assess the environmental effects and a description of the facilities used in the two GEISs

  11. Analytical methodology and facility description spent fuel policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    Three generic environmental impact statements (GEISs) on domestic fuels, foreign fuels, and storage charges are being prepared to provide environmental input into decisions on whether, and if so how the 1977 Presidential policy on spent fuel storage should be implmented. This report provides background information for two of these environmental impact statements: Storage of U.S. Spent Power Reactor Fuel and Storage of Foreign Spent Power Reactor Fuel. It includes the analytical methodology used in GEISs to assess the environmental effects and a description of the facilities used in the two GEISs.

  12. Reduction of uranium in disposal conditions of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllykylae, E.

    2008-02-01

    This literature study is a summary of publications, in which the reduction of uranium by iron has been investigated in anaerobic groundwater conditions or in aqueous solution in general. The basics of the reduction phenomena and the oxidation states, complexes and solubilities of uranium and iron in groundwaters are discussed as an introduction to the subject, as well as, the Finnish disposal concept of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel itself mainly (∼96 %) consists of a sparingly soluble uranium(IV) dioxide, UO 2 (s), which is stable phase in the anticipated reducing disposal conditions. If spent fuel gets in contact with groundwater, oxidizing conditions might be induced by the radiolysis of water, or by the intrusion of oxidizing glacial melting water. Under these conditions, the oxidation and dissolution of uranium dioxide to more soluble U(VI) species could occur. This could lead to the mobilization of uranium and other components of spent fuel matrix including fission products and transuranium elements. The reduction of uranium back to oxidation state U(IV) can be considered as a favourable immobilization mechanism in a long-term, leading to precipitation due to the low solubility of U(IV) species. The cast iron insert of the disposal canister and its anaerobic corrosion products are the most important reductants under disposal conditions, but dissolved ferrous iron may also function as reductant. Other iron sources in the buffer or near-field rock, are also considered as possible reductants. The reduction of uranium is a very challenging phenomenon to investigate. The experimental studies need e.g. well-controlled anoxic conditions and measurements of oxidation states. Reduction and other simultaneous phenomena are difficult to distinghuish. The groundwater conditions (pH, Eh and ions) influence on the prevailing complexes of U and Fe and on forming corrosion products of iron and, thus they determine also the redox chemistry. The partial reduction of

  13. Studies and research concerning BNFP: LWR spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallo, F.A.

    1978-08-01

    This report describes potential spent fuel storage expansion programs using the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant--Fuel Receiving and Storage Station (BNFP-FRSS) as a model. Three basic storage arrangements are evaluated with cost and schedule estimates being provided for each configuration. A general description of the existing facility is included with emphasis on the technical and equipment requirements which would be necessary to achieve increased spent fuel storage capacity at BNFP-FRSS

  14. Spent LWR fuel-storage costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Expanded use of existing storage basins is clearly the most economic solution to the spent fuel storage problem. The use of high-density racks followed by fuel disassembly and rod storage is an order of magnitude cheaper than building new facilities adjacent to the reactor. The choice of a new storage facility is not as obvious; however, if the timing of expenditures and risk allowance are to be considered, then modular concepts such as silos, drywells, and storage casks may cost less than water basins and air-cooled vaults. A comparison of the costs of the various storage techniques without allowances for timing or risk is shown. The impact of allowances for discounting and early resumption of reprocessing is also shown. Economics is not the only issue to be considered in selecting a storage facility. The licensing, environmental impact, timing, and social responses must also be considered. Each utility must assess all of these issues for their particular reactors before the best storage solution can be selected

  15. Conceptual development of a test facility for spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.W.; Lee, H.H.; Lee, J.Y.; Lee, J.S.; Ro, S.G.

    1997-01-01

    Spent fuel management is an important issue for nuclear power program, requiring careful planning and implementation. With the wait-and-see policy on spent fuel management in Korea, research efforts are directed at KAERI to develop advanced technologies for safer and more efficient management of the accumulating spent fuels. In support of these research perspectives, a test facility of pilot scale is being developed with provisions for integral demonstration of a multitude of technical functions required for spent fuel management. The facility, baptized SMART (Spent fuel MAnagement technology Research and Test facility), is to be capable of handling full size assembly of spent PWR fuel (as well as CANDU fuel) with a maximum capacity of 10 MTU/y (about 24 assemblies of PWR type). Major functions of the facility are consolidation of spent PWR fuel assembly into a half-volume package and optionally transformation of the fuel rod into a fuel of CANDU type (called DUPIC). Objectives of these functions are to demonstrate volume reduction of spent fuel (for either longer-term dry storage or direct disposal ) in the former case and direct refabrication of the spent PWR fuel into CANDU-type DUPIC fuel for reuse in CANDU reactors in the latter case, respectively. In addition to these major functions, there are other associated technologies to be demonstrated : such as waste treatment, remote maintenance, safeguards, etc. As the facility is to demonstrate not only the functional processes but also the safety and efficiency of the test operations, engineering criteria equivalent to industrial standards are incorporated in the design concept. The hot cell structure enclosing the radioactive materials is configured in such way to maximize costs within the given functional and operational requirements. (author). 3 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Spent nuclear fuel project quality assurance program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    This main body of this document describes how the requirements of 10 CFR 830.120 are met by the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project through implementation of WHC-SP-1131. Appendix A describes how the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P are met by the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project through implementation of specific policies, manuals, and procedures

  17. Monitoring instrumentation spent fuel management program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary monitoring system methodologies are identified as an input to the risk assessment of spent fuel management. Conceptual approaches to instrumentation for surveillance of canister position and orientation, vault deformation, spent fuel dissolution, temperature, and health physics conditions are presented. In future studies, the resolution, reliability, and uncertainty associated with these monitoring system methodologies will be evaluated

  18. Integrated data base for spent fuel and radwaste: inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Carter, W.L.; Kibbey, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) program provides and maintains current, integrated data on spent reactor fuel and radwaste, including historical data, current inventories, projected inventories, and material characteristics. The IDB program collects, organizes, integrates, and - where necessary - reconciles inventory and projection (I/P) and characteristics information to provide a coherent, self-consistent data base on spent fuel and radwaste

  19. The development of spent fuel storage process equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki; Kim, Ho Dong; Kim, Ki Joon; Kim, Bum Hoe

    1992-02-01

    A nuclear material accounting system were designed to track the transitions of nuclear materials at the spent-fuel technology research facility. It is embedded in a distributed control system real-time structure of the system gives timely on-line accountancy. And performance of AC servo motor with fuzzy logic control and its applicability to spent fuel management were experimentally evaluated. (Author)

  20. Radwaste management and spent fuel management in JAVYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozik, M.; Strazovec, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work authors present radwaste management and spent fuel management in JAVYS, a.s. Processing of radioactive wastes (RAW) in the Bohunice Radioactive Waste Processing Center and surface storage of RAW in National RAW Repository as well as Interim Spent fuel storage in Jaslovske Bohunice are presented.

  1. Spent fuel management perspectives in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidlovskii, V.V.; Kudryavtsev, E.G.

    2002-01-01

    Today nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation Produce about 800 tHM of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) per year. About 100 tHM/year of Russian origin spent fuel is being reprocessed at the PA Mayak RT-1 plant. Most part of the spent fuel is being accumulated in wet storage facilities both at-reactor and away-from-reactor types. Due to economic difficulties construction of the new reprocessing plant near Krasnoyarsk (so called RT-2 plant) was delayed for at least 15 years. Near- term storage of the accumulated spent fuel is now the only option considered for the RBMK spent fuel and part of the VVER-1000 spent fuel. Dry storage of the above spent fuel both in casks and in vaults is considered as a preferable storage option for near-term future. First dry storages will be in operation before the year 2005. Besides part of the VVER-1000 spent fuel will be reprocessed at PA Mayak site after PT-1 reprocessing plant modernization. Increased amounts of submarine spent fuel resulted from disarmament process also will be reprocessed at the plant.Both current and delayed reprocessing will be the main spent fuel management option for the Russia in years to come. This will be accompanied by R and D activities to optimize and simplify chemical reprocessing and waste management operations to improve economics of the reprocessing activity. Partitioning of the waste streams, conditioning and long-term storage of immobilized minor actinides will be the most important part of the work to be performed in laboratory and semi-industrial scale. Future deployment of fast neutron reactors will facilitate both separated plutonium and MA utilization in a form of reactor fuel. (author)

  2. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air: Volume 1: Design and operation of a spent fuel oxidation test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornhill, C.K.; Campbell, T.K.; Thornhill, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the design and operation and technical accomplishments of a spent-fuel oxidation test facility at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of the experiments conducted in this facility was to develop a data base for determining spent-fuel dry storage temperature limits by characterizing the oxidation behavior of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuels in air. These data are needed to support licensing of dry storage in air as an alternative to spent-fuel storage in water pools. They are to be used to develop and validate predictive models of spent-fuel behavior during dry air storage in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). The present licensed alternative to pool storage of spent fuel is dry storage in an inert gas environment, which is called inerted dry storage (IDS). Licensed air storage, however, would not require monitoring for maintenance of an inert-gas environment (which IDS requires) but does require the development of allowable temperature limits below which UO 2 oxidation in breached fuel rods would not become a problem. Scoping tests at PNL with nonirradiated UO 2 pellets and spent-fuel fragment specimens identified the need for a statistically designed test matrix with test temperatures bounding anticipated maximum acceptable air-storage temperatures. This facility was designed and operated to satisfy that need. 7 refs

  3. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs

  4. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Existing and near future practices of spent fuel storage in Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizov, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper existing and near future practices of spent fuel storage in Slovak Republic are discussed: (1) Reactor operation and spent fuel production; (2) Past policy in spent fuel storage; (3) Away-from-reactor (AFR) storage facility at Bohunice NPP site; (4) Present policy in spent fuel storage; (5) Final disposal of spent fuel

  6. Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    Spent Fuel Management has always been one of the most important steps in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and it still is one of the most vital and common problem for all countries. Projections for spent fuel arisings by the year 2010 range between 400,000 and 450,000 t of spent nuclear fuel. It is recognized that this fuel will either be stored and later disposed of in a deep geological repository (once-through fuel cycle) or stored and then reprocessed (closed fuel cycle). While some countries have concluded which choice they will make, others are applying the ''wait and see'' attitude. This continues to place great emphasis on short and long term storage technologies since much of the spent fuel will remain in storage in the next 20 years. The nuclear community recognizes the importance that design, technological, economic and material problems in spent fuel storage concepts and continues to encourage the international cooperation in such areas. This past year several nations have made decisions which impact on the projected storage volume (the Federal Republic of Germany has cancelled their reprocessing plant) and plan to contract the reprocessing with other nations. Argentina has delayed its reprocessing efforts. At the same time, while there are plans for recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors, the plans for its use in fast reactors have been delayed. These unforeseen changes reflect the constantly changing nature of the back-end of the fuel cycle and reinforce the importance of cooperation in these activities. The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in spent fuel management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and to elaborate recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Pyrochemical head-end treatment for spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.

    1977-01-01

    A program based upon thermodynamic values and scouting experiments at Argonne National Laboratory is proposed for development of a pyrochemical head-end treatment of spent nuclear fuels to replace the proposed chopping and leaching operation in the Purex process. The treatment consists of separation of the cladding from the oxide fuel by dissolution into liquid zinc; oxide reduction of uranium and plutonium and dissolution into a zinc--magnesium alloy; separation of alkali, alkaline earth, and rare earth fission products into a molten salt; and, finally, separation and recovery of the plutonium and uranium in the alloy. Uranium and plutonium would be separated from the fuel cladding and selected fission products in a form readily dissolvable in nitric acid. The head-end process could be developed eventually into an optimum method for recovering uranium, plutonium, and selected fission products and for minimizing wastes as compact, stable solids. Developmental expenses are not known clearly, but the potential advantages of the process are impressive

  8. Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Spent fuel management has always been one of the most important stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and it is still one of the most vital problems common to all countries with nuclear reactors. It begins with the discharge of spent fuel from a power or a research reactor and ends with its ultimate disposition, either by direct disposal or by reprocessing of the spent fuel. Two options exist at present - an open, once-through cycle with direct disposal of the spent fuel and a closed cycle with reprocessing of the spent fuel and recycling of plutonium and uranium in new mixed oxide fuels. The selection of a spent fuel strategy is a complex procedure in which many factors have to be weighed, including political, economic and safeguards issues as well as protection of the environment. Continuous attention is being given by the IAEA to the collection, analysis and exchange of information on spent fuel management. Its role in this area is to provide a forum for the exchange of information and to co-ordinate and to encourage closer co-operation among Member States in certain research an development activities that are of common interest. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Classification in waste acceptance criteria for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the contracts between utilities and the Department of Energy (DOE) for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) which were executed in 1983 set forth certain criteria for classifying SNF for purposes of establishing delivery schedules for transfer of the fuel to DOE. They provide that a utility classify all spent fuel prior to delivery to DOE for disposal into one or more of 10 different classifications: The effect on the utilities of SNF being classified as standard fuel, non-standard fuel, and failed fuel is that standard fuel will be accepted by DOE in accordance with a schedule that results from the capacity allocation procedure established by the contract, but that non-standard fuel and failed fuel may be subject to delayed acceptance depending on the technical feasibility of such acceptance. The disposal contract only established two forms of spent fuel as being standard fuel. It is now recognized that it might be possible to expand the definition of standard spent fuel to a larger number of spent fuel forms without adversely impacting the FWMS

  10. Spent fuel data base: commercial light water reactors. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauf, M.J.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1979-12-01

    As a consequence of this country's non-proliferation policy, the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been delayed indefinitely. This has resulted in spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel being considered as a potential waste form for disposal. Since the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is currently developing methodologies for use in the regulation of the management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes, a comprehensive data base describing LWR fuel technology must be compiled. This document provides that technology baseline and, as such, will support the development of those evaluation standards and criteria applicable to spent nuclear fuel.

  11. Prospect for spent fuel transportation system in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.Q.; Jiang, Y.Q.

    1998-01-01

    With the arising of spent fuel from nuclear power plants, a national policy of a closed nuclear fuel cycle has been determined. Following being stored at reactor sites for at least 5 years (with storage maximum of 10 years), spent fuel will be transferred into an away-from-reactor wet centralized storage facility, waiting for reprocessing. Therefore, China's spent fuel management activities would be involved in at-reactor storage, transportation, away-from-reactor storage and reprocessing, as well as certainly radioactive waste management. The status of the nuclear fuel cycle will be briefly discussed and the potential spent fuel transportation system in China is discussed in detail, covering administration, flask, terminals and transportation by sea, rail and road. (authors)

  12. A scheme of better utilization of PWR spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bum Jin; Kang, Chang Soon

    1991-01-01

    The recycle of PWR spent fuels in a CANDU reactor, so called the tandem fuel cycle is investigated in this study. This scheme of utilizing PWR spent fuels will ease the shortage of spent fuel storage capacity as well as will improve the use of uranium resources. The minimum modification the design of present CANDU reactor is seeked in the recycle. Nine different fuel types are considered in this work and are classified into two categories: refabrication and reconfiguration. For refabrication, PWR spent fuels are processed and refabricated into the present 37 rod lattice structure of fuel bundle, and for reconfiguration, meanwhile, spent fuels are simply disassembled and rods are cut to fit into the present grid configuration of fuel bundle without refabrication. For each fuel option, the neutronics calculation of lattice was conducted to evaluate the allowable burn up and distribution. The fuel cycle cost of each option was also computed to assess the economic justification. The results show that most tandem fuel cycle option considered in this study are technically feasible as well as economically viable. (Author)

  13. Spent fuel storage at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generation Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.R.; Field, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) has developed a strategy for the storage and transport of spent nuclear fuel and is now in the process of licensing and manufacturing a Transportable Storage System (TSS). Staff has also engaged in impact limiter testing, non-fuel bearing component reinsertion, storage and disposal of GTCC waste, and site specific upgrades in support of spent fuel dry storage

  14. Thermal Cooling Limits of Sbotaged Spent Fuel Pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Thomas G. Hughes; Dr. Thomas F. Lin

    2010-09-10

    To develop the understanding and predictive measures of the post “loss of water inventory” hazardous conditions as a result of the natural and/or terrorist acts to the spent fuel pool of a nuclear plant. This includes the thermal cooling limits to the spent fuel assembly (before the onset of the zircaloy ignition and combustion), and the ignition, combustion, and the subsequent propagation of zircaloy fire from one fuel assembly to others

  15. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from U.S. reactors 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges from US Reactors 1994 provides current statistical data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the US. This year`s report provides data on the current inventories and storage capacities at these reactors. Detailed statistics on the data are presented in four chapters that highlight 1994 spent fuel discharges, storage capacities and inventories, canister and nonfuel component data, and assembly characteristics. Five appendices, a glossary, and bibliography are also included. 10 figs., 34 tabs.

  16. Equipment designs for the spent LWR fuel dry storage demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, R.J.; Kurasch, D.H.; Hardin, R.T.; Schmitten, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    In conjunction with the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging Program (SFHPP) equipment has been designed, fabricated and successfully utilized to demonstrate the packaging and interim dry storage of spent LWR fuel. Surface and near surface storage configurations containing PWR fuel assemblies are currently on test and generating baseline data. Specific areas of hardware design focused upon include storage cell components and the support related equipment associated with encapsulation, leak testing, lag storage, and emplacement operations

  17. Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels. Technical appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Baker, M.P.

    1982-04-01

    Six technical appendixes are presented that provide important supporting technical information for the study of the application of nondestructive measurements to spent-fuel storage. Each appendix addresses a particular technical subject in a reasonably self-contained fashion. Appendix A is a comparison of spent-fuel data predicted by reactor operators with measured data from reprocessors. This comparison indicates a rather high level of uncertainty in previous burnup calculations. Appendix B describes a series of nondestructive measurements at the GE-Morris Operation Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. This series of experiments successfully demonstrated a technique for reproducible positioning of fuel assemblies for nondestructive measurement. The experimental results indicate the importance of measuring the axial and angular burnup profiles of irradiated fuel assemblies for quantitative determination of spent-fuel parameters. Appendix C is a reasonably comprehensive bibliography of reports and symposia papers on spent-fuel nondestructive measurements to April 1981. Appendix D is a compendium of spent-fuel calculations that includes isotope production and depletion calculations using the EPRI-CINDER code, calculations of neutron and gamma-ray source terms, and correlations of these sources with burnup and plutonium content. Appendix E describes the pulsed-neutron technique and its potential application to spent-fuel measurements. Although not yet developed, the technique holds the promise of providing separate measurements of the uranium and plutonium fissile isotopes. Appendix F describes the experimental program and facilities at Los Alamos for the development of spent-fuel nondestructive measurement systems. Measurements are reported showing that the active neutron method is sensitive to the replacement of a single fuel rod with a dummy rod in an unirradiated uranium fuel assembly.

  18. Compaction of spent nuclear fuel cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, H.

    1985-01-01

    Hydraulic press apparatus for compacting waste material eg. spent nuclear fuel cans comprises a fixed frame, a movable cross head, a press crown and three groups of piston/cylinder devices; having their pistons connected to the cross head and their cylinders secured to the press crown. A control means connects the first group of devices to hydraulic fluid in a reservoir which is pressurised initially by gas from gas accumulators to move the cross head and a quill secured thereto towards the frame base to compact the waste at a first high rate under a first high loading. Compaction then proceeds at a lower second rate at a lower second loading as the hydraulic fluid in the reservoir is pressurised by a pump. At two subsequent stages of compaction of the waste at which resistance increases causing a pressure rise in cylinders the control means causes hydraulic fluid to be passed to the second group of devices and thence to the third group of devices, the compaction rate reducing at each stage but the compaction force increasing. (author)

  19. Transporting spent reactor fuel: allegations and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1983-03-01

    A January 1982 monthly newsletter from the Council on Economic Priorities (CEP) was entirely devoted to the presentation of a broad-ranging series of allegations that the transportation of spent fuel in particular, and other high-level radioactive materials by inference is currently being conducted in this country in an unsafe manner. This newsletter preceded the release of a book authored by Marvin Resnikoff on the same subject by over a year. This book titled The Next Nuclear Gamble contained substantially the same allegations as the newsletter, although the book devoted space to a greatly increased number of specific examples. This paper reduces those allegations contained in the executive summary and the recommendations contained in the last chapter of the book to a manageable number by combining the many specific issues into a few topics. Each of these topics is then addressed. As such, this is an abbreviated analysis of The Next Nuclear Gamble and does not address much of the fine detail. In spite of that, it would be possible to address each of the details within the book on a similar basis. The intent of this document is to provide background information for those who are questioned on the validity of the allegations made by the CEp

  20. Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chung Seok; Choi, I. K.; Kwon, S. G. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    As a part of research efforts to develop an advanced spent fuel management process, this project focused on the electrochemical reduction technology which can replace the original Li reduction technology of ANL, and we have successfully built a 20 kgHM/batch scale demonstration system. The performance tests of the system in the ACPF hot cell showed more than a 99% reduction yield of SIMFUEL, a current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} and a current efficiency of 80%. For an optimization of the process, the prevention of a voltage drop in an integrated cathode, a minimization of the anodic effect and an improvement of the hot cell operability by a modulation and simplization of the unit apparatuses were achieved. Basic research using a bench-scale system was also carried out by focusing on a measurement of the electrochemical reduction rate of the surrogates, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism, collecting data on the partition coefficients of the major nuclides, quantitative measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients of oxygen and metal ions in molten salts. When compared to the PYROX process of INL, the electrochemical reduction system developed in this project has comparative advantages in its application of a flexible reaction mechanism, relatively short reaction times and increased process yields.

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  2. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible.

  3. Potential exposures and health effects from spent fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Sandquist, G.M.; Sutherland, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation exposures and consequent health effects associated with normal operations and postulated accidents during transportation of spent fuel have been analyzed and evaluated and the results have been summarized in the Final Environmental Assessments issued by DOE. For normal, accident-free transport of spent fuel, radiation exposures arise from both gamma and neutron sources within the spent fuel cask. The neutrons result from the spontaneous fission of transuranic nuclides in the spent fuel. The neutron dose flux component was modeled using DISNEL, a generalized, one-dimensional, multi-energy group neutronics code. Computer program PATHRAE-T was then developed from the EPA code PATHRAE and was employed to determine the total, combined dose field, including both ground and sky scatter of neutrons and gamma photons for any position around a truck or rail spent fuel cask. Four activity classes, viz., caravan, traffic obstruction, resident and pedestrian proximity, and servicing of the cask transport vehicle were reviewed for maximum individual exposure assessments. Projected doses for typical activities under maximum exposure conditions were 6 mrem or less per event. A spent fuel rail cask containing up to 14 PWR spent fuel assemblies could conceivably be involved in a variety of rail related transportation accidents. PATHRAE-T was used to estimate doses from rail cask accidents involving the release of radioactive nuclides although a release from such accidents is highly unlikely. The maximum individual exposure, primarily due to inhalation, is about 10 rem and occurs about 70 meters downwind

  4. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 x 10 -5 and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 x 10 -3 . Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible

  5. Spent Fuel Transportation Package Performance Study - Experimental Design Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, A. M.; Murphy, A. J.; Sprung, J. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Lopez, C.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies of spent nuclear fuel transportation accident risks have been performed since the late seventies that considered shipping container design and performance. Based in part on these studies, NRC has concluded that the level of protection provided by spent nuclear fuel transportation package designs under accident conditions is adequate. [1] Furthermore, actual spent nuclear fuel transport experience showcase a safety record that is exceptional and unparalleled when compared to other hazardous materials transportation shipments. There has never been a known or suspected release of the radioactive contents from an NRC-certified spent nuclear fuel cask as a result of a transportation accident. In 1999 the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a study, the Package Performance Study, to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and spent fuel packages during severe transportation accidents. NRC is not studying or testing its current regulations, a s the rigorous regulatory accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71 are adequate to ensure safe packaging and use. As part of this study, NRC currently plans on using detailed modeling followed by experimental testing to increase public confidence in the safety of spent nuclear fuel shipments. One of the aspects of this confirmatory research study is the commitment to solicit and consider public comment during the scoping phase and experimental design planning phase of this research

  6. Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W.; Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose

  7. Spent fuel pool accident analysis and accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Gil; Cho, Cheon Hwey [ACT CO., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young; Sung, Joon Young; Maeng, Yun Hwan [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The spent fuel pool(SFP) in unit 4 of the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs was damaged by an extreme seismic event and subsequent flooding by a tsunami. In order to investigate a progression of spent fuel pool accident scenarios, the well-defined MELCOR 1.8.6 code input deck was prepared and validated by experimental data of the OECD/NEA Sandia Fuel Project. Based on the validated MELCOR code input, three types of spent fuel pool accident scenarios were analyzed. In the complete loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenarios, sensitivity studies were conducted to identify the modeling boundary conditions to initiate a zirconium fire in the spent fuel assemblies. A series of MELCOR code calculations were performed to investigate a consequence of each SFP accident scenario. Based on findings from the calculations, the recommended operator actions were proposed to manage the SFP accident progressions.

  8. Development of information management system on LWR spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B. D.; Lee, S. H.; Song, D. Y.; Jeon, I.; Park, S. J.; Seo, D. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    LWRs in Korea should manage all the information of spent fuel to implement the obligations under Korea-IAEA safeguards agreement and to perform the nuclear material accountancy work at the facility level. The information management system on LWR spent fuel was developed to manage all movement records from receipt to shipment of LWR fuels, and to get the necessary information such as nuclear fuel inventory lists and status, maps of fresh fuel storage, reactor and spent fuel pool, receipt and shipment records and so on. This information management system has a function to setup the system environments to cover the various kinds of storage types for all LWRs ; reactor, spent fuel pool and fresh fuel storage. The movements of nuclear fuel between the storages can be easily done by double click of the mouse to the destination. It also has a several error checking routines for maintaining the correct accounting data. Using this information management system of LWR spent fuel, facility operators can perform efficiently and effectively the safeguards related works including nuclear material accountancy at each facility.

  9. Development of information management system on LWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B. D.; Lee, S. H.; Song, D. Y.; Jeon, I.; Park, S. J.; Seo, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    LWRs in Korea should manage all the information of spent fuel to implement the obligations under Korea-IAEA safeguards agreement and to perform the nuclear material accountancy work at the facility level. The information management system on LWR spent fuel was developed to manage all movement records from receipt to shipment of LWR fuels, and to get the necessary information such as nuclear fuel inventory lists and status, maps of fresh fuel storage, reactor and spent fuel pool, receipt and shipment records and so on. This information management system has a function to setup the system environments to cover the various kinds of storage types for all LWRs ; reactor, spent fuel pool and fresh fuel storage. The movements of nuclear fuel between the storages can be easily done by double click of the mouse to the destination. It also has a several error checking routines for maintaining the correct accounting data. Using this information management system of LWR spent fuel, facility operators can perform efficiently and effectively the safeguards related works including nuclear material accountancy at each facility

  10. Recycling of nuclear spent fuel with AIROX processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, D.; Jahshan, S.N.; Allison, C.M.; Kuan, P.; Thomas, T.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report examines the concept of recycling light water reactor (LWR) fuel through use of a dry-processing technique known as the AIROX (Atomics International Reduction Oxidation) process. In this concept, the volatiles and the cladding from spent LWR fuel are separated from the fuel by the AIROX process. The fuel is then reenriched and made into new fuel pins with new cladding. The feasibility of the concept is studied from a technical and high level waste minimization perspective

  11. Spent Fuel Transfer to Dry Storage Using Unattended Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hwan; Park, Soo Jin

    2009-01-01

    There are 4 CANDU reactors at Wolsung site together with a spent fuel dry storage associated with unit 1. These CANDU reactors, classified as On-Load Reactor (OLR) for Safeguards application, change 16- 24 fuel bundles with fresh fuel in everyday. Especially, the spent fuel bundles are transferred from spent fuel bays to dry storage throughout a year because of the insufficient capacity of spent fuel pond. Safeguards inspectors verify the spent fuel transfer to meet safeguards purposes according to the safeguards criteria by means of inspector's presence during the transfer campaign. For the verification, 60-80 person-days of inspection (PDIs) are needed during approximately 3 months for each unit. In order to reduce the inspection effort and operators' burden, an Unattended Monitoring System (UMS) was designed and developed by the IAEA for the verification of spent fuel bundles transfers from wet storage to dry storage. Based on the enhanced cooperation of CANDU reactors between the ROK and the IAEA, the IAEA installed the UMS at Wolsung unit 2 in January 2005 at first. After some field trials during the transfer campaign, this system is being replaced the traditional human inspection since September 1, 2006 combined with a Short Notice Inspection (SNI) and a near-real time Mailbox Declaration

  12. REVIEW OF SPENT FUEL INTEGRITY EVALUATION FOR DRY STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    DONGHAK KOOK; JONGWON CHOI; JUSEONG KIM; YONGSOO KIM

    2013-01-01

    Among the several options to solve PWR spent fuel accumulation problem in Korea, the dry storage method could be the most realistic and applicable solution in the near future. As the basic objectives of dry storage are to prevent a gross rupture of spent fuel during operation and to keep its retrievability until transportation, at the same time the importance of a spent fuel integrity evaluation that can estimate its condition at the final stage of dry storage is very high. According to the n...

  13. Future spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste infrastructure in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerlie, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    In Norway a Governmental Committee was appointed in 1991 to make an evaluation of the future steps that need to be taken in Norway to find a final solution for the spent nuclear fuel and for some other radioactive waste for which a disposal option does not exist today. The report from the Committee is now undergoing a formal hearing process. Based on the Committees recommendation and comments during the hearing the responsible Ministry will take a decision on future infrastructure in Norway for the spent nuclear fuel. This will be decisive for the future management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste in Norway. (author)

  14. Comparison of spent fuel management fee collection alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.K.; Engel, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Five alternative methods for recovering the costs of spent fuel management were evaluated. These alternatives consist of collecting the fee for various components of spent fuel management cost (AFR basin storage, transportation from AFR basin to the repository, packaging, repository, R and D, and government overhead) at times ranging from generation of power to delivery of the spent fuel to the government. The five fee collection mechanisms were analyzed to determine how well they serve the interests of the public and the electricity ratepayer

  15. The EBR-II spent fuel treatment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; McFarlane, H.F.

    1995-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for demonstrating a high-temperature electrometallurgical process for treating spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-11. Two waste forms will be produced and qualified for geologic disposal of the fission and activation products. Relatively pure uranium will be separated for storage. Following additional development, transuranium elements will be blended into one of the high-level waste streams. The spent fuel treatment program will help assess the viability of electrometallurgical technology as a spent fuel management option

  16. Properties of light water reactor spent fuel cladding. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwick, D.G.; Moen, R.A.

    1979-08-01

    The Commercial Waste and Spent Fuel Packaging Program will provide containment packages for the safe storage or disposal of spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel. Maintaining containment of radionuclides during transportation, handling, processing and storage is essential, so the best understanding of the properties of the materials to be stored is necessary. This report provides data collection, assessment and recommendations for spent LWR fuel cladding materials properties. Major emphasis is placed on mechanical properties of the zircaloys and austenitic stainless steels. Limited information on elastic constants, physical properties, and anticipated corrosion behavior is also provided. Work is in progress to revise these evaluations as the program proceeds

  17. Transportation 2000. Spent fuel transportation trends in the new millenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blee, David; Viebrock, James; Patterson, John

    1999-01-01

    The paper will provide a comparison of foreign research reactor spent fuel transportation today verses the assumptions used by the Department of Energy in the Environmental Impact Statement. In addition, it will suggest changes that are likely to occur in transportation logistics through the remainder of the U.S. spent fuel returns program. Cask availability, certification status, shipment strategy, cost issues, and public acceptance are among the topical areas that will be examined. Transportation requirements will be assessed in light of current participation in the returns program and the tendency for shipment plans to shift toward spent fuel return toward the end of the 13 year period of eligibility. (author)

  18. Fissile Content Assay of Spent Fuel Using LSDS System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Ju Young; Lee, Yong Deok; Park, Chang Je

    2016-01-01

    About 1.5 % fissile materials still exist in the spent fuel. Therefore, for reutilization of fissile materials in spent fuel at SFR, resource material is produced through the pyro process. Fissile material contents in the resource material must be analyzed before fabricating SFR fuel for reactor safety and economics. The new technology for an isotopic fissile material content assay is under development at KAERI using a lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS). LSDS is very sensitive to distinguish fission signals from each fissile isotope in spent and recycled fuel. In an assay of fissile content of spent fuel and recycled fuel, an intense radiation background gives limits the direct analysis of fissile materials. However, LSDS is not influenced by such a radiation background in a fissile assay. Based on the decided LSDS geometry set up, a self shielding parameter was calculated at the fuel assay zone by introducing spent fuel or pyro produced nuclear material. When nuclear material is inserted into the assay area, the spent fuel assembly or pyro recycled fuel material perturbs the spatial distribution of slowing down neutrons in lead and the prompt fast fission neutrons produced by fissile materials are also perturbed. The self shielding factor is interpreted as how much of the absorption is created inside the fuel area when it is in the lead. The self shielding effect provides a non-linear property in the isotopic fissile assay. When the self shielding is severe, the assay system becomes more complex and needs a special parameter to treat this non linear effect. Additionally, an assay of isotopic fissile content will contribute to an accuracy improvement of the burn-up code and increase the transparency and credibility for spent fuel storage and usage, as internationally increasing demand. The fissile contents result came out almost exactly with relative error ∼ 2% in case of Pu239, Pu241 for two different plutonium contents. In this study, meaningful results were

  19. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs

  20. LSDS Development for Isotopic Fissile Assay in Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Park, Chang Je; Park, Geun Il; Lee, Jung Won; Song, Kee Chan

    2011-01-01

    As an option to reduce a spent fuel and reuse an existing fissile material in spent fuel, sodium fast reactor SFR program linked with pyro-processing is under development in KAERI. A uranium-TRU mixture through a pyro-process is used to fabricate SFR fuel. An assay of isotopic fissile content plays an important role in an optimum design of storage site and reuse of fissile materials of spent fuel. Lead slowing down spectrometer LSDS is being developed in KAERI to analyze isotopic fissile material content. LSDS has several features: direct fissile assay, near real time fissile assay, no influence from radiation background, fissile isotopic assay and applicable to spent fuel and recycled fuel. Based on the designed geometry, neutron energy resolution was investigated. The neutron energy spectrum was analyzed as well. Spent fuel emits large number of neutrons by spontaneous fission. Neutron generator must overcome the neutron background to get the pure fission signals from fissile materials. Neutron generator is planned to have compact system with one section electron linac which is easy maintenance, less cost and high neutron yield. The LSD has the power to resolve the fission characteristics from each fissile material. This feature can analyze the content of isotopic fissile. From 1keV to 0.1eV energy range, the energy resolution is enough to get the individual fissile fission signatures. The dominant fission signature is shown below 1eV for each fissile isotope. The neutron generation system with target was designed to get fission signals by fissile materials. The system was decided to overcome neutron backgrounds and to get good counting statistics. Finally, an accurate fissile material content will contribute to safety of spent fuel reuse in future nuclear energy system and optimum design of spent fuel storage site. Additionally, an accurate fissile material content will increase international transparence and credibility for the reuse of PWR spent fuel

  1. Safeguards approach for spent fuel transfers to dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doo, J.; Hurt, D.; Fagerholm, R.; Hosoya, M.; Whiting, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Transfers of spent fuel to dry storage, where the fuel is not easily accessible for verification, have become a common occurrence at many nuclear reactors. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards on such transfers currently consume a considerable amount of inspection effort and are forecast to increase further. Under traditional safeguards, spent fuel transfers have been inspected by continuous inspector presence or by unattended instruments. The IAEA has recently developed a new safeguards approach for spent fuel transfers to dry storage for States under integrated safeguards. For States with a comprehensive safeguards agreement and an additional protocol in force for which the Agency has completed sufficient activities and evaluation and found no indication of diversion of nuclear material placed under safeguards, and no indication of undeclared nuclear material or activities for the State as a whole, safeguards activities can be optimized in light of the added safeguards assurance provided by measures of the additional protocol. The paper introduces a new safeguards policy, which was developed for transfers of spent fuel to dry storage for States under integrated safeguards, and describes a safeguards approach for transfers of spent fuel to dry storage at common reactors. The policy provides basis for the use of unannounced inspections to confirm the operator declarations of spent fuel transfer activities. During transfers of spent fuel to placement in dry storage, continuity of knowledge will be maintained by an unannounced inspection programme or some combination with temporary containment/surveillance (C/S) measures. With the policy, it will no longer be necessary for IAEA inspectors to be physically present during all spent fuel transfers. Traditional Safeguards Practices. When spent fuel is discharged from a reactor to a spent fuel pond, it is verified by Agency inspectors or by unattended instruments. In traditional safeguards

  2. ENVI Model Development for Korean Nuclear Spent Fuel Options Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sunyoung; Jeong, Yon Hong; Han, Jae-Jun; Lee, Aeri; Hwang, Yong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel will be operated from 2051. This paper presents the ENVI code developed by GoldSim Software to simulate options for managing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in South Korea. The ENVI is a simulator to allow decision-makers to assist to evaluate the performance for spent nuclear fuel management. The multiple options for managing the spent nuclear fuel including the storage and transportation are investigated into interim storage, permanent disposal in geological repositories and overseas and domestic reprocessing. The ENVI code uses the GoldSim software to simulate the logistics of the associated activities. The result by the ENVI model not only produces the total cost to compare among the multiple options but also predict the sizes and timings of different facilities required. In order to decide the policy for spent nuclear management this purpose of this paper is to draw the optimum management plan to solve the nuclear spent fuel issue in the economical aspects. This paper is focused on the development of the ENVI's logic and calculations to simulate four options(No Reprocessing, Overseas Reprocessing, Domestic Reprocessing, and Overseas and Domestic Reprocessing) for managing the spent nuclear fuel in South Korea. The time history of the spent nuclear fuel produced from both the existing and future NPP's can be predicted, based on the Goldsim software made available very user friendly model. The simulation result will be used to suggest the strategic plans for the spent nuclear fuel management

  3. ENVI Model Development for Korean Nuclear Spent Fuel Options Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sunyoung; Jeong, Yon Hong; Han, Jae-Jun; Lee, Aeri; Hwang, Yong-Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel will be operated from 2051. This paper presents the ENVI code developed by GoldSim Software to simulate options for managing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in South Korea. The ENVI is a simulator to allow decision-makers to assist to evaluate the performance for spent nuclear fuel management. The multiple options for managing the spent nuclear fuel including the storage and transportation are investigated into interim storage, permanent disposal in geological repositories and overseas and domestic reprocessing. The ENVI code uses the GoldSim software to simulate the logistics of the associated activities. The result by the ENVI model not only produces the total cost to compare among the multiple options but also predict the sizes and timings of different facilities required. In order to decide the policy for spent nuclear management this purpose of this paper is to draw the optimum management plan to solve the nuclear spent fuel issue in the economical aspects. This paper is focused on the development of the ENVI's logic and calculations to simulate four options(No Reprocessing, Overseas Reprocessing, Domestic Reprocessing, and Overseas and Domestic Reprocessing) for managing the spent nuclear fuel in South Korea. The time history of the spent nuclear fuel produced from both the existing and future NPP's can be predicted, based on the Goldsim software made available very user friendly model. The simulation result will be used to suggest the strategic plans for the spent nuclear fuel management.

  4. Cost analysis of spent nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.L.M.; Ford, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) is chartered to develop a waste management system for the safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the 131 nuclear power reactors in the United States and a certain amount of high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing operations. The current schedule is to begin accepting SNF in 1998 for storage at a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. Subsequently, beginning in 2010, the system is scheduled to begin accepting SNF at a permanent geologic repository in 2010 and HLW in 2015. At this time, a MRS site has not been selected. Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being evaluated as the candidate site for the repository for permanent geologic disposal of SNF. All SNF, with the possible exception of the SNF from the western reactors, is currently planned to be shipped to or through the MRS site en route to the repository. The repository will operate in an acceptance and performance confirmation phase for a 50 year period beginning in 2010 with an additional nine year closure and five year decontamination and decommissioning period. The MRS has a statutory maximum capacity of 15,000 Metric Tons Uranium (MTU), with a further restriction that it may not store more than 10,000 MTU until the repository begins accepting waste. The repository is currently scheduled to store 63,000 MTU of SNF and an additional 7,000 MTU equivalent of HLW for a total capacity of 70,000 MTU. The amended act specified the MRS storage limits and identified Yucca Mountain as the only site to be characterized. Also, an Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was established to secure a voluntary host site for the MRS. The MRS, the repository, and all waste containers/casks will go through a Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing process much like the licensing process for a nuclear power plant. Environmental assessments and impact statements will be prepared for both the MRS and repository

  5. Spent fuel transportation accident: a state's involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuweg, M.

    1978-01-01

    On February 9, 1978 at 8:20 p.m., the duty officer for the Illinois Radiological Assistance Team was notified that a shipment containing uranium and plutonium was involved in an accident near Gibson City, Illinois on Route 54. It was reported that a pig containing an unknown amount of uranium and plutonium was involved. The Illinois District 6A State Police were called to the scene and secured the area. The duty officer in the meantime learned after numerous telephone calls, approximately 1 hour after the first notice was received, that the pig actually was a 48,000 pound cask containing 6 spent fuel rods and the tractor-trailer had split apart and was blocking one lane of the highway. The shipment had departed from Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Morris, Illinois, enroute to Babcox and Wilcox in Lynchburg, Virginia. Initial reports indicated the vehicle had split apart. Actually, the semi-trailer bed had buckled beneath the cask due to apparent excess stress. The cask remained entirely intact and was not damaged, but the state highway was closed to traffic. The State Radiological Assistance Team was dispatched and arrived on the scene at 12:45 a.m. Immediate radiation monitoring revealed a reading of 4 milliroentgen per hour at 10 feet from the cask. No contamination existed nor was anyone exposed to radiation unnecessarily. The cask was transferred to a Tri-State semi-trailer vehicle the following morning at approximately 6:30 a.m. At 9:30 a.m., February 10, the new vehicle was again enroute to its destination. This incident demonstrated typical occurrences involving transportation radiation accident: misinformation and/or lack of information on the initial response notification, inaccuracies of radiation monitorings at the scene of the accident, inconsistencies concerning the occurrences of the accident and unfamiliar terminology utilized by personnel first on the scene, i.e., pig, cask, vehicle split apart, etc

  6. Neutron Generators for Spent Fuel Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A.

    2010-01-01

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). The 14 NDA techniques being studied include several that require an external neutron source: Delayed Neutrons (DN), Differential Die-Away (DDA), Delayed Gammas (DG), and Lead Slowing-Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This report provides a survey of currently available neutron sources and their underlying technology that may be suitable for NDA of SNF assemblies. The neutron sources considered here fall into two broad categories. The term 'neutron generator' is commonly used for sealed devices that operate at relatively low acceleration voltages of less than 150 kV. Systems that employ an acceleration structure to produce ion beam energies from hundreds of keV to several MeV, and that are pumped down to vacuum during operation, rather than being sealed units, are usually referred to as 'accelerator-driven neutron sources.' Currently available neutron sources and future options are evaluated within the parameter space of the neutron generator/source requirements as currently understood and summarized in section 2. Applicable neutron source technologies are described in section 3. Commercially available neutron generators and other source options that could be made available in the near future with some further development and customization are discussed in sections 4 and 5, respectively. The pros and cons of the various options and possible ways forward are discussed in section 6. Selection of the best approach must take a number of parameters into account including cost, size, lifetime, and power consumption, as well as neutron flux, neutron energy spectrum, and pulse structure that satisfy the requirements of the NDA instrument to be built.

  7. Feasibility and incentives for the consideration of spent fuel operating histories in the criticality analysis of spent fuel shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Westfall, R.M.; Jones, R.H.

    1987-08-01

    Analyses have been completed that indicate the consideration of spent fuel histories (''burnup credit'') in the design of spent fuel shipping casks is a justifiable concept that would result in cost savings and public risk benefits in the transport of spent nuclear fuel. Since cask capacities could be increased over those of casks without burnup credit, the number of shipments necessary to transport a given amount of fuel could be reduced. Reducing the number of shipments would increase safety benefits by reducing public and occupational exposure to both radiological and nonradiological risks associated with the transport of spent fuel. Economic benefits would include lower in-transit shipping, reduced transportation fleet capital costs, and reduced numbers of cask handling operations at both shipping and receiving facilities. 44 refs., 66 figs., 28 tabs

  8. Practices and developments in spent fuel burnup credit applications. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a technical committee Meeting on Requirements, Practices and Developments in Burnup Credit (BUC) Applications in Madrid, Spain, from 22 to 26 April 2002. The purpose of this meeting was to explore the progress and status of international activities related to the BUC applications for spent nuclear fuel. This meeting was the third major meeting on the uses of BUC for spent fuel management systems held since the IAEA began to monitor the uses of BUC in spent fuel management systems in 1997. The first major meeting was an Advisory Group meeting (AGM), which was held in Vienna, in October 1997. The second major meeting was a technical committee meeting (TCM), which was held in Vienna, in July 2000. Several consultants meetings were held since 1997 to advise and assist the IAEA in planning and conducting its BUC activities. The proceedings of the 1997 AGM were published as IAEA-TECDOC-1013, and the proceedings of the 2000 TCM as IAEA-TECDOC-1241. BUC for wet and dry storage systems, spent fuel transport, reprocessing and final disposal is needed in many Member States to allow for increased enrichment, and to increase storage capacities, cask capacities and dissolver capacities avoiding the need for extensive modifications. The use of BUC is a necessity for spent fuel disposal

  9. Spent fuel metal storage cask performance testing and future spent fuel concrete module performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, M.A.; Creer, J.M.

    1988-10-01

    REA-2023 Gesellshaft fur Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR-V/21, Transnuclear TN-24P, and Westinghouse MC-10 metal storage casks, have been performance tested under the guidance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine their thermal and shielding performance. The REA-2023 cask was tested under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship at General Electric's facilities in Morris, Illinois, using BWR spent fuel from the Cooper Reactor. The other three casks were tested under a cooperative agreement between Virginia Power Company and DOE at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EGandG Idaho, Inc., using intact spent PWR fuel from the Surry reactors. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made contributions to both programs. A summary of the various cask designs and the results of the performance tests is presented. The cask designs include: solid and liquid neutron shields; lead, steel, and nodular cast iron gamma shields; stainless steel, aluminum, and copper baskets; and borated materials for criticality control. 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Spent fuel storage at Prairie Island: January 1995 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closs, J.; Kress, L.

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been an issue for the US since the inception of the commercial nuclear power industry. In the past decade, it has become a critical factor in the continued operation of some nuclear power plants, including the two units at Prairie Island. As the struggles and litigation over storage alternatives wage on, spent fuel pools continue to fill and plants edge closer to premature shutdown. Due to the delays in the construction of a federal repository, many nuclear power plants have had to seek interim storage alternatives. In the case of Prairie Island, the safest and most feasible option is dry cask storage. This paper discusses the current status of the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) Project at Prairie Island. It provides a historical background to the project, discusses the notable developments over the past year, and presents the projected plans of the Northern States Power Company (NSP) in regards to spent fuel storage

  11. An economic analysis of spent fuel management and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji

    1998-01-01

    Spent fuel management is becoming a key issue not only in the countries that have already experienced years of nuclear operation but also in the Asian countries that started nuclear utilization rather lately. This paper summarizes the key aspects that essentially determine optimal conditions for desired spent fuel management strategies from the engineering-economic point of view, in both national and regional perspectives. The term 'desired' is intended to highlight positive and beneficial aspects of such strategies, namely mobile and timely exploitation of spent fuel storage. Among all, the economy of scale, the economy of scope, the learning-by-doing effect, and benefits of R and D are reviewed theoretically and empirically, and the paper overviews to what extent these factors are implemented in solving spent fuel management strategy optimization problem. (author)

  12. Method for storing spent nuclear fuel in repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Sastre, C.; Winsche, W.

    A method for storing radioactive spent fuel in repositories containing sulfur as the storage medium is disclosed. Sulfur is non-corrosive and not subject to radiation damage. Thus, storage periods of up to 100 years are possible.

  13. Detecting pin diversion from pressurized water reactors spent fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Young S.; Sitaraman, Shivakumar

    2017-01-10

    Detecting diversion of spent fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) by determining possible diversion including the steps of providing a detector cluster containing gamma ray and neutron detectors, inserting the detector cluster containing the gamma ray and neutron detectors into the spent fuel assembly through the guide tube holes in the spent fuel assembly, measuring gamma ray and neutron radiation responses of the gamma ray and neutron detectors in the guide tube holes, processing the gamma ray and neutron radiation responses at the guide tube locations by normalizing them to the maximum value among each set of responses and taking the ratio of the gamma ray and neutron responses at the guide tube locations and normalizing the ratios to the maximum value among them and producing three signatures, gamma, neutron, and gamma-neutron ratio, based on these normalized values, and producing an output that consists of these signatures that can indicate possible diversion of the pins from the spent fuel assembly.

  14. Time history analysis method for spent fuel racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chen; Qian Hao; Zhang Kai; Xu Dinggen; Xie Yongcheng

    2013-01-01

    Background: Spent fuel racks are important facilities to store the spent fuel which are free standing in the spent fuel pool. The response of racks to seismic load is highly nonlinear and involves a complex combination of motions: sliding, impact, twisting and turning. Purpose: An analysis method should be built to accurately replicate these nonlinear responses. Methods: The whole pool multi-rack FEA model was developed and time history analysis was performed which contains the consideration of effect of sliding, impact and friction and the fluid structure interaction effect. Results: The analysis results such as displacement and force under seismic loads were obtained. Conclusion: The method can be used to the seismic analysis for spent fuel racks. (authors)

  15. Method for storing spent nuclear fuel in repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Donald G.; Sastre, Cesar; Winsche, Warren

    1981-01-01

    A method for storing radioactive spent fuel in repositories containing sulfur as the storage medium is disclosed. Sulfur is non-corrosive and not subject to radiation damage. Thus, storage periods of up to 100 years are possible.

  16. Dry refabrication technology development of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Geun Il; Lee, J. W.; Song, K. C.; and others

    2012-04-15

    Key technologies highly applicable to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycle for the spent fuel recycling were developed using spent fuel and simulated spent fuel (SIMFUEL). In the frame work of dry process oxide products fabrication and the property characteristics of dry process products, hot cell experimental data for decladding, powdering and oxide product fabrication from low and high burnup spent fuel have been produced, basic technology for fabrication of spent fuel standard material has been developed, and remotely modulated welding equipment has been designed and fabricated. Also, fabrication technology of simulated dry process products was established and property models were developed based on reproducible property measurement data. In the development of head-end technology for dry refabrication of spent nuclear fuel and key technologies for volume reduction of head-end process waste which are essential in back-end fuel cycle field including pyro-processing, advanced head-end unit process technology development includes the establishment of experimental conditions for synthesis of porous fuel particles using a granulating furnace and for preparation of UO2 pellets, and fabrication and performance demonstration of engineering scale equipment for off-gas treatment of semi-volatile nuclides, and development of phosphate ceramic technology for immobilization of used filters. Radioactivation characterization and treatment equipment design of metal wastes from pretreatment process was conducted, and preliminary experiments of chlorination/electrorefining techniques for the treatment of hull wastes were performed. Based on the verification of the key technologies for head-end process via the hot-cell tests using spent nuclear fuel, pre-conceptual design for the head-end equipments was performed.

  17. Unsteady heat exchange at the dry spent nuclear fuel storage

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana Alyokhina; Andrii Kostikov

    2017-01-01

    Unsteady thermal processes in storage containers with spent nuclear fuel were modeled. The daily fluctuations of outer ambient temperatures were taken into account. The modeling approach, which is based on the solving of conjugate and inverse heat transfer problems, was verified by comparison of measured and calculated temperatures in outer channels. The time delays in the reaching of maximal temperatures for each spent fuel assembly were calculated. Results of numerical investigations show t...

  18. Foreign materials in a deep repository for spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.; Christiansson, Aa.; Wiborgh, M.

    1999-12-01

    The effects of foreign substances introduced into a spent-fuel repository are reviewed. Possible impacts on processes and barrier-functions are examined, and the following areas are identified: Corrosion of the spent-fuel canister through the presence of sulfur and substances that favor microbial growth; impacts on the bentonite properties through the presence of cations as calcium, potassium and iron; radionuclide transport through the presence of complex-formers and surface-active substances

  19. Spent nuclear fuel Canister Storage Building CDR Review Committee report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, W.P.

    1995-12-01

    The Canister Storage Building (CSB) is a subproject under the Spent Nuclear Fuels Major System Acquisition. This subproject is necessary to design and construct a facility capable of providing dry storage of repackaged spent fuels received from K Basins. The CSB project completed a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) implementing current project requirements. A Design Review Committee was established to review the CDR. This document is the final report summarizing that review

  20. Considerations Regarding ROK Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Chaim; Forrest, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss spent fuel management options in the Republic of Korea (ROK) from two interrelated perspectives: Centralized dry cask storage and spent fuel pyroprocessing and burning in sodium fast reactors (SFRs). We argue that the ROK will run out of space for at-reactors spent fuel storage by about the year 2030 and will thus need to transition centralized dry cask storage. Pyroprocessing plant capacity, even if approved and successfully licensed and constructed by that time, will not suffice to handle all the spent fuel discharged annually. Hence centralized dry cask storage will be required even if the pyroprocessing option is successfully developed by 2030. Pyroprocessing is but an enabling technology on the path leading to fissile material recycling and burning in future SFRs. In this regard we discuss two SFR options under development in the U. S.: the Super Prism and the Travelling Wave Reactor (TWR). We note that the U. S. is further along in reactor development than the ROK. The ROK though has acquired more experience, recently in investigating fuel recycling options for SFRs. We thus call for two complementary joint R and D project to be conducted by U. S. and ROK scientists. One leading to the development of a demonstration centralized away-from-reactors spent fuel storage facility. The other involve further R and D on a combined SFR-fuel cycle complex based on the reactor and fuel cycle options discussed in the paper

  1. Feasibility of performing criticality experiments with spent LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Considering fuel operating histories, i.e., burnup, in criticality analyses and control involves two distinctly different issues. One of these issues is concerned with the design and fabrication of fuel shipping and storage systems. The other issue is concerned with the verification of actual operating practices in the field. Both design and verification activities would benefit from physical measurement data as opposed to relying on administrative controls and calculations; however, it is the authors intention to address only the feasibility of obtaining experimental spent fuel criticality data in support of the design effort. The author discusses the background, obstacles, feasibility conclusions reached when applying burnup concepts to spent fuels

  2. Electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, R.W.; McFarlane, H.F.; Goff, K.M. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2001-07-01

    For 20 years Argonne National Laboratory has been developing electrometallurgical technology for application to spent nuclear fuel. Progress has been rapid during the past 5 years as 1,6 tonnes spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II was treated and preparations were made for processing the remaining 25 tonnes of sodium-bonded fuel from the shutdown reactor. Two high level waste forms are being qualified for geologic disposal. Extension of the technology to oxide fuels or to actinide recycling has been on hold because of US policy on reprocessing. (author)

  3. The safety of storage facilities for LMFBR spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, G.; Puit, J.C.

    1982-04-01

    Storage conditions for the cooling of fast neutron spent fuel assembly, before reprocessing, will be adapted specifically to this fuel cycle, but in a preliminary testing period it is better to take advantage of the industrial storage conditions already used for spent fuel of light water reactors, even if no extrapolation is possible in the future. In this aim fuel assemblies are dismantled, as soon as thermal conditions allow it, and pins are gathered in leak proof containers in a gas atmosphere and put in a cooling pool. This solution gives good results but studies and experiments are resumed, for future processing, for safe, easy and economical transport and storage conditions [fr

  4. Spent fuel characterization program in Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloret, M.; Canencia, R.; Blanco, J.; POMAR, C.

    2010-01-01

    Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is a 14x14 PWR reactor built in 1964 in Spain (160 MWe). The commercial operation started in 1969 and finished in 2006. During year 2009, 377 fuel assemblies from cycles 11 to 29 have been stored in 12 containers HI-STORM 100, and positioned in an Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installation built near the NPP. The spent fuel characterization and classification is a critical and complex activity that could impact all the storage process. As every container has a number of positions for damaged fuel, the loading plans and the quantity of containers depends on the total fuels classified as damaged. The classification of the spent fuel in Jose Cabrera has been performed on the basis of the Interim Staff Guidance ISG-1 from USNRC, 'Damaged Fuel'. As the storage system should assure thermal limitations, criticality control, retrievability, confinement and shielding for radioactive protection, the criteria analyzed for every spent fuel have been the existence/non existence of fuel leaks; damage that could affect the criticality analysis (as missing fuel pins) and any situation that could affect the future retrievability, as defects on the top nozzle. The first classification was performed based upon existing core records. If there were no indication of operating leakers during the concerned cycles and the structural integrity was adequate, the fuel was classified as intact or undamaged. When operating records indicated a fuel leaker, an additional inspection by ultrasonic testing of all the fuel in the concerned cycle was performed to determine the fuel leakers. If the examination results indicated that the fuel has cladding cracks, it was classified as damaged fuel without considering if it was a gross breach or a hairline crack. Additionally, it was confirmed that the water chemistry specifications for spent fuel pool has been fulfilled. Finally, a visual inspection before dry cask storage was performed and foreign particles were

  5. An Indian perspective for transportation and storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    The spent fuel discharged from the reactors are temporarily stored at the reactor pool. After a certain cooling time, the spent fuel is moved to the storage locations either on or off reactor site depending on the spent fuel management strategy. As India has opted for a closed fuel cycle for its nuclear energy development, reprocessing of the spent fuel, recycling of the reprocessed plutonium and uranium and disposal of the wastes from the reprocessing operations forms the spent fuel management strategy. Since the reprocessing operations are planned to match the nuclear energy programme, storage of the spent fuel in ponds are adopted prior to reprocessing. Transport of the spent fuel to the storage locations are carried out adhering to international and national guide lines. India is having 14 operating power reactors and three research reactors. The spent fuel from the two safeguarded BWRs are stored at-reactor (AR) storage pond. A separate wet storage facility away-from-reactor (AFR) has been designed, constructed and made operational since 1991 for additional fuel storage. Storage facilities are provided in ARs at other reactor locations to cater to 10 reactor-years of operation. A much lower capacity spent fuel storage is provided in reprocessing plants on the same lines of AR fuel storage design. Since the reprocessing operations are carried out on a need basis, to cater to the increased storage needs two new spent fuel storage facilities (SFSF) are being designed and constructed near the existing nuclear plant sites. India has mastered the technology for design, construction and operation of wet spent fuel storage facility meeting all the international standards Wet storage of the spent fuel is the most commonly adopted mode all over the world. Recently an alternate mode viz. dry storage has also been considered. India has designed, constructed and operated lead shielded dry storage casks and is operational at one site. A dry storage cask made of concrete

  6. Conditioning of spent nuclear fuel for permanent disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    A compact, efficient method for conditioning spent nuclear fuel is under development This method, known as pyrochemical processing, or open-quotes pyroprocessing,close quotes provides a separation of fission products from the actinide elements present in spent fuel and further separates pure uranium from the transuranic elements. The process can facilitate the timely and environmentally-sound treatment of the highly diverse collection of spent fuel currently in the inventory of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The pyroprocess utilizes elevated-temperature processes to prepare spent fuel for fission product separation; that separation is accomplished by a molten salt electrorefining step that provides efficient (99.9%) separation of transuranics. The resultant waste forms from the pyroprocess are stable under envisioned repository environment conditions and highly leach-resistant. Treatment of any spent fuel type produces a set of common high-level waste forms, one a mineral and the other a metal alloy, that can be readily qualified for repository disposal and preclude the substantial costs that would be associated with the qualification of the numerous spent fuel types included in the DOE inventory

  7. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections: 1986 to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.; Walling, R.C.; Purcell, W.L.

    1987-03-01

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from US commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent-fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the US reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Agency (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: (1) No new orders with extended burnup, (2) No new orders with constant burnup, (3) Upper reference (which assumes extended burnup), (4) Upper reference with constant burnup, and (5) Lower reference (which assumes extended burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 6 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  8. Multi-purpose container technologies for spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The management of spent nuclear fuel is an integral part of the nuclear fuel cycle. Spent fuel management resides in the back end of the fuel cycle, and is not revenue producing as electric power generation is. It instead results in a cost associated power generation. It is a major consideration in the nuclear power industry today. Because technologies, needs and circumstances vary from country to country, there is no single, standardized approach to spent fuel management. The projected cumulative amount of spent fuel generated worldwide by 2010 will be 330 000 t HM. When reprocessing is accounted for, that amount is likely to be reduced to 215 000 t HM, which is still more than twice as much as the amount now in storage. Considering the limited capacity of at-reactor (AR) storage, various technologies are being developed for increasing storage capacities. At present, many countries are developing away-from-reactor (AFR) storage in the form of pool storage or as dry storage. Further these AFR storage systems may be at-reactor sites or away-from-reactor sites (e.g. centrally located interim storage facilities, serving several reactors). The dry storage technologies being developed are varied and include vaults, horizontal concrete modules, concrete casks, and metal casks. The review of the interim storage plans of several countries indicates that the newest approaches being pursued for spent fuel management use dual-purpose and multi-purpose containers. These containers are envisaged to hold several spent fuel assemblies, and be part of the transport, storage, and possibly geological disposal systems of an integrated spent fuel management system

  9. Projection of US LWR spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.F.; Cole, B.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Rau, R.G.

    1982-11-01

    The spent fuel storage requirements projection is based on data supplied for each operating or planned nuclear power power plant by the operting utilities. The data supplied by the utilities encompassed details of plant operating history, past records of fuel discharges, current inventories in reactor spent fuel storage pools, and projections of future discharge patterns. Data on storage capacity of storage pools and on characterization of the discharged fuel are also included. The data supplied by the utilities, plus additional data from other appropriate sources, are maintained on a computerized data base by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The spent fuel requirements projection was based on utility data updated and verified as of December 31, 1981

  10. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from US reactors 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Nuclear Fuel Data Survey, Form RW-859. This form is used to collect data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the United States, and the current inventories and storage capacities of those reactors. These data are important to the design and operation of the equipment and facilities that DOE will use for the future acceptance, transportation, and disposal of spent fuels. The data collected and presented identifies trends in burnup, enrichment, and spent nuclear fuel discharged form commercial light-water reactor as of December 31, 1993. The document covers not only spent nuclear fuel discharges; but also site capacities and inventories; canisters and nonfuel components; and assembly type characteristics.

  11. Government--utility interaction on spent fuel disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    The question of the needs of the electrical power industry for spent fuel storage in light of the moratorium on fuel reprocessing is addressed. The author feels that since the Federal government has assumed the responsibility for spent fuel storage, it is imperative that a firm plan, program, legislation, and funding be forthcoming immediately. Designation of an existing government site with existing nuclear activities in order to expedite the establishment of a storage facility is recommended. It is felt that the timing for such a site should be ''at the earliest possible date.'' Without storage facilities being provided by the government, utilities will be forced to build storage facilities at the reactor sites. This course of action is not considered cost effective but certainly preferable to shutting down the reactors. It is emphasized that spent fuel storage must be an interim solution and certainly not a final solution to the fuel reprocessing and waste disposal aspects of nuclear technology

  12. Historical overview of domestic spent fuel shipments: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This report presents available historic data on most commercial and research reactor spent fuel shipments in the United States from 1964 through 1989. Data include sources of the spent fuel shipped, types of shipping casks used, number of fuel assemblies shipped, and number of shipments made. This report also addresses the shipment of spent research reactor fuel. These shipments have not been documented as well as commercial power reactor spent fuel shipment activity. Available data indicate that the greatest number of research reactor fuel shipments occurred in 1986. The largest campaigns in 1986 were from the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Brooklyn, New York, to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in Tennessee and the Rockwell International Reactor in California to the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. For all years addressed in this report, DOE facilities in Idaho Falls and Savannah River were the major recipients of research reactor spent fuel. In 1989, 10 shipments were received at the Idaho facilities. These originated from universities in California, Michigan, and Missouri. 9 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Effects of alpha-decay on spent fuel corrosion behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiss, T.; Rondinella, V.V.; Cobos, J.; Wegen, D.H.; Amme, M.; Ronchi, C.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of results in the area of spent fuel characterization as nuclear waste is presented. These studies are focused on primary aspects of spent fuel corrosion, by considering different fuel compositions and burn ups, as well as a wide set of environmental conditions. The key parameter is the storage time of the fuel e.g. in view of spent fuel retrieval or in view of its final disposal. To extrapolate data obtainable from a laboratory-acceptable timescale to those expected after storage periods of interest have elapsed (amounting in the extreme case to geological ages) is a tough challenge. Emphasis is put on key aspects of fuel corrosion related to fuel properties at a given age and environmental conditions expected in the repository: e.g. the fuel activity (radiolysis effects), the effects of helium build-up and of groundwater composition. A wide range of techniques, from traditional leaching experiments to advanced electrochemistry, and of materials, including spent fuel with different compositions/burnups and analogues like the so-called alpha-doped UO 2 , are employed for these studies. The results confirm the safety of European underground repository concepts. (authors)

  14. Storage of spent fuel from power reactors. 2003 conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    An International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The conference gave an opportunity to exchange information on the state of the art and prospects of spent fuel storage, to discuss the worldwide situation and the major factors influencing the national policies in this field and to identify the most important directions that national efforts and international co-operation in this area should take. The conference confirmed that the primary spent fuel management solution for the next decades will be interim storage. While the next step can be reprocessing or disposal, all spent fuel or high level waste from reprocessing must sooner or later be disposed of. The duration of interim storage is now expected to be much longer than earlier projections (up to 100 years and beyond). The storage facilities will have to be designed for these longer storage times and also for receiving spent fuel from advanced fuel cycle practices (i.e. high burnup and MOX spent fuel). It was noted that the handling and storage of spent fuel is a mature technology and meets the stringent safety requirements applicable in the different countries. The changes in nuclear policy and philosophy across the world, and practical considerations, have made storage a real necessity in the nuclear power industry. Utilities, vendors and regulators alike are addressing this adequately. The IAEA wishes to express appreciation to all chairs and co-chairs as well as all authors for their presentations to the conference and papers included in these proceedings

  15. Characterization of spent EBR-II driver fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Operations and material control and accountancy requirements for the Fuel Conditioning Facility demand accurate prediction of the mass flow of spent EBR-II driver fuel into the facility. This requires validated calculational tools that can predict the burnup and isotopic distribution in irradiated Zr-alloy fueled driver assemblies. Detailed core-follow depletion calculations have been performed for an extensive series of EBR-II runs to produce a database of material inventories for the spent fuel to be processed. As this fuel is processed, comparison of calculated values with measured data obtained from samples of this fuel is producing a growing set of validation data. A more extensive set of samples and measurements from the initial processing of irradiated driver fuel has produced valuable estimates of the biases and uncertainties in both the measured and calculated values. Results of these comparisons are presented herein and indicate the calculated values adequately predict the mass flows

  16. Corrosion of research reactor aluminium clad spent fuel in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    A large variety of research reactor spent fuel with different fuel meats, different geometries and different enrichments in 235 U are presently stored underwater in basins located around the world. More than 90% of these fuels are clad in aluminium or aluminium based alloys that are notoriously susceptible to corrosion in water of less than optimum quality. Some fuel is stored in the reactor pools themselves, some in auxiliary pools (or basins) close to the reactor and some stored at away-from-reactor pools. Since the early 1990s, when corrosion induced degradation of the fuel cladding was observed in many of the pools, corrosion of research reactor aluminium clad spent nuclear fuel stored in light water filled basins has become a major concern, and programmes were implemented at the sites to improve fuel storage conditions. The IAEA has since then established a number of programmatic activities to address corrosion of research reactor aluminium clad spent nuclear fuel in water. Of special relevance was the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminium Clad Spent Fuel in Water (Phase I) initiated in 1996, whose results were published in IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 418. At the end of this CRP it was considered necessary that a continuation of the CRP should concentrate on fuel storage basins that had demonstrated significant corrosion problems and would therefore provide additional insight into the fundamentals of localized corrosion of aluminium. As a consequence, the IAEA started a new CRP entitled Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminium Clad Spent Fuel in Water (Phase II), to carry out more comprehensive research in some specific areas of corrosion of aluminium clad spent nuclear fuel in water. In addition to this CRP, one of the activities under IAEA's Technical Cooperation Regional Project for Latin America Management of Spent Fuel from Research Reactors (2001-2006) was corrosion monitoring and surveillance of research

  17. Overview of the spent nuclear fuel project at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project's mission at Hanford is to open-quotes Provide safe, economic and environmentally sound management of Hanford spent nuclear fuel in a manner which stages it to final disposition.close quotes The inventory of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site covers a wide variety of fuel types (production reactor to space reactor) in many facilities (reactor fuel basins to hot cells) at locations all over the Site. The 2,129 metric tons of Hanford SNF represents about 80% of the total US Department of Energy (DOE) inventory. About 98.5% of the Hanford SNF is 2,100 metric tons of metallic uranium production reactor fuel currently stored in the 1950s vintage K Basins in the 100 Area. This fuel has been slowly corroding, generating sludge and contaminating the basin water. This condition, coupled with aging facilities with seismic vulnerabilities, has been identified by several groups, including stakeholders, as being one of the most urgent safety and environmental concerns at the Hanford Site. As a direct result of these concerns, the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project was recently formed to address spent fuel issues at Hanford. The Project has developed the K Basins Path Forward to remove fuel from the basins and place it in dry interim storage. Alternatives that addressed the requirements were developed and analyzed. The result is a two-phased approach allowing the early removal of fuel from the K Basins followed by its stabilization and interim storage consistent with the national program

  18. The safe handling of spent nuclear fuel at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A seminar was held by the Institute of Mechanical Engineers to discuss all aspects of the safe handling of spent nuclear fuels at Sellafield. Topics discussed were the design of vessels for BNFL's reprocessing plants, the automatic sampling of radioactive liquors, safety engineering and pipework installations. The commissioning of BNFL's fuel handling plant was also discussed. (UK)

  19. Criticality safety assessment of WWER-1000 spent fuel cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolov, T.; Manolova, M.; Prodanova, R.

    2001-01-01

    A methodology that allows taking credit for burnup in the criticality safety analysis of WWER spent fuel casks is presented. It is based on the two world well known and used code systems:NESSEL-NUKO for depletion and SCALE-4.4 for criticality calculations. The results of criticality calculations of WWER-1000 spent fuel storage and transportation cask, applying burnup credit is shown. The depletion calculations have been carried out for three types of WWER-1000 fuel assemblies (with enrichment of 3.0%, 3.3% and 3.3% profiled) by modelling the real operational history of the first three fuel cycles at unit 6, Kozloduy NPP. The criticality calculational model has been developed on the basis of real fuel cask, designed by the Izorskie zavody. The results obtained show that the criticality safety criterion K eff < 0.95 is satisfied for both fresh and spent fuel. Besides, the implementation of burnup credit accounts for the reduced reactivity of spent fuel and allows evaluating the conservatism of the fresh fuel assumption. (author)

  20. Spent fuel, plutonium and nuclear waste: long-term management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, G.

    1998-11-01

    Different options for the management of nuclear waste arising from the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Special emphasis is on reprocessing followed by geological disposal, geological disposal of reprocessing waste, direct geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, long term storage. Particular emphasis is on the management of plutonium including recycling, immobilisation and disposal, partitioning and transmutation

  1. Transmutation of DUPIC spent fuel in the hyper system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.H.; Song, T.Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the transmutation of TRUs of the DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU) spent fuel has been studied with the HYPER system, which is an LBE-cooled ADS. The DUPIC concept is a synergistic combination of PWRs and CANDUs, in which PWR spent fuels are directly re-utilized in CANDU reactors after a very simple re-fabrication process. In the DUPIC-HYPER fuel cycle, TRUs are recovered by using a pyro-technology and they are incinerated in a metallic fuel form of U-TRU-Zr. The objective of this study is to investigate the TRU transmutation potential of the HYPER core for the DUPIC-HYPER fuel cycle. All the previously-developed HYPER core design concepts were retained except that fuel is composed of TRU from the DUPIC spent fuel. In order to reduce the burnup reactivity swing, a B 4 C burnable absorber is used. The HYPER core characteristics have been analyzed with the REBUS-3/DIF3D code system. (authors)

  2. Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister (SSFC) Design Report Project W-518

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-27

    The SSFC Design Report Describes A spent fuel canister for Shippingport Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies. The design of the SSFC is a minor modification of the MCO. The modification is limited to the Shield Plug which remains unchanged with regard to interfaces with the canister shell. The performance characteristics remain those for the MCO, which bounds the payload of the SSFC.

  3. Reprocessing and ultimate disposal of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukner, C.

    1986-01-01

    The booklet is intended as a source of information for school instruction or adult education. The material presented explains aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle, such as reprocessing and ultimate storage of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive waste. Safety engineering and research is dealt with, as well as aspects of a possible complete shut-down of nuclear installations in our country. (DG) [de

  4. Spent fuel receipt and storage at the Morris Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrom, K.A.; Eger, K.J.

    1978-06-01

    Operating and maintenance activities in an independent spent fuel storage facility are described, and current regulations governing such activities are summarized. This report is based on activities at General Electric's licensed storage facility located near Morris, Illinois, and includes photographs of cask and fuel handling equipment used during routine operations

  5. Integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation using developed software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Christian, Robby; Kim, Bo Gyung; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Gook Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang hoon [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As on-site spent fuel storage meets limitation of their capacity, spent fuel need to be transported to other place. In this research, risk of two ways of transportation method, maritime transportation and on-site transportation, and interim storage facility were analyzed. Easier and integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation will be possible by applying this software. Risk assessment for spent fuel transportation has not been researched and this work showed a case for analysis. By using this analysis method and developed software, regulators can get some insights for spent fuel transportation. For example, they can restrict specific region for preventing ocean accident and also they can arrange spend fuel in interim storage facility avoiding most risky region which have high risk from aircraft engine shaft. Finally, they can apply soft material on the floor for specific stage for on-site transportation. In this software, because we targeted Korea, we need to use Korean reference data. However, there were few Korean reference data. Especially, there was no food chain data for Korean ocean. In MARINRAD, they used steady state food chain model, but it is far from reality. Therefore, to get Korean realistic reference data, dynamic food chain model for Korean ocean need to be developed.

  6. Integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation using developed software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Christian, Robby; Kim, Bo Gyung; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Gook Hyun; Lee, Sang hoon

    2016-01-01

    As on-site spent fuel storage meets limitation of their capacity, spent fuel need to be transported to other place. In this research, risk of two ways of transportation method, maritime transportation and on-site transportation, and interim storage facility were analyzed. Easier and integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation will be possible by applying this software. Risk assessment for spent fuel transportation has not been researched and this work showed a case for analysis. By using this analysis method and developed software, regulators can get some insights for spent fuel transportation. For example, they can restrict specific region for preventing ocean accident and also they can arrange spend fuel in interim storage facility avoiding most risky region which have high risk from aircraft engine shaft. Finally, they can apply soft material on the floor for specific stage for on-site transportation. In this software, because we targeted Korea, we need to use Korean reference data. However, there were few Korean reference data. Especially, there was no food chain data for Korean ocean. In MARINRAD, they used steady state food chain model, but it is far from reality. Therefore, to get Korean realistic reference data, dynamic food chain model for Korean ocean need to be developed

  7. Spent fuel heatup following loss of water during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, A.S.; McCloskey, D.J.; Powers, D.A.; Dupree, S.A.

    1979-03-01

    An analysis of spent fuel heatup following a hypothetical accident involving drainage of the storage pool is presented. Computations based upon a new computer code called SFUEL have been performed to assess the effect of decay time, fuel element design, storage rack design, packing density, room ventilation, drainage level, and other variables on the heatup characteristics of the spent fuel and to predict the conditions under which clad failure will occur. Possible storage pool design modifications and/or onsite emergency action have also been considered

  8. Risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.

    1981-12-01

    This paper presents results of a study which analyzes the risk of transporting spent fuel by train. The risk assessment methodology consists of 4 basic steps: (1) a description of the system being analyzed; (2) identification of sequences of events that could lead to a release of material during transportation; (3) evaluation of the probability and consequences of each release sequence; and (4) assessment of the risk and evaluation of the results. The conclusion reached was that considering the substantial benefits derived from the fuel, the current spent fuel transportation system poses reasonably low risks

  9. Final environmental impact statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The analysis of the environmental impacts for storage of domestic fuel shows that the impacts for the full range of alternatives considered are relatively small compared with available resources or background exposure of the population from natural radiation sources. The differences in impacts of storage of domestic fuel are attributed to the amount of fuel stored in Independent Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS) facilities, the storage time, and, to a lesser degree, the differences in spent fuel transportation. The differences between comparable alternatives of implementing the policy or not implementing the policy are small. The difference in impacts of storage of foreign fuel are attributed to the amount of fuel received under the policy and to the disposition mode analyzed. The impact of storage of foreign fuel (a small fraction of the amount of domestic fuel considered) is also small. As a result of the small differences in environmental impacts of all cases considered for foreign fuel, environmental impacts probably will not strongly influence the selection of the case that best meets US nonproliferation goals. Proliferation benefits of the various cases analyzed vary significantly. The structure and level of fee charged for storage of spent fuel will affect the degree of participation in the spent fuel storage program by utilities. However, the range of participation is within the range of alternatives analyzed in the draft EISs on storage of US and foreign fuels, for which the environmental effects were found to be relatively small. The fee computed on the basis of full recovery of government costs should not significantly affect the cost of generating nuclear power

  10. Spent LWR fuel leach tests: Waste Isolation Safety Assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.B.

    1979-04-01

    Spent light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels with burnups of 54.5, 28 and 9 MWd/kgU were leach-tested in deionized water at 25 0 C. Fuel burnup has no apparent effect on the calculated leach rates based upon the behavior of 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu. A leach test of 54.5 MWd/kgU spent fuel in synthetic sea brine showed that the cesium-based leach rate is lower in sea brine than in deionized water. A rise in the leach rate was observed after approximately 600 d of cumulative leaching. During the rise, the leach rate for all the measured radionuclides become nearly equal. Evidence suggests that exposure of new surfaces to the leachant may cause the increase. As a result, experimental work to study leaching mechanisms of spent fuel has been initiated. 22 figures

  11. Handling of final storage of unreprocessed spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In this report the various facilities incorporated in the proposed handling chain for spent fuel from the power stations to the final repository are discribed. Thus the geological conditions which are essential for a final repository is discussed as well as the buffer and canister materials and how they contribute towards a long-term isolation of the spent fuel. Furthermore one chapter deals with leaching of the deposited fuel in the event that the canister is penetrated as well as the transport mechanisms which determine the migration of the radioactive substances through the buffer material. The dispersal processes in the geosphere and the biosphere are also described together with the transfer mechanisms to the ecological systems as well as radiation doses. Finally a summary is given of the safety analysis of the proposed method for the handling and final storage of the spent fuel. (E.R.)

  12. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material---ATM-105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization data obtained to data are described for Approved Testing Material 105 (ATM-105), which is spent fuel from Bundles CZ346 and CZ348 of the Cooper Nuclear Power Plant, a boiling-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-105 consists of 88 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 2400 GJ/kgM (28 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of about 1%. Characterization data include (1) descriptions of as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report.

  13. Remote repair robots for dissolvers in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Sen; Hirose, Yasuo; Kawamura, Hironobu; Minato, Akira; Ozaki, Norihiko.

    1984-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, for the purpose of the reduction of radiation exposure of workers, the shortening of working time and the improvement of capacity ratio of the facilities, the technical development of various devices for remote maintenance and inspection has been advanced so far. This time, an occasion came to inspect and repair the pinhole defects occurred in spent fuel dissolving tanks in the reprocessing plant of Tokai Establishment, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. However, since the radiation environmental condition and the restricting condition due to the object of repair were extremely severe, it was impossible to cope with them using conventional robot techniques. Consequently, a repair robot withstanding high level radiation has been developed anew, which can work by totally remote operation in the space of about 270 mm inside diameter and about 6 m length. The repair robot comprises a periscope reflecting mirror system, a combined underwater and atmospheric use television, a grinder, a welder, a liquid penetrant tester and an ultrasonic flaw detector. The key points of the development were the parts withstanding high level radiation and the selection of materials, to make the mechanism small size and the realization of totally remote operation. (Kako, I.)

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) spent fuel transportation and handling facility models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.B.; Bower, J.C.; Burnett, R.A.; Engel, R.L.; Rolland, C.W.

    1979-09-01

    A spent fuel logistics study was conducted in support of the US DOE program to develop facilities for preparing spent unreprocessed fuel from commercial LWRs for geological storage. Two computerized logistics models were developed. The first one was the site evaluation model. Two studies of spent fuel handling facility and spent fuel disposal facility siting were completed; the first postulates a single spent fuel handling facility located at any of six DOE laboratory sites, while the second study examined siting strategies with the spent fuel repository relative to the spent fuel handling facility. A second model to conduct storage/handling facility simulations was developed

  15. K Basin spent nuclear fuel characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAWRENCE, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    The results of the characterization efforts completed for the N Reactor fuel stored in the Hanford K Basins were Collected and summarized in this single referencable document. This summary provides a ''road map'' for what was done and the results obtained for the fuel characterization program initiated in 1994 and scheduled for completion in 1999 with the fuel oxidation rate measurement under moist inert atmospheres

  16. K Basin spent nuclear fuel characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LAWRENCE, L.A.

    1999-02-10

    The results of the characterization efforts completed for the N Reactor fuel stored in the Hanford K Basins were Collected and summarized in this single referencable document. This summary provides a ''road map'' for what was done and the results obtained for the fuel characterization program initiated in 1994 and scheduled for completion in 1999 with the fuel oxidation rate measurement under moist inert atmospheres.

  17. BNFL's new spent fuel transport flask - Excellox 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliam, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Since British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) was formed in 1971 its transport service has safely moved spent light water reactor fuel from many locations abroad to its fuel handling plants at Sellafield in the UK. To support this business a number of types of flasks have been designed and used. One of the types used has been the Excellox family of water-filled flasks. To support future business opportunities a new flask, designed to meet the requirements of the new IAEA transport regulations TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised), has been developed. The flask will be a type B(U)F. This new flask design will maximise fuel carrying capacity to minimise transport costs. The design capacity of the new Excellox 8 flask is to be 12 pressurised water reactor or 32 boiling water reactor fuel assemblies. The objective of this BNFL project is to provide another economic spent nuclear fuel transport system, in support of BNFL transport business. (author)

  18. Measurement of soluble nuclide dissolution rates from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.; Gray, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the potential release behavior of water-soluble radionuclides is the focus of new laboratory spent fuel dissolution studies being planned in support of the Yucca Mountain Project. Previous studies have suggested that maximum release rates for actinide nuclides, which account for most of the long-term radioactivity in spent fuel, should be solubility-limited and should not depend on the characteristics or durability of the spent fuel waste form. Maximum actinide concentrations should be sufficiently low to meet the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) annual release limits. Potential release rates for soluble nuclides such as 99 Tc, 135 Cs, 14 C and 129 I, which account for about 1-2% of the activity in spent fuel at 1,000 years, are less certain and may depend on processes such as oxidation of the fuel in the repository air environment. Dissolution rates for several soluble nuclides have been measured from spent fuel specimens using static and semi-static methods. However, such tests do not provide a direct measurement of fuel matrix dissolution rates that may ultimately control soluble-nuclide release rates. Flow-through tests are being developed as a potential supplemental method for determining the matrix component of soluble-nuclide dissolution. Advantages and disadvantages of both semi-static and flow-through methods are discussed. Tests with fuel specimens representing a range of potential fuel states that may occur in the repository, including oxidized fuel, are proposed. Preliminary results from flow-through tests with unirradiated UO 2 suggesting that matrix dissolution rates are very sensitive to water composition are also presented

  19. Subcritical transmutation of spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Christopher M.

    2011-07-01

    A series of fuel cycle simulations were performed using CEA's reactor physics code ERANOS 2.0 to analyze the transmutation performance of the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR). SABR is a fusion-fission hybrid reactor that combines the leading sodium cooled fast reactor technology with the leading tokamak plasma technology based on ITER physics. Two general fuel cycles were considered for the SABR system. The first fuel cycle is one in which all of the transuranics from light water reactors are burned in SABR. The second fuel cycle is a minor actinide burning fuel cycle in which all of the minor actinides and some of the plutonium produced in light water reactors are burned in SABR, with the excess plutonium being set aside for starting up fast reactors in the future. The minor actinide burning fuel cycle is being considered in European Scenario Studies. The fuel cycles were evaluated on the basis of TRU/MA transmutation rate, power profile, accumulated radiation damage, and decay heat to the repository. Each of the fuel cycles are compared against each other, and the minor actinide burning fuel cycles are compared against the EFIT transmutation system, and a low conversion ratio fast reactor.

  20. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Nuclear spent fuel transportation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Maier, J.B.

    1979-11-01

    Currently, there are a number of institutional problems associated with the shipment of spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear power plants: new and conflicting regulations, embargoing of certain routes, imposition of transport safeguards, physical security in-transit, and a lack of definition of when and where the fuel will be moved. This report presents a summary of these types and kinds of problems. It represents the results of evaluations performed relative to fuel receipt at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. Case studies were made which address existing reactor sites with near-term spent fuel transportation needs. Shipment by either highway, rail, water, or intermodal water-rail was considered. The report identifies the impact of new regulations and uncertainty caused by indeterminate regulatory policy and lack of action on spent fuel acceptance and storage. This stagnant situation has made it impossible for industry to determine realistic transportation scenarios for business planning and financial risk analysis. A current lack of private investment in nuclear transportation equipment is expected to further prolong the problems associated with nuclear spent fuel and waste disposition. These problems are expected to intensify in the 1980's and in certain cases will make continuing reactor plant operation difficult or impossible

  1. Methodology for determining criteria for storing spent fuel in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, C.R.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1986-11-01

    Dry storage in an air atmosphere is a method being considered for spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel as an alternative to storage in an inert gas environment. However, methods to predict fuel integrity based on oxidation behavior of the fuel first must be evaluated. The linear cumulative damage method has been proposed as a technique for defining storage criteria. Analysis of limited nonconstant temperature data on nonirradiated fuel samples indicates that this approach yields conservative results for a strictly decreasing-temperature history. On the other hand, the description of damage accumulation in terms of remaining life concepts provides a more general framework for making predictions of failure. Accordingly, a methodology for adapting remaining life concepts to UO 2 oxidation has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Both the linear cumulative damage and the remaining life methods were used to predict oxidation results for spent fuel in which the temperature was decreased with time to simulate the temperature history in a dry storage cask. The numerical input to the methods was based on oxidation data generated with nonirradiated UO 2 pellets. The calculated maximum allowable storage temperatures are strongly dependent on the temperature-time profile and emphasize the conservatism inherent in the linear cumulative damage model. Additional nonconstant temperature data for spent fuel are needed to both validate the proposed methods and to predict temperatures applicable to actual spent fuel storage

  2. Long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempe, T.F.; Martin, A.; Thorne, M.C.

    1980-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the storage of spent nuclear fuel, with particular reference to the options which would be available for long-term storage. Two reference programmes of nuclear power generation in the UK are defined and these are used as a basis for the projection of arisings of spent fuel and the storage capacity which might be needed. The characteristics of spent fuel which are relevant to long-term storage include the dimensions, materials and physical construction of the elements, their radioactive inventory and the associated decay heating as a function of time after removal from the reactor. Information on the behaviour of spent fuel in storage ponds is reviewed with particular reference to the corrosion of the cladding. The review indicates that, for long-term storage, both Magnox and AGR fuel would need to be packaged because of the high rate of cladding corrosion and the resulting radiological problems. The position on PWR fuel is less certain. Experience of dry storage is less extensive but it appears that the rate of corrosion of cladding is much lower than in water. Unit costs are discussed. Consideration is given to the radiological impact of fuel storage. (author)

  3. Present status and prospect of spent fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, H.

    1987-01-01

    Problems linked with spent fuel transportation in Japan, where there are 35 NPPs in operation, are considered. Every year about 500 t U are shipped to fuel reprocessing plants in Japan, as well as in France and UK. Four kinds of casks: HZ, EXCELLOX, TN and TK - are used for this purpose. By the mid-1990's it is suggested to build in Japan fuel reprocessing plant with capacity of 800 t U per year

  4. A cost-benefit analysis of spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamorlette, G.

    2001-01-01

    The back end of the fuel cycle is an area of economic risk for utilities having nuclear power plants to generate electricity. A cost-benefit analysis is a method by which utilities can evaluate advantages and drawbacks of alternative back end fuel cycle strategies. The present paper analyzes how spent fuel management can influence the risks and costs incurred by a utility over the lifetime of its power plants and recommends a recycling strategy. (author)

  5. DOE not planning to accept spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Samuel K. Skinner, president of Commonwealth Edison Co. (ComEd), said open-quotes The federal government has a clear responsibility to begin accepting spent nuclear fuel in 1988,close quotes citing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 before the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee. Based in Chicago, ComEd operates 12 nuclear units, making it the nation's largest nuclear utility. open-quotes Since 1983, the consumers who use electricity produced at all nuclear power plants have been paying to fund federal management of spent nuclear fuel. Consumer payments and obligations, with interest, now total more than $10 billion. Electricity consumers have held up their side of the deal. The federal government must do the same,close quotes Skinner added. Skinner represented the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) before the committee. NEI is the Washington-based trade association of the nuclear energy industries. For more than 12 years, utility customers have been paying one-tenth of a cent per kWhr to fund a federal spent fuel management program under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Under this act, the federal government assumed responsibility for management of spent fuel from the nation's nuclear power plants. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) was assigned to manage the storage and disposal program. DOE committed to begin accepting spent fuel from nuclear power plants by January 31, 1988. DOE has spent almost $5 million studying a site in Nevada, but is about 12 years behind schedule and does not plan to accept spent fuel beginning in 1998. DOE has said a permanent storage site will not be ready until 2010. This poses a major problem for many of the nation's nuclear power plants which supply about 20% of the electricity in the US

  6. Spent nuclear fuel management. Moving toward a century of spent fuel management: A view from the halfway mark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shephard, L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A half-century ago, President Eisenhower in his 1953 'Atoms for Peace' speech, offered nuclear technology to other nations as part of a broad nuclear arms control initiative. In the years that followed, the nuclear power generation capabilities of many nations has helped economic development and contributed to the prosperity of the modern world. The growth of nuclear power, while providing many benefits, has also contributed to an increasing global challenge over safe and secure spent fuel management. Over 40 countries have invested in nuclear energy, developing over 400 nuclear power reactors. Nuclear power supplies approximately 16% of the global electricity needs. With the finite resources and challenges of fossil fuels, nuclear power will undoubtedly become more prevalent in the future, both in the U.S. and abroad. We must address this inevitability with new paradigms for managing a global nuclear future. Over the past fifty years, the world has come to better understand the strong interplay between all elements of the nuclear fuel cycle, global economics, and global security. In the modern world, the nuclear fuel cycle can no longer be managed as a simple sequence of technological, economic and political challenges. Rather it must be seen, and managed, as a system of strongly interrelated challenges. Spent fuel management, as one element of the nuclear fuel system, cannot be relegated to the back-end of the fuel cycle as only a disposal or storage issue. There exists a wealth of success and experience with spent fuel management over the past fifty years. We must forge this experience with a global systems perspective, to reshape the governing of all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle, including spent fuel management. This session will examine the collective experience of spent fuel management enterprises, seeking to shape the development of new management paradigms for the next fifty years. (author)

  7. Rethinking the economics of centralized spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.W.; Short, S.M.; Dippold, D.G.; Rod, S.R.; Williams, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The technology for extended storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), either at-reactor or in a centralized facility such as a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility, is well-developed and proven from an engineering and safety perspective. The question of whether spent fuel should await its final geologic disposal while at a reactor site or in an MRS facility is essentially an economic one. While intuition and previous results suggest that centralized storage will be more economical than at-reactor storage beyond some break-even quantity of SNF, the incremental costs of pool storage at-reactor are close to zero as long as pool capacity is generally available. Thus, if economics is the prime motivator, the quantity of spent fuel required to warrant centralized storage could be quite large. The economics of centralizing the storage of spent fuel at a single site, as opposed to continued storage at over 100 reactor sites, has been the subject of several recent analyses. Most of these analyses involved calculating the benefits of an MRS facility (in terms of avoided utility costs) with a pre-defined MRS operating scenario (e.g., spent fuel acceptance schedule, storage capacity, and typical storage cycle). While these analyses provided some insight into the economic justification for an MRS facility, even the most favorable scenarios resulted in net costs of hundreds of millions of dollars when evaluated on a discounted cash flow basis

  8. Pyroprocessing oxide spent nuclear fuels for efficient disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Pierce, R.D.; Mulcahey, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    Pyrochemical processing as a means for conditioning spent nuclear fuels for disposal offers significant advantages over the direct disposal option. The advantages include reduction in high-level waste volume; conversion of most of the high-level waste to a low-level waste in which nearly all the transuranics (TRU) have been removed; and incorporation of the TRUs into a stable, highly radioactive waste form suitable for interim storage, ultimate destruction, or repository disposal. The lithium process has been under development at Argonne National Laboratory for use in pyrochemical conditioning of spent fuel for disposal. All of the process steps have been demonstrated in small-scale (0.5-kg simulated spent fuel) experiments. Engineering-scale (20-kg simulated spent fuel) demonstration of the process is underway, and small-scale experiments have been conducted with actual spent fuel from a light water reactor (LWR). The lithium process is simple, operates at relatively low temperatures, and can achieve high decontamination factors for the TRU elements. Ordinary materials, such as carbon steel, can be used for process containment

  9. Microbial biofilm growth on irradiated, spent nuclear fuel cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, D. F.; Frank, S. M.; Roberto, F. F.; Pinhero, P. J.; Johnson, S. G.

    2009-02-01

    A fundamental criticism regarding the potential for microbial influenced corrosion in spent nuclear fuel cladding or storage containers concerns whether the required microorganisms can, in fact, survive radiation fields inherent in these materials. This study was performed to unequivocally answer this critique by addressing the potential for biofilm formation, the precursor to microbial-influenced corrosion, in radiation fields representative of spent nuclear fuel storage environments. This study involved the formation of a microbial biofilm on irradiated spent nuclear fuel cladding within a hot cell environment. This was accomplished by introducing 22 species of bacteria, in nutrient-rich media, to test vessels containing irradiated cladding sections and that was then surrounded by radioactive source material. The overall dose rate exceeded 2 Gy/h gamma/beta radiation with the total dose received by some of the bacteria reaching 5 × 10 3 Gy. This study provides evidence for the formation of biofilms on spent-fuel materials, and the implication of microbial influenced corrosion in the storage and permanent deposition of spent nuclear fuel in repository environments.

  10. Russian spent marine fuel as a global security risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gussgard, K.; Reistad, O.

    2001-01-01

    Russian marine fuel is a trans-national security concern. This paper focuses on specific technical properties of Russian marine nuclear fuel especially relevant for evaluating different aspects on nuclear proliferation, in addition to risks associated with regional environmental degradation and illegal diversion of radiological substances. Russian fresh fuel for marine reactors has been involved in several significant cases of illicit trafficking of special nuclear materials. The amount and quality of nuclear materials in Russian spent marine fuel give also reason for concern. Not less than 200 marine reactor cores are ready for having their spent fuel unloaded and preliminary stored on shore in the Far East and North West of Russia, and large amounts of spent naval fuel have been stored at Russian military bases for decades. In order to assess the security risks associated with Russian spent marine fuel, this paper discusses the material attractiveness of spent fuel from all types of Russian marine reactors. The calculations are based on a model of a light water moderated Russian icebreaker reactor. The computer tool HELIOS, used for modelling the reactor and the reactor operations, has been extensively qualified by comparisons with experimental data and international benchmark problems for reactor physics codes as well as through feedback from applications. Some of these benchmarks and studies include fuel enrichments up to 90% in Russian marine reactors. Several fuel data cases are discussed in the paper, focusing especially on: 1) early fuel designs with low initial enrichment; 2) more modern fuel designs used in third and fourth generation of Russian submarines probably with intermediate enriched fuel; and 3) marine fuel with initial enrichment levels close to weapons-grade material. In each case the fuel has been burned until k eff has reached below 1. Case 1) has been evaluated, the calculations made as basis for this paper have concentrated on fuel with

  11. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material: ATM-106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1988-10-01

    The characterization data obtained to date are described for Approved Testing Material (ATM)-106 spent fuel from Assembly BT03 of pressurized-water reactor Calvert Cliffs No. 1. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well- characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCWRM) program. ATM-106 consists of 20 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 3700 GJ/kgM (43 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of /approximately/10%. Characterization data include (1) as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (6) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel rod are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report. 12 refs., 110 figs., 81 tabs

  12. The burnup dependence of light water reactor spent fuel oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Over the temperature range of interest for dry storage or for placement of spent fuel in a permanent repository under the conditions now being considered, UO{sub 2} is thermodynamically unstable with respect to oxidation to higher oxides. The multiple valence states of uranium allow for the accommodation of interstitial oxygen atoms in the fuel matrix. A variety of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric phases is therefore possible as the fuel oxidizers from UO{sub 2} to higher oxides. The oxidation of UO{sub 2} has been studied extensively for over 40 years. It has been shown that spent fuel and unirradiated UO{sub 2} oxidize via different mechanisms and at different rates. The oxidation of LWR spent fuel from UO{sub 2} to UO{sub 2.4} was studied previously and is reasonably well understood. The study presented here was initiated to determine the mechanism and rate of oxidation from UO{sub 2.4} to higher oxides. During the early stages of this work, a large variability in the oxidation behavior of samples oxidized under nearly identical conditions was found. Based on previous work on the effect of dopants on UO{sub 2} oxidation and this initial variability, it was hypothesized that the substitution of fission product and actinide impurities for uranium atoms in the spent fuel matrix was the cause of the variable oxidation behavior. Since the impurity concentration is roughly proportional to the burnup of a specimen, the oxidation behavior of spent fuel was expected to be a function of both temperature and burnup. This report (1) summarizes the previous oxidation work for both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent fuel (Section 2.2) and presents the theoretical basis for the burnup (i.e., impurity concentration) dependence of the rate of oxidation (Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5), (2) describes the experimental approach (Section 3) and results (Section 4) for the current oxidation tests on spent fuel, and (3) establishes a simple model to determine the activation energies

  13. Risk assessment in spent fuel storage and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandimani, S.

    1989-01-01

    Risk assessment in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle is still an active area of Nuclear safety studies. From the results of risk assessment available in literature, it can be determined that the risk resulting from shipments of plutonium and spent-fuel are much greater than that resulting from the transport of other materials within the nuclear fuel cycle. In India spent fuels are kept in Spent Fuel Storage Pool (SFSP) for about 240-400 days, which is relatively a longer period compared to the usual 120 days as recommended by regulatory authorities. After cooling spent fuels are transported to the reprocessing sites which are mostly situated close to the plants. India has two high level waste treatment facilities, one PREFRE (Plutonium Reprocessing and Fuel Recycling) at Tarapur and the other one, a unit of Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad. This paper presents the risk associated with spent fuel storage and transportation for the Indian conditions. All calculations are based on a typical CANDU reactor system. Simple fault tree models are evolved for SFSP and for Transportation Accident Mode (TAM) for both road and rail. Fault tree quantification and risk assessment are done to each of these models. All necessary data for SFSP are taken mostly from Reactor Safety Study, (1975). Similarly, the data for rail TAM are taken from Annual Statistical Statements, (1987-8) and that for road TAM from Special Issue on Motor Vehicle Accident Statistics in India, (1986). Simulation method is used wherever necessary. Risk is also estimated for normal/accident free transport

  14. Recent developments in spent fuel management in Norway - 59260

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Peter J.; Oberlaender, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) in Norway has arisen from irradiation of fuel in the NORA, Jeep I and Jeep II reactors at Kjeller, and in the Heavy Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) in Halden. In total there is some 16 tonnes of SNF, with 12 tons of aluminium-clad fuel, of which 10 tonnes is metallic uranium fuel and the remainder oxide (UO 2 ). The portion of this fuel that is similar to commercial fuel (UO 2 clad in Zircaloy) may be suitable for direct disposal on the Swedish model or in other repository designs. However, metallic uranium and/or fuels clad in aluminium are chemically reactive and there would be risks associated with direct disposal. Two committees were established by the Government of Norway in January 2009 to make recommendations for the interim storage and final disposal of spent fuel in Norway. The Technical Committee on Storage and Disposal of Metallic Uranium Fuel and Al-clad Fuels was formed with the mandate to recommend treatment (i.e. conditioning) options for metallic uranium fuel and aluminium-clad fuel to render them stable for long term storage and disposal. This committee, whose members were drawn from the nuclear industry, reported in January 2010, and recommended commercial reprocessing as the best option for these fuels. The Phase-2 committee, which in part based its work on the work of previous committees and on the report of the Technical Committee, had the mandate to find the most suitable technical solution and localisation for intermediate storage for spent nuclear fuel and long-lived waste. The membership of this committee was chosen to represent a broad cross section of stakeholders. The committee evaluated different solutions and their associated costs, and recommended one of the options. The committee's report published in early 2011. This paper summarises the conclusions of the two committees, and thereby illustrates the steps taken by one country to formulate a strategy for the long-term management of its SNF. (authors)

  15. A multiphase interfacial model for the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerden, James L., E-mail: jerden@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Frey, Kurt [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Ebert, William [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • This model accounts for chemistry, temperature, radiolysis, U(VI) minerals, and hydrogen effect. • The hydrogen effect dominates processes determining spent fuel dissolution rate. • The hydrogen effect protects uranium oxide spent fuel from oxidative dissolution. - Abstract: The Fuel Matrix Dissolution Model (FMDM) is an electrochemical reaction/diffusion model for the dissolution of spent uranium oxide fuel. The model was developed to provide radionuclide source terms for use in performance assessment calculations for various types of geologic repositories. It is based on mixed potential theory and consists of a two-phase fuel surface made up of UO{sub 2} and a noble metal bearing fission product phase in contact with groundwater. The corrosion potential at the surface of the dissolving fuel is calculated by balancing cathodic and anodic reactions occurring at the solution interfaces with UO{sub 2} and NMP surfaces. Dissolved oxygen and hydrogen peroxide generated by radiolysis of the groundwater are the major oxidizing agents that promote fuel dissolution. Several reactions occurring on noble metal alloy surfaces are electrically coupled to the UO{sub 2} and can catalyze or inhibit oxidative dissolution of the fuel. The most important of these is the oxidation of hydrogen, which counteracts the effects of oxidants (primarily H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}). Inclusion of this reaction greatly decreases the oxidation of U(IV) and slows fuel dissolution significantly. In addition to radiolytic hydrogen, large quantities of hydrogen can be produced by the anoxic corrosion of steel structures within and near the fuel waste package. The model accurately predicts key experimental trends seen in literature data, the most important being the dramatic depression of the fuel dissolution rate by the presence of dissolved hydrogen at even relatively low concentrations (e.g., less than 1 mM). This hydrogen effect counteracts oxidation reactions and can limit

  16. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix B, foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel characteristics and transportation casks. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This is Appendix B of a draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. It discusses relevant characterization and other information of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel that could be managed under the proposed action. It also discusses regulations for the transport of radioactive materials and the design of spent fuel casks

  17. Method for compacting spent nuclear reactor fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor system which requires periodic physical manipulation of spent fuel rods, the method of compacting fuel rods from a fuel rod assembly is described. The method consists of: (1) removing the top end from the fuel rod assembly; (2) passing each of multiple fuel rod pulling elements in sequence through a fuel rod container and thence through respective consolidating passages in a fuel rod directing chamber; (3) engaging one of the pulling elements to the top end of each of the fuel rods; (4) drawing each of the pulling elements axially to draw the respective engaged fuel rods in one axial direction through the respective the passages in the chamber to thereby consolidate the fuel rods into a compacted configuration of a cross-sectional area smaller than the cross-sectional area occupied thereby within the fuel rod assembly; and (5) drawing all of the engaged fuel rods concurrently and substantially parallel to one another in the one axial direction into the fuel rod container while maintaining the compacted configuration whereby the fuel rods are aligned within the container in a fuel rod density of the the fuel rod assembly

  18. Spent fuel management in Japan - Facts and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses recent developments and future issues related to spent fuel management in Japan. With increasing pressure of spent fuel discharge from the power plants in operation and, in contrast, uncertainties in their processing and management services, spent fuel storage in short and medium terms has been receiving the highest priority in nuclear policy discussions in Japan. While small-scale interim storage devices, as well as capacity expansion (re-racking, etc.) and shared uses of existing devices, are introduced at number of power stations, large scale AFR (away from reactor) 'Storage of Recycle Fuel Resources' is expected to come in a medium and long-run. Commercial operation of 'Storage of Recycle Fuel Resources' is allowed its way, as the bill of amendment to the law for regulation of nuclear power reactors and other nuclear-related activities has passed in the Diet. In the meantime, the Atomic Energy Commission has launched working group discussions for revision of 'The Long-term Program of Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy' to be completed in 2000. This revision is hoped to set up a stage of national debate of nuclear policy, which might lead to fill conceptual gaps between bodies promoting nuclear development and general public. The author's attempt to illustrate the role of storage in spent fuel management is also presented from a theoretical point of view. (author)

  19. Storage and Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    Addressing the problem of waste, especially high-level waste (HLW), is a requirement of the nuclear fuel cycle that cannot be ignored. We explore the two options employed currently, long-term storage and reprocessing.

  20. Spent-fuel storage: a private sector option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.A.; Ross, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    The investigation was performed to delineate the legal and financial considerations for establishing private sector support for the planning and development of an independent spent-fuel storage facility (ISFSF). The preferred institutional structure was found to be one in which a not-for-profit corporation contracts with a limited partnership to handle the spent fuel. The limited partnership acquires the necessary land and constructs the ISFSF facility and then leases the facility to the not-for-profit corporation, which acquires spent-fuel rods from the utilities. The DOE must agree to purchase the spent-fuel rods at the expiration of term and warrant continued operation of the facility if policy changes at the federal level force the removal of the rods prior to completion of the contracted storage cycle. The DOE planning base estimate of spent-fuel storage requirements indicates a market potential adequate to support 10,000 MTU or more of spent-fuel storage prior to the time a government repository is available to accept spent fuel around the turn of the century. The estimated construction cost of a 5000-MTU water basin facility is $552 million. The total capital requirements to finance such a facility are estimated to be $695 million, based on an assumed capital structure of 70 percent debt and 30 percent equity. The estimated total levelized cost of storage, including operating costs, for the assumed 17-year life of the facility is $223 per kilogram of uranium. This is equivalent to a slightly less than one mill per kilowatt-hour increase in nuclear fuel costs at the nuclear power station that was the source of the spent fuel. In conclusion, within the context of the new Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the study points to both the need for and the advantages of private sector support for one or more ISFSFs and establishes a workable mechanism for the recovery of the costs of owning and operating such facilities. 3 figures, 4 tables

  1. Introduction to the study of the treatment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floh, B.; Araujo, J.A. de; Matsuda, H.T.

    1975-01-01

    An introduction is made to the study of the treatment of spent nuclear fuels. Main topics discussed are: basic information, volatilization processes, treatment of thorium based fuels (Thorex process), analytical chemistry of spent nuclear fuel and design of industrial facilities

  2. Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Current inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive wastes were compiled through December 31, 1983, based on the most reliable information available from government sources and the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Future waste and spent fuel to be generated over the next 37 years and characteristics of these materials are also presented, consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) or projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related and private industrial and institutional activities. Materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, airborne waste, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated, based on reported or calculated isotopic compositions. 48 figures, 107 tables

  3. Information handbook on independent spent fuel storage installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddatz, M.G.; Waters, M.D.

    1996-12-01

    In this information handbook, the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes (1) background information regarding the licensing and history of independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), (2) a discussion of the licensing process, (3) a description of all currently approved or certified models of dry cask storage systems (DCSSs), and (4) a description of sites currently storing spent fuel in an ISFSI. Storage of spent fuel at ISFSIs must be in accordance with the provisions of 10 CFR Part 72. The staff has provided this handbook for information purposes only. The accuracy of any information herein is not guaranteed. For verification or for more details, the reader should refer to the respective docket files for each DCSS and ISFSI site. The information in this handbook is current as of September 1, 1996

  4. Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2004-10-04

    This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

  5. RTR spent fuel treatment and final waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomasson, J.

    2000-01-01

    A number of RTR operators have chosen in the past to send their spent fuel to the US in the framework of the US take back program. However, this possibility ends as of May 12th, 2006. 3 different strategies are left for managing RTR spent fuel: extended storage, direct disposal and treatment-conditioning through reprocessing. Whilst former strategies raise a number of uncertainties, the latter already offers a management solution. It features two advantages. It benefits from the long experience of existing flexible industrial facilities from countries like France. Secondly, it offers a dramatic volume reduction of the ultimate waste to be stored under well-characterized, stable and durable forms. RTR spent fuel management through reprocessing-conditioning offers a durable management solution that can be fully integrated in whatever global radioactive waste management policy, including ultimate disposal

  6. Decision nearing on final disposal of spent fuel in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vira, J.

    2000-01-01

    The programme for final disposal of spent fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants is entering into important phase: in the year 2000 the Finnish Government is expected to decide whether the proposal made by Posiva Oy on the spent fuel disposal is in line with the overall good of society. Associated with the decision is also Posiva's proposal on siting the disposal facility at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki municipality on the western coast of Finland. An important document underlying Posiva's application for this principle decision is the report of the environmental impact assessment, which was completed in 1999. Safety considerations play an important role in the application. New assessments have, therefore, been made on both the operational and long-term safety as well as on safety of spent fuel transportation. (author)

  7. Application of spent fuel treatment technology to plutonium immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Ackerman, J.P.; Gay, E.C., Johnson, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the electrometallurgical treatment technology being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is to convert certain spent nuclear fuels into waste forms that are suitable for disposal in a geological repository for nuclear waste. The spent fuels of interest are those that cannot be safely stored for a long time in their current condition, and those that cannot be qualified for repository disposal. This paper explores the possibility of applying this electrometallurgical treatment technology to immobilization of surplus fissile materials, primarily plutonium. Immobilization of surplus fissile materials by electrometallurgical treatment could be done in the same facilities, at the same time. and in the same equipment as the proposed treatment of the present inventory of spent nuclear fuel. The cost and schedule savings of this simultaneous treatment scheme would be significant

  8. Development of nuclear spent fuel Maritime transportation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Min; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2014-01-01

    Spent fuel transportation of South Korea is to be conducted through near sea because it is able to ship a large amount of the spent fuel far from the public comparing to overland transportation. The maritime transportation is expected to be increased and its risk has to be assessed. For the risk assessment, this study utilizes the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method and the notions of the combined event. Risk assessment of maritime transportation of spent fuel is not well developed in comparison with overland transportation. For the assessment, first, the transportation scenario should be developed and categorized. Categories are assorted into the locations, release aspects and exposure aspects. This study deals with accident that happens on voyage and concentrated on ship-ship collision. The collision accident scenario is generated with event tree analysis. The scenario will be exploited for the maritime transportation risk model which includes consequence and accident probability

  9. Transportation of high-level waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.H.; Lake, W.H.; Thompson, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) transportation program is a multifaceted undertaking to transport spent nuclear fuel from commercial reactors to temporary and permanent storage facilities commencing in 1998. One of the significant ingredients necessary to achieving this goal is the development and acquisition of shipping casks. Efforts to design and acquire high capacity casks is ongoing, as are efforts to purchase casks that can be made available using current technology. By designing casks that are optimized to the specifications of the older cooler spent fuel that will be shipped, and by designing to current NRC requirements, OCRWM's new generation of spent fuel casks will be more efficient and at least as safe as current cask designs. (J.P.N.)

  10. Spent fuel cask handling at an operating nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of spent fuel handling at operating nuclear power plants cannot be overstated. Because of its highly radioactive nature, however, spent fuel must be handled in thick, lead-lined containers or casks. Thus, all casks for spent fuel handling are heavy loads by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's definition, and any load-drop must be evaluated for its potential to damage safety-related equipment. Nuclear Regulatory Guide NUREG-0612 prescribes the regulatory requirements of alternative heavy-load-handling methodologies such as (a) by providing cranes that meet the requirements of NUREG-0554, which shall be called the soft path, or (b) by providing protective devices at all postulated load-drop areas to prevent any damage to safety-related equipment, which shall be called the hard path. The work reported in this paper relates to cask handling at New York Power Authority's James A. FitzPatrick (JAF) plant

  11. Handling of spent fuel from research reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, K.

    1997-01-01

    In Japan eleven research reactors are in operation. After the 19th International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research Reactors and Test Reactors (RERTR) on October 6-10, 1996, Seoul, Korea, the Five Agency Committee on Highly Enriched Uranium, which consists of Science and Technology Agency, the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) met on November 7,1996, to discuss the handling of spent fuel from research reactors in Japan. Advantages and disadvantages to return spent fuel to the USA in comparison to Europe were discussed. So far, a number of spent fuel elements in JAERI and KURRI are to be returned to the US. The first shipment to the US is planned for 60 HEU elements from JMTR in 1997. The shipment from KURRI is planned to start in 1999. (author)

  12. Transport of HLW and spent fuel in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Mitsuo.

    1995-01-01

    In Japan, transport of HLW started in spring, 1995 when vitrified waste was returned to Japan from Europe. Domestic transport of spent fuel has been carried out since 1978 from domestic nuclear power plant to the reprocessing plant in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki Prefecture, amounting to some 720 tons by the end of 1994. A commercial reprocessing plant is under construction in Rokkasho-mura, Aomori Prefecture and the transport thereto of high burn-up spent fuel is scheduled to start in 1997. A 150-ton wharf crane and a dedicated transport vehicle were completed in 1994 for unloading and overland transport of HLW casks, and specifically designed casks and an exclusive-use vessel are being prepared for domestic transport of high burn-up spent fuel

  13. New Technology For Fissile Assay In Spent Fuel Using LSDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yongdeok; Park, Changje; Park, Geunil; Lee, Jungwon; Song, Keechan

    2012-01-01

    The principle of LSDS is very simple. The interrogated neutron induces energy dependent characteristic fission from fissile materials in spent fuel. The fission threshold detector screens the prompt fast fission neutrons from background and fissionable materials. However, intense source neutron is necessary to overcome radiation background. The detected signals have a direct relationship to the content of each fissile material. The isotopic fissile assay using LSDS is applicable for optimum design of spent fuel storage and management, quality assurance of recycled nuclear material, maximization of burnup credit. Another important application is verity burnup code and provide correction factor for improving the fissile material content, fission product correction factor for improving the fissile material content, fission product content and theoretical burnup. Additionally, the isotopic fissile content assay will increase the transparence and credibility for spent fuel storage and its re-utilization, as internationally demanded

  14. Initiation of depleted uranium oxide and spent fuel testing for the spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.; Gregson, M.W.; Sorenson, K.B.

    2004-01-01

    We provide a detailed overview of an on-going, multinational test programme that is developing aerosol data for some spent fuel sabotage scenarios on spent fuel transport and storage casks. Experiments are being performed to quantify the aerosolised materials plus volatilised fission products generated from actual spent fuel and surrogate material test rods, due to impact by a high-energy/density device. The programme participants in the United States plus Germany, France and the United Kingdom, part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks (WGSTSC) have strongly supported and coordinated this research programme. Sandia National Laboratories has the lead role for conducting this research programme; test programme support is provided by both the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We provide a summary of the overall, multiphase test design and a description of all explosive containment and aerosol collection test components used. We focus on the recently initiated tests on 'surrogate' spent fuel, unirradiated depleted uranium oxide and forthcoming actual spent fuel tests. We briefly summarise similar results from completed surrogate tests that used non-radioactive, sintered cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rods. (author)

  15. Cosmic ray muons for spent nuclear fuel monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidakis, Stylianos

    There is a steady increase in the volume of spent nuclear fuel stored on-site (at reactor) as currently there is no permanent disposal option. No alternative disposal path is available and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage containers is anticipated for the near future. In this dissertation, a capability to monitor spent nuclear fuel stored within dry casks using cosmic ray muons is developed. The motivation stems from the need to investigate whether the stored content agrees with facility declarations to allow proliferation detection and international treaty verification. Cosmic ray muons are charged particles generated naturally in the atmosphere from high energy cosmic rays. Using muons for proliferation detection and international treaty verification of spent nuclear fuel is a novel approach to nuclear security that presents significant advantages. Among others, muons have the ability to penetrate high density materials, are freely available, no radiological sources are required and consequently there is a total absence of any artificial radiological dose. A methodology is developed to demonstrate the applicability of muons for nuclear nonproliferation monitoring of spent nuclear fuel dry casks. Purpose is to use muons to differentiate between spent nuclear fuel dry casks with different amount of loading, not feasible with any other technique. Muon scattering and transmission are used to perform monitoring and imaging of the stored contents of dry casks loaded with spent nuclear fuel. It is shown that one missing fuel assembly can be distinguished from a fully loaded cask with a small overlapping between the scattering distributions with 300,000 muons or more. A Bayesian monitoring algorithm was derived to allow differentiation of a fully loaded dry cask from one with a fuel assembly missing in the order of minutes and negligible error rate. Muon scattering and transmission simulations are used to reconstruct the stored contents of sealed dry casks

  16. Shielding Performance Measurements of Spent Fuel Transportation Container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Hong-chao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The safety supervision of radioactive material transportation package has been further stressed and implemented. The shielding performance measurements of spent fuel transport container is the important content of supervision. However, some of the problems and difficulties reflected in practice need to be solved, such as the neutron dose rate on the surface of package is too difficult to measure exactly, the monitoring results are not always reliable, etc. The monitoring results using different spectrometers were compared and the simulation results of MCNP runs were considered. An improvement was provided to the shielding performance measurements technique and management of spent fuel transport.

  17. International management and storage of plutonium and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The first part of this study discusses certain questions that may arise from the disseminated production and storage of plutonium and, in the light of the relevant provisions of the Agency's Statute, examines possible arrangements for the storage of separated plutonium under international auspices and its release to meet energy or research requirements. The second part of the study deals similarly with certain problems presented by growing accumulations of spent fuel from light-water reactors in various countries and examines possible solutions, including the establishment of regional or multinational spent fuel storage facilities

  18. Education - path towards solution regarding disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    Education, not emotional reaction, is the path to take in the safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Education is needed at all levels: Elementary schools, secondary schools, two-year colleges, four-year colleges, graduate schools, and adult education. The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) should not be expected to tackle this problem alone. Assistance is needed from local communities, schools, and state and federal governments. However, OCRWM can lay the foundation for a comprehensive educational plan directed specifically at educating the public on the spent nuclear fuel issue and OCRWM can begin the implementation of this plan

  19. Overview of the spent fuel management policy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, Jussi

    1985-01-01

    The basic factors affecting the spent fuel management policy are highlighted: small size of the nuclear programme in the worldwide scale, no recycling of plutonium envisaged, no governmental organizations for back-end operations foreseen. The prinsiple objective of the policy permanent disposal of high-level wastes irrevocably outside the domestic territory, and the limited success in its implementation are discussed. The preparations of the implementation of the back-up alternative, direct disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock are described. The basic philosophy behind the system of funding the future waste management costs is clarified. (author)

  20. A multiphase interfacial model for the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerden, James L.; Frey, Kurt; Ebert, William

    2015-07-01

    The Fuel Matrix Dissolution Model (FMDM) is an electrochemical reaction/diffusion model for the dissolution of spent uranium oxide fuel. The model was developed to provide radionuclide source terms for use in performance assessment calculations for various types of geologic repositories. It is based on mixed potential theory and consists of a two-phase fuel surface made up of UO2 and a noble metal bearing fission product phase in contact with groundwater. The corrosion potential at the surface of the dissolving fuel is calculated by balancing cathodic and anodic reactions occurring at the solution interfaces with UO2 and NMP surfaces. Dissolved oxygen and hydrogen peroxide generated by radiolysis of the groundwater are the major oxidizing agents that promote fuel dissolution. Several reactions occurring on noble metal alloy surfaces are electrically coupled to the UO2 and can catalyze or inhibit oxidative dissolution of the fuel. The most important of these is the oxidation of hydrogen, which counteracts the effects of oxidants (primarily H2O2 and O2). Inclusion of this reaction greatly decreases the oxidation of U(IV) and slows fuel dissolution significantly. In addition to radiolytic hydrogen, large quantities of hydrogen can be produced by the anoxic corrosion of steel structures within and near the fuel waste package. The model accurately predicts key experimental trends seen in literature data, the most important being the dramatic depression of the fuel dissolution rate by the presence of dissolved hydrogen at even relatively low concentrations (e.g., less than 1 mM). This hydrogen effect counteracts oxidation reactions and can limit fuel degradation to chemical dissolution, which results in radionuclide source term values that are four or five orders of magnitude lower than when oxidative dissolution processes are operative. This paper presents the scientific basis of the model, the approach for modeling used fuel in a disposal system, and preliminary

  1. Method for the oxidation of dissolved uranium (IV) and/or plutonium (III) from liquid-liquid extraction for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels and/or breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausberger, H.; Schlosser, P.

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed to use liquid NO for oxidation in liquid-liquid reactions, preferably at temperatures between +2 and +15 0 C. The example given is the oxidation of acitinides in a reprocessing process for irradiated nuclear fuels or nuclear breeders. The method is described in detail. (orig./PW)

  2. A Study of Integrity Evaluation System for Spent Fuel and Selection of the Representative Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. G.; Lee, S. K.; Lim, C. J.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Spent fuel (SF) integrity evaluation is a regulatory requirement that is described in 10 CFR 71(transportation) and 10 CFR 72(storage) of the U. S. NRC licensing requirement. NRC regulation states that retrievability of SF after storage should be ensured and SF integrity under the normal condition must be guaranteed during transportation and handling process that is entailed before/during/after the interim storage. And SF integrity evaluation under the hypothetical accident condition is a core technology element for an assessment of critical, shielding, and containment. In this paper, SF integrity evaluation system which is suitable for domestic situation is suggested, and necessity of representative SF selection and its method is described. The ultimate goal of the SF integrity evaluation is to evaluate a safety margin in case of transportation/ handling/storage of SFs. It means that retrievability of SF after storage should be assured and SF integrity must be guaranteed at normal condition in the process of transportation/handling accompanied before/during/after interim storage. In Korea, SF integrity evaluation system is not established up to date. Especially, representative SF selection technology that is essential to SF integrity evaluation has not been fulfilled. To overcome this situation effectively, the methodology and technology of an overseas agency need to be benchmarked. In this paper, an overseas SF integrity evaluation system is analyzed, and an evaluation system suitable for domestic situation is suggested. Also, necessity of representative SF selection and its method is described

  3. Spent fuel management in Hungary: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenczi, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Paks Nuclear Power Plant Ltd. operates the only NPP of Hungary, consisting of a 4 WWER-440 type units. Since 1989, approximately 40-50 % of the total yearly electricity generation of the country has been supplied by this plant. The fresh fuel is imported from Russia (previously from the Soviet Union) and the spent fuel assemblies are shipped back to Russia for later reprocessing after 5 years of decay storage in the spent fuel pools of the plant. Seeing the political and economical changes that started in Russia, the Paks NPP's management made a decision in 1990 to study the implementation of an independent spent fuel storage facility (ISFSF) at the Paks site and in 1992 to choose the GEC-ALSTHOM's MVDS. On the basis of the Construction License issued by the HAEC, the construction of the ISFSF was started in March 1995. The paper gives general information on the spent fuel arisings, the storage at the site, the shipment to Russia and on the implementation of the ISFSF. (author). 3 refs

  4. Anticipating Potential Waste Acceptance Criteria for Defense Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.; Lord, M.E.; Stockman, C.T.; McCurley, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Office of Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for the safe management and disposal of DOE owned defense spent nuclear fuel and high level waste (DSNF/DHLW). A desirable option, direct disposal of the waste in the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, depends on the final waste acceptance criteria, which will be set by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). However, evolving regulations make it difficult to determine what the final acceptance criteria will be. A method of anticipating waste acceptance criteria is to gain an understanding of the DOE owned waste types and their behavior in a disposal system through a performance assessment and contrast such behavior with characteristics of commercial spent fuel. Preliminary results from such an analysis indicate that releases of 99Tc and 237Np from commercial spent fuel exceed those of the DSNF/DHLW; thus, if commercial spent fuel can meet the waste acceptance criteria, then DSNF can also meet the criteria. In large part, these results are caused by the small percentage of total activity of the DSNF in the repository (1.5%) and regulatory mass (4%), and also because commercial fuel cladding was assumed to provide no protection

  5. Neutron radiation characteristics of the IVth generation reactor spent fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenko, Sergey; Shamanin, Igor; Grachev, Victor; Knyshev, Vladimir; Ukrainets, Olesya; Zorkin, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    Exploitation of nuclear power plants as well as construction of new generation reactors lead to great accumulation of spent fuel in interim storage facilities at nuclear power plants, and in spent fuel «wet» and «dry» long-term storages. Consequently, handling the fuel needs more attention. The paper is focused on the creation of an efficient computational model used for developing the procedures and regulations of spent nuclear fuel handling in nuclear fuel cycle of the new generation reactor. A Thorium High-temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Unit (HGTRU, Russia) was used as an object for numerical research. Fuel isotopic composition of HGTRU was calculated using the verified code of the MCU-5 program. The analysis of alpha emitters and neutron radiation sources was made. The neutron yield resulting from (α,n)-reactions and at spontaneous fission was calculated. In this work it has been shown that contribution of (α,n)-neutrons is insignificant in case of such (Th,Pu)-fuel composition and HGTRU operation mode, and integral neutron yield can be approximated by the Watt spectral function. Spectral and standardized neutron distributions were achieved by approximation of the list of high-precision nuclear data. The distribution functions were prepared in group and continuous form for further use in calculations according to MNCP, MCU, and SCALE.

  6. Burnup credit feasibility for BWR spent fuel shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Considerable interest in the allowance of reactivity credit for the exposure history of power reactor fuel currently exists. This ''burnup credit'' issue has the potential to greatly reduce risk and cost when applied to the design and certification of spent of fuel casks used for transportation and storage. Analyses 1 have shown the feasibility estimated the risk and economic incentives for allowing burnup credit in pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel shipping cask applications. This paper summarizes the extension of the previous PWR feasibility assessments to boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel. As with the PWR analysis, the purpose was not verification of burnup credit (see ref. 2 for ongoing work in this area) but a reasonable assessment of the feasibility and potential gains from its use in BWR applications. This feasibility analysis aims to apply simple methods that adequately characterize the time-dependent isotopic compositions of typical BWR fuel. An initial analysis objective was to identify a simple and reliable method for characterizing BWR spent fuel. The method includes characterization of a typical pin-cell spectrum, using a one-dimensional (1-D) model of a BWR assembly. The calculated spectrum allows burnup-dependent few-group material constants to be generated. Point depletion methods were then used to obtain the time-varying characteristics of the fuel. These simple methods were validated, where practical, with multidimensional methods. 6 refs., 1 tab

  7. K-Basin spent nuclear fuel characterization data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrefah, J.; Gray, W.J.; Ketner, G.L.; Marschman, S.C.; Pyecha, T.D.; Thornton, T.A.

    1995-11-01

    The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) project characterization activities will be furnishing technical data on SNF stored at the K Basins in support of a pathway for placement of a ''stabilized'' form of SNF into an interim storage facility. This report summarizes the results so far of visual inspection of the fuel samples, physical characterization (e.g., weight and immersion density measurements), metallographic examinations, and controlled atmosphere furnace testing of three fuel samples shipped from the KW Basin to the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL). Data on sludge material collected by filtering the single fuel element canister (SFEC) water are also discussed in this report

  8. Method and apparatus for compacting spent nuclear reactor fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor system requiring periodic physical manipulation of spent fuel rods, the method of compacting fuel rods from a fuel rod assembly is described comprising the steps of: (1) removing the top end from pulling members having electrodes of weld elements in leading ends thereof in sequence through a fuel rod container and thence through respective consolidating passages in a fuel-rod directing chamber; (3) welding the weld elements of the pulling members to the top end of respective fuel rods corresponding to the respective pulling members; (4) drawing each of the pulling members axially to draw the respective engaged fuel rods in one axial direction through the respective passages in the chamber to thereby consolidate the fuel rods into a compacted configuration of a cross-sectional area smaller than the cross-sectional area occupied thereby within the fuel rod assembly; and (5) drawing all of the engaged fuel rods concurrently and substantially parallel to one another to the one axial direction into the fuel rod container while maintaining the compacting configuration in a fuel rod density which is greater than that of the fuel rod density of the fuel rod assembly

  9. Reprocessing of spent fuel and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1977-01-01

    The public acceptance has to be considered regarding whole atomic power rather than the reprocessing of nuclear fuel separately, and the problems concerned are as follows; the release of radioactive materials in the normal and abnormal operations of reprocessing plants, the disposal of wastes with high level radioactivity, the transportation of high level radioactive material, the relation to the economic activity near nuclear plants, the environmental effect of 85 Kr. and 3 H, etc., and the physical protection for reprocessing facility itself, the special handling of the materials of very high radioactivity level such as fission products and plutonium, the radiation exposure of operators, and the demonstration of reprocessing techniques of commercial base, etc., as a part of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the relation between atomic power and other technologies in energy supply, the evalution of atomic power as the symbol of huge scale science, and the energy problem within the confrontation of economic development and the preservation of environment and resources regarding whole nuclear energy. The situations of fuel reprocessing in USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan are explained from the viewpoint of the history. The general background for the needs of nuclear energy in Japan, the image of nuclear energy and fuel reprocessing entertained by the general public, and the special feature of reprocessing techniques are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  10. Progress on the Hanford K basins spent nuclear fuel project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culley, G.E.; Fulton, J.C.; Gerber, E.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper highlights progress made during the last year toward removing the Department of Energy's (DOE) approximately, 2,100 metric tons of metallic spent nuclear fuel from the two outdated K Basins at the Hanford Site and placing it in safe, economical interim dry storage. In the past year, the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project has engaged in an evolutionary process involving the customer, regulatory bodies, and the public that has resulted in a quicker, cheaper, and safer strategy for accomplishing that goal. Development and implementation of the Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Fuel is as much a case study of modern project and business management within the regulatory system as it is a technical achievement. A year ago, the SNF Project developed the K Basins Path Forward that, beginning in December 1998, would move the spent nuclear fuel currently stored in the K Basins to a new Staging and Storage Facility by December 2000. The second stage of this $960 million two-stage plan would complete the project by conditioning the metallic fuel and placing it in interim dry storage by 2006. In accepting this plan, the DOE established goals that the fuel removal schedule be accelerated by a year, that fuel conditioning be closely coupled with fuel removal, and that the cost be reduced by at least $300 million. The SNF Project conducted coordinated engineering and technology studies over a three-month period that established the technical framework needed to design and construct facilities, and implement processes compatible with these goals. The result was the Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Fuel. This strategy accomplishes the goals set forth by the DOE by beginning fuel removal a year earlier in December 1997, completing it by December 1999, beginning conditioning within six months of starting fuel removal, and accomplishes it for $340 million less than the previous Path Forward plan

  11. Spent fuel utilization in a compact traveling wave reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Donny; Kim, Yonghee

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, several innovative designs of nuclear reactors are proposed. One of them is Traveling Wave Reactor (TWR). The unique characteristic of a TWR is the capability of breeding its own fuel in the reactor. The reactor is fueled by mostly depleted, natural uranium or spent nuclear fuel and a small amount of enriched uranium to initiate the fission process. Later on in the core, the reactor gradually converts the non-fissile material into the fissile in a process like a traveling wave. In this work, a TWR with spent nuclear fuel blanket was studied. Several parameters such as reactivity coefficients, delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron generation lifetime, and fission power, were analyzed. The discharge burnup composition was also analyzed. The calculation is performed by a continuous energy Monte Carlo code McCARD.

  12. Transportation of spent fuel from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, H.

    1993-01-01

    The French 'Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires' - COGEMA - is involved in the whole nuclear fuel cycle about 20 years. Among the different parts of the cycle, the Transport of Radioactive Materials, acting as a link between the differents plants has a great importance. As nuclear material transportation is the only fuel cycle step to be performed on public grounds, the industrial task has to be performed with the utmost stringent safety criteria. COGEMA and associates is now operating a fully mature commercial activity, with some 300 spent fuel shipments per year from its reprocessing customer's reactors to the LA HAGUE plant, either by rail, road or sea. The paper will review the organization of COGEMA transportation business, the level of technology with an update of the casks used for spent fuel, and the operational experience, with a particular view of the maintenance policy. (author)

  13. Nuclide inventories of spent fuels from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Okamoto, Tsutomu

    2012-02-01

    Accurate information on nuclide inventories of spent fuels from Light Water Reactors (LWRs) is important for evaluations of criticality, decay heat, radioactivity, toxicity, and so on, in the safety assessments of storage, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal of the spent fuels. So, a lot of lattice burn-up calculations were carried out for the possible fuel specifications and irradiation conditions in Japanese commercial LWRs by using the latest nuclear data library JENDL-4.0 and a sophisticated lattice burn-up calculation code MOSRA-SRAC. As a result, burn-up changes of nuclide inventories and their possible ranges were clarified for 21 heavy nuclides and 118 fission products, which are important from the viewpoint of impacts to nuclear characteristics and nuclear fuel cycle and environment. (author)

  14. Spent fuel treatment to allow storage in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    During Fiscal Year 1987 (FY-87), research began at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a treatment material and process to coat fuel rods in commercial spent fuel assemblies to allow the assemblies to be stored in hot (up to 380 0 C) air without oxidation of the fuel. This research was conducted under a research and development fund provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and independently administered by EG and G Idaho, Inc., DOE's prime contractor at the INEL. The objectives of the research were to identify and evaluate possible treatment processes and materials, identify areas of uncertainty, and to recommend the most likely candidate to allow spent fuel dry storage in hot air. The results of the research are described: results were promising and several good candidates were identified, but further research is needed to examine the candidates to the point where comparison is possible

  15. Spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity. Annual report, FY 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Bailey, W.J.; Schreiber, R.E.; Kustas, F.M.

    1980-05-01

    International meetings under the BEFAST program and under INFCE Working Group No. 6 during 1978 and 1979 continue to indicate that no cases of fuel cladding degradation have developed on pool-stored fuel from water reactors. A section from a spent fuel rack stand, exposed for 1.5 y in the Yankee Rowe (PWR) pool had 0.001- to 0.003-in.-deep (25- to 75-μm) intergranular corrosion in weld heat-affected zones but no evidence of stress corrosion cracking. A section of a 304 stainless steel spent fuel storage rack exposed 6.67 y in the Point Beach reactor (PWR) spent fuel pool showed no significant corrosion. A section of 304 stainless steel 8-in.-dia pipe from the Three Mile Island No. 1 (PWR) spent fuel pool heat exchanger plumbing developed a through-wall crack. The crack was intergranular, initiating from the inside surface in a weld heat-affected zone. The zone where the crack occurred was severely sensitized during field welding. The Kraftwerk Union (Erlangen, GFR) disassembled a stainless-steel fuel-handling machine that operated for 12 y in a PWR (boric acid) spent fuel pool. There was no evidence of deterioration, and the fuel-handling machine was reassembled for further use. A spent fuel pool at a Swedish PWR was decontaminated. The procedure is outlined in this report

  16. Systems analysis of spent fuel management in Japan. (2). Methodologies for economic analyses of spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji

    2003-01-01

    Analytical methods for economic analyses of spent fuel storage are categorized in three layers; (1) static engineering-economic cost estimates, (2) dynamic strategy analyses, and (3) specific project financing assessments. After describing recent legal and institutional evolution in spent fuel management and storage in Japan, the report summarizes each of the three methods with numerical examples of applications. As a conclusion, the author maintains that users should choose the most suitable type of method or calculating tool in accordance with their specific purposes. General guidelines of choosing methodologies are elaborated as the conclusion. (author)

  17. Spent nuclear fuel project design basis capacity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    A parametric study of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project system capacity is presented. The study was completed using a commercially available software package to develop a summary level model of the major project systems. A base case, reflecting the Fiscal Year 1998 process configuration, is evaluated. Parametric evaluations are also considered, investigating the impact of higher fuel retrieval system productivity and reduced shift operations at the canister storage building on total project duration

  18. Criticality safety of spent fuel casks considering water inleakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osgood, N.L.; Withee, C.J.; Easton, E.P.

    2004-01-01

    A fundamental safety design parameter for all fissile material packages is that a single package must be critically safe even if water leaks into the containment system. In addition, criticality safety must be assured for arrays of packages under normal conditions of transport (undamaged packages) and under hypothetical accident conditions (damaged packages). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has revised the review protocol for demonstrating criticality safety for spent fuel casks. Previous review guidance specified that water inleakage be considered under accident conditions. This practice was based on the fact that the leak tightness of spent fuel casks is typically demonstrated by use of structural analysis and not by physical testing. In addition, since a single package was shown to be safe with water inleakage, it was concluded that this analysis was also applicable to an array of damaged packages, since the heavy shield walls in spent fuel casks neutronically isolate each cask in the array. Inherent in this conclusion is that the fuel assembly geometry does not change significantly, even under drop test conditions. Requests for shipping fuel with burnup exceeding 40 GWd/MTU, including very high burnups exceeding 60 GWD/MTU, caused a reassessment of this assumption. Fuel cladding structural strength and ductility were not clearly predictable for these higher burnups. Therefore the single package analysis for an undamaged package may not be applicable for the damaged package. NRC staff developed a new practice for review of spent fuel casks under accident conditions. The practice presents two methods for approval that would allow an assessment of potential reconfiguration of the fuel assembly under accident conditions, or, alternatively, a demonstration of the water-exclusion boundary through physical testing

  19. A study on the thermal expansion characteristics of simulated spent fuel and simulated DUPIC fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kweon Ho; Ryu, H. J.; Kim, H. S.; Song, K. C.; Yang, M. S.

    2001-10-01

    Thermal expansions of simulated spent PWR fuel and simulated DUPIC fuel were studied using a dilatometer in the temperature range from 298 to 1900 K. The densities of simulated spent PWR fuel and simulated DUPIC fuel used in the measurement were 10.28 g/cm3 (95.35 % of TD) and 10.26 g/cm3 (95.14 % of TD), respectively. Their linear thermal expansions of simulated fuels are higher than that of UO2, and the difference between these fuels and UO2 increases progressively as temperature increases. However, the difference between simulated spent PWR fuel and simulated DUPIC fuel can hardly be observed. For the temperature range from 298 to 1900 K, the values of the average linear thermal expansion coefficients for simulated spent PWR fuel and simulated DUPIC fuel are 1.391 10-5 and 1.393 10-5 K-1, respectively. As temperature increases to 1900 K, the relative densities of simulated spent PWR fuel and simulated DUPIC fuel decrease to 93.81 and 93.76 % of initial densities at 298 K, respectively

  20. Air Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania to Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Alexander Buchelnikov

    2010-10-01

    Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without shipment license special exceptions when the last Romanian highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel was transported to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This air shipment required the design, fabrication, and licensing of special 20 foot freight containers and cask tiedown supports to transport the eighteen TUK 19 shipping casks on a Russian commercial cargo aircraft. The new equipment was certified for transport by road, rail, water, and air to provide multi modal transport capabilities for shipping research reactor spent fuel. The equipment design, safety analyses, and fabrication were performed in the Russian Federation and transport licenses were issued by both the Russian and Romanian regulatory authorities. The spent fuel was transported by truck from the VVR S research reactor to the Bucharest airport, flown by commercial cargo aircraft to the airport at Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to the final destination in a secure nuclear facility at Chelyabinsk, Russia. This shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in close cooperation with the Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, and was managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). This paper describes the planning, shipment preparations, equipment design, and license approvals that resulted in the safe and secure air shipment of this spent nuclear fuel.

  1. MTR spent fuel transport and handling experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, Vincent [TRANSNUCLEAIRE (France)

    1999-07-01

    The present paper describes the last MTR transport operations performed by TN in exotic countries, as well as within Europe. Each transport is specific and must be very carefully prepared, because all MTR fuels are generally very specific to each research reactor. Their characteristics (i.e. type, dimensions, irradiation...) have to be precisely identified because, for instance, they are not always well-known due to their period of storage. We will mainly talk about the International Shipments. (author)

  2. Microscopic Examination of a Corrosion Front in Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Fortner; A.J. Kropf; R.J. Finch; J.C. Cunnane

    2006-01-01

    Spent uranium oxide nuclear fuel hosts a variety of trace chemical constituents, many of which must be sequestered from the biosphere during fuel storage and disposal. In this paper we present synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy and microscopy findings that illuminate the resultant local chemistry of neptunium and plutonium within spent uranium oxide nuclear fuel before and after corrosive alteration in an air-saturated aqueous environment. We find the plutonium and neptunium in unaltered spent fuel to have a +4 oxidation state and an environment consistent with solid-solution in the UO 2 matrix. During corrosion in an air-saturated aqueous environment, the uranium matrix is converted to uranyl U(VI)O 2 2+ mineral assemblage that is depleted in plutonium and neptunium relative to the parent fuel. At the corrosion front interface between intact fuel and the uranyl-mineral corrosion layer, we find evidence of a thin (∼20 micrometer) layer that is enriched in plutonium and neptunium within a predominantly U 4+ environment. Available data for the standard reduction potentials for NpO 2+ /Np 4+ and UO 2 2+ /U 4+ couples indicate that Np(IV) may not be effectively oxidized to Np(V) at the corrosion potentials of uranium dioxide spent nuclear fuel in air-saturated aqueous solutions. Neptunium is an important radionuclide in dose contribution according to performance assessment models of the proposed U. S. repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A scientific understanding of how the UO 2 matrix of spent nuclear fuel impacts the oxidative dissolution and reductive precipitation of neptunium is needed to predict its behavior at the fuel surface during aqueous corrosion. Neptunium would most likely be transported as aqueous Np(V) species, but for this to occur it must first be oxidized from the Np(IV) state found within the parent spent nuclear fuel [1]. In the immediate vicinity of the spent fuel's surface the redox and nucleation behavior is likely to promote

  3. Calibration of spent fuel measurement assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleska, Michal; Viererbl, Ladislav; Marek, Milan

    2014-11-01

    The LVR-15 research reactor (Czech Republic) had been converted from the highly enriched IRT-2M to the low enriched IRT-4M fuel. For the possibility of the independent pre-transport evaluation of IRT-2M burnup, a spectrometric system was developed. This spectrometric system consists of the fuel holder, the collimator and the portable Canberra Big MAC HPGe (High Purity Germanium) detector. In order to have well reproducible and reliable experimental data for modeling of the measurement system, calibration with the 110mAg isotope with known activity was performed. This isotope was chosen for having energies similar to isotopes measured in fuel assemblies. The 110mAg isotope was prepared by irradiating of the silver foil in LVR-15 research reactor; its activity was evaluated in the LVR-15's spectrometric laboratory. From the measured data, an efficiency curve of the spectrometric system has been determined. The experimental data were compared to the calculation results with the MCNPX model of the spectrometric system.

  4. A durable and dependable solution for RTR spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomasson, J.

    1999-01-01

    RTR Operators need efficient and cost-effective services for the management of their spent fuel and this, for the full lifetime of their facility. Thanks to the integration of transport, reprocessing and conditioning services, COGEMA provides a cogent solution, with the utmost respect for safety and preservation of the environment, for the short, medium and long terms. As demonstrated in this paper, this option offers the only durable and dependable solution for the RTR spent fuel management, leading to a conditioning for the final residues directly suitable for final disposal. The main advantage of such an option is obviously the significant reduction in terms of volume and radiotoxicity of the ultimate waste when compared to direct disposal of spent fuels. The efficiency of such a solution has been proven, some RTR operators having already trusted COGEMA for the management of their aluminide fuel. With its commitment in R and D activities for the development of a high performance and reprocessable LEU fuels, COGEMA will be able to propose a solution for all types of fuels, HEU and LEU

  5. Probabilistic safety analysis of transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramaniam, Chitra

    1999-11-01

    The report presents the results of the study carried out to estimate the accident risk involved in the transport of spent fuel from Rajasthan Atomic Power Station near Kota to the fuel reprocessing plant at Tarapur. The technique of probabilistic safety analysis is used. The fuel considered is the Indian pressurised heavy water reactor fuel with a minimum cooling period of 485 days. The spent fuel is transported in a cuboidal, naturally-cooled shipping cask over a distance of 822 km by rail. The Indian rail accident statistics are used to estimate the basic rail accident frequency. The possible ways in which a release of radioactive material can occur from the spent fuel cask are identified by the fault tree analysis technique. The release sequences identified are classified into eight accident severity categories, and release fractions are assigned to each. The consequences resulting from the release are estimated by the computer code RADTRAN 4. Results of the risk analysis indicate that the accident risk values are very low and hence acceptable. Parametric studies show that the risk would continue to be small even if the controlling parameters were to simultaneously take extreme adverse values. (author)

  6. HEU and Leu FueL Shielding Comparative Study Applied for Spent Fuel Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C.A.; Margeanu, S.; Barbos, D.

    2009-01-01

    INR Pitesti owns and operates a TRIGA dual-core Research Reactor for material testing, power reactor fuel and nuclear safety studies. The dual core concept involves the operation of a 14 MW TRIGA steady-state, high flux research and material testing reactor at one end of a large pool, and the independent operation of an annular-core pulsing reactor (TRIGA-ACPR) at the other end of the pool. The steady-state reactor is mostly used for long term testing of power reactor fuel components (pellets, pins, subassemblies and fuel assemblies) followed by post-irradiation examination. Following the general trend to replace the He fuel type (High Enriched Uranium) by Leu fuel type (Low Enriched Uranium), in the light of international agreements between IAEA and the states using He fuel in their nuclear reactors, Inr Past's have been accomplished the TRIGA research reactor core full conversion on May 2006. The He fuel repatriation in US in the frame of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Return Programme effectively started in 1999, the final stage being achieved in summer of 2008. Taking into account for the possible impact on the human and environment, in all activities associated to nuclear fuel cycle, the spent fuel or radioactive waste characteristics must be well known. Shielding calculations basic tasks consist in radiation doses calculation, in order to prevent any risks both for personnel protection and impact on the environment during the spent fuel manipulation, transport and storage. The paper is a comparative study of Leu and He fuel utilization effects for the shielding analysis during spent fuel transport. A comparison against the measured data for He spent fuel, available from the last stage of the spent fuel repatriation, is presented. All the geometrical and material data related on the spent fuel shipping cask were considered according to the Nac-Lt Cask approved model. The shielding analysis estimates radiation doses to shipping cask wall surface

  7. Spent fuel evolution under disposal conditions -- Synthesis of results from the EU spent fuel stability (SFS) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.

    2005-03-01

    Over the period 2002-2004, a large number of European organisations cooperated on the EU Project SFS - Spent Fuel Stability under disposal conditions. The objective of the SFS Project was to develop a reliable and robust model for the spent fuel source term which can be used in performance assessment exercises by the waste management agencies responsible for assessing the feasibility and safety of potential geological disposal systems for spent fuel, whatever the countries and disposal system designs may be. A new model for short-term release of fission products (Instant Release Fraction or IRF) was developed based on the anticipated fission product release from various fuel microstructures (gap, rim, grain boundaries) and the potential solid-state diffusion of fission products prior to canister breaching. For the oxide matrix of the spent fuel, a Matrix Alteration Model (MAM) was developed, which is linked to the production of oxidants by water radiolysis at the fuel interface, the oxidation of the fuel interface by radiolytic oxidants and the subsequent release of uranium under the influence of aqueous ligands. A large set of experimental data was therefore acquired in order to (i) upgrade the current radiolytic kinetic scheme, (ii) determine the relationship between fuel alteration rate and alpha activity by performing experiments on alpha-doped samples of UO 2 and (iii) experimentally test the potential inhibition effect of hydrogen on fuel dissolution. Based on these results, a new MAM was developed that was calibrated using experiments on inactive UO 2 samples, although the hydrogen effects remain to be incorporated completely into the model. The integrated model combining the IRF and MAM was used to illustrate long-term performance of representative spent fuel disposed of in granite, salt and clay host rock environments. The findings of the SFS Project have significantly enhanced the understanding of phenomena that may affect radionuclide release from spent

  8. Spent nuclear fuel project design basis capacity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, K.J.

    1996-09-09

    A parametric study of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project system capacity is presented. The study was completed using a commercially available software package to develop a summary level model of the major project systems. Alternative configurations, sub-system cycle times, and operating scenarios were tested to identify their impact on total project duration and equipment requirements.

  9. Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    Current inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy radioactive wastes were compiled through December 31, 1982, based on the most reliable information available from government sources and the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Future waste and spent fuel to be generated over the next 40 years and characteristics of these materials are also presented, based on the latest DOE/EIA projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related and industrial and institutional activities. Materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter bases, are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, active uranium mill tailings, airborne waste, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated, based on reported or calculated isotopic compositions. One chapter gives broad, summary data on the costs of spent fuel and radioactive waste management and disposal to provide an economic perspective. This chapter is not intended as a definitive guide, but it is a source of reasonable, order-of-magnitude costs and also provides references to more-detailed and scenario-specific studies. An appendix on generic flowsheets and source terms used for the projections is also included

  10. Spent fuel and radioactive-waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    Current inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy radioactive wastes were compiled, based on the most reliable information available from government sources and the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Future waste and spent fuel to be generated over the next 40 years, and characteristics of these materials are also presented, based on a present DOE/EIA projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related and industrial and institutional activities. Materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, remedial action waste, active uranium mill tailings, airborne waste, and decommissioning. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020. The land usage requirements are given for storage/disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes, and for the present inventories of inactive uranium mill tailings. For each waste category the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated. Isotopic compositions and cost data are given for each waste type and for spent fuel

  11. Spent Fuel Test - Climax data acquisition system operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyholm, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is a test of the retrievable, deep geologic storage of commercially generated, spent nuclear reactor fuel in granite rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies, together with 6 electrical simulators and 20 guard heaters, are emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granite at the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site. On June 2, 1978, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) secured funding for the SFT-C, and completed spent fuel emplacement May 28, 1980. The multi-year duration test is located in a remote area and is unattended much of the time. An extensive array of radiological safety and geotechnical instrumentation is deployed to monitor the test performance. A dual minicomputer-based data acquisition system (DAS) collects and processes data from more than 900 analog instruments. This report documents the software element of the LLNL developed SFT-C Data Acquisition System. It defines the operating system and hardware interface configurations, the special applications software and data structures, and support software

  12. Discount rate in the spent fuel storage and disposal fee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, J.D.; Cohen, S.

    1980-04-01

    After introducing the financial analyses, discount rates, and interest rates involved, the study discusses existing government guidelines for establishing charges for any service provided by the government to be paid by users of those services. Three current government user charges are analyzed including specifically their interest rate policies and how these charges provide precedent for the spent fuel acceptance and disposal fee: uranium enrichment services, the sale of electric power, and the delivery of experiments to orbit by the NASA Space Shuttle. The current DOE policy regarding this storage and disposal fee is stated and discussed. Features of this policy include: the full government cost is borne by users of the services provided; the fee is established and due in full at the time of spent fuel delivery; and the fee is adjusted when spent fuel is transferred from the AFR to the repository. Four evaluation criteria for use in analyzing the applications of discount rates in the spent fuel acceptance fee calculation are discussed. Three outstanding issues are discussed

  13. Process and system to encapsulate spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekaran, Muthian; Fleischer, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    System for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel containing active fission matter and comprised in a metal casing, where concrete covers this casing in a contiguous, uniform and complete manner. It is characterized in that this concrete contains metal fibres to raise the thermal conductivity and polymers for increasing impermeability and that convection facilities are provided for cooling the outer surface of the concrete [fr

  14. Risk analysis for nuclear spent fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dina, Dumitru; Andrei, Veronica; Ghita, Sorin; Glodeanu, Florin

    2004-01-01

    In June 2003, the first capacity of the Intermediate Dry Spent Fuel Storage Facility (DICA) was commissioned at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (Cernavoda NPP). The facility is a dry system type facility; its designed lifetime is for a minimum of 50 years and capacity for two nuclear power units' lifetime. The storage structures are monolith reinforced concrete modules offering a very good isolation of the spent fuel from the environment. The spent fuel is confined by a system of double barriers that prevents radioactive emissions and ensures protection of the population and environment. The security functions of the facility are operational through passive means. In Romania, the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, CNCAN, is the authority that licenses the nuclear activities. CNCAN issued the commissioning and operating licenses for DICA following a complex process. The Final Nuclear Safety Report represents basic documentation for licensing and one of its main chapters presents the risk analysis results. The risk analysis performed for DICA covers normal operational regimes and accident cases considered as design basis events (DBE). The results of risk analysis for Cernavoda NNP DICA demonstrates that risks for the population and environment are much lower than the authorization limits established by CNCAN and in agreement with values for proven safe spent fuel storage technologies from European Union and worldwide. (authors)

  15. Synthesis on the spent fuel long term evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferry, C.; Poinssot, Ch.; Lovera, P.; Poulesquen, A.; Broudic, V.; Cappelaere, Ch.; Desgranges, L.; Garcia, Ph.; Jegou, Ch.; Roudil, D.; Lovera, P.; Poulesquen, A.; Marimbeau, P.; Gras, J.M.; Bouffioux, P.

    2005-01-01

    The French research on spent fuel long term evolution has been performed by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) since 1999 in the PRECCI project with the support of EDF (Electricite de France). These studies focused on the spent fuel behaviour under various conditions encountered in dry storage or in deep geological disposal. Three main types of conditions were discerned: - The evolution in a closed system which corresponds to the normal scenario in storage and to the first confinement phase in disposal; - The evolution in air which corresponds to an incidental loss of confinement during storage or to a rupture of the canister before the site re-saturation in geological disposal; - The evolution in water which corresponds to the normal scenario after the breaching of the canister in repository conditions. This document produced in the frame of the PRECCI project is an overview of the state of knowledge in 2004 concerning the long-term behavior of spent fuel under these various conditions. The state of the art was derived from the results obtained under the PRECCI project as well as from a review of the literature and of data acquired under the European project on Spent Fuel Stability under Repository Conditions. The main results issued from the French research are underlined. (authors)

  16. Spent fuel test. Climax data acquisition system integration report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyholm, R.A.; Brough, W.G.; Rector, N.L.

    1982-06-01

    The Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) is a test of the retrievable, deep geologic storage of commercially generated, spent nuclear reactor fuel in granitic rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies, together with 6 electrical simulators and 20 guard heaters, are emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. On June 2, 1978, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) secured funding for the SFT-C, and completed spent fuel emplacement May 28, 1980. This multi-year duration test is located in a remote area and is unattended much of the time. An extensive array of radiological safety and geotechnical instrumentation is deployed to monitor the test performance. A dual minicomputer-based data acquisition system collects and processes data from more than 900 analog instruments. This report documents the design and functions of the hardware and software elements of the Data Acquisition System and describes the supporting facilities which include environmental enclosures, heating/air-conditioning/humidity systems, power distribution systems, fire suppression systems, remote terminal stations, telephone/modem communications, and workshop areas. 9 figures

  17. Options for the interim storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kromar, M.; Kurincic, B.

    1995-01-01

    Different concepts for the interim storage of spent fuel arising from operation of a NPP are discussed. We considered at reactor as well as away from reactor storage options. Included are enhancements of existing storage capabilities and construction of a new wet or dry storage facility. (author)

  18. Spent fuel reprocessing system security engineering capability maturity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yachun; Zou Shuliang; Yang Xiaohua; Ouyang Zigen; Dai Jianyong

    2011-01-01

    In the field of nuclear safety, traditional work places extra emphasis on risk assessment related to technical skills, production operations, accident consequences through deterministic or probabilistic analysis, and on the basis of which risk management and control are implemented. However, high quality of product does not necessarily mean good safety quality, which implies a predictable degree of uniformity and dependability suited to the specific security needs. In this paper, we make use of the system security engineering - capability maturity model (SSE-CMM) in the field of spent fuel reprocessing, establish a spent fuel reprocessing systems security engineering capability maturity model (SFR-SSE-CMM). The base practices in the model are collected from the materials of the practice of the nuclear safety engineering, which represent the best security implementation activities, reflect the regular and basic work of the implementation of the security engineering in the spent fuel reprocessing plant, the general practices reveal the management, measurement and institutional characteristics of all process activities. The basic principles that should be followed in the course of implementation of safety engineering activities are indicated from 'what' and 'how' aspects. The model provides a standardized framework and evaluation system for the safety engineering of the spent fuel reprocessing system. As a supplement to traditional methods, this new assessment technique with property of repeatability and predictability with respect to cost, procedure and quality control, can make or improve the activities of security engineering to become a serial of mature, measurable and standard activities. (author)

  19. Monitoring of spent nuclear fuel with antineutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran

    2017-09-01

    We put forward the possibility of employing antineutrino detectors in order to control the amounts of spent nuclear fuel in repositories or, alternatively, to precisely localize the underground sources of nuclear material. For instance, we discuss the applicability in determining a possible leakage of stored nuclear material which would aid in preventing environmental problems. The long-term storage facilities are also addressed.

  20. Safety Analysis of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radwaste Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poskas, P.; Ragaisis, V.

    2001-01-01

    The overview of the activities in the Laboratory of Heat Transfer in Nuclear Reactors related with the assessment of thermal, neutronic and radiation characteristics in spent nuclear fuel and radwaste facilities are performed. Activities related with decommissioning of Ignalina NPP are also reviewed. (author)

  1. Corrosion resistance of a copper canister for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The report presents an evaluation of copper as canister material for spent nuclear fuel. The evaluation is made from the viewpoint of corrosion and applies to a concept of 1977. Supplementary corrosion studies have been performed. The report includes 9 appendices which deal with experimental data. (G.B.)

  2. Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSI). Annual report, FY 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zima, G.E.

    1979-03-01

    The prime objective of the subject program is the identification of technical aspects of the design, operation and maintenance of independent spent fuel storage installations which could contribute to technical bases for Regulations and Regulatory Guides issued by NRC for these facilities. Activities on the various tasks of the program for the FY 1978 period are discussed in this report

  3. Situation and perspective of spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Garcia, A.

    2009-01-01

    Between september 2006 and september 2007, the Foundation for Energy Studies carried out the study Radioactive Waste Management: Situation, Analysis and Perspectives. This study focuses specially on spent fuel and high level radioactive waste management. The different aspects covered in this study are as follows: -Description of the different applicable technologies -Analysis and comparison of the different options of spent fuel management, including the strategic and economic aspects. - Situation, strategies and forecasts in the main countries. -Analysis of the situation and alternatives for the spent fuel management in spain. Although the report focuses principally pn the technological and environmental aspects other issues related with the management of these materials were considered, such as the strategic, economic and institutional aspects as well as the social acceptation. In answer to the request of the SNE publication, the article enclosed is a summary of one of the chapters of this study, and more particularly the one dedicated to the situation of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste management in Spain. (Author)

  4. Modelling of radiation field around spent fuel container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kryuchkov, EF; Opalovsky, VA; Tikhomirov, GV

    2005-01-01

    Operation of nuclear reactors leads to the production of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). There are two basic strategies of SNF management: ultimate disposal of SNF in geological formations and recycle or repeated utilisation of reprocessed SNF. In both options, there is an urgent necessity to study

  5. Preliminary concepts for detecting national diversion of LWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnier, C.S.; Cravens, M.N.

    1978-04-01

    Preliminary concepts for detecting national diversion of LWR spent fuel during storage, handling and transportation are presented. Principal emphasis is placed on means to achieve timely detection by an international authority. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS) as part of the overall Sandia Fixed Facility Physical Protection Program

  6. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel from NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.

    2004-01-01

    In order to get a clear view of the future liabilities of Slovenia and Croatia regarding the long term management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by the NPP Krsko, an estimation of disposal cost for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) as well as for spent nuclear fuel is needed. This cost estimation represents the basis for defining the target value for the financial resources to be accrued by the two national decommissioning and waste disposal funds, as determined in the agreement between Slovenia and Croatia on the ownership and exploitation of the NPP Krsko from March 2003, and for specifying their financial strategies. The one and only record of the NPP Krsko spent fuel disposal costs was made in the NPP Krsko Decommissioning Plan from 1996 [1]. As a result of incomplete input data, the above SF disposal cost estimate does not incorporate all cost elements. A new cost estimation was required in the process of preparation of the Joint Decommissioning and Waste Management Programme according to the provisions of the above mentioned agreement between Slovenia and Croatia. The basic presumptions and reference scenario for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel on which the cost estimation is based, as well as the applied methodology and results of cost estimation, are presented in this paper. Alternatives to the reference scenario and open questions which need to be resolved before the relevant final decision is taken, are also briefly discussed. (author)

  7. Commercial solutions [for dry spent fuel storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, W.F.; Pennington, C.W.; Hobbs, J.; Lee, W.; Thomas, B.D.; Dibert, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    In the aftermath of the termination of the DOE's MPC (Multi-Purpose Canister) programme, commercial suppliers are coming forward with new or updated systems to meet utility needs. Leading vendors describe the advantages of their systems for dry spent fuel storage and transport. (Author)

  8. Assay of spent fuel by a simple reactivity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.M.; Lindquist, L.O.

    1982-01-01

    A new method for the assay of spent-fuel assemblies has been developed that eliminates the need for external isotopic neutron sources, yet retains the advantages of an active interrogation system. The assay is accomplished by changing the reactivity of the system and correlating the measurements to burnup. 7 figures

  9. Remarks on the transportation of spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter topics discussed are the need for contracts, a transport company and risk insurance. Also, a section on transportation covers cranes, subpressure, contamination, cask limitations, physical protection and shipping. Reprocessing discusses minimum reprocessing batch and spent fuel. Finally, economical considerations concerning transportation and reprocessing are given

  10. Rethinking the economics of centralized spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.W.; Short, S.M.; Dippold, D.G.; Rod, S.R.; Williams, J.W.

    1991-04-01

    The technology for extended storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), either at-reactor or in a centralized facility such as a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility, is well-developed and proven from an engineering and safety perspective. The question of whether spent fuel should await its final geologic disposal while at a reactor site or in an MRS facility is essentially an economic one. While intuition and previous results suggest that centralized storage will be more economical than at-reactor storage beyond some break-even quantity of SNF, the incremental costs of pool storage at-reactor are close to zero as long as pool capacity is generally available. Thus, if economics is the prime motivator, the quantity of spent fuel required to warrant centralized storage could be quite large. The economics of centralizing the storage of spent fuel at a single site, as opposed to continued storage at over 100 reactor sites, has been the subject of several recent analyses. Most of these analyses involved calculating the benefits of an MRS facility with a pre-defined MRS operating scenario. This paper reverses this approach to economic analysis of the MRS by seeking the optimal MRS operating scenario (in terms of the parameters listed above) implied by the economic incentives arising from the relative costs of at-reactor storage and centralized storage. This approach treats an MRS as a possible storage location that will be used according to its economic value in system operation. 5 refs., 5 figs

  11. Synthesis on the spent fuel long term evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, C.; Poinssot, Ch.; Lovera, P.; Poulesquen, A. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DEN/DPC), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Broudic, V. [CEA Cadarache, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires (DRN), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Cappelaere, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire(DMN), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Desgranges, L. [CEA Cadarache, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires (DRN), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Garcia, Ph. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Jegou, Ch.; Roudil, D. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 30 - Marcoule (France); Lovera, P.; Poulesquen, A. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DPC), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Marimbeau, P. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Gras, J.M.; Bouffioux, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The French research on spent fuel long term evolution has been performed by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) since 1999 in the PRECCI project with the support of EDF (Electricite de France). These studies focused on the spent fuel behaviour under various conditions encountered in dry storage or in deep geological disposal. Three main types of conditions were discerned: - The evolution in a closed system which corresponds to the normal scenario in storage and to the first confinement phase in disposal; - The evolution in air which corresponds to an incidental loss of confinement during storage or to a rupture of the canister before the site re-saturation in geological disposal; - The evolution in water which corresponds to the normal scenario after the breaching of the canister in repository conditions. This document produced in the frame of the PRECCI project is an overview of the state of knowledge in 2004 concerning the long-term behavior of spent fuel under these various conditions. The state of the art was derived from the results obtained under the PRECCI project as well as from a review of the literature and of data acquired under the European project on Spent Fuel Stability under Repository Conditions. The main results issued from the French research are underlined. (authors)

  12. Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge of Spent Fuel Pools: Tool Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Jacob M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tanner, Jennifer E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); MacDougall, Matthew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-30

    This report examines supplemental tools that can be used in addition to optical surveillance cameras to maintain CoK in low-to-no light conditions, and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of spent fuel CoK, including item counting and ID verification, in challenging conditions.

  13. Licensing of spent nuclear fuel dry storage in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kislov, A.I.; Kolesnikov, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Federal nuclear and radiation safety authority of Russia (Gosatomnadzor) being the state regulation body, organizes and carries out the state regulation and supervision for safety at handling, transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel. In Russia, the use of dry storage in casks will be the primary spent nuclear fuel storage option for the next twenty years. The cask for spent nuclear fuel must be applied for licensing by Gosatomnadzor for both storage and transportation. There are a number of regulations for transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel in Russia. Up to now, there are no special regulations for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. Such regulations will be prepared up to the end of 1998. Principally, it will be required that only type B(U)F, packages can be used for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel. Recently, there are two dual-purpose cask designs under consideration in Russia. One of them is the CONSTOR steel concrete cask, developed in Russia (NPO CKTI) under the leadership of GNB, Germany. The other cask design is the TUK-104 cask of KBSM, Russia. Both cask types were designed for spent nuclear RBMK fuel. The CONSTOR steel concrete cask was designed to be in full compliance with both Russian and IAEA regulations for transport of packages for radioactive material. The evaluation of the design criteria by Russian experts for the CONSTOR steel concrete cask project was performed at a first stage of licensing (1995 - 1997). The CONSTOR cask design has been assessed (strength analysis, thermal physics, nuclear physics and others) by different Russian experts. To show finally the compliance of the CONSTOR steel concrete cask with Russian and IAEA regulations, six drop tests have been performed with a 1:2 scale model manufactured in Russia. A test report was prepared. The test results have shown that the CONSTOR cask integrity is guaranteed under both transport and storage accident conditions. The final stage of the certification procedure

  14. Exorcising spent fuel transportation using comparative hazard assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Charles W. [NAC international, Norcross (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Spent fuel transportation has achieved an exemplary safety record over more than three decades within both the United States (U.S.) and the global community at large. Today, many groups are attempting to precipitate fear of spent fuel transportation within the general public by 'demonizing' this proven technology and by creating a highly charged environment of radiation phobia. The actions of these groups within the U.S. result from the confluence of the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, and the acceptance by the President and Congress of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) recommendation of Yucca Mountain as the repository site for the disposal of the nation's spent fuel. This paper offers a comparative hazard assessment demonstrating the relative safety of spent fuel transportation in the context of currently accepted practices within society to show that there are no 'demons' associated with spent fuel transportation. The paper provides an assessment of potential population exposures based on more than 25 years of transport cask analysis and testing under beyond-design-basis (BDB) event conditions, including missile attacks, with those from current accepted activities within society that produce high dose exposures to the general public. Over the last quarter of a century, several spent fuel cask test programs have produced data that allow calculation of potential releases and population doses resulting from a terrorist attack. The DOE has used this information to develop projected worst-case population exposures as part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Yucca Mountain repository. The paper discusses these potential releases and population exposures. Additionally, the paper identifies current unregulated activities and practices within societies yielding population exposures that exceed significantly those that would result from such highly hypothetical and improbable events as a terrorist missile

  15. Exorcising spent fuel transportation using comparative hazard assessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, Charles W.

    2003-01-01

    Spent fuel transportation has achieved an exemplary safety record over more than three decades within both the United States (U.S.) and the global community at large. Today, many groups are attempting to precipitate fear of spent fuel transportation within the general public by 'demonizing' this proven technology and by creating a highly charged environment of radiation phobia. The actions of these groups within the U.S. result from the confluence of the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, and the acceptance by the President and Congress of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) recommendation of Yucca Mountain as the repository site for the disposal of the nation's spent fuel. This paper offers a comparative hazard assessment demonstrating the relative safety of spent fuel transportation in the context of currently accepted practices within society to show that there are no 'demons' associated with spent fuel transportation. The paper provides an assessment of potential population exposures based on more than 25 years of transport cask analysis and testing under beyond-design-basis (BDB) event conditions, including missile attacks, with those from current accepted activities within society that produce high dose exposures to the general public. Over the last quarter of a century, several spent fuel cask test programs have produced data that allow calculation of potential releases and population doses resulting from a terrorist attack. The DOE has used this information to develop projected worst-case population exposures as part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Yucca Mountain repository. The paper discusses these potential releases and population exposures. Additionally, the paper identifies current unregulated activities and practices within societies yielding population exposures that exceed significantly those that would result from such highly hypothetical and improbable events as a terrorist missile attack on a spent fuel

  16. Survey of experience with dry storage of spent nuclear fuel and update of wet storage experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Spent fuel storage is an important part of spent fuel management. At present about 45,000 t of spent water reactor fuel have been discharged worldwide. Only a small fraction of this fuel (approximately 7%) has been reprocessed. The amount of spent fuel arisings will increase significantly in the next 15 years. Estimates indicate that up to the year 2000 about 200,000 t HM of spent fuel could be accumulated. In view of the large quantities of spent fuel discharged from nuclear power plants and future expected discharges, many countries are involved in the construction of facilities for the storage of spent fuel and in the development of effective methods for spent fuel surveillance and monitoring to ensure that reliable and safe operation of storage facilities is achievable until the time when the final disposal of spent fuel or high level wastes is feasible. The first demonstrations of final disposal are not expected before the years 2000-2020. This is why the long term storage of spent fuel and HLW is a vital problem for all countries with nuclear power programmes. The present survey contains data on dry storage and recent information on wet storage, transportation, rod consolidation, etc. The main aim is to provide spent fuel management policy making organizations, designers, scientists and spent fuel storage facility operators with the latest information on spent fuel storage technology under dry and wet conditions and on innovations in this field. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Integrity of spent CANDU fuel during and following dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagran, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    This report examines the issue of CANDU fuel integrity at the back end of the fuel cycle and outlines a program designed to provide assurance that used CANDU fuel will retain its integrity over an extended period. In specific terms, the program is intended to provide assurance that during and following extended dry storage the fuel will remain fit to undergo, without loss of integrity, the handling, packaging and transportation operations that might be necessary until it is placed in disposal containers. The first step in the development of the program was a review of the available technical information on phenomena relevant to fuel integrity. The major conclusions from that review were the following: Under normal storage conditions it is unlikely that the spent fuel will suffer significant degradation during a one-hundred year period and it should be possible to retrieve, repackage and transport the fuel as required, using methods and systems similar to those used today. However, to provide increased confidence regarding the above conclusion, investigations should be conducted in areas where there is higher uncertainty in the prediction of fuel condition and on some degradation processes to which the fuel appears to present higher vulnerability. The proposed program includes, among other tasks, irradiated fuel tests, analytical studies on the most relevant fuel degradation processes and the development of a long-term fuel verification program. (Author)

  18. Regulation of spent nuclear fuel shipment: A state perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halstead, R.J.; Sinderbrand, C.; Woodbury, D.

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) sought to regulate rail shipments of spent nuclear fuel through the state, because federal regulations did not adequately protect the environmentally sensitive corridor along the route of the shipments. A state interagency working group identified five serious deficiencies in overall federal regulatory scheme: 1) failure to consider the safety or environmental risks associated with selected routes; 2) abscence of route-specific emergency response planning; 3) failure of the NRC to regulate the carrier of spent nuclear fuel or consider its safety record; 4) abscence of requirements for determination of need for, or the propriety of, specific shipments of spent nuclear fuel; and 5) the lack of any opportunity for meaningful public participation with respect to the decision to transport spent nuclear fuel. Pursuant to Wisconsin's hazardous substance statutes, the WDNR issues an order requiring the utility to file a spill prevention and mitigation plan or cease shipping through Wisconsin. A state trial court judge upheld the utility's challenge to Wisconsin's spill plan requirements, based on federal preemption of state authority. The state is now proposing federal legislation which would require: 1) NRC determination of need prior to approval of offsite shipment of spent fuel by the licensees; 2) NRC assessment of the potential environmental impacts of shipments along the proposed route, and comparative evaluation of alternative modes and routes; and 3) NRC approval of a route-specific emergency response and mitigation plan, including local training and periodic exercises. Additionally, the proposed legislation would authorize States and Indian Tribes to establish regulatory programs providing for permits, inspection, contingency plans for monitoring, containments, cleanup and decontamination, surveillance, enforcement and reasonable fees. 15 refs

  19. Spent fuel management options for research reactors in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    Research reactors (RRs) have been operated in Latin America since the late 1950s, and a total of 23 RRs have been built in the region. At the time of writing (November 2005), 18 RRs are in operation, 4 have been shut down and 1 has been decommissioned. The number of operating RRs in Latin America represents around 6% of the existing operational RRs worldwide and around 21% of the RRs operating in developing countries. Common to all RRs in the region is a consistent record of safe and successful operation. With the purpose of carrying out a collaborative study of different aspects of the management of spent fuel from RRs, some countries from the region proposed to the IAEA in 2000 the organization of a Regional Project. The project (IAEA TC Regional Project RLA/4/018) that was approved for the biennium 2001-2002 and extended for 2003-2004 included the participation of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Peru. The main objectives of this project were: (a) to define the basic conditions for a regional strategy for managing spent fuel that will provide solutions compatible with the economic and technological realities of the countries involved; and (b) to determine what is needed for the temporary wet and dry storage of spent fuel from the research reactors in the countries of the Latin American region that participated in the project. This TECDOC is based on the results of TC Regional Project RLA/4/018. This project was successful in identifying and assessing a number of viable alternatives for RRSF management in the Latin American region. Options for operational and interim storage, spent fuel conditioning and final disposal have been carefully considered. This report presents the views of Latin American experts on RR spent fuel management and will be useful as reference material for the Latin American RR community, decision making authorities in the region and the public in general

  20. Fabrication of DUPIC fuel pellets using high burn-up spent PWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Won; Park, Geun-Il; Choi, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Technology for the direct usage of a spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors (DUPIC) was developed in KAERI to reduce the amount of spent fuel. DUPIC fuel pellets were fabricated using a dry processing method to re-fabricate CANDU fuel from spent PWR fuel without any intentional separation of fissile materials or fission products. The DUPIC fuel element fabrication process satisfied a quality assurance program in accordance with the Canadian standard. For the DUPIC fuels with various fuel burn-ups between 27,300 and 65,000 MWd/tU, the sintered pellet density decreased with increasing fuel burn-ups. Fission gas releases and powder properties of the spent fuel also influenced the DUPIC fuel characteristics. Measurement of cesium content released from green pellets revealed that their sintered density significantly depended on sintering temperature history. It was useful to establish a DUPIC fuel fabrication technology in which a high-burn-up fuel with 65,000 MWd/tU was treated. (author)

  1. Standard guide for drying behavior of spent nuclear fuel

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide is organized to discuss the three major components of significance in the drying behavior of spent nuclear fuel: evaluating the need for drying, drying spent nuclear fuel, and confirmation of adequate dryness. 1.1.1 The guide addresses drying methods and their limitations in drying spent nuclear fuels that have been in storage at water pools. The guide discusses sources and forms of water that remain in SNF, its container, or both, after the drying process and discusses the importance and potential effects they may have on fuel integrity, and container materials. The effects of residual water are discussed mechanistically as a function of the container thermal and radiological environment to provide guidance on situations that may require extraordinary drying methods, specialized handling, or other treatments. 1.1.2 The basic issue in drying is to determine how dry the SNF must be in order to prevent issues with fuel retrievability, container pressurization, or container corrosion. Adequate d...

  2. DESIGN OF LSDS FOR ISOTOPIC FISSILE ASSAY IN SPENT FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YONGDEOK LEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A future nuclear energy system is being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI, the system involves a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR linked with the pyro-process. The pyro-process produces a source material to fabricate a SFR fuel rod. Therefore, an isotopic fissile content assay is very important for fuel rod safety and SFR economics. A new technology for an analysis of isotopic fissile content has been proposed using a lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS. The new technology has several features for a fissile analysis from spent fuel: direct isotopic fissile assay, no background interference, and no requirement from burnup history information. Several calculations were done on the designed spectrometer geometry: detection sensitivity, neutron energy spectrum analysis, neutron fission characteristics, self shielding analysis, and neutron production mechanism. The spectrum was well organized even at low neutron energy and the threshold fission chamber was a proper choice to get prompt fast fission neutrons. The characteristic fission signature was obtained in slowing down neutron energy from each fissile isotope. Another application of LSDS is for an optimum design of the spent fuel storage, maximization of the burnup credit and provision of the burnup code correction factor. Additionally, an isotopic fissile content assay will contribute to an increase in transparency and credibility for the utilization of spent fuel nuclear material, as internationally demanded.

  3. Initial Release of Nucliders from Spent PWR Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. S.; Chun, K. S.; Kim, Y. B.; Choi, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between the leaching and gap inventory of spent fuel has been studied. When a specimen of J44H08 spent PWR fuel with 38 GWD/MTU has been leached in the synthetic granitic groundwater in Ar atmosphere, the released fraction of cesium was increased rapidly up to 0,7% at around 500 days and stayed below 0.8% until 3 years. This 0.7% of cesium might be released from the gap in this fuel. The measurement of gap inventory with C15I08 spent PWR fuel, having 35 GWD/MTU and 0.22% of fission gas release, was also determined near 0.6% for the cesium, which is a similar fraction of cesium released from the leaching experiment with J44H08 fuel. Its gap inventories of strontium and iodine were about 0.03 and less than 0.2% respectively. Respective fractions of cesium and strontium in grain boundary of C15I08 were 0.78, 0.009%

  4. Design of LSDS for Isotopic Fissile Assay in Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yongdeok; Park, Changje; Kim, Hodong; Song, Kee Chan

    2013-01-01

    A future nuclear energy system is being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), the system involves a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) linked with the pyro-process. The pyro-process produces a source material to fabricate a SFR fuel rod. Therefore, an isotopic fissile content assay is very important for fuel rod safety and SFR economics. A new technology for an analysis of isotopic fissile content has been proposed using a lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS). The new technology has several features for a fissile analysis from spent fuel: direct isotopic fissile assay, no background interference, and no requirement from burnup history information. Several calculations were done on the designed spectrometer geometry: detection sensitivity, neutron energy spectrum analysis, neutron fission characteristics, self shielding analysis, and neutron production mechanism. The spectrum was well organized even at low neutron energy and the threshold fission chamber was a proper choice to get prompt fast fission neutrons. The characteristic fission signature was obtained in slowing down neutron energy from each fissile isotope. Another application of LSDS is for an optimum design of the spent fuel storage, maximization of the burnup credit and provision of the burnup code correction factor. Additionally, an isotopic fissile content assay will contribute to an increase in transparency and credibility for the utilization of spent fuel nuclear material, as internationally demanded

  5. Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides information on the progress of activities during fiscal year 1993 in the Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF ampersand WMTDP) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). As a new program, efforts are just getting underway toward addressing major issues related to the fuel and waste stored at the ICPP. The SF ampersand WMTDP has the following principal objectives: Investigate direct dispositioning of spent fuel, striving for one acceptable waste form; determine the best treatment process(es) for liquid and calcine wastes to minimize the volume of high level radioactive waste (HLW) and low level waste (LLW); demonstrate the integrated operability and maintainability of selected treatment and immobilization processes; and assure that implementation of the selected waste treatment process is environmentally acceptable, ensures public and worker safety, and is economically feasible

  6. Technical strategy for the management of INEEL spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents evaluations, findings, and recommendations of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team. The technical strategy developed by the Task Team includes stabilization, near term storage, packaging, transport, and ultimate disposal. Key issues identified and discussed include waste characterization, criticality, packaging, waste form performance, and special fuels. Current plans focus on onsite needs, and include three central elements: (1) resolution of near-term vulnerabilities, (2) consolidation of storage locations, and (3) achieving dry storage in transportable packages. In addition to the Task Team report, appendices contain information on the INEEL spent fuel inventory; regulatory decisions and agreements; and analyses of criticality, packaging, storage, transportation, and system performance of a geological repository. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel storage pool thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    Storage methods and requirements for spent nuclear fuel at U.S. commercial light water reactors are reviewed in Section 1. Methods of increasing current at-reactor storage capabilities are also outlined. In Section 2 the development of analytical methods for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of spent fuel pools is chronicled, leading up to a discussion of the GFLOW code which is described in Section 3. In Section 4 the verification of GFLOW by comparisons of the code's predictions to experimental data taken inside the fuel storage pool at the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant is presented. The predictions of GFLOW using 72, 224, and 1584 node models of the storage pool are compared to each other and to the experimental data. An example of thermal licensing analysis for Maine Yankee using the GFLOW code is given in Section 5. The GFLOW licensing analysis is compared to previous licensing analysis performed by Yankee Atomic using the RELAP-4 computer code

  8. Technical strategy for the management of INEEL spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents evaluations, findings, and recommendations of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team. The technical strategy developed by the Task Team includes stabilization, near term storage, packaging, transport, and ultimate disposal. Key issues identified and discussed include waste characterization, criticality, packaging, waste form performance, and special fuels. Current plans focus on onsite needs, and include three central elements: (1) resolution of near-term vulnerabilities, (2) consolidation of storage locations, and (3) achieving dry storage in transportable packages. In addition to the Task Team report, appendices contain information on the INEEL spent fuel inventory; regulatory decisions and agreements; and analyses of criticality, packaging, storage, transportation, and system performance of a geological repository. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Thermal test and analysis of a spent fuel storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, H.; Gomi, Y.; Ozaki, S.; Kosaki, A.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal test simulated with full-scale cask model for the normal storage was performed to verify the storage skill of the spent fuels of the cask. The maximum temperature at each point in the test was lower than the allowable temperature. The integrity of the cask was maintained. It was observed that the safety of containment system was also kept according to the check of the seal before and after the thermal test. Therefore it was shown that using the present skill, it is possible to store spent fuels in the dry-type cask safely. Moreover, because of the good agreement between analysis and experimental results, it was shown that the analysis model was successfully established to estimate the temperature distribution of the fuel cladding and the seal portion. (J.P.N.)

  10. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

  11. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0 2 ) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations

  12. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  13. Development of advanced spent fuel management process / criticality safety analysis for integrated mockup and metallized spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seong Gy; Shin, Hee Sung; Shin, Young Joon; Bae, Kang Mok

    1999-02-01

    Benchmark calculation for SCALE4.3 CSAS6 module and burnup credit criticality analysis performed by CSAS6 module are described in this report. Calculation biases by the SCALE4.3 CSAS6 module for PWR spent fuel, metallized spent fuel and aqueous nuclear materials have been determined on the basis of the benchmark to be 0.011, 0.023 and 0.010, respectively. The maximum allowable multiplication factor for an integrated mockup and metallized spent fuel storage is conservatively determined to be 0.927. With the aid of this code system, K eff values as a function of metallization ratio for the integrated mockup have been calculated. The maximum values of K eff for normal and hypothetical accident conditions are 0.346 and 0.598, respectively, much less than the maximum allowable multiplication factor of 0.927. Besides, burnup credit criticality analysis has been performed for infinite arrays of square and hexagonal canisters containing metallized spent fuel rods with different canister wall thickness, canister surface-to-surface distance and water content. It is revealed that the effective multiplication factor for canister arrays as mentioned above is well below the subcritical limit regardless of external conditions when its wall thickness is over 9 mm. (Author). 37 refs., 27 tabs., 64 figs

  14. Leaching of spent fuel in the presence of environmental material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Lous, Karine

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the alteration kinetics of spent fuels and the making of a status of the radioactivity released by spent fuels in conditions of direct disposal in deep underground. A system has been fitted inside a shielded cell to study the leaching by synthetic groundwater of fuel powder irradiated at 60 GWJ.tU -1 in the presence of environmental material (clay or granite) at 40 bars and 90 deg. C. This system allows to reach and keep reductive conditions characteristic of the redox conditions of a deep geological repository. The preparation of calibrated spent fuel powders and the recovery of the activity fixed by the environmental materials has required the implementation of specific procedures. Similar experiments have been performed in parallel with Simfuel in a controlled area. A first series of experiments has been carried out in 4 environments for each fuel. Important sorption phenomena take place in the environmental materials and the actinide concentrations stabilize rapidly at low values: 10 -8 mol/l for U, 10 -12 mol/l for Pu and 10 -13 -10 -14 mol/l for Cm. The activity released by 90 Sr at the end of each experiment is about two times higher in the presence of clay than in the presence of granite. The average alteration rates are of about 0.2 mg.m -2 /day in the presence of granite and 0.4 to 0.6 mg.m -2 /day in the presence of clay. They are comparable to those reported in the literature for reducing conditions. Such tests are necessary to determine the leaching rate of spent fuels in reducing conditions and in the absence of environmental materials in order to show the possible effects of these materials. (J.S.)

  15. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, S. J.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Hu, J.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Trellue, H.; Vo, D.

    2016-10-01

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative-Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. To compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.

  16. LMFBR spent fuel and new fuel inspection and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngquist, C.H.

    1975-01-01

    If the hot cells used for inspection and preparation of liquid metal fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies can be located so that the fuel assemblies can be moved directly to and from the sodium filled decay storage tank, the fuel handling problems can be simplified and a fuel handling machine may be eliminated. The hot cells can also serve as a transfer lock through the outer containment barrier, thereby permitting uninterrupted reactor operation during fuel transfer to and from the decay storage tank. 5 references

  17. Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project recommended path forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (the Project), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy-commissioned Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team, has developed engineered alternatives for expedited removal of spent nuclear fuel, including sludge, from the K Basins at Hanford. These alternatives, along with a foreign processing alternative offered by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), were extensively reviewed and evaluated. Based on these evaluations, a Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Recommended Path Forward for K Basins spent nuclear fuel has been developed and is presented in Volume I of this document. The recommendation constitutes an aggressive series of projects to construct and operate systems and facilities to safely retrieve, package, transport, process, and store K Basins fuel and sludge. The overall processing and storage scheme is based on the ITA team's proposed passivation and vault storage process. A dual purpose staging and vault storage facility provides an innovative feature which allows accelerated removal of fuel and sludge from the basins and minimizes programmatic risks beyond any of the originally proposed alternatives. The projects fit within a regulatory and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) overlay which mandates a two-phased approach to construction and operation of the needed facilities. The two-phase strategy packages and moves K Basins fuel and sludge to a newly constructed Staging and Storage Facility by the year 2000 where it is staged for processing. When an adjoining facility is constructed, the fuel is cycled through a stabilization process and returned to the Staging and Storage Facility for dry interim (40-year) storage. The estimated total expenditure for this Recommended Path Forward, including necessary new construction, operations, and deactivation of Project facilities through 2012, is approximately $1,150 million (unescalated)

  18. Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Norway: Status and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Peter; Larsen, Erlend

    2014-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) in Norway has arisen from irradiation of fuel in the JEEP I and JEEP II reactors at Kjeller, and in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) in Halden. In total there are some 16 tonnes of SNF, all of which is currently stored on-site, in either wet or dry storage facilities. The greater part of the SNF, 12 tonnes, consists of aluminium-clad fuel, of which 10 tonnes is metallic uranium fuel and the remainder oxide (UO 2 ). Such fuel presents significant challenges with respect to long-term storage and disposal. Current policy is that existing spent fuel will, as far as possible considering its suitability for later direct disposal, be stored until final disposal is possible. Several committees have advised the Government of Norway on, among others, policy issues, storage methods and localisation of a storage facility. Both experts and stakeholders have participated in these committees. This paper presents an overview of the spent fuel in Norway and a description of current storage arrangements. The prospects for long-term storage are then described, including a summary of recommendations made to government, the reactions of various stakeholders to these recommendations, the current status, and the proposed next steps. A recommended policy is to construct a new storage facility for the fuel to be stored for a period of at least 50 years. In the meantime a national final disposal facility should be constructed and taken into operation. It has been recommended that the aluminium-clad fuel be reprocessed in an overseas commercial facility to produce a stable waste form for storage and disposal. This recommendation is controversial, and a decision has not yet been taken on whether to pursue this option. An analysis of available storage concepts for the more modern fuel types resulted in the recommendation to use dual-purpose casks. In addition, it was recommended to construct a future storage facility in a rock hall instead of a free

  19. Proceedings of spent fuel management technology workshop, 1997. 11. 13 - 11. 14, Taejon, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This proceedings cover the advanced spent fuel process technology, the development of a test facility for spent fuel management and remote handling technology, and the characteristics test technology. Fifteen papers are submitted.

  20. Proceedings of spent fuel management technology workshop, 1997. 11. 13 - 11. 14, Taejon, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This proceedings cover the advanced spent fuel process technology, the development of a test facility for spent fuel management and remote handling technology, and the characteristics test technology. Fifteen papers are submitted

  1. Disposal of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants - 16028

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Reinhold; Brammer, Klaus-Juergen; Filbert, Wolfgang; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    The 'direct disposal of spent fuel' as a part of the current German reference concept was developed as an alternative to spent fuel reprocessing and vitrified HLW disposal. The technical facilities necessary for the implementation of this part of the reference concept, the so called POLLUX R concept, i.e. interim storage buildings for casks containing spent fuel, a pilot conditioning facility, and a special cask 'POLLUX' for final disposal have been built. With view to a geological salt formation all handling procedures for the direct disposal of spent fuel were tested aboveground in full-scale test facilities. To optimise the reference concept, all operational steps have been reviewed for possible improvements. The two additional concepts for the direct disposal of SF are the BSK 3 concept and the DIREGT concept. Both concepts rely on borehole emplacement technology, vertical boreholes for the BSK 3 concept und horizontal boreholes for the DIREGT concept. Supported by the EU and the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), DBE TECHNOLOGY built an aboveground full-scale test facility to simulate all relevant handling procedures for the BSK 3 disposal concept. GNS (Company for Nuclear Service), representing the German utilities, provided the main components and its know-how concerning cask design and manufacturing. The test program was concluded recently after more than 1.000 emplacement operations had been performed successfully. The BSK 3 emplacement system in total comprises an emplacement device, a borehole lock, a transport cart, a transfer cask which will shuttle between the aboveground conditioning facility and the underground repository, and the BSK 3 canister itself, designed to contain the fuel rods of three PWR-fuel assemblies with a total of about 1.6 tHM. The BSK 3 concept simplifies the operation of the repository because the handling procedures and techniques can also be applied for the disposal of reprocessing residues. In addition

  2. Decay heat measurements and predictions of BWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, M.A.; Heeb, C.M.; Creer, A.M.

    1986-06-01

    Pre-calorimetry decay heat predictions obtained with the ORIGEN2 computer code were compared to calorimeter data obtained for eleven boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel assemblies using General Electric, Morris Operation's in-pool calorimeter. Ten of the 7 x 7 BWR spent fuel assemblies were obtained from Nebraska Public Power District's Cooper Nuclear Station. The remaining BWR assembly was from Commonwealth Edison's Dresden Nuclear Power Plant. The assemblies had burnups ranging from 5.3 to 27.6 GWD/MTU and had been removed from their respective reactors for 2 or more years. The majority of the assemblies had burnups of between 20 and 28 GWD/MTU and had been out of the reactor 2 to 4 years. The assemblies represent spent fuel that has been continuously burned and fuel that has been reinserted. Comparisons of ORIGEN2 pre-calorimetry decay heat predictions with calorimeter data showed that predictions agreed with data within the precision/repeatibility of the experimental data (+-15 Watts or 5% for a 300 Watt BWR assembly). Comparisons of predicted axial gamma profiles based on core-averaged axial burnups with measured profiles showed difference. These differences may be explained by reactor operation with partially inserted control rods

  3. Status and prospects for spent fuel management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, P.

    1998-01-01

    The 70's oil crisis has shown that the energy resource dependence of France was too high. The decision was made by the French government to accelerate the implementation of an ambitious nuclear power programme, based on Light Water Reactors, and to do the utmost to reuse the energy bearing material included in the spent fuel. The French nuclear policy has not changed since then. This paper is aimed at describing the present status of implementation of this policy, and the associated prospects. It will first sum up the presentation made in 1995 to the Regular Advisory Group of IAEA on Spent Fuel Management. Then, it will update the situation of the main actors of the spent fuel management policy in France: EDF, the national utility; COGEMA, world leader on almost all the steps of the fuel cycle; CEA, the national research body in the field of nuclear science and its applications; ANDRA, national body in charge of the management of the waste arising from the nuclear activities in France, final disposal included. (author)

  4. VHTR, ADS, and PWR spent nuclear fuel analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salome, J.A.D.; Cardoso, F.; Velasquez, C.E.; Pereira, F.; Pereira, C. [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear - Escola de Engenharia Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte MG, CEP: 31270-901 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores - CNPq, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Barros, G.P. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Rua General Severiano 82, Botafogo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP: 22290-040 (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the discharged-spent fuel of 3 types of nuclear systems: a Very High-Temperature Gas Reactor (VHTR), a lead-cooled Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) and a standard Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The two first systems, VHTR, and ADS were designed to use reprocessed fuels. UREX+ and GANEX techniques were used for the reprocessing processes respectively. The fuel burnup simulated for the systems in other works have been used to obtain the final composition of the spent fuel discharged. After discharge, the radioactivity, the radiotoxicity, and the decay heat were evaluated through the ORIGEN 2.1 code until 10{sup 7} years and compared to the literature. The spent nuclear waste (SNF) coming from reprocessing techniques and burned up in advanced reactors show that the radiotoxicity decreases below a conventional SNF from a typical PWR for the time studied. The VHTR and ADs have higher values of radioactivity, radiotoxicity and decay heat, because of the greater concentrations of plutonium and curium in these reactors than in the PWR. Fission products have the greatest contribution for the first 25 years over the parameters studied for a PWR. The most harmful fission products are: Ba{sup 137m}, Tc{sup 99}, I{sup 129} and Nb{sup 93m} and for actinides is the plutonium and curium.

  5. Modelling spent fuel and HLW behaviour in repository conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza, A. M.; Esteban, J. A.

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this report is to give the reader an overall insight of the different models, which are used to predict the long-term behaviour of the spent fuels and HLW disposed in a repository. The models must be established on basic data and robust kinetics describing the mechanisms controlling spent fuel alteration/dissolution in a repository. The UO2 matrix, or source term, contains embedded in it the , majority of radionuclides of the spent fuel (some are in the gap cladding). For this reason the SF radionuclides release models play a significant role in the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The differences existing between models published in the literature are due to the conceptual understanding of the processes and the degree of the conservatism used with the parameter values, and the boundary conditions. They mainly differ in their level of simplification and their final objective. Sometimes are focused the show compliance with regulatory requirements, other to support decision making, to increase the level of confidence of public and scientific community, could be empirical, semi-empirical or analytical. The models take into account the experimental results from radionuclides releases and their extrapolation to the very long term. Its necessary a great statistics for have a representative dissolution rate, due at the number of experimental results is not very high and many of them show a great scatter, independently of theirs different compositions by axial and radial variations, due to linear power or local burnup. On the other hand, it is difficult to predict the spent fuel behaviour over the long term, based in short term experiments. In this report is given a little description of the radionuclides distribution in the spent fuel and also in the cladding/pellet gap, grain boundary, cracks and rim zones (the matrix rim zone can be considered with an especial characteristics very different to the rest of the spent fuel), and structural

  6. Data requirements and maintenance of records for spent fuel management: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    Data collection and maintenance are an essential part of activities required in the lifetime management of spent fuel. Key data on spent fuel are required from the earliest phase of any project. To allow informed decisions for spent fuel management to be made, the data need to be maintained throughout the lifetime of spent fuel management including storage, transport, reprocessing or disposal. This publication is intended to provide a state-of-the-art review of spent fuel data management, including what data need to be gathered for the relevant activities in spent fuel management and how to maintain them by the responsible bodies at various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides some insights on a rational approach to spent fuel data management, considering the common requirements involved in spent fuel management for any Member State. In this regard, the information provided in these sections is mostly generic. After the introductory Section 1 and the Section 2 on data requirements for spent fuel management, Section 3 examines technical parameters that could specify spent fuel characteristics and associated conditions, followed by Section 4 on life cycle management of spent fuel data which includes the maintenance of records and other issues. Finally, some specific examples of the approaches already developed by a number of utilities and national organisations to characterise and track their spent-fuel data are presented in the Annex

  7. Optimization of time and location dependent spent nuclear fuel storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, V.

    1977-01-01

    A linear spent fuel storage model is developed to identify cost-effective spent nuclear fuel storage strategies. The purpose of this model is to provide guidelines for the implementation of the optimal time-dependent spent fuel storage capacity expansion in view of the current economic and regulatory environment which has resulted in phase-out of the closed nuclear fuel cycle. Management alternatives of the spent fuel storage backlog, which is created by mismatch between spent fuel generation rate and spent fuel disposition capability, are represented by aggregate decision variables which describe the time dependent on-reactor-site and off-site spent fuel storage capacity additions, and the amount of spent fuel transferred to off-site storage facilities. Principal constraints of the model assure determination of cost optimal spent fuel storage expansion strategies, while spent fuel storage requirements are met at all times. A detailed physical and economic analysis of the essential components of the spent fuel storage problem, which precedes the model development, assures its realism. The effects of technological limitations on the on-site spent fuel storage expansion and timing of reinitiation of the spent fuel reprocessing on optimal spent fuel storage capacity expansion are investigated. The principal results of the study indicate that (a) expansion of storage capacity beyond that of currently planned facilities is necessary, and (b) economics of the post-reactor fuel cycle is extremely sensitive to the timing of reinitiation of spent fuel reprocessing. Postponement of reprocessing beyond mid-1982 may result in net negative economic liability of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

  8. Gamma-ray mirror technology for NDA of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descalle, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ruz-Armendariz, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Decker, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alameda, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brejnholt, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soufli, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Robinson, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dreyer, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pivovaroff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ziock, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chichester, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Trellue, H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Direct measurements of gamma rays emitted by fissile material have been proposed as an alternative to measurements of the gamma rays from fission products. From a safeguards applications perspective, direct detection of uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) K-shell fluorescence emission lines and specific lines from some of their isotopes could lead to improved shipper-receiver difference or input accountability at the start of Pu reprocessing. However, these measurements are difficult to implement when the spent fuel is in the line-of-sight of the detector, as the detector is exposed to high rates dominated by fission product emissions. To overcome the combination of high rates and high background, grazing incidence multilayer mirrors have been proposed as a solution to selectively reflect U and Pu hard X-ray and soft gamma rays in the 90 to 420 keV energy into a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector shielded from the direct line-of-sight of spent fuel. Several groups demonstrated that K-shell fluorescence lines of U and Pu in spent fuel could be detected with Ge detectors. In the field of hard X-ray optics the performance of reflective multilayer coated reflective optics was demonstrated up to 645 keV at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Initial measurements conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with sealed sources and scoping experiments conducted at the ORNL Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) with spent nuclear fuel further demonstrated the pass-band properties of multilayer mirrors for reflecting specific emission lines into 1D and 2D HPGe detectors, respectively.

  9. Considerations for a national program on spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Perez, B.; Melches-Serrano, C.

    1980-01-01

    The spent fuel discharged from the two LWR's that are in operation (Zorita, 160 MW PWR, and Santa Maria de Garona, 460 MW BWR) is being reprocessed under contracts with BNFL; these contracts will expire in the next few years. The fuel discharged from Vandelos (50 MW GCR) is being reprocessed by Cogema under a long-term contract. No new reprocessing contracts for LWR's in operation, under construction, or planned have been signed or are being considered for the near future. The plutonium and the residual uranium contained in LWR spent fuel are considered important potential energy resources. They are especially valuable for countries such as Spain, which is short of energy resources, and they might be used in the future in fast breeder or thermal reactors. This is the reason that, until reprocessing is justified and appropriate solutions to make reprocessing available are developed, Spain has decided to build the appropriate capacity for the temporary storage of spent fuel. The capacity is being achieved, on short term, by the extension of AR storage capacity. It is being achieved, at medium or longer term, by the construction of centralized AFR facilities to serve all Spanish nuclear power plants. Spanish utilities are undertaking the expansion of reactor storage capacities, using densified racks, to increment capacity to at least 8 to 10 reloads, in addition to full core discharge capacity. Spain has the time and the financial and technical resources to implement a national solution for spent fuel storage. Financial strategy, technology choice, and licensing considerations are under examination in order to make a decision for medium- and long-term storage alternatives

  10. System and method for consolidating spent fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudro, T.O.

    1987-01-01

    A system is described for consolidating spent fuel rods from spent fuel assemblies, comprising: a consolidation container in which the fuel rods may be packed; a frame capable of holding a fuel assembly and the container during consolidation, the frame permitting each of the fuel assembly and the container to be removed; tool means with gripper means for gripping and releasing a rod, the tool means including means for moving the gripper means upwardly and downwardly; a first indexing head having first guide means for guiding the gripper means while the gripper means moves downwardly; a first rail, the first indexing head being slidably mounted on the first rail; a second indexing head having second guide means for guiding the gripper means while the gripper means moves downwardly; a second rail, the second indexing head being slidably mounted on the second rail; and a third rail, the first rail and the second rail being slidably mounted on the third rail; wherein the first indexing head is slidable on the first and third rails to a first position that is above a preselected rod in the fuel assembly; and wherein the second indexing head is slidable on the second and third rails to a second position that is above a preselected location in the container

  11. Spent fuel strategy for the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.; Collard, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Belgian MTR reactor is fuelled with HEU UAl x elements and the fuel cycle was normally closed by reprocessing consecutively in Belgium (Eurochemic), France (Marcoule) and finally in the U.S.A. (Idaho Falls and Savannah River). When the acceptance of spent fuel by the U.S. was terminated, the facility was left with a huge backlog of used elements stored under water. After a few years, urgent and mandatory actions were required to maintain the BR2 facility operating. Later the accent was put on the evaluation of an optimum long term solution for the BR2 spent fuel during the projected 15 years life extension after the refurbishment executed between 1995 and 1997. The paper gives an overview of these successive actions taken during the last years as well as the handled various criteria for comparing and evaluating the available long-term alternatives. After commitment to reprocessing in existing facilities operated for aluminum fuels the focus of the BR2 fuel cycle strategy is now moving to the procurement of the necessary HEU fuel for securing the long-term operation of the facility. (author)

  12. On-site concrete cask storage system for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, P.A.; Haelsig, R.T.; Kent, J.D.; Schmoker, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    A method is described of storing spent nuclear fuel assemblies including the steps of: transferring the fuel assemblies from a spent-fuel pool to a moveable concrete storage cask located outside the spent-fuel pool; maintaining a barrier between the fuel and the concrete in the cask to prevent contamination of the concrete by the fuel; maintaining the concrete storage cask containing the spent-fuel on site at the reactor complex for some predetermined period; transferring the fuel assemblies from the concrete storage cask to a shipping container; and, recycling the concrete storage cask

  13. Thirty years of transport package development for spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cory, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    By June 2005, when shipments of spent fuel for reprocessing from Germany are concluded, BNFL flask types will have been responsible for transporting more than 2000 tonnes of heavy metal in Europe in the form of spent fuel. Several thousand more tonnes of spent fuel have been transported by sea from Japan over the last thirty years. The design of spent fuel packages has not stood still for that time. In order to anticipate the changing needs of the nuclear power generation industry, advances have been made both in package design and analysis. Thirty years ago spent fuel burnup and initial enrichment were considerably lower, which was reflected in the different demands placed on the shielding design of packages, and in the design of the internal basket to separate the fuel assemblies. Technical development of both 'wet' (water-filled cavity) and 'dry' packages has progressed in parallel, and the relative merits and peculiarities of each type is explored. BNFL has considerable experience in the operation of both types, and is well placed to comment on practical and functional issues associated with both types. While there have been certain evolutionary changes affecting package design, there have also been more significant changes in the Design Safety Case. These have sometimes been necessary to meet changes in IAEA Regulations, or the challenges posed by the regulators themselves. In other cases advantage has been taken of improvements in analytical techniques to demonstrate increased margins of operational safety. Where possible these margins have also been increased by other means, such as taking advantage of commercial trends to reduce package thermal loads. A key factor over the last thirty years has been the increasing influence of the Regulating Authorities and the development of the IAEA Regulations. The various Competent Authorities now tend to have a higher proportion of technical experts, often recruited from the nuclear industry, and are thus more able to

  14. Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Handling and storage of spent light water power reactor fuel. Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    This volume contains the following appendices: LWR fuel cycle, handling and storage of spent fuel, termination case considerations (use of coal-fired power plants to replace nuclear plants), increasing fuel storage capacity, spent fuel transshipment, spent fuel generation and storage data, characteristics of nuclear fuel, away-from-reactor storage concept, spent fuel storage requirements for higher projected nuclear generating capacity, and physical protection requirements and hypothetical sabotage events in a spent fuel storage facility

  15. Generic environmental impact statement on handling and storage of spent light water power reactor fuel. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Detailed appendices are included with the following titles: light water reactor fuel cycle, present practice, model 1000MW(e) coal-fired power plant, increasing fuel storage capacity, spent fuel transshipment, spent fuel generation and storage data (1976-2000), characteristics of nuclear fuel, and ''away-from-reactor'' storage concept

  16. Japanese perspectives and research on packaging, transport and storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, T.; Ito, C.; Yamakawa, H.; Shirai, K.

    2004-01-01

    The Japanese policy on spent fuel is reprocessing. Until, reprocessed, spent fuel shall be stored properly. This paper overviews current status of transport and storage of spent fuel with related research in Japan. The research was partly carried out under a contract of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of the Japanese government

  17. 75 FR 77017 - Nextera Energy Seabrook, LLC Seabrook Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... COMMISSION Nextera Energy Seabrook, LLC Seabrook Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Exemption 1.0 Background NextEra Energy Seabrook, LLC (NextEra, the licensee) is the holder of Facility..., subpart K, a general license is issued for the storage of spent fuel in an independent spent fuel storage...

  18. Japanese perspectives and research on packaging, transport and storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saegusa, T.; Ito, C.; Yamakawa, H.; Shirai, K. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Abiko (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The Japanese policy on spent fuel is reprocessing. Until, reprocessed, spent fuel shall be stored properly. This paper overviews current status of transport and storage of spent fuel with related research in Japan. The research was partly carried out under a contract of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of the Japanese government.

  19. Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, S.J.; Sandoval, N.P.; Fensin, M.L.; Lee, S.Y.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Menlovea, H.O.; Quiter, B.J.; Rajasingume, A.; Schearf, M.A.; Smith, L.E.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Thompson, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    There are a variety of reasons for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel such as independently verifying the Pu content declared by a regulated facility, making shipper/receiver mass declarations, and quantifying the input mass at a reprocessing facility. As part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, NA-241 has recently funded a multilab/university collaboration to determine the elemental Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies. This research effort is anticipated to be a five year effort: the first part of which is a two years Monte Carlo modeling effort to integrate and down-select among 13 nondestructive assay (NDA) technologies, followed by one year for fabricating instruments and then two years for measuring spent fuel. This paper gives a brief overview of the approach being taken for the Monte Carlo research effort. In addition, preliminary results for the first NDA instrument studied in detail, delayed neutron detection, will be presented. In order to cost effectively and robustly model the performance of several NDA techniques, an 'assembly library'; was created that contains a diverse range of pressurized water reactor spent fuel assemblies (burnup, enrichment, cooling time) similar to that which exists in spent pools today and in the future, diversion scenarios that capture a range of possible rod removal options, spatial and isotopic detail needed to accurately quantify the capability of all the NDA techniques so as to enable integration. Integration is being designed into this study from the beginning since it is expected that the best performance will be obtained by combining a few NDA techniques. The performance of each instrument will be quantified for the full assembly library in three different media: air, water and borated water. In this paper the preliminary capability of delayed neutron detection will be quantified for the spent fuel library for all three media. The 13 NDA techniques being researched are the following: Delayed Gamma, Delayed

  20. Device for separating ruthenium ion from spent fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumida, Tatsuo; Sasahira, Akira; Ozawa, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Fumio.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To separate plutonium ions efficiently and selectively from organic solvent containing tributyl phosphate used in the main step of reprocessing process. Constitution: The device comprises, as the main constituent factor, a liquid-liquid contact device for bringing not water soluble organic solvent into contact with a nitric acid solution of spent fuel substances and a liquid-liquid contact-separation device for bringing an organic solvent solution containing spent fuel substances separated with nitric acid into contact again with nitric acid. Then, a device is disposed between two liquid-liquid contact devices for staying ruthenium ions and organic solvent for a sufficient time. In this way, ruthenium ions in the organic solvent containing butyl phosphate are gradually converted into complex compounds combined with tributyl phosphate thereby enabling to separate ruthenium ions efficiently and remarkably reduce the corrosion of equipments. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Thermomechanical modeling of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkovich, T.R.; Patrick, W.C.

    1986-02-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of retrievable deep geologic storage of commercially generated spent nuclear-reactor fuel assemblies. One of the primary aspects of the test was to measure the thermomechanical response of the rock mass to the extensive heating of a large volume of rock. Instrumentation was emplaced to measure stress changes, relative motion of the rock mass, and tunnel closures during three years of heating from thermally decaying heat sources, followed by a six-month cooldown period. The calculations reported here were performed using the best available input parameters, thermal and mechanical properties, and power levels which were directly measured or inferred from measurements made during the test. This report documents the results of these calculations and compares the results with selected measurements made during heating and cooling of the SFT-C.

  2. Thermomechanical modeling of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkovich, T.R.; Patrick, W.C.

    1986-02-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of retrievable deep geologic storage of commercially generated spent nuclear-reactor fuel assemblies. One of the primary aspects of the test was to measure the thermomechanical response of the rock mass to the extensive heating of a large volume of rock. Instrumentation was emplaced to measure stress changes, relative motion of the rock mass, and tunnel closures during three years of heating from thermally decaying heat sources, followed by a six-month cooldown period. The calculations reported here were performed using the best available input parameters, thermal and mechanical properties, and power levels which were directly measured or inferred from measurements made during the test. This report documents the results of these calculations and compares the results with selected measurements made during heating and cooling of the SFT-C

  3. Prototype spent-fuel canister design, analysis, and test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisher, W.B.; Eakes, R.G.; Duffey, T.A.

    1982-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was asked by the US Energy Research and Development Administration (now US Department of Energy) to design the spent fuel shipping cask system for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). As a part of this task, a canister which holds liquid sodium and the spent fuel assembly was designed, analyzed, and tested. The canister body survived the regulatory Type-B 9.1-m (30-ft) drop test with no apparent leakage. However, the commercially available metal seal used in this design leaked after the tests. This report describes the design approach, analysis, and prototype canister testing. Recommended work for completing the design, when funding is available, is included

  4. Method of assembling spent nuclear fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Ryokichi; Hasegawa, Hidenobu.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of a spent fuel storage rack by stably installing the spent fuel in a pool without using supporting beams. Constitution: A restricted unit is composed of a plurality of spuare cylinders. A plurality of such restricted units are aligned in a direction perpendicularly to the arraying direction of the cylinders in the respective restricted units, are coupled with long connecting plates, and are fixed by welding on a common small base, thereby forming a restricted body. According to such assembling method, a plurality of restricted bodies are connected in a direction that the respective restricted bodies are readily overturned, and are secured to the common base. Accordingly, the restricted bodies can be stably installed in a pool without using supporting beams as the conventional one. (Sekiya, K.)

  5. Spent fuel storage - dry storage options and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akins, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increase in the number of nuclear energy power generation facilities will require the ability to store the spent nuclear fuel for a long period until the host countries develop reprocessing or disposal options. Plants have storage pools which are closely associated with the operating units. These are excellent for short term storage, but require active maintenance and operations support which are not desirable for the long term. Over the past 25 years, dry storage options have been developed and implemented throughout the world. In recent years, protection against terrorist attack has become an increasing source of design objectives for these facilities, as well as the main nuclear plant. This paper explores the current design options of dry storage cask systems and examines some of the current design issues for above ground , in-ground, or below-ground storage of spent fuel in dry casks. (author)

  6. Safety analysis of disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.

    1994-04-01

    The spent fuel from the Olkiluoto NPP (TVO I and II) is planned to be disposed of in a repository to be constructed at a depth of about 500 meters in the crystalline bedrock. The thesis is dealing with the safety analysis of the disposal. The main topics presented in the thesis are: (1) The amount of radioactive properties of the spent fuel, (2) The canister design and the planned disposal concept, (3) The results of the preliminary site investigations, (4) Discussion of the multi-barrier principle, (5) The general principles and methodology of the TVO-92 safety analysis, (6) Groundwater flow analysis, (7) Durability and behaviour of the canister, (8) Biosphere analysis and reference scenario, and (9) The sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. (246 refs., 75 figs., 44 tabs.)

  7. Spent fuel bundle counter sequence error manual - BRUCE NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Bundle Counter (SFBC) is used to count the number and type of spent fuel transfers that occur into or out of controlled areas at CANDU reactor sites. However if the transfers are executed in a non-standard manner or the SFBC is malfunctioning, the transfers are recorded as sequence errors. Each sequence error message typically contains adequate information to determine the cause of the message. This manual provides a guide to interpret the various sequence error messages that can occur and suggests probable cause or causes of the sequence errors. Each likely sequence error is presented on a 'card' in Appendix A. Note that it would be impractical to generate a sequence error card file with entries for all possible combinations of faults. Therefore the card file contains sequences with only one fault at a time. Some exceptions have been included however where experience has indicated that several faults can occur simultaneously

  8. Spent fuel bundle counter sequence error manual - DARLINGTON NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Bundle Counter (SFBC) is used to count the number and type of spent fuel transfers that occur into or out of controlled areas at CANDU reactor sites. However if the transfers are executed in a non-standard manner or the SFBC is malfunctioning, the transfers are recorded as sequence errors. Each sequence error message typically contains adequate information to determine the cause of the message. This manual provides a guide to interpret the various sequence error messages that can occur and suggests probable cause or causes of the sequence errors. Each likely sequence error is presented on a 'card' in Appendix A. Note that it would be impractical to generate a sequence error card file with entries for all possible combinations of faults. Therefore the card file contains sequences with only one fault at a time. Some exceptions have been included however where experience has indicated that several faults can occur simultaneously

  9. Probabilistic Risk Assessment on Maritime Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Robby; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management has been an indispensable issue in South Korea. Before a long term SNF solution is implemented, there exists the need to distribute the spent fuel pool storage loads. Transportation of SNF assemblies from populated pools to vacant ones may preferably be done through the maritime mode since all nuclear power plants in South Korea are located at coastal sites. To determine its feasibility, it is necessary to assess risks of the maritime SNF transportation. This work proposes a methodology to assess the risk arising from ship collisions during the transportation of SNF by sea. Its scope is limited to the damage probability of SNF packages given a collision event. The effect of transport parameters' variation to the package damage probability was investigated to obtain insights into possible ways to minimize risks. A reference vessel and transport cask are given in a case study to illustrate the methodology's application.

  10. Development of metal cask for nuclear spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, T.; Kuri, S.; Ohsono, K.; Hode, S.

    2001-01-01

    It is one of the realistic solutions against increasing demand on interim storage of spent fuel assemblies arising from nuclear power plants in Japan to apply dual purpose (transport and storage) metal casks. Since 1980's Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been contributing to develop metal cask technologies for utilities, etc. in Japan, and have established transport and storage cask design ''MSF series'' which realizes higher payload and reliability for long term storage. MSF series transport and storage casks use various new design concepts and materials to improve thermal performance of the cask, structural integrity of the basket, durability of the neutron shielding material and so on. This paper summarizes an outline of the cask design that can accommodate BWR spent fuel assemblies as well as the new technologies applied to the design and fabrication. (author)

  11. Muon Tomography for Imaging and Verification of Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkmans, G.; Anghel, V.N.P.; Jewett, C.; Thompson, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the use of cosmic ray muons to image the content of, and to detect high-Z Special Fissionable Material inside, shielded containers. Cosmic ray muons are a naturally occurring form of radiation, are highly penetrating and exhibit large scattering angles on high-Z materials. Specifically, we investigated how radiographic and tomographic techniques can be effective for non-invasive nuclear material accountancy of spent fuel inside dry storage containers. We show that the tracking of individual muons, as they enter and exit a structure, can potentially improve the accuracy and availability of data on Dry Storage Containers (DSC) used for spent fuel storage at CANDU plants. This could be achieved in near real time, with the potential for unattended and remotely monitored operations. We show that the expected sensitivity to perform material accountancy, in the case of the DSC, exceeds the IAEA detection target for nuclear material accountancy. (author)

  12. An engineering design of reactor with NPP spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Luzheng; Shen Feng; Yang Changjiang; Dai Changnian; Jin Huajin; Li Yulun

    2005-01-01

    Study has proven that it is of practical significance to design a reactor in suitable low parameters using the spent fuels of nuclear power plant. This kind of reactor will supply, safely and economically, a clean energy for desalination of sea- water and heating supply for city residents. Based on listing main problems required to be solved when designing a reactor in suitable low parameters directly using NPP spent fuels, a preliminary design scheme with engineering feasibility is given. Some significant efforts and attempts have been made for this scheme on its core structure and main processing systems design, adopting inherent safety characteristics to the full, making the reactor as a 'foolish type' one with easy operation, safe and reliable merit to the best. (authors)

  13. Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support the liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

  14. Measuring the noble metal and iodine composition of extracted noble metal phase from spent nuclear fuel using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares, R.I.; Dayman, K.J.; Landsberger, S.; Biegalski, S.R.; Soderquist, C.Z.; Casella, A.J.; Brady Raap, M.C.; Schwantes, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Masses of noble metal and iodine nuclides in the metallic noble metal phase extracted from spent fuel are measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Nuclide presence is predicted using fission yield analysis, and radionuclides are identified and the masses quantified using neutron activation analysis. The nuclide compositions of noble metal phase derived from two dissolution methods, UO 2 fuel dissolved in nitric acid and UO 2 fuel dissolved in ammonium-carbonate and hydrogen-peroxide solution, are compared. - Highlights: • The noble metal phase was chemically extracted from spent nuclear fuel and analyzed non-destructively. • Noble metal phase nuclides and long-lived iodine were identified and quantified using neutron activation analysis. • Activation to shorter-lived radionuclides allowed rapid analysis of long-lived fission products in spent fuel using gamma spectrometry

  15. Experience with failed or damaged spent fuel and its impacts on handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1989-12-01

    Spent fuel management planning needs to include consideration of failed or damaged spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel. Described in this paper, which was prepared under the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program that is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are the following: the importance of fuel integrity and the behavior of failed fuel, the quantity and burnup of failed or damaged fuel in storage, types of defects, difficulties in evaluating data on failed or damaged fuel, experience with wet storage, experience with dry storage, handling of failed or damaged fuel, transporting of fuel, experience with higher burnup fuel, and conclusions. 15 refs

  16. Effect of long-term storage of LWR spent fuel on Pu-thermal fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Masayoshi; Naito, Yoshitaka; Suyama, Kenya; Itahara, Kuniyuki; Suzuki, Katsuo; Hamada, Koji

    1998-01-01

    According to the Long-term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy (June, 1994) in Japan, the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant will be operated shortly after the year 2000, and the planning of the construction of the second commercial plant will be decided around 2010. Also, it is described that spent fuel storage has a positive meaning as an energy resource for the future utilization of Pu. Considering the balance between the increase of spent fuels and the domestic reprocessing capacity in Japan, it can be expected that the long-term storage of UO 2 spent fuels will be required. Then, we studied the effect of long-term storage of spent fuels on Pu-thermal fuel cycle. The burnup calculation were performed on the typical Japanese PWR fuel, and the burnup and criticality calculations were carried out on the Pu-thermal cores with MOX fuel. Based on the results, we evaluate the influence of extending the spent fuel storage term on the criticality safety, shielding design of the reprocessing plant and the core life time of the MOX core, etc. As the result of this work on long-term storage of LWR spent fuels, it becomes clear that there are few demerits regarding the lifetime of a MOX reactor core, and that there are many merits regarding the safety aspects of the fuel cycle facilities. Furthermore, long-term storage is meaningful as energy storage for effective utilization of Pu to be improved by technological innovation in future, and it will allow for sufficient time for the important policymaking of nuclear fuel cycle establishment in Japan. (author)

  17. Spent fuel disassembly and canning programs at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townes III, G.A.

    1980-10-01

    Methods of disassembling and canning spent fuel to allow more efficient storage are being investigated at the BNFP. Studies and development programs are aimed at dry disassembly of fuel to allow storage and shipment of fuel pins rather than complete fuel assemblies. Results indicate that doubling existing storage capacity or tripling the carrying capacity of existing transportation equipment is achievable. Disassembly could be performed in the BNFP hot cells at rates of about 12 to 15 assemblies per day

  18. Transport of oxide spent fuel. Industrial experience of COGEMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1983-01-01

    COGEMA is ruling all transports of spent fuel to La Hague reprocessing plant. The paper summarizes some aspects of the experience gained in this field (road, rail and sea transports) and describes the standards defined by COGEMA as regards transport casks. These standards are as follows: - casks of dry type, - casks of the maximum size compatible with rail transports, - capability to be unloaded with standardized equipment and following standard procedures

  19. Review of decommissioning, spent fuel and radwaste management in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamrich, J.

    2000-01-01

    Two nuclear power plants with two WWER reactors are currently under operation in Jaslovske Bohunice and NPP A-1 is under decommissioning on the same site. At the second nuclear site in the Slovak Republic in Mochovce third nuclear power plant with two units is in operation. In accordance with the basic Slovak legislation (Act on Peaceful Utilisation of Nuclear Energy) defining the responsibilities, roles and authorities for all organisations involved in the decommissioning of nuclear installations Nuclear Regulatory Authority requires submission of conceptual decommissioning plans by the licensee. The term 'decommissioning' is used to describe the set of actions to be taken at the end of the useful life of a facility, in order to retire the facility from service while, simultaneously, ensuring proper protection of the workers, the general public and the environment. This set of activities is in principle comprised of planning and organisation of decommissioning inclusive strategy development, post-operational activities, implementation of decommissioning (physical and radiological characterisation, decontamination, dismantling and demolition, waste and spent fuel management), radiological, aspects, completion of decommissioning as well as ensuring of funding for these activities. Responsibility for nuclear installations decommissioning, radwaste and spent fuel, management in Slovakia is with a subsidiary of Slovak Electric called Nuclear Installations Decommissioning Radwaste and Spent Fuel Management (acronym SE VYZ), established on January 1, 1996. This paper provides description of an approach to planning of the NPP A-1 and NPPs with WWER reactors decommissioning, realisation of treatment, conditioning and disposal of radwaste, as well as spent fuel management in Slovakia. It takes into account that detail papers on all these issues will follow later during this meeting. (author)

  20. The reasons for and against reprocessing of spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gries, W.

    1983-01-01

    In the following the reasons for and against the main methods of waste disposal are compred. The author examines the advantages and disadvantages of waste disposal by reprocessing of spent fuel assemblies or by immediate ultimate storage. To get a general idea the pros and cons are arranged and analysed according to the following subjects: - technology/science, - safety/environment, - profitability, - political aspects. (orig./UA) [de

  1. Structural evaluation of spent fuel dry storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Kang, K. H.; Pak, S. W.; Jung, S. H.

    2003-01-01

    In a various regulations and standards related to the spent fuel storage, the storage casks should be designed to sustain the structural integrity under the accident conditions of predicted operation and design criteria. These conditions for the structural evaluation requires the drop, tip-over, wind like tornado and typhoon, flood and earthquake. This paper describes the load cases and conceptual evaluation method for the structural evaluation. Preliminary safety analysis of the concrete storage system were performed

  2. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, a major change in the technical strategy for managing Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO) while stored within the Canister Storage Building (CSB) occurred. The technical strategy is documented in Baseline Change Request (BCR) No. SNF-98-006, Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing) (FDH 1998). This BCR deleted the hot conditioning process initially adopted for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) as documented in WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (WHC 199.5). In summary, MCOs containing Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from K Basins would be placed in interim storage following processing through the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility. With this change, the needs for the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) and inerting/pressure retaining capabilities of the CSB storage tubes and the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) were eliminated. Mechanical seals will be used on the MCOs prior to transport to the CSB. Covers will be welded on the MCOs for the final seal at the CSB. Approval of BCR No. SNF-98-006, imposed the need to review and update the CSB functions and requirements baseline documented herein including changing the document title to ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements.'' This revision aligns the functions and requirements baseline with the CSB Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing). This document represents the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Subproject technical baseline. It establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the CSB Subproject. The document is organized in eight sections. Sections 1.0 Introduction and 2.0 Overview provide brief introductions to the document and the CSB Subproject. Sections 3.0 Functions, 4.0 Requirements, 5.0 Architecture, and 6.0 Interfaces provide the data described by their titles. Section 7.0 Glossary lists the acronyms and defines the terms used in this document. Section 8.0 References lists the

  3. Spent nuclear fuel canister storage building conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    This Conceptual Design Report provides the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project, Canister Storage Building, and as amended by letter (correspondence number 9555700, M.E. Witherspoon to E.B. Sellers, ''Technical Baseline and Updated Cost Estimate for the Canister Storage Building'', dated October 24, 1995), includes the project cost baseline and Criteria to be used as the basis for starting detailed design in fiscal year 1995

  4. Thermal analysis of transportation packaging for nuclear spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Hiroshi; Taniuchi, Hiroaki

    1989-01-01

    Safety analysis of transportation packaging for nuclear spent fuel comprises structural, thermal, containment, shielding and criticality factors, and the safety of a packaging is verified by these analyses. In thermal analysis, the temperature of each part of the packaging is calculated under normal and accident test conditions. As an example of thermal analysis, the temperature distribution of a packaging being subjected to a normal test was calculated by the TRUMP code and compared with measured data. (author)

  5. Spent nuclear fuel canister storage building conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This Conceptual Design Report provides the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project, Canister Storage Building, and as amended by letter (correspondence number 9555700, M.E. Witherspoon to E.B. Sellers, ``Technical Baseline and Updated Cost Estimate for the Canister Storage Building``, dated October 24, 1995), includes the project cost baseline and Criteria to be used as the basis for starting detailed design in fiscal year 1995.

  6. Baseline descriptions for LWR spent fuel storage, handling, and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, J.W.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1978-04-01

    Baseline descriptions for the storage, handling, and transportation of reactor spent fuel are provided. The storage modes described include light water reactor (LWR) pools, away-from-reactor basins, dry surface storage, reprocessing-facility interim storage pools, and deep geologic storage. Land and water transportation are also discussed. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security as part of the Sandia Laboratories Fixed Facility Physical Protection Program. 45 figs, 4 tables

  7. Dissolution of Material and Test reactor Fuel in an H-Canyon Dissolver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-26

    In an amended record of decision for the management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site, the US Department of Energy has authorized the dissolution and recovery of U from 1000 bundles of Al-clad SNF. The SNF is fuel from domestic and foreign research reactors and is typically referred to as Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel. Bundles of MTR fuel containing assemblies fabricated from U-Al alloys (or other U compounds) are currently dissolved using a Hg-catalyzed HNO3 flowsheet. Since the development of the existing flowsheet, improved experimental methods have been developed to more accurately characterize the offgas composition and generation rate during laboratory dissolutions. Recently, these new techniques were successfully used to develop a flowsheet for the dissolution of High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel. Using the data from the HFIR dissolution flowsheet development and necessary laboratory experiments, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to define flowsheet conditions for the dissolution of MTR fuels. With improved offgas characterization techniques, SRNL will be able define the number of bundles of fuel which can be charged to an H-Canyon dissolver with much less conservatism.

  8. Regeneration of ammonia borane from spent fuel materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerscales, Owen T; Gordon, John C

    2013-07-28

    A shift to the hydrogen economy requires the development of an effective hydrogen fuel carrier with high volumetric and gravimetric storage capacity. Ammonia borane (AB) has emerged as a leading candidate due to its light weight and multiple protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens. As a consequence, much work has been directed towards fine tuning the release of H2 from AB, in addition to its regeneration from the dehydrogenated "spent fuel" materials. This review summarizes the development of these regeneration methodologies.

  9. Conceptual design of a spent LWR fuel recycle complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, B.H.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose was to design a licensable facility, to make cost-benefit analyses of alternatives, and to aid in developing licensing criteria. The Savannah River Plant was taken to be the site for the recycle complex. The spent LWR fuel will be processed through the plant at the rate of 3000 metric tons of heavy metal per year. The following aspects of the complex are discussed: operation, maintenance, co-conversion (Coprecal), waste disposal, off-gas treatment, ventilation, safeguards, accounting, equipment and fuel fabrication. Differences between the co-processing case and the separated streams case are discussed. 44 figures

  10. Thermal analysis of cold vacuum drying of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepho, M.G.

    1998-07-20

    The thermal analysis examined transient thermal and chemical behavior of the Multi canister Overpack (MCO) container for a broad range of cases that represent the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) processes. The cases were defined to consider both normal and off-normal operations at the CVD Facility for an MCO with Mark IV N, Reactor spent fuel in four fuel baskets and one scrap basket. This analysis provides the basis for the MCO thermal behavior at the CVD Facility for its Phase 2 Safety Analysis Report (revision 4).

  11. Handling and transfer operations for partially-spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    This project involved the handling and transfer of partially-spent reactor fuel from the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor in Corvallis, Oregon to Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The method of handling is dependent upon the burn-up history of the fuel elements. Legal constraints imposed by standing U.S. nuclear regulations determine the selection of transport containers, transportation procedures, physical security arrangements in transit and nuclear material accountability documentation. Results of in-house safety evaluations of the project determine the extent of involvement of pertinent nuclear regulatory authorities. The actual handling activities and actual radiation dose rates are also presented (author)

  12. A spent fuel assemblies monitoring device by nondestructive analysis 'PYTHON'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.; Broeskamp, M.; Hahn, H.; Bignan, G.; Boisset, M.; Silie, P.

    1995-01-01

    The monitoring of spent fuel assemblies (16 x 16 UOX) in KWG-reactor pool with the use of non-destructive methods (total Gamma and neutron counting) allow the control of average burn-up and the extremity burn-up. The measurements allow a safety-criticality control before loading the fuel assemblies into the transport casks. A device called PYTHON has been tested and qualified in France. This paper presents a description of the industrial PYTHON device and the results of the measurements. (orig.)

  13. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING ROK SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL MANAGEMENT OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAIM BRAUN

    2013-08-01

    Pyroprocessing is but an enabling technology on the path leading to fissile material recycling and burning in future SFRs. In this regard we discuss two SFR options under development in the U.S.: the Super Prism and the Travelling Wave Reactor (TWR. We note that the U.S. is further along in reactor development than the ROK. The ROK though has acquired more experience, recently in investigating fuel recycling options for SFRs. We thus call for two complementary joint R&D project to be conducted by U.S. and ROK scientists. One leading to the development of a demonstration centralized away-from-reactors spent fuel storage facility. The other involve further R&D on a combined SFR-fuel cycle complex based on the reactor and fuel cycle options discussed in the paper.

  14. Monitoring neutrons from spent reactor fuel by bubble detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tam, N C; Lakosi, L

    1999-01-01

    In order to eliminate the strong temperature-dependence of bubble detectors used for spent fuel assay, a simple way could be to keep them in the water pond but far from fuel assemblies before exposure for about 20 min, until the detectors warm up. Fast neutrons from fuel assemblies in the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary, were detected by BD-100R type detectors at 28 deg. C (in winter) and at 35 deg. C in summer). Calibration was performed by a standard sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf source in borated water. Burnup monitoring inside fuel assemblies can be provided by smaller diameter detectors prepared from BD-100R type ones.

  15. Design of handling tool of the cutting spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibuan, D.

    1999-01-01

    Base on the needs of handling tool, the design of the cutting spen fuel apparatus has been completed in Multipurpose Reactor Center. By the design, the needs of handling tools can be more completed. Based on the calculation and analysis performed, the design of handling tool of the cutting spent fuel proposed was capable to handle of the cutting spen fuel in the fuel storage. For realizing of the mention design a peace of AIMg3F18 pipe of 8m length, by 1,5 inches diameter, schedule 40, and a peace of AIMg3F18 rod of 10 mm diameter and a peace of plat SS304 of 1500 x 20 x 3 mm are needed. As reference the DIN standard was used

  16. Spent fuel and HLW transportation the French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, J.P.; Charles, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    With 53 nuclear power plants in operation at EDF and a fuel cycle with recycling policy of the valuable materials, COGEMA is faced with the transport of a wide range of radioactive materials. In this framework, the transport activity is a key link in closing the fuel cycle. COGEMA has developed a comprehensive Transport Organization System dealing with all the sectors of the fuel cycle. The paper will describe the status of transportation of spent fuel and HLW in France and the experience gathered. The Transport Organization System clearly defines the role of all actors where COGEMA, acting as the general coordinator, specifies the tasks to be performed and brings technical and commercial support to its various subcontractors: TRANSNUCLEAIRE, specialized in casks engineering and transport operations, supplies packaging and performs transport operations, LEMARECHAL and CELESTIN operate transport by truck in the Vicinity of the nuclear sites while French Railways are in charge of spent fuel transport by train. HLW issued from the French nuclear program is stored for 30 years in an intermediate storage installation located at the La Hague reprocessing plant. Ultimately, these canisters will be transported to the disposal site. COGEMA has set up a comprehensive transport organization covering all operational aspects including adapted procedures, maintenance programs and personnel qualification

  17. Method for pre-processing LWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Katsuyuki; Ebihara, Hikoe.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the decladding of spent fuel, cladding tube processing, and waste gas recovery, and to enable the efficient execution of main re-processing process thereafter. Constitution: Spent fuel assemblies are sent to a cutting process where they are cut into chips of easy-to-process size. The chips, in a thermal decladding process, undergo a thermal cycle processing in air with the processing temperatures increased and decreased within the range of from 700 deg C to 1200 deg C, oxidizing zircaloy comprising the cladding tubes into zirconia. The oxidized cladding tubes have a number of fine cracks and become very brittle and easy to loosen off from fuel pellets when even a slight mechanical force is applied thereto, thus changing into a form of powder. Processed products are then separated into zirconia sand and fuel pellets by a gravitational selection method or by a sifting method, the zirconia sand being sent to a waste processing process and the fuel pellets to a melting-refining process. (Yoshino, Y.)

  18. States consider suit if DOE refuses spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeyher, A.

    1994-01-01

    Michigan, Florida, and Minnesota were joined by Wisconsin on April 21 in the Nuclear Waste Strategy Coalition (NWSC), a group of utilities, state regulators, and state attorneys general that have banded together to decide what to do about the Department of Energy's apparent intention to renege on its obligation to begin taking title to spent nuclear fuel by January 31, 1998. According to Ronald Russell, a commissioner on the Michigan Public Service Commission and cofounder of the NWSC, another six states have expressed interest in joining the coalition. open-quotes We're looking at encouraging the DOE to step up to its legal responsibility to take nuclear spent fuel by 1998,close quotes Russell said. The objectives of the coalition include asking the DOE to support privatization of nuclear storage, to review the management of the final repository program in order to make it more efficient, and to identify legislative changes that the DOE might feel are necessary for it to accomplish its charge. The NWSC is also considering filing a lawsuit in response to the DOE's open-quotes anticipatory breach of an executory contract.close quotes The NWSC and others feel that the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the related standard contracts between the DOE and the utilities form a legal contract for the DOE to take the spent fuel on the agreed upon date

  19. Effect of a cement buffer on spent fuel dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennecart, Thierry; Cachoir, Christelle; Lemmens, Karel; Gielen, Ben; Vercauter, Regina

    2012-01-01

    The Belgian agency for radioactive waste has selected the super-container design with an Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) buffer as the reference design for geological disposal of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Spent Fuel (SF) in the Boom Clay formation. In the super-container design, the canisters of HLW or SF will be enclosed by a 30 mm thick carbon steel overpack and a 700 mm thick concrete buffer. The overpack will prevent contact with the (cementitious) pore water during the thermal phase. On the other hand, once the overpack will be locally perforated, the high pH of the incoming water may have an impact on the lifetime of the waste. Most published data and national programs are related to clayey backfill materials, and few studies are reported in alkaline media. Hence, a set of experiments was conducted to evaluate the behavior of spent fuel (UO 2 dissolution rate and UO 2 solubility) in such an environment. The objective was to estimate the spent fuel dissolution rate in super-container conditions for use in preliminary performance assessment calculations

  20. Recent Progress on the Standardized DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, D.K.; Snow, S.D.; Rahl, T.E.; Hill, T.J.; Morissette, R.P.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a set of containers for the handling, interim storage, transportation, and disposal in the national repository of DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This container design, referred to as the standardized DOE SNF canister or standardized canister, was developed by the Department's National Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Program (NSNFP) working in conjunction with the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and the DOE spent fuel sites. This canister had to have a standardized design yet be capable of accepting virtually all of the DOE SNF, be placed in a variety of storage and transportation systems, and still be acceptable to the repository. Since specific design details regarding the storage, transportation, and repository disposal of DOE SNF were not finalized, the NSNFP recognized the necessity to specify a complete DOE SNF canister design. This allowed other evaluations of canister performance and design to proceed as well as providing standardized canister users adequate information to proceed with their work. This paper is an update of a paper presented to the 1999 American Nuclear Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP) Conference. It discusses recent progress achieved in various areas to enhance acceptance of this canister not only by the DOE complex but also fabricators and regulatory agencies